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Sample records for analgesics non-narcotic

  1. Post-marketing management of the use of non-narcotic analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, O S

    1986-01-01

    While the use of non-narcotic analgesics is of considerable health benefit to people everywhere, they also represent a health problem. This problem has to do more with the risks associated with individual courses of treatment than with the commonality of those treatments. The public health challenge in post-marketing management of non-narcotic analgesic use, is to promote a pattern of use such that the risks are justifiable by the benefits and are the lowest that can be attained. To achieve such goals it is essential to have scientific knowledge about the benefits and risks and to be able to determine the quality of use in the population as to how proper it is. Current post-marketing management programmes focus largely on regulation, overlooking other equally important basic methods of public health intervention, namely education and service. If it is accepted that mass education is the key element in the proper management of non-narcotic analgesic use, the present emphasis on regulation needs amendment. Such changes will take time, but it is conceivable that ultimately the management goal can be achieved with minimal regulatory intervention.

  2. Suprofen: the pharmacology and clinical efficacy of a new non-narcotic peripheral analgesic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, E L; Rosenthale, M E; Capetola, R J; McGuire, J L

    1984-08-01

    Suprofen is a potent, peripherally-acting, non-narcotic analgesic agent. The mechanism of action of the compound involves inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis and, perhaps, direct antagonism of the peripheral, pain inducing actions of prostaglandins, bradykinin and other pain mediators. Suprofen at a dose of 200 mg appears to be equal or greater in efficacy as an analgesic modality than those of ibuprofen, propoxyphene, naproxen and diflunisal or a combination of 650 mg aspirin plus 60 mg codeine. Its clinical utility has been amply demonstrated in the treatment of a number of types of pain including general and orthopedic surgery, episiotomy, post-partum pain, dysmenorrhea, dental pain and musculoskeletal disorders. Suprofen represents a new class of orally effective nonnarcotic analgesics with potential for effective clinical use in the treatment of pain.

  3. Clinical effect of single-dose of intravenous non-narcotic analgesics for prevention of hyperalgesia after remifentanil-based anesthesia: a Meta-analysis%单剂量非麻醉性镇痛药预防瑞芬太尼麻醉后痛觉过敏的有效性Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓倩; 马虹

    2012-01-01

    目的:评价非麻醉性镇痛药(氯胺酮、帕瑞昔布钠、氟比洛芬酯)预防瑞芬太尼麻醉后疼痛过敏的有效性.方法:电子检索Pubmed,EBSCO,Springer,Ovid,CNKI等数据库,收集发表于1990 - 2011年的非麻醉性镇痛药物预防瑞芬太尼麻醉后疼痛过敏的临床试验性文章及相关的参考文献,按Cochrane系统评价方法对纳入的文献进行质量评价和资料提取.统计学分析采用RavMan 5.0软件.结果:共纳入24篇随机对照试验,包括1525例患者.Meta分析显示:疼痛评分[拔管后口述疼痛评分(VRS)和停药后24 h内视觉疼痛模拟评分(VAS)]:单剂量静注氯胺酮可显著降低患者VRS和停药后1,2和4h的VAS评分(P<0.01),静注帕瑞昔布纳可显著降低患者停药后8h的VAS评分(P<0.01);静注氟比洛芬酯能够显著降低患者VRS和停药后1,2,4,6和8h的VAS评分(P<0.01);其余各观察点VAS评分较对照组无明显差别.停药后清醒时间、拔管时间和再次要求镇痛的人数:单剂量静注氯胺酮、帕瑞昔布纳、氟比洛芬酯不延迟患者清醒和拔管时间,且能明显减少停药后追加其他镇痛药物的人数(P<0.01).停药后不良反应发生率:除氯胺酮能明显患者降低停药后躁动的发生率外(P<0.01),三者对预防术后头疼、恶心、呕吐等不良反应无统计学差异.结论:单剂量静注氯胺酮、帕瑞昔布纳、氟比洛芬酯可有效预防瑞芬太尼麻醉后诱发的疼痛过敏,减少停药后再次要求镇痛的人数.%Objective: The evidence for using single-dose of non-narcotic analgesics to prevent hyperalgesia after remifentanil-based anesthesia was examined by conducting a meta-analysis. Methods; A literature search for articles describing clinical effects of non-narcotic analgesics (ketamine, parecoxib sodium and flurbiprofen axetil) was conducted using computerized database Pubmed, EBSCO, Springer, Ovid and CNKI from the year 1990 to 2011. The references listed

  4. Octreotide: a powerful non-narcotic analgesic for ocular instillation

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    Nicola Maratea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative substances for pain treatment is necessary for patients who cannot tolerate the side effects of opioids or cannot reach an adequate analgesia with these drugs. The technique using the endo-ocular instillation of drops, 2 ml of solution containing 0.05 mg of octreotide plus 1 ml of water for injectable preparations, thus obtaining a solution containing 0.025 mg / ml of octreotide, was instilled via a precision dropping that provided 0.00119 mg / drop of octreotide. Due to characteristics of pain, we administered the doses ranging from 1 to 3 drops per eye. The absence of side effects and the simplicity of execution have prompted to consider this method with extreme interest, in order to research the drugs and routes of administration which follow more the conditions of tolerability and selectivity of effects.

  5. Identification of A3 adenosine receptor agonists as novel non-narcotic analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, K; Symons-Liguori, A M; Jacobson, K A; Salvemini, D

    2016-04-01

    Chronic pain negatively impacts the quality of life in a variety of patient populations. The current therapeutic repertoire is inadequate in managing patient pain and warrants the development of new therapeutics. Adenosine and its four cognate receptors (A1 , A2A , A2B and A3 ) have important roles in physiological and pathophysiological states, including chronic pain. Preclinical and clinical studies have revealed that while adenosine and agonists of the A1 and A2A receptors have antinociceptive properties, their therapeutic utility is limited by adverse cardiovascular side effects. In contrast, our understanding of the A3 receptor is only in its infancy, but exciting preclinical observations of A3 receptor antinociception, which have been bolstered by clinical trials of A3 receptor agonists in other disease states, suggest pain relief without cardiovascular side effects and with sufficient tolerability. Our goal herein is to briefly discuss adenosine and its receptors in the context of pathological pain and to consider the current data regarding A3 receptor-mediated antinociception. We will highlight recent findings regarding the impact of the A3 receptor on pain pathways and examine the current state of selective A3 receptor agonists used for these studies. The adenosine-to-A3 receptor pathway represents an important endogenous system that can be targeted to provide safe, effective pain relief from chronic pain.

  6. LABORATORY MODELS FOR SCREENING ANALGESICS

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    Parle Milind

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a complex unpleasant phenomenon composed of sensory experiences that include time, space, intensity, emotion, cognition and motivation. Analgesics are the agents, which selectively relieve pain by acting in the CNS or by peripheral pain mechanisms without significantly altering consciousness. Analgesics may be narcotic or non-narcotic. The study of pain in animals raises ethical, philosophical and technical problems. Philosophically, there is a problem that pain cannot be monitored directly in animals but can only be measured by examining their responses to nociceptive stimuli. The observed reactions are almost always motor responses ranging from spinal reflexes to complex behavior. The animal models employed for screening of analgesic agents, include Pain-state models based on the use of thermal stimuli, mechanical stimuli, electrical stimuli and chemical stimuli. The neuronal basis of most of the above laboratory models is poorly understood, however their application is profitable in predicting analgesic activity of newly discovered substances.

  7. A comparison of the newer COX-2 drugs and older nonnarcotic oral analgesics.

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    Sunshine, A

    2000-09-01

    The newer COX-2 drugs are safer analgesics than the older NSAIDs. At the usual dose used in osteoarthritis, they have less analgesic effect than the older NSAIDs. The non-narcotic analgesics such as acetaminophen, salicylate, NSAIDs, and the newer COX-2 drugs seem to have distinctly different mechanisms of action. In limited clinical trials, some of these drugs in combination give additive analgesia. Consideration should be given to using these drugs in combination, after suitable clinical trials, to enhance the efficacy of this category of analgesics.

  8. Antidepressant-like effect of centrally acting non-narcotic antitussive caramiphen in a forced swimming test.

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    Kawaura, Kazuaki; Miki, Risa; Shima, Eriko; Honda, Sokichi; Soeda, Fumio; Shirasaki, Tetsuya; Takahama, Kazuo

    2010-09-13

    Recently, we reported that a centrally acting non-narcotic antitussive (cough suppressant drug), tipepidine produces an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in rats. Because pharmacological properties of tipepidine apparently differ from those of typical antidepressants developed to date, we speculated that caramiphen, another centrally acting antitussive, has an antidepressant-like effect. That effect of caramiphen was studied in rats using the forced swimming test. Caramiphen at 20 and 40mg/kg i.p. significantly reduced immobility. At 40mg/kg i.p., it increased climbing behavior. Even at 40mg/kg, this drug had no effect on locomotor activity. Results suggest that a centrally acting antitussive possessing inhibition of GIRK channels has an antidepressant-like effect.

  9. A categorical review on electroanalytical determination of non-narcotic over-the-counter abused antitussive drugs.

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    Thapliyal, Neeta; Patel, Harun; Karpoormath, Rajshekhar; Goyal, Rajendra N; Patel, Rajkumar

    2015-09-01

    Dextromethorphan (DXM) and diphenhydramine (DPH) are two commonly used over-the-counter non-narcotic antitussive drugs. Recent reports reveal the widespread abuse of DXM and DPH due to their euphoric and alcohol-like effects. Due to their medicinal importance as well as the apparent increase in their use as abused drugs, it has become critical to determine them in samples of biological, clinical and pharmaceutical interest. The electrochemical techniques for drug analysis have gathered considerable attention due to their pronounced selectivity, sensitivity and simplicity. The given review presents a compilation of published voltammetric and potentiometric methods developed for determination of DXM and DPH. It critically highlights the analytical performances, revealing the recent trends and progress in the specified approach for their analysis. The review forms a basis for further progress in this field and development of improved electrochemical sensors to determine the drug.

  10. [Analgesic nephropathy].

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    Pintér, I; Nagy, J

    1998-11-22

    Analgesic nephropathy is a slowly progressive disease caused by the chronic abuse of analgesic mixtures containing two analgesic components combined with potentially addictive substances (coffeine and/or codeine). Pathologically, the nephropathy is characterized by renal papillary necrosis with calcification and chronic interstitial nephritis sometimes in association with transitional-cell carcinoma of the uroepithelium. In the early stage, the clinical characteristics are polyuria, sterile pyuria, sometimes renal colic and haematuria. With further progression of the disease, there are the nonspecific symptoms of advanced renal failure. The incidence of classic analgesic nephropathy among Hungarian patients on chronic renal replacement therapy has proven. There is an urgent need for the estimation of analgesic nephropathy among patients with chronic renal disease and among patients with chronic pain presumably regularly taking analgesics in Hungary. As long as analgesic mixtures containing phenacetin or paracetamol and/or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and addictive substances are available "over-the-counter", analgesic nephropathy will continue to be a problem also in our country.

  11. Analgesic nephropathy selectively affecting a unilateral non-functioning hypoplastic kidney.

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    Granese, J; Brightbill, K; Osborne, P; Cox, C E; Gaber, L W

    2007-08-01

    Analgesic nephropathy results from chronic abuse of non-narcotic analgesics, most frequently with the use of phenacetin and mixed analgesic preparations. Renal papillary necrosis and chronic interstitial nephritis with progressive scarring are characteristic of the histopathology of analgesic nephropathy. Typically, papillary necrosis in these patients is bilateral and affects almost all renal papillae. This report describes a case of severe analgesic nephropathy that discriminantly affected a unilateral non-functioning kidney and spared the contralateral normally developed kidney. The patient herein consumed therapeutic doses of acetaminophen and naproxen daily and for several years. We estimated the cumulative doses of acetaminophen and naproxen used by the patient during that period to be approximately 1.0 and 0.4 kg, respectively. The cumulative dose of acetaminophen is at the threshold of doses that were traditionally associated with an increased risk for end-stage kidney failure. Simultaneous intake of both analgesics could have had a synergetic adverse effect on renal function. This case also demonstrates that preexisting renal insufficiency is prerequisite to the development of analgesic nephropathy. Conversely, kidneys with normal function are resistant to the chronic nephrotoxicity associated with habitual analgesic use.

  12. Analgesic combinations

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    Raffa, Robert B.; Pergolizzi, Joseph V.; Tallarida, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    When the pathophysiology of a medical condition is multi-modal, i.e., related to multiple physiological causes or mediated by multiple pathways, the optimal strategy can be to use a drug or a combination of drugs that contribute multiple mechanisms to the therapeutic endpoint. In such situations, a rational multi-modal approach can also result in the fewest adverse effects. We discuss the quantitative analysis of multi-modal action using the treatment of pain as a practical example and give examples of its application to some widely used analgesic drugs. PMID:20338825

  13. Analgesic-antiinflammatory drugs inhibit orbicularis oculi reflexes in humans via a central mode of action.

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    Ferracuti, S; Leardi, M G; Cruccu, G; Fabbri, A; Itil, T M

    1994-01-01

    1. A cross-over single blind study examined the possible central effects of non-opioid analgesic drugs on the trigeminal reflexes. 2. The corneal reflex and blink reflex (R1, R2) were recorded electromyographically and response areas measured in healthy volunteers before and after intramuscular injection of piroxicam (40 mg); and after intravenous injection of lysine acetylsalicylate (500 mg). After the last drug recording the subjects received intravenous naloxone (2 mg) followed 5 minutes later by further reflex testing. Saline was used as a placebo in control experiments. 3. Both analgesics reduced the corneal reflex: piroxicam induced a 27% and lysine acetylsalicylate a 21% a reduction that naloxone did not reverse. Neither drug reduced the early or the late component of the blink reflex. 4. The marked inhibitory changes that the two non-narcotic analgesics produced on the corneal reflex--a nociceptive response--indicate a centrally-mediated action. 5. Naloxone's failure to reverse the induced analgesia argues against opiate receptor mediation.

  14. Analgesic effects of melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Amirian, Ilda; Reiter, Russel J

    2011-01-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous indoleamine, produced mainly by the pineal gland. Melatonin has been proven to have chronobiotic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anxiolytic and sedative properties. There are also experimental and clinical data supporting an analgesic role of melatonin. In experimental...... studies, melatonin shows potent analgesic effects in a dose-dependent manner. In clinical studies, melatonin has been shown to have analgesic benefits in patients with chronic pain (fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine). The physiologic mechanism underlying the analgesic actions of melatonin...... has not been clarified. The effects may be linked to G(i) -coupled melatonin receptors, to G(i) -coupled opioid µ-receptors or GABA-B receptors with unknown downstream changes with a consequential reduction in anxiety and pain. Also, the repeated administration of melatonin improves sleep and thereby...

  15. Analgesic effects of melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Amirian, Ilda; Reiter, Russel J

    2011-01-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous indoleamine, produced mainly by the pineal gland. Melatonin has been proven to have chronobiotic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anxiolytic and sedative properties. There are also experimental and clinical data supporting an analgesic role of melatonin. In experimental...... studies, melatonin shows potent analgesic effects in a dose-dependent manner. In clinical studies, melatonin has been shown to have analgesic benefits in patients with chronic pain (fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine). The physiologic mechanism underlying the analgesic actions of melatonin...... has not been clarified. The effects may be linked to G(i) -coupled melatonin receptors, to G(i) -coupled opioid μ-receptors or GABA-B receptors with unknown downstream changes with a consequential reduction in anxiety and pain. Also, the repeated administration of melatonin improves sleep and thereby...

  16. ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF AN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF DENDROCNIDE SINUATA (BLUME CHEW

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    Binita Angom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous root extracts of Dendrocnide sinuata (Blume Chew (AEDS in Swiss albino mice and wistar rats. The animals were orally administered AEDS at doses 30 and 100 mgkg-1 (p.o. For analgesic study, acetic acid-induced Writhing test, Eddy’s hot plate and Tail Flick model was performed in mice. For antiinflammatory study, carrageen-induced paw edema study was performed in rats. In acetic acid induced model, effect of AEDS was comparable with the standard meloxicam 10 mgkg-1 (i.p. In the hot plate model, the maximum effect was observed at 30 min at a dose of 100 mgkg-1 (p.o which was comparable with the standard Pentazocine 10 mgkg-1 (p.o, whereas in the tail flick model no significant changes were observed. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema model, administration of AEDS showed significant (P < 0.05 dose dependent inhibition of edema formation. AEDS was effective in both narcotic and non-narcotic models of analgesia. It also showed a significant dose-dependent increase in antiedematogenic activity which revealed good peripheral anti-inflammatory properties of the extract.

  17. Nonnarcotic analgesics and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziano, J Michael

    2006-05-01

    In 2004, individuals in the United States spent >$2.5 billion on over-the-counter (OTC) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and filled >100 million NSAID prescriptions. The most commonly used OTC analgesics include aspirin, acetaminophen, and nonaspirin NSAIDs. Nonnarcotic analgesics are generally considered safe when used as directed but do have the potential to increase blood pressure in patients with hypertension treated with antihypertensives. This is important because hypertension alone has been correlated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease or stroke. Small increases in blood pressure in patients with hypertension also have been shown to increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, when nonnarcotic analgesics are taken by patients with hypertension, there may be important implications. This review explores the potential connection among analgesic agents, blood pressure, and hypertension, and discusses possible mechanisms by which analgesics might cause increases in blood pressure. This is followed by a summary of data on the relation between analgesics and blood pressure from both observational and randomized trials.

  18. Pharmacogenetics of new analgesics.

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    Lötsch, Jörn; Geisslinger, Gerd

    2011-06-01

    Patient phenotypes in pharmacological pain treatment varies between individuals, which could be partly assigned to their genotypes regarding the targets of classical analgesics (OPRM1, PTGS2) or associated signalling pathways (KCNJ6). Translational and genetic research have identified new targets, for which new analgesics are being developed. This addresses voltage-gated sodium, calcium and potassium channels, for which SCN9A, CACNA1B, KCNQ2 and KCNQ3, respectively, are primary gene candidates because they code for the subunits of the respective channels targeted by analgesics currently in clinical development. Mutations in voltage gated transient receptor potential (TRPV) channels are known from genetic pain research and may modulate the effects of analgesics under development targeting TRPV1 or TRPV3. To this add ligand-gated ion channels including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, ionotropic glutamate-gated receptors and ATP-gated purinergic P2X receptors with most important subunits coded by CHRNA4, GRIN2B and P2RX7. Among G protein coupled receptors, δ-opioid receptors (coded by OPRD1), cannabinoid receptors (CNR1 and CNR2), metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR5 coded by GRM5), bradykinin B(1) (BDKRB1) and 5-HT(1A) (HTR1A) receptors are targeted by new analgesic substances. Finally, nerve growth factor (NGFB), its tyrosine kinase receptor (NTRK1) and the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) have become targets of interest. For most of these genes, functional variants have been associated with neuro-psychiatric disorders and not yet with analgesia. However, research on the genetic modulation of pain has already identified variants in these genes, relative to pain, which may facilitate the pharmacogenetic assessments of new analgesics. The increased number of candidate pharmacogenetic modulators of analgesic actions may open opportunities for the broader clinical implementation of genotyping information.

  19. Analgesic effects of calcitonin.

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    Lyritis, G P; Trovas, G

    2002-05-01

    The analgesic activity of salmon calcitonin (subcutaneous or intranasal) has been demonstrated in several prospective clinical trials, in patients suffering different painful skeletal conditions, including recent nontraumatic osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The mechanism of the analgesic effect of calcitonin is not clear. It is possible that specific binding sites for salmon calcitonin exist in the brain. Another explanation is that changes in descending serotonergic modification on the sensory transmission mediated by C afferents contribute to the analgesic effects of calcitonin on pain in osteoporotic patients. From the clinical point of use, the analgesic effect of calcitonin is beneficial throughout the whole period of medical treatment of osteoporotic patients. Salmon calcitonin in a daily dose of 100 IU subcutaneously or 200 IU intranasally reduces dramatically the back pain (p salmon calcitonin effectively controls severe pain in osteoporotic patients with a recent vertebral fracture, allowing them earlier mobility in combination with a reduction of the urinary hydroxyproline excretion, and a limitation of the considerable bone loss that may occur during prolonged bed rest, make this therapeutic scheme attractive.

  20. Clinical and pathological aspects of analgesic nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Nanra, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    1 Analgesic nephropathy is part of the analgesic syndrome which has gastrointestinal, haematological, cardiovascular, psychological and psychiatric, and pregnancy and gonadal manifestations; premature ageing may also be a feature.

  1. Analgesic activity of Justicia beddomei leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, U; Rao, J Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A M; Shanmukhappa, S

    2007-10-01

    The analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Justicia beddome leaves (Family: Acanthaceae) was evaluated in albino rats using Eddy's hot plate method. The extract at 50 and 100 mg/ kg, (i.p), showed significant analgesic activity at 90 minutes of administration. The analgesic effect of the extract was comparable to that of morphine sulphate.

  2. Analgesic activity of Justicia beddomei leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa, U.; Rao, J. Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A.M.; Shanmukhappa, S.

    2007-01-01

    The analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Justicia beddome leaves (Family: Acanthaceae) was evaluated in albino rats using Eddy's hot plate method. The extract at 50 and 100 mg/ kg, (i.p), showed significant analgesic activity at 90 minutes of administration. The analgesic effect of the extract was comparable to that of morphine sulphate.

  3. Combination analgesic involvement in the pathogenesis of analgesic nephropathy: the European perspective.

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    Elseviers, M M; De Broe, M E

    1996-07-01

    Analgesic nephropathy (AN) is a chronic renal disease characterized by renal papillary necrosis and interstitial nephritis caused by excessive consumption of analgesic mixtures. In a recent study, diagnostic criteria for AN, based on a computed tomography scan investigation without contrast, were presented. The observation of a decreased renal mass of both kidneys combined with either bumpy contours or papillary calcifications was found to have a high diagnostic performance. Although several case control studies and two prospective studies demonstrated the association between analgesic abuse and nephropathy, the nephrotoxicity of the different analgesic products had not been clearly established. Analgesic abuse can be defined as a daily consumption of analgesic mixtures over a several-year period. Abuse of single analgesics is rare; it has been clearly demonstrated that abusers prefer analgesic mixtures. In Belgium, the prevalence of AN was positively related to the sales of analgesic mixtures containing two analgesic components plus caffeine and/or codeine. This relationship could not be observed for analgesics containing only one analgesic component plus caffeine and/or codeine. Moreover, during a European multicenter study, nephrotoxicity of different combinations of analgesic mixtures (all containing caffeine and/or codeine) could be documented in the absence of any previous phenacetin consumption. Epidemiologic observations in Sweden, France, and Belgium regarding incidence of AN, sales figures of analgesics, and legislative measurements concerning analgesic consumption supported the previous observations.

  4. Structural comparisons of meptazinol with opioid analgesics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei LI; Jing-lai HAO; Yun TANG; Yan CHEN; Zhui-bai QIU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the mechanism of action of a potent analgesic, (±)-meptazinol.Methods: The structures of meptazinol enantiomers were compared with opioid pharmacophore and tramadol. Results: Neither enantiomer of meptazinol fitted any patterns among the opioid pharmacophore and tramadol, although they did share some structural and pharmacological similarities. However, the structure superpositions implied that both enantiomers of meptazinol might share some similar analgesic mechanisms with typical opiate analgesics. Conclusion:Meptazinol should have a different mechanism of action to known analgesics,which would be helpful in further investigations of meptazinol in the search for non-addictive analgesics.

  5. Over-the-counter analgesic use.

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    De Broe, Marc E; Elseviers, Monique M

    2009-10-01

    Chronic analgesic nephropathy, particularly chronic interstitial nephritis and renal papillary necrosis, results from daily use for many years of mixtures containing at least two analgesics and caffeine or dependence-inducing drugs. Computed tomography scan can accurately diagnose this disease even in the absence of reliable information on previous analgesic use. The occasion to moderate regular use of aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is without renal risk when renal function is normal. Paracetamol use is less clear although the risk is not great. The continued use of non-phenacetin-combined analgesics with or without nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is associated with faster progression toward renal impairment. As long as high-risk analgesic mixtures are available over the counter, analgesic nephropathy will continue to be a problem.

  6. Pure analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic

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    M.A. Cimmino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pure analgesics are only rarely used by Italian clinicians and this holds true also for rheumatologists. This work is concerned with an evaluation of the use of analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic during the period 1989-1999. Methods: The records of 1705 patients consecutively seen at the clinic were downloaded on a specifically built website. Results: 4469 visits were considered. In 260 of them (5.8%, analgesics were prescribed to 234 (13.7% patients. The number of patients with a prescription of analgesics steadily increased during the years 1989-1999. The diagnoses in patients assuming analgesics were: osteoarthritis (47.1%, inflammatory arthritis (24.2%, soft tissue rheumatisms (13.7%, nonspecific arthralgia/myalgia (7.5%, and connective tissue diseases (2.6%. Peripheral analgesics were used in 188 (82.5% patients and central analgesics were used in the remaining 40 patients (17.5%. Analgesic drugs were used mainly in degenerative joint conditions. The indications for analgesics in the 55 patients with inflammatory arthrits were: (a partial or total remission of arthritis; for this reason non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were no longer required in 18 patients; (b to increase the analgesic effect of NSAIDs in 23 patients; (c contraindications to NSAIDs in 14 patients (renal failure in 2 patients, gastritis in 10, allergy and bleeding in the remaining two. Conclusions: About 14% of our outpatients were treated with analgesics with an increasing trend in the examined period. The main indications for analgesics are degenerative conditions but they can be used also in selected patients with arthritis.

  7. Analgesic Activity of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn

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    P. Malairajan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extracts of the whole plant Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (ALSI (Compositae was tested for analgesic activity by tail immersion method in rat models. The test extracts were tested at 250 mg and 500 mg/kg body weight. The analgesic activity was assessed by keeping pentazocine 10 mg/kg as standard drug. The parameters studied were tail withdrawal reflex and percentage protection. In tail immersion method ALSI pretreatment caused significant increase in analgesic activity and percentage protection found was 66.6 and 67.4 respectively. The result suggested that ALSI possess significant and dose dependent analgesic activity.

  8. The pharmacology of topical analgesics.

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    Barkin, Robert L

    2013-07-01

    Pain management of patients continues to pose challenges to clinicians. Given the multiple dimensions of pain--whether acute or chronic, mild, moderate, or severe, nociceptive or neuropathic--a multimodal approach may be needed. Fortunately, clinicians have an array of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment choices; however, each modality must be chosen carefully, because some often used oral agents are associated with safety and tolerability issues that restrict their use in certain patients. In particular, orally administered nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, opioids, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants are known to cause systemic adverse effects in some patients. To address this problem, a number of topical therapies in various therapeutic classes have been developed to reduce systemic exposure and minimize the risks of patients developing adverse events. For example, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug formulations produce a site-specific effect (ie, cyclo-oxygenase inhibition) while decreasing the systemic exposure that may lead to undesired effects in patients. Similarly, derivatives of acetylsalicylic acid (ie, salicylates) are used in topical analgesic formulations that do not significantly enter the patient's systemic circulation. Salicylates, along with capsaicin, menthol, and camphor, compose the counterirritant class of topical analgesics, which produce analgesia by activating and then desensitizing epidermal nociceptors. Additionally, patches and creams that contain the local anesthetic lidocaine, alone or co-formulated with other local anesthetics, are also used to manage patients with select acute and chronic pain states. Perhaps the most common topical analgesic modality is the cautious application of cutaneous cold and heat. Such treatments may decrease pain not by reaching the target tissue through systemic distribution, but by acting more directly on the affected tissue. Despite the tolerability benefits associated with avoiding

  9. Analgesic Potential of Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ferreira Sarmento-Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain is an unpleasant sensation associated with a wide range of injuries and diseases, and affects approximately 20% of adults in the world. The discovery of new and more effective drugs that can relieve pain is an important research goal in both the pharmaceutical industry and academia. This review describes studies involving antinociceptive activity of essential oils from 31 plant species. Botanical aspects of aromatic plants, mechanisms of action in pain models and chemical composition profiles of the essential oils are discussed. The data obtained in these studies demonstrate the analgesic potential of this group of natural products for therapeutic purposes.

  10. Acute Metabolic Changes Associated With Analgesic Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine Maria; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Simonsen, Carsten Wiberg;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is used to measure brain metabolites. Limited data exist on the analgesic-induced spectroscopy response. This was an explorative study with the aims to investigate the central effects of two analgesic drugs, an opioid and a selective...

  11. Analgesic nephropathy: is it caused by multi-analgesic abuse or single substance use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elseviers, M M; De Broe, M E

    1999-01-01

    Analgesic nephropathy is a slowly progressive renal disease, characterised by renal papillary necrosis. Recently, diagnostic criteria for this disease have been defined based on renal computed tomography scanning performed without contrast. The observation of a decreased renal mass of both kidneys, combined with either bumpy contours or papillary calcifications, has been found to have high diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. However, the question remains as to what kind of analgesics can cause analgesic nephropathy. In the majority of early reports about this condition, phenacetin was singled out as the nephrotoxic culprit. However, during the last decade the nephrotoxic potential of nonphenacetin-containing preparations has become apparent. It is clear that people who abuse analgesics prefer combination analgesics containing 2 analgesics combined with caffeine and/or codeine. In contrast, abuse of products containing only aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) or paracetamol (acetaminophen) is seldom described and associated renal disease is only occasionally reported. Experimental evidence of the nephrotoxicity of analgesic preparations is not well established. The results of studies involving analgesic administration in animals remain contradictory. Clinical evidence linking high consumption of analgesic preparations with analgesic nephropathy is overwhelming. Most patients who admit to over-consuming analgesics have taken preparation containing more than one compound. In recent years, it has become more apparent that preparations not containing phenacetin also have the potential to cause nephrotoxicity manifesting as identical renal lesions. Further epidemiological evidence of the nephrotoxic potential of analgesic combinations has come from case-control studies published during the last decade and from 2 prospective cohort studies. Effective prevention of analgesic nephropathy consists of the prohibition of over-the-counter sales of preparation containing at least

  12. Common Analgesic Agents and Their Roles in Analgesic Nephropathy: A Commentary on the Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Yaxley, Julian

    2016-01-01

    An association between non-opioid analgesic agents and chronic kidney disease has long been suspected. The presumed development of chronic renal impairment following protracted and excessive use of non-opioid analgesia is known as analgesic nephropathy. Many clinicians accept analgesic nephropathy as a real entity despite the paucity of scientific evidence. This narrative review aims to summarize the literature in the field. The weight of available observational literature suggests that long-...

  13. Analgesic Treatment in Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars P H; Werner, Mads U; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to present an overview of the randomized controlled trials investigating analgesic regimens used in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery. Literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE databases in August 2013 in accordance to PRISMA guidelines. The litera......This review aimed to present an overview of the randomized controlled trials investigating analgesic regimens used in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery. Literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE databases in August 2013 in accordance to PRISMA guidelines...

  14. 76 FR 22404 - Analgesic Clinical Trials Innovation, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTION) Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Analgesic Clinical Trials Innovation, Opportunities, and... Analgesic Clinical Trials Innovation, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTION) Initiative. The goal of the... major gaps in scientific information, which can slow down analgesic clinical trials and analgesic...

  15. Use of analgesic drugs and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammundsen, Henriette B; Faber, Mette T; Jensen, Allan;

    2012-01-01

    The role of analgesic drug use in development of ovarian cancer is not fully understood. We examined the association between analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer. In addition, we examined whether the association differed according to histological types.......The role of analgesic drug use in development of ovarian cancer is not fully understood. We examined the association between analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer. In addition, we examined whether the association differed according to histological types....

  16. Intraoperative nitrous oxide as a preventive analgesic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglitz, D K; Amaratunge, L N; Konstantatos, A H; Lindholm, D E

    2010-09-01

    Preventive analgesia is defined as the persistence of the analgesic effects of a drug beyond the clinical activity of the drug. The N-methyl D-aspartate receptor plays a critical role in the sensitisation of pain pathways induced by injury. Nitrous oxide inhibits excitatory N-methyl D-aspartate sensitive glutamate receptors. The objective of our study was to test the efficacy of nitrous oxide as a preventive analgesic. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a subset of patients (n = 100) randomly selected from a previous major multicentre randomised controlled trial on nitrous oxide (ENIGMA trial). Data analysed included postoperative analgesic requirements, pain scores and duration of patient-controlled analgesia during the first 72 postoperative hours. There was no significant difference in postoperative oral morphine equivalent usage (nitrous group 248 mg, no nitrous group 289 mg, mean difference -43 mg, 95% confidence interval 141 to 54 mg). However, patients who received nitrous oxide had a shorter duration of patient-controlled analgesia use (nitrous group 35 hours, no nitrous group 51 hours, mean difference -16 hours, 95% confidence interval -29 to -2 hours, P = 0.022). There was no difference in pain scores between the groups. The shorter patient-controlled analgesia duration in the nitrous oxide group suggests that intraoperative nitrous oxide may have a preventive analgesic effect.

  17. Clinical consequences of nonnarcotic analgesic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, G R

    1997-02-01

    The accuracy of the economic analysis of the selected adverse events evaluated by McGoldrick and Bailie is questionable. The quantitative perspective on the economics of the adverse events associated with nonnarcotic analgesic use proposed by these authors is limited by the fact that they have combined data on over 30 different NSAIDs into a single value for comparison with two single-entity agents: acetaminophen and aspirin. The relative prevalence of major organ system toxicities varies markedly among the NSAIDs, and this variance invalidates the use of a class conclusion approach. Their conservative incidence estimates, the lack of data in some areas (i.e., hepatic injury), and the exclusion of combination analgesics further limit the utility of their conclusions. However, it is difficult to argue authoritatively that the relative costs of toxicities associated with the three analgesic classes they reviewed are not representative. The ultimate question is, "What is the optimal analgesic for a given patient?" This question can be addressed only if one considers the underlying cause of pain, its chronicity/acuity, the patient's concurrent disease states, if any, and the potential for drug interactions with the patient's concomitant medications. McGoldrick and Bailie concluded on an economic basis that acetaminophen is the analgesic of choice for most patients, including those with impaired renal function. This recommendation is in agreement with those of the Analgesics and the Kidney Ad Hoc Committee of the National Kidney Foundation. It also would seem prudent to use acetaminophen as the first-line agent for those patients in whom aspirin and NSAID use should be avoided or used only with caution along with frequent monitoring of renal function, blood pressure, electrolytes, and/or coagulation status. Thus, there is little to no controversy in their recommendation to initiate treatment with acetaminophen. The authors, however, also suggested that switching

  18. Baclofen as an analgesic in chronic peripheral nerve disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrence, C F; Fromm, G H; Tenicela, R

    1985-01-01

    Baclofen has shown analgesic properties in a number of animal studies but has failed as a conventional analgesic in the human postoperative dental pain model. In order to test baclofen's analgesic properties in more chronic pain conditions, we selected postherpetic neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy pain as possible trial diseases for baclofen analgesia. 15 patients with postherpetic neuralgia and 10 with diabetic neuropathy pain were treated with baclofen. In the spinal postherpetic neuralgia group and diabetic neuropathy group, there was little evidence of analgesic effect. 6 of 7 patients with facial postherpetic neuralgia had a good response to baclofen during the 3-week trial. Baclofen does not appear to be a conventional analgesic.

  19. Case report: analgesic nephropathy: a soda and a powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, R G; Bleyer, A J; McCabe, J C

    1995-10-01

    Analgesic nephropathy has long been considered a potentially preventable cause of renal disease. Early reports were described in patients who consumed analgesics containing phenacetin. In recent data, the removal of phenacetin from analgesic preparations resulted in a reduction in analgesic-induced end stage renal disease in Europe and Australia. However, a reduction in the incidence of analgesic nephropathy has not occurred uniformly, suggesting that phenacetin is not the sole cause. Current data raise concerns regarding adverse renal effects of acetaminophen and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Aspirin taken alone may be of least concern. The diagnosis of analgesic nephropathy is suggested in subjects with chronic renal failure, a history of daily consumption of analgesic preparations, small bumpy kidneys, and renal papillary necrosis or chronic interstitial nephritis. However, the spectrum of disease may be changing, because these agents also may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and chronic renal disease due to nephrosclerosis, glomerulonephritis, and diabetes mellitus. Potential pathogenetic mechanisms in analgesic nephropathy include direct cellular injury induced by analgesics, prostaglandin inhibition with reduction or redistribution of renal blood flow, and interesting new concepts regarding the role of caffeine in increasing oxygen demand and reducing oxygen supply in the medulla. The primary goal of therapy is discontinuation of analgesic consumption. Because of the association between analgesic intake and uroepithelial tumors, surveillance of patients for neoplasm is suggested.

  20. Natural Flavonoids as Promising Analgesic Candidates: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Gui, Xuan; Chen, Lu; Huang, Baokang

    2016-11-01

    Due to the chemical structural diversity and various analgesic mechanisms, an increasing number of studies indicated that some flavonoids from medicinal plants could be promising candidates for new natural analgesic drugs, which attract high interests of advanced users and academic researchers. The aim of this systematic review is to report flavonoids and its derivatives as new analgesic candidates based on the pharmacological evidences. Sixty-four papers were found concerning the potential analgesic activity of 46 flavonoids. In this case, the evidence for analgesic activity of flavonoids and total flavonoids was investigated. Meanwhile, the corresponding analgesic mechanism of flavonoids was discussed by generalizing and analyzing the current publications. Based on this review, the conclusion can be drawn that some flavonoids are promising candidates for painful conditions and deserve particular attention in further research and development.

  1. Paracetamol and analgesic nephropathy: Are you kidneying me?

    OpenAIRE

    Waddington F; Naunton M; Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Freya Waddington, Mark Naunton, Jackson Thomas Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia Introduction: Analgesic nephropathy is a disease resulting from the frequent use of combinations of analgesic medications over many years, leading to significant impairment of renal function. The observation of a large number of cases of renal failure in patients abusing analgesic mixtures containing phenacetin led to the initial recognition of the nephrotoxicity from the use of...

  2. Relevance of analgesic abuse in the maintenance of chronic headaches

    OpenAIRE

    Pini, Luigi Alberto; Relja, Giuliano

    2000-01-01

    The mechanisms facilitating or prompting the chronicization of headache and the increased use of analgesics are still unknown and under debate. It is not clear whether the daily use of analgesics in chronic headaches is to be considered a habit or a therapeutic need. Recently, our group showed that items more involved in chronicization of headaches were the onset as migraine and the use of analgesics, namely mixture compounds. One of the most important features in inducing habit behavior is t...

  3. Opioid Receptors: Toward Separation of Analgesic from Undesirable Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, P.Y.; Reggio, Patricia H.; Loh, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    The use of opioid analgesics for pain has always been hampered by their many side effects; in particular, the addictive liability associated with chronic use. Recently, attempts to develop analgesic agents with reduced side effects have targeted either the putative opioid receptor splice variants or the receptor heterooligomers. This review discusses the potential for receptor splice variant- and the hetero-oligomer-based discovery of new opioid analgesics. We also examine an alternative approach of using receptor mutants for pain management. Finally, we discuss the role of the biased agonism observed and the recently reported opioid receptor crystal structures in guiding the future development of opioid analgesics PMID:23598157

  4. Analgesic medication errors in North Carolina nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rishi J; Williams, Charrlotte E; Greene, Sandra B; Pierson, Stephanie; Caprio, Anthony J; Hansen, Richard A

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize analgesic medication errors and to evaluate their association with patient harm. The authors conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individual medication error incidents reported by North Carolina nursing homes to the Medication Error Quality Initiative (MEQI) during fiscal years 2010-2011. Bivariate associations between analgesic medication errors with patient factors, error-related factors, and impact on patients were tested with chi-square tests. A multivariate logistic regression model explored the relationship between type of analgesic medication errors and patient harm, controlling for patient- and error-related factors. A total of 32,176 individual medication error incidents were reported over a 2-year period in North Carolina nursing homes, 12.3% (n = 3949) of which were analgesic medication errors. Of these analgesic medication errors, opioid and nonopioid analgesics were involved in 3105 and 844 errors, respectively. Opioid errors were more likely to be wrong drug errors, wrong dose errors, and administration errors compared with nonopioid errors (P errors were found to have higher odds of patient harm compared with nonopioid errors (odds ratio [OR] = 3, 95% confodence interval [CI]: 1.1-7.8). The authors conclude that opioid analgesics represent the majority of analgesic error reports, and these error reports reflect an increased likelihood of patient harm compared with nonopioid analgesics.

  5. Paracetamol and analgesic nephropathy: Are you kidneying me?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waddington F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Freya Waddington, Mark Naunton, Jackson Thomas Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia Introduction: Analgesic nephropathy is a disease resulting from the frequent use of combinations of analgesic medications over many years, leading to significant impairment of renal function. The observation of a large number of cases of renal failure in patients abusing analgesic mixtures containing phenacetin led to the initial recognition of the nephrotoxicity from the use of analgesics. Phenacetin was subsequently exclusively blamed for this disease. However, the role of a single analgesic as a sole cause of analgesic nephropathy was challenged, and a number of researchers have since attempted to determine the extent of involvement of other analgesics including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, aspirin, and paracetamol. Case presentation: We present the case of an 83-year-old woman with a history of NSAID-induced nephropathy with poor pain control and reluctance to use paracetamol. We attempt to briefly review the evidence of paracetamol being implicated in the development of analgesic-induced nephropathy. Conclusion: There is a lack of concrete data regarding causative analgesics, including paracetamol. Patients should therefore not be withheld paracetamol, an effective and commonly recommended agent, for fear of worsening renal function. Keywords: kidney, paracetamol, nephropathy, phenacetin

  6. Opioid receptors: toward separation of analgesic from undesirable effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ping-Yee; Reggio, Patricia H; Loh, Horace H

    2013-06-01

    The use of opioid analgesics for pain has always been hampered by their many side effects; in particular, the addictive liability associated with chronic use. Recently, attempts to develop analgesic agents with reduced side effects have targeted either the putative opioid receptor splice variants or the receptor hetero-oligomers. This review discusses the potential for receptor splice variant- and the hetero-oligomer-based discovery of new opioid analgesics. We also examine an alternative approach of using receptor mutants for pain management. Finally, we discuss the role of the biased agonism observed and the recently reported opioid receptor crystal structures in guiding the future development of opioid analgesics.

  7. Patient-controlled analgesic infusion pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Patient-controlled analgesic (PCA) infusion devices allow patients to self-administer narcotic analgesics within the limits prescribed by the physician. PCA therapy is typically used for postoperative, obstetric, terminally ill, and trauma patients. PCA pumps deliver solutions intravenously, subcutaneously, or epidurally and allow patient activation by means of a pendant button on a cord connected to the pump or a button directly on the pump. We evaluated nine PCA pumps from six suppliers. Three of these pumps are syringe-type, while the others use cassette-based fluid delivery. Because PCA pumps have often been cited as examples of devices that contribute to medical error (the most significant risk connected with PCA infusion is overmedication), the accident resistance of each device weighed heavily in our testing. The pumps we tested exhibit varying levels of performance, resistance to accidents and tampering, and ease of use. We rate six of them Acceptable. While none of the six units stands out as ideal, they meet most of our criteria, and we consider them somewhat better choices than the rest. We rate one other pump Acceptable (with Conditions) because, in one of its operating modes, it has a drawback that could be dangerous to patients; we consider its use acceptable only if the hospital doesn't employ the operating mode in question. Finally, we rate two pumps Not Recommended because they both have a significant number of disadvantages.

  8. Analgesic effects of dexamethasone in burn injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U; Lassen, Birgit Vibeke; Kehlet, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    differences between treatments in regard to skin erythema (P >.8), thermal or mechanical thresholds (P >.2), thermal or mechanical pain response (P >.2), or mechanical secondary hyperalgesia (P >.2). Dexamethasone had no analgesic effects in normal skin. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that systemic...... administration of dexamethasone 2 hours before a burn injury does not reduce the inflammatory-mediated changes in quantitative sensory thresholds, pain perception, or skin erythema in humans....... injury was produced on the medial aspect of the nondominant calf (12.5 cm2, 47 degrees C for 7 minutes). Quantitative sensory testing included pain ratings to thermal and mechanical stimuli (visual analog scale [VAS]), assessments of thermal and mechanical detection thresholds, and areas of allodynia...

  9. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF LEPIDAGATHIS CRISTATA WILLD FLOWER EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purma Aravinda Reddy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to screen the Lepidagathis cristata Willd, flower extracts for analgesic activity. In the present study the analgesic activity of flower extracts was performed. The methanolic, ethyl acetate, chloroform extracts were prepared and were used for analgesic activity in two dose level of 200 and 400mg/kg body weight in two screening methods, Hot Plate (n=5 and Tail Immersion method (n=5. The flower extracts showed significant analgesic activity. The plant extracts did not exhibit any mortality up to the dose level 4000mg/kg. The methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of flower was evaluated for analgesic activity. The flower ethyl acetate extract of Lepidagathis cristata showed 47% and 57.1% activity at 200 and 400mg/kg.b.wt, after 30 min by Eddy’s Hot plate Method respectively. The flower chloroform extract showed 43.7% and 44.7% protection at 200, 400mg/kg respectively. The flower methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts showed dose dependent analgesic activity in thermal models. The flower ethylacetate extract has maximum analgesic activity with 57.1% (p < 0.001c.

  10. The analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of piperine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, I A; Pivac, N; Alhumayyd, M S; Mahesar, A L; Gilani, A H

    2013-12-01

    Piperine, is the major active principal of black pepper. In traditional medicine, black pepper has been used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory agent and in the treatment of epilepsy. This study was conducted to evaluate the in vivo analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of piperine in mice. The analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of piperine were studied in mice using acetic acid-induced writhing, tail flick assay, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- and picrotoxin (PIC)-induced seizures models. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of piperine (30, 50 and 70 mg/kg) significantly inhibited (Ppepper, may be contributing factor in the medicinal uses of black pepper in pain and epilepsy.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION FOR ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF MAMSYADI KWATHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreevathsa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Siddha Yoga Sangraha of Yadavji Trikamji Acharya, states about Mamsyadi kwatha, an Ayurvedic formulation which is said to be effective in minor mental disorders. The ingredients of Mamsyadi kwatha are Jatamamsi (Nardistachys jatamansi DC, Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Linn and Parasika yavani (Hyoscymus niger Linn, in 8:4:1 ratio respectively. The test formulation was subjected to assess its analgesic effect. The model selected for the assessment of analgesic effect was tail flick test, in albino mice. The test formulation possesses analgesic effect, which is mainly due to its component Parasika yavani.

  12. Orbitofrontal Cortex in Chronic Analgesic-Overuse Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Glucose metabolism with 18-FDG PET in 16 chronic migraineurs (mean age 42.5 +/- 11 years with analgesic overuse, before and 3 weeks after medication withdrawal, was compared to controls.

  13. Study on Analgesic Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shan; XU Ling; WEI Pin-kang; QIN Zhi-feng; LI Jun; PENG Hai-dong

    2008-01-01

    Chinese medicine has been used in treating pain for a long time.Much progress has been made in studies on the mechanism of the analgesic effect of Chinese medicine in animal experiments.It is found that the analgesic action may be related to the following actions:(1)Reducing the secretion of peripheral algogenic substances and inducing the secretion of pain-sensitive substances;(2)Alleviating the accumulation of local algogenic substances;(3)Increasing the release of endogenous analgesic substances;(4)Regulating c-fos gene and increasing the secretion of such substances in the central newous system,etc.In this paper,the experimental methods and analgesic effect of Chinese medicines are reviewed.

  14. Interventional Analgesic Management of Lung Cancer Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Uri; Elgueta, Maria Francisca; Perez, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the four most prevalent cancers worldwide. Comprehensive patient care includes not only adherence to clinical guidelines to control and when possible cure the disease but also appropriate symptom control. Pain is one of the most prevalent symptoms in patients diagnosed with lung cancer; it can arise from local invasion of chest structures or metastatic disease invading bones, nerves, or other anatomical structures potentially painful. Pain can also be a consequence of therapeutic approaches like surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy. Conventional medical management of cancer pain includes prescription of opioids and coadjuvants at doses sufficient to control the symptoms without causing severe drug effects. When an adequate pharmacological medical management fails to provide satisfactory analgesia or when it causes limiting side effects, interventional cancer pain techniques may be considered. Interventional pain management is devoted to the use of invasive techniques such as joint injections, nerve blocks and/or neurolysis, neuromodulation, and cement augmentation techniques to provide diagnosis and treatment of pain syndromes resistant to conventional medical management. Advantages of interventional approaches include better analgesic outcomes without experiencing drug-related side effects and potential for opioid reduction thus avoiding central side effects. This review will describe various pain syndromes frequently described in lung cancer patients and those interventional techniques potentially indicated for those cases. PMID:28261561

  15. Catastrophizing delays the analgesic effect of distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Claudia M; Witmer, Kenny; Simango, Mpepera; Carteret, Alene; Loggia, Marco L; Campbell, James N; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Edwards, Robert R

    2010-05-01

    Behavioral analgesic techniques such as distraction reduce pain in both clinical and experimental settings. Individuals differ in the magnitude of distraction-induced analgesia, and additional study is needed to identify the factors that influence the pain relieving effects of distraction. Catastrophizing, a set of negative emotional and cognitive processes, is widely recognized to be associated with increased reports of pain. We sought to evaluate the relationship between catastrophizing and distraction analgesia. Healthy participants completed three sessions in a randomized order. In one session (Pain Alone), pain was induced by topical application of a 10% capsaicin cream and simultaneous administration of a tonic heat stimulus. In another session (Pain+Distraction), identical capsaicin+heat application procedures were followed, but subjects played video games that required a high level of attention. During both sessions, verbal ratings of pain were obtained and participants rated their degree of catastrophizing. During the other session (Distraction Alone) subjects played the video games in the absence of any pain stimulus. Pain was rated significantly lower during the distraction session compared to the "Pain Alone" session. In addition, high catastrophizers rated pain significantly higher regardless of whether the subjects were distracted. Catastrophizing did not influence the overall degree of distraction analgesia; however, early in the session high catastrophizers had little distraction analgesia, though later in the session low and high catastrophizers rated pain similarly. These results suggest that both distraction and catastrophizing have substantial effects on experimental pain in normal subjects and these variables interact as a function of time.

  16. Predictors of frequent oral analgesic use in rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Esha Das; Tee, Huey Shin; Sakthiswary, Rajalingham

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the predictors of frequent oral analgesic use among Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients who were prescribed with the above medication on an ‘as-needed’ basis. Methods: Patients with RA were recruited consecutively from the Rheumatology outpatient clinics in this cross-sectional study. The sociodemographic data, frequency of oral analgesic intake, Patient Global Assessment (PGA) scores and HAQ (Health Assessment Questionnaire) scores ...

  17. Analgesic use - prevalence, biomonitoring and endocrine and reproductive effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Mazaud-Guittot, Sverine; Gaudriault, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Paracetamol and NSAIDs, in particular acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and ibuprofen, are among the most used and environmentally released pharmaceutical drugs. The differences in international trends in the sale and consumption of mild analgesics reflect differences in marketing, governmental...... policies, habits, accessibility, disease patterns and the age distribution of each population. Biomonitoring indicates ubiquitous and high human exposure to paracetamol and to salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid. Furthermore, evidence suggests that analgesics can have...

  18. Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Oroxylum indicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, B K; Al-Amin, M M; Russel, S M; Kabir, S; Bhattacherjee, R; Hannan, J M A

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to study phytochemical screening and analgesic activity of ethanol extract of Oroxylum indicum. The dried powder of the barks of the plant was extracted with 95% ethanol and was subjected to various phytochemical tests to ascertain the principle constituents contained in the extract. The result revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides in the ethanol extract of Oroxylum indicum. The extract was screened for analgesic activity by using hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin test. The ethanol extract of the plant at two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg) showed significant (P<0.05) analgesic effect in all test methods (hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin). The analgesic activity was compared with a standard drug (ketorolac at 10 mg/kg). Based on the present findings and previous literature review it can be concluded that flavonoids and tannins might be responsible for the analgesic activity. We suggest that ethanol extract of Oroxylum indicum might have potential chemical constituents that could be used in the future for the development of novel analgesic agent.

  19. Topical and peripheral ketamine as an analgesic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawynok, Jana

    2014-07-01

    Ketamine, in subanesthetic doses, produces systemic analgesia in chronic pain settings, an action largely attributed to block of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the spinal cord and inhibition of central sensitization processes. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors also are located peripherally on sensory afferent nerve endings, and this provided the initial impetus for exploring peripheral applications of ketamine. Ketamine also produces several other pharmacological actions (block of ion channels and receptors, modulation of transporters, anti-inflammatory effects), and while these may require higher concentrations, after topical (e.g., as gels, creams) and peripheral application (e.g., localized injections), local tissue concentrations are higher than those after systemic administration and can engage lower affinity mechanisms. Peripheral administration of ketamine by localized injection produced some alterations in sensory thresholds in experimental trials in volunteers and in complex regional pain syndrome subjects in experimental settings, but many variables were unaltered. There are several case reports of analgesia after topical application of ketamine given alone in neuropathic pain, but controlled trials have not confirmed such effects. A combination of topical ketamine with several other agents produced pain relief in case, and case series, reports with response rates of 40% to 75% in retrospective analyses. In controlled trials of neuropathic pain with topical ketamine combinations, there were improvements in some outcomes, but optimal dosing and drug combinations were not clear. Given orally (as a gargle, throat swab, localized peritonsillar injections), ketamine produced significant oral/throat analgesia in controlled trials in postoperative settings. Topical analgesics are likely more effective in particular conditions (patient factors, disease factors), and future trials of topical ketamine should include a consideration of factors that could predispose

  20. Non-contrast-enhanced computerized tomography and analgesic-related kidney disease: report of the national analgesic nephropathy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, William L; Clark, Richard L; Kelly, Judith P; Buckalew, Vardaman M; Fenves, Andrew; Finn, William F; Shapiro, Joseph I; Kimmel, Paul L; Eggers, Paul; Agodoa, Larry E; Porter, George A; Shapiro, Samuel; Toto, Robert; Anderson, Theresa; Cupples, L Adrienne; Kaufman, David W

    2006-05-01

    Previous studies suggested that the non-contrast-enhanced computerized tomography (CT) scan is a highly reliable tool for the diagnosis of analgesic-associated renal disease. However, this issue has not been addressed in the US population. A total of 221 incident patients with ESRD from different regions of the United States underwent a helical CT scan and detailed questioning about drug history. Specific renal anatomic criteria were developed to determine whether a constellation of CT findings (small indented calcified kidneys [SICK]) is linked to analgesic ingestion. For approximating use before the onset of renal disease, only analgesic ingestion at least 9 yr before starting dialysis was considered relevant. Fifteen patients met the criteria for SICK. This represented 7% of the enrolled patients and approximately 1% of the total ESRD population. There was a significant increase in the estimated risk among patients with a history of heavy aspirin ingestion (odds ratio [OR] 7.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 43] for > or =1 kg lifetime; OR 8.8 [95% CI 1.2 to 66] for > or =0.3 kg/yr). Total analgesic ingestion of > or =0.3 kg/yr also was significantly associated with SICK (OR 8.2; 95% CI 1.5 to 45). These findings were accounted for largely by combination products that contained aspirin and phenacetin (used by three patients with SICK), which are no longer available. In addition, the CT finding of SICK was present only in a minority of heavy analgesic users, yielding a sensitivity of 5 to 26%. Findings of SICK are infrequent in the US ESRD population and do not occur among a sufficient proportion of heavy analgesic users to render the non-contrast-enhanced CT scan a sensitive tool to detect analgesic-associated kidney injury.

  1. EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF LEPIDAGATHIS CRISTATA WILLD LEAF EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purma Aravinda Reddy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to screen the Lepidagathis cristata Willd, leaf extracts for analgesic activity, because the plant was screened only for immunosuppressive, antipyretic activities only, now in the present study the analgesic activity of leaf extracts were performed. The ethanolic, ethyl acetate, chloroform extracts were prepared and are used for analgesic activity in two dose level that is 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight per oral in two screening methods, one is Hot Plate (n=5, another is Tail Immersion method (n=5, and the leaf extracts are showed significant analgesic activity. The plant extracts did not exhibit any mortality up to the dose level 4000 mg/kg. The methanol, Chloroform and Ethyl acetate extracts of leaf was evaluated for analgesic activity. . The 400mg/kg dose of leaf chloroform extract has highest activity in both the experimental models with 62.5% protection after 30min and 47.3% after 60 min with the significance of p< 0.001 when compared with 0 time interval and after 90 min it was shown 50% of protection and all the extracts has graded dose response.

  2. Role of serotonin in pathogenesis of analgesic induced headache

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikiatkhachorn, A.

    1999-12-16

    Analgesic abuse has recently been recognized as a cause of deterioration in primary headache patients. Although the pathogenesis of this headache transformation is still obscure, and alteration of central pain control system is one possible mechanism. A number of recent studies indicated that simple analgesics exert their effect by modulating the endogenous pain control system rather than the effect at the peripheral tissue, as previously suggested. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine ; 5-HT) has long been known to play a pivotal role in the pain modulatory system in the brainstem. In the present study, we investigated the changes in 5-HT system in platelets and brain tissue. A significant decrease in platelet 5-HT concentration (221.8{+-}30.7, 445.3{+-}37.4 and 467.2{+-}38.5 ng/10{sup 9} platelets, for patients with analgesic-induced headache and migraine patients, respectively, p<0.02) were evident in patients with analgesic induced headache. Chronic paracetamol administration induced a decrease in 5-HT{sub 2} serotonin receptor in cortical and brain stem tissue in experimental animals (B{sub max}=0.93{+-}0.04 and 1.79{+-}0.61 pmol/mg protein for paracetamol treated rat and controls, respectively, p<0.05). Our preliminary results suggested that chronic administration of analgesics interferes with central and peripheral 5-HT system and therefore possibly alters the 5-HT dependent antinociceptive system. (author)

  3. Antiplasmodial and analgesic activities ofClausena anisata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jude E Okokon; Ette O Etebong; John A Udobang; Grace E Essien

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Antiplasmodial and analgesic activities of the leaf extract and fractions ofClausena anisata (C. anisata) were evaluated for antimalarial and analgesic activities.Methods:The crude leaf extract (39 - 117 mg/kg) and fractions (chloroform and acqeous; 78 mg/kg) ofC. anisata were investigated for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitivePlasmodium berghei (P. berghei ) infections in mice using suppressive, prophylactic and curative models and analgesic activity against acetic acid, formalin and heat-induced pains. Artesunate,5 mg/kg and pyrimethamine,1.2 mg/kg were used as positive controls. Thin films made from tail blood of each mouse were used to assess the level of parasitaemia of the mice.Results: The extract and its fractions dose-dependently reduced parasitaemia induced by chloroquine-sensitive P. berghei in prophylactic, suppressive and curative models in mice. These reductions were statistically significant (P<0.001). They also improved the mean survival time (MST) from17 to21 days relative to control (P<0.01 - 0.001). On chemically and thermally- induced pains, the extract inhibited acetic acid and formalin-induced inflammation as well as hot plate-induced pain in mice. These inhibitions were statistically significant (P<0.001) and in a dose-dependent fashion. Conclusions: The antiplasmodial and analgesic effects of this plant may in part be mediated through its chemical constituents and it can be concluded that the C. anisata possess significant antimalarial and analgesic properties.

  4. A short history of anti-rheumatic therapy - V. Analgesics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological treatment of pain has very ancient origins, when plant-derived products were used, including mandrake extracts and opium, a dried latex obtained from Papaver somniferum. In the XVI and XVII centuries opium came into the preparation of two compounds widely used for pain relief: laudanum and Dover’s powder. The analgesic properties of extracts of willow bark were then recognized and later, in the second half of the XIX century, experimental studies on chemically synthesized analgesics were planned, thus promoting the marketing of some derivatives of para-amino-phenol and pyrazole, the predecessors of paracetamol and metamizol. In the XX century, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were synthesized, such as phenylbutazone, which was initially considered primarily a pain medication. The introduction on the market of centrally acting analgesics, such as tramadol, sometimes used in the treatment of rheumatic pain. is quite recent.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Melanthera scandens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jude E Okokon; Anwanga E Udoh; Samuel G Frank; Louis U Amazu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of leaf extract of Melanthera scandens (M. scandens). Methods: The crude leaf extract (39-111 mg/kg) of M. scandens was investigated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities using various experimental models. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carragenin, egg-albumin induced oedema models, while acetic acid, formalin-induced paw licking and thermal-induced pain models were used to evaluate the antinociceptive property. Results: The extract caused a significant (P<0.05 - 0.001) dose-dependent reduction of inflammation and pains induced by different agents used. Conclusions: The leaf extract possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects which may be mediated through the phytochemical constituents of the plant.

  6. Analgesic activity of various extracts of Punica granatum (Linn flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborthy Guno

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracts of flowers of Punica granatum (Linn. (N.O. Family Punicaceae were investigated for analgesic activity in mice using hot plate method. The flowers of Punica granatum (Linn were collected from the local market of Mumbai, Maharashtra and were in a dried condition. The dried powdered flowers (500 gm were extracted in a soxhlet apparatus by using different solvents. Mice weighing 15-25 gm were taken for the experiment. The reaction time of animals in all the groups was noted at 30, 60 and 120 min after drug administration. All data were analyzed with Student-t test. The various extract of the flowers of Punica granatum (Linn showed significant analgesic activity at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. A maximum analgesic activity was found at 60 min, after drug administration, which was equivalent to the standard drug used as morphine sulphate.

  7. Deep neural network architectures for forecasting analgesic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Paul; Tighe, Patrick; Shickel, Benjamin; Rashidi, Parisa

    2016-08-01

    Response to prescribed analgesic drugs varies between individuals, and choosing the right drug/dose often involves a lengthy, iterative process of trial and error. Furthermore, a significant portion of patients experience adverse events such as post-operative urinary retention (POUR) during inpatient management of acute postoperative pain. To better forecast analgesic responses, we compared conventional machine learning methods with modern neural network architectures to gauge their effectiveness at forecasting temporal patterns of postoperative pain and analgesic use, as well as predicting the risk of POUR. Our results indicate that simpler machine learning approaches might offer superior results; however, all of these techniques may play a promising role for developing smarter post-operative pain management strategies.

  8. Screening of cetirizine for analgesic activity in mice

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    Priya M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain is the most common symptom for which patients approach doctors. We have multitude of drugs for pain relief, but they have serious side effects ranging from peptic ulcer (e.g. NSAIDs to renal failure. The other group, opioids have well known side effects ranging from sedation to drug dependence. So a search for a drug for analgesia with high therapeutic effect and fewer side effects will be a boon for the patients. The objective of this study was to find whether cetirizine, a second generation antihistaminic drug, has got any analgesic activity in mice. Methods: Ten adult albino mice weighing 20-30 grams of either sex were randomized to two groups (n=5. Group I: control group (Treated with solvent 0.1 ml/kg, Group II: Test group (Cetirizine 1mg/kg. All drugs were given orally. The analgesic activity was evaluated by using tail flick, tail immersion and tail clip methods. Reaction time of animals to pain sensation before and after Cetirizine administration were noted at 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90 minutes time intervals respectively on Day 1, 3, 5, 7, 10. Results: Mean reaction time was expressed as Mean±SEM, and one way ANOVA was used to assess statistical significance. Cetirizine was found to have statistically significant analgesic effect in mice and time dependent increase in analgesic effect were observed in all three pain models and maximum analgesic activity was observed at 60 minutes (p<0.001 after drug administration. Conclusions: Through this study, Cetirizine, a second generation antihistamine, is found to have significant analgesic activity in mice. This effect has to be studied further elaborately in animals as well as in humans. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 187-192

  9. Analgesic effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of clove

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    Mina Kamkar Asl

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The beneficial effects of clove on toothache have been well documented. We have also previously shown the analgesic effects of clove essential oil. The present work was done to investigate the analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of clove using hot plate test. The possible role of opioid receptors in the analgesic effects of clove was also investigated using naloxone. Materials and Methods: Ninety male mice were divided into nine groups: (1 Saline, (2-4 Aaqueous (Aq 50, Aq 100, and Aq 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of clove, respectively, (5-7 Ethanolic (Eth 50, Eth 100, and Eth 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of clove, respectively, and (8-9 Aq 100- Naloxone and Aq 200- Naloxone which were pretreated with 4 mg/kg of naloxone before injection of 100 or 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. The hot plate test was performed as a base record 10 min before injection of drugs and consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the injection. Results: The maximal percent effect (MPE in the animal groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract was significantly higher than the control group. Pretreatment with naloxone reduced the analgesic effects of both 100 and 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. Administration of all three doses of the ethanloic extract also non-significantly increased the MPE. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that aqueous extract of clove has analgesic effect in mice demonstrated by hot plate test which is reversible by naloxone. The role of opioid system in the analgesic effect of clove might be suggested. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism(s.

  10. Analgesic profile of hydroalcoholic extract obtained from Marrubium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, M M; de Jesus, R A; Cechinel-Filho, V; Schlemper, V

    1998-04-01

    Marrubium vulgare L. is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to cure a variety of diseases. Recently we have demonstrated that a hydroalcoholic extract of this plant showed significant, nonspecific antispasmodic effects on isolated smooth muscle. In this report, we have investigated the possible analgesic effects of the same hydroalcoholic extract in different models of pain in mice. The results suggest that this extract exhibits significant analgesic activity, antagonizing chemically-induced acute pain. Such effects may be related to the presence of steroids and terpenes, which were detected by TLC analysis.

  11. Association between prenatal exposure to analgesics and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, June M;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disturbances in the central nervous system originating during foetal life may increase the risk of schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to analgesics may affect foetal neurodevelopment, leading to increased risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD...... infections, concomitant drug treatment during pregnancy, an index of pregnancy complications, parental social status and parental age. RESULTS: In a risk set of 7999 individuals, 116 cases of schizophrenia were found (1.5%). Prenatal exposure to analgesics in the second trimester was associated...

  12. The analgesic effects of exogenous melatonin in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars Peter Holst

    2016-10-01

    The hormone, melatonin is produced with circadian rhythm by the pineal gland in humans. The melatonin rhythm provides an endogenous synchronizer, modulating e.g. blood pressure, body temperature, cortisol rhythm, sleep-awake-cycle, immune function and anti-oxidative defence. Interestingly, a number of experimental animal studies demonstrate significant dose-dependent anti-nociceptive effects of exogenous melatonin. Similarly, recent experimental- and clinical studies in humans indicate significant analgesic effects. In study I, we systematically reviewed all randomized studies investigating clinical effects of perioperative melatonin. Meta-analyses demonstrated significant analgesic and anxiolytic effects of melatonin in surgical patients, equating reductions of 20 mm and 19 mm, respectively on a VAS, compared with placebo. Profound heterogeneity between the included studies was, however, present. In study II, we aimed to investigate the analgesic, anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of exogenous melatonin in a validated human inflammatory pain model, the human burn model. The study was performed as a randomized, double blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Primary outcomes were pain during the burn injury and areas of secondary hyperalgesia. No significant effects of exogenous melatonin were observed with respect to primary or secondary outcomes, compared to placebo. Study III and IV estimated the pharmacokinetic variables of exogenous melatonin. Oral melatonin demonstrated a tmax value of 41 minutes. Bioavailability of oral melatonin was only 3%. Elimination t1/2 were approximately 45 minutes following both oral and intravenous administration, respectively. High-dose intravenous melatonin was not associated with increased sedation, in terms of simple reaction times, compared to placebo. Similarly, no other adverse effects were reported. In Study V, we aimed to re-analyse data obtained from a randomized analgesic drug trial by a selection of

  13. Voluntary ingestion of buprenorphine as a refined analgesic strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Kalliokoski, Otto Henrik; Hau, Jann;

    2011-01-01

    Buprenorphine is a widely used analgesic for laboratory rodents. Administration of the drug in an attractive food item for voluntary ingestion is a desirable way to administer the drug noninvasively. The method refi nes the standard analgesic procedure and has the potential to improve the welfare...... of laboratory mice and rats. However, many aspects of the voluntary ingestion method still need to be investigated. This paper examines the concept of voluntary ingestion of analgesia and reports new findings about voluntary ingestion of buprenorphine in mice....

  14. [Pregnancy and lactation period: Which local anesthetics and analgesics?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatori Popovic, Sandra; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo; von Mandach, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show relevant aspects of dental treatment in pregnancy. Common medication used in dental offices should be highlighted in special regard to the pregnant patient during dental treatment. The reader should gain more security in the election of the proper drugs for local anesthesia and oral analgesics. Local anaesthetics such as articain with adrenalin in a dilution of 1 : 200 000 can be used for dental treatment at any time. Paracetamol should be used as first line oral analgesic. Elective dental procedures should be postponed after delivery and after lactation period.

  15. [Pregnancy and lactation period: Which local anesthetics and analgesics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatori Popovic, Sandra; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo; von Mandach, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show relevant aspects of dental treatment in pregnancy. Common medication used in dental offices should be highlighted in special regard to the pregnant patient during dental treatment. The reader should gain more security in the election of the proper drugs for local anesthesia and oral analgesics. Local anaesthetics such as articain with adrenalin in a dilution of 1 : 200 000 can be used for dental treatment at any time. Paracetamol should be used as first line oral analgesic. Elective dental procedures should be postponed after delivery and after lactation period.

  16. Evaluation of analgesic activity of Aegle marmelos steam bark in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarang Gajanan Ghodki

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: AMSBAE has analgesic activity. The analgesic activity of AMSBAE was comparable to that of tramadol and Aspirin. Hence, AMSBAE could be a possible alternative to NSAIDs. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 1081-1086

  17. Peripheral analgesic effects of ketamine in acute inflammatory pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L; Galle, T S; Kehlet, H

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND. This study examined the analgesic effect of local ketamine infiltration, compared with placebo and systemic ketamine, in a human model of inflammatory pain. METHODS: Inflammatory pain was induced by a burn (at 47 degrees C for 7 min; wound size, 2.5 x 5 cm) on the calf in 15 volunteer...

  18. Local analgesic efficacy of tramadol following intraplantar injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Tufan; Gunes, Yasemin; Gunay, Ismail

    2007-03-08

    Several studies have suggested that systemic tramadol, an opioid, can represent a valuable treatment in severe pain conditions because of their effects on central pain pathways. However, there are not enough studies supporting that tramadol is efficacious when administered locally. Therefore, we studied the potential local analgesic effects of tramadol in peripheral nociception. In addition, we tested the antinociceptive effects of tramadol-CaCl(2) or naloxone combinations after subcutaneous intraplantar injection in a validated rat model of acute thermal nociception. Local analgesic effects of tramadol were compared with those of lidocaine. The effects of tramadol on thermal paw withdrawal latencies were monitored using the plantar test. The antinociceptive potency of tramadol is higher and long-lasting than that of lidocaine. Naloxone was unable to inhibit the increased antinociceptive response produced by tramadol. Ca(2+) modified the effect of tramadol. When Ca(2+) dose was increased in the solution, thermal antinociceptive potency of tramadol, but not lidocaine was prolonged. Thermal nociceptive responses were not affected in the non-injected paws, indicating a lack of systemic effects with doses of tramadol and lidocaine that elicited local analgesia. These results suggest that intraplantar tramadol administration can produce local analgesic effect with a different action mechanism than that of lidocaine. In addition, extracellular Ca(2+) may play an important role in the local analgesic action of tramadol.

  19. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Mimusops elengi Linn

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    Purnima A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 70% ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark was assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals. The antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy′s hot plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer′s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw oedema at 3rd and 4th h and in cotton pellet model it reduced the transudative weight and little extent of granuloma weight. In analgesic models the ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi decreases the acetic acid-induced writhing and it also reduces the rectal temperature in Brewer′s yeast induced pyrexia. However, Mimusops elengi did not increase the latency time in the hot plate test. These results show that ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi has an antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity.

  20. The Analgesic Effect of Pineapple Fruit Juice on Mice

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    Ainul Atiqah binti Hilmi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain is a feeling stimulated by the nervous system which can be suppressed by giving an analgesic agent. Some studies revealed that pineapples have an analgesic effect. This study aim was to determine analgesic effect of pineapple on mice. Methods: In this experimental study, the effect was examined by using a writhing method on the 28 male mice. Subjects were divided into 4 groups with 7 mice each. The control group received aquades and other groups received pineapple fruit juice with 20%, 40% and 80% concentration with the dosage of 10 mL/kg/body weight. After 30 minutes, 3% acetic acid was injected intraperitoneally to induce pain. Writhing responseswere observed every 5 minutes for 30 minutes. Results: The result for mean of total writhing reaction was 2.39±0.40, 1.92±0.40, 1.50±2.13, 1.66±0.11 respectively for group 1 to 4. These data indicated a significant decrease of total writhing response in mice with 20%, 40% and 80% concentration compared to control group (p=0.023;p=0.000 and p=0.000 respectively. Most optimal concentration was40% with the protective percentage equal to 71.8%. Conclusion: Pineapple fruit juice concentrations (20%, 40%, and 80%has an analgesic effect with the most optimal concentration of 40%.

  1. Quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of allylphenols with peripheral analgesic effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B de Oliveira

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium salt derivatives of natural allylphenols were synthesized with the purpose of obtaining potential peripheral analgesics. These drugs, by virtue of their physicochemical properties, would not be able to cross the blood brain barrier. Their inability to enter into the central nervous system (CNS should prevent several adverse effects observed with classical opiate analgesics (Ferreira et al., 1984. Eugenol (1 O-methyleugenol (5 and safrole (9 were submitted to nitration, reduction and permethylation, leading to the ammonium salts 4, 8 and 12. Another strategy applied to eugenol (1, consisting in its conversion to a glycidic ether (13, opening the epoxide ring with secondary amines and methylation, led to the ammonium salts 16 and 17. All these ammonium salts showed significant peripheral analgesic action, in modified version of the Randall-Sellito test (Ferreira et al. 1978, at non-lethal doses. The ammonium salt 8 showed an activity comparable to that of methylnalorphinium, the prototype of an ideal peripheral analgesic (Ferreira et al., 1984.

  2. [Analgesic abuse and psychiatric comorbidity in headache patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radat, F; Irachabal, S; Swendsen, J; Henry, P

    2002-01-01

    Headache patients frequently overuse analgesic medications: 20% of the patients from headache centers is concerned by this problem, which has been estimated to occur in four percent of the community migrainers. Frequent use of various types of headache medication may paradoxically cause an increase in headache attack frequency as well as their chronicisation due to potentially complex mechanisms of sensitization. Patients will enter into a self- perpetuating cycle of daily headaches and use of symptomatic medications which can lead to addiction and to social and occupational impairement. Indeed, many patients will experience pharmacological tolerance and dependence but also by some kind of craving. International Headache Society qualify these patients as abusers referring mostly to the amount of substance ingested. Hence patients are labelled analgesic abusers . However, as many of these analgesic medications contained psychotropic substances (i.e. caffeine, codeine.), these patients may fulfill DSM IV criteria of dependance. Nevertheless, the dependance criteria should be adapted to chronic pain patients. Indeed, if pharmacological dependence and tolerance criteria are easy to apply in such patients, it is not the case for the criteria a great deal of time spent to obtain substances, to use substances or to recover from substances effects . As analgesic medications are legally obtained from medical practitioners, drug seeking behaviours are mostly: obtaining medications from multiple providers, repeating episodes of prescription loss and multiplying requests for early refills. Moreover the detrimental effects of analgesic abuse on psychosocial functioning is likely to be related to pain rather than to medication overuse. Finally the best indicator of addictive behaviors in such patients, is the loss of control over the use of analgesic medication despite the adverse consequences over pain. Comorbidity with addiction to other substances has never been specifically

  3. A Prospective Cohort Study Evaluating the Ability of Anticipated Pain, Perceived Analgesic Needs, and Psychological Traits to Predict Pain and Analgesic Usage following Cesarean Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study aimed to determine if preoperative psychological tests combined with simple pain prediction ratings could predict pain intensity and analgesic usage following cesarean delivery (CD. Methods. 50 healthy women undergoing scheduled CD with spinal anesthesia comprised the prospective study cohort. Preoperative predictors included 4 validated psychological questionnaires (Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI, Fear of Pain (FPQ, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and 3 simple ratings: expected postoperative pain (0–10, anticipated analgesic threshold (0–10, and perceived analgesic needs (0–10. Postoperative outcome measures included post-CD pain (combined rest and movement and opioid used for the 48-hour study period. Results. Bivariate correlations were significant with expected pain and opioid usage (r=0.349, anticipated analgesic threshold and post-CD pain (r=-0.349, and perceived analgesic needs and post-CD pain (r=0.313. Multiple linear regression analysis found that expected postoperative pain and anticipated analgesic needs contributed to post-CD pain prediction modeling (R2=0.443, p<0.0001; expected postoperative pain, ASI, and FPQ were associated with opioid usage (R2=0.421, p<0.0001. Conclusion. Preoperative psychological tests combined with simple pain prediction ratings accounted for 44% and 42% of pain and analgesic use variance, respectively. Preoperatively determined expected postoperative pain and perceived analgesic needs appear to be useful predictors for post-CD pain and analgesic requirements.

  4. A Prospective Cohort Study Evaluating the Ability of Anticipated Pain, Perceived Analgesic Needs, and Psychological Traits to Predict Pain and Analgesic Usage following Cesarean Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Brendan; Zheng, Ming; Harter, Scott; Sultan, Pervez

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This study aimed to determine if preoperative psychological tests combined with simple pain prediction ratings could predict pain intensity and analgesic usage following cesarean delivery (CD). Methods. 50 healthy women undergoing scheduled CD with spinal anesthesia comprised the prospective study cohort. Preoperative predictors included 4 validated psychological questionnaires (Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), Fear of Pain (FPQ), Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire) and 3 simple ratings: expected postoperative pain (0-10), anticipated analgesic threshold (0-10), and perceived analgesic needs (0-10). Postoperative outcome measures included post-CD pain (combined rest and movement) and opioid used for the 48-hour study period. Results. Bivariate correlations were significant with expected pain and opioid usage (r = 0.349), anticipated analgesic threshold and post-CD pain (r = -0.349), and perceived analgesic needs and post-CD pain (r = 0.313). Multiple linear regression analysis found that expected postoperative pain and anticipated analgesic needs contributed to post-CD pain prediction modeling (R (2) = 0.443, p pain, ASI, and FPQ were associated with opioid usage (R (2) = 0.421, p pain prediction ratings accounted for 44% and 42% of pain and analgesic use variance, respectively. Preoperatively determined expected postoperative pain and perceived analgesic needs appear to be useful predictors for post-CD pain and analgesic requirements.

  5. Impairment of aspirin antiplatelet effects by non-opioid analgesic medication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amin; Polzin; Thomas; Hohlfeld; Malte; Kelm; Tobias; Zeus

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin is the mainstay in prophylaxis of cardiovascular diseases. Impaired aspirin antiplatelet effects are associated with enhanced incidence of cardiovascular events. Comedication with non-opioid analgesic drugs has been described to interfere with aspirin,resulting in impaired aspirin antiplatelet effects. Additionally,nonopioid analgesic medication has been shown to enhance the risk of cardiovascular events and death. Pain is very frequent and many patients rely on analgesic drugs to control pain. Therefore effective analgesic options without increased risk of cardiovascular events are desirable. This review focuses on commonly used nonopioid analgesics,interactions with aspirin medication and impact on cardiovascular risk.

  6. [Toxicity of analgesics in the family doctor practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuźniar-Placek, Justyna; Szponar, Jarosław; Panasiuk, Lech

    2012-01-01

    Analgesic usage without any consultation with a physician is very common in Poland. It increases the risk of occurrence of the harmful effect or harmful interaction with other medicaments taken by the patient. The abuse of painkillers applies not only to opioid but also to nonopioid analgesics. The largest group of commonly available medicaments are NSAIDs. The most frequent undesirable effect of NSAIDs' is dyspepsia. Among the most dangerous, and very often the ones without any symptoms, are gastric and duodenum ulceration for which the bleeding and perforation may be the first manifestation. Each non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug taken in large doses can be a cause of analgesic nephropathy. Its deceitful course can delay the diagnosis leading to chronic kidney failure. A complex supplements, that include central acting substances, increase the risk of kidney damage, as well as physical and psychological addiction. NSAIDs can cause: the heart failure to be more severe, treatment resistant arterial hypertension, increase an effectiveness of anticoagulants or antidiabetic drugs. The problem is also that some medicaments are available without a prescription (acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, acetaminophen), especially that they are ingredients of many complex supplements considered safe. Taking doses larger than therapeutic or simultaneously taking many supplements of the same active substance had many times led to poisoning and even death. Equally dangerous can be an abuse of tramadol, codeine and COX-2 inhibitors. Therefore, prudential prescription of NSAIDs, knowledge of risks related to therapy and informing the patients about their side effects, may decrease the number of patients abusing the analgesics which can lead to lowering the number of deaths caused by serious complications.

  7. Analgesic stairway in the treatment of oncological pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah María Regueira Betancourt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pain represents the main symptom in an important group of patients who are in active treatment for cancer and in sick people in a very advanced stage. The objective of this article is to review the basic pharmacology of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, weak opioids, bigger opioids, as well as the different special pharmacological and non- pharmacological techniques that constitute the analgesic stairway in the management of patients who are suffering from oncological pain.

  8. KETAMINE HAS NO PRE-EMPTIVE ANALGESIC EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M E Darabi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist, provides a pre-emptive analgesic effect and pre-emptive analgesia improves postoperative pain management. The aim of this study was to determine the effict of pre-incisional vs. post-incisional intravenous low dose of racemic ketamine in postoperative pain in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair. Seventy-five children aged 1-6 years who were scheduled for inguinal herniorrhaphy were included in a prospective, double-blind randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomly allocated to three groups (pre-incisional, post-incisional and control. Patients in pre-incisional group received an intravenous bolus of racemic ketamine (0.25 mg/kg before surgical incision and patients in post-incisional group received the same dose of racemic ketamine after surgical incision. Children of control group received intravenous boluses of normal saline. In post anesthesia care unit and pediatric surgical ward, the degree of pain and sedation, additional analgesic requirements and side effects were evaluated. There were no differences between groups with respect to demographic and hemodynamic parameters. Pain and sedation scores were not statistically different between groups during 24 h study. In addition, there was no significant difference among groups in number of supplementary analgesic requirements and postoperative nausea and vomiting in the first 24 h. No other side effects were reported during the study period. We found that low dose racemic ketamine administered prior to surgical incision has no pre-emptive effect on post-operative pain and supplementary analgesic requirement during the first 24 h after herniorrhaphy in pediatric patients. "n 

  9. Tramadol as an Analgesic to Treat Chronic Pain

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    Gaurav Solanki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. Pain has now been equated to a fifth vital sign highlighting the significance of pain management in patient care. Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic which is structurally related to codeine and morphine. It is effectively used to treat moderate to severe acute and chronic pain in diverse conditions. Tramadol is placed on the second step of WHO analgesic ladder and in contrast to traditional opioids, exerts its analgesic activity, a dual mechanism of action inhibiting transmission as well as perception of pain. Tramadol is more suitable than NSAID’s and coxib’s for patient with GI, renal and cardiovascular problems. Combined with low dependence/abuse potential, it has proven to be of significant advantage over other agents especially in the elderly.

  10. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Ginger Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Yong-liang; XIE Qiang-min; ZHAO Jun-ming; ZHANG Lin-hui; SUN Bao-shan; BAO Meng-jing; LI Fen-fen; SHEN Jian; SHEN Hui-jun; ZHAO Yu-qing

    2011-01-01

    Objective Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is widely used as a spice in cooking and as a medicinal herb in traditional herbal medicine. The present study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ginger oil in experimental animal models. Methods The analgesic effect of the oils was evaluated by the "acetic acid" and "hot-plate" test models of pain in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of the oil was investigated in rats, using rat paw edema induced by carrageenan, adjuvant arthritis, and vascular permeability induced by bradykinin, arachidonic acid, and histamine. Indomethacin (1 mg/kg), Aspirin (0.5 g/kg) and Dexamethasone (2.5 mg/kg) were used respectively as reference drugs for comparison. Results The ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) produced significant analgesic effect against chemically- and thermally-induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice (P < 0.05, 0.01). And the ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) also significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema, adjuvant arthritis, and inflammatory mediators-induced vascular permeability in rats (P < 0.05, 0.001). Conclusion These findings confirm that the ginger oil can be used to treat pain and chronic inflammation such as rheumatic arthritis.

  11. [Has ketamine preemptive analgesic effect in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Semra; Kocabaş, Seden; Zincircioğlu, Ciler; Firat, Vicdan

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if preemptive use of the NMDA receptor antogonist ketamine decreases postoperative pain in patients undergoing abdominal hystrectomy. A total of 60 patients admitted for total abdominal hysterectomy were included in this study after the approval of the ethic committee, and the patients were randomly classified into three groups. After standart general anaesthesia, before or after incision patients received bolus saline or ketamine. Group S received only saline while Group Kpre received ketamine 0.4 mg/kg before incision and saline after incision, and Group Kpost received saline before incision and 0.4 mg/kg ketamine after incision. Postoperatif analgesia was maintained with i.v. PCA morphine. Pain scores were assessed with Vizüal Analog Scale (VAS), Verbal Rating Scale (VRS) at 1., 2, 3., 4., 8., 12. ve 24. hours postoperatively. First analgesic requirement time, morphine consumption and side effects were recorded. There were no significant differences between groups with respect to VAS / VRS scores, the time for first analgesic dose, and morphine consumption ( p>0.05). Patients in Group S had significantly lower sedation scores than either of the ketamine treated groups ( pketamin had no preemptive analgesic effect in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy, but further investigation is needed for different operation types and dose regimens.

  12. Management of cancer pain: 1. Wider implications of orthodox analgesics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SK

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Susannah K Lee,1 Jill Dawson,2 Jack A Lee,3 Gizem Osman,4 Maria O Levitin,5 Refika Mine Guzel,5 Mustafa BA Djamgoz5,61Pomona College, Claremont, CA, USA; 2Healthcare Communications Consultancy, Danville, CA, USA; 3College of Arts and Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA; 4Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK; 5Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Neuroscience Solutions to Cancer Research Group, South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, London, UK; 6Cyprus International University, Biotechnology Research Centre, Haspolat, North Cyprus, Mersin, TurkeyAbstract: In this review, the first of two parts, we first provide an overview of the orthodox analgesics used commonly against cancer pain. Then, we examine in more detail the emerging evidence for the potential impact of analgesic use on cancer risk and disease progression. Increasing findings suggest that long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, particularly aspirin, may reduce cancer occurrence. However, acetaminophen may raise the risk of some hematological malignancies. Drugs acting upon receptors of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and GABA “mimetics” (eg, gabapentin appear generally safe for cancer patients, but there is some evidence of potential carcinogenicity. Some barbiturates appear to slightly raise cancer risks and can affect cancer cell behavior in vitro. For cannabis, studies suggest an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, larynx, and possibly lung. Morphine may stimulate human microvascular endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis; it is not clear whether this might cause harm or produce benefit. The opioid, fentanyl, may promote growth in some tumor cell lines. Opium itself is an emerging risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma and possibly cancers of the esophagus, bladder, larynx, and lung. It is concluded that analgesics currently prescribed for cancer pain can

  13. A benefit-risk assessment of caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W Y

    2001-01-01

    Caffeine has been an additive in analgesics for many years. However, the analgesic adjuvant effects of caffeine have not been seriously investigated since a pooled analysis conducted in 1984 showed that caffeine reduces the amount of paracetamol (acetaminophen) necessary for the same effect by approximately 40%. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological research has provided some evidence that caffeine can have anti-nociceptive actions through blockade of adenosine receptors, inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase-2 enzyme synthesis, or by changes in emotion state. Nevertheless, these actions are only considered in some cases. It is suggested that the actual doses of analgesics and caffeine used can influence the analgesic adjuvant effects of caffeine, and doses that are either too low or too high lead to no analgesic enhancement. Clinical trials suggest that caffeine in doses of more than 65 mg may be useful for enhancement of analgesia. However, except for in headache pain, the benefits are equivocal. While adding caffeine to analgesics increases the number of patients who become free from headache [rate ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17 to 1.58], it also leads to more patients with nervousness and dizziness (relative risk = 1.60, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.03). It is suggested that long-term use or overuse of analgesic medications is associated with rebound headache. However, there is no robust evidence that headache after use or withdrawal of caffeine-containing analgesics is more frequent than after other analgesics. Case-control studies have shown that caffeine-containing analgesics are associated with analgesic nephropathy (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.3 to 10.3). However, no specific contribution of caffeine to analgesic nephropathy can be identified from these studies. Whether caffeine produces nephrotoxicity on its own, or increases nephrotoxicity due to analgesics, is yet to be established.

  14. Correlation between membrane translocation and analgesic efficacy in kyotorphin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Isa D; Ramu, Vasanthakumar G; Pinto, Antónia R T; Freire, João M; Tavares, Isaura; Heras, Montserrat; Bardaji, Eduard R; Castanho, Miguel A R B

    2015-01-01

    Amidated kyotorphin (L-Tyr-L-Arg-NH2; KTP-NH2) causes analgesia when systemically administered. The lipophilic ibuprofen-conjugated derivative of KTP-NH2 has improved analgesic efficacy. However, fast degradation by peptidases impacts negatively in the pharmacodynamics of these drugs. In this work, selected derivatives of KTP and KTP-NH2 were synthesized to combine lipophilicity and resistance to enzymatic degradation. Eight novel structural modifications were tested for the potential to transverse lipid membranes and to evaluate their efficacy in vivo. The rationale behind the design of the pool of the eight selected molecules consisted in the addition of individual group at the N-terminus, namely the tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), acetyl, butanoyl, and propanoyl or in the substitution of the tyrosine residue by an indole moiety and in the replacement of the peptidic bond by a urea-like bond in some cases. All the drugs used in the study are intrinsically fluorescent, which enables the use of spectrofluorimetry to sample the drugs in the permeation assays. The results show that the BOC and indolyl derivatives of KTP-NH2 have maximal ability to permeate membranes with concomitant maximal analgesic power. Overall, the results demonstrate that membrane permeation is correlated with analgesic efficacy. However, this is not the only factor accounting for analgesia. KTP-NH2 for instance has low passive permeation but is known to have central action. In this case, hypothetical transcytosis over the blood-brain barrier seems to depend on dipeptide transporters.

  15. Prescription opioid analgesic use among adults: United States, 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Steven M; Porter, Kathryn S; Paulozzi, Leonard J

    2015-02-01

    Prescription opioid analgesics are used to treat pain from surgery, injury, and health conditions such as cancer. Opioid dependence and opioid-related deaths are growing public health problems. Opioid analgesic sales (in kilograms per 10,000) quadrupled from 1999 to 2010 (1), and from 1999 to 2012, opioid-related deaths (per 100,000) more than tripled (2). During 1999–2002, 4.2% of persons aged 18 and over used a prescription opioid analgesic in the past 30 days (3). This report provides updated estimates and trends in prescription opioid analgesic use among adults aged 20 and over, overall and by selected subgroups.

  16. Analgesic Use and the Risk of Hearing Loss in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Curhan, Sharon G.; Shargorodsky, Josef; Eavey, Roland; Curhan, Gary C.

    2012-01-01

    Use of analgesics is common and is associated with increased risk of hearing loss in men; however, the relation has not been examined prospectively in women. The authors prospectively examined the relation between frequency of aspirin, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen use and risk of hearing loss among 62,261 women aged 31–48 years at baseline (1995) in Nurses' Health Study II. The outcome was self-reported hearing loss (n = 10,012), and the follow-up period was 1995–2009. Cox proportional hazard...

  17. Coffee drinking enhances the analgesic effect of cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nastase, Anca; Ioan, Silvia; Braga, Radu I

    2007-01-01

    Nicotine (from cigarette smoke) and caffeine (from coffee) have analgesic effects in humans and experimental animals. We investigated the combined effects of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking on pain experience in a group of moderate nicotine-dependent, coffee drinking, young smokers. Pain...... threshold and pain tolerance were measured during cold pressor test following the habitual nocturnal deprivation of smoking and coffee drinking. Smoking increased pain threshold and pain tolerance in both men and women. Coffee drinking, at a dose that had no independent effect, doubled the increase in pain...

  18. ANTIOXIDANT, ANALGESIC AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF MIMUSOPS ELENGI LINN. LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal Kumar Karmakar et al.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mimusops elengi Linn. (Family: Sapotaceae is a tree which is traditionally used against a number of diseases including ulcers, headache, dental diseases, wound and fever. In the present study crude methanolic extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. leaf was investigated for possible antioxidant, analgesic and cytotoxic activity. The extract exhibited statistically significant antioxidant activity in DPPH free radical scavenging and Nitric oxide scavenging test. The analgesic activity of the sample was studied using acetic acid induced writhing of white albino mice and hot plate test. The extract produced 45.61% and 63.85% (P<0.001 writhing inhibition at the doses of 250mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively which is comparable to the standard drug diclofenac sodium was found to be 76.69% at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight. In hot plate test the extract exerted significant (P<0.001 prolongation in the response of latency time to the heat stimulus. The cytotoxic activity of the extract was assessed by brine shrimp lethality bioassay as an indicator of toxicity in which LC50= 80μg/ml and LC90 = 320μg/ml for sample. All the results tend to justify the traditional uses of the plant and require further investigation to identify the chemicals.

  19. Bottlenecks in the development of topical analgesics: molecule, formulation, dose-finding, and phase III design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keppel Hesselink JM

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jan M Keppel Hesselink,1 David J Kopsky,2 Stephen M Stahl3 1Institute Neuropathic Pain, Bosch en Duin, the Netherlands; 2Institute Neuropathic Pain, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 3University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA Abstract: Topical analgesics can be defined as topical formulations containing analgesics or co-analgesics. Since 2000, interest in such formulations has been on the rise. There are, however, four critical issues in the research and development phases of topical analgesics: 1 The selection of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Analgesics and co-analgesics differ greatly in their mechanism of action, and it is required to find the most optimal fit between such mechanisms of action and the pathogenesis of the targeted (neuropathic pain. 2 Issues concerning the optimized formulation. For relevant clinical efficacy, specific characteristics for the selected vehicle (eg, cream base or gel base are required, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the active pharmaceutical ingredient(s to be delivered. 3 Well-designed phase II dose-finding studies are required, and, unfortunately, such trials are missing. In fact, we will demonstrate that underdosing is one of the major hurdles to detect meaningful and statistically relevant clinical effects of topical analgesics. 4 Selection of clinical end points and innovatively designed phase III trials. End point selection can make or break a trial. For instance, to include numbness together with tingling as a composite end point for neuropathic pain seems stretching the therapeutic impact of an analgesic too far. Given the fast onset of action of topical analgesics (usually within 30 minutes, enrichment designs might enhance the chances for success, as the placebo response might decrease. Topical analgesics may become promising inroads for the treatment of neuropathic pain, once sufficient attention is given to these four key aspects. Keywords: topical, analgesics

  20. Repeated Time-to-event Analysis of Consecutive Analgesic Events in Postoperative Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Rasmussen, Sten; Kreilgaard, Mads;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduction in consumption of opioid rescue medication is often used as an endpoint when investigating analgesic efficacy of drugs by adjunct treatment, but appropriate methods are needed to analyze analgesic consumption in time. Repeated time-to-event (RTTE) modeling is proposed as a w...

  1. Analgesic Nephropathy and Renal Replacement Therapy in Australia: Trends, Comorbidities and Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Sean Haw; Mathew, Timothy Hamish; McDonald, Stephen Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: This study examined age-specific incidence and prevalence of renal replacement therapy attributed to analgesic nephropathy from 1971 through 2005 and adjusted comorbidity prevalence and survival of patients who had analgesic nephropathy and were on renal replacement therapy (compared with control subjects without diabetes).

  2. Analgesic efficacy with rapidly absorbed ibuprofen sodium dihydrate in postsurgical dental pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholt, Sven Erik; Hallmer, F; Hartlev, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the onset of analgesic effect for a new formulation of ibuprofen sodium dihydrate versus conventional ibuprofen (ibuprofen acid).......To evaluate the onset of analgesic effect for a new formulation of ibuprofen sodium dihydrate versus conventional ibuprofen (ibuprofen acid)....

  3. To evaluate the analgesic activity of resveratrol in different doses in animal model

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    Tanu Garg

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: In the study, resveratrol exhibited analgesic activity in both thermal and chemical pain models in both the doses, and analgesic activity in higher dose (100 mg/kg was comparable to standard drug. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 869-872

  4. Study of analgesic activity of ethanol extract of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus on experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Mukherjee

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the central and peripheral analgesic action of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus in experimental animal models. The extract was prepared by percolation method and acute oral toxicity testing was performed as per OECD guidelines. Analgesic activity was assessed by tail flick method (for central action and glacial acetic acid-induced writhing test (for peripheral action. Leaves extract (500 mg/kg, p.o. and aspirin (100 mg/kg showed significant peripheral analgesic activity (p<0.05. Leaves extract (500 mg/kg, p.o. and pethidine (50 mg/kg, i.p. also showed significant central analgesic activity (p<0.05. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, s.c. was used to find the mechanism of central analgesic action. Some partial agonistic activity for the opioid receptors seems to be probable mechanism of action.

  5. Pain management in occupational health: a guide for non-narcotic pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriolo, Angela E; Conlon, Helen Acree

    2012-12-01

    Narcotic pain management is currently a topic of concern in the United States; the latest concerns are both legal and ethical. Narcotics are frequently prescribed medications that, when improperly used or supervised, can cause death. Legal concerns include prescribing narcotics without performing detailed health-related evaluations, not recognizing those seeking drugs for personal recreational use, and clients diverting drugs to others for financial gain. Injured workers need to have pain controlled and be mentally safe to perform their job duties. This article identifies types of pain, comorbidities, and alternative methods of pain management beyond narcotic therapy, as well as discusses guidelines used to initiate narcotic therapy when needed.

  6. [Cardiovascular effects of diazepam and chlordiazepoxide in experiments on non-narcotized animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozonov, Iu B

    1976-01-01

    Tests staged on non-anesthetized cats demonstrated that the symptoms of the inhibited behaviour of the animals following introduction of diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are attended by hypertension, tachycardia and an increased intensity of pressor vasomotor reflexes. Urethan and chlorasole lessened the intensity of the activating effect of the tranquilizers on the central component of the sympathetic nervous system tonicity.

  7. Pharmacological interactions of anti-inflammatory-analgesics in odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia, Javier; Cutando, Antonio; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis

    2009-02-01

    In this second article we describe the more interesting pharmacological interactions in dental practice based on the prescription of analgesic narcotics, paracetamol and non-selective non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAI) (which inhibit cyclooxigenase 1 -COX 1- and cyclooxigenase 2 -COX 2-) and selective NSAIs (COX 2 inhibitors). The importance of preventing the appearance of these pharmacological interactions is because these are medicaments prescribed daily in odontology for moderate pain treatment and inflammation in the oral cavity. Paracetamol can interact with warfarin and therefore care should be taken with chronic alcoholic patients. All NSAIs reduce renal blood flow and consequently are capable of reducing the efficacy of medicaments used for treating arterial hypertension, which act via a renal mechanism. Especial attention should be taken considering the risk of interaction between the antagonists of AT1 receptors of angiostensin II (ARAII) and the NSAIs.

  8. Nepetalactone: a new opioid analgesic from Nepeta caesarea Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, S; Beis, R; Oztürk, Y; Baser, K H; Baser, C

    1998-07-01

    The essential oils of Nepeta species including Nepeta phyllochlamys P. H. Davis, N. nuda L. ssp. nuda, and N. caesarea Boiss. have been screened by use of the tail-flick and tail immersion (52.5 degrees C) methods. Of the species studied, only N. caesarea showed significant analgesic activity, besides marked sedation, which was also blocked by naloxone, indicating involvement of opioid receptors. Moreover, it was only active on mechanical, not thermal, algesic response which suggests specificity for specific opioid receptor subtypes, excluding mu-opioid receptors. Because 4a alpha,7alpha,7a alpha-nepetalactone is the main component of the essential oil of N. caesarea, and is present at very high levels (92-95%), it is concluded that 4a alpha,7alpha,7a alpha-nepetalactone is the active principle and has a specific opioid receptor subtype agonistic activity.

  9. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ. A new opioid, a new analgesic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, F; Dickenson, A

    1998-08-24

    Opioids form the major class of strong analgesics. Endogenous opioids and their receptors play important roles in central nervous system function. Thus, the discovery of a new opioid peptide, nociceptin or orphanin FQ, and its receptor, opioid receptor-like 1 (ORL-1) has caused considerable interest since this transmitter system appears to exhibit a number of key differences to the other opioids. Analgesia can be produced at spinal sites but there is compelling evidence that the peptide may also have 'anti-opioid' actions in the brain. Effects on auditory processing, pains from nerve injury coupled with an apparent lack of motivational effects have important implications for novel therapy. This review surveys the recent functional studies on this novel peptide.

  10. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia linn. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po. showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads.

  11. The analgesic activity of Bestatin as a potent APN inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Rong Jia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bestatin, a small molecular weight dipeptide, is a potent inhibitor of various aminopeptidases as well as LTA4 hydrolase. Various physiological functions of Bestatin have been identified, viz.: (1 an immunomodifier for enhancing the proliferation of normal human bone marrow granulocyte–macrophage progenitor cells to form CFU-GM colonies; Bestatin exerts a direct stimulating effect on lymphocytes via its fixation on the cell surface and an indirect effect on monocytes via aminopeptidase B inhibition of tuftsin catabolism; (2 an immunorestorator and curative or preventive agent for spontaneous tumor; Bestatin alone or its combination with chemicals can prolongate the disease-free interval and survival period in adult acute or chronic leukemia, therefore, it was primarily marketed in 1987 in Japan as an anticancer drug and servers as the only marketed inhibitor of Aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13 to cure leukemia to date; (3 a pan-hematopoietic stimulator and restorator; Bestatin promotes granulocytopoiesis and thrombocytopoiesis in vitro and restores them in myelo-hypoplastic men; (4 an inhibitor of several natural opioid peptides. Based on the knowledge that APN can cleave several bioactive neuropeptides such as Met-enkaphalins, Leu-enkaphalins, β-Endorphin, and so on, the antiaminopeptidase action of Bestatin also allows it to protect endopeptides against their catabolism, exhibiting analgesic activity. Although many scientific studies and great accomplishments have been achieved in this field, a large amount of problems are unsolved. This article reviews the promising results obtained for future development of the analgesic activity of Bestatin that can be of vital interest in a number of severe and chronic pain syndromes.

  12. Overuse of non-prescription analgesics by dental clinic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zallen Richard D

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients present to dental clinics for treatment of painful conditions. Prior to seeking treatment, many of these patients will self-medicate with non-prescription analgesics (NPA, and some will unintentionally overdose on these products. The objective of this study is to describe the use of NPA among dental patients. Methods All adult patients presenting to an urban dental clinic during a two-week period in January and February of 2001 were approached to participate in this research project. Trained research assistants using a standardized questionnaire interviewed patients. Patient demographics and the NPA usage over the 3 days preceding the office visit were recorded. We defined a supra-therapeutic dose as any dose greater than the total recommended daily dose stated on package labeling. Results We approached 194 patients and 127 participated. The mean age of participants was 35.5 years, 52% were male. Analgesic use preceding the visit was reported by 99 of 127 patients, and most (81/99 used a NPA exclusively. Fifty-four percent of NPA users were taking more than one NPA. NPA users reported using ibuprofen (37%, acetaminophen (27%, acetaminophen/aspirin combination product (8%, naproxen (8%, and aspirin (4%. Sixteen patients reported supra-therapeutic use of one or more NPA (some ingested multiple products: ibuprofen (14, acetaminophen (3, and naproxen (5. Conclusion NPA use was common in patients presenting to a dental clinic. A significant minority of patients reported excessive dosing of NPA. Ibuprofen was the most frequently misused product, followed by naproxen and acetaminophen. Though mostly aware of the potential toxicity of NPA, many patients used supra-therapeutic dosages.

  13. Intrauterine exposure to mild analgesics is a risk factor for development of male reproductive disorders in human and rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Hass, Ulla; Lesné, Laurianne

    2011-01-01

    reproductive problems, and many of the anti-androgenic compounds are like the mild analgesics potent inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis. Therefore, it appears imperative to further investigate the potential endocrine disrupting properties of mild analgesics. ; METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort study...... results suggest that intrauterine exposure to mild analgesics is a risk factor for development of male reproductive disorders....

  14. Accelerating the development of improved analgesic treatments: the ACTION public-private partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Robert H; Turk, Dennis C

    2011-07-01

    There has been considerable progress identifying pathophysiologic mechanisms of neuropathic pain, but analgesic medications with improved efficacy, safety, and tolerability still represent an unmet public health need. Numerous treatments examined in recent randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have failed to show efficacy for neuropathic pain, including treatments that had previously demonstrated efficacy. This suggests that at least some negative results reflect limited assay sensitivity of RCTs to distinguish efficacious treatments from placebo. Patient characteristics, clinical trial research designs and methods, outcome measures, approaches to data analysis, and statistical power may all play a role in accounting for difficulties in demonstrating the benefits of efficacious analgesic treatments vs placebo. The identification of specific clinical trial characteristics associated with assay sensitivity in existing data has the potential to provide an evidence-based approach to the design of analgesic clinical trials. The US Food and Drug Administration recently launched the Analgesic Clinical Trial Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTION) public-private partnership, which is designed to facilitate the discovery and development of analgesics with improved efficacy, safety, and tolerability for acute and chronic pain conditions. ACTION will establish a collaborative effort to prioritize research objectives, develop a standardized analgesic database platform, and conduct methodologically focused studies to increase the assay sensitivity and efficiency of analgesic clinical trials. The results of these activities have the potential to inform and accelerate the development of improved pain management interventions of all types, not just pharmacologic treatments.

  15. Analgesic Activity of Tramadol and Buprenorphine after Voluntary Ingestion by Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bryan F; Ramirez, Harvey E; Battles, August H; Andrutis, Karl A; Neubert, John K

    2016-01-01

    Effective pain management for rats and mice is crucial due to the continuing increase in the use of these species in biomedical research. Here we used a recently validated operant orofacial pain assay to determine dose-response curves for buprenorphine and tramadol when mixed in nut paste and administered to male and female rats. Statistically significant analgesic doses of tramadol in nut paste included doses of 20, 30, and 40 mg/kg for female rats but only 40 mg/kg for male rats. For male rats receiving buprenorphine mixed in nut paste, a significant analgesic response was observed at 0.5 and 0.6 mg/kg. None of the doses tested produced a significant analgesic response in female rats. Our results indicate that at the doses tested, tramadol and buprenorphine produced an analgesic response in male rats. In female rats, tramadol shows a higher analgesic effect than buprenorphine. The analgesic effects observed 60 min after administration of the statistically significant oral doses of both drugs were similar to the analgesic effects of 0.03 mg/kg subcutaneous buprenorphine 30 min after administration. The method of voluntary ingestion could be effective, is easy to use, and would minimize stress to the rats during the immediate postoperative period.

  16. Pattern self-medication use of analgesics in Pune, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Jaiswal

    2014-06-01

    Methods: II MBBS students collected the information of names of analgesics self-medication, dose, frequency of administration, health related problem for use of self-medication, source of information for the use of self-medication and information about ADRs. Students also educated the population about ADRs to analgesics with the help of ADR checklist. Results: Paracetamol was most commonly taken as self-medication and 39% persons reported ADRs with paracetamol. Ibuprofen, diclofenac, paracetamol and aspirin were taken less than WHO DDD for joint pain. 79% study population was ignorant about ADRs to analgesics. Headache (37% was common health related problem for self-medication of analgesics. Conclusion: Information about problems with repeated use of analgesics like liver damage, analgesic nephropathy, gastric ulceration/bleeding should be provided by pharmacists either orally or with the help of leaflets or display board. Headache is common health related problem for the use of analgesics as self-medication. Pharmacists should take help of assistance tool to diagnosis headache like screener for migraine and guidelines for chronic headache for timely visit of self-medicating person to physician. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1092-1096

  17. Analgesic Potential of Opuntia dillenii and Its Compounds Opuntiol and Opuntioside Against Pain Models in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faheema Siddiqui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia dillenii (Nagphana traditionally used against inflammation and also possess analgesic effect. Thus in the present study analgesic properties of O. dillenii cladode methanol extract, its fractions obtained via vacuum liquid chromatography along with isolated α-pyrones, opuntiol and its glucoside, opuntioside were analyzed. The acetic acid-induced writhes were reduced by O. dillenii test agents with opuntioside being most effective (IC 50 26 ± 0.9 mg/kg and equipotent to diclofenac and β-sitosterol. Consistently, it also elicited most potent effect (IC 50: 28 ± 1.1 and 24 ± 1.2 mg/kg during early and late phases of formalin-induced paw licking, producing effect similar to diclofenac and indomethacin. It was also most effective in hot plate test. Naloxone (opioid antagonist reversed the analgesic effects of extract and fractions but failed to antagonize the opuntiol and opuntioside analgesic effects. In conclusion, edible O. dillenii extract, its fractions, opuntiol and opuntioside reduced peripheral and centrally mediated pain via opioid dependent and independent systems. Among them opuntioside emerged as most effective analgesic possibly due to the presence of glucose moiety at position 7 of its α-pyrone ring. This is the first report of opuntiol and opuntioside analgesic effect which may serve as lead compounds in designing of new analgesics.

  18. Effects of epinephrine and cortisol on the analgesic activity of metyrosine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Yavuz; Saglam, Mustafa Bahadir; Yildirim, Kadir; Karatay, Saliha; Polat, Beyzagul; Uslu, Turan; Suleyman, Halis; Akcay, Fatih

    2011-09-01

    Some endogenous hormones (epinephrine and cortisol) can change an individual's pain threshold. Propranolol is a non-selective β adrenergic receptor blocker which antagonises the anti-inflammatory effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs via the β1 and β2 adrenergic receptors. The roles of epinephrine and cortisol were investigated in the analgesic activity of metyrosine in rats with reduced epinephrine levels induced by metyrosine. Pain threshold measurement was performed using an analgesimeter with different doses and the single or combined usage of metyrosine, prednisolone, metyrapone and propranolol in rats. Epinephrine and corticosterone levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in metyrosineadministered rats. Metyrosine reduces the epinephrine levels without affecting the corticosterone levels, thereby creating an analgesic effect. It was determined that prednisolone did not have an analgesic effect in rats with normal epinephrine levels, but its analgesic activity increased with a parallel decrease in the epinephrine levels. Similarly, the combined use of prednisolone and metyrosine provided a stronger analgesic effect than that rendered by metyrosine alone. The strongest analgesic effect, however, was observed in the group of rats with the lowest epinephrine level in whom the metyrosine + prednisolone combination was administered. The findings of this study may be useful in severe pain cases in which the available analgesics are unable to relieve the individual's pain.

  19. National consumption of opioid and nonopioid analgesics in Croatia: 2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnic D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Darko Krnic,1 Andrea Anic-Matic,2 Svjetlana Dosenovic,2 Pero Draganic,1 Sasa Zezelic,1 Livia Puljak2 1Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices, Zagreb, 2Laboratory for Pain Research, School of Medicine, University of Split, Split, Croatia Background: The increased consumption of analgesics has been documented worldwide during the last 2 decades. The aim of the study was to examine the trends in opioid and nonopioid analgesic consumption in Croatia between 2007 and 2013. Methods: Data on opioid consumption were extracted from the database of the national authority. All opioid and nonopioid analgesics were included in the analysis. Data were presented as defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day. Adequacy of opioid consumption was calculated using adequacy of consumption measure. Results: During the examined 7-year period, the total consumption and total cost of all analgesics in Croatia showed continuous increase. In the M01A group (anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, nonsteroids, ibuprofen had an exponential increasing trend, and in 2011, it overtook diclofenac consumption. Ibuprofen and diclofenac had the highest consumption also in the M02A group of topical products for joint and muscular pain. Tramadol was by far the most consumed type of opioids (N02A group and paracetamol in the group of other analgesics and antipyretics (N02B. The adequacy of consumption measure value was 0.19, indicating that Croatia is a country with a low opioid consumption. Conclusion: Between 2007 and 2013, both consumption of analgesics and their cost in Croatia had an increasing trend. Comparisons with data from other countries, based on the published literature, indicate that analgesic consumption in Croatia is still relatively low. Calculation of the adequacy of opioid consumption indicated that Croatia is a country with low opioid consumption. Further studies are necessary for establishing whether current analgesic consumption in

  20. Adamantyl analogues of paracetamol as potent analgesic drugs via inhibition of TRPA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Fresno

    Full Text Available Paracetamol also known as acetaminophen, is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic agent. We report the synthesis and biological evaluation of adamantyl analogues of paracetamol with important analgesic properties. The mechanism of nociception of compound 6a/b, an analog of paracetamol, is not exerted through direct interaction with cannabinoid receptors, nor by inhibiting COX. It behaves as an interesting selective TRPA1 channel antagonist, which may be responsible for its analgesic properties, whereas it has no effect on the TRPM8 nor TRPV1 channels. The possibility of replacing a phenyl ring by an adamantyl ring opens new avenues in other fields of medicinal chemistry.

  1. 信息动态%Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of granule to pelvic inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of granucle to pelvic inflammation. Methods The anti-inflammatory effects were studied by dimethylbenzene-induced swelling oar in mouse, carrageenin induced paw edema and tampon-induced proliferation in rats. The analgesic effects were studied by acetic acid-induced writhing and optothermal-induced pain in mice. Results Granule to pelvic inflammation significantly reduced swelling oar in mouse, paw edema and proliferation in rats;prolonged latency of writhing test, reduced the writhing number and improved optothermal-induced analgesia percentage. Conclusion Granule to pelvic inflammation has anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.

  2. Evaluation of the analgesic effects of ammoxetine, a novel potent serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ting-Ting; Xue, Rui; Zhu, Lei; Li, Juan; Fan, Qiong-yin; Zhong, Bo-hua; Li, Yun-Feng; Ye, Cai-ying; Zhang, You-zhi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The selective serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are commonly used for the treatment of neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. Ammoxetine ((±)-3-(benzo[d] [1,3]dioxol-4-yloxy)-N-methyl-3-(thiophen-2-yl)propan-1-amine) has been identified as a novel potent SNRI. In this study, we evaluated the acute analgesic properties of ammoxetine in different animal models of pain, and examined the involvement of monoamines in its analgesic actions. Methods: The analgesic...

  3. Clinical Research on Nourishing Yin and Unblocking Meridians Recipe Combined with Opioid Analgesics in Cancer Pain Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ting; MA Sheng-lin; XIE Guang-ru; DENG Qing-hua; TANG Zhong-zhu; PAN Xiao-chan; ZHANG Min; XU Su

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the analgesic effects of Nourishing yin and Unblocking meridians Receipe (NUR) combined with opioid analgesics in managing cancer pain. Methods: All the patients enrolled were differentiated as of yin deficiency and meridian blocked syndrome type of TCM. Forty-one of them in the treated group were treated with NUR combined with opioid analgesics, while 43 of them in the control group were given opioid analgesics alone with successive 14 days as one treatment course for both groups. Results:The indexes of the treated group were superior to those in the control group as to the degree of pain-relieving, the therapeutic effect of analgesia, the occurrence frequency of cancer pain every day and its duration each time, the analgesic initial time, and the quality of life. Conclusion: NUR combined with opioid analgesics in cancer pain management was more effective than opioid analgesics alone.

  4. Analgesic potential of marrubiin derivatives, a bioactive diterpene present in Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyre-Silva, C; Yunes, R A; Schlemper, V; Campos-Buzzi, F; Cechinel-Filho, V

    2005-04-01

    Marrubiin, a furane labdane diterpene, is the main analgesic compound present in Marrubium vulgare, a medicinal plant used in Brazil and other countries to treat several ailments. Considering its important pharmacological action, as well as its high yield, some structural modifications were performed in order to obtain more active compounds. Success was obtained in reducing the lactonic function, in the formation of marrubiinic acid and two esterified derivatives, which exhibited significant analgesic effect against the writhing test in mice. Marrubiinic acid showed better activity and excellent yield, and its analgesic effect was confirmed in other experimental models of pain in mice, suggesting its possible use as a model to obtain new and potent analgesic agents.

  5. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THE PLANT TRIANTHEMA PORTULACASTRUM IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh G

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trianthema portulacastrum has got many medicinal values and is being used in Ayurveda since a long time for these properties. So the current study was undertaken to evaluate the analgesic effects of this plant . MATERIALS AND METHODS: W istar albino rats we re treated with whole plant ethanolic extract of trianthema portulacastrum 100 mg/kg orally with 2% gum acacia, as suspending agent and indomethacin 20mg/kg as standard. And the effects were observed in experimental models of analgesic activity viz, acetic acid induced writhing and formalin induced paw licking test. RESULTS: O ur study demonstrated trianthema portulacastrum reduced the number writhings in acetic acid induced writhing test and duration of paw licking in formalin induced paw licking test signi ficantly. CONCLUSION: T rianthema portulacastrum has got significant analgesic activity . It may as well act as an adjuvant to the currently available analgesic drugs.

  6. The use of analgesic drugs by South African veterinarians : continuing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.E. Joubert

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available According to a survey, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents were the most popular analgesic used in South Africa for management of peri-operative pain, acute post-operative pain and chronic pain. The most popular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents are flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone. The most popular opioid type drug is buprenorphine, followed by morphine. In the peri-operative setting, analgesic agents were not actively administered to 86.3 % of cats and 80.7 % of dogs. Analgesic premedications were frequently administered, e.g. xylazine or ketamine, but no specific drug was administered for post-operative pain. Veterinarians need to critically review their anaesthetic and analgesic practices in order to achieve balanced anaesthesia.

  7. Inherited, selective hyporesponsiveness to the analgesic action of nicotine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, T W; Nael, R; Basmadjian, G

    1996-12-20

    The acute dose-dependent analgesic activity of nicotine, as measured by the tail-flick assay, differed significantly between CD-1 and CF-1 outbred strains of mice. Differing responsiveness to the tail-flick stimulus did not explain this pharmacological effect. The inherent analgesic hyporesponsiveness of CF-1 mice was pharmacologically selective. Xilocaine and morphine produced an analgesic response of large magnitude in CF-1 mice. Reduced efficacy of nicotine in the CF-1 analgesia assay was not observed in its action on locomotor activity or in the induction of seizures and lethality. These findings have practical significance in identifying the importance of genotype in choice of strain for preclinical pharmacological studies of nicotine-induced analgesia and indicate that genetic analysis may provide a valuable tool for investigating the mechanism underlying the analgesic action of nicotine.

  8. Analgesic efficacy of local infiltration analgesia in hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Østergaard; Kehlet, H

    2014-01-01

    clinical trials even when combined with multimodal systemic analgesia. In contrast, LIA may have limited additional analgesic efficacy in THA when combined with a multimodal analgesic regimen. Postoperative administration of local anaesthetic in wound catheters did not provide additional analgesia when......In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in local infiltration analgesia (LIA) as a technique to control postoperative pain. We conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials investigating LIA for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) to evaluate...... the analgesic efficacy of LIA for early postoperative pain treatment. In addition, the analgesic efficacy of wound catheters and implications for length of hospital stay (LOS) were evaluated. Twenty-seven randomized controlled trials in 756 patients operated on with THA and 888 patients operated on with TKA...

  9. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities ofPassiflora foetida L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sasikala V; Saravanan S; Parimelazhagan T

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extract of Passiflora foetida (P. foetida) leaves.Methods:Ethanol extract ofP. foetida leaf was evaluated for analgesic action by acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate method in albino mice. The anti-inflammatory property of ethanolic leaf extract was tested by carrageenan induced acute paw edema and histamine induced acute paw edema in rats.Results:The dose200 mg/kg ofP. foetida leaf extract exhibited highest significant analgesic activity [(13.50±0.43) min] at a reaction time of20 min in hot plate method in mice. The ethanol extract of leaf dose 100 mg/kg produced a highly significant anti inflammatory effect [(1.302±0.079)mL] in rats.Conclusions: It is very clear thatP. foetidaalso has analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities for the pharmaceuticals.

  10. Analgesic activity of Heliopsis longipes and its effect on the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilia-López, V G; Juárez-Flores, B I; Aguirre-Rivera, J R; Reyes-Agüero, J A

    2010-02-01

    Heliopsis longipes S.F. Blake (Asteraceae: Heliantheae) (chilcuague) is used in Mexican traditional medicine against parasites and to alleviate tooth and muscle pains. Its biocide effect has already been experimentally demonstrated; however, its analgesic action and its action on the nervous system (NS) have not been investigated yet. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the analgesic action of affinin and the H. longipes root ethanol extract, as well as their effects on the NS using an animal model. The ethanol extract was obtained by maceration, and affinin was purified from it through chromatographic techniques. Chemical and thermal analgesia were used to assess their analgesic proprieties. Irwin's test was used to evaluate their stimulating or depressing effects. The ethanol extract and affinin displayed analgesic action similar to ketorolac and stimulating effect comparable to caffeine on the nervous system of adult mice.

  11. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaybhan Singh Paviaya

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica.

  12. Analgesic activity of gold preparations used in Ayurveda & Unani-Tibb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, S; Vohora, S B

    1998-09-01

    Calcined gold preparations, Ayurvedic Swarna Bhasma (SB) and Unani Kushta Tila Kalan (KTK) were investigated for analgesic effects in rats and mice using four types of noxious stimuli. Auranofin (AN) used in modern medicine was also studied for comparisons. The test drugs SB and KTK (25-50 mg/kg, p.o.) and AN (2.5-5.0 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited analgesic activity against chemical (acetic acid induced writhing), electrical (pododolorimeter), thermal (Eddy's hot plate and analgesiometer) and mechanical (tail clip) test. While the analgesic effects of SB and KTK could be partly blocked by pretreatment with naloxone (1-5 mg/kg, i.p.,--15 min), such antagonism was not discernible with AN at the doses used. Involvement of opioidergic mechanism is suggested for the observed analgesic activity.

  13. Analgesic activity of a polysaccharide in experimental osteoarthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Rondinelle Ribeiro; Feitosa, Judith Pessoa Andrade; da Cunha, Pablyana Leila Rodrigues; da Rocha, Francisco Airton Castro

    2007-08-01

    Viscosupplementation efficacy has been related to the high molecular weight of hyaluronic acid-like compounds, as well as to gel formulation. We evaluated the effect of a galactomannan polysaccharide derived from Guar gum (GG) in joint pain in an osteoarthritis (OA) model. Wistar rats (six animals/group) were subjected to anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT-OA group). The OA group was compared to a false-operated group (sham). Joint pain was recorded daily, using the articular incapacitation test, until 7 days after ACLT. Solutions or gel preparations of GG (100 microg) or Hylan G-F 20 (100 microg), used as a comparator, were given intraarticularly (i.a.) at day 4 after ACLT. Controls received saline i.a. The OA group had significantly increased joint pain as compared to sham (Pgalactomannan derived from GG reduces joint pain in experimental OA. This analgesia is independent of the colloidal state. We propose that the analgesic benefit of viscosupplementation may be due to an intrinsic carbohydrate-mediated mechanism rather than to the rheologic properties of the material.

  14. Human renal medullary interstitial cells and analgesic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, P H; Tisocki, K; Hawksworth, G M

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of known papillotoxins using cultures of human renal interstital medullary cells (hRMIC). The culture of hMIC was based on the primary culture of human renal medullary explants, selective detachment of interstitial cells and selective overgrowth of these cells in a serum-rich medium after dilution cloning. The homogeneous population of cells obtained exhibited the characteristic morphological and functional characteristics of Type I interstitial cells, viz. stellate-shaped cells demonstrating numerous lipid droplets, abundant endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, fine filaments underlying the cell membrane and the production of extracellular matrix. Cytotoxicity studies using hMIC and known papillotoxins clearly demonstrated a reduction in cell viability that varied with bath exposure time and type of agent tested. While only phenylbutazone and mefenamic acid produced significant cytotoxicity after a 24 h incubation period, cell viability assessed using the MTT assay was only profoundly reduced by aspirin and paracetamol following sub-chronic exposure for 7 days. The rank order of cytotoxicity observed in hMIC was phenylbutazone > mefenamic acid > aspirin > paracetamol. The results demonstrate the potential of hMIC for investigating and defining the early cellular events in the pathogenesis of analgesic nephropathy.

  15. Open Source Patient-Controlled Analgesic Pump Requirements Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Brian R; Hatcliff, John; Chalin, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic nature of the medical domain is driving a need for continuous innovation and improvement in techniques for developing and assuring medical devices. Unfortunately, research in academia and communication between academics, industrial engineers, and regulatory authorities is hampered by the lack of realistic non-proprietary development artifacts for medical devices. In this paper, we give an overview of a detailed requirements document for a Patient-Controlled Analgesic (PCA) pump developed under the US NSF's Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Scholar-in-Residence (SIR) program. This 60+ page document follows the methodology outlined in the US Federal Aviation Administrations (FAA) Requirements Engineering Management Handbook (REMH) and includes a domain overview, use cases, statements of safety & security requirements, and formal top-level system architectural description. Based on previous experience with release of a requirements document for a cardiac pacemaker that spawned a number of research and pedagogical activities, we believe that the described PCA requirements document can be an important research enabler within the formal methods and software engineering communities.

  16. Opioid Analgesics and Nicotine: More Than Blowing Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin H; Lane, Scott D; Weaver, Michael F

    2015-09-01

    Practitioners are highly likely to encounter patients with concurrent use of nicotine products and opioid analgesics. Smokers present with more severe and extended chronic pain outcomes and have a higher frequency of prescription opioid use. Current tobacco smoking is a strong predictor of risk for nonmedical use of prescription opioids. Opioid and nicotinic-cholinergic neurotransmitter systems interact in important ways to modulate opioid and nicotine effects: dopamine release induced by nicotine is dependent on facilitation by the opioid system, and the nicotinic-acetylcholine system modulates self-administration of several classes of abused drugs-including opioids. Nicotine can serve as a prime for the use of other drugs, which in the case of the opioid system may be bidirectional. Opioids and compounds in tobacco, including nicotine, are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system, but the metabolism of opioids and tobacco products can be complicated. Accordingly, drug interactions are possible but not always clear. Because of these issues, asking about nicotine use in patients taking opioids for pain is recommended. When assessing patient tobacco use, practitioners should also obtain information on products other than cigarettes, such as cigars, pipes, smokeless tobacco, and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, or e-cigarettes). There are multiple forms of behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy available to assist patients with smoking cessation, and opioid agonist maintenance and pain clinics represent underutilized opportunities for nicotine intervention programs.

  17. Can anaesthetic and analgesic techniques affect cancer recurrence or metastasis?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Heaney, A

    2012-12-01

    Summary Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and the ratio of incidence is increasing. Mortality usually results from recurrence or metastases. Surgical removal of the primary tumour is the mainstay of treatment, but this is associated with inadvertent dispersal of neoplastic cells into the blood and lymphatic systems. The fate of the dispersed cells depends on the balance of perioperative factors promoting tumour survival and growth (including surgery per se, many anaesthetics per se, acute postoperative pain, and opioid analgesics) together with the perioperative immune status of the patient. Available evidence from experimental cell culture and live animal data on these factors are summarized, together with clinical evidence from retrospective studies. Taken together, current data are sufficient only to generate a hypothesis that an anaesthetic technique during primary cancer surgery could affect recurrence or metastases, but a causal link can only be proved by prospective, randomized, clinical trials. Many are ongoing, but definitive results might not emerge for a further 5 yr or longer. Meanwhile, there is no hard evidence to support altering anaesthetic technique in cancer patients, pending the outcome of the ongoing clinical trials.

  18. Association of Maternal Self-Medication and Over-the-Counter Analgesics for Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Fangel; Gottschau, Mathilde; Siersma, Volkert Dirk;

    2014-01-01

    Self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics, such as paracetamol (PCM), among children and adolescents is increasing and constitutes an important public health issue internationally. Reasons for this development are unclear; parental influence is suggested. Our objective was to examine...... whether self-medication with OTC analgesics among school-aged children is influenced by maternal self-reported health and medicine use, taking the child's frequency of pain into account....

  19. Preliminary evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Tacca integrifolia in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatree Autsavakitipong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. This is a preliminary investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the leaf of Tacca integrifolia (TIE for the analgesic activity using writhing response in mice, tail flick test in rats and for anti-inflammatory activity using ethyl phenyl propiolate (EPP-induced ear edema, carrageenan- and arachidonic acid-induced hind paw edema, as well as cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. The results showed that TIE (200 mg/kg, PO significantly inhibited pain caused by acetic acid injection (65.9% but did not exhibit effect in tail flick test in rats. These findings suggest that analgesic mechanism of TIE may act via peripherally pathway. The study of anti-inflammatory effect showed that TIE significantly inhibited ear edema induced by EPP. TIE (200 mg/kg, PO inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan (55.5% and arachidonic acid (48.6% but had no effect on cotton-induced granuloma formation in rats. In conclusion, the ethyl acetate extract of leaf of T. integrifolia possessed anti-inflammatory activity in acute inflammation and analgesic activity.Industrial relevant. Plants of the genus Tacca have been reported to possess many activities such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory and, antipyretic activities. Many species have been used to treat high blood pressure, burn, gastric ulcer, and hepatitis. The scientific studies supporting the traditional uses of Tacca integrifolia for some of the alleged activities are still lacking. The screening test for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of the ethyl acetate extract of the leaf of Tacca integrifolia provides scientific data to confirm the potentials of T. integrifolia as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory medicinal plant. In addition, the outcomes may be useful to develop a new analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug in the future. Key words. Tacca integrifolia; Taccaceae; ethyl acetate extract; analgesic activity; anti-inflammatory activity

  20. Resistance to Morphine Analgesic Tolerance in Rats Deleted of TRPV1-Expressing Sensory Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shao-Rui; Prunean, Adrian; Pan, Hao-Min; Welker, Kelli L.; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2007-01-01

    Deletion of TRPV1-expressing afferent neurons reduces presynaptic μ opioid receptors but paradoxically potentiates the analgesic efficacy of μ opioid agonists. In this study, we determined if removal of TRPV1-expressing afferentneurons byresiniferatoxin (RTX), an ultrapotent capsaicin analogue, influences the development of opioid analgesic tolerance. Morphine tolerance was induced by daily intrathecal injections of 10 μg of morphine for 14 consecutive days or by daily intraperitoneal injecti...

  1. Analgesic Potential of Opuntia dillenii and Its Compounds Opuntiol and Opuntioside Against Pain Models in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Faheema Siddiqui; Lubna Abidi; Lubna; Ching Fidelis Poh; Sabira Naqvi; Shaheen Faizi; Ahsana Dar Farooq

    2016-01-01

    Opuntia dillenii (Nagphana) traditionally used against inflammation and also possess analgesic effect. Thus in the present study analgesic properties of O. dillenii cladode methanol extract, its fractions obtained via vacuum liquid chromatography along with isolated α-pyrones, opuntiol and its glucoside, opuntioside were analyzed. The acetic acid-induced writhes were reduced by O. dillenii test agents with opuntioside being most effective (IC 50 26 ± 0.9 mg/kg) and equipotent to diclofenac an...

  2. Pattern of self-medication with analgesics among Iranian University students in central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Sarahroodi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is defined as the use of drugs for the treatment of self-diagnosed disorders. It is influenced by factors such as education, family, society, law, availability of drugs and exposure to advertisements. This study was performed to evaluate self-medication with analgesics and its pattern among different groups of Iranian University Students. Materials and Methods: A randomized, cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted from December 2009 to February 2010. The target population of this study was 564 students out of 10,000 students attending four medical and non-medical science universities in Qom state. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16, and analysis was conducted with descriptive analysis procedures. Results: 76.6% of the students had used analgesics in self-medication in the previous 3 months. The frequency of analgesic use in the study period was once in 19.2% of the participants, twice in 22.2%, three times in 16.3% and more than three times in 35.5% of the participants, although 6.8% of them were not sure when they were used. Of all the respondents, 49.8% reported headache as the problem. This was the most common problem, after which came Dysmenorrhea,headache and stomach ache. Bone and joint pains were other problems that led to the use of analgesics. The most commonly used source of information for self-medication with analgesics was advice from friends and family (54.7%, previously prescribed medications (30.1%, their medical knowledge (13.3% and recommendation of a pharmacist (1.9%. Conclusion: Self-medication with analgesics is very high among Iranian students in Qom city. This could be an index for other parts of the Iranian community. Because the source of information about analgesics is inappropriate, we would recommend education courses about analgesics and self-medication on the radio and television for the entire population.

  3. Screening of alkaloidal fraction of Conium maculatum L. aerial parts for analgesic and antiinflammatory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reecha Madaan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conium maculatum Linn. (Umbelliferae has been traditionally used in the treatment of spasmodic disorders, and to relieve nervous excitation, rheumatic pains in the old and feeble, pain in stomach, pain of gastric ulcer, nervousness and restlessness. Alkaloids have long been considered as bioactive group of constituents present in C. maculatum. Despite a long tradition of use, C. maculatum has not been evaluated pharmacologically to validate its traditional claims for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. Thus, the present investigations were undertaken with an objective to evaluate alkaloidal fraction of C. maculatum aerial parts for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. Test doses (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o. of alkaloidal fraction were evaluated for analgesic activity using tail flick test and antiinflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced paw oedema test in rats. Morphine (5 mg/kg, p.o. and indomethacin (5 mg/kg, p.o. were used as standard analgesic and antiinflammatory drugs, respectively. Alkaloidal fraction of the plant exhibited significant analgesic activity at a dose of 200 mg/kg as it showed significant increase in tail flicking reaction time with respect to the control during 2 h intervals of observation. It also exhibited significant antiinflammatory activity at a dose of 200 mg/kg as it inhibited paw oedema in rats to 71% and reduced the paw volume one-fourth to the control during 1 st h of the study. The present investigations suggest that alkaloids are responsible for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of C. maculatum.

  4. Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn

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    Naveen Goyal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called ′Country Mallow′ is a perennial plant up to 3 m in height. It is abundantly found as a weed in the sub-Himalayan tract and in the hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles, leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhea, and so on. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive, and antidiarrheal activities. The present study was done to evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum Linn. Materials and Methods : The powdered root (900 g was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity, namely, petroleum ether (60 - 80΀C, methanol, and ethanol, using the soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for 72 hours, to obtain a water-soluble extract. The peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice (20 - 30 g, while the central analgesic activity was evaluated by the tail flick method and the tail immersion method. Results : Results indicated that all the tested extracts, except the methanol extract, exhibited significant analgesic activity in both animals′ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity may be related to the central mechanism or may be due to the peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Conclusion : The present study authenticates the traditional use.

  5. Benzodiazepines: a major component in unintentional prescription drug overdoses with opioid analgesics.

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    Jann, Michael; Kennedy, William Klugh; Lopez, Gaylord

    2014-02-01

    The misuse and abuse of prescription medications in the United States continues to increase despite interventions by health care professionals, regulatory, and law enforcement agencies. Opioid analgesics are the leading class of prescription drugs that have caused unintentional overdose deaths. Benzodiazepines when taken alone are relatively safe agents in overdose. However, a 5-fold increase in deaths attributed to benzodiazepines occurred from 1999 to 2009. Emergency department visits related to opioid analgesics increased by 111% followed by benzodiazepines 89%. During 2003 to 2009, the 2 prescriptions drugs with the highest increase in death rates were oxycodone 264.6% and alprazolam 233.8%. Therefore, benzodiazepines have a significant impact on prescription drug unintentional overdoses second only to the opioid analgesics. The combination prescribing of benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics commonly takes place. The pharmacokinetic drug interactions between benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics are complex. The pharmacodynamic actions of these agents differ as their combined effects produce significant respiratory depression. Physician and pharmacy shopping by patients occurs, and prescription drug-monitoring programs can provide important information on benzodiazepine and opioid analgesic prescribing patterns and patient usage. Health care professionals need to inform patients and work closely with regulatory agencies and legislatures to stem the increasing fatalities from prescription drug unintentional overdoses.

  6. Renal and related cardiovascular effects of conventional and COX-2-specific NSAIDs and non-NSAID analgesics.

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    Whelton, A

    2000-03-01

    On a daily basis it appears that as many as one in five adults in the United States may consume an analgesic compound either on a prescription basis or by over-the-counter (OTC) purchase. This high profile of intermittent or repetitive analgesic use appears to be relatively similar throughout the developed world. Although analgesics generally have a good renal safety profile, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) analgesics may produce mild renal side effects, such as the generation of peripheral edema in up to 5% of the general population. Other more serious renal and related cardiovascular side effects tend to be more apparent in lesser numbers of clinically "at risk" NSAID analgesic users. In contrast, non-NSAID analgesics, such as paracetamol or tramadol, have essentially no renal or related cardiovascular side effects when used at recommended dosing schedules. This review characterizes the renal syndromes associated with the use of NSAID analgesics, identifies the risks inherent in the use of these compounds in treated patients with hypertension and congestive heart failure, summarizes the early comparable data available for the new COX-2-specific inhibitors, and profiles the scant acute and long-term clinical concerns attendant with the use of non-NSAID nonnarcotic analgesics. It is important that healthcare providers and practitioners are aware of the relative renal risks of different analgesics and that they use this knowledge to counsel the analgesic-consuming population appropriately.

  7. Reported analgesic administration to rabbits, pigs, sheep, dogs and non-human primates undergoing experimental surgical procedures.

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    Coulter, C A; Flecknell, P A; Richardson, C A

    2009-07-01

    Reported analgesic use following experimental surgery is low in rodents and there has been little published information on the frequency of analgesic use in other laboratory species. A structured literature review was conducted to examine analgesic administration in larger laboratory animals. The Scirus search engine was used to identify studies published in peer-reviewed journals that reported carrying out experimental surgery on 'large' laboratory animals, specifically rabbits, pigs, sheep, dogs and non-human primates. Seventy-four studies between 2000 and 2001 and 75 studies between 2005 and 2006 were included in the review. There was an increase in the reported administration of systemic analgesics to these species from 50% in 2000-2001 to 63% in 2005-2006. When all agents with analgesic properties were considered (systemic analgesics, local anaesthetics and anaesthetics with analgesic components), the proportion of papers that reported some form of analgesic administration to 'large' laboratory animals increased from 86% in 2000-2001 to 89% in 2005-2006. Overall rabbits, pigs, sheep, dogs and non-human primates were more likely to receive analgesics following potentially painful experimental procedures than has been reported in laboratory rodents but analgesic administration to 'large' laboratory species is still not optimal.

  8. Analgesic therapy in postherpetic neuralgia: a quantitative systematic review.

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    Kathleen Hempenstall

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN is a complication of acute herpes zoster, which is emerging as a preferred clinical trial model for chronic neuropathic pain. Although there are published meta-analyses of analgesic therapy in PHN, and neuropathic pain in general, the evidence base has been substantially enhanced by the recent publication of several major trials. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for both efficacy and adverse events of analgesic therapy for PHN. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched databases (MEDLINE 1966-2004, EMBASE 1988-2004, CINAHL 1982-2002, and PubMed [29 October 2004] for trials of PHN. We also searched references of retrieved studies and review articles for further trials. We included trials that examined adult patients with PHN of greater duration than 3 mo, that were blinded, randomised, and had at least one measure of pain outcome. Dichotomous pain outcome data were extracted for 50% decrease in baseline pain using a hierarchy of pain/pain-relief measurement tools. Where available, dichotomous data were also collected for adverse events. Calculated estimates of efficacy included relative benefit and number needed to treat. Of 62 studies identified, 35 were randomised controlled trials. Of these, 31 were placebo controlled and suitable for meta-analysis, from which it was possible to extract dichotomous efficacy outcome data from 25. This meta-analysis revealed that there is evidence to support the use of the following orally administered therapies: tricyclic antidepressants, "strong" opioids, gabapentin, tramadol, and pregabalin. Topical therapies associated with efficacy were lidocaine 5% patch and capsaicin. Finally, a single study of spinal intrathecal administration of lidocaine and methyl prednisolone demonstrated efficacy, although this has yet to be replicated. Data suggest that the following therapies are not associated with efficacy in PHN: certain NMDA

  9. The pharmacokinetics of alfentanil (R39209): a new opioid analgesic.

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    Bovill, J G; Sebel, P S; Blackburn, C L; Heykants, J

    1982-12-01

    The pharmacokinetics of alfentanil (R39209), a new short-acting opioid analgesic, have been studied in eleven patients. Six patients were given 50 micrograms/kg alfentanil and five patients 125 micrograms/kg as an intravenous bolus injection. Plasma concentrations were measured at intervals up to 6 h (50 micrograms/kg) or 8-10 h (125 micrograms/kg), using a specific radioimmunoassay technique. Plasma concentrations declined triexponentially in both groups. The initial elimination of alfentanil from the plasma was very rapid with 90% of the administered dose leaving the plasma within 30 min. The average half-lives for the three phases were similar for both groups. The combined mean (+/- SEM) half-lives for the 11 patients for the rapid and slow distribution phases were short (t 1/2 pi = 1.2 +/- 0.26 min, t 1/2 alpha = 11.6 +/- 1.63 min). The elimination half-life, t 1/2 beta was 94 +/- 5.87 min which is considerably shorter than that of other opioids. The mean (+/- SEM) total body clearance was 6.4 +/- 1.39 ml . kg-1 . min-1 and the volume of distribution (Vd) was 0.86 +/- 0.194 l/kg. The latter is considerably less than reported values for the chemically related drug, fentanyl, and suggests that alfentanil may have a lower tissue binding affinity than fentanyl. The rapid elimination and short duration of clinical action suggests the feasibility of repeated administration of alfentanil and its use by continuous intravenous infusion.

  10. A review of analgesic and emotive breathing: a multidisciplinary approach

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    Bordoni B

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bruno Bordoni,1–3 Fabiola Marelli,2,3 Giovannni Bordoni,2,31Department of Cardiology, Santa Maria Nascente IRCCS, Milan, Don Carlo Gnocchi Foundation, Milan, Italy; 2Department of Osteopathy, Centre de recherche d’emploi du Sud-Ouest (CRESO, Osteopathic Centre for Research and Studies, Falconara Marittima, Ancona, Italy; 3Department of Osteopathy, Centre de recherche d’emploi du Sud-Ouest (CRESO, Osteopathic Centre for Research and Studies, Castellanza, Varese, Italy Abstract: The diaphragm is the primary muscle involved in breathing and other non-primarily respiratory functions such as the maintenance of correct posture and lumbar and sacroiliac movement. It intervenes to facilitate cleaning of the upper airways through coughing, facilitates the evacuation of the intestines, and promotes the redistribution of the body’s blood. The diaphragm also has the ability to affect the perception of pain and the emotional state of the patient, functions that are the subject of this article. The aim of this article is to gather for the first time, within a single text, information on the nonrespiratory functions of the diaphragm muscle and its analgesic and emotional response functions. It also aims to highlight and reflect on the fact that when the diaphragm is treated manually, a daily occurrence for manual operators, it is not just an area of musculature that is treated but the entire body, including the psyche. This reflection allows for a multidisciplinary approach to the diaphragm and the collaboration of various medical and nonmedical practitioners, with the ultimate goal of regaining or improving the patient’s physical and mental well-being. Keywords: diaphragm, fascia, osteopathic, pain, motions, manual therapy

  11. Analgesic use and the risk of hearing loss in women.

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    Curhan, Sharon G; Shargorodsky, Josef; Eavey, Roland; Curhan, Gary C

    2012-09-15

    Use of analgesics is common and is associated with increased risk of hearing loss in men; however, the relation has not been examined prospectively in women. The authors prospectively examined the relation between frequency of aspirin, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen use and risk of hearing loss among 62,261 women aged 31-48 years at baseline (1995) in Nurses' Health Study II. The outcome was self-reported hearing loss (n = 10,012), and the follow-up period was 1995-2009. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. During 764,247 person-years of follow-up, ibuprofen use and acetaminophen use were independently associated with increased risk of hearing loss, but aspirin use was not. For ibuprofen, the multivariate-adjusted relative risk of hearing loss was 1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.19) for use 2-3 days/week, 1.21 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.32) for use 4-5 days/week, and 1.24 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.35) for use ≥6 days/week (P-trend acetaminophen, the corresponding relative risks were 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.19), 1.21 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.37), and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.22), respectively (P-trend = 0.0007). In this study, use of ibuprofen or acetaminophen (but not aspirin) 2 or more days per week was associated with an increased risk of hearing loss in women.

  12. Effect of intravenous esmolol on analgesic requirements in laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Ritima; Singh, Mirley Rupinder; Kaul, Tej Kishan; Tewari, Anurag; Oberoi, Ripul

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Perioperative beta blockers are also being advocated for modulation of acute pain and reduction of intraoperative anesthetic requirements. This study evaluated the effect of perioperative use of esmolol, an ultra short acting beta blocker, on anesthesia and modulation of post operative pain in patients of laproscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Methods: Sixty adult ASA I & II grade patients of either sex, scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia, were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly allocated to one of the two groups E or C according to computer generated numbers. Group E- Patients who received loading dose of injection esmolol 0.5 mg/kg in 30 ml isotonic saline, before induction of anesthesia, followed by an IV infusion of esmolol 0.05 μg/kg/min till the completion of surgery and Group C- Patients who received 30 ml of isotonic saline as loading dose and continuous infusion of isotonic saline at the same rate as the esmolol group till the completion of surgery. Results: The baseline MAP at 0 minute was almost similar in both the groups. At 8th minute (time of intubation), MAP increased significantly in group C as compared to group E and remained higher than group E till the end of procedure. Intraoperatively, 16.67% of patients in group C showed somatic signs as compared to none in group E. The difference was statistically significant. 73.33% of patients in group C required additional doses of Inj. Fentanyl as compared to 6.67% in group E. Conclusions: We conclude that intravenous esmolol influences the analgesic requirements both intraoperatively as well as postoperatively by modulation of the sympathetic component of the pain i.e. heart rate and blood pressure. PMID:26330719

  13. Effect of intravenous esmolol on analgesic requirements in laparoscopic cholecystectomy

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    Ritima Dhir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Perioperative beta blockers are also being advocated for modulation of acute pain and reduction of intraoperative anesthetic requirements. This study evaluated the effect of perioperative use of esmolol, an ultra short acting beta blocker, on anesthesia and modulation of post operative pain in patients of laproscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Methods: Sixty adult ASA I & II grade patients of either sex, scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia, were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly allocated to one of the two groups E or C according to computer generated numbers. Group E- Patients who received loading dose of injection esmolol 0.5 mg/kg in 30 ml isotonic saline, before induction of anesthesia, followed by an IV infusion of esmolol 0.05 μg/kg/min till the completion of surgery and Group C- Patients who received 30 ml of isotonic saline as loading dose and continuous infusion of isotonic saline at the same rate as the esmolol group till the completion of surgery. Results: The baseline MAP at 0 minute was almost similar in both the groups. At 8th minute (time of intubation, MAP increased significantly in group C as compared to group E and remained higher than group E till the end of procedure. Intraoperatively, 16.67% of patients in group C showed somatic signs as compared to none in group E. The difference was statistically significant. 73.33% of patients in group C required additional doses of Inj.Fentanyl as compared to 6.67% in group E. Conclusions: We conclude that intravenous esmolol influences the analgesic requirements both intraoperatively as well as postoperatively by modulation of the sympathetic component of the pain i.e. heart rate and blood pressure.

  14. The molecular mechanisms of the analgesic action of melatonin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-hui; LI Xiao-hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective To analyse the potential involvement of the opioid receptor gene expression in the mechanisms of the analgesic action of melatonin. Methods A trauma-pain model was established in Wistar rats by combining right-hind limb amputation with 50 ℃ tail-flick test. Antinoeiception was determined by tail-flick latency to hot waster at 50 ℃. RT-PCR was used to observe the the expression of the M1OR and KOR gene. Results Melatonin produced the antinociceptive effect in dose-dependent manner after i. p or i. c. v. administration. Injected i. c. v. to rats, naloxone (10 μg) obviously antagonized the antinoeiceptive effect induced by i. p. melatonin. The expression of the M1OR gene in the rat hypothalamus and the KOR gene in the hippocampus was both significantly reduced at day 3 after injury, which was parallel to the reduction of the rat pain thresholds. However, the expression of the M1OR gene in the hippocampus and the KOR gene in the hypothalamus was not changed. Treatment of trauma-pain rats with melatonin (30-120 mg·kg-1) i. p. administrated induced the up-regulation of M1OR mRNA in the hypothalamus and the KOR mRNA in the hippocampus in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions The present observations suggest that Melatonin-induced antinociceptive effect may partially contribute to the up-regulation of M1OR mRNA level in the hypothalamus and the KOR mRNA level in the hippocampus.

  15. Analgesic nephropathy as a cause of end-stage renal disease in a 55 year-old Nigerian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, U H; Unuigbe, E I; Onwuchekwa, A C; Emem-Chioma, P

    2012-01-01

    Analgesic nephropathy is a subtle but significant cause of chronic renal failure. There is paucity of data on analgesic nephropathy in Nigeria. This case presentation is to highlight the need to have high index of suspicion in patients at risk of developing analgesic nephropathy. In March 2009 a 55-year-old businessman was referred to the renal unit on account of azotemia by the hematologist who had hitherto managed the patient as a case of refractory anemia. The patient had osteoarthritis for over 10 years and was managed with several analgesic drugs over the same period. He was found to have features suggestive of analgesic nephropathy and had end-stage renal disease. He was commenced on appropriate therapy, and he had a live related kidney transplant six months later. Analgesic nephropathy is preventable and morbidity/mortality can be remarkably reduced with appropriate and prompt intervention.

  16. Assessment of ropivacaine postoperative analgesic effect after periapical maxillary incisors surgery

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    Tijanić Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Ropivacaine is a relatively new longacting local anesthetic. The aim of this study was to compare the postoperative analgesic effect of topical anesthetics ropivacaine 0.75% and lidocaine 2% with adrenaline in the postoperative treatment of periapical lesions in the maxilla. Methods. The study was conducted on 60 subjects, divided into two groups. The study-group received 0.75% ropivacaine without a vasoconstrictor, while the control group was treated with 2% lidocaine with adrenaline (1 : 80.000. Block anesthesia for n. infraorbitalis was used and local anesthetics were applied also on the palatine side for the end branches of n. nasopalatinus. The following parameters were observed: time elapsed from the application of an anesthetic until the first occurrence of pain after the surgery and first intake of an analgesic, the intensity of initial pain, pain intensity 6 h after the application of anesthetics and the total number of analgesics taken within 24 h after the completion of surgery. Results. The pain appeared statistically significantly earlier in the patients who had been given lidocaine with adrenaline (p < 0.001, while statistically significantly higher mean values of initial postoperative pain (p < 0.05 and pain intensity 6 h after the intervention (p < 0.01 were also registered in the same group of patients. In the period of 24 h upon the intervention, the study-group patients were taking less analgesics as compared to the control-group subjects (46.6% vs 73.3%, who were given analgesics earlier, although no statistically significant differences were observed related to the number of analgesic doses taken. Conclusion. The results of our study indicate a better postoperative analgesic effect of ropivacaine as compared to lidocaine with adrenaline.

  17. Association between KCNJ6 (GIRK2) gene polymorphisms and postoperative analgesic requirements after major abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Daisuke; Nagashima, Makoto; Katoh, Ryoji; Satoh, Yasuo; Tagami, Megumi; Kasai, Shinya; Ogai, Yasukazu; Han, Wenhua; Hasegawa, Junko; Shimoyama, Naohito; Sora, Ichiro; Hayashida, Masakazu; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2009-09-16

    Opioids are commonly used as effective analgesics for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. However, considerable individual differences have been widely observed in sensitivity to opioid analgesics. We focused on a G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel subunit, GIRK2, that is an important molecule in opioid transmission. In our initial polymorphism search, a total of nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the whole exon, 5'-flanking, and exon-intron boundary regions of the KCNJ6 gene encoding GIRK2. Among them, G-1250A and A1032G were selected as representative SNPs for further association studies. In an association study of 129 subjects who underwent major open abdominal surgery, the A/A genotype in the A1032G SNP and -1250G/1032A haplotype were significantly associated with increased postoperative analgesic requirements compared with other genotypes and haplotypes. The total dose (mean+/-SEM) of rescue analgesics converted to equivalent oral morphine doses was 20.45+/-9.27 mg, 10.84+/-2.24 mg, and 13.07+/-2.39 mg for the A/A, A/G, and G/G genotypes in the A1032G SNP, respectively. Additionally, KCNJ6 gene expression levels in the 1032A/A subjects were significantly decreased compared with the 1032A/G and 1032G/G subjects in a real-time quantitative PCR analysis using human brain tissues, suggesting that the 1032A/A subjects required more analgesics because of lower KCNJ6 gene expression levels and consequently insufficient analgesic effects. The results indicate that the A1032G SNP and G-1250A/A1032G haplotype could serve as markers that predict increased analgesic requirements. Our findings will provide valuable information for achieving satisfactory pain control and open new avenues for personalized pain treatment.

  18. Association between KCNJ6 (GIRK2 gene polymorphisms and postoperative analgesic requirements after major abdominal surgery.

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    Daisuke Nishizawa

    Full Text Available Opioids are commonly used as effective analgesics for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. However, considerable individual differences have been widely observed in sensitivity to opioid analgesics. We focused on a G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK channel subunit, GIRK2, that is an important molecule in opioid transmission. In our initial polymorphism search, a total of nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified in the whole exon, 5'-flanking, and exon-intron boundary regions of the KCNJ6 gene encoding GIRK2. Among them, G-1250A and A1032G were selected as representative SNPs for further association studies. In an association study of 129 subjects who underwent major open abdominal surgery, the A/A genotype in the A1032G SNP and -1250G/1032A haplotype were significantly associated with increased postoperative analgesic requirements compared with other genotypes and haplotypes. The total dose (mean+/-SEM of rescue analgesics converted to equivalent oral morphine doses was 20.45+/-9.27 mg, 10.84+/-2.24 mg, and 13.07+/-2.39 mg for the A/A, A/G, and G/G genotypes in the A1032G SNP, respectively. Additionally, KCNJ6 gene expression levels in the 1032A/A subjects were significantly decreased compared with the 1032A/G and 1032G/G subjects in a real-time quantitative PCR analysis using human brain tissues, suggesting that the 1032A/A subjects required more analgesics because of lower KCNJ6 gene expression levels and consequently insufficient analgesic effects. The results indicate that the A1032G SNP and G-1250A/A1032G haplotype could serve as markers that predict increased analgesic requirements. Our findings will provide valuable information for achieving satisfactory pain control and open new avenues for personalized pain treatment.

  19. Psychometric assessment of the Rat Grimace Scale and development of an analgesic intervention score.

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    Vanessa Oliver

    Full Text Available Our limited ability to assess spontaneous pain in rodent models of painful human conditions may be associated with a translational failure of promising analgesic compounds in to clinical use. If measurement of spontaneous pain behaviours can be used to generate an analgesic intervention score their use could expand to guide the use of analgesics, as mandated by regulatory bodies and ethical and welfare obligations. One such measure of spontaneous pain, the Rat Grimace Scale (RGS, has recently been described and shown to exhibit reliability. However, reliability of measurement scores is context and content specific, and further testing required to assess translation to a heterogenous setting (different model, raters, environment. The objectives of this study were to perform reliability testing with the Rat Grimace Scale in a heterogenous setting and generate an analgesic intervention score for its use. In a randomised, blinded study, sixteen adult female rats received one of three analgesia treatments (0.05 mg/kg buprenorphine subcutaneously, 1 mg/kg meloxicam subcutaneously, 0.2 mg/kg oral buprenorphine in jelly peri-operatively (telemetry unit implantation surgery. Rats were video-recorded (before, 1-6 and 12 hours post-operatively and images collected for independent scoring by three blinded raters using the RGS, and five experts based on "pain/no pain" assessment. Scores were used to calculate inter- and intra-rater reliability with an intraclass correlation coefficient and generate an analgesic intervention score with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The RGS scores showed very good inter- and intra-rater reliability (0.85 [0.78-0.90 95% CI] and 0.83 [0.76-0.89], respectively. An analgesic intervention threshold of greater than 0.67 was determined. These data demonstrate that the RGS is a useful tool which can be successfully employed in a heterogenous setting, and has the potential to guide analgesic intervention.

  20. Caffeine as a promoter of analgesic-associated nephropathy--where is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Johannes M; Siebers, Ute

    2003-06-01

    Individual groups of nephrologists - in their responsibility for their patients - initiated a most controversial discussion whether or not caffeine - coformulated to analgesics - might initiate or sustain analgesic overdosing. The original sources (data) of such suspicion have got lost during the debate of the last two decades. Therefore, it seemed to be appropriate to investigate the original data background and the reasons why nephrologists started to suspect caffeine as a stimulant of analgesic overdosing by employing a systematic and exhaustive review of primary nephrological publications. Their selection followed a precise selection plan, including all epidemiological studies on analgesic-associated nephropathy, the original papers of all groups having been involved in those studies, further originals from the mainly involved countries (academically, politically), and any literature thereof cited as a proof. The following results emerged from the investigation: (i) The epidemiological studies warranted no conclusion about a role of caffeine in prompting excessive analgesic use. (ii) The identified groups of nephrologists provided not substantial data to advocate the said suspicion, except for the observation of a preferential choice of phenacetin-containing combinations, especially powder preparations. (iii) Only two cited original data sources revealed drug-seeking behaviour with phenacetin-containing preparations which subsided, after phenacetin was banned from the respective markets. Conclusively, it appears that there is no substantial data to support a pivotal role of caffeine in initiating or sustaining analgesic overdosing. However, there is strong data that phenacetin, by its psychotropic properties, may have caused drug-seeking behaviour and thus led to analgesic overdosing. This conclusion is convincingly supported by thorough pharmacokinetic investigations. Note: All caffeine-related statements within the reviewed literature have been collected in

  1. Differential Effectiveness of Clinically-Relevant Analgesics in a Rat Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Mucositis.

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    Alexandra L Whittaker

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis is characterized by pain and a pro-inflammatory tissue response. Rat models are frequently used in mucositis disease investigations yet little is known about the presence of pain in these animals, the ability of analgesics to ameliorate the condition, or the effect that analgesic administration may have on study outcomes. This study investigated different classes of analgesics with the aim of determining their analgesic effects and impact on research outcomes of interest in a rat model of mucositis. Female DA rats were allocated to 8 groups to include saline and chemotherapy controls (n = 8. Analgesics included opioid derivatives (buprenorphine; 0.05mg/kg and tramadol 12.5mg/kg and NSAID (carprofen; 15mg/kg in combination with either saline or 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU; 150mg/kg. Research outcome measures included daily clinical parameters, pain score and gut histology. Myeloperoxidase assay was performed to determine gut inflammation. At the dosages employed, all agents had an analgesic effect based on behavioural pain scores. Jejunal myeloperoxidase activity was significantly reduced by buprenorphine and tramadol in comparison to 5-FU control animals (53%, p = 0.0004 and 58%, p = 0.0001. Carprofen had no ameliorating effect on myeloperoxidase levels. None of the agents reduced the histological damage caused by 5-FU administration although tramadol tended to increase villus length even when administered to healthy animals. These data provide evidence that carprofen offers potential as an analgesic in this animal model due to its pain-relieving efficacy and minimal effect on measured parameters. This study also supports further investigation into the mechanism and utility of opioid agents in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis.

  2. Metoprolol in acute myocardial infarction. Narcotic analgesics and other antianginal drugs. The MIAMI Trial Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-22

    The effect of metoprolol on chest pain has been assessed in terms of the duration and the use of narcotic analgesics, nitrates and calcium-channel blockers. Fewer metoprolol-treated patients in the MIAMI trial were given narcotic analgesics (49% of the placebo patients vs 44% of the metoprolol patients, p less than 0.001), nitrates (55% vs 53%, p = 0.10) and calcium-channel blockers (12% vs 9%, p less than 0.001). A total number of 6,697 dose equivalents of narcotic analgesics were given to the placebo group compared with 5,493 dose equivalents to the metoprolol group, a difference of 18% (p less than 0.001). Mean dose equivalents were 2.3 and 1.9, respectively. The analysis of the total use of the 3 types of treatment for ischemic chest pain showed a significantly less frequent use of treatment for chest pain in the metoprolol group than in the placebo group (p less than 0.004). The relative difference in the incidence of drug treatment tended to be more striking for patients with maximal therapy, i.e., receiving high doses of narcotic analgesics, nitrates and calcium-channel blockers. There were 22% fewer patients receiving 4 or more doses of narcotic analgesics in the metoprolol group than in the placebo group. A multivariate analysis disclosed that site of suspected infarction, delay time, entry systolic blood pressure and metoprolol treatment all had a significant effect on the use of narcotic analgesics. There was a nonsignificant tendency for heart rate to be of importance. In the placebo group the use of narcotic analgesics increased with decreasing delay time and increasing systolic blood pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Analgesic and Antioxidant Activities of Stem Bark Extract and Fractions of Petersianthus macrocarpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orabueze, Celestina Ifeoma; Adesegun, Sunday Adeleke; Coker, Herbert Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background: Petersianthus macrocarpus (Lecythidaceae) is widely used in the folk medicine in Nigeria to relieve pain and fever associated with malaria. This study evaluated the analgesic and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract and fractions of the stem bark of the plant. Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity was determined in mice using hotplate and acetic acid-induced writhing models. Morphine sulphate (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and aspirin (100 mg/ml, p.o.) were used as reference analgesic agents. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical; reducing power, iron chelating properties and determination of total phenolic content. Results: The extract at 200 and 500 mg/kg, produced an insignificant (P > 0.05) increase in pain threshold in hotplate but a significant (P < 0.05) increase at 1000 mg/kg. The extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the writhing induced by acetic acid in mice in a dose dependent manner. Fractionation increased the analgesic activities significantly (P < 0.05) in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions (200 mg/kg). The extract demonstrated strong DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 0.05 mg/ml, good reducing power and weak iron chelating activities. The total phenol content was 142.32 mg/gin term of gallic acid. The antioxidant effects were more pronounced in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that the extract has strong analgesic and antioxidant activities which reside mainly in the polar fractions thus confirming the traditional use of the plant to alleviate pains. SUMMARY Analgesic and antioxidant activities of extract and solvent fractions of Petersianthus macrocarpus investigated indicated that extract has analgesic and antioxidant properties that reside mainly in the polar fractions. Abbreviations Used: DMSO: Dimethyl sulphoxide, ANOVA: analysis of variance, EDTA: ethylene diamne tetraacetic acid, SDM: standard deviation of mean

  4. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CURCUMA AMADA (MANGO - GINGER IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

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    Kumari Bai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. has morphological resemblance with ginger, but imparts mango flavour. According to Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems , the biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. Hence curcuma amada aqueous extract for analgesic activity was evaluated in pain animal models. Pain is a most common complaint of many medical conditions, and pain control is one of t he most important therapeutic priorities. Curcuma Amada suppresses the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. However there is no scientific data suggestive of its analgesic activity. Hence this study was carried out to evaluate its role in central a nd peripheral models of pain. OBJECTIVE: To Evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats, the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines . The aqueous extract of curcuma amada was used.4x2 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity was assessed with the help of following screening methods . Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid . Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer . Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C . Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULT S: Aqueous extract of curcuma amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to control group (Gum acacia. In Tail flick test and Hot plate test Curcuma Amada increases the latency period of pain (reaction time. In Tail im mersion test the test drug significantly (P < 0.001 reduces pain at 30 min when compared to control group at 60 min of oral administration. CONCLUSION : The present findings indicate that

  5. Analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of an extract from Parkia biglobosa used in traditional medicine in the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, F; Kanko, C; Juge, M; Grimaud, N; Jean, A; N'Guessan, Y T; Petit, J Y

    2000-12-01

    In the Ivory coast, Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) is used in traditional medicine as an analgesic drug, especially against dental pain. Of the three extracts obtained from the plant bark, the hexane fraction was studied to determine its analgesic and/or antiinflammatory activities. The results show that this extract possesses a marked analgesic activity when evaluated with the abdominal writhing test in mice, but, like paracetamol, was ineffective with the hot-plate method, a feature suggesting a peripheral mechanism of action. This activity was accompanied by an antiinflammatory effect, somewhat weaker than the analgesic one.

  6. Effects of analgesics and antidepressants on TREK-2 and TRESK currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun; Kim, Eun-Jin; Han, Jaehee; Han, Jongwoo

    2016-01-01

    TWIK-related K+ channel-2 (TREK-2) and TWIK-related spinal cord K+ (TRESK) channel are members of two-pore domain K+ channel family. They are well expressed and help to set the resting membrane potential in sensory neurons. Modulation of TREK-2 and TRESK channels are involved in the pathogenesis of pain, and specifi c activators of TREK-2 and TRESK may be benefi cial for the treatment of pain symptoms. However, the effect of commonly used analgesics on TREK-2 and TRESK channels are not known. Here, we investigated the effect of analgesics on TREK-2 and TRESK channels. The effects of analgesics were examined in HEK cells transfected with TREK-2 or TRESK. Amitriptyline, citalopram, escitalopram, and fluoxetine significantly inhibited TREK-2 and TRESK currents in HEK cells (pnabumetone, and bupropion inhibited TRESK, but had no effect on TREK-2. These results show that all analgesics tested in this study inhibit TRESK activity. Further study is needed to identify the mechanisms by which the analgesics modulate TREK-2 and TRESK differently. PMID:27382354

  7. Trends of analgesic nephropathy in two high-endemic regions with different legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, P; de Schepper, P

    2001-03-01

    Analgesic abuse is related to a specific form of interstitial nephritis, but the exact nature of the causal agent remains controversial and this has resulted in differences in regulation. In Flanders, the free sale of phenacetin was banned, but the consumption of other combined analgesics remained free. In New South Wales, phenacetin was also banned, but 2 yr later the sales of all combined analgesics were also prohibited. This study compared the evolution of end-stage renal disease as a result of analgesic nephropathy (AN) in these two high-endemic regions with different legislation. In both regions, the time trend of the age-specific incidence of end-stage renal disease as a result of AN is similar in the age group 45 to 54 yr. In all age groups combined, the time trend of the percentage of AN among the patients admitted for renal replacement therapy is also similar. This finding does not support the hypothesis that non-phenacetin mixed analgesics play a significant role in the occurrence of AN.

  8. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Papaver libanoticum Extract in Mice: Involvement of Opioids Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, Mohamad Ali; El-Mallah, Ahmed; Aboul-Ela, Maha; Ellakany, Abdalla

    2017-01-01

    Papaver libanoticum is an endemic plant to Lebanese region (family Papaveraceae) that has not been investigated before. The present study aimed to explore the analgesic activity of dried ethanolic extract of Papaver libanoticum (PLE) using tail flick, hot plate, and acetic acid induced writhing models in mice. The involvement of opioid receptors in the analgesic mechanism was investigated using naloxone antagonism. Results demonstrated that PLE exhibited a potent dose dependent analgesic activity in all tested models for analgesia. The analgesic effect involved activation of opioid receptors in the central nervous system, where both spinal and supraspinal components might be involved. The time course for analgesia revealed maximum activity after three hours in both tail flick and hot plate methods, which was prolonged to 24 hours. Metabolites of PLE could be responsible for activation of opioid receptors. The EC50 of PLE was 79 and 50 mg/kg in tail flick and hot plate tests, respectively. The total coverage of analgesia by PLE was double that of morphine in both tests. In conclusion, PLE proved to have opioid agonistic activity with a novel feature of slow and prolonged effect. The present study could add a potential tool in the armaments of opioid drugs as a natural potent analgesic and for treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome.

  9. Nursing time study for the administration of a PRN oral analgesic on an orthopedic postoperative unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, Lois J; Chelly, Jacques E; Marlin, Vanessa

    2014-09-01

    As needed (PRN) oral opioid analgesics are an integral part of many orthopedic postoperative multimodal pain management regimens. However, the unpredictable nature of this dosing method can lead to disruptions in the process of administering the medication, as well as be an interruption to regular nursing activities. This IRB approved quantitative time study tested the hypothesis that a significant amount of nursing time is required in the administration of PRN oral opioid analgesics on a postoperative orthopedic nursing unit. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the time necessary to complete the required steps related to the administration of PRN oral analgesics. Nurses from 28 nursing shifts used a personal digital assistant (PDA) to record the time needed to complete these steps. We determined that 10.9 minutes is the mean time required to administer PRN oral analgesics on this unit. Other time studies have evaluated the medication administration process as a whole. No time studies related to PRN oral analgesic administration have been reported. In phase I of our project, the data were summarized and will be used as a baseline comparison for phase II, in which we will evaluate an oral PCA medication administration system.

  10. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Papaver libanoticum Extract in Mice: Involvement of Opioids Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Hijazi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Papaver libanoticum is an endemic plant to Lebanese region (family Papaveraceae that has not been investigated before. The present study aimed to explore the analgesic activity of dried ethanolic extract of Papaver libanoticum (PLE using tail flick, hot plate, and acetic acid induced writhing models in mice. The involvement of opioid receptors in the analgesic mechanism was investigated using naloxone antagonism. Results demonstrated that PLE exhibited a potent dose dependent analgesic activity in all tested models for analgesia. The analgesic effect involved activation of opioid receptors in the central nervous system, where both spinal and supraspinal components might be involved. The time course for analgesia revealed maximum activity after three hours in both tail flick and hot plate methods, which was prolonged to 24 hours. Metabolites of PLE could be responsible for activation of opioid receptors. The EC50 of PLE was 79 and 50 mg/kg in tail flick and hot plate tests, respectively. The total coverage of analgesia by PLE was double that of morphine in both tests. In conclusion, PLE proved to have opioid agonistic activity with a novel feature of slow and prolonged effect. The present study could add a potential tool in the armaments of opioid drugs as a natural potent analgesic and for treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome.

  11. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Papaver libanoticum Extract in Mice: Involvement of Opioids Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mallah, Ahmed; Aboul-Ela, Maha; Ellakany, Abdalla

    2017-01-01

    Papaver libanoticum is an endemic plant to Lebanese region (family Papaveraceae) that has not been investigated before. The present study aimed to explore the analgesic activity of dried ethanolic extract of Papaver libanoticum (PLE) using tail flick, hot plate, and acetic acid induced writhing models in mice. The involvement of opioid receptors in the analgesic mechanism was investigated using naloxone antagonism. Results demonstrated that PLE exhibited a potent dose dependent analgesic activity in all tested models for analgesia. The analgesic effect involved activation of opioid receptors in the central nervous system, where both spinal and supraspinal components might be involved. The time course for analgesia revealed maximum activity after three hours in both tail flick and hot plate methods, which was prolonged to 24 hours. Metabolites of PLE could be responsible for activation of opioid receptors. The EC50 of PLE was 79 and 50 mg/kg in tail flick and hot plate tests, respectively. The total coverage of analgesia by PLE was double that of morphine in both tests. In conclusion, PLE proved to have opioid agonistic activity with a novel feature of slow and prolonged effect. The present study could add a potential tool in the armaments of opioid drugs as a natural potent analgesic and for treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome. PMID:28280516

  12. The analgesic effect of electrostimulation (WoundEL®) in the treatment of leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leloup, Pauline; Toussaint, Pascal; Lembelembe, Jean-Paul; Célérier, Philippe; Maillard, Hervé

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the analgesic efficacy of electrostimulation (ES), a recognised treatment for leg ulcers. Patients treated by ES for leg ulcers between 2011 and 2013 were included in the study. The pain score obtained with the numerical rating scale (NRS) was reported before the start of the ES (D0), after 3 days (D3) and 1 week following treatment initialisation. The analgesic treatments (AT) were reported at each assessment. Seventy-three patients were included (mean age 75·19 years): 31 venous leg ulcers, 21 mixed venous leg ulcers, 2 arterial ulcers, 17 hypertensive ischaemic ulcers, 1 Hydrea(®)-induced ulcer and an amputation stump ulcer. The NRS at D0 was on average 5·3 (median = 6) while it was 2·2 at D7 (median = 2), that is P < 0·001. The results were also significant between D0 and D3 (P < 0·001). A decrease in the number of AT used was observed between D0 (2·0 AT per patient on average) and D7 (1·7 AT on average) (P < 0·001). We also observed a decrease in the consumption of grade 3 analgesics on D0 and D7 (P = 0·03). This study demonstrates the rapid analgesic efficacy of ES in leg ulcers, with a clear impact on the NRS score and especially on the decrease in analgesic consumption.

  13. Analgesic activity of piracetam: effect on cytokine production and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Suelen A; Serafim, Karla G G; Mizokami, Sandra S; Hohmann, Miriam S N; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2013-04-01

    Piracetam is a prototype of nootropic drugs used to improve cognitive impairment. However, recent studies suggest that piracetam can have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Inflammatory pain is the result of a process that depends on neutrophil migration, cytokines and prostanoids release and oxidative stress. We analyze whether piracetam has anti-nociceptive effects and its mechanisms. Per oral pretreatment with piracetam reduced in a dose-dependent manner the overt pain-like behavior induced by acetic acid, phenyl-p-benzoquinone, formalin and complete Freund's adjuvant. Piracetam also diminished carrageenin-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, myeloperoxidase activity, and TNF-α-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Piracetam presented analgesic effects as post-treatment and local paw treatment. The analgesic mechanisms of piracetam were related to inhibition of carrageenin- and TNF-α-induced production of IL-1β as well as prevention of carrageenin-induced decrease of reduced glutathione, ferric reducing ability and free radical scavenging ability in the paw. These results demonstrate that piracetam presents analgesic activity upon a variety of inflammatory stimuli by a mechanism dependent on inhibition of cytokine production and oxidative stress. Considering its safety and clinical use for cognitive function, it is possible that piracetam represents a novel perspective of analgesic.

  14. Analgesic effect of gabapentin in a rat model for chronic constrictive injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Lu-lu; LIU Wei; HUANG Yu-guang; YANG Nan; ZUO Ping-ping

    2011-01-01

    Background Gabapentin has been widely and successfully used in the clinic for many neuropathic pain syndromes since last decade,however its analgesic mechanisms are still elusive.Our study was to investigate whether Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) contributes to the analgesic effect of gabapentin on a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model.Methods Gabapentin (2%,100 mg/kg) or saline (0.5 mil100 g) was injected intraperitoneally 15 minutes prior to surgery and then every 12 hours from postoperative day 0-4 to all rats in control,sham and CCI groups.The analgesic effect of gabapentin was assessed by measuring mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia of rats.Expression and activation of CaMKII were quantified by reverse-transcriptional polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting.Results The analgesic effect of gabapentin on mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia was significant in the CCI model,with maximal reduction reached on postoperative day 8.Gabapentin decreased the expression of the total CaMKII and phosphorylated CaMKII in CCI rats.Conclusion The analgesic effect of gabapentin on CCI rats may be related to the decreased expression and phosphorylation of CaMKII in the spinal cord.

  15. Postoperative use of analgesics in dogs and cats by Canadian veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohoo, S E; Dohoo, I R

    1996-09-01

    Four hundred and seventeen Canadian veterinarians were surveyed to determine their postoperative use of analgesics in dogs and cats following 6 surgical procedures, and to determine their opinions toward pain perception and perceived complications associated with the postoperative use of potent opioid analgesics. Three hundred and seventeen (76%) returned the questionnaire. The percentage of animals receiving analgesics postoperatively ranged from 84% of dogs and 70% of cats following orthopedic surgery to 10% of dogs and 9% of cats following castration. In general, with the exception of orthopedic surgery, roughly equal percentages of dogs and cats received postoperative analgesics. Opioids were used almost exclusively to provide postoperative analgesia, with butorphanol the most commonly administered drug to both dogs and cats. Analgesics were usually administered either once or twice postoperatively. With regard to the administration of potent opioid agonists, the 3 major concerns included respiratory depression, bradycardia, and sedation in dogs, and excitement, respiratory depression, and bradycardia in cats. Seventy-seven percent of veterinarians considered their knowledge of issues related to the recognition and control of postoperative pain to be inadequate. Experience in practice is currently the major source of knowledge, with undergraduate veterinary school and research articles in journals ranked as the least important sources. Lectures or seminars delivered at the regional level were the preferred format for continuing education.

  16. Translational pain research: Evaluating analgesic effect in experimental visceral pain models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anne Estrup Olesen; Trine Andresen; Lona Louring Christrup; Richard N Upton

    2009-01-01

    Deep visceral pain is frequent and presents major challenges in pain management, since its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. One way to optimize treatment of visceral pain is to improve knowledge of the mechanisms behind the pain and the mode of action of analgesic substances. This can be achieved through standardized experimental human pain models. Experimental pain models in healthy volunteers are advantageous forevaluation of analgesic action, as this is often difficult to assess in the clinic because of confounding factors such as sedation, nausea and general malaise. These pain models facilitate minimizing the gap between knowledge gained in animal and human clinical studies. Combining experimental pain studies and pharmacokinetic studies can improve understanding of the pharmacokineticpharmacodynamic relationship of analgesics and, thus, provide valuable insight into optimal clinical treatment of visceral pain. To improve treatment of visceral pain, it is important to study the underlying mechanisms of pain and the action of analgesics used for its treatment. An experimental pain model activates different modalities and can be used to investigate the mechanism of action of different analgesics in detail. In combination with pharmacokinetic studies and objective assessment such as electroencephalography, new information re- garding a given drug substance and its effects can be obtained. Results from experimental human visceral pain research can bridge the gap in knowledge between animal studies and clinical condition in patients suffering from visceral pain, and thus constitute the missing link in translational pain research.

  17. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF LEAVES EXTRACTS OF SAMANEA SAMAN MERR., AND PROSOPIS CINERARIA DRUCE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Syed Muzammil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current study was designed to explore the analgesic effects of methanol extracts of the leaves of Samanea saman Merr., and Prosopis cineraria Druce., using tail immersion test. The painful reactions in mice were produced by thermal stimuli through dipping the tail tips of mice into hot water. Methanol extracts of the leaves of Samanea saman Merr., and Prosopis cineraria Druce., were administered intraperitoneally at the dose of 100mg /kg body weight. Pethidine 50mg/Kg intraperitoneally was used as standard analgesic drug. The tail flick latency delay was measured at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 hour after the intraperitoneal administration. Both extracts produce analgesic effects when compare with pethidine.

  18. Analgesic effects of lappaconitine in leukemia bone pain in a mouse model

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    Xiao-Cui Zhu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone pain is a common and severe symptom in cancer patients. The present study employed a mouse model of leukemia bone pain by injection K562 cells into tibia of mouse to evaluate the analgesic effects of lappacontine. Our results showed that the lappaconitine treatment at day 15, 17 and 19 could effectively reduce the spontaneous pain scoring values, restore reduced degree in the inclined-plate test induced by injection of K562 cells, as well as restore paw mechanical withdrawal threshold and paw withdrawal thermal latency induced by injection of K562 cells to the normal levels. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms of lappaconitine’s analgesic effects may be related to affect the expression levels of endogenous opioid system genes (POMC, PENK and MOR, as well as apoptosis-related genes (Xiap, Smac, Bim, NF-κB and p53. Our present results indicated that lappaconitine may become a new analgesic agent for leukemia bone pain management.

  19. Search for anticonvulsant and analgesic active derivatives of dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Więckowski, Krzysztof; Sałat, Kinga; Bytnar, Justyna; Bajda, Marek; Filipek, Barbara; Stables, James P; Malawska, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    A series of derivatives of dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one (γ-butyrolactone, GBL) was synthesized and tested for anticonvulsant, neurotoxic and analgesic activity. In the anticonvulsant screening 10 lactones were effective in the maximal electroshock test (MES) at the highest doses (300 and 100 mg/kg, 0.5 h, ip, mice). Statistical analysis showed correlation between the anticonvulsant activity and relative lipophilicity parameters determined by experimental and computational methods (R(M0), ClogP and MlogP). Preliminary antinociceptive evaluation of selected derivatives revealed strong analgesic activity. The majority of the tested compounds showed high efficacy in animal models of acute pain (hot plate and writhing tests) and strong local anesthetic activity (modified tail immersion test). The obtained ED(50) values were comparable with such analgesics as acetylsalicylic acid and morphine.

  20. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of Thymus linearis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Parveen, Amna; Abbas, Khizar; Ali, Muhammad

    2016-03-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous methanolic and n-hexane extract of Thymus linearis. For measuring analgesic activity, writhing test, hot plate method and formalin test were performed and abdominal writhing was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of 0.2 ml of 3% acetic acid. While in formalin test, pain was experimentally induced by injecting 25 μl of 2.5% formalin in left hind paw. In hot plate method, pain was induced thermally by keeping the animals on a hot plate with temperature of about 51°C. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by carrageenan induced mice paw edema. For determination of antipyretic activity, pyrexia was induced by subcutaneous injection of 15% yeast. The results showed that both the extracts had significant analgesic activity (pThymus linearis may be used against pain, pyrexia and inflammation.

  1. Analgesic, antibacterial and central nervous system depressant activities of Albizia procera leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mst. Mahfuza Khatoon; Mst. Hajera Khatun; Md. Ekramul Islam; Mst. Shahnaj Parvin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain analgesic, antibacterial and central nervous system (CNS) depressant activities of ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride fractions of methanol extract of Albizia procera (A. procera) leaves. Methods: Leaves extracts of A. procera were tested for analgesic activity by acetic acid induced and formalin test method in mice. The in vitro antibacterial activity was performed by agar well diffusion method. CNS depressant activity was evaluated by hole cross and open field tests. Results: All the extracts at 200 mg/kg exhibited significant (P Conclusions: It is concluded that all the extracts possess potential analgesic and CNS depressants activity. This study also showed that different fractions of methanol extract could be potential sources of new antimicrobial agents.

  2. Comparison of analgesic effects of intra-articular tenoxicam and morphine in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Gulen; Karaoglu, Sinan; Velibasoglu, Hediye; Ramazanogullari, Nesrin; Boyaci, Adem

    2002-07-01

    This study compared the analgesic effect of intra-articular injection of tenoxicam with that of morphine on postoperative pain after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Forty-two patients undergoing arthroscopically ACL reconstructions using hamstring tendons underwent the same anesthetic protocol. The patients were randomized to receive 25 ml normal saline, 20 mg tenoxicam in 25 ml normal saline, or 2 mg morphine in 25 ml normal saline. Postoperative pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale and measuring analgesic requirements. We found both that both intra-articular tenoxicam and intra-articular morphine provided better analgesia than that in the control group. Although pain scores were similar between tenoxicam and morphine groups 30 min postoperative, the analgesic requirements in with tenoxicam were significantly lower than those with morphine group 3-6 h postoperatively.

  3. Study of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Lappaconitine Gelata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying-zi; XIAO YONG-qing; ZHANG Chao; SUN Xiu-mei

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To explore the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lappaconitine gelata (LA). Methods:The writhing response induced by acetic acid, the pain response induced by formaldehyde and hot plate method in the mouse, and the paw edema induced by egg albumen in the rat and the ear edema induced by xylene in the mouse were used for investigation on the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of LA.Results: The writhing response induced by acetic acid, the pain response induced by formaldehyde and hot plate methods was significantly inhibited by LA. In addition, the paw edema induced by egg albumen in the rat and the ear edema induced by xylene in the mouse were all significantly suppressed by LA. Conclusion:LA has the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.

  4. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of leaf extract of Kydia calycina Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baburao Bhukya

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of leaves of Kydia calycina Roxb. was screened for the analgesic (using hot plate test and acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice and anti-inflammatory (using rat paw edema test activity at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. A significant (p < 0.0005 analgesic effect was observed with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg in both tests. The maximum anti-inflammatory response was produced at 3 hour with extract doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. These results suggest that the methanol extract of K. calycina has exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, which were comparable with standard drugs.

  5. Translational pain research: evaluating analgesic effect in experimental visceral pain models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Andresen, Trine; Christrup, Lona Louring;

    2009-01-01

    Deep visceral pain is frequent and presents major challenges in pain management, since its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. One way to optimize treatment of visceral pain is to improve knowledge of the mechanisms behind the pain and the mode of action of analgesic substances. This can...... treatment of visceral pain. To improve treatment of visceral pain, it is important to study the underlying mechanisms of pain and the action of analgesics used for its treatment. An experimental pain model activates different modalities and can be used to investigate the mechanism of action of different...... be achieved through standardized experimental human pain models. Experimental pain models in healthy volunteers are advantageous for evaluation of analgesic action, as this is often difficult to assess in the clinic because of confounding factors such as sedation, nausea and general malaise. These pain models...

  6. Evaluation of analgesic activities of tremetone derivatives isolated from the Chilean altiplano medicine Parastrephia lepidophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benites, Julio; Gutierrez, Eunices; López, Jóse; Rojas, Mauricio; Rojo, Leonel; Costa, Maria do Céu; Vinardell, Maria Pilar; Calderon, Pedro Buc

    2012-05-01

    Parastrephia lepidophylla, family Asteraceae, has ancient use in traditional medicine in the region of Tarapacá, Chile. Bioguided fractionation of extracts of this plant was undertaken in the search for compounds with analgesic and antioxidant activity. Two benzofuran derivatives were isolated as the major components of this plant, identified as tremetone 1 and methoxytremetone 6. Remarkably, neither of these showed antioxidant activity, but tremetone 1 exhibited a morphine-like analgesic property. Reduction of this analgesic effect by naloxone suggests a direct effect on opiate receptors as a possible signaling pathway. However, both the low diffusion across lipid membranes (PAMPA assay) and the lipophilicity (Log P) shown by tremetone 1 make elusive the mechanism explaining its induced analgesia.

  7. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intahphuak, S; Khonsung, P; Panthong, A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO.

  8. Involvement of peripheral TRPV1 channels in the analgesic effects of thalidomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tieying; Wang, Liwen; Gu, Kunfeng; Yang, Yunliang; Yang, Lijun; Ma, Pengyu; Ma, Xiaojing; Zhao, Jianhui; Yan, Ruyv; Guan, Jiao; Wang, Chunping; Qi, Yan; Ya, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Thalidomide was introduced to the market in 1957 as a sedative and antiemetic agent, and returned to the market for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome and multiple myeloma. There are reports and studies of thalidomide as an analgesic or analgesic adjuvant in clinic. However, the underlying mechanism is quite elusive. Many studies suggest that the analgesic effect of thalidomide may be due to its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties as it suppresses the production of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) selectively. However, it is not clear whether any other mechanisms are implicated in the pain relief. In this study, we demonstrated that the peripheral vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) channel was also involved in the analgesic effect of thalidomide in different cell and animal models. During the activation by its agonist capsaicin, the cation inward influx through TRPV1 channels and the whole-cell current significantly decreased after TRPV1-overexpressed HEK293 cells or dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were pre-treated with thalidomide for 20 minutes. And such attenuation in the TRPV1 activity was in a dose-dependent manner of thalidomide. In an acetic acid writhing test, pre-treatment of thalidomide decreased the writhing number in the wild type mice, while it did not happen in TRPV1 knockout mice, suggesting that the TRPV1 channel was involved in the pain relief by thalidomide. Taken together, the study showed that TRPV1 channels were involved in the analgesic effects of thalidomide. Such alteration in the action of TRPV1 channels by thalidomide may help understand how thalidomide takes analgesic effect in the body in addition to its selective inhibition of TNF-α production.

  9. Enhanced analgesic effects of tramadol and common trace element coadministration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, Teodora; Marza, Aurelia; Voloseniuc, Tudor; Tamba, Bogdan

    2015-10-01

    Chronic pain is managed mostly by the daily administration of analgesics. Tramadol is one of the most commonly used drugs, marketed in combination with coanalgesics for enhanced effect. Trace elements are frequent ingredients in dietary supplements and may enhance tramadol's analgesic effect either through synergic mechanisms or through analgesic effects of their own. Swiss Weber male mice were divided into nine groups and were treated with a combination of the trace elements Mg, Mn, and Zn in three different doses and a fixed dose of tramadol. Two groups served as positive (tramadol alone) and negative (saline) controls. Nociceptive assessment by tail-flick (TF) and hot-plate (HP) tests was performed at baseline and at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after intraperitoneal administration. Response latencies were recorded and compared with the aid of ANOVA testing. All three trace elements enhanced tramadol's analgesic effect, as assessed by TF and HP test latencies. Coadministration of these trace elements led to an increase of approximately 30% in the average pain inhibition compared with the tramadol-alone group. The most effective doses were 0.6 mg/kg b.w. for Zn, 75 mg/kg b.w. for Mg, and 7.2 mg/kg b.w. for Mn. Associating trace elements such as Zn, Mg, and Mn with the standard administration of tramadol increases the drug's analgesic effect, most likely a consequence of their synergic action. These findings impact current analgesic treatment because the addition of these trace elements may reduce the tramadol dose required to obtain analgesia.

  10. Analgesic drug consumption increases after knee arthroplasty: a pharmacoepidemiological study investigating postoperative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzier, Régis; Serres, Isabelle; Bourrel, Robert; Palmaro, Aurore; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse

    2014-07-01

    Knee arthroplasty remains the gold standard in the treatment of severe osteoarthritis. Chronic postoperative pain has been reported with a prevalence ranging from 15% to 47%. The aim of this study was to compare analgesic drug consumption before and after surgery as an indicator of pain after knee surgery. A pharmacoepidemiological method comparing analgesics and antineuropathic issues 1 year before and 1 year after surgery was used. All patients who underwent knee arthroplasty in the Midi-Pyrenees region (2.5 million inhabitants) were identified through the Health Insurance System Database. Increase of drug issues (all analgesics, antineuropathic drugs, strong opioids) was calculated and compared between several periods surrounding the surgery (12 months, 2 months, and 10 months before and after the knee arthroplasty). A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with chronic postoperative pain. The study included 1939 patients. An increase in analgesic, antineuropathic, and opioid drug consumption was observed the year after the surgery in 47.3%, 8.6%, and 5.6% of patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis found a significant association between type of surgery (total knee vs unicompartmental arthroplasty) and analgesic consumption 1 year after surgery, and between preoperative pain and psychiatric vulnerability and increase in neuropathic drug dispensing. Conversely, older age was considered as a protective factor. This study revealed that an increase in the issue of different analgesic drugs is present in half of patients 1 year after knee arthroplasty. Several associated factors of drug consumption (preoperative pain, type of surgery, and psychiatric disorder) were identified.

  11. Prediction formulas for individual opioid analgesic requirements based on genetic polymorphism analyses.

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    Kaori Yoshida

    Full Text Available The analgesic efficacy of opioids is well known to vary widely among individuals, and various factors related to individual differences in opioid sensitivity have been identified. However, a prediction model to calculate appropriate opioid analgesic requirements has not yet been established. The present study sought to construct prediction formulas for individual opioid analgesic requirements based on genetic polymorphisms and clinical data from patients who underwent cosmetic orthognathic surgery and validate the utility of the prediction formulas in patients who underwent major open abdominal surgery.To construct the prediction formulas, we performed multiple linear regression analyses using data from subjects who underwent cosmetic orthognathic surgery. The dependent variable was 24-h postoperative or perioperative fentanyl use, and the independent variables were age, gender, height, weight, pain perception latencies (PPL, and genotype data of five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. To examine the utility of the prediction formulas, we performed simple linear regression analyses using subjects who underwent major open abdominal surgery. Actual 24-h postoperative or perioperative analgesic use and the predicted values that were calculated using the multiple regression equations were incorporated as dependent and independent variables, respectively.Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the four SNPs, PPL, and weight were retained as independent predictors of 24-h postoperative fentanyl use (R² = 0.145, P = 5.66 × 10⁻¹⁰ and the two SNPs and weight were retained as independent predictors of perioperative fentanyl use (R² = 0.185, P = 1.99 × 10⁻¹⁵. Simple linear regression analyses showed that the predicted values were retained as an independent predictor of actual 24-h postoperative analgesic use (R² = 0.033, P = 0.030 and perioperative analgesic use (R² = 0.100, P = 1.09 × 10⁻⁴, respectively.We constructed

  12. ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CASSIA FISTULA (L. STEM BARK

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    M. Ashraf Ali et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate antihyperglycemic and analgesic effects of ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula (CF stem barks in rats and mice, respectively. The analgesic effect of extract was evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing test method while antihyperglycemic effect was investigated by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diclofenac (10 mg/kg, i. p. and metformin (150 mg/kg, p. o. were used as reference drugs for comparison. The extract significantly (P<0.05 reduced blood sugar level in alloxan induced diabetic (hyperglycaemic and glucose induced hyperglycemic (normo-hyperglycaemic rats orally at 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively. The glucose tolerance results showed significant (p<0.05 improved at the dose 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight (b. wt. of ethanolic extract respectively. On the Other hand, the analgesic activity of extract at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg dose level were produced 45% and 62% writhing inhibitory response but diclofenac was observed 82% of that when compared to control group. The plant's extract produced dose-dependent, significant (P<0.05 analgesic effects against chemically induced nociceptive pain in mice. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant extract showed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins etc. were present in the plant which has antihyperglycemic and analgesic properties. However a glucose tolerance hypoglycemic test is comparable to diabetic control group and effect is a dose dependent. The findings of this experimental animal study indicate that Cassia fistula stem-bark ethanolic extract possesses analgesic and antihyperglycemic properties; and thus lend pharmacological credence to the folkloric, ethnomedical uses of the plant in the treatment and/or management of painful, inflammatory conditions, as well as in the management and/or control of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. EVALUATION OF ANTIPYRETIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF PARUSAKA (GREWIA ASIATICA LINN.: AN INDIGENOUS INDIAN PLANT

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    Das Debajyoti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the modern medical system, pyrexia is not only considered as a disease, but Jwara or pyrexia has been depicted as a cardinal disease from the period of Brihatrayee (2000B.C – 7th Century A.D. due to its severeity and worsening prognosis. The vivic classification of the disease, Jwara has been acertained in different traditional Ayurvedic texts and the treatment are being elaborately described in these texts, but most are the compond formulation pertaining to endangered species. Considering this, Parusaka (Grewia asiatica Linn. has been selected as a drug having the Jwaraghna (antipyretic action and Vedananasaka (analgesic. The basis for the pharmacological action is based on panachabhautika composition. This study was carried out to evaluate its analgesic and antipyretic activities in experimental animal model. The aqueous extract of Parusaka was administered in different doses to swiss albino mice / rats and compared for analgesic – antipyretic activity by administering aspirin. The extract (doses of 200-300mg / kg body weight showed good analgesic effect due to its inhibitory effects on pain induced by acetic acid in writhing test (Chemical stimulation and tail immersion test (Thermal stimulation. The trial drug (300mg /kg body weight also produced significant increase in the hot plate reaction time (when compared to aspirin 400mg/kg body weight in mice indicating its analgesic effects. The extract containing 400mg /kg body weight dose had significant effect than aspirin (100mg / kg body weight on reducing pyrexia, induced by administering lipopolysaccharide extract from E. Coli. This study therefore support the use of Parusaka as indigenous analgesic and antipyretic agent in India and further investigations is required to elucidate its pharmacodynamic action.

  14. Analgesic Effects of Various Extracts of Root of Abutilon indicum linn.

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    Sumitra Singh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called “Country Mallow” is a perennial plant up to 3m in
    height. It is abundantly found as weed in sub-Himalayan tract and in hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally
    used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles,
    leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhoea etc. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective,
    hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities. The present study was done to
    evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of root of Abutilon indicum Linn. The powdered root (900 g
    was subjected to successive solvent extraction with solvents in increasing order of polarity viz. petroleum ether
    (60-80 C°, methanol and ethanol by soxhlet apparatus for 72 hrs. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for
    72 hrs. to obtain water soluble extract. Peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid induced writhing
    method in Swiss albino mice (20-30 g while central analgesic activity was evaluated by tail flick method and
    tail immersion method. Results indicated that all the tested extracts except methanol extract exhibited significant
    analgesic activity in both animals’ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity
    may be related with central mechanism or due to peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Thus the present study authenticates
    the traditional use.

  15. [A comparative study of the effectiveness of the analgesic effect of electropuncture stimulation and nonnarcotic analgesics in therapy patients in an emergency dental care office].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, B T; Kalinin, V I; Emel'ianova, M V; Rozin, I Ia; Trebich, I Ia

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of patients' subjective sensations, of rheography and electro-odontometry data has lead the authors to a conclusion that the analgesic effect of rengasil was higher than that of ibuprofen and that rengasil combination with electropuncture was still more effective. The analgesic effect was the most marked in alveolitis and periodontitis, less so in inflammations of the pulp, and no effect could be achieved in acute purulent pulpitis. The authors suppose that pain syndrome alleviation after electropuncture stimulation and after administration of anti-inflammatory drugs is explained mainly by changed hemodynamics at the site of inflammation, this resulting in reduction of the edema and in diminished effects of biochemical substances released in the course of inflammation.

  16. Topical and Intranasal Analgesic Therapy in a Woman with Refractory Postherpetic Neuralgia

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    Kenneth C. Hohmeier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient-specific, stepped approach to topical and intranasal analgesic pharmacotherapy was effective in reducing refractory postherpetic neuralgia (PHN not responding to the current standard of care for PHN. The use of topical analgesic therapy allowed for higher concentrations of medication locally while reducing the likelihood of systemic side effects common to the drugs used. No adverse effects were noted for either topical or intranasal drug therapy. The patient-specific, stepped approach resulted in clinically significant decreases in pain on visual analog scale (VAS, with the use of intranasal ketamine 10% solution and topical gabapentin 6%, ketoprofen 10%, lidocaine 5%, and ketamine 10% cream.

  17. Nephrotoxicity of over-the-counter analgesics, natural medicines, and illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowey, Douglas L

    2005-02-01

    Toxic nephropathy is a disorder whose primary feature is impairment of the normal functions of the kidney. The clinical manifestations of toxic nephropathy vary from a mild reduction in renal function to hematuria, proteinuria, and urolithiasis to a severe progressive toxicity culminating in end-stage renal disease. Although it is commonplace for adolescents to use supplemental treatments such as natural medicines and over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics, they do not often reveal the use of such treatments to physicians, nor do they fully understand their potential adverse effects. This article reviews the nephrotoxic effects of OTC analgesics, natural medicines, and illicit drugs.

  18. Regular use of traditional analgesics predicts major coronary events: A cohort study

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    Mikko Haara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mikko Haara1, Markku Heliövaara2, Jari PA Arokoski3, Paul Knekt2, Pirjo Manninen4, Arpo Aromaa2, Antti Reunanen2, Olli Impivaara2, Heikki Kröger51Bone and Cartilage Research Unit (BCRU, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland; 2National Public Health Institute, Helsinki and Turku, Finland; 3Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Finland; 4Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Kuopio, Finland; 5Department of Surgery/Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, FinlandAims: Serious concern has arisen about the cardiovascular safety of selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitors. However, recent studies have shown that the cardiovascular risks of regular use of traditional analgesics also deserve attention. We investigated the use of traditional analgesics for their prediction of major coronary events during 16 years of follow-up.Methods: A population sample of 8000 Finns aged 30 years and over was invited to a comprehensive health examination in 1978–1980; 7217 (90% complied, and 4824 of these had no diagnosed cardiovascular disease. The participants filled in a questionnaire eliciting information on the use of analgesics. Record linkage to the National Hospital Discharge Register and the mortality register of the Central Statistical Office of Finland identified 266 major coronary events (myocardial infarctions or coronary deaths by the end of 1994.Results: The risk of a major coronary event was significantly elevated among those reporting regular use of analgesics at baseline. Compared with nonusers and adjusted for known risk factors for coronary heart disease, the relative risk of an event during the whole follow-up period was 1.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08–2.10 among regular users of analgesics. The risk was as high as 5.27 (95% CI 2.13–13.11 during the first two years of the follow-up. Thereafter it leveled off.Conclusion: Based on sales statistics almost all

  19. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Thymus serphyllum Linn. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamger; Mazhar, Uzma; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Maheen, Safirah; Malik, Muhammad Nasir Hayat; Ahmad, Taseer; Latif, Fouzia; Tabassum, Nazia; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Ahsan, Haseeb; Khan, Wasim; Javed, Ibrahim; Ali, Haider

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of Thymus serphyllum Linn. in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan and egg albumin induced paw edema in mice, while analgesic activity was assessed using formalin induced paw licking and acetic acid induced abdominal writhing in mice. For determination of antipyretic activity, pyrexia was induced by subcutaneous injection of 20% yeast. All the extracts produced significant anti-inflammatory effect however, ether extract produced maximum effect 34% inhibition (p Thymus serphyllum in traditional medicine for inflammation accompanied by pain and fever.

  20. Positive allosteric modulation of TRPV1 as a novel analgesic mechanism

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    Lebovitz Evan E

    2012-09-01

    nerve terminals. The loss of nerve endings was manifested by an increase in levels of axotomy markers assessed by qRT-PCR and colocalization of ATF3 in TRPV1+ cells visualized via immunohistochemistry. Conclusions The present observations suggest a novel, non-narcotic, selective, long-lasting TRPV1-based approach for analgesia that may be effective in acute, persistent, or chronic pain disorders.

  1. Ibuprofen as a pre-emptive analgesic is as effective as rofecoxib for mandibular third molar surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morse, Zac; Tump, Anna; Kevelham, Ester

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the pre-emptive analgesic effect of rofecoxib, a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, with a more traditional and commonly used analgesic, ibuprofen, for mandibular third molar surgery, utilizing a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clin

  2. 77 FR 6567 - Assessment of Analgesic Treatment of Chronic Pain-A Public Workshop; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Assessment of Analgesic Treatment of Chronic Pain--A Public... analgesics in the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP). The focus of the presentations and discussions... during the open session of the meeting, please email your registration to...

  3. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of leaves of Pentatropis capensis Linn. f. (Bullock

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    Saikat Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The observed effects were comparable with the standard drug-treated group thus demonstrating effective central analgesic and acute anti-inflammatory potentials of the P. capensis leaves aqueous extract and the observations substantiate its folklore use as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory.

  4. Isometric Contractions Are More Analgesic Than Isotonic Contractions for Patellar Tendon Pain : An In-Season Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rio, Ebonie; van Ark, Mathijs; Docking, Sean; Moseley, G Lorimer; Kidgell, Dawson; Gaida, Jamie E; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Zwerver, Johannes; Cook, Jill

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the immediate analgesic effects of 2 resistance programs in in-season athletes with patellar tendinopathy (PT). Resistance training is noninvasive, a principle stimulus for corticospinal and neuromuscular adaptation, and may be analgesic. DESIGN: Within-season

  5. Do analgesics improve functioning in patients with chronic low back pain? An explorative triple-blinded RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica; Geertzen, Jan. H. B.; van Wijhe, Marten; Boonstra, Anne M.; Molmans, Barbara H. W.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) aims to reduce disability, improve functional capacity, and participation. Time contingent prescription of analgesics is a treatment modality in CLBP. The impact of analgesics on functional capacity is unknown. Aim of the study was to explore t

  6. Analgesics use and ESRD in younger age: a case-control study

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    Moehner Sabine

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ad hoc peer-review committee was jointly appointed by Drug Authorities and Industry in Germany, Austria and Switzerland in 1999/2000 to review the evidence for a causal relation between phenacetin-free analgesics and nephropathy. The committee found the evidence as inconclusive and requested a new case-control study of adequate design. Methods We performed a population-based case-control study with incident cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD under the age of 50 years and four age and sex-matched neighborhood controls in 170 dialysis centers (153 in Germany, and 17 in Austria from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2004. Data on lifetime medical history, risk factors, treatment, job exposure and intake of analgesics were obtained in a standardized face-to-face interview using memory aids to enhance accuracy. Study design, study performance, analysis plan, and study report were approved by an independent international advisory committee and by the Drug Authorities involved. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The analysis included 907 cases and 3,622 controls who had never used phenacetin-containing analgesics in their lifetime. The use of high cumulative lifetime dose (3rd tertile of analgesics in the period up to five years before dialysis was not associated with later ESRD. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were 0.8 (0.7 – 1.0 and 1.0 (0.8 – 1.3 for ever- compared with no or low use and high use compared with low use, respectively. The same results were found for all analgesics and for mono-, and combination preparations with and without caffeine. No increased risk was shown in analyses stratifying for dose and duration. Dose-response analyses showed that analgesic use was not associated with an increased risk for ESRD up to 3.5 kg cumulative lifetime dose (98 % of the cases with ESRD. While the large subgroup of users with a lifetime dose up to 0.5 kg (278 cases and

  7. Evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of fixed dose combination: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in experimental animals

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    Amit Lahoti

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Combining paracetamol with ibuprofen enhances analgesic/anti-inflammatory activity over their individual component but potentiation of analgesic activity of diclofenac was not seen when paracetamol was added to it.

  8. High Performance Liquid Chromatography of Some Analgesic Compounds: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Paul; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and results are provided for an experiment demonstrating techniques of solvent selection, gradient elution, pH control, and ion-pairing in the analysis of an analgesic mixture using reversed-phase liquid chromatography on an octadecylsilane column. Although developed using sophisticated/expensive equipment, less…

  9. Evaluation of analgesic activity of the leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn

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    Suvarna Ingale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora incarnata also known as ′Passion flower′ is used as an anxiolytic and sedative throughout the world from ancient time. The plant is used as an analgesic, antispasmodic, sedative- hypnotic and narcotic. It is also used in neuralgia, epilepsy, insomnia, ulcers, haemorrhoids and neurosis in many parts of the world. There was no report on analgesic activity of P. incarnata. Hence, the present study is designed to assess analgesic activity of leaves of P. incarnata using sodium chloride-induced eye wiping test and formalin test. In formalin test, n-butanol extract of leaves of P. incarnata (BEPI in the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg as well as BEPI-F1 showed significant reduction in duration of paw licking in neurogenic and inflammatory phase(P<0.001. Pretreatment with naloxone reversed the analgesia induced by BEPI, while atropine did not reverse the analgesia induced by BEPI significantly (P≤0.001. In eye wiping test, BEPI in the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg, i.p. exerted significant reduction ( P≤0.001 in number of eye wipes compared to control group. Thus, the result concludes that BEPI and the fraction separated, BEPI-F1 has significant analgesic activity, which may be mediated through central mechanism by modulation of opioid receptors and nicotinic receptors.

  10. Ultrasound-guided quadratus lumborum block as a postoperative analgesic technique for laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Vasanth Rao

    2013-10-01

    The quadratus lumborum (QL) block as a postoperative analgesic method following abdominal surgery has been described by Blanco for superficial surgeries but not used for major laparotomy. This ipsilateral QL block had low pain scores and opioid use on day one with sensory block upto T8-L1. The options of various volume used and pros and cons are discussed.

  11. Ultrasound-guided quadratus lumborum block as a postoperative analgesic technique for laparotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Vasanth Rao Kadam

    2013-01-01

    The quadratus lumborum (QL) block as a postoperative analgesic method following abdominal surgery has been described by Blanco for superficial surgeries but not used for major laparotomy. This ipsilateral QL block had low pain scores and opioid use on day one with sensory block upto T8-L1. The options of various volume used and pros and cons are discussed.

  12. Ultrasound-guided quadratus lumborum block as a postoperative analgesic technique for laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanth Rao Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The quadratus lumborum (QL block as a postoperative analgesic method following abdominal surgery has been described by Blanco for superficial surgeries but not used for major laparotomy. This ipsilateral QL block had low pain scores and opioid use on day one with sensory block upto T8-L1. The options of various volume used and pros and cons are discussed.

  13. Abuse liability measures for use in analgesic clinical trials in patients with pain: IMMPACT recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Alec B; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H; Katz, Nathaniel P; Colucci, Robert; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Klein, Michael; O'Brien, Charles; Posner, Kelly; Rappaport, Bob A; Reisfield, Gary; Adams, Edgar H; Balster, Robert L; Bigelow, George E; Burke, Laurie B; Comer, Sandra D; Cone, Edward; Cowan, Penney; Denisco, Richard A; Farrar, John T; Foltin, Richard W; Haddox, J David; Hertz, Sharon; Jay, Gary W; Junor, Roderick; Kopecky, Ernest A; Leiderman, Deborah B; McDermott, Michael P; Palmer, Pamela P; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rauschkolb, Christine; Rowbotham, Michael C; Sampaio, Cristina; Setnik, Beatrice; Smith, Shannon M; Sokolowska, Marta; Stauffer, Joseph W; Walsh, Sharon L; Zacny, James P

    2013-11-01

    Assessing and mitigating the abuse liability (AL) of analgesics is an urgent clinical and societal problem. Analgesics have traditionally been assessed in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) designed to demonstrate analgesic efficacy relative to placebo or an active comparator. In these trials, rigorous, prospectively designed assessment for AL is generally not performed. The Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT) convened a consensus meeting to review the available evidence and discuss methods for improving the assessment of the AL of analgesics in clinical trials in patients with pain. Recommendations for improved assessment include: (1) performing trials that include individuals with diverse risks of abuse; (2) improving the assessment of AL in clinical trials (eg, training study personnel in the principles of abuse and addiction behaviors, designing the trial to assess AL outcomes as primary or secondary outcome measures depending on the trial objectives); (3) performing standardized assessment of outcomes, including targeted observations by study personnel and using structured adverse events query forms that ask all subjects specifically for certain symptoms (such as euphoria and craving); and (4) collecting detailed information about events of potential concern (eg, unexpected urine drug testing results, loss of study medication, and dropping out of the trial). The authors also propose a research agenda for improving the assessment of AL in future trials.

  14. Evaluation of common anesthetic and analgesic techniques for tail biopsy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carissa P; Carver, Scott; Kendall, Lon V

    2012-11-01

    Tail biopsy in mice is a common procedure in genetically modified mouse colonies. We evaluated the anesthetic and analgesic effects of various agents commonly used to mitigate pain after tail biopsy. We used a hot-water immersion assay to evaluate the analgesic effects of isoflurane, ice-cold ethanol, ethyl chloride, buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks before studying their effects on mice receiving tail biopsies. Mice treated with ethyl chloride spray, isoflurane and buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks demonstrated increased tail-flick latency compared with that of untreated mice. When we evaluated the behavior of adult and preweanling mice after tail biopsy, untreated mice demonstrated behavioral changes immediately after tail biopsy that lasted 30 to 60 min before returning to normal. The use of isoflurane, isoflurane and buprenorphine, buprenorphine, 2-point nerve block, or ethyl chloride spray in adult mice did not significantly improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy. Similarly, the use of buprenorphine and ethyl chloride spray in preweanling mice did not improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy compared with that of the untreated group. However, immersion in bupivacaine for 30 s after tail biopsy decreased tail grooming behavior during the first 30 min after tail biopsy. The anesthetic and analgesic regimens tested provide little benefit in adult and preweanling mice. Given that tail biopsy results in pain that lasts 30 to 60 min, investigators should carefully consider the appropriate anesthetic or analgesic regimen to incorporate into tail-biopsy procedures for mice.

  15. Duration of Analgesic Use and Risk of Hearing Loss in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Brian M; Curhan, Sharon G; Wang, Molin; Eavey, Roland; Stankovic, Konstantina M; Curhan, Gary C

    2017-01-01

    Aspirin, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID), and acetaminophen are commonly used. Frequent use of analgesics has been associated with a higher risk of hearing loss. However, the association between duration of analgesic use and the risk of hearing loss is unclear. We investigated the relationship between duration of analgesic use and self-reported hearing loss among 55,850 women in the Nurses' Health Study. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. During 873,376 person-years of follow-up (1990-2012), longer durations of NSAID use (for >6 years of use compared with acetaminophen use (for >6 years of use compared with hearing loss. Duration of aspirin use was not associated with hearing loss (for >6 years of use compared with acetaminophen use were associated with slightly higher risks of hearing loss, but duration of aspirin use was not. Considering the high prevalence of analgesic use, this may be an important modifiable contributor to hearing loss.

  16. Single dose delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic pancreatitis patients : analgesic efficacy, pharmacokinetics and tolerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Marjan; van Rijckevorsel, Dagmar C M; Vissers, Kris C P; Wilder-Smith, Oliver H G; van Goor, Harry

    2015-01-01

    AIM: We aimed to assess the analgesic efficacy, pharmacokinetics, tolerability and safety of a single dose Δ9-THC in patients with chronic abdominal pain resulting from chronic pancreatitis (CP). METHODS: This was a randomized, single-dose, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, two-way cross-over stud

  17. Analgesic Effect of Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Fruit Extracts on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Lim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis fruit, also known as “Amla” is one of the oldest edible fruits known in India. It has also traditionally been used to treat inflammation, and as an analgesic to treat wounds. However, experimental evidence for the analgesic effects of E. officinalis has been lacking. The present study investigated whether E. officinalis extracts exhibit analgesic effects in the plantar incision (PI and spared nerve injury (SNI pain-model rats. We evaluated the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT using von Frey filaments, and pain-related behavior was determined after surgery based on ultrasonic vocalization (USV. The group treated with E. officinalis extracts at 300 mg/kg had significantly increased MWT values at 6 h and 24 h after the PI, and had a significantly reduced number of 22–27-kHz USVs at 6 h and 24 h after PI. Moreover, after 15 days of continuous treatment with E. officinalis extracts, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Thus, E. officinalis extracts have potential analgesic effects in both postoperative and neuropathic pain models in vivo.

  18. Analgesic Effect of Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Fruit) Extracts on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Jae Goo; Kim, Yun Tai

    2016-01-01

    Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis fruit), also known as “Amla” is one of the oldest edible fruits known in India. It has also traditionally been used to treat inflammation, and as an analgesic to treat wounds. However, experimental evidence for the analgesic effects of E. officinalis has been lacking. The present study investigated whether E. officinalis extracts exhibit analgesic effects in the plantar incision (PI) and spared nerve injury (SNI) pain-model rats. We evaluated the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) using von Frey filaments, and pain-related behavior was determined after surgery based on ultrasonic vocalization (USV). The group treated with E. officinalis extracts at 300 mg/kg had significantly increased MWT values at 6 h and 24 h after the PI, and had a significantly reduced number of 22–27-kHz USVs at 6 h and 24 h after PI. Moreover, after 15 days of continuous treatment with E. officinalis extracts, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Thus, E. officinalis extracts have potential analgesic effects in both postoperative and neuropathic pain models in vivo. PMID:27898027

  19. Evaluation of analgesic activity of various extracts of Sida tiagii Bhandari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumawat, Ram Kumar; Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Sida tiagii Bhandari mostly found in India and Pakistan which belongs to family Malvaceae, is traditionally used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, anxiolytic, anti-seizure and anti-platelet. The present study was done to explore the analgesic activity of various extracts of fruits of the plant Sida tiagii Bhandari. The grinded fruits were extracted with 90% ethanol and partitioned with n-hexane (n-hexane extract; HS) and ethyl acetate (ethyl acetate extract; EAS), successively. The residual ethanol fraction (residual ethanol extract; RES) was also prepared by drying on water bath separately. All three extracts were administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of body weight. The analgesic activity of above extracts was evaluated by using acetic acid induced writhing, tail immersion and tail flick tests in Swiss albino mice. The EAS extract was found to reduce pain and RES extract of Sida tiagii B. was found to have good analgesic activity in comparison to other extracts.

  20. Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of intravenous propacetamol vs rectal paracetamol in children after major craniofacial surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Sandra A.; Van Dijk, Monique; Van Leeuwen, Pim; Searle, Susan; Anderson, Brian J.; Tibboel, Dick; Mathot, Ron A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of intravenous and rectal paracetamol were compared in nonventilated infants after craniofacial surgery in a double-blind placebo controlled study. Methods: During surgery all infants (6 months-2 years) received a rectal loading dose of 40 mg.kg

  1. The analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block after cesarean delivery: a randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, John G

    2008-01-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an effective method of providing postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing midline abdominal wall incisions. We evaluated its analgesic efficacy over the first 48 postoperative hours after cesarean delivery performed through a Pfannensteil incision, in a randomized controlled, double-blind, clinical trial.

  2. Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Tamarindus indica Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama A Suralkar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica (TI seeds on anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in vivo using rat as an animal model at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight. The anti-inflammatory activities were investigated by utilizing carrageenan induced paw edema in rat. The analgesic activity was examined against tail immersion method in rats. The results showed that TI significantly (p<0.01 reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. In tail immersion method, methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica has shown significant (p<0.01 increase in reaction time of tail in water maintained at 55°C indicating analgesic activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides and flavonoids. These results demonstrated that the methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica (TI seed exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  3. Evaluation of Parenteral Opioid Analgesics Utilization in Patients Hospitalized in a Referral Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool Soltani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opioid drugs are the most effective drugs for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Rates of opioid use are influenced by a variety of factors. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of use of parenteral opioid drugs in hospitalized patients in a referral teaching hospital. Methods: In a retrospective study, required data were extracted from medical records of adult patients who had received any parenteral opioid analgesic in the 6-month period from March 2013 to September 2013. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification/Defined Daily Doses (ATC/DDD system method was used for evaluation of opioid analgesic use in patients.Results: The overall usage of parenteral opioid analgesics was 730.51 DDDs with meperidine (Pethidine having the most amounts of use (588.69 DDDs and 33.23 DDDs/100 bed-days. Overall, the male surgery ward and emergency department had the most amounts of use based on the number of DDDs (445.8 DDDs and per 100 bed-days (1046 DDDs/100 bed-days, respectively. Methadone use was most in the infectious diseases ward.Conclusion: The trend of parenteral opioid analgesics consumption is increasing in this hospital. Therefore, better adherence to pain treatment guidelines by medical staff is necessary for rational use of these drugs.

  4. The effects of analgesic prescription and patient adherence on pain in a Dutch outpatient cancer population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enting, Roeline; Oldenmenger, Wendy H.; Van Gool, Arthur R.; van der Rijt, Carin C. D.; Smitt, Peter A. E. Sillevis

    2007-01-01

    Insufficient awareness of cancer Pain, including breakthrough pain, inadequate analgesic prescriptions, and nonadherence contribute to inadequate cancer pain management. There are insufficient data about the contribution of each of these factors. In a cross-sectional survey among 915 adult cancer ou

  5. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nripendra Nath Biswas; Subarna Saha; Mohammed Khadem Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate potential antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L. in different in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Methods: In vitro DPPH radical scavenging assay was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the plant extract. In vivo analgesic activity was carried out by acetic acid-induced writhing test in Swiss albino mice. All studies in mice were undertaken at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Antibacterial activity was studied by disk diffusion assay against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Brine shrimp lethality assay was used to investigate cytotoxicity effects of the plant extract. Results:The extract showed free radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay (IC50~41 µg/mL) compared to the standard antioxidant ascorbic acid (IC50~19 µg/mL). The extract also produced prominent antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella boydii,Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus aureus compared to standard drug kanamycin at the dose of 30 µg/disc. The extract exhibited lethality against the brine shrimp nauplii with the LC50 values of 40 µg/mL, and also 90% mortality (LC90) value was found to be 160 µg/mL. In analgesic test, the extract demonstrated statistically significant (P Conclusions:These results suggest that the ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L. has potential antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities that support the ethnopharmacological uses of this plant.

  6. Conformational re-analysis of (+)-meptazinol: an opioid with mixed analgesic pharmacophores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei LI; Xing-hai WANG; Choi-wan LAU; Yun TANG; Qiong XIE; Zhui-bai QIU

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To further investigate the analgesic pharmacophore of (+)-meptazinol. Methods: Two different opioid pharmacophores, Pharm-Ⅰ and Pharm-Ⅱ, were established from structures of nine typical opiates and meperidine by using molecular modeling approaches according to their different structure activity relationship properties. They were further validated by a set of conformationally constrained arylpiperidines. Two conformers of (+)-meptazinol (Conformer-Ⅰ and Con-former-Ⅱ) detected in solution were then fitted into the pharmacophores, respectively, by Fit Atoms facilities available in SYBYL, a computational modeling tool kit for molecular design and analysis. Results: Conformer-Ⅰ fit Pharm-Ⅰ from typical opiates well. However, Conformer-Ⅱ fit none of these pharmacophores. Instead, it was found to be similar to another potent analgesic, benzofuro[2,3-c] pyridin-6-ol, whose pharmacophore was suggested to hold the transitional state between the two established pharmacophores. Unlike typical analgesics derived from 4-aryl piperidine (eg, meperidine) with one conformer absolutely overwhelming, the (+)-meptazinol exists in two conformers with similar amounts in solution. Furthermore, both conformers can not transform to each other freely in ordinary conditions based on our NMR results. Conclusion: (+)-meptazinol was suggested to be an opioid with mixed analgesic pharmacophores, which may account for the complicated pharmacological properties of meptazinol.

  7. Analysis of Currently Available Analgesic Tablets by Modern Liquid Chromatography: An Undergraduate Laboratory Introduction to HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagel, R. A.; Farwell, S. O.

    1983-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and results, are provided for an undergraduate experiment in which analgesic tablets are analyzed using liquid chromatography. The experiment, an improved, modified version of the Waters Associates Inc. experiment, is simple to prepare, requiring little glassware and minimal sample manipulation by students. (JN)

  8. Possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory interactions of aspartame with opioids and NSAIDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sameer; Jain, N K; Kulkarni, S K

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of aspartame, an artificial sweetner and its combination with various opioids and NSAIDs for a possible synergistic response. The oral administration of aspartame (2-16mg/kg, po) significantly increased the pain threshold against acetic acid-induced writhes in mice. Co-administration of aspartame (2mg/kg, po) with nimesulide (2 mg/kg, po) and naproxen (5 mg/kg, po) significantly reduced acetic acid-induced writhes as compared to effects per se of individual drugs. Similarly when morphine (1 mg/kg, po) or pentazocine (1 mg/kg, po) was co-administered with aspartame it reduced the number of writhes as compared to their effects per se. Aspartame (4,8,16 mg/kg, po) significantly decreased carrageenan-induced increase in paw volume and also reversed the hyperalgesic effects in rats in combination with nimesulide (2 mg/kg, po). The study indicated that aspartame exerted analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects on its own and have a synergistic analgesic response with conventional analgesics of opioid and non-opioid type, respectively.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of a Novel Biflavonoid from Shells of Camellia oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shells are by-products of oil production from Camellia oleifera which have not been harnessed effectively. The purpose of this research is to isolate flavonoid from shells of Camellia oleifera and evaluate its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The flavonoid was identified as bimolecular kaempferol structure by UV, MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra, which is a new biflavonoid and first found in Camellia oleifera. It showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenin-induced paw oedema in rats and croton oil induced ear inflammation in mice, and analgesic activity by hot plate test and acetic acid induced writhing. The mechanism of anti-inflammation of biflavonoid is related to both bradykinin and prostaglandins synthesis inhibition. The biflavonoid showed both central and peripheral analgesic effects different from aspirin, inhibition of the synthesis or action of prostaglandins may contribute to analgesic effect of biflavonoid. The biflavonoid significantly decreased malonaldehyde (MDA and increased superoxidase dismutase (SOD and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity in serum (p < 0.01, revealed strong free radical scavenging activity in vivo. It indicates the biflavonoid can control inflammation and pain by eliminating free radical so as to inhibit the mediators and decrease the prostaglandins. The biflavonoid can be used as a prospective medicine for inflammation and pain.

  10. Leaves extract of Murraya Koenigii linn for anti--inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailly Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oral administration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals. Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in paw volume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan (1% w/v injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy′s hot plate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy′s hot plate method and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared with the control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o. These inhibitions were statistically significant (P < 0.05. Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit of Murraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  11. The analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block after abdominal surgery: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, John G

    2007-01-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a novel approach for blocking the abdominal wall neural afferents via the bilateral lumbar triangles of Petit. We evaluated its analgesic efficacy in patients during the first 24 postoperative hours after abdominal surgery, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

  12. HYPOGLYCEMIC, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF PEPEROMEA PELLUCIDA (L. HBK (PIPERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sheikh*, S. Sikder, S. Kumar Paul , A.M. Rashedul Hasan , Md. M. Rahaman and S. Paul Kundu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aspire of the present research was to explore the hypoglycemic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of ethyl acetate extract of Peporemia pellucida in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, and hypercholesterolemia and against pain. In the present study hypoglycemic effect of the ethyl acetate extract of Peperomea pellucida was significant from (25.35 to 8.1 mM ±SEM i.e., 68.44% in 300mg/kg ethyl acetate extract as a 7 days hypoglycemic treatment. On 120 minutes OGTT test, reduction of blood glucose level was also significant. In 300mg/kg extract blood glucose level reduced from (20.53mM to 7.69 ±SEM 62.64% was observed. Analgesic treatment was observed carefully and mentionable activities were evaluated. Percentage of inhibition was 58.16 with the number of writhing 11.8±SEM in 300mg/kg inhibition was observed with 6.8 ±SEM writhing. P. pellucida has significant anti-inflammatory effect after 4 hr with 3.47± SEM. The present study indicates significant hypoglycemic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of P. pellucida. The present investigation established the pharmacological evidence to support the folklore claim and that of the plant has antidiabetic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.

  13. Beneficial effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on inflammation and analgesic use in psoriatic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Salome; Schmidt, E B; Schlemmer, A

    2017-01-01

    , double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The participants received a supplement of 3 g n-3 PUFA/day or 3 g olive oil/day (control) for 24 weeks. Outcome measures for disease activity, use of analgesics, and leukotriene formation from activated granulocytes were assessed at baseline and at study end...

  14. Analgesics, sedatives and neuromuscular blockers as part of end-of-life decisions in Dutch NICUs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, A. A. E.; Dorscheidt, J. H. H. M.; Engels, B.; Hubben, J. H.; Sauer, P. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Clinicians frequently administer analgesics and sedatives at the time of withholding or withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment in newborns. This practice might be regarded as intentionally hastening of death. Objective: To describe type, doses and reasons for administering medications a

  15. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of methanol extract of Tectona grandis flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramachandran S; Rajini kanth B; Rajasekaran A; Manisenthil Kumar KT

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of Tectona grandis (T. grandis) flowers (METGF) in animal models to support its traditional use. Methods:Acute toxicity study was performed to determine the toxicity level of METGF in mice and rats. Carrageenan (1%w/w) was administered and inflammation was induced in sub-plantar region of rat paw. Analgesia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 0.6%v/v acetic acid in mice to assess peripheral analgesic action of METGF. Also, hot-plate was used to induce pain in mice to evaluate central analgesic action of METGF. Results: Oral administration of METGF in rat and mice did not produce any toxicity at 2 000 mg/kg dose level. In carrageenan induced inflammation, administration of METGF (100 and 200 mg/kg) as well as indomethacin (10 mg/kg) reduced rat paw edema significantly at 3, 4 and 5 h. Both the doses of METGF showed significant inhibition in acetic acid induced writhing responses. In thermally induced analgesia models, administration of METG at dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly increased reaction time compared to control animals. The preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds and tannins in METGF. Conclusions: Present study, for the first time, confirms the anti-inflammatory and analgesic action of METGF and it supports the traditional use of T. grandis flowers.

  16. Strain-specific response to anaesthetics and analgesics in rat and rabbit : A pharmacogenetic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avsaroglu, H.

    2008-01-01

    The response of (laboratory) animals to anaesthetics and analgesics is known to show intraspecies variability. Apart from environmental influences, this may also be caused by genetic factors. In this thesis, rabbit and rat inbred strains were used to identify differences in response to anaesthetics

  17. The Relationship Between Sound Levels In the Postanesthesia Care Unit and Use of Analgesics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    the physiological and psychological mechanisms behind the phenomena, Florence Nightingale noticed an association between noise and patient discomfort...is interesting that the relationship between sound levels and the use of analgesics remains so similar. Going back even further, Florence Nightingale s

  18. Evaluation of the analgesic efficacy of garlic shoots extract in experimental pain models in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh V. Dange

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Garlic shoot extract (GSE was found to be effective in all three models of experimental pain. However it is less potent than standard analgesic drugs and could be employed safely in higher doses. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(6.000: 2393-2396

  19. Orbitofrontal cortex involvement in chronic analgesic-overuse headache evolving from episodic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumal, Arnaud; Laureys, Steven; Di Clemente, Laura; Boly, Mélanie; Bohotin, Valentin; Vandenheede, Michel; Coppola, Gianluca; Salmon, Eric; Kupers, Ron; Schoenen, Jean

    2006-02-01

    The way in which medication overuse transforms episodic migraine into chronic daily headache is unknown. To search for candidate brain areas involved in this process, we measured glucose metabolism with 18-FDG PET in 16 chronic migraineurs with analgesic overuse before and 3 weeks after medication withdrawal and compared the data with those of a control population (n = 68). Before withdrawal, the bilateral thalamus, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate gyrus, insula/ventral striatum and right inferior parietal lobule were hypometabolic, while the cerebellar vermis was hypermetabolic. All dysmetabolic areas recovered to almost normal glucose uptake after withdrawal of analgesics, except the OFC where a further metabolic decrease was found. A subanalysis showed that most of the orbitofrontal hypometabolism was due to eight patients overusing combination analgesics and/or an ergotamine-caffeine preparation. Medication overuse headache is thus associated with reversible metabolic changes in pain processing structures like other chronic pain disorders, but also with persistent orbitofrontal hypofunction. The latter is known to occur in drug dependence and could predispose subgroups of migraineurs to recurrent analgesic overuse.

  20. Microwave-assisted one-pot synthesis of benzothiazole and benzoxazole libraries as analgesic agents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Praveen; A Nandakumar; P Dheenkumar; D Muralidharan; P T Perumal

    2012-05-01

    Microwave-assisted synthesis of benzothiazole and benzoxazole libraries via PIFA promoted cyclocondensation of 2-aminothiophenols/2-aminophenols with aldehydes under one-pot condition in good to excellent yields was achieved. Twenty compounds have been investigated for their analgesic activity and showed moderate to good activity.

  1. Analgesic Effects of Oligonol, Acupuncture and Quantum Light Therapy on Chronic Nonbacterial Prostatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdere, Hakan; Oztekin, Ilhan; Arda, Ersan; Aktoz, Tevfik; Turan, Fatma Nesrin; Burgazli, Kamil Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic Nonbacterial Prostatitis (CNBP) is a condition that frequently causes long-term pain and a significant decrease in the quality of life. Objectives: The present study aimed to examine the analgesic effects of oligonol, acupuncture, quantum light therapy and their combinations on estrogen-induced CNBP in rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted in Edirne, Turkey, using a simple randomized allocation. A total of 90 adult male Wistar rats were randomized into 9 groups of 10 rats each: Group I, control; Group II, CNBP, Group III, oligonol only, Group IV, acupuncture only; Group V, quantum only; Group VI, oligonol + quantum; Group VII, acupuncture + oligonol; Group VIII, quantum + acupuncture; Group IX, acupuncture + quantum + oligonol. Oligonol treatment was given at a dose of 60 mg/day for 6 weeks. Conceptual vessels (CV) 3 and 4, and bilaterally urinary bladder (Bl) 32 and 34 points were targeted with 1-hour acupuncture stimulation. The quantum light therapy was applied in 5-minute sessions for 6 weeks (3-times/a week). For pain measurements, mechanical pressure was applied to a point 2 cm distal to the root of the tail to elicit pain and consequent parameters (peak force, latency time of response and total length of measurement) were assessed. Results: Analgesic effects were observed with all treatment regimens; however, the most prominent median analgesic effect was shown in the quantum light therapy in combination with acupuncture for estrogen-induced CNBP (PF1 = 663.9, PF2 = 403.4) (P = 0.012). Furthermore, we observed that monotherapy with quantum light showed a better analgesic efficacy as compared to oligonol and acupuncture monotherapies (PF1 = 1044.6, PF2 = 661.2) (P = 0.018, P = 0.008, P = 0.018; respectively). Conclusions: All treatment modalities showed a significant analgesic effect on CNBP in rats, being most prominent with the quantum light therapy. PMID:26023344

  2. Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Viola betonicifolia whole plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Naveed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrexia, algesia and inflammation are associated with several pathological conditions. Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of these conditions cause multiple unwanted effects. Several studies are ongoing worldwide to find natural healing agents with better safety profile. The current study was thus aimed at evaluating antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of whole plant of V. betonicifolia (VBME. Methods VBME was employed to assess antipyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermia. Analgesic profile was ascertained in acetic acid induced writhing, hot plat and tail immersion test. Nevertheless, the anti-inflammatory activity was tested in carrageenan induced paw edema and histamine induced inflammatory tests. BALB/c mice were used at test doses of 100, 200 and 300mg/kg body weight intra peritoneally (i.p. Results In yeast induced pyrexia, VBME demonstrated dose dependently (78.23% protection at 300mg/kg, similar to standard drug, paracetamol (90% at 150mg/kg i.p. VBME showed a dose dependent analgesia in various pain models i.e. acetic acid, hot plat and tail immersion having 78.90%, 69.96% and 68.58% protection respectively at 300mg/kg. However, the analgesic action of VBME was completely antagonized by the injection of naloxone like opiate antagonists. Similarly carrageenan and histamine induces inflammation was significantly antagonized by VBME, 66.30% and 60.80% respectively at 300mg/kg. Conclusions It is concluded that VBME has marked antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in various animal models and this strongly supports the ethnopharmacological uses of Viola betonicifolia as antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory plant.

  3. Levetiracetam synergises with common analgesics in producing antinociception in a mouse model of painful diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micov, Ana; Tomić, Maja; Pecikoza, Uroš; Ugrešić, Nenad; Stepanović-Petrović, Radica

    2015-07-01

    Painful diabetic neuropathy is difficult to treat. Single analgesics often have insufficient efficacy and poor tolerability. Combination therapy may therefore be of particular benefit, because it might provide optimal analgesia with fewer adverse effects. This study aimed to examine the type of interaction between levetiracetam, a novel anticonvulsant with analgesic properties, and commonly used analgesics (ibuprofen, aspirin and paracetamol) in a mouse model of painful diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes was induced in C57BL/6 mice with a single high dose of streptozotocin, applied intraperitoneally (150 mg/kg). Thermal (tail-flick test) and mechanical (electronic von Frey test) nociceptive thresholds were measured before and three weeks after diabetes induction. The antinociceptive effects of orally administered levetiracetam, analgesics, and their combinations were examined in diabetic mice that developed thermal/mechanical hypersensitivity. In combination experiments, the drugs were co-administered in fixed-dose fractions of single drug ED50 and the type of interaction was determined by isobolographic analysis. Levetiracetam (10-100 mg/kg), ibuprofen (2-50 mg/kg), aspirin (5-75 mg/kg), paracetamol (5-100 mg/kg), and levetiracetam-analgesic combinations produced significant, dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in diabetic mice in both tests. In the tail-flick test, isobolographic analysis revealed 15-, and 19-fold reduction of doses of both drugs in the combination of levetiracetam with aspirin/ibuprofen, and paracetamol, respectively. In the von Frey test, approximately 7- and 9-fold reduction of doses of both drugs was detected in levetiracetam-ibuprofen and levetiracetam-aspirin/levetiracetam-paracetamol combinations, respectively. These results show synergism between levetiracetam and ibuprofen/aspirin/paracetamol in a model of painful diabetic neuropathy and might provide a useful approach to the treatment of patients suffering from painful diabetic neuropathy.

  4. The analgesic efficacy of xylazine and dipyrone in hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.J. Mousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oxidative stress–induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on the analgesic effect of xylazine and dipyrone in 7-14 days old chicks was studied, compared with the control group that given plane tap water. H2O2, 0.5 % in water, induced oxidative stress in chicks by significantly lowering glutathione, rising malondialdehyde in plasma, whole brain during the day 7th, 10th, 14th of chicks old in comparison with the control group. The analgesic median effective doses (ED50 of xylazine and dipyrone in the control group were determined to be 0.79 and 65.3 mg/kg, intramuscularly (i.m., respectively whereas H2O2 treated groups decreased these values to be 0.31 and 37.2 mg/kg, i.m. by 61 and 43%, respectively. Intramuscular injection of xylazine and dipyrone at 0.5, 70 mg/kg respectively causes analgesia from electro-stimulation induced pain in 50, 66.67% respectively in control groups whereas H2O2 treated chicks increases the analgesic efficacy to be 83.33 and 83.33% respectively. Xylazine and dipyrone injection at 1 and 100 mg/kg, i.m. 15 minutes before formaldehyde injection in right planter foot of stressed chicks causes analgesia from pain induced by formaldehyde through significant increases in onset of lifting of formaldehyde injected foot, significantly decreases its lifting numbers, decreases the time elapsed of lifting of formaldehyde injected foot in comparison with the stressed control group that injected with saline in right planter foot. The data of this study indicate that H2O2-induced oxidative stress potentiate the analgesic efficacy of the central and peripheral analgesics of xylazine and dipyrone in chicks.

  5. Delayed-onset muscle soreness: a pilot study to assess analgesic study design features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Neil; Desjardins, Paul J; Cosca, Evelyn B; Parulan, Cherri; Arriaga, Anne; Poole, Kelly C; Batz, Dan M; Chang, Phoebe D

    2015-06-01

    Based on a thorough review of the available literature in the delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) model, we identified multiple study design characteristics that are considered to be normative in acute pain research but have not been followed in a majority of published DOMS experiments. We designed an analgesic investigation using the DOMS model that both complied with current scientifically accepted standards for the conduct of analgesic studies and demonstrated reasonable assay sensitivity. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject study compared the efficacy of topical diclofenac sodium 1% with a matching placebo in reducing pain associated with DOMS. After exercise, subjects reporting DOMS received topical diclofenac sodium gel 1% (DSG 1%) applied to one leg and placebo to the other every 6 hours for 48 hours. Pain intensity was assessed at rest, upon standing, and when walking in the 48 hours after initial drug application (T0). The primary end point was the reduction in pain intensity (SPID 24) on walking. Subjects receiving DSG 1% had less pain while walking compared with those receiving placebo at 24 hours (SPID 24 = 34.9 [22.9] and 23.6 [19.4], respectively; P = 0.032). This investigation used experimental techniques that have been vetted in the field of exercise physiology and superimposed techniques that are considered to be best practice in the field of analgesic research. Over time and with the help of colleagues in both fields of study, similar investigations will validate design features that impact the assay sensitivity of analgesic end points in DOMS models. In addition, the study confirmed the analgesic efficacy of topical DSG 1% over placebo in subjects experiencing DOMS.

  6. EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF COCCULUS HIRSUTUS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sarvankumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and pain are the most common health problems treated with traditional remedies which mainly comprise medicinal plants. A number of natural products are used in the traditional medical systems in many countries. An alternative medicine for the treatment of various diseases is getting more popular. Many medicinal plants provide relief of symptoms comparable to that of obtained from allopathic medicines. Therefore agents of natural origin with very little side effects are required as substitute chemicals therapeutics. The methanolic leaf extract of Cocculus hirsutus (100& 200mg/kg Linn (Menispermaceae was investigated for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in laboratory animals. The analgesic activity of the methanolic leaf extract of Cocculus hirsutus was investigated by eddy’s hot plate model and acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity of Cocculus hirsutus was studied by both in-vitro and in vivo models. Human red blood cells membrane stabilization method was adopted for the in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity and for in-vivo, Carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma in rats was employed. In eddy’s hot plate analgesic study, both the doses of Cocculus hirsutus showed significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively analgesic activity. In acetic acid induced writhing model, the onset of writhing was delayed and duration of writhing was shortened by the methanolic extract of Cocculus hirsutus.In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic leaf extract of Cocculus hirsutus showed significant anti inflammatory activity in a concentration dependent manner. Cocculus hirsutus showed significant anti-inflammatory activity on both carrgeenan as well as cotton pellet induced granuloma models in rats. From the results, it was concluded that the methanolic leaf extract of Cocculus hirsutus possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory.

  7. Antioxidant,antimicrobial,cytotoxic and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nripendra; Nath; Biswas; Subarna; Saha; Mohammed; khadem; Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate potential antioxidant,antimicrobial,cytotoxic and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of Mentha arrensis l.,in different in vivo and in vitro experimental models.Methods:In vitro DPPH radical scavenging assay was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the plant extract.In vivo analgesic activity was carried out by acetic acid—induced writhing test in Swiss albino mice.All studies in mice were undertaken at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight.Antibacterial activilv was studied by disk diffusion assay against some Gram—positive and Gram—negative bacterial strains.Brine shrimp lethality assay was used to investigate cyloloxicity effects of the plant extract.Results:The extract showed free radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay(IC5041 μg/mL)compared to the standard antioxidant ascorbic acid(IC5019 μg/mL).The extract also produced prominent antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhi.Salmonella paratyphi.Shigella boydii,Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus aureus compared to standard drug kanamycin at the dose of 30 μg/disc.The extract exhibited lethality against the brine shrimp nauplii with the LC50,values of 40 μg/mL.and also 90%mortality(LC90) value was found to be 160 μg/mL.In analgesic test.the extract demonstrated statistically significant(P<0.01) analgesic effect in acetic acid induced writhing in white albino mice al both dose levels.Conclusions:These results suggest that the ethanolic extract of Mentha arvenns L.has potential antioxidant,antibacterial,cytotoxic and analgesic activities that support the ethnopharmacological uses of this plant.

  8. Intraoperative esmolol infusion reduces postoperative analgesic consumption and anaesthetic use during septorhinoplasty: a randomized trial

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    Nalan Celebi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Esmolol is known to have no analgesic activity and no anaesthetic properties; however, it could potentiate the reduction in anaesthetic requirements and reduce postoperative analgesic use. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of intravenous esmolol infusion on intraoperative and postoperative analgesic consumptions as well as its effect on depth of anaesthesia. Methods: This randomized-controlled double blind study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital between March and June 2010. Sixty patients undergoing septorhinoplasty were randomized into two groups. History of allergy to drugs used in the study, ischaemic heart disease, heart block, bronchial asthma, hepatic or renal dysfunction, obesity and a history of chronic use of analgesic or β-blockers were considered cause for exclusion from the study. Thirty patients received esmolol and remifentanil (esmolol group and 30 patients received normal saline and remifentanil (control group as an intravenous infusion during the procedure. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and bispectral index values were recorded every 10min. Total remifentanil consumption, visual analogue scale scores, time to first analgesia and total postoperative morphine consumption were recorded. Results: The total remifentanil consumption, visual analogue scale scores at 0, 20 and 60 min, total morphine consumption, time to first analgesia and the number of patients who needed an intravenous morphine were lower in the esmolol group. Conclusions: Intravenous infusion of esmolol reduced the intraoperative and postoperative analgesic consumption, reduced visual analogue scale scores in the early postoperative period and prolonged the time to first analgesia; however it did not influence the depth of anaesthesia.

  9. Repeated injections of orexin-A developed behavioral tolerance to its analgesic effects in rats

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    Elmira Ghasemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Reduction of pharmacological effectiveness or tolerance appears following repeated administration of many analgesic drugs. We investigated tolerance to anti-nociceptive effects of orexin-A, an endogenous potent analgesic peptide using the hot-plate test.Materials and Methods:Orexin-A was microinjected ICV (intracerebroventricular with an interval of 12 hr for 7 continuous days and its anti-nociceptive responses were measured on days 1, 4 and 7 using the hot-plate test following the first day of administration. Orexin-A was used at a dose of 100 pmol to induce analgesic effects. Results:ICV administration of orexin-A produced an effective anti-nociception on the first day of experiment as measured by hot-plate 5, 15, and 30 min after the injection, in comparison with both baselines (hot-plate test one day before the beginning of orexin-A administration and control, saline-administrated group. However, repeated administration of orexin-A on the following days revealed a significant reduction in this analgesic effect during day 4 to day 7. However, to rule out any associative tolerance resulting from learning related to experimental procedures and/or environmental cues, a single injection of orexin-A was administrated to animals of control group (which were receiving saline during 7 days of experiments and the analgesic effect was observed. Conclusion:These results, for the first time, indicated the appearance of tolerance to anti-nociceptive effects of orexin-A, following repeated administrations of this agent.

  10. "Weak" opioid analgesics. Codeine, dihydrocodeine and tramadol: no less risky than morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    So-called weak opioid analgesics are often used to treat severe pain, or when paracetamol or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) proves inadequate. But are weak opioids any more effective than paracetamol or NSAIDs on nociceptive pain, and are they better tolerated than morphine? To answer these questions, we conducted a review of literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. The potency of codeine and tramadol is strongly influenced by the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP2D6 genotype, which varies widely from one person to another. This explains reports of overdosing or underdosing after administration of standard doses of the two drugs. The potency of morphine and that of buprenorphine, an opioid receptor agonist-antagonist, appears to be independent of CYP2D6 activity. All "weak" opioids can have the same dose-dependent adverse effects as morphine. There is no evidence that, at equivalent analgesic efficacy, weak opioids carry a lower risk of addiction than low-dose morphine. Respiratory depression can occur in ultrarapid metabolisers after brief exposure to standard doses of codeine or tramadol. Similar cases have been reported with dihydrocodeine in patients with renal failure. In addition, tramadol can cause a serotonin syndrome, hypoglycaemia, hyponatraemia and seizures. Several trials have compared different weak opioids in patients with post-operative pain. A single dose of a weak opioid, possibly combined with paracetamol, has greater analgesic efficacy than paracetamol alone but is not more effective than an NSAID alone. There is a dearth of evidence on weak opioids in patients with chronic pain. Available trials fail to show that a weak opioid has markedly superior analgesic efficacy to paracetamol or an NSAID. Sublingual buprenorphine at analgesic doses appears less likely to cause respiratory depression, but it seems to have weak analgesic efficacy. In practice, when opioid therapy is needed, there is no evidence that codeine

  11. Hair analysis to monitor abuse of analgesic combinations containing butalbital and propyphenazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Anna; Tiraferri, Ilaria; Palazzoli, Federica; Verri, Patrizia; Vandelli, Daniele; Marchesi, Filippo; Ciccarese, Michela; Licata, Manuela

    2015-11-10

    Butalbital, a barbiturate, is present in analgesic combinations used by headache sufferers. Overuse/abuse of these combinations may cause dependence, chronic migraine, and medication-overuse headache (MOH). MOH is difficult to manage: it improves interrupting analgesic overuse, but requires monitoring, because relapses are frequent. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for hair analysis has been developed and validated to document abuse of an analgesic combination containing butalbital and propyphenazone by a patient with MOH. For over ten years the patient managed her headache using eight suppositories/day of an analgesic combination containing butalbital 150mg, caffeine 75mg, and propyphenazone 375mg per suppository. An outpatient detoxification treatment was carried out. After three weeks, the patient reduced the consumption to one suppository/day. At the first control visit, after three months from the beginning of detoxification, the patient increased the use of the combination to four suppositories/day and at the second control visit, after seven months from the beginning of detoxification, she was back to eight suppositories/day. At the two control visits, a hair sample was taken for determination of butalbital and propyphenazone. Moreover blood and urine samples for determination of butalbital were drawn at the beginning of detoxification treatment and at the two control visits. With the segmental analysis of two hair samples the medication history of ten months could be estimated. In the first hair sample, collected at the first control visit, in the distal segment, butalbital and propyphenazone concentrations were, respectively, 17.5ng/mg and 56.0ng/mg, confirming the prolonged abuse; in the proximal segment, concurrently with the detoxification treatment, butalbital and propyphenazone concentrations had reduced respectively to 5.45ng/mg and 11.1ng/mg. The second hair sample, collected at the second control visit, proved the fair course

  12. Factors associated with a continuous regular analgesic use - a population-based study of more than 45,000 Danish women and men 18-45 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreave, Marie; Andersen, Tina Veje; Nielsen, Ann;

    2010-01-01

    Widespread use of and serious adverse effects associated with use of analgesics accentuates the need to consider factors related to analgesic use. The objective of this study was to describe continuous regular analgesics use and examine factors associated with a continuous regular analgesic use....

  13. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of Lepidagathis anobrya Nees (Acanthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Sawadogo Wamtinga; Marius, Lompo; Noya, Somé; Innocent Pierre, Guissou; Germaine, Nacoulma-Ouedraogo Odile

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the general acute, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of methanol extract of Lepidagathis anobrya Nees (Acanthaceae). Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and croton oil-induced ear edema in rats were used for the evaluation of general acute anti-inflammatory effects. Acetic acid-induced writhing response and yeast-induced hyperpyrexia in mice were used to evaluate the analgesic and antipyretic activities respectively. The extract at doses of 10, 25, 50 and 100 mgkg(-1) for carrageenan test and doses of 0.5 mg/ear for croton oil test induced a significant reduction (p Lepidagathis anobrya and give the scientific basis for its traditional use. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism of action and the components responsible for these pharmacological effects.

  14. The Role of Descending Modulation in Manual Therapy and Its Analgesic Implications: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigotsky, Andrew D; Bruhns, Ryan P

    2015-01-01

    Manual therapy has long been a component of physical rehabilitation programs, especially to treat those in pain. The mechanisms of manual therapy, however, are not fully understood, and it has been suggested that its pain modulatory effects are of neurophysiological origin and may be mediated by the descending modulatory circuit. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the neurophysiological response to different types of manual therapy, in order to better understand the neurophysiological mechanisms behind each therapy's analgesic effects. It is concluded that different forms of manual therapy elicit analgesic effects via different mechanisms, and nearly all therapies appear to be at least partially mediated by descending modulation. Additionally, future avenues of mechanistic research pertaining to manual therapy are discussed.

  15. The Role of Descending Modulation in Manual Therapy and Its Analgesic Implications: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Vigotsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual therapy has long been a component of physical rehabilitation programs, especially to treat those in pain. The mechanisms of manual therapy, however, are not fully understood, and it has been suggested that its pain modulatory effects are of neurophysiological origin and may be mediated by the descending modulatory circuit. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the neurophysiological response to different types of manual therapy, in order to better understand the neurophysiological mechanisms behind each therapy’s analgesic effects. It is concluded that different forms of manual therapy elicit analgesic effects via different mechanisms, and nearly all therapies appear to be at least partially mediated by descending modulation. Additionally, future avenues of mechanistic research pertaining to manual therapy are discussed.

  16. Screening of Analgesic and Immunomodulator activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Leaves (Jackfruit in Mice

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    Jyoti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Adaptability is probably the most distinct characteristics of life which may be defined as sum of all nonspecific response of the body to any demands made upon it; fundamentally it was a physiological response; primary object of which was to maintain life and to re-establish the normal state. Analgesic and Immunomodulator activity of leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. was evaluated by using Eddy’s hot plate method and Swimming endurance test at the dose levels of 250 and 500mg/kg in Swiss albino mice respectively. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves of A. heterophyllus were administered to the experimental animals among which the methanolic extract of A. heterophyllus leaves have shown to be exhibit significant analgesic and immunomodulator effect by paw licking and increasing the swimming or survival time (P<0.001 respectively in mice.

  17. Analgesic and antipyretic activity of Curcuma longa rhizome extracts in wister rats

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    S. Neha

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to ascertain analgesic and antipyretic activities of rhizome extracts of Curcuma longa in Wister rats. Both aqueous and alcoholic extracts at 100 and 200 mg/kg by oral, single dose treatment for seven days revealed significant difference (P<0.05, 0.01 in reaction time in terms of analgesic activity before and after treatments which was comparable to analgin (10 mg/kg b wt. and were ineffective in reversal of brewers yeast induced pyrexia. Solvent yield of these extracts was 20 percent and color dark brown and reddish brown with solid and semisolid consistency respectively. [Vet World 2009; 2(8.000: 304-306

  18. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory action of Opuntia elatior Mill fruits

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    Sanjay P Chauhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opuntia elatio Mill is a xerophytic plant with potentially active nutrients. It is traditionally appreciated for its pharmacological properties; however, the scientific information on this plant is insufficient. Objective: The present study evaluates the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory action of prickly pear. Materials and Methods: Writhing and tail-immersion tests were carried out to evaluate analgesic action, while the carrageenan-induced paw edema and neutrophil adhesion tests were conducted in Albino wistar rats to assess anti-inflammatory action. Results: ED 50 values of the fruit juice in writhing, tail immersion, and paw edema test were 0.919, 2.77, and 9.282 ml/kg, respectively. The fruits of Opuntia produced analgesic and anti-inflammatory action in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: The results establish the folklore use of prickly pear may be due to the presence of betacyanin and/or other phenolic compounds.

  19. Perception of the risk of adverse reactions to analgesics: differences between medical students and residents

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    Sandra Castillo-Guzman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Medications are not exempt from adverse drug reactions (ADR and how the physician perceives the risk of prescription drugs could influence their availability to report ADR and their prescription behavior. Methods. We assess the perception of risk and the perception of ADR associated with COX2-Inbitors, paracetamol, NSAIDs, and morphine in medical students and residents of northeast of Mexico. Results. The analgesic with the highest risk perception in both group of students was morphine, while the drug with the least risk perceived was paracetamol. Addiction and gastrointestinal bleeding were the ADR with the highest score for morphine and NSAIDs respectively. Discussion. Our findings show that medical students give higher risk scores than residents toward risk due to analgesics. Continuing training and informing physicians about ADRs is necessary since the lack of training is known to induce inadequate use of drugs.

  20. Post-operative analgesic effects of paracetamol, NSAIDs, glucocorticoids, gabapentinoids and their combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Nielsen, R V; Wetterslev, J

    2014-01-01

    , and no well-documented 'gold standards' exist. The aim of the present topical, narrative review is to provide an update of the evidence for post-operative analgesic efficacy with the most commonly used, systemic non-opioid drugs, paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)/COX-2 antagonists......, glucocorticoids, gabapentinoids, and combinations of these. The review is based on data from previous systematic reviews with meta-analyses, investigating effects of non-opioid analgesics on pain, opioid-requirements, and opioid-related adverse effects. Paracetamol, NSAIDs, COX-2 antagonists, and gabapentin....... Trials of pregabalin > 300 mg/day indicated a morphine-sparing effect of 13.4 (4, 22.8) mg morphine/24 h. Notably, though, the available evidence for additive or synergistic effects of most combination regimens was sparse or lacking. Paracetamol, NSAIDs, selective COX-2 antagonists, and gabapentin all...

  1. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves

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    Badrul Alam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities ofthe methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL. Materials and Methods: MPBL was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model. Analgesic activity of MPBL was evaluated by hot plate, writhing, and formalin tests. Total phenolic and flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, peroxynitrate (ONOO- as well as  inhibition of total ROS generation, and assessment of reducing power were used to evaluate antioxidant potential of MPBL. Results: The extract of MPBL, at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, produced a significant (p

  2. [Devil's claw extract as an example of the effectiveness of herbal analgesics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrubasik, S

    2004-07-01

    Preparations from devil's claw differ in their content of active ingredients as assessed by the quantity of harpagoside present. The harpagoside content in the daily dose of Doloteffin (extraction solvent water) is double that of preparations extracted with 60% ethanol. Only preparations with proven effectiveness for painful lower back or arthrotic pain are an attractive alternative to synthetic analgesics, and are of substantial benefit in the treatment of chronic pain. From an evidence based view, extract with at least 50 mg harpagoside in the daily dose should be recommended for the treatment of pain. Treatment with devil's claw extract is associated with a lower risk of adverse events than treatment with synthetic analgesics, and may contribute in the majority of patients to the relief of pain.

  3. Comparable effects of exercise and analgesics for pain secondary to knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Hansen, Julie B; Klokker, Louise;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Evidence of comparative effectiveness of different treatment approaches is important for clinical decision-making, yet absent for most recommended treatments of knee osteoarthritis pain. The objective of this study was to estimate the comparative effectiveness of exercise versus orally...... pharmacology, two exercise). From these, 54 trials were eligible (20 pharmacology, 34 exercise), with 9806 participants (5627 pharmacology, 4179 exercise). The pooled effect size of pharmacological pain interventions was 0.41 (95% CI: 0.23-0.59) and for exercise 0.46 standardized mean difference (95% CI: 0...... administered analgesics for pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: The Cochrane Database of systematic reviews was searched for meta-analyses of randomized controlled studies comparing exercise or analgesics with a control group (placebo or usual care) and with pain as an outcome. Individual study...

  4. [Nootropic and analgesic effects of Semax following different routes of administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchenko, D M; Glazova, N Iu; Levitskaia, N G; Andreeva, L A; Kamenskiĭ, A A; Miasoedov, N F

    2010-10-01

    Heptapeptide Semax (MEHFPGP) is the fragment of ACTH(4-10) analogue with prolonged neurotropic activity. The aim of the present work was to study the Semax effects on learning capability and pain sensitivity in white rats following intraperitoneal and intranasal administration in different doses. Semax nootropic effects were studied in the test of acquisition of passive avoidance task. Pain sensitivity was estimated in Randall-Selitto paw-withdrawal test. It was shown that Semax exerts nootropic and analgesic activities following intraperitoneal administration. Analysis of dependence of these effects on dose resulted in different dose-response curves. Following intranasal administration, Semax was more potent in learning improvement compared to intraperitoneal administration. The peptide failed to affect the animal pain sensitivity following intranasal administration as opposed to intraperitoneal administration. The data obtained suggest different mechanisms and brain structures involved in realization of the nootropic and analgesic effects of Semax.

  5. Screening of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn Flowers for Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Patel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The flowers of Caesalpinia pulcherrima were extracted with methanol to determine their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Intraperitoneal administration of methanolic extract (75, 150 and 225 mg/kg produced significant analgesic activity in acetic acid-induced writhing, tail immersion test and hot plate tests and anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced paw edema in experimental animals. Industrial relevance: The herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of inflammation because of the side effect of the current therapy used to treat those inflammation using synthetic drugs. Herbal medicines have less side effects and less costly when compared to the synthetic drugs. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drug with less side effect, less costly affordable and more effective in the treatment of pain and inflammation. Finally the phytochemical screening or elucidation of the bioactive compounds from the plant would be effective drug against pain and inflammation.

  6. Analgesic, anti-inlfammatory and antipyretic activities of methanolic leaf extract ofMaerua crassifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Godwin Christian Akuodor; Augustine Dick Essien; Joseph Linus Akpan; Kingsley Chimsorom Chilaka; Kenneth Ikechukwu Nwadike; Ndubuisi Nwobodo Nwobodo; Basil Chukwuma Ezeokpo

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the methanolic leaf extract ofMaerua crassifoliain mice and rats. Methods: Acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion methods were used to assess analgesic activity, while xylene and carrageenan-induced paw oedema methods were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of the leaf extract. Yeast and amphetamine-induced pyrexia were used to investigate the antipyretic activity. The phytochemical analysis and oral acute toxicity of the methanolic leaf extract ofMaerua crassifolia were also evaluated. Results: The leaf extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) showed a dose dependent and significant (P Conclusions:The findings confirmed its ethnomedical use in the treatment of pains and feverish conditions.

  7. Analgesic efficacy of lidocaine and multimodal analgesia for chest tube removal: A randomized trial study

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    Valdecy Ferreira de Oliveira Pinheiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the analgesic efficacy of subcutaneous lidocaine and multimodal analgesia for chest tube removal following heart surgery. Methods: sixty volunteers were randomly allocated in two groups; 30 participants in the experimental group were given 1% subcutaneous lidocaine, and 30 controls were given a multimodal analgesia regime comprising systemic anti-inflammatory agents and opioids. The intensity and quality of pain and trait and state anxiety were assessed. The association between independent variables and final outcome was assessed by means of the Chi-squared test with Yates' correction and Fisher's exact test. Results: the groups did not exhibit significant difference with respect to the intensity of pain upon chest tube removal (p= 0.47. The most frequent descriptors of pain reported by the participants were pressing, sharp, pricking, burning and unbearable. Conclusion: the present study suggests that the analgesic effect of the subcutaneous administration of 1% lidocaine combined with multimodal analgesia is most efficacious.

  8. Acupuncture plus Three-step Analgesic Ladder Principle for Cancer Pain Relief:Clinical Observation on 24 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yi; ZHONG Yi; HUANG Qin-feng; HAN Chou-ping

    2007-01-01

    To observe the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture plus three-step analgesic ladder for cancer pain relief.Method:Thirty-siX cases with cancer pain were randomized into a treatment group and a control group.Twenty-four cases in the treatment group were treated with acupuncture plus three-step analgesic ladder approach and 12 cases in the control group were treated with three-step analgesic ladder approach alone.Result:The total effective rate and marked effect rate of the treatment group were 95.8%and 54.2% respectively,while those of the control group were 83.3%and 25.0%respectively,indicating a significant statistical difference (P<0.05) in terms of the therapeutic efficacy of the two groups and acupuncture plus three-step analgesic ladder approach can further improve the therapeutic efficacy.

  9. The impact of socioeconomic and clinical factors on purchase of prescribed analgesics before and after hysterectomy on benign indication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Signe Bennedbæk; Brandsborg, Birgitte; Ottesen, Bent Smedegaard;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Pelvic pain is a primary symptom of women referred for hysterectomy. This study identified risk factors for purchase of prescribed analgesics before and after hysterectomy and examined purchase changes after hysterectomy, specifically focusing on socioeconomic effects. METHODS:: Nearly...

  10. An Acetazolamide Based Multimodal Analgesic Approach Versus Conventional Pain Management in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Living Donor Nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupinder Singh

    2009-01-01

    To conclude, a multimodal analgesic approach consisting a combination of orogastric acetazolamide, intraperito-neal saline irrigation and use of bupivacaine in the operated renal fossa, pfannenstiel incision and laparoscopic port sites provide significant reduction in postoperative pain after LDN.

  11. Anticonvulsant and analgesic activities of crude extract and its fractions of the defensive secretion from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis

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    Dellai Afef

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis with anticonvulsant and analgesic activities. We investigated the efficacy of crude extract and its semi-purified fractions (F1-F3 of the defensive secretion from Spongia officinalis for their in vivo anticonvulsant activity using the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ seizure model and analgesic activity using the writhing test in mice. Among the series the crude extract exhibited interesting analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. Similarly the fraction F2 showed a partial protection of mice from PTZ-induced seizure and interesting analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. The purification and the determination of chemical structure(s of compound(s of this active fraction are under investigation.

  12. Analgesics and sedatives in vascular interventionist radiologic. Analgesia y sedacion en Radiologia vascular e intervencionista (RVI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregorio, M.A. de; Opta, J.M.; Pulido, J.M.; Encarnacion, C.E.; Ario, I., Fernandez, J.A.; Alfonso, E.R.

    1993-10-01

    Interventionist radiology routinely requires the use of different drugs (analgesics and sedatives) in the course of a procedure. Aside from their therapeutic action, these drugs can produce secondary or undesirable effects, making necessary an in-depth knowledge of them to assure their safe and efficient management. The aim of this work is to provide the vascular interventionist radiologist with additional information on the management of those drugs that contribute to minimizing patient discomfort and pain in interventionist procedures. Author

  13. Evaluation of analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity of spirobarbitunylphenothiazines in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunita; Lata, S; Kumar, A; Srivastava, V K

    2002-04-01

    Analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of newly synthesized spirobarbitunylphenothiazines viz 10-[7, 11-Di(4-4' dimethoxphenyl)-3-oxo-9-methylaminoimino-2, 4-diazaspiro [5.5] undecane 1, 5 dione] acetylphenothiazine (test drug A) and 10-[7, 11-Di (N.N-dimethylaminophenyl)-3-oxo-9-methylaminoimino-2, 4-diazaspiro [5, 5] undecane-1, 5 dione] acetylphenothiazine (test drug B) have been screened in Swiss mice and Wistar rats. The peripheral analgesic activity of test drugs A and B was investigated by acetic acid induced writhing test in Swiss mice while the central analgesic action was assessed by hot-wire (tail flick test) of the analgesiometer and tail-clip test in Wistar rats. Antipyretic activity was assessed on Brewer's yeast induced pyrexic model while antiinflammatory activity was seen on carrageenan induced hind paw oedema. Analgesic activity was found to be only of peripheral type as there was reduction of 66% in writhing responses by test drugs A and B in dose of 80 mg/kg in mice. No change in the tail flick responses was observed on analgesiometer or by tail clip by both the test drugs. Reduction of 1.5 to 2.0 degrees C in rectal temperature was observed in pyretic rats by test drugs A and B in dose of 80 mg/kg. 80% reduction in paw volume was noted in 80 mg/kg dose of both the test drugs which was comparable to the anti-inflammatory activity of 300 mg/kg, p.o. of phenylbutazone.

  14. Correlation of ADRB1 rs1801253 Polymorphism with Analgesic Effect of Fentanyl After Cancer Surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Tian, Yanli; Zhao, Chunlei; Sui, Zhifu; Liu, Chang; Wang, Congmin; Yang, Rongya

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Our study aimed to explore the association between β1-adrenoceptor (ADRB1) rs1801253 polymorphism and analgesic effect of fentanyl after cancer surgeries in Chinese Han populations. MATERIAL AND METHODS Postoperative fentanyl consumption of 120 patients for analgesia was recorded. Genotype distributions were detected by allele specific amplification-polymerase chain reaction (ASA-PCR) method. Postoperative pain was measured by visual analogue scale (VAS) method. Differences in postoperative VAS score and postoperative fentanyl consumption for analgesia in different genotype groups were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Preoperative cold pressor-induced pain test was also performed to test the analgesic effect of fentanyl. RESULTS Frequencies of Gly/Gly, Gly/Arg, Arg/Arg genotypes were 45.0%, 38.3%, and 16.7%, respectively, and passed the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) test. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the heart rate (HR) had no significant differences at different times. After surgery, the VAS score and fentanyl consumption in Arg/Arg group were significantly higher than in other groups at the postoperative 2nd hour, but the differences were not obvious at the 4th hour, 24th hour, and the 48th hour. The results suggest that the Arg/Arg homozygote increased susceptibility to postoperative pain. The preoperative cold pressor-induced pain test suggested that individuals with Arg/Arg genotype showed worse analgesic effect of fentanyl compared to other genotypes. CONCLUSIONS In Chinese Han populations, ADRB1 rs1801253 polymorphism might be associated with the analgesic effect of fentanyl after cancer surgery.

  15. Induction of anesthesia in coronary artery bypass graft surgery: the hemodynamic and analgesic effects of ketamine

    OpenAIRE

    Elif Basagan-Mogo; Suna Goren; Gulsen Korfali; Gurkan Turker; Fatma Nur Kaya

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to evaluate the hemodynamic and analgesic effects of ketamine by comparing it with propofol starting at the induction of anesthesia until the end of sternotomy in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. INTRODUCTION: Anesthetic induction and maintenance may induce myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. A primary goal in the anesthesia of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting ...

  16. Intravenous paracetamol infusion versus intramuscular tramadol as an intra-partum labor analgesic

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Patil; Vivek Rayadurg

    2016-01-01

    We read with interest the article and ldquo;Intravenous paracetamol infusion versus intramuscular tramadol as an intra-partum labor analgesic and rdquo; by Mohan H et al published in November - December 2015, volume 4 issue 6 of International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology.1 As we read it, we realized that the article is quite similar to another article and ldquo;Intravenous paracetamol infusion versus intramuscular tramadol as an intra-partum labor analge...

  17. Development of transmucosal patch loaded with anesthetic and analgesic for dental procedures and in vivo evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi M; Patro MN; Kusumvalli S; Kusumdevi V

    2016-01-01

    Malviya Nidhi,1 M Nagaraju Patro,1 Somisetty Kusumvalli,2 Vemula Kusumdevi1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, 2Department of Endodontics and Conservative Dentistry, Sri Rajiv Gandhi College of Dental Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India Abstract: Most of the dental surgeries require preoperative anesthetic and postoperative analgesic for painless procedures. A multidrug transmucosal drug delivery system loaded with lignocaine (Lig) base for immediate release and s...

  18. Evaluation of antidepressant and analgesic activity of tapentadol with mirtazapine: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj K. Chaudhary; Atul Jain; Asha Pathak; Neha Sharma; Atul K. Mishra; Arvind K. Maurya; Vikas Gaur

    2015-01-01

    Background: Data comparing tapentadol with an antidepressant is limited. A comparison of tapentadol with mirtazapine at different dose has not been performed, the other antidepressant in the same therapeutic class with a significant market share, has been undertaken. In the absence of relevant data to assess the place that tapentadol should occupy in the therapeutic arsenal, indirect comparisons are the most rigorous way to go. We conducted a study evaluate antidepressant and analgesic activi...

  19. Antimalarial and analgesic activities of ethanolic leaf extract of Panicum maximum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JudeEOkokon; PaulANwafor; UkemeEAndrew

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antiplasmodial and analgesic activities of ethanolic leaf extract/fractions of Panicum maximum. Methods:The crude leaf extract (47-190 mg/kg) and fractions (chloroform, ethyl acqeous and methanol; 96 mg/kg) of Panicum maximum were investigated for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei infections in mice and for analgesic activity against chemical and heat-induced pains. The antiplasmodial activity during early and established infections as well as prophylactic were investigated. Artesunate at 5 mg/kg and pyrimethamine at 1.2 mg/kg were used as positive controls. Analgesic activity of the crude extract/fractions was also evaluated against acetic acid, formalin and heat-induced pains. Results:The extract and its fractions dose-dependently reduced parasitaemia induced by chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei infection in prophylactic, suppressive and curative models in mice. These reductions were statistically significant (P<0.001). They also improved the mean survival time from 13 to 28 days compared with control (P<0.001).The activities of extract/fractions were incomparable to that of the standard drugs (Artesunate and pyrimethamine). On chemically and thermally-induced pains,the extract inhibited acetic acid and formalin-induced inflammation as well as hot plate-induced pain in mice. These inhibitions were statistically significant (P<0.001) and in a dose-dependent fashion. Conclusions:Panicum maximum leaf extract has antiplasmodial and analgesic activities which may in part be mediated through the chemical constituents of the plant.

  20. Analgesic effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy versus ultrasound therapy in chronic tennis elbow

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the analgesic effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy with those of ultrasound therapy in patients with chronic tennis elbow. [Subjects] Fifty patients with tennis elbow were randomized to receive extracorporeal shock wave therapy or ultrasound therapy. [Methods] The extracorporeal shock wave therapy group received 5 treatments once per week. Meanwhile, the ultrasound group received 10 treatments 3 times per week. Pain was assessed using the visual analogue ...

  1. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Rasubala; Lavanya Pernapati; Ximena Velasquez; James Burk; Yan-Fang Ren

    2015-01-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP) are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Bas...

  2. The analgesic effect of different antidepressants combined with aspirin on thermally induced pain in Albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla S. Elhwuegi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Combination analgesics provide more effective pain relief for a broader spectrum of pain. This research examines the possible potentiation of the analgesic effect of different classes of antidepressants when combined with aspirin in thermal model of pain using Albino mice.Methods:Different groups of six animals each were injected intraperitoneally by different doses of aspirin (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg, imipramine (2.5, 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg, fluoxetine (1.25, 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg, mirtazapine (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg and a combination of a fixed dose of aspirin (100 mg/kg with the different doses of the three antidepressants. One hour later the analgesic effect of these treatments were evaluated against thermally induced pain. All data were subjected to statistical analysis using unpaired Student's t-test.Results:Aspirin had no analgesic effect in thermally induced pain. The three selected antidepressants produced dose dependent analgesia. The addition of a fixed dose of aspirin to imipramine significantly increased the reaction time (RT of the lowest dose (by 23% and the highest dose (by 20%. The addition of the fixed dose of aspirin to fluoxetine significantly increased RT by 13% of the dose 2.5 mg/Kg. Finally, the addition of the fixed dose of aspirin significantly potentiated the antinociceptive effect of the different doses of mirtazapine (RT was increased by 24, 54 and 38% respectively.Conclusion:Combination of aspirin with an antidepressant might produce better analgesia, increasing the efficacy of pain management and reduces side effects by using smaller doses of each drug.

  3. [Long-term HIV infection and dialysis dependent renal failure in analgesic nephropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, V; Opravil, M

    1998-09-01

    We report a case of advanced human immundeficiency virus infection and relapsing urinary tract infections due to analgesic nephropathy. The patient developed an urosepsis with multiorgan dysfunction syndrome and required dialysis. Inspite of this complicated course, for the first time thirteen years after diagnosis of the HIV-infection, an antiretroviral treatment was started, followed by an impressive improvement of quality of life, physical activity and psychological stabilization.

  4. Functional characterization and analgesic effects of mixed cannabinoid receptor/T-type channel ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Haitao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both T-type calcium channels and cannabinoid receptors modulate signalling in the primary afferent pain pathway. Here, we investigate the analgesics activities of a series of novel cannabinoid receptor ligands with T-type calcium channel blocking activity. Results Novel compounds were characterized in radioligand binding assays and in vitro functional assays at human and rat CB1 and CB2 receptors. The inhibitory effects of these compounds on transient expressed human T-type calcium channels were examined in tsA-201 cells using standard whole-cell voltage clamp techniques, and their analgesic effects in response to various administration routes (intrathecally, intraplantarly, intraperitoneally assessed in the formalin model. A series of compounds were synthesized and evaluated for channel and receptor activity. Compound NMP-7 acted as non-selective CB1/CB2 agonist while NMP4 was found to be a CB1 partial agonist and CB2 inverse agonist. Furthermore, NMP-144 behaved as a selective CB2 inverse agonist. All of these three compounds completely inhibited peak Cav3.2 currents with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. All compounds mediated analgesic effects in the formalin model, but depending on the route of administration, could differentially affect phase 1 and phase 2 of the formalin response. Conclusions Our results reveal that a set of novel cannabinioid receptor ligands potently inhibit T-type calcium channels and show analgesic effects in vivo. Our findings suggest possible novel means of mediating pain relief through mixed T-type/cannabinoid receptor ligands.

  5. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of Pergularia daemia and Carissa carandas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H Bhaskar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The plant Pergularia daemia (Asclepiadaceae and Carissa carandas (Apocynaceae are traditionally used as a medicinal agent and they are widely distributed to tropical and subtropical region of India. In the present study the folklore uses of P. daemia and C. carandas was investigated. "nMethods: The analgesic activity was studied in mice using hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing methods, while carrageenan induced paw edema was used to access anti-inflammatory activity. The antipyretic activity was evaluated by Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in rats. "n Results: The ethanol and aqueous extracts from roots of P. daemia and C. carandas exhibited significant (p < 0.01 analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. In analgesic activity, the highest reaction time was observed (9.8 sec. from ethanol extracts of P.daemia at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight, while highest percentage of inhibition of abdominal constriction (72.67% was observed for ethanol extracts of C.carandas at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. The ethanol and aqueous extracts of P. daemia and C. carandas were found to reduce significantly the formation of edema induced by carrageenan after 2 hrs. Both plants showed significantly competent on yeast induced hyperpyrexia in rats after 2 hrs. "nConclusion: The results of this study indicated that the ethanol and aqueous extracts from roots of P. daemia and C. carandas possess significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities in rodent models.

  6. The Analgesic and Antineuroinflammatory Effect of Baicalein in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a severe type of chronic pain. It is imperative to explore safe and effective analgesic drugs for CIBP treatment. Baicalein (BE), isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (or Huang Qin), has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the effect of BE on CIBP and the mechanism of this effect. Intrathecal and oral administration of BE at different doses could a...

  7. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Teucrium chamaedrys Leaves Aqueous Extract in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Pourmotabbed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sCurrent study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Teucrium chamaedrys in mice and rats. Materials and MethodsFor evaluating of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, we used the carrageenan- and dextran-induced paw oedema, acetic acid-induced writhing, tail flick and formalin pain tests.ResultsThe extract of T. chamaedrys (50–200 mg/kg and acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg produced a significant (P< 0.01 inhibition of the second phase response in the formalin pain model, while only the high dose (200 mg/kg of the extract showed an analgesic effect in the first phase. The extract also inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes in a dose-dependent manner. The tail flick latency was dose dependently enhanced by the extract but this was significantly (P< 0.05 lower than that produced by morphine (10 mg/kg. The extract (25–250 mg/kg administered 1 hr before carrageenan-induced paw swelling produced a dose dependent inhibition of the oedema. No effect was observed with the dextran-induced oedema model. Results of the phytochemical screening show the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids in the extract.ConclusionThe data obtained also suggest that the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the extract may be mediated via both peripheral and central mechanisms. The role of alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids will evaluate in future studies.

  8. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: Grewia asiatica Linn. (Family: Tiliaceae), called Phalsa in Hindi is an Indian medicinal plant used for a variety of therapeutic and nutritional uses. The root bark of the plant is traditionally used in rheumatism (painful chronic inflammatory condition). Aims: The present study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of G. asiatica in rodents. Settings and Design: The methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (MEGA) and aqueous extract of Grewia...

  9. Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidant Activities of Byrsonima duckeana W. R. Anderson (Malpighiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdam, Maria Christina dos Santos; de Andrade, Kleyton Cardoso; Fernandes, Karina Lorena Meira; Machado, Tallita Marques; de Souza, Mayane Pereira; Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; Miyazaki, Cristina Mayumi Sasaki; Kalegari, Milena; Miguel, Marilis Dallarmi; Stuelp-Campelo, Patricia Maria; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes

    2017-01-01

    Background. Byrsonima is a promising neotropical genus, rich in flavonoids and triterpenes, with several proven pharmacological properties. Nevertheless, Byrsonima duckeana W. R. Anderson is an Amazonian species almost not studied. Objective. To assess the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities of Byrsonima duckeana leaves. Materials and Methods. We analyzed an ethanol extract and its fractions for polyphenol content and UHPLC-MS/MS, phosphomolybdenum, DPPH, TBARS antioxidant tests, formalin-induced pain, carrageenan-induced peritonitis, acetic acid-induced abdominal writhings, and hot plate assays. Results. All the samples showed high polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity in the phosphomolybdenum, DPPH, and TBARS tests. We identified ethyl gallate, quinic acid, gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, quercetrin, and quercetin in the samples. B. duckeana was able to reduce leukocyte migration in the carrageenan-induced peritonitis by 43% and the licking time in the formalin test by 57%. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, the chloroform (FCL) and ethyl acetate (FEA) fractions were the most active samples. FEA was selected for the hot plate test, where all the dosages tested (5, 50, and 200 mg·kg−1) showed significant analgesic activity. Conclusion. B. duckeana has interesting analgesic and antioxidant activities, due to its high phenolic content, especially phenolic acids.

  10. Evaluation of analgesic activity of lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vikrama Chakravarthi

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the analgesic effect of red and white lotus (Nelumbo nucifera seeds in albino rats. The analgesic action in acute pain model was studied by tail flick method. The methanolic extracts of lotus seeds were screened for phytochemical analysis and it’s revealed the presence of all components excluding tannins. The Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg on 7thday of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days.  It is observed that the both lotus seed extracts shows considerable analgesic effect in acute pain model which is less than the effect of Diclofenac group. The higher dose groups of lotus seed extracts (600mg/kg were revealed more activity than their corresponding lower dose. While evaluating all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed (600mg/kg, exhibited more pronounced activity than other extracts. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 355-357

  11. Tolerance to non-opioid analgesics is opioid-sensitive in nucleus raphe magnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merab G Tsagareli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Repeated injection of opioid analgesics can lead to a progressive loss of its effect. This phenomenon is known as tolerance. Several lines of investigations have shown that systemic, intraperitoneal administration or the microinjection of non-opioid analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter induces antinociception with some effects of tolerance. Our recent study has revealed that microinjection of three drugs analgin, ketorolac and xefocam into the central nucleus of amygdala produce tolerance to them and cross-tolerance to morphine. Here we report that repeated administrations of these NSAIDs into the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM in the following four days result in progressively less antinociception, i.e. produce the development of tolerance to these drugs in mail rats. Special control experiments showed that post-treatment with μ-opioid antagonist naloxone in NRM significantly decreased antinociceptive effects of NSAIDs at the first day in behavioral tail flick reflex (TF and hot plate (HP latencies. At the second day, naloxone generally had trend effects in both TF and HP tests impeded the development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effect of non-opioid analgesics. These findings strongly support the suggestion on endogenous opioid involvement in NSAIDs antinociception and tolerance in the descending pain control system. Moreover, repeated injections of NSAIDs progressively lead to tolerance to them, cross-tolerance to morphine and the risk of a withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, these results are important for human medicine too.

  12. The cumulative analgesic effect of repeated electroacupuncture involves synaptic remodeling in the hippocampal CA3 region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiuling Xu; Tao Liu; Shuping Chen; Yonghui Gao; Junying Wang; Lina Qiao; Junling Liu

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the analgesic effect of repeated electroacupuncture at bilateral Zusanli (ST36) and Yanglingquan (GB34) once a day for 14 consecutive days in a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain. In addition, concomitant changes in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression and synaptic ultrastructure of neurons in the hippocampal CA3 region were examined. The thermal pain threshold (paw withdrawal latency) was increased significantly in both groups at 2 weeks after electroacupuncture intervention compared with 2 days of electroacupuncture. In ovariectomized rats with chronic constriction injury, the analgesic effect was significantly reduced. Electroacupuncture for 2 weeks significantly diminished the injury-induced increase in synaptic cleft width and thinning of the postsynaptic density, and it significantly suppressed the down-regulation of intracellular calcium/ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression in the hippocampal CA3 region. Repeated electroacupuncture intervention had a cumulative analgesic effect on injury-induced neuropathic pain reactions, and it led to synaptic remodeling of hippocampal neurons and upregulated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression in the hippocampal CA3 region.

  13. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasubala, Linda; Pernapati, Lavanya; Velasquez, Ximena; Burk, James; Ren, Yan-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP) are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Based on the sample size estimate, we collected patient records of a 3-month period before and two consecutive 3-month periods after the mandatory PDMP implementation and analyzed the data on number of visits, treatment types and drug prescriptions using Chi-square tests. For patients who were prescribed pain medications, 452 (30.6%), 190 (14.1%), and 140 (9.6%) received opioid analgesics in the three study periods respectively, signifying a statistically significant reduction in the number of opioid prescriptions after implementation of the mandatory PDMP (p<0.05). Total numbers of prescribed opioid pills in a 3-month period decreased from 5096 to 1120, signifying a 78% reduction in absolute quantity. Prescriptions for non-opioid analgesics acetaminophen increased during the same periods (p<0.05). We conclude that the mandatory PDMP significantly affected the prescription pattern for pain medications by dentists. Such change in prescription pattern represents a shift towards the evidence-based prescription practices for acute postoperative pain.

  14. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rasubala

    Full Text Available Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Based on the sample size estimate, we collected patient records of a 3-month period before and two consecutive 3-month periods after the mandatory PDMP implementation and analyzed the data on number of visits, treatment types and drug prescriptions using Chi-square tests. For patients who were prescribed pain medications, 452 (30.6%, 190 (14.1%, and 140 (9.6% received opioid analgesics in the three study periods respectively, signifying a statistically significant reduction in the number of opioid prescriptions after implementation of the mandatory PDMP (p<0.05. Total numbers of prescribed opioid pills in a 3-month period decreased from 5096 to 1120, signifying a 78% reduction in absolute quantity. Prescriptions for non-opioid analgesics acetaminophen increased during the same periods (p<0.05. We conclude that the mandatory PDMP significantly affected the prescription pattern for pain medications by dentists. Such change in prescription pattern represents a shift towards the evidence-based prescription practices for acute postoperative pain.

  15. Study of the use of analgesics by patients with headache at a specialized outpatient clinic (ACEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Francis Pita Chagas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the use of analgesics in headache diagnosed in Outpatients Headache Clinic (ACEF, as well as his involvement in the activities of the patients. Method : 145 patients with headache seen at ACEF during the period August/July 2009/2010 underwent a questionnaire and interview with neurologist responsible for the final diagnosis according to ICHD-II. Results : Relationship Women:Men 7:1. 1 Prevalence: Migraine without aura (52.4%, migraine with aura (12.4%, chronic migraine (15.2% and medication overuse headache (MOH (20%. 2 Analgesic drugs used: Compounds with Dipyrone (37%, Dipyrone (23%, Paracetamol (16% compound with Paracetamol (6%, triptans (6% and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (12%. There was a significant decrease in the duration of pain and less interference in the activities of the headache patients after the use of analgesics. Conclusion : Prevalence of MOH has been increasing in population level and specialized services. New studies emphasizing the MOH are needed to assist in the improvement of their diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

  16. [Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of saponins of Argania spinoza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, K; Lagorce, J F; Cherrah, Y; Hassar, M; Amarouch, H; Roquebert, J

    1998-01-01

    We studied analgesic and antiinflammatory actions of saponins of Argania spinosa cakes in mice and rats. With oral doses of 50 to 300 mg/kg, we found peripheric analgesic actions equivalent to the acetyl salicylic acid ones. The maximum protection was obtained with 500 mg/kg per os. There is no morphine-like central analgesic effect. Antiinflammatory studies were done in vivo using oedema due to carrageenine or experimental trauma in rats. There was a decrease in the paw swelling at doses of 10 mg/kg per os. At doses of 50 to 100 mg/kg per os, the antiinflammatory effect was similar to the one of indomethacin at doses of 10 to 20 mg/kg per os. In vitro, there was an inhibition of beef synovial fluid degradation by OH. radicals. The inhibition action is evaluated with an IC20 > or = 6 microM. Argania spinosa saponins have also an antiradical action against DPPH (IC25 = 85 mM) and against OH. radicals (IC25 = 0.56 M). Since they do not have any inhibition effect on PGE2 synthesis, their antiinflammatory activity can be explained by their action on leucotriens in the metabolic pathway of arachidonic acid.

  17. Heel lance in newborn during breastfeeding: an evaluation of analgesic effect of this procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tozzini Danila

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The reduction of pain due to routine invasive procedures (capillary heel stick blood sampling for neonatal metabolic screening in the newborn is an important objective for the so-called "Hospital with no pain". Practices such as skin to skin contact, or breastfeeding, in healthy newborn, may represent an alternative to the use of analgesic drugs. The aim of our work is to evaluate the analgesic effect of breastfeeding during heel puncture in full term healthy newborn. Methods We studied 200 healthy full term newborns (100 cases and 100 controls, proposing the puncture to mothers during breastfeeding, and explaining to them all the advantages of this practice. Pain assessment was evaluated by DAN scale (Douleur Aigue Nouveau ne scale. Results The difference in score of pain according to the DAN scale was significant in the two groups of patients (p = 0.000; the medium score was 5.15 for controls and 2.65 for cases (newborns sampled during breastfeeding. Conclusion Our results confirmed the evidence of analgesic effect of breastfeeding during heel puncture. This procedure could easily be adopted routinely in maternity wards.

  18. Avicenna's Canon of Medicine: a review of analgesics and anti-inflammatory substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Mahdizadeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring substances mentioned in medieval medical literatures currently have, and will continue to have, a crucial place in drug discovery. Avicenna was a Persian physician who is known as the most influential medical writers in the Middle ages. Avicenna`s Canon of Medicine, the most famous books in the history of medicine, presents a clear and organized summary of all the medical knowledge of the time, including a long list of drugs. Several hundred substances and receipts from different sources are mentioned for treatment of different illnesses in this book. The aim of the present study was to provide a descriptive review of all anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs presented in this comprehensive encyclopedia of medicine. Data for this review were provided by searches of different sections of this book. Long lists of anti-inflammatory and analgesic substances used in the treatment of various diseases are provided. The efficacy of some of these drugs, such as opium, willow oil, curcuma, and garlic, was investigated by modern medicine; pointed to their potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. This review will help further research into the clinical benefits of new drugs for treatment of inflammatory diseases and pain.

  19. Analgesic effect of fendosal, ibuprofen and aspirin in postoperative oral surgery pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, J A; Barkaszi, B A; Ragland, R N; Hankle, J J

    1984-01-01

    The analgesic efficacy of a single 200-mg dose of fendosal, a nonnarcotic, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory analgesic, was compared, in a double-blind study, with aspirin 650 mg, ibuprofen 400 mg and placebo in outpatients who had moderate or severe pain after the surgical removal of impacted third molars. Using a self-rating record, patients rated their pain and its relief hourly for up to 12 hours after medicating. Each active medication was significantly superior to placebo. The peak analgesic effect of fendosal 200 mg was similar to that of the aspirin 650-mg standard. Although fendosal's onset of action was slow (3 hours), its effect persisted for 8 hours, substantially longer than that of aspirin. Ibuprofen 400 mg was statistically significantly superior to aspirin 650 mg and fendosal 200 mg for most measures of peak and total analgesia, and its effect persisted for 8 hours. The results of this study raise some questions concerning the comparability of data from studies that employ different criteria for remedication and/or different criteria for the inclusion of data in the analyses of efficacy.

  20. Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidant Activities of Byrsonima duckeana W. R. Anderson (Malpighiaceae

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    Maria Christina dos Santos Verdam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Byrsonima is a promising neotropical genus, rich in flavonoids and triterpenes, with several proven pharmacological properties. Nevertheless, Byrsonima duckeana W. R. Anderson is an Amazonian species almost not studied. Objective. To assess the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities of Byrsonima duckeana leaves. Materials and Methods. We analyzed an ethanol extract and its fractions for polyphenol content and UHPLC-MS/MS, phosphomolybdenum, DPPH, TBARS antioxidant tests, formalin-induced pain, carrageenan-induced peritonitis, acetic acid-induced abdominal writhings, and hot plate assays. Results. All the samples showed high polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity in the phosphomolybdenum, DPPH, and TBARS tests. We identified ethyl gallate, quinic acid, gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, quercetrin, and quercetin in the samples. B. duckeana was able to reduce leukocyte migration in the carrageenan-induced peritonitis by 43% and the licking time in the formalin test by 57%. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, the chloroform (FCL and ethyl acetate (FEA fractions were the most active samples. FEA was selected for the hot plate test, where all the dosages tested (5, 50, and 200 mg·kg−1 showed significant analgesic activity. Conclusion. B. duckeana has interesting analgesic and antioxidant activities, due to its high phenolic content, especially phenolic acids.

  1. A Novel Brucine Gel Transdermal Delivery System Designed for Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities

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    Ping Wu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica L., as a traditional Chinese medicine, have good anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. However, it usually leads to gastrointestinal irritation and systemic toxicity via oral administration. In the study, it was discovered that a novel gel transdermal delivery system contained brucine, the main effective component extracted from Strychnos nux-vomica. Results showed that the brucine gel system inhibited arthritis symptoms and the proliferation of the synoviocytes in the rat adjuvant arthritis model, which indicated its curative effect for rheumatoid arthritis. Meanwhile, it significantly relieved the xylene-induced ear edema in the mouse ear swelling test, which manifested its anti-inflammatory property. Moreover, the brucine gel eased the pain of paw formalin injection in the formalin test, which demonstrated its analgesic effects. In addition, the brucine significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production without affecting the viability of cell in vitro anti-inflammatory test, which proved that its anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions were related to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. It is suggested that the brucine gel is a promising vehicle for transdermal delivery on the treatment of inflammatory disease.

  2. Weighing the balance: how analgesics used in chronic pain influence sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Miqdad H; Kaushik, Chhavi; Temple, Daniel; Chung, Sharon A; Shapiro, Colin M

    2014-08-01

    Pain and sleep share a bidirectional relationship, with each influencing the other. Several excellent reviews have explored this relationship. In this article, we revisit the evidence and explore existing research on this complex inter-relationship. The primary focus of the article is on the pharmacological treatment of chronic non-malignant pain and the main purpose is to review the effect of various pharmacological agents used in the management of chronic pain on sleep. This has not been comprehensively done before. We explore the clinical use of these agents, their impact on sleep architecture and sleep physiology, the mechanism of action on sleep parameters and sleep disorders associated with these agents. Pharmacological classes reviewed include antidepressants, opioid analgesics, anti-epileptics, cannabinoids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, drugs most commonly used to manage chronic pain. The objective is to help health professionals gain better insight into the complex effect that commonly used analgesics have on an individual's sleep and how this could impact on the effectiveness of the drug as an analgesic. We conclude that antidepressants have both positive and negative effects on sleep, so do opioids, but in the latter case the evidence shifts towards the counterproductive side. Some anticonvulsants are sleep sparing and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are sleep neutral. Cannabinoids remain an underexplored and researched group.

  3. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Seenthil churanam

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    V. Rajalakshimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The polyherbal formulation of Seenthil churanam is composition of whole plant extracts of Eclipta prostata, Tinospora cordifolia and the dried powder form of Earthworm used in folk medicine. The study was conducted to evaluate the scientific figures for the treatment of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Seenthil churanam by acetic acid induced writhing test and eddy’s hot plate method, and carrageenan induced paw edema method. There was significant response in analgesic and inflammatory activity at high dose (400 mg/kg compared to low dose 200 mg/kg against the standards Analgin (500 mg/kg, Aspirin (100 mg/kg and Diclofenac sodium (100 mg/kg body weight of mice and rats. The results of this study show that the chronic oral administration of an ethanolic extract of Seenthil churanam at a 400 mg/kg body weight dosage be a good alternative natural medicine for analgesics and anti-inflammatory drug without side effects.

  4. Does Acupuncture Needling Induce Analgesic Effects Comparable to Diffuse Noxious Inhibitory Controls?

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    Juerg Schliessbach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC is described as one possible mechanism of acupuncture analgesia. This study investigated the analgesic effect of acupuncture without stimulation compared to nonpenetrating sham acupuncture (NPSA and cold-pressor-induced DNIC. Forty-five subjects received each of the three interventions in a randomized order. The analgesic effect was measured using pressure algometry at the second toe before and after each of the interventions. Pressure pain detection threshold (PPDT rose from 299 kPa (SD 112 kPa to 364 kPa (SD 144, 353 kPa (SD 135, and 467 kPa (SD 168 after acupuncture, NPSA, and DNIC test, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between acupuncture and NPSA at any time, but a significantly higher increase of PPDT in the DNIC test compared to acupuncture and NPSA. PPDT decreased after the DNIC test, whereas it remained stable after acupuncture and NPSA. Acupuncture needling at low pain stimulus intensity showed a small analgesic effect which did not significantly differ from placebo response and was significantly less than a DNIC-like effect of a painful noninvasive stimulus.

  5. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of Cassia uniflora Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    She S Chaudhari; Sanjay R Chaudhari; Machindra J Chavan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of leaves of Cassia uniflora (C. uniflora) Mill. Methods: Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanolic extract of C. uniflora (100 and 200 mg/kg, body weight) was screened for analgesic (Eddy's hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing), anti-inflammatory (Carrageenan induced paw edema) and anti-arthritic (Complete Freund's Adjuvant induced arthritis). In Complete Freund's Adjuvant arthritis model degree of inflammation was evaluated by hind paw swelling, body weight, and biochemical parameters and supported by radiological analysis. Results: Treatment with extracts of C. uniflora showed significant (P<0.05) and dose dependant increase in paw licking time in Eddy's hot plate method. In writhing test, extracts were significantly reduced the number of writhes. A dose dependant and significant inhibition of edema was observed in carrageenan induced paw edema. Petroleum ether extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight showed most potent and significant activity which is supported by the results of body weight, biochemical parameters and radiological analysis in complete Freund's Adjuvant arthritis model. Conclusion:The extract possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity which may be mediated through the phytochemical constituents of the plant.

  6. Evaluation of the analgesic activity and safety of ketorolac in whole body fractionated gamma irradiated animals

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    Sara Aly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the analgesic activity and the toxicity of ketorolac in normal and fractionated (1.5 Gy/day/4 days γ-irradiated animals. Determination of brain serotonin content and serum prostaglandin level were also undertaken. The analgesic activity was tested using formalin test, at three dose levels (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg after 1 and 7 days post radiation exposure. LD50 determinations and assessment of liver and kidney function tests were performed. Our results indicated marked analgesic effects on the early and late phases of nociception. Double treatment with ketorolac and irradiation increased brain serotonin content. The acute LD50 of ketorolac was decreased in irradiated animals as compared to the LD50 of normal animals. Double treatment with ketorolac and irradiation induced an elevation of gastric mucin content, urea and BUN levels on the 1st day post irradiation, whereas, albumin level was lowered and globulin level was elevated after 7 days post irradiation. Depending on this study the dose of ketorolac used for treating cancer patients addressed to radiotherapy should be reduced, however, this requires further clinical confirmation.

  7. Evaluation of analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity on Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. Leaf

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    Richa Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. is an important medicinal plant of family Boraginaceae. Traditionally, its leaves are used to treat fever, headache, and joint pain but its medicinal activities have not been proven by research. Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of C. dichotoma G. Forst. leaf extract. Material and Methods: The various extracts of leaf powder were prepared by using soxhlet apparatus. The methanol extract was selected for pharmacological study. To evaluate analgesic activity, Eddy′s hot plate method, to study anti-inflammatory activity, carageenan-induced rat paw edema method, and to study antipyretic activity, yeast-induced pyrexia method was used. SD female rats (180-200 g were used for the study. Results: In all three tests, the methanol extract high dose (400 mg/kg was found to be highly significant as compared to standard drug. Conclusion: This study proved the traditional uses of plant leaves and concluded the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of the leaf methanol extract.

  8. The Analgesic and Antineuroinflammatory Effect of Baicalein in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain

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    Shan Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP is a severe type of chronic pain. It is imperative to explore safe and effective analgesic drugs for CIBP treatment. Baicalein (BE, isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (or Huang Qin, has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the effect of BE on CIBP and the mechanism of this effect. Intrathecal and oral administration of BE at different doses could alleviate the mechanical allodynia in CIBP rats. Intrathecal 100 μg BE could inhibit the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in the spinal cord of CIBP rats. Moreover, intrathecal 100 μg BE could effectively inhibit the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in CIBP rats. The analgesic effect of BE may be associated with the inhibition of the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and through the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in the spinal cord. These findings suggest that BE is a promising novel analgesic agent for CIBP.

  9. The Analgesic and Antineuroinflammatory Effect of Baicalein in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shan; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhi-Fu; Mao-Ying, Qi-Liang; Mi, Wen-Li; Jiang, Jian-Wei; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a severe type of chronic pain. It is imperative to explore safe and effective analgesic drugs for CIBP treatment. Baicalein (BE), isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (or Huang Qin), has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the effect of BE on CIBP and the mechanism of this effect. Intrathecal and oral administration of BE at different doses could alleviate the mechanical allodynia in CIBP rats. Intrathecal 100 μg BE could inhibit the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in the spinal cord of CIBP rats. Moreover, intrathecal 100 μg BE could effectively inhibit the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in CIBP rats. The analgesic effect of BE may be associated with the inhibition of the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and through the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in the spinal cord. These findings suggest that BE is a promising novel analgesic agent for CIBP.

  10. Use of analgesics for exercise-associated pain: prevalence and predictors of use in recreationally trained college-aged students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Christi B; Bentley, John P; Hallam, Jeffrey S; Woodyard, Catherine D; Waddell, Dwight E

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the use of the analgesics for the relief of exercise-associated pain (EAP) and to examine personal and/or exercise characteristics that might potentially predict such use in recreationally trained college-aged individuals. Recreationally trained college-aged students (N = 263) were invited to complete a self-administered 16-item questionnaire concerning personal exercise habits and analgesic use for EAP. The primary dependent variable was analgesic use for EAP, and additional items sought to characterize patterns and behaviors related to the use. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were calculated for all items, and logistic regression was used to evaluate the ability of 4 variables to predict analgesic use for EAP: gender, length of time performing regular exercise, weekly frequency of aerobic exercise, and weekly frequency of resistance exercise. Approximately 36% of respondents reported analgesic use for EAP, with data indicating acute use for what is generally acute pain. With predictors considered individually, gender was a significant predictor, with female respondents being more likely to use analgesics for EAP (p = 0.04). With all predictors considered concurrently, the model did not significantly contribute to the prediction of use in this sample. Potential for misuse was highlighted by a large percentage of users who described themselves as very unlikely to follow label directions and more likely to take a dose exceeding recommendations. In light of research that reports a potential detriment to muscular regeneration when analgesics are consumed with exercise, it is important to be cognizant of the use of these drugs in individuals striving to improve muscular fitness. Coaches and trainers should educate athletes about the associated risks and caution those who may unnecessarily take analgesics.

  11. Effects of lidocaine and esmolol infusions on hemodynamic changes, analgesic requirement, and recovery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy operations

    OpenAIRE

    Serpil Dagdelen Dogan; Faik Emre Ustun; Elif Bengi Sener; Ersin Koksal; Yasemin Burcu Ustun; Cengiz Kaya; Fatih Ozkan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of lidocaine and esmolol infusions on intraoperative hemodynamic changes, intraoperative and postoperative analgesic requirements, and recovery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery. METHODS: The first group (n = 30) received IV lidocaine infusions at a rate of 1.5 mg/kg/min and the second group (n = 30) received IV esmolol infusions at a rate of 1 mg/kg/min. Hemodynamic changes, intraoperative and postoperative analgesic requirements, and rec...

  12. Surveillance of antibiotic and analgesic use in the Oral Surgery Department of the University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo

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    Haliti NR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Naim R Haliti,1 Fehim R Haliti,2 Ferit K Koçani,3 Ali A Gashi,4 Shefqet I Mrasori,3 Valon I Hyseni,5 Samir I Bytyqi,5 Lumnije L Krasniqi,2 Ardiana F Murtezani,5 Shaip L Krasniqi5 1Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina “Hasan Prishtina”, 2Department of Children Dentistry, University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo, 3Department of Oral Disease, University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo, 4Department of Oral Surgery, University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo, 5Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina “Hasan Prishtina”, Prishtina, Kosovo Background: Because Kosovo has no reliable information on antimicrobial and analgesic use in dental practice, the survey reported here evaluated the antibiotic and analgesic prescriptions in the Oral Surgery Department of the University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo (UDCCK.Methods: The data of 2,442 registered patients for a 1-year period were screened and analyzed concerning antibiotic and analgesic use as per standards of rational prescription.Results: Dentistry doctors prescribed antibiotics significantly more often than analgesics. Antibiotics were prescribed in 8.11% of all cases, while only 1.35% of total prescriptions were for analgesics. The total consumption of antibiotic drugs in the UDCCK was 4.53 Defined Daily Doses [DDD]/1,000 inhabitants/day, compared with only 0.216 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day for analgesics. From a total number of 117 patients, 32 patients received combinations of two antibiotics.Conclusion: Pharmacotherapy analysis showed that the prescription rates of antibiotics and analgesics in the UDCCK are not rational in terms of the qualitative aspects of treatment. For the qualitative improvement of prescription of these drug groups, we recommend the implementation of treatment guidelines following rational standards. Keywords: antibiotic, analgesics

  13. Anticonvulsant and analgesic activities of crude extract and its fractions of the defensive secretion from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s) from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis with anticonvulsant and analgesic activities. We investigated the efficacy of crude extract and its semi-purified fractions (F1-F3) of the defensive secretion from Spongia officinalis for their in vivo anticonvulsant activity using the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure model and analgesic activity using the writhing test in mice. Among the series the crude extract exhi...

  14. Local analgesic effect of tramadol is not mediated by opioid receptors in early postoperative pain in rats

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    Angela Maria Sousa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tramadol is known as a central acting analgesic drug, used for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Local analgesic effect has been demonstrated, in part due to local anesthetic-like effect, but other mechanisms remain unclear. The role of peripheral opioid receptors in the local analgesic effect is not known. In this study, we examined role of peripheral opioid receptors in the local analgesic effect of tramadol in the plantar incision model. METHODS: Young male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups: control, intraplantar tramadol, intravenous tramadol, intravenous naloxone-intraplantar tramadol, intraplantar naloxone-intraplantar tramadol, intravenous naloxone-intravenous tramadol, and intravenous naloxone. After receiving the assigned drugs (tramadol 5 mg, naloxone 200 µg or 0.9% NaCl, rats were submitted to plantar incision, and withdrawal thresholds after mechanical stimuli with von Frey filaments were assessed at baseline, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min after incision. RESULTS: Plantar incision led to marked mechanical hyperalgesia during the whole period of observation in the control group, no mechanical hyperalgesia were observed in intraplantar tramadol group, intraplantar naloxone-intraplantar tramadol group and intravenous naloxone-intraplantar tramadol. In the intravenous tramadol group a late increase in withdrawal thresholds (after 45 min was observed, the intravenous naloxone-intravenous tramadol group and intravenous naloxone remained hyperalgesic during the whole period. CONCLUSIONS: Tramadol presented an early local analgesic effect decreasing mechanical hyperalgesia induced by plantar incision. This analgesic effect was not mediated by peripheral opioid receptors.

  15. Comparison of Electroacupuncture and Morphine-Mediated Analgesic Patterns in a Plantar Incision-Induced Pain Model

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    Yen-Jing Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroacupuncture (EA is a complementary therapy to improve morphine analgesia for postoperative pain, but underlying mechanism is not well-known. Herein, we investigated EA-induced analgesic effect in a plantar incision (PI model in male Sprague-Dawley rats. PI was performed at the left hind paw. EA of 4 Hz and high intensity or sham needling was conducted at right ST36 prior to PI and repeated for another 2 days. Behavioral responses to mechanical and thermal stimuli, spinal phospho-ERK, and Fos expression were all analyzed. In additional groups, naloxone and morphine were administered to elucidate involvement of opioid receptors and for comparison with EA. EA pretreatment significantly reduced post-PI tactile allodynia for over 1 day; repeated treatments maintained analgesic effect. Intraperitoneal naloxone could reverse EA analgesia. Low-dose subcutaneous morphine (1 mg/kg had stronger inhibitory effect on PI-induced allodynia than EA for 1 h. However, analgesic tolerance appeared after repeated morphine injections. Both EA and morphine could equally inhibit PI-induced p-ERK and Fos inductions. We conclude that though EA and morphine attenuate postincision pain through opioid receptor activations, daily EA treatments result in analgesic accumulation whereas daily morphine injections develop analgesic tolerance. Discrepant pathways and mechanisms underlying two analgesic means may account for the results.

  16. The centrally acting non-narcotic antitussive tipepidine produces antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaura, Kazuaki; Ogata, Yukino; Inoue, Masako; Honda, Sokichi; Soeda, Fumio; Shirasaki, Tetsuya; Takahama, Kazuo

    2009-12-14

    The antidepressant-like effect of tipepidine was studied in rats. Tipepidine at 20 and 40 mg/kg i.p. reduced immobility in the forced swimming test and tipepidine at 40 mg/kg, i.p. increased climbing in the test. The drug at 40 mg/kg, i.p. had no effect on the locomotor activity and motor coordination. These results suggest that tipepidine may be a novel drug with antidepressant-like activity.

  17. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 121 - First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... administer required drugs) 4 Needles (sizes necessary to administer required drugs) 6 50% Dextrose injection... dose ampule or equivalent 2 Nitroglycerin tablets 10 Basic instructions for use of the drugs in the kit... administer required medications) 4 Analgesic, non-narcotic, tablets, 325 mg 4 Antihistamine tablets, 25 mg...

  18. Analgesic effect of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L liquid smoke on mice

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    Meircurius Dwi C.S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drugs can be used to eliminate pain by inhibiting the activity of conversing arachidonic acid into prostaglandin. The chemical compositions of coconut shell are cellulose, pentosan, lignin, solvent extraction, uronat anhydrous, nitrogen, and water. One active ingredient in coconut shell is phenyl propanoid (consisting in lignin structure and guaicol. Phenyl propanoid and guaicol are phenolic compounds that can be used as antioxidant, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, anesthetic and analgesic. Liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L contains phenolic compound is believed able to bind a component conversing arachidonic acid into prostaglandin. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the analgesic effect of liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L. Methods: The study was a laboratory experimental research, conducted on 2-3 months old male mice (Mus musculus with 20-30 grams of weight. There were control group and treatment groups each of which had seven mice. Control group was orally given 0.01 ml/weight (ml/gr of distilled water, after 30 minutes 0.01 ml/weight (ml/gr of acetic acid 0.6% was delivered via intraperitoneal injection. The treatment groups were given liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L with the concentrations of 25%, 50%, and 100% respectively. The analgesic effect was then determined by decreasing of writhing reflex on mice recorded every 5 minutes for 30 minutes. Results: There were significant differences of writhing reflexes in the treatment groups given liquid smoke of coconut shell with the concentrations of 25%, 50%, and 100%. The higher concentration of liquid smoke the higher its analgesic effect. Conclusion: Liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L has analgesic effect.Latar belakang: Salah satu mekanisme obat yang digunakan untuk menghilangkan rasa nyeri adalah menghambat aktivitas konversi asam arakhidonat menjadi prostaglandin. Komposisi kimia tempurung kelapa terdiri dari

  19. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis leaves extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neeraj Kumar Saini; Manmohan Singhal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis (T. capensis) leaves extract using different models in rats. Methods:Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 300, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight) was given to rats orally to observe acute toxicity, and observed for 14 days. Analgesic activity was evaluated using tail immersion and formalin induced paw licking models in rats. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats. Antipyretic activity was evaluated using brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia model in rats. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract were given at dose of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o. Results: Results demonstrated that the no mortality was reported even after 14 days. This indicated that the methanol extract was safe up to a single dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly increased the latency period in the tail immersion test, reduced the licking time in both the neurogenic and inflammatory phases in the formalin test. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly prevented increase in volume of paw edema. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract at the doses of (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly decreased the rectal temperature of the rats. Conclusions: This study exhibites that methanolic T.capensis leaves extract possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity which may be mediated by the central and peripheral mechanisms.

  20. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) as an Analgesic and Ergogenic Aid in Sport: A Systemic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick B

    2015-10-01

    Ginger is a popular spice used to treat a variety of maladies, including pain. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently used by athletes to manage and prevent pain; unfortunately, NSAIDs contribute to substantial adverse effects, including gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, hyponatremia, impairment of connective tissue remodeling, endurance competition withdrawal, and cardiovascular disease. Ginger, however, may act as a promoter of GI integrity and as a bronchodilator. Given these potentially positive effects of ginger, a systematic review of randomized trials was performed to assess the evidence for ginger as an analgesic and ergogenic aid for exercise training and sport. Among 7 studies examining ginger as an analgesic, the evidence indicates that roughly 2 g·d(-1) of ginger may modestly reduce muscle pain stemming from eccentric resistance exercise and prolonged running, particularly if taken for a minimum of 5 days. Among 9 studies examining ginger as an ergogenic aid, no discernable effects on body composition, metabolic rate, oxygen consumption, isometric force generation, or perceived exertion were observed. Limited data suggest that ginger may accelerate recovery of maximal strength after eccentric resistance exercise and reduce the inflammatory response to cardiorespiratory exercise. Major limitations to the research include the use of untrained individuals, insufficient reporting on adverse events, and no direct comparisons with NSAID ingestion. While ginger taken over 1-2 weeks may reduce pain from eccentric resistance exercise and prolonged running, more research is needed to evaluate its safety and efficacy as an analgesic for a wide range of athletic endeavors.

  1. Sudden unexpected nocturnal death in Chiari type 1 malformation and potential role of opioid analgesics

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    Fereydoon Roohi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chiari malformation type 1 (CM1 is a common congenital anomaly of the craniocervical junction. CM1 is reported to run a usually benign course and patients typically experience no symptoms or chronic, slowly progressive symptoms. However, recent reports indicate that a subset of patients with CM1 may present with acute deterioration and sudden unexpected death (SUD. We report a case of SUD during sleep in a young man with CM1, which we believe was related to the administration of common and therapeutic doses of narcotic analgesics for the management of pain. We will clarify the pathophysiology of acute deterioration and SUD in CM1 and the possibility that the adverse effects of opiate analgesics likely were the leading cause of death in our patient. Case Description: In this review, we present a 29-year-old male with worsening headache secondary to previously diagnosed CM1. The patient died suddenly and unexpectedly after administration of common and therapeutic doses of narcotic analgesics for the management of pain. Conclusion: The mechanism(s of acute neurological deterioration and sudden death in patients with CM1 remains poorly understood. We believe the rapid fatal deterioration in our patient following administration of opioids suggests that this category of medication may cause sudden unexpected "neurogenic" cardiac death in CM1 patients by inducing sleep-related breathing difficulties and associated hypercapnia. Hypercapnia by further increasing intracranial pressure can result in a sudden pressure-induced decompensation of the cardiopulmonary control centers in the brain stem and cause instantaneous cardiorespiratory arrest.

  2. Sudden unexpected nocturnal death in Chiari type 1 malformation and potential role of opioid analgesics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohi, Fereydoon; Gropen, Toby; Kula, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chiari malformation type 1 (CM1) is a common congenital anomaly of the craniocervical junction. CM1 is reported to run a usually benign course and patients typically experience no symptoms or chronic, slowly progressive symptoms. However, recent reports indicate that a subset of patients with CM1 may present with acute deterioration and sudden unexpected death (SUD). We report a case of SUD during sleep in a young man with CM1, which we believe was related to the administration of common and therapeutic doses of narcotic analgesics for the management of pain. We will clarify the pathophysiology of acute deterioration and SUD in CM1 and the possibility that the adverse effects of opiate analgesics likely were the leading cause of death in our patient. Case Description: In this review, we present a 29-year-old male with worsening headache secondary to previously diagnosed CM1. The patient died suddenly and unexpectedly after administration of common and therapeutic doses of narcotic analgesics for the management of pain. Conclusion: The mechanism(s) of acute neurological deterioration and sudden death in patients with CM1 remains poorly understood. We believe the rapid fatal deterioration in our patient following administration of opioids suggests that this category of medication may cause sudden unexpected “neurogenic” cardiac death in CM1 patients by inducing sleep-related breathing difficulties and associated hypercapnia. Hypercapnia by further increasing intracranial pressure can result in a sudden pressure-induced decompensation of the cardiopulmonary control centers in the brain stem and cause instantaneous cardiorespiratory arrest. PMID:24778905

  3. Cytotoxic, antibacterial and analgesic activities ofRhaphidophora glauca (Wall.) Schott leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mir Muhammad Nasir Uddin; Raju Dash; Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir; Md Mominur Rahman; Mohammad Nazmul Islam; Arkajyoti Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigation of cytotoxic, antimicrobial and analgesic activities of different fractions ofRhaphidophora glauca (Wall.) Schott. Methods:Two partially purified aqueous methanolic fractions from ethyl acetate extract (AMF-1) and chloroform extract (AMF-2) obtained from the partitioning were used in study. The cytotoxic effect was determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Antibacterial activity was investigated by disc diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration methods. Hot plate method and acetic acid test was used for determining analgesic activity. Results:The LC50 values ofAMF-1 andAMF-2 were found to be 287.73 and 428.54µg/mL respectively, where colchicines showed LC50 of 11.16µg/mL. The zone of inhibition of the fractionsAMF-1 andAMF-2 was found to be in the range of 8–26 mm in 2 000µg/disc, as compared to reference antibiotics kanamycin (11–28 mm at 30µg/disc) and ciprofloxacin (20–25 mm at 30µg/disc) indicating the antibacterial activity. In hot platetest, the highest pain inhibitory activity was found at a dose of 250 mg/kg forAMF-1which was statistically significant (P<0.05) compared to both positive and negative control at 30 min interval. In acid induced model, bothAMF-1 andAMF-2 at a dose of 500 mg/kg showed significant activity compared to positive and negative control. Conclusions:This study found thatRhaphidophora glauca possesses potential cytotoxic, antibacterial and analgesic activity. Further study may be needed to isolate the bioactive compounds responsible for different activities with subsequent mechanistic study.

  4. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract from Desmodium triflorum DC in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shang-Chih; Peng, Wen-Huang; Huang, Shun-Chieh; Ho, Yu-Ling; Huang, Tai-Hung; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Chang, Yuan-Shiun

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the analgesic effect of methanol extract from Desmodium triflorum DC (MDT) by using animal models of acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin test. The anti-inflammatory effect of MDT was investigated by lambda-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. In order to study the anti-inflammatory mechanism of MDT, we detected the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver, the levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the edema paw tissue. In the analgesic test, MDT (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing response and the licking time on the late phase in the formalin test. In the anti-inflammatory test, MDT (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) decreased the paw edema at the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th hour after lambda-carrageenan administration. On the other hand, MDT increased the activities of SOD and GRd in liver tissues and decreased the MDA level in the edema paw at the 3rd hour after lambda-carrageenan-induced inflammation. MDT also affected the levels of interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, NO and MDA which were induced by lambda-carrageenan. The results suggested that MDT possessed analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of MDT might be related to the decreases in the level of MDA in the edema paw via increasing the activities of SOD and GRd in the liver, and the NO level via regulating the IL-1beta production and the level of TNF-alpha in the inflamed tissues.

  5. Spider peptide Phα1β induces analgesic effect in a model of cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Flavia Karine; Trevisan, Gabriela; Rosa, Fernanda; Dalmolin, Gerusa D; Otuki, Michel Fleith; Cueto, Ana Paula; de Castro Junior, Célio José; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurelio; Cordeiro, Marta do N; Richardson, Michael; Ferreira, Juliano; Gomez, Marcus V

    2013-09-01

    The marine snail peptide ziconotide (ω-conotoxin MVIIA) is used as an analgesic in cancer patients refractory to opioids, but may induce severe adverse effects. Animal venoms represent a rich source of novel drugs, so we investigated the analgesic effects and the side-effects of spider peptide Phα1β in a model of cancer pain in mice with or without tolerance to morphine analgesia. Cancer pain was induced by the inoculation of melanoma B16-F10 cells into the hind paw of C57BL/6 mice. After 14 days, painful hypersensitivity was detected and Phα1β or ω-conotoxin MVIIA (10-100 pmol/site) was intrathecally injected to evaluate the development of antinociception and side-effects in control and morphine-tolerant mice. The treatment with Phα1β or ω-conotoxin MVIIA fully reversed cancer-related painful hypersensitivity, with long-lasting results, at effective doses 50% of 48 (32-72) or 33 (21-53) pmol/site, respectively. Phα1β produced only mild adverse effects, whereas ω-conotoxin MVIIA induced dose-related side-effects in mice at analgesic doses (estimated toxic dose 50% of 30 pmol/site). In addition, we observed that Phα1β was capable of controlling cancer-related pain even in mice tolerant to morphine antinociception (100% of inhibition) and was able to partially restore morphine analgesia in such animals (56 ± 5% of inhibition). In this study, Phα1β was as efficacious as ω-conotoxin MVIIA in inducing analgesia in a model of cancer pain without producing severe adverse effects or losing efficacy in opioid-tolerant mice, indicating that Phα1β has a good profile for the treatment of cancer pain in patients.

  6. Efficacy of Acute Pain Control Protocol in Triage Department on Analgesics Administration Time and Patients' Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedhossein Seyyedhoseini Davaraani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Current study was conducted to develop a pain control protocol by Morphine Sulfate (MS Suppository in triage ward with the main primary outcomes of first analgesic administration time, patients' satisfaction and also the changes in pain intensity.Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 318 consecutive patients attending to an academic tertiary health care center in Tehran, Iran in 2011 and 2012 were enrolled. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either routine pain control by emergency medicine residents in emergency department (n=132 or pain control protocol in triage level by nurses (n=186. Those with pain in control group were treated with conventional pain control program and those in intervention group with pain intensities higher than four were treated with suppository stat 10 mg dose of MS administered by nurses in triage ward.Results: The mean change in pain intensity was significantly (P<0.0001 higher in intervention group (4.2 versus 0.2 and the first analgesic administration time was significantly different between groups (P<0.05 being less in the intervention group (43.1 versus 4.6. Also the patients' satisfaction was significantly higher in the intervention group (P<0.0001. No drug adverse effects were seen.Conclusions: Totally, according to the obtained results, it may be concluded that acute pain control protocol in triage department by suppository of MS would result in reduced analgesics administration time and higher patients' satisfaction. Keywords: Analgesia; Emergency Department; Pain Control

  7. Tolerance to Non-Opioid Analgesics is Opioid Sensitive in the Nucleus Raphe Magnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagareli, Merab G; Nozadze, Ivliane; Tsiklauri, Nana; Gurtskaia, Gulnaz

    2011-01-01

    Repeated injection of opioid analgesics can lead to a progressive loss of effect. This phenomenon is known as tolerance. Several lines of investigations have shown that systemic, intraperitoneal administration or the microinjection of non-opioid analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) into the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter induces antinociception with some effects of tolerance. Our recent study has revealed that microinjection of three drugs analgin, ketorolac, and xefocam into the central nucleus of amygdala produce tolerance to them and cross-tolerance to morphine. Here we report that repeated administrations of these NSAIDs into the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) in the following 4 days result in progressively less antinociception compare to the saline control, i.e., tolerance develops to these drugs in male rats. Special control experiments showed that post-treatment with the μ-opioid antagonist naloxone into the NRM significantly decreased antinociceptive effects of NSAIDs on the first day of testing in the tail-flick (TF) reflex and hot plate (HP) latency tests. On the second day, naloxone generally had trend effects in both TF and HP tests and impeded the development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effect of non-opioid analgesics. These findings strongly support the suggestion of endogenous opioid involvement in NSAIDs antinociception and tolerance in the descending pain-control system. Moreover, repeated injections of NSAIDs progressively lead to tolerance to them, cross-tolerance to morphine, and the risk of a withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, these results are important for human medicine too.

  8. A central analgesic mechanism of acupuncture for migraine An ongoing functional MRI study**

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Lan; Yujie Gao; Fang Zeng; Wei Qin; Mingkai Dong; Mailan Liu; Taipin Guo; Fanrong Liang

    2013-01-01

    Shaoyang acupoints are the most frequently used in migraine treatment. However, the central anal-gesic mechanism remains poorly understood. Studies have demonstrated that single stimulus of the verum acupuncture in healthy subjects can induce significant connectivity or activity changes in pain-related central networks compared with sham acupuncture. However, these findings are not indicative of the central analgesic mechanism of acupuncture at Shaoyang acupoints. Thus, we recruited 100 migraine sufferers and randomly assigned them into five groups: Shaoyang uncommon acupoint, Shaoyang common acupoint, Yangming uncommon acupoint, non-acupoint control, and blank control groups. Subjects were subjected to evaluation of curative effects and functional MRI prior to and after 10 and 20 acupuncture treatments. Al subjects were diagnosed by physicians and enrol ed fol owing clinical physical examination. Subjects were observed during 1-4 weeks after inclusion. At the fifth week, the first clinical evaluation and resting functional MRI were conducted. The Shaoyang uncom-mon acupoint, Shaoyang common acupoint, Yangming uncommon acupoint, and non-acupoint control grousp then were treated with acupuncture, five times per week, 20 times in total over 4 weeks. The second and third clinical evaluations and resting functional MRI screenings were conducted fol owing 10 and 20 acupuncture treatments. The blank control group was observed during the 5 to 8 week pe-riod, fol owed by clinical evaluation and resting functional MRI. The aim of this study was to examine changes in brain functional activity and central networks in subjects with migraine undergoing acu-puncture at Shaoyang uncommon acupoints. This study provides a further explanation of the central analgesic mechanism by which acupuncture at Shaoyang acupoints treats migraine.

  9. Analgesic and micromeritic evaluations of SRMS-based oral lipospheres of diclofenac potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salome A Chime

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our work was to study the micromeritic properties of lyophilized diclofenac potassium-loaded lipospheres and to evaluate in vivo, the analgesic properties of diclofenac potassium in the lipospheres in addition to other in vitro properties. Solidified reverse micellar solutions were prepared by fusion using 1:1, 2:1, and 1:2% w/w of Phospholipon ® 90H and Softisan ® 154. Diclofenac potassium (1, 3, and 5% w/w was incorporated into the solidified reverse micellar solutions. Solidified reverse micellar solutions-based lipospheres were formulated by melt homogenization techniques using Ultra-Turrax homogenizer, and thereafter lyophilized to obtain water-free lipospheres. The lipospheres were characterized in terms of particle size and morphology, stability, thermal analysis, drug content, encapsulation efficiency, and loading capacity. The flow properties of the lipospheres were studied using both direct and indirect methods of assessing flow. The analgesic properties of the lipospheres were studied using the hot plate method. Results obtained showed that the yield of diclofenac potassium-loaded lipospheres was high and the particle size ranged from 0.61±0.07 to 2.55±0.04 μm. The lipospheres had high encapsulation efficiency of 95%, which was affected by the amount of drug loaded, while the loading capacity increased with the increase in drug loading. Diclofenac potassium-loaded lipospheres exhibited poor flow. The formulations exhibited good analgesic effect compared with the reference and had 84 to 86% drug release at 13 h. The lipospheres based on solidified reverse micellar solutions could be used for oral delivery of diclofenac potassium.

  10. Renal function in a rat model of analgesic nephropathy: effect of chloroquine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed H; Ashton, Nick; Balment, Richard J

    2003-04-01

    The antimalaria drug chloroquine is often taken against a background of analgesic nephropathy caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as paracetamol (acetaminophen). Chloroquine has marked effects on the normal kidney and stimulates an increase in plasma vasopressin via nitric oxide. The aim of this study was to determine the renal action of chloroquine in a model of analgesic nephropathy. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6-8/group) were treated with paracetamol (500 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) for 30 days in drinking water to induce analgesic nephropathy; control rats received normal tap water. Under intraval anesthesia (100 mg kg(-1)) rats were infused with 2.5% dextrose for 3 h to equilibrate and after a control hour they received either vehicle, chloroquine (0.04 mg h(-1)), N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor, 60 micro g kg(-1) h(-1)) or combined chloroquine and L-NAME over the next hour. Plasma was collected from a parallel group of animals for vasopressin radioimmunoassay. Long-term paracetamol treatment resulted in a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (p < 0.05), sodium excretion (p < 0.001), and urine osmolality (p < 0.001), but no change in urine flow rate compared with untreated animals. Chloroquine administration in paracetamol treated rats induced a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in urine flow rate and a significant increase in plasma vasopressin (p < 0.001). These effects were blocked by coadministration of L-NAME and thus seem to be mediated by a pathway involving nitric oxide. However, these responses contrast with the chloroquine-induced diuresis previously observed in untreated rats, possibly reflecting paracetamol inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis and consequent moderation of vasopressin's action.

  11. Cytotoxic, antibacterial and analgesic activities of Rhaphidophora glauca (Wall. Schott leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Muhammad Nasir Uddin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigation of cytotoxic, antimicrobial and analgesic activities of different fractions of Rhaphidophora glauca (Wall. Schott. Methods: Two partially purified aqueous methanolic fractions from ethyl acetate extract (AMF-1 and chloroform extract (AMF-2 obtained from the partitioning were used in study. The cytotoxic effect was determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Antibacterial activity was investigated by disc diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration methods. Hot plate method and acetic acid test was used for determining analgesic activity. Results: The LC50 values of AMF-1 and AMF-2 were found to be 287.73 and 428.54 µg/mL respectively, where colchicines showed LC50 of 11.16 µg/mL. The zone of inhibition of the fractions AMF-1 and AMF-2 was found to be in the range of 8–26 mm in 2 000 µg/disc, as compared to reference antibiotics kanamycin (11–28 mm at 30 µg/disc and ciprofloxacin (20–25 mm at 30 µg/disc indicating the antibacterial activity. In hot plate test, the highest pain inhibitory activity was found at a dose of 250 mg/kg for AMF-1 which was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05 compared to both positive and negative control at 30 min interval. In acid induced model, both AMF-1 and AMF-2 at a dose of 500 mg/kg showed significant activity compared to positive and negative control. Conclusions: This study found that Rhaphidophora glauca possesses potential cytotoxic, antibacterial and analgesic activity. Further study may be needed to isolate the bioactive compounds responsible for different activities with subsequent mechanistic study.

  12. Nonnarcotic analgesic use and the risk of hypertension in US women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedier, Julien; Stampfer, Meir J; Hankinson, Susan E; Willett, Walter C; Speizer, Frank E; Curhan, Gary C

    2002-11-01

    Acetaminophen, aspirin, and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely consumed. Each is theoretically capable of elevating blood pressure by altering prostaglandin homeostasis; however, there is little prospective information on the relation between these agents and physician-diagnosed hypertension. We examined the association between the use of aspirin, acetaminophen, or NSAIDs and incident hypertension in a prospective cohort study of 51 630 women 44 to 69 years of age in 1990 who had no history of hypertension or chronic renal insufficiency. Analgesic use was assessed in 1990 by a mailed questionnaire, and the women were followed for 8 years. The primary outcome was physician-diagnosed hypertension reported on a follow-up biennial questionnaire. During 381 078 person-years of follow-up, 10 579 incident cases of hypertension were identified. Compared with nonusers, women who used aspirin or acetaminophen at least 1 day per month or NSAIDs 5 or more days per month were at a significantly higher risk for development of hypertension. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds ratios for women in the highest frequency of use category (> or =22 days per month) compared with no use were as follows: aspirin, 1.21 (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.30); acetaminophen, 1.20 (1.08 to 1.33); and NSAIDs, 1.35 (1.25 to 1.46). For each analgesic type, there was a significant trend toward an increased risk of incident hypertension with increasing frequency of use (PNSAIDs when counseling their patients about the use of nonnarcotic analgesics.

  13. The Central Analgesic Mechanism of YM-58483 in Attenuating Neuropathic Pain in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zeyou; Wang, Yaping; Zhou, Haocheng; Liang, Na; Yang, Lin; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Calcium channel antagonists are commonly used to treat neuropathic pain. Their analgesic effects rely on inhibiting long-term potentiation, and neurotransmitters release in the spinal cord. Store-operated Ca(2+)channels (SOCCs) are highly Ca(2+)-selective cation channels broadly expressed in non-excitable cells and some excitable cells. Recent studies have shown that the potent inhibitor of SOCCs, YM-58483, has analgesic effects on neuropathic pain, but its mechanism is unclear. This experiment performed on spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain model in rats tries to explore the mechanism, whereby YM-58483 attenuates neuropathic pain. The left L5 was ligated to produce the SNL neuropathic pain model in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The withdrawal threshold of rats was measured by the up-down method and Hargreaves' method before and after intrathecal administration of YM-58483 and vehicle. The SOCCs in the spinal dorsal horn were located by immunofluorescence. The expression of phosphorylated ERK and phosphorylated CREB, CD11b, and GFAP proteins in spinal level was tested by Western blot, while the release of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, PGE2) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Intrathecal YM-58483 at the concentration of 300 μM (1.5 nmol) and 1000 μM (10 nmol) produced a significant central analgesic effect on the SNL rats, compared with control + vehicle (n = 7, P pain, compared with normal + saline (P  0.05). YM-58483 also inhibited the release of spinal cord IL-1β, TNF-α, and PGE2, compared with control + vehicle (n = 5, #P central ERK/CREB signaling in the neurons and decreasing central IL-1β, TNF-α, and PGE2 release to reduce neuronal excitability in the spinal dorsal horn of the SNL rats.

  14. Toxicity, analgesic and sedative potential of crude extract of soil-borne phytopathogenic fungi Aspergillus flavus

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    Bashir Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aspergillus flavus is one of the most abundant mold present around the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the acute toxicity, analgesic and sedative effect of the crude extract obtained from soil borne fungi A. flavus. Methods: The fungi was isolated from soil samples and identified morphologically and microscopically. The growth condition i.e. media, temperature, pH, and incubation period were optimized. In these optimized growth condition, A. flavus was grown in batch culture in shaking incubator. Crude contents were extracted by using ethyl acetate solvent. Crude secondary metabolites were screened for acute toxicity, analgesic and sedative effect. Results: Upon completion of the experiment, blood was collected from the tail vein of albino mice, and different haematological tests were conducted. White blood cells counts displayed a slight increase (10.6× 109/L above their normal range (0.8–6.8 × 109/L, which may be due to the increment in the number of lymphocytes or granulocytes. However, the percentage of lymphocytes was much lower (17.7%, while the percentage of the granulocytes was higher (61.4% than its normal range (8.6–38.9%. A reduction in the mean number of writhing in the different test groups was caused by the application of the crude ethyl acetate extract through the i.p. route at different doses (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg body weight. The results of our investigation showed the EtOAc extract of A. flavus can cause a significant sedative effect in open field. Conclusion: It was concluded from the present study that the A. flavus has the potential to produce bioactive metabolites which have analgesic and sedative effect.

  15. The Role of Spinal Dopaminergic Transmission in the Analgesic Effect of Nefopam on Rat Inflammatory Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Yun; Chae, Joo Wung; Lim, Chang Hun; Heo, Bong Ha; Park, Keun Suk; Lee, Hyung Gon; Choi, Jeong Il; Yoon, Myung Ha

    2016-01-01

    Background Nefopam has been known as an inhibitor of the reuptake of monoamines, and the noradrenergic and/or serotonergic system has been focused on as a mechanism of its analgesic action. Here we investigated the role of the spinal dopaminergic neurotransmission in the antinociceptive effect of nefopam administered intravenously or intrathecally. Methods The effects of intravenously and intrathecally administered nefopam were examined using the rat formalin test. Then we performed a microdialysis study to confirm the change of extracellular dopamine concentration in the spinal dorsal horn by nefopam. To determine whether the changes of dopamine level are associated with the nefopam analgesia, its mechanism was investigated pharmacologically via pretreatment with sulpiride, a dopaminergic D2 receptor antagonist. Results When nefopam was administered intravenously the flinching responses in phase I of the formalin test were decreased, but not those in phase II of the formalin test were decreased. Intrathecally injected nefopam reduced the flinching responses in both phases of the formalin test in a dose dependent manner. Microdialysis study revealed a significant increase of the level of dopamine in the spinal cord by intrathecally administered nefopam (about 3.8 fold the baseline value) but not by that administered intravenously. The analgesic effects of intrathecally injected nefopam were not affected by pretreatment with sulpiride, and neither were those of the intravenous nefopam. Conclusions Both the intravenously and intrathecally administered nefopam effectively relieved inflammatory pain in rats. Nefopam may act as an inhibitor of dopamine reuptake when delivered into the spinal cord. However, the analgesic mechanism of nefopam may not involve the dopaminergic transmission at the spinal level. PMID:27413481

  16. COMPARISON OF ANALGESIC EFFECT OF INTRA-ARTICULAR BUPRENORPHINE AND MORPHINE FOLLOWING ARTHROSCOPIC SURGERY OF KNEE

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    Shashidhar Gowdra Sugandarajappa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS Pain after orthopaedic surgery depends on the site and extent of surgery and the preoperative use of analgesics by the patient. Arthroscopic procedures are routinely performed on outpatient basis and have spared patients large incisions and decreased morbidity compared with open incisions, but has not eliminated pain. At present several techniques are available to treat pain following arthroscopic surgeries; these include the use of opioids, local anaesthetics, NSAIDs, corticosteroids, clonidine and cryotherapy. Here, we compared the analgesic effect of intra-articular administration of morphine, buprenorphine and placebo following arthroscopic surgery of knee. METHODS A prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled double-blind comparative study conducted in 60 patients of either sex who underwent arthroscopic surgery of knee; between the age group of 18 and 65 years and of ASA class I and II physical status were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned equally to one of the 3 groups of 20 each by a sealed envelope method. The groups were Group A - Patients receiving IA Buprenorphine 100 mcg in 20 mL normal saline. Group B - Patients receiving IA Morphine 3 mg in 20 mL normal saline. Group C - Patients receiving IA 20 mL normal saline as placebo. Parameters monitored were degree of analgesia along with haemodynamic parameters and side effects. Data were analysed using student’s t-test for continuous variables and Chi-Square test. RESULTS We found that 100 mcg buprenorphine when injected intra-articularly produced good and comparable postoperative pain control and reduced supplementary analgesic requirement when compared to other groups. CONCLUSION In summary, this study demonstrated that for eight hours postoperatively 100 mcg buprenorphine provided superior postoperative analgesia to that of 3 mg morphine

  17. Evaluation of the analgesic activity of extracts of Miconia rubiginosa (Melastomataceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spessoto, M A; Ferreira, D S; Crotti, A E M; Silva, M L A; Cunha, W R

    2003-01-01

    The analgesic effects of the hexane, methylene chloride and ethanol extracts of Miconia rubiginosa were evaluated in mice and rats using the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate tests. The extracts (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body wt.) and indomethacin (5 mg/kg body wt.) produced a significant (p acid-induced abdominal writhing. These same extracts (200 mg/kg body wt.) showed a significant (p oleanoic acids as the major compounds. Using only gas chromatography, it was possible to identify the following triterpenes in the hexane extract: alpha-amyrin, beta-amyrin, lupeol and beta-sitosterol.

  18. The evidence of neuraxial administration of analgesics for cancer-related pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurita, G P; Benthien, K S; Nordly, M;

    2015-01-01

    clinical and methodological diversity that precluded a meta-analysis. They also presented several limitations, which reduced study internal validity. However, they demonstrated better pain control for all interventions analysed. Side effects were described, but there were few significant differences...... related to cancer, pain, neuraxial route, analgesic and side effects. The search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane for the period until February 2014. Studies were analysed according to methods, results, quality of evidence, and strength of recommendation. RESULTS: The number of abstracts...

  19. Development of transmucosal patch loaded with anesthetic and analgesic for dental procedures and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Malviya Nidhi,1 M Nagaraju Patro,1 Somisetty Kusumvalli,2 Vemula Kusumdevi1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, 2Department of Endodontics and Conservative Dentistry, Sri Rajiv Gandhi College of Dental Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India Abstract: Most of the dental surgeries require preoperative anesthetic and postoperative analgesic for painless procedures. A multidrug transmucosal drug delivery system loaded with lignocaine (Lig base for immediate release and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs of diclofenac (Dic diethylamine for prolonged release was developed. SLNs were prepared by solvent emulsion–evaporation method with Precirol ATO 5 and Geleol as lipids and Pluronic F 68 as surfactant and optimized with Box–Behnken design for particle size and entrapment efficiency. SLNs were incorporated into the transmucosal patch (TP prepared with hydroxypropyl cellulose-LF (HPC-LF and with a backing layer of ethyl cellulose. Optimized SLNs and TP were characterized for Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, in vitro release, ex vivo permeation through porcine buccal mucosa, Caco-2 permeability, and residual solvent analysis by gas chromatography. The TP was also evaluated for swelling index, in vitro residence time, tensile strength, and mucoadhesive strength. Preclinical pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and histopathological studies by application of TP on the gingiva of New Zealand rabbits were carried out. Particle size and entrapment efficiency of the optimized SLN “S8” were determined as 98.23 nm and 84.36%, respectively. The gingival crevicular fluid and tissue concentrations were greater than plasma concentrations with increase in Cmax and area under the curve (AUC of Lig and Dic when compared to the control group. Pain perception by needle prick showed prolonged combined anesthetic and analgesic effect. The developed TP

  20. Analgesic and sedative concentrations of lignocaine shunt tonic and burst firing in thalamocortical neurones

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Stephan K.W.; Puil, Ernest

    1998-01-01

    The effects of lignocaine [lidocaine] HCl (0.6 μM–1 mM) on the membrane electrical properties and action potential firing of neurones of the ventral posterolateral (VPL) nucleus of the thalamus were investigated using whole cell recording techniques in rat brain slices in vitro.Bath application of lignocaine reversibly decreased the input resistance (Ri) of VPL neurones. This effect was observed at low, clinically sedative and analgesic concentrations (i.e., maximal amplitude at 10 μM) wherea...

  1. Analgesic efficacy of local anaesthetic wound administration in knee arthroplasty: volume vs concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L Ø; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Kristensen, B B;

    2010-01-01

    Wound administration of local anaesthetic may be effective for postoperative pain management in knee arthroplasty, but the analgesic efficacy of local anaesthetic in relation to volume vs concentration has not been determined. In a double-blinded trial, 48 patients scheduled for total knee...... arthroplasty were randomly assigned to receive either a high volume/low concentration solution of ropivacaine (20 ml, 0.5%) or a low volume/high concentration solution of ropivacaine (10 ml, 1%), 6 and 24 h postoperatively through an intracapsular catheter. Pain was assessed for 2 h after administration. Pain...

  2. Paracetamol as a prophylactic analgesic for hysterosalpingography: A double blind randomized controlled trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elson, E.M.; Ridley, N.T.F

    2000-09-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of paracetamol as a prophylactic analgesic for hysterosalpingography (HSG). DESIGN: A prospective double blind randomized controlled trial comparing one 1 g of paracetamol (SmithKline Beecham, Brentford, U.K.) to placebo taken 30 min before HSG. One hundred consecutive out-patients were studied prospectively. The analgesic effectiveness during the procedure and at 24 h and 1 week post procedure was analysed by a postal pain score questionnaire. Additional data on the ethnicity of the patient, sex and level of experience of the radiologist performing the hysterosalpingogram, the parity of the patient, the ease of the procedure, and whether pathology was identified were also recorded. RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients (88%) replied, 39 (44%) received paracetamol and 49 placebo (56%). During the procedure 3/39 (7%) of women in the paracetamol group were pain-free compared to 9/49 (18%) in the placebo group, which was not significant (P = 0.11). At 24 h, 15/39 (38%) of women in the paracetamol group were pain-free compared to 20/49 (41%) in the placebo group, which was not significant (P = 0.82). At 1 week, 27/39 (69%) of women in the paracetamol group were pain-free compared to 29/49 (59%) in the placebo group, which was not significant (P = 0.33). No significant difference in mean pain scores was determined during the procedure (P 0.91), or at 24 h post procedure (P = 0.94). Similarly, no difference in mean pain scores was identified with regard to the ethnicity of the patient, the sex of the radiologist performing the procedure, the level of experience of the radiologist performing the procedure, or whether pathology was present or not. Difficult cannulations were associated with higher mean pain scores, however, there was no difference in mean pain scores between the paracetamol or placebo groups for both easy and difficult cannulations. CONCLUSION: Paracetamol is not effective as a prophylactic analgesic for HSG. If a prophylactic

  3. Paroxetine engenders analgesic effects through inhibition of p38 phosphorylation in a rat migraine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanming Wang; Wei Bi; Yanran Liang; Xiuna Jing; Songhua Xiao; Yannan Fang; Qiaoyun Shi; Enxiang Tao

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a model of migraine was established by electrical stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus in rats. These rats were then treated orally with paroxetine at doses of 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg per day for 14 days. Following treatment, mechanical withdrawal thresholds were significantly higher, extracellular concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the periaqueductal grey matter and nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis were higher, and the expression of phosphorylated p38 in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis was lower. Our experimental findings suggest that paroxetine has analgesic effects in a rat migraine model, which are mediated by inhibition of p38 phosphorylation.

  4. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities of the fruit of Foeniculum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Mi; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2004-09-01

    Oral administration (200 mg/kg) of Foeniculum vulgare fruit methanolic extract exhibited inhibitory effects against acute and subacute inflammatory diseases and type IV allergic reactions and showed a central analgesic effect. Moreover, it significantly increased the plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities and the high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. On the contrary, the malondialdehyde (MDA) (as a measure of lipid peroxidation) level was significantly decreased in F. vulgare fruit methanolic extract group compared to the control group (P<0.05). These results seems to support the use of F. vulgare fruit methanolic extract in relieving inflammation.

  5. Development of transmucosal patch loaded with anesthetic and analgesic for dental procedures and in vivo evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidhi, Malviya; Patro, M Nagaraju; Kusumvalli, Somisetty; Kusumdevi, Vemula

    2016-01-01

    Most of the dental surgeries require preoperative anesthetic and postoperative analgesic for painless procedures. A multidrug transmucosal drug delivery system loaded with lignocaine (Lig) base for immediate release and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of diclofenac (Dic) diethylamine for prolonged release was developed. SLNs were prepared by solvent emulsion–evaporation method with Precirol ATO 5 and Geleol as lipids and Pluronic F 68 as surfactant and optimized with Box–Behnken design for particle size and entrapment efficiency. SLNs were incorporated into the transmucosal patch (TP) prepared with hydroxypropyl cellulose-LF (HPC-LF) and with a backing layer of ethyl cellulose. Optimized SLNs and TP were characterized for Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, in vitro release, ex vivo permeation through porcine buccal mucosa, Caco-2 permeability, and residual solvent analysis by gas chromatography. The TP was also evaluated for swelling index, in vitro residence time, tensile strength, and mucoadhesive strength. Preclinical pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and histopathological studies by application of TP on the gingiva of New Zealand rabbits were carried out. Particle size and entrapment efficiency of the optimized SLN “S8” were determined as 98.23 nm and 84.36%, respectively. The gingival crevicular fluid and tissue concentrations were greater than plasma concentrations with increase in Cmax and area under the curve (AUC) of Lig and Dic when compared to the control group. Pain perception by needle prick showed prolonged combined anesthetic and analgesic effect. The developed TP loaded with Lig base and Dic diethylamine-SLNs exhibited immediate and complete permeation with tissue accumulation of Lig followed by controlled prolonged release and tissue accumulation of Dic at the site of application. Thus, it could be anticipated from the in vivo studies that the

  6. Preliminary studies of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Opuntia dillenii aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loro, J F; del Rio, I; Pérez-Santana, L

    1999-11-01

    Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw is a cactus that belongs to the family Opuntiae. Lyophilized aqueous extract of the fruits of the plant, used in Canarian traditional medicine for gastrointestinal and bronchial troubles, was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in rats and mice. The Opuntia dillenii extract (100-400 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited, in a dose-related manner, carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. A dose-dependent action was obtained against chemical (writhing test) and thermic (hot plate test) stimuli, respectively, with doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg.

  7. Hepatotoxicity of anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs:ultrastructural aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irena MANOV; Helen MOTANIS; Idan FRUMIN; Theodore C IANCU

    2006-01-01

    With the increasing incidence of drug-induced liver disease,attempts are being made to better understand the mechanisms behind these frequently life-endangering reactions.Analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs are a major group exhibiting hepatotoxicity.We review research relating to these reactions,focusing on ultrastructural findings,which may contribute to the comprehension and possible avoidance of drug-induced liver disease.We also present some original observations on clinical material and cultured cells exposed to acetaminophen alone or in combination with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or the P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil.

  8. Physician-related barriers to cancer pain management with opioid analgesics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Sjøgren, Per; Møldrup, Claus

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to summarize the results of studies on physician-related barriers to cancer pain management with opioid analgesics. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in PUBMED, using a combined text word and MeSH heading search strategy. Those articles whose full...... texts were not available in PUBMED were retrieved from the electronic databases of specific journals. RESULTS: Sixty-five relevant articles, published in the period from 1986 to 2006, were identified. Physicians' barriers to cancer pain management were studied in questionnaire surveys and in the reviews...

  9. Variation in postoperative non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic use after colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Klein, Mads; Burcharth, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    for the use of the two NSAIDs diclofenac and ibuprofen were recorded. The data from six colorectal departments in eastern Denmark were compared. RESULTS: Of the 2,754 patients analyzed overall, 40.6% received NSAIDs as part of their analgesic treatment. The percentage of the patients receiving NSAIDs......, receiving a pre-defined dosage as a minimum and receiving NSAIDs as p.r.n. medication, and the type of NSAID were significantly different both between department and within departments. The median dose of ibuprofen and diclofenac were 1200 mg (400-2,400 mg) and 100 mg (50-200 mg), respectively. CONCLUSIONS...

  10. Analgesic efficacy of local anaesthetic wound administration in knee arthroplasty: volume vs concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L Ø; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Kristensen, B B;

    2010-01-01

    Wound administration of local anaesthetic may be effective for postoperative pain management in knee arthroplasty, but the analgesic efficacy of local anaesthetic in relation to volume vs concentration has not been determined. In a double-blinded trial, 48 patients scheduled for total knee...... arthroplasty were randomly assigned to receive either a high volume/low concentration solution of ropivacaine (20 ml, 0.5%) or a low volume/high concentration solution of ropivacaine (10 ml, 1%), 6 and 24 h postoperatively through an intracapsular catheter. Pain was assessed for 2 h after administration. Pain...... was reduced in both groups with ropivacaine administration 24 h postoperatively (p

  11. Analgesic activity of extracts of the whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin Abu Taiab Md

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Successive petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. were investigated for the analgesic activity. Experiments were carried out with these extracts for their peripheral and central antinociceptive potentials on acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail-flick models in mice, respectively. In both the models, methanolic extract showed significant writhing inhibition as well as the elongation of tail-flick time at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight. A linear dose response relationship was also observed.

  12. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanol stem bark extract of Prosopis africana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanwuyi, Lydia O; Yaro, Abdullahi H; Abodunde, Olajumoke M

    2010-03-01

    Prosopis africana (Guill. & Perr.) Taub. (Mimosoideae) is a shrub used for menstrual and general body pain in Nupe land in north central Nigeria. In this study, the methanol extract of the stem bark of Prosopis africana (at doses of 62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities using acetic acid-induced writhing assay and carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats. The extract significantly (P 5000 mg/kg in rats. This study supports the folkloric claim of the use of Prosopis africana in the management of pain.

  13. Maternal use of mild analgesics during pregnancy associated with reduced anogenital distance in sons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Dorte Vesterholm; Main, Katharina M; Kyhl, Henriette Boye

    2017-01-01

    statistically significant only for NSAIDs. The association was significant among 20 boys exposed to both paracetamol and NSAIDs (AGD -4.1 mm; CI 95%: -6.4; -1.7). Maternal intake of analgesics did not show any clear association with AGD in female offspring. No effect on penile width was found. LIMITATIONS...... Disruptors Danish Center for Hormone Disrupting Chemicals, the Danish Foundation for Scientific Innovation and Technology (09-067180), the Danish Research Council (4004-00352B_FSS), Novo Nordic Foundation (NNF15OC0017734), Ronald McDonald Children Foundation, K.A. Rohde's and wife's Foundation, Odense...

  14. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of SKLJI, a highly purified and injectable herbal extract of Lonicera japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Keun Ho; Rhee, Hae In; Kim, Joo Hyon; Yoo, Hunseung; Lee, Bong Yong; Um, Key-An; Kim, Keunyoung; Noh, Ji-Yoon; Lim, Kyung-Min; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2010-01-01

    The parenteral route has many merits over the oral route, including greater predictability, reproducibility of absorption, and rapid drug action, but injectable phytomedicines are uncommon due to protein precipitating tannin and hemolytic saponin components. In this study, in an effort to develop a safe injectable analgesic phytomedicine, we prepared a tannin and saponin-free Lonicera japonica extract, SKLJI, through fractionation and column purification, and evaluated its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in in vivo experimental models of inflammation and pain. The removal of tannin and saponin resulted in loganin and sweroside-enriched SKLJI and it showed reduced hemolysis and protein precipitation. In efficacy tests, SKLJI inhibited croton oil- and arachidonic acid-induced ear edema, acetic acid-induced writhing, and carrageenan-induced rat hind paw hyperalgesia. Inhibition of cylcooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and 5-lipoxyfenase (5-LO) activities by SKLJI appeared to be the mechanism underlying anti-inflammatory and analgesic efficacy. Loganin and sweroside also showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, suggesting that they might be active principles in the efficacy of SKLJI. These results suggest that SKLJI is a viable candidate for a new anti-inflammatory and analgesic phytomedicine that can be administered by the parenteral route.

  15. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracted leaves of selected medicinal plants in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Hassan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The research was carried out to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Desmodium pauciflorum, Mangifera indica and Andrographis paniculata leaves. Materials and Methods: In order to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects acetic acid induced writhing response model and carrageenan induced paw edema model were used in Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats, respectively. In both cases, leaves extract were administered (2gm/kg body weight and the obtained effects were compared with commercially available analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug Dclofenac sodium (40mg/kg body weight. Distilled water (2ml/kg body weight was used as a control for the study. Results: In analgesic bioassay, oral administration of the ethanol extract of leaves were significantly (p<0.01 reduced the writhing response. The efficacy of leaves extract were almost 35% in Desmodium pauciflorum, 56% in Mangifera indica and 34% in Andrographis paniculata which is found comparable to the effect of standard analgesic drug diclofenac sodium (76%. Leaves extract reduced paw edema in variable percentages but they did not show any significant difference among the leaves. Conclusion: We recommend further research on these plant leaves for possible isolation and characterization of the various active chemical substances which has the toxic and medicinal values. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 68-71

  16. Development of a simple radiant heat induced experimental pain model for evaluation of analgesics in normal healthy human volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.U.R Naidu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Human experimental pain models help to understand the mechanism of the painful conditions and can also be adopted to test analgesic efficacy of drugs. In early phases, the clinical development of new analgesics is hindered due to the lack of reliable tests for the experimental pain models. In the present study, we have developed and validated a simple radiant heat pain model which can be used for future screening of various analgesic agents. Materials and Methods : We have standardized the thermal pain model by recording pain threshold and pain tolerance time in seconds at three different intensities and levels in 24 healthy subjects. Reproducibility of the test procedure was evaluated by recording the pain parameters by two observers on three consecutive days. Validity of model was further tested by evaluating the analgesic effect of tramadol. Results and Conclusions : Use of radiant heat pain model with high intensity and short level was found to produce low variability with coefficient of variation less than 5%. Interobserver and interperiod reproducibility was very good as shown by Bland - Altman plot; with most of the values within ± 2SD. Tramadol produced statistically significant increase in pain threshold time. The newly developed pain model produces a type of experimental pain which is responsive to analgesic effects of tramadol at clinically relevant doses.

  17. Prescription pattern of antibiotic and analgesic in endodontic treatment in Kuwaiti population: A self-administered Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal J Al-Maslamani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgical and non-surgical endodontic treatment of involved teeth can necessitate prescription of analgesics and antimicrobials. The literature suggests confusion amongst practitioners regarding the need for adjunctive medication, mainly during non-surgical endodontic treatment, often leading to over-prescription. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the current clinical practice of dentists participated in this study with respect to antibiotic and analgesic prescription patterns in their endodontic treatment management in Kuwait. Materials and Methods: Prescription patterns for antibiotics and analgesics were analyzed based on the responses to self-administered questionnaire (n = 169. Information was collected based on different clinical endodontic diagnostic scenarios. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software version 17.0 to determine relationships between prescription patterns, age, gender, and dental qualification (specialists and general dentists. Results: Ninety-two percent of dentists prescribed analgesics for the management of endodontic pain. While 16% prescribed antibiotics for severe dental pain; 62% prescribed antibiotics for acute apical abscesses. Significantly more male dentists prescribed antibiotics for dental pain than female dentists. No significant difference was found between general dental practitioners′ and specialists′ attitude toward drug prescriptions. Amoxicillin and ibuprofen were the most commonly prescribed medications. Conclusion: While the majority of dentists appeared to prescribe antibiotics and analgesics appropriately, some did not. This research confirmed previous studies and established a need for imparting information of evidence-based prescriptions protocols for the dentists surveyed in this study in Kuwait.

  18. Primary tumour growth in an orthotopic osteosarcoma mouse model is not influenced by analgesic treatment with buprenorphine and meloxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, K; Arlt, M J E; Jirkof, P; Arras, M; Born, W; Fuchs, B

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the treatment of bone pain in animal models of bone cancer. In the present study, the orthotopic 143-B human osteosarcoma xenotransplantation model was used to address the following questions: (1) Can repetitive analgesic treatment extend the experimental period by prolonging the time to reach humane endpoints and (2) Does repetitive analgesic treatment affect bone tumour development and metastasis? The analgesics, buprenorphine and meloxicam, were either applied individually or in combination at 12 h intervals as soon as the animals began to avoid using the tumour cell injected leg. While control mice treated with NaCl showed continuous body weight loss, the major criterion previously for terminating the experiments, animals treated with analgesic substances did not. The control mice had to be sacrificed 26 days after tumour cell injection, whereas the groups of animals with the different pain treatments were euthanized after an additional eight days. Importantly, primary intratibial tumour growth was not affected in any of the experimental groups by any of the pain treatment procedures. Between days 26 and 34 after tumour cell injection an increase of about 100% of the number of lung metastases was found for the groups treated with buprenorphine alone or together with meloxicam, but not for the group treated with meloxicam alone. In summary, the results indicated that both buprenorphine and meloxicam are suitable analgesics for prolonging the experimental periods in an experimental intratibial osteosarcoma mouse model.

  19. Determination of non-opioid analgesics in adulterated food and dietary supplements by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Joo; Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Hyoung Joon; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Cho, Sooyeul; Kim, Woo Seong

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available non-opioid analgesics such as acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been used to adulterate some foods and dietary supplements. Considering the rapid growth of the dietary supplement market, it is essential to analyse various analgesics used for adulteration over a time period. Acetaminophen and 16 NSAIDs used to adulterate food and dietary supplements were simultaneously determined by LC-MS/MS. The method was validated by determining the coefficient of determinations, limit of quantification and recovery, and samples were analysed for the determination of analgesics. Consequently, acetaminophen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, indomethacin, naproxen and piroxicam were detected in 53 samples (n = 214). Ibuprofen was the most commonly used adulterant, which was detected in a wide concentration range (1.06-233.40 mg g(-1)) and was present in about one-third of the adulterated samples. Various types of samples, in particular pills and capsules (73.6% of the total positive samples), were found to be adulterated with non-opioid analgesics. Samples containing high concentrations of analgesics can have a deleterious effect on human health, and thus the continued monitoring of adulterated food and dietary supplements is essential to maintain a healthy life.

  20. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Galls of Quercus infectoria (Olivier in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Ha Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the analgesic activity of the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria in rats using hot plate and tail-flick methods. The extract was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg while morphine sulfate and sodium salicylate (10 mg/kg served as standards. The methanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity in the tail-flick model (P<0.05 by increasing the reaction time of the rats to 8.0 sec at 30 min after treatment in comparison to control (4.4 sec. Morphine sulfate produced a reaction time of 11.9 sec in the same test. At the peak of activity (30 min, the extract produced maximum possible analgesia (MPA of 34.2%, whilst morphine sulfate achieved a peak MPA of 70.9%. No analgesic effects have been observed using sodium salicylate in the tail-flick model. In the same model, the extract and sodium salicylate demonstrated comparable reaction times. Tail-flick is a better method to evaluate analgesic activity as no significant results were observed for all treatments using hot plate with the exception of morphine sulfate, which showed significant results only at 45 and 60 min after treatment. In conclusion, the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria displayed analgesic activity.

  1. Comparative Study of the Analgesic Activity of Two Iraqi Medicinal Plants, Ruta graveolens and Matricaria chamomilla Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Abdulrahman Hussain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The study was performed to compare the analgesic activity of different fractions of the extracts of Ruta graveolens and Matricaria chamomilla. Materials and Methods: The plant materials were extracted with 70% ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of each plant were evaporated to dryness and analyzed by HPLC. The analgesic activity of these extracts was evaluated using writhing reflex test and compared with that produced by a standard drug (Diclofenac sodium. Results: Flavonoids were found in all fractions of both plants (i.e ethyl acetate and n-butanol, while trace of alkaloids in were found in the ethyl acetate fraction of Ruta. The prepared extracts showed better analgesic activity than the standard drug; when compared with each other, Matricaria extracts showed better analgesic activity compared to Ruta extracts. Conclusion: There is similar efficacy of chamomile and common rue as analgesic agents. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 79-83

  2. Analgesic nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by: Charles Silberberg, DO, private practice specializing in nephrology, affiliated with New York Medical College, Division of Nephrology, Valhalla, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. ...

  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY SHOWING EFFICACY OF PREEMPTIVE INTRAVENOUS PARACETAMOL IN REDUCING POSTOPERATIVE PAIN AND ANALGESIC REQUIREMENT IN LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Ahmad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A double blind, prospective, randomized study was conducted on 60 patients of ASA I and II undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy to evaluate the efficacy of pre - emptive IV paracetamol [PCM] in reducing postoperative pain and analgesic requirement. Patien ts were randomly assigned in two groups, group A and group B of which group A received pre - emptive IV PCM 10 minutes before skin incision. It was observed that time to first analgesic required was significantly longer in group A as compared to group B and group A had significantly lower total analgesic consumption and visual analogue scores (VAS as compared to group B. We concluded that pre - emptive use of IV PCM (Paracetamol in laparoscopic cholecystectomy significantly decreases postoperative pain and a nalgesic requirement.

  4. Enhanced analgesic effect of morphine-nimodipine combination after intraspinal administration as compared to systemic administration in mice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dilip Verma; Subrata Basu Ray; Ishan Patro; Shashi Wadhwa

    2005-09-01

    Calcium plays an important role in the pathophysiology of pain. A number of studies have investigated the effect of L-type calcium channel blockers on the analgesic response of morphine. However, the results are conflicting. In the present study, the antinociceptive effect of morphine (2.5 g) and nimodipine (1 g) co-administered intraspinally in mice was observed using the tail flick test. It was compared to the analgesic effect of these drugs (morphine – 250 g subcutaneously; nimodipine – 100 g intraperitoneally) after systemic administration. Nimodipine is highly lipophilic and readily crosses the blood brain barrier. Addition of nimodipine to morphine potentiated the analgesic response of the latter when administered through the intraspinal route but not when administered through systemic route. It may be due to direct inhibitory effect of morphine and nimodipine on neurons of superficial laminae of the spinal cord after binding to -opioid receptors and L-type calcium channels respectively.

  5. Mechanisms of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) fruit extract in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O

    2014-12-01

    Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (Pmuricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation.

  6. Treatment with analgesics after mouse sciatic nerve injury does not alter expression of wound healing-associated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt C Danzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of sciatic nerve injury are commonly used to study neuropathic pain as well as axon regeneration. Administration of post-surgical analgesics is an important consideration for animal welfare, but the actions of the analgesic must not interfere with the scientific goals of the experiment. In this study, we show that treatment with either buprenorphine or acetaminophen following a bilateral sciatic nerve crush surgery does not alter the expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neurons of a panel of genes associated with wound healing. These findings indicate that the post-operative use of buprenorphine or acetaminophen at doses commonly suggested by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees does not change the intrinsic gene expression response of DRG neurons to a sciatic nerve crush injury, for many wound healing-associated genes. Therefore, administration of post-operative analgesics may not confound the results of transcriptomic studies employing this injury model.

  7. Treatment with analgesics after mouse sciatic nerve injury does not alter expression of wound healing-associated genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matt C Danzi; Dario Motti; Donna L Avison; John L Bixby; Vance P Lemmon

    2016-01-01

    Animal models of sciatic nerve injury are commonly used to study neuropathic pain as well as axon regen-eration. Administration of post-surgical analgesics is an important consideration for animal welfare, but the actions of the analgesic must not interfere with the scientiifc goals of the experiment. In this study, we show that treatment with either buprenorphine or acetaminophen following a bilateral sciatic nerve crush surgery does not alter the expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons of a panel of genes associated with wound healing. These ifndings indicate that the post-operative use of buprenorphine or acetaminophen at doses commonly suggested by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees does not change the intrinsic gene expression response of DRG neurons to a sciatic nerve crush injury, for many wound healing-associated genes. Therefore, administration of post-operative analgesics may not confound the results of transcriptomic studies employing this injury model.

  8. Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Fezai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In folk medicine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is used as a remedy for a variety of diseases. This study investigates the in vivo antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects of EVOO on mice and rats. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, using the acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin tests in mice, the analgesic effect of EVOO was evaluated. Acetylsalicylic acid and morphine were used as standard drugs, respectively. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated by means of the carrageenan-induced paw edema model in rats using acetylsalicylic acid and dexamethasone as standard drugs. Last, the xenograft model in athymic mice was used to evaluate the anticancer effect in vivo. Results. EVOO significantly decreased acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes and reduces acute and inflammatory pain in the two phases of the formalin test. It has also a better effect than Dexamethasone in the anti-inflammatory test. Finally, the intraperitoneal administration of EVOO affects the growth of HCT 116 tumours xenografted in athymic mice. Conclusion. EVOO has a significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. However, further detailed studies are required to determine the active component responsible for these effects and mechanism pathway.

  9. Fatty acid composition, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaia Awad Elkariem Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus (H. sabdariffa (commonly known as “Karkadeh” in Arabic is widely used in various pharmacological applications in Sudan. The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of H. sabdariffa seed extracts using rat models. In acute anti-inflammatory models, oral administration of petroleum ether extract of H. sabdariffa seeds inhibited the hind paw edema (p<0.01 which was induced by carrageenan. The petroleum ether extract exhibited significant (p<0.01 inhibition of vascular permeability in rats induced by intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (0.6%. In cotton pellet granuloma method, the petroleum ether extract of H. sabdariffa seed showed significant inhibition of granuloma. The extract reduced (p<0.001 abdominal constrictions which was induced by injection of acetic acid (0.7%. Analysis of seed oil of H. sabdariffa using Gas Chromatography revealed the presence of three fatty acids; these were linolelaidic acid, arachidic acid, and palmitic acid. In conclusion, H. sabdariffa seeds possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in rat model.

  10. A rapid and simultaneous determination of several analgesic antiinflammatory agents by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Kazutaka; Yano, Takahisa; Maiguma, Takayoshi; Teshima, Daisuke; Sendo, Toshiaki; Itoh, Yoshinori; Oishi, Ryozo

    2003-10-01

    A rapid and simultaneous determination of several analgesic antiinflammatory agents--ibuprofen, acetaminophen, indomethacin, and salicylic acid--in human serum was developed by using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) coupled with diode-array ultraviolet detection. After precipitation of serum protein with acetonitrile containing 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine as the internal standard, an aliquot of deproteinized samples was applied directly to the CZE system. It enabled us to measure all of these four agents within 6 min, and there were no peaks interfering with the assay of these agents or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine. Both the separation and quantification of these agents in human serum were reproducible after repeated analysis within a day or day-to-day analysis. In addition, there was a good correlation for each drug (r = 0.997-0.999) between the values in serum determined by CZE analysis and those measured either by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (ibuprofen and indomethacin) or by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (acetaminophen and salicylic acid). Therefore, the present CZE analysis could provide a simple, rapid, and efficient method for the identification as well as monitoring of analgesic antiinflammatory agents, particularly in serum of patients suffering from intoxication by overdosage of these agents.

  11. Seeing an embodied virtual hand is analgesic contingent on co-location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierula, Birgit; Martini, Matteo; Matamala-Gomez, Marta; Slater, Mel; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

    2017-01-17

    Seeing one's own body has been reported to have analgesic properties. Analgesia has also been described when seeing an embodied virtual body co-located with the real one. However, there is a controversy regarding whether this effect holds true when seeing an illusory-owned body part, such as during the rubber-hand illusion. A critical difference between these paradigms is the distance between real and surrogate body part. Co-location of real arm and surrogate is possible in an immersive virtual environment, but not during illusory ownership of a rubber arm. The present study aimed at testing whether the distance between real and virtual arm can explain such differences in terms of pain modulation. Employing a paradigm of embodiment of a virtual body allowed us to evaluate heat pain thresholds (HPT) at co-location and at 30-cm distance between real and virtual arm. We observed significantly higher HPT at co-location than at 30-cm distance. The analgesic effects of seeing a virtual co-located arm are eliminated when increasing the distance between real and virtual arm which explains why seeing an illusorily owned rubber arm does not consistently result in analgesia. These findings are relevant for the use of virtual reality in pain management.

  12. The Analgesic Effect of the Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant SkQ1 in Pancreatic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Weniger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic pancreatitis is one of the main risk factors for pancreatic cancer. In acute and chronic pancreatitis, oxidative stress is thought to play a key role. In this respect, the recently described mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 effectively scavenges reactive oxygen species at nanomolar concentrations. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the influence of SkQ1 on tissue injury and pain in acute and chronic pancreatitis. Methods. Both acute and chronic pancreatitis were induced in C57BL/6 mice by intraperitoneal cerulein injections and treatment with SkQ1 was carried out by peroral applications. Hyperalgesia was assessed by behavioral observation and measurement of abdominal mechanical sensitivity. Blood serum and pancreatic tissue were harvested for analysis of lipase and histology. Results. SkQ1 did not influence pain, serological, or histological parameters of tissue injury in acute pancreatitis. In chronic pancreatitis, a highly significant reduction of pain-related behavior (p<0.0001 was evident, but histological grading revealed increased tissue injury in SkQ1-treated animals (p=0.03. Conclusion. After SkQ1 treatment, tissue injury is not ameliorated in acute pancreatitis and increased in chronic pancreatitis. However, we show an analgesic effect in chronic pancreatitis. Further studies will need to elucidate the risks and benefits of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants as an analgesic.

  13. Intracerebroventricular administration of 26RFa produces an analgesic effect in the rat formalin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Miyazaki, Rika; Yamada, Toshihiko

    2009-09-01

    GPR103 is one of the orphan G protein-coupled receptors. Recently, an endogenous ligand for GPR103, 26RFa, was identified. Many 26RFa binding sites have been observed in various nuclei of the brain involved in the processing of pain such as the parafascicular thalamic nucleus, the locus coeruleus, the dorsal raphe nucleus, and the parabrachial nucleus. In the present study, the effects of intracerebroventricular injection of 26RFa were tested in the rat. Intracerebroventricular injection of 26RFa significantly decreased the number of both phase 1 and phase 2 agitation behaviors induced by paw formalin injection. This analgesic effect of 26RFa on the phase 1 response, but not phase 2 response, was antagonized by BIBP3226, a mixed antagonist of neuropeptide Y Y1 and neuropeptide FF receptors. Intracerebroventricular injection of 26RFa has no effect in the 52.5 degrees C hot plate test. Intracerebroventricular injection of 26RFa had no effect on the expression of Fos-like immunoreactivity induced by paw formalin injection in the superficial layers of the spinal dorsal horn. These data suggest that (1) 26RFa modulates nociceptive transmission at the supraspinal site during a formalin test, (2) the mechanism 26RFa uses to produce an analgesic effect on the phase 1 response is different from that on the phase 2 response, and (3) intracerebroventricularly injected 26RFa dose not directly inhibit the nociceptive input to the spinal cord.

  14. Conotoxins Targeting Neuronal Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Subtypes: Potential Analgesics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. McArthur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC are the primary mediators of electrical signal amplification and propagation in excitable cells. VGSC subtypes are diverse, with different biophysical and pharmacological properties, and varied tissue distribution. Altered VGSC expression and/or increased VGSC activity in sensory neurons is characteristic of inflammatory and neuropathic pain states. Therefore, VGSC modulators could be used in prospective analgesic compounds. VGSCs have specific binding sites for four conotoxin families: μ-, μO-, δ- and ί-conotoxins. Various studies have identified that the binding site of these peptide toxins is restricted to well-defined areas or domains. To date, only the μ- and μO-family exhibit analgesic properties in animal pain models. This review will focus on conotoxins from the μ- and μO-families that act on neuronal VGSCs. Examples of how these conotoxins target various pharmacologically important neuronal ion channels, as well as potential problems with the development of drugs from conotoxins, will be discussed.

  15. Intravenous paracetamol infusion versus intramuscular tramadol as an intra-partum labor analgesic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Patil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We read with interest the article and ldquo;Intravenous paracetamol infusion versus intramuscular tramadol as an intra-partum labor analgesic and rdquo; by Mohan H et al published in November - December 2015, volume 4 issue 6 of International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology.1 As we read it, we realized that the article is quite similar to another article and ldquo;Intravenous paracetamol infusion versus intramuscular tramadol as an intra-partum labor analgesic and rdquo; by Lallar M et al.2 Although the authors quote this article as their reference, the degree of similarity between the two articles is beyond our acceptance. Hence we would like to bring it to your notice. We know that any original research should be encouraged to be published, but the authenticity in style of writing the same should be maintained and plagiarism to such a high extent is not acceptable. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(9.000: 3268-3268

  16. Effect of gender on pain perception and analgesic consumption in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza M Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence regarding gender affecting the response to pain and its treatment is inconsistent in literature. The objective of this prospective, observational study was to determine the effect of gender on pain perception and postoperative analgesic consumption in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: We recruited 60 male and 60 female patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients were observed for additional intraoperative and postoperative analgesia. Numerical rating scale was documented at 10 min interval for 1 h in post-anesthesia recovery room and at 4, 8, and 12 h postoperatively. Boluses of tramadol given as rescue analgesia were also noted. There were no dropouts. Results: The mean pain scores were significantly higher in female patients at 20 and 30 min following surgery. Mean dose of tramadol consumption was significantly higher in female patients for the first postoperative hour (P = 0.002, but not in the later period. Conclusion: Female patients exhibited greater intensity of pain and required higher doses of analgesics compared to males in in the immediate postoperative period in order to achieve a similar degree of analgesia.

  17. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methanol Extract of Ficus pumila L. in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ren Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the methanol extract of Ficus pumila (FPMeOH. Analgesic effects were evaluated in two models including acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking. The results showed FPMeOH decreased writhing response in the acetic acid assay and licking time in the formalin test. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by λ-carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema and histopathological analyses. FPMeOH significantly decreased the volume of paw edema induced by λ-carrageenan. Histopathologically, FPMeOH abated the level of tissue destruction and swelling of the edema paws. This study indicated anti-inflammatory mechanism of FPMeOH may be due to declined levels of NO and MDA in the edema paw through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in the liver. Additionally, FPMeOH also decreased the level of inflammatory mediators such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2. HPLC fingerprint was established and the contents of three active ingredients, rutin, luteolin, and apigenin, were quantitatively determined. This study provided evidence for the classical treatment of Ficus pumila in inflammatory diseases.

  18. Anti-dermatitis, anxiolytic and analgesic effects of Rhazya stricta from Balochistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mansoor; Muhammed, Shafi; Mehjabeen; Jahan, Noor; Jan, Syed Umer; Qureshi, Zia-Ul-Rehaman

    2014-05-01

    Current study was carried out on Rhazya stricta. Plant material was collected from Jhalmagsi Dist. Balochistan, Pakistan. Methanolic extract of Rhazya stricta was tested for anti-dermatitis, analgesic, anxiolytic effects, insecticidal activity and Brine shrimp Bioassay. Crude extract showed significant anti-dermatitis activity, as the results of intensity score showed mild Excoriation or erosion, moderate Edema or populations and absence of Erythema or hemorrhage, Scratching time was decreased to 1.45 and histological observations of mice treated with crude extract showed mild changes and few inflammatory cells in several microscopic fields. The results of analgesic activity were significant and the percentage inhibition of writhes were 73.54% and 69.38% at 300mg/kg and 500mg/kg respectively. The overall response of crude extract in anxiolytic activities were depressive and crude extract showed sedative effects. In Brine shrimp (Artemsia salina) lethality bioassay crude extract showed dose depended significant activity, and showed positive lethality with LD(50) 3.3004μg/ml. Insecticidal activity was positive against Callosbruchus analis, the percent mortality was 40%.

  19. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANALGESIC AND ULCEROGENIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO LINN. LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Rageeb Md.Usman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic activity of extract of leaves of Vigna Mungo linn. (Leguminosae were investigated as well as the mechanisms of action. The extract significantly (P<0.05 inhibited the formation of paw edema induced by    carrageenan in rat and increased reaction latency to thermal pain in rat in a dose-dependent manner. The extract caused a significant (P<0.05 dose-dependent ulceration of rat gastric mucosa and concentration-dependent inhibition of hypotonicity-induced haemolysis of red blood cell. Also the extract significantly (P<0.05 inhibited the activates of the phospholipase A2 and prostaglandine synthesis in a concentration related manner. These suggest that the leaves posses anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic activities mediated through sequential inhibition of the enzymes responsible for prostaglandine synthesis from arachidonic acid. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of glycoside, tannins, alkaloid, flavonoids and Saponins. Acute toxicity studies established an oral LD50 greater than 3000 mg/kg.

  20. Evaluation of piroxicam-beta-cyclodextrin as a preemptive analgesic in functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleş, G T; Topçu, I; Ekici, Z; Yentür, A

    2010-08-01

    The preemptive analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of preoperatively administered piroxicam-beta-cyclodextrin for post-endoscopic sinus surgery pain was determined in a prospective, double-blind, randomized, clinical study. Seventy-five American Society of Anesthesiologists status I-II patients, aged 18-65 years, were divided into three groups with similar demographic characteristics: group 1 received 20 mg piroxicam-beta-cyclodextrin, group 2 received 40 mg piroxicam-beta-cyclodextrin and group 3 received placebo orally before induction of general anesthesia. A blinded observer recorded the incidence and severity of pain at admission to the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU), at 15, 30, and 45 min in the PACU, and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 24 h postoperatively. All patients received patient-controlled morphine analgesia during the postoperative period and consumption was recorded for 24 h. During the PACU period, mean visual analogue scale values were significantly lower in groups 1 and 2 compared to group 3 (P piroxicam-beta-cyclodextrin effectively reduced analgesic consumption, and 40 mg of the drug was more effective than 20 mg piroxicam-beta-cyclodextrin without side effects during the postoperative period.

  1. Reduced consumption of analgesics in patients with diabetes mellitus admitted to hospital for acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, F E; Gram-Hansen, P; Christensen, J H;

    1991-01-01

    .05). There was no statistically significant trend for the duration of pain to be shorter in the diabetes group. There was no difference between the two groups with respect to number of patients with Q-wave infarct, initial heart rate-blood pressure product or body weight, all of which are possible confounders. We conclude......In a case-control study, the consumption of analgesics was analysed in 39 patients with diabetes, admitted with acute myocardial infarction (MI). The control group comprised of non-diabetics with MI was computer-matched to the diabetic group with respect to age and sex as well as enzyme......-estimated size of the infarction. The median number of injections of opioid analgesics in the diabetes and non-diabetes groups was 2 and 5, respectively (0.01 less than P less than 0.05), and the median consumption of morphine was 20 mg and 35 mg, respectively (0.01 less than P less than 0...

  2. EVALUATION OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF AERIAL PARTS OF ABUTILON INDICUM FOR ITS ANALGESIC AND SEDATIVE PROPERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepraj Paul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydro alcoholic extract of aerial parts of Abutilon Indicum was tried for its efficacy as analgesic and sedative property. Several pain models namely Eddy’s hot plate, acetic acid induced writhing test, tail clip test and hot water immersion test were tried and for sedative property actophotometer test was performed. As the extract has shown very significant (P˂0.01 result in Eddy’s hot plate, acetic acid induced writhing test and hot water immersion test hence it is believed that the extract has certain central and peripheral analgesic property which may be mediated either by closing Na+ or/and Ca2+ channels or by facilitating chloride Cl- influx by acting on GABAA receptor. As the extract has significantly reduced loco motor activity hence the mechanism of action of the extract is believed to be mediated by opening of Cl- channel, indicating that the extract may have GABA mimetic or facilitating effect. As following the administration of the extract no straub reaction was observed hence may be in future it will gain more popularity to be used as a substitute for narcotics to treat pain and also as a good sedative.

  3. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic potentials of marine sponge Sigmadocia pumila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devaraj Isaac Dhinakaran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the pharmacological properties of Sigmadocia pumila (S. pumila, a marine sponge, through in-vivo analysis. Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema method. The analgesic activity was analyzed by tail immersion method. Antipyretic activity was done by using Brewer’s yeast induced hyperpyrexia method. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity using methanol extracts in S. pumila at the concentrations of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, (p.o. on rats showed significant decrease in the paw thickness at the 5th h of administration. It was denoted that the S. pumila exerted more analgesic activity. As for the antipyretic activity during the 2nd and 3rd h, the 3rd and 4th group of rats showed the reduction in temperature in S. pumila at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg dosages. Conclusions: The present study concludes that the marine sponge S. pumila acts as a vital role in exhibiting pharmaceutical activities. It could be used to produce novel drugs.

  4. Pain in neonatal intensive care: role of melatonin as an analgesic antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitto, Eloisa; Aversa, Salvatore; Salpietro, Carmelo Damiano; Barberi, Ignazio; Arrigo, Teresa; Trimarchi, Giuseppe; Reiter, Russel J; Pellegrino, Salvatore

    2012-04-01

    Endotracheal intubation is a common painful procedure in newborn care. Neonates are more sensitive to pain than older infants, children, and adults, and this hypersensitivity is further exacerbated in preterm neonates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic activity of melatonin during endotracheal intubation of the newborn by using the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) and Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score. Secondary outcome was an evaluation of melatonin as inflammatory responses. This was performed by measuring the levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines implicated in the pain. Sixty preterm infants were enrolled in the study and were randomly divided into two groups: 30 infants treated with melatonin plus common sedation and analgesia recommended by Italian Society of Neonatology (group 1) and 30 infants treated with only common sedation and analgesia. The sedative and analgesic drugs included atropine, fentanyl, and vecuronium. The reduction in pain score (NIPS) was similar in both groups at an early phase, while it (PIPP score) was lower in melatonin-treated group infants than the other newborns at a late phase, during intubation and mechanical ventilation. The differences were statistically significant at 12, 24, 48, and 72 hr (P pain, especially when an inflammatory component is involved.

  5. Clinically employed opioid analgesics produce antinociception via μ-δ opioid receptor heteromers in Rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekkirala, Ajay S; Banks, Matthew L; Lunzer, Mary M; Negus, Stevens S; Rice, Kenner C; Portoghese, Philip S

    2012-09-19

    Morphine and related drugs are widely employed as analgesics despite the side effects associated with their use. Although morphine is thought to mediate analgesia through mu opioid receptors, delta opioid receptors have been implicated in mediating some side effects such as tolerance and dependence. Here we present evidence in rhesus monkeys that morphine, fentanyl, and possibly methadone selectively activate mu-delta heteromers to produce antinociception that is potently antagonized by the delta opioid receptor antagonist, naltrindole (NTI). Studies with HEK293 cells expressing mu-delta heteromeric opioid receptors exhibit a similar antagonism profile of receptor activation in the presence of NTI. In mice, morphine was potently inhibited by naltrindole when administered intrathecally, but not intracerebroventricularly, suggesting the possible involvement of mu-delta heteromers in the spinal cord of rodents. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that, in primates, mu-delta heteromers are allosterically coupled and mediate the antinociceptive effects of three clinically employed opioid analgesics that have been traditionally viewed as mu-selective. Given the known involvement of delta receptors in morphine tolerance and dependence, our results implicate mu-delta heteromers in mediating both antinociception and these side effects in primates. These results open the door for further investigation in humans.

  6. Nonnarcotic analgesics and tricyclic antidepressants for the treatment of chronic nonmalignant pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richlin, D M

    1991-05-01

    Chronic nonmalignant pain is often characterized by multiple treatment failures, a pattern of maladaptive behavior, and depression. Often there is a history of inappropriate and excessive use of medications for pain. Prior and ongoing use of narcotics and sedatives acts to compound and aggravate the chronic pain syndrome. A first step in treatment is controlled withdrawal of these agents. Nonnarcotic analgesics, NSAIDs, and tricyclic antidepressants are commonly employed in patients with chronic pain. Effective use of these agents requires understanding of their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Use of a fixed-time schedule is necessary to achieve an effective, sustained therapeutic response. Careful patient education and monitoring for side effects and toxicity are necessary, particularly in the elderly and patients with coexisting medical disorders. Incidence of side effects and toxicity may be reduced by choice of drug and modification of dosing regimen. Nonnarcotic analgesics, TCAs, and NSAIDs are seldom effective by themselves in resolving the pain and distress of patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. This is particularly true when maladaptive behavior coexists. A comprehensive multimodal pain management program encompassing additional pain-relieving strategies and behavior-modifying techniques should be considered and utilized in conjunction with medication.

  7. Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil can increase analgesic effect in refractory cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Jiqing

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effects of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil for the refractory pain in cancer patients. Methods 2109 patients were screened from the department of medical oncology, the first affiliated hospital of Anhui medical university in China between October of 2007 and October of 2008. Thirty-seven cases of cancer patients who had bad effect from anaesthetic drugs were received administration of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil with dose of 50 mg/5 ml/day. The pain score was evaluated for pre- and post- treatment by Pain Faces Scale criteria, and the side effects were also observed. Results Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil increased the analgesic effects. The total effective rate was 92%. The side effects, such as abdominal pain, alimentary tract bleeding which were found in using NSAIDs or constipation, nausea, vomit, sleepiness which were found in using opioid drugs did not be found. Conclusion Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil could provide better analgesia effects and few side effects to patients with refractory cancer pain. It could also increase analgesia effects when combining with anesthetic drugs in treatment of moderate or severe pain, especially breakthrough pain, and suit to patients who can not take oral drugs for the reason of constipation and psychosomatic symptoms.

  8. Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil can increase analgesic effect in refractory cancer pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongyang; Chen, Zhendong; Sun, Guoping; Gu, Kangsheng; Pan, Yueyin; Hao, Jiqing; Du, Yingying; Ning, Jie

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effects of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil for the refractory pain in cancer patients. Methods 2109 patients were screened from the department of medical oncology, the first affiliated hospital of Anhui medical university in China between October of 2007 and October of 2008. Thirty-seven cases of cancer patients who had bad effect from anaesthetic drugs were received administration of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil with dose of 50 mg/5 ml/day. The pain score was evaluated for pre- and post- treatment by Pain Faces Scale criteria, and the side effects were also observed. Results Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil increased the analgesic effects. The total effective rate was 92%. The side effects, such as abdominal pain, alimentary tract bleeding which were found in using NSAIDs or constipation, nausea, vomit, sleepiness which were found in using opioid drugs did not be found. Conclusion Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil could provide better analgesia effects and few side effects to patients with refractory cancer pain. It could also increase analgesia effects when combining with anesthetic drugs in treatment of moderate or severe pain, especially breakthrough pain, and suit to patients who can not take oral drugs for the reason of constipation and psychosomatic symptoms. PMID:19267934

  9. Pregnancy, maternal exposure to analgesic medicines, and leukemia in Brazilian children below 2 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Arnaldo C; Ferreira, Jeniffer D; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Koifman, Sérgio

    2015-05-01

    Childhood leukemia etiology, and mainly the interactions of genetic and environmental risk factors, remains largely unexplored. This national hospital-based case-control study was carried out in Brazil among children aged 0-23 months who were recruited at cancer and general hospitals in 13 states. Maternal medicine intake during pregnancy, including analgesic intake, was assessed by face-to-face interviews with the mothers of 231 leukemia patients and 411 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to ascertain crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between maternal analgesic use during pregnancy and early age leukemia. Acetaminophen use during the first trimester of pregnancy showed an OR=0.39 (95% CI 0.17-0.93) for acute lymphocytic leukemia and an OR=0.37 (95% CI 0.16-0.88) for use in the second trimester. For acute myeloid leukemia, an OR=0.11 (95% CI 0.02-0.97) was found following acetaminophen use in the second trimester. For acute lymphocytic leukemia, the exclusive use of dipyrone during preconception showed an OR=1.63 (95% CI 1.06-2.53) and dipyrone intake during lactation showed an OR=2.00 (95% CI 1.18-3.39). These results suggest that acetaminophen use during pregnancy may protect against development of early age leukemia in the offspring, whereas dipyrone use may act as a risk factor for such an outcome.

  10. Use of compounded topical analgesics--results of an Internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Timothy J; Jones, Leslye; Smith, Howard

    2002-01-01

    Topically applied single or multiagent analgesics compounded by specialty pharmacies are utilized by an unknown number of pain clinicians to unknown effect. To assess the use and perceived efficacy of these agents, an e-mail survey of members of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine was performed. Response rate was low, but identified use of compounded topical agents throughout the United States. Of the 120 clinicians responding, 27% (n = 32) reported that they prescribed compounded topical analgesics containing 1 to 5 agents (mean + SEM; 2.6 +/- 0.2) in their practice 3.5 +/- 0.6 times per month. Use of 36 different agents of varying concentrations was reported. These clinicians perceived that 43% +/- 4% of treated patients responded favorably to the topical agents with an average of 47% +/- 3% pain relief and few side effects. Despite favorable reports of benefit, most clinicians perceived use of such compounded agents in their regions to generally be "little or none."

  11. Purification and characterization of an analgesic peptide from Buthus martensii Karsch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jianhua; Kang, Ning; Liu, Yanfeng; Song, Shuang; Wu, Chunfu; Zhang, Jinghai

    2007-12-01

    The scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch (BmK) has been one of the indispensable materials in Chinese traditional medicine for thousands of years. In this work, an analgesic peptide was purified through four continuous chromatographic steps. The mouse twisting test was used to identify the target peptides in every separation step. The molecular weight, isoelectric point, and N-terminal residues of the purified peptide were determined. Based on the N-terminal sequence, the cDNA was also cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends from the cDNA pool of scorpion glands. This peptide was identical to BmK AS, an agonist of rabbit skeletal muscle ryanodine receptors. Preliminary pharmacodynamics revealed the following: the dose-effect curve plotted by the mouse twisting test showed an ED(50) of 1.42 mg/kg; and the time-effect curves plotted by a hot plate procedure showed a similar effect to the painkiller morphine. We report a purification procedure that yields substantial amounts of natural BmK AS having high activity. BmK AS has the potential to become a new analgesic medicine.

  12. Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Buchu Plant Extracts and Their Analgesic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Chiguvare

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We herein report for the first time the synthesis and analgesic properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs using buchu plant extract. The as-synthesised Ag-NPs at different temperatures were characterised by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR and transmission transform microscopy (TEM to confirm the formation of silver nanoparticles. Phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract revealed the presence of glycosides, proteins, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins. The absorption spectra showed that the synthesis is temperature and time dependent. The TEM analysis showed that the as-synthesised Ag-NPs are polydispersed and spherical in shape with average particle diameter of 19.95 ± 7.76 nm while the FTIR results confirmed the reduction and capping of the as-synthesised Ag-NPs by the phytochemicals present in the ethanolic extract. The analgesic study indicated that the combined effect of the plant extract and Ag-NPs is more effective in pain management than both the aspirin drug and the extract alone.

  13. Endomorphins: potential roles and therapeutic indications in the development of opioid peptide analgesic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei X; Wang, Rui

    2012-05-01

    The application of endomorphins as clinical available analgesic drugs has been impeded by their relatively poor receptor selectivity compared with alkaloid analgesics, rapid degradation in vivo, inefficient to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and undesirable or toxic effects, such as acute tolerance and physical dependence, respiratory depression, and inhibition of gastrointestinal motility. Extensive studies have been performed so far striving to conquer these problems. In this article we review and discuss conformational and topographical modifications of the peptide amide bond and amino acid side groups to attain the most appropriate receptor binding affinity and high receptor selectivity; diverse strategies such as insertion of unnatural amino acids, covalent or noncovalent constraints as well as cyclization of linear peptides to enhance the enzymatic stability; designing of peptidomimetic ligands, glycopeptides, and N-terminal amidinationed analogues (such as incorporating guanidine into endomorphins) to penetrate the BBB. Also, several pertinent examples of bivalent and/or multivalent (such as mixed µ-agonist/δ-antagonist profile) compounds are discussed based on the existing literature and current data intending to give an insight into the development of opioid peptides expressing low tendency to produce acute tolerance and physical dependence.

  14. Analgesic effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on central post-stroke pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sea-Hyun; Kim, Gi-Do; Kim, Kyung-Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Pain that occurs after a stroke lowers the quality of life. Such post-stroke pain is caused in part by the brain lesion itself, called central post-stroke pain. We investigated the analgesic effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in stroke patients through quantitative sensory testing. Fourteen participants with central post-stroke pain (7 female and 7 male subjects) were recruited and were allocated to either tDCS (n = 7) or sham-tDCS (n = 7) group. Their ages ranged from 45 to 55 years. tDCS was administered for 20 min at a 2-mA current intensity, with anodal stimulations were performed at primary motor cortex. The sham-tDCS group was stimulated 30-second current carrying time. Both group interventions were given for 3 days per week, for a period of 3 weeks. Subjective pain was measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS) of 0 to 10. Sensations of cold and warmth, and pain from cold and heat were quantified to examine analgesic effects. The sham-tDCS group showed no statistically significant differences in time. In contrast, tDCS group showed decreased VAS scores and skin temperature (p pain from cold increased (p pain from heat decreased (p central post-stroke pain.

  15. Analgesic Effect of Harpagophytum procumbens on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Harpagophytum procumbens, also known as Devil’s Claw, has historically been used to treat a wide range of conditions, including pain and arthritis. The study was designed to investigate whether H. procumbens extracts exhibit analgesic effects in plantar incision and spared nerve injury (SNI rats. The whole procedure was performed on male SD rats. To evaluate pain-related behavior, we performed the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT test measured by von Frey filaments. Pain-related behavior was also determined through analysis of ultrasonic vocalization (USVs. The results of experiments showed MWT values of the group that was treated with 300 mg/kg H. procumbens extract increased significantly; on the contrary, the number of 22–27 kHz USVs of the treated group was reduced at 6 h and 24 h after plantar incision operation. After 21 days of continuous treatment with H. procumbens extracts at 300 mg/kg, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity responses by MWT, compared with the control group. These results suggest that H. procumbens extracts have potential analgesic effects in the case of acute postoperative pain and chronic neuropathic pain in rats.

  16. Stripping Voltammetric Determination of Analgesics in Their Pharmaceuticals Using Nano-Riboflavin-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

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    Gopalakrishnan Gopu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic voltammetric behaviors of three analgesics, acetaminophen (AAP, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, and dipyrone (DP, were studied using nano-riboflavin-modified glassy carbon electrode. One well-defined oxidation peak each for AAP and ASA and three oxidation peaks for DP were observed. The influence of pH, scan rate, and concentration reveals irreversible diffusion controlled reaction. The SEM analysis confirmed good accumulation of the drugs on the electrode surface. Calibration was made under the maximum peak current conditions. The concentration range studied for the determination of drugs was 0.02 to 0.4 μg mL−1 for AAP and ASA and 0.025 to 0.4 μg mL−1 for DP. The lower limit of detection observed for AAP, ASA, and DP was 0.016, 0.007 μg mL−1, and 0.013 μg mL−1, respectively. The suitability of the method for the determination of these analgesics in pharmaceutical preparations and urine samples was also ascertained.

  17. Analgesic efficacy of intra-articular morphine after arthroscopic knee surgery in sport injury patients

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    Mitra Yari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL tearing is a common injury among football players. The present study aims to determine the best single-dose of intra-articular morphine for pain relief after arthroscopic knee surgery that, in addition to adequate and long-term analgesia, leads to fewer systemic side effects. METHODS: This clinical trial was conducted on 40 ASA-I athletes. After surgery, all participants received an injection of 20cc of 0.5% intra-articular bupivacaine. In addition, the first control group received a saline injection and 5, 10 and 15 mg of morphine were respectively injected into the joints of the second, third and fourth groups by use of Arthroscopic equipment before the Arthroscopic removal. The amount of pain based on VAS at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours after surgery, duration of analgesia and the consumption of narcotic drugs were recorded. RESULTS: The VAS scores in the fourth, sixth and twenty-fourth hours after surgery showed a significant difference between the study groups. The average time to the first analgesic request from the bupivacaine plus 15 mg morphine group was significantly longer than other groups and total analgesic requests were significantly lower than other groups. No drowsiness complications were observed in any of the groups in the first 24 hours after injection. CONCLUSION: Application of 15 mg intra-articular morphine after Arthroscopic knee surgery increases the analgesia level as well as its duration (IRCT138902172946N3 .

  18. Low-dose spinal neostigmine further enhances the analgesic effect of spinal bupivacaine combined with epidural dexamethasone, following orthopedic surgery

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    Gabriela Rocha Lauretti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opioids are considered mainstream for combined spinal-epidural anesthesia, but frequently limited by adverse effects. The aim of this study was to examine whether low-dose spinal neostigmine, epidural dexamethasone or their combination enhances analgesia from spinal bupivacaine without adverse effects. Materials and Methods : A total of 60 patients undergoing orthopedic surgery were randomized to one of four groups and evaluated for 24-h after surgery for analgesia (time to first rescue analgesic and rescue analgesic consumption. Patients received 15 mg bupivacaine plus the test drug intrathecally (saline or 1 microgram (μg neostigmine. The epidural test drug was either saline or 10 mg dexamethasone. The Control group (CG received spinal and epidural saline. The Neostigmine group (NG, spinal neostigmine and epidural saline; the Dexamethasone group (DG, spinal saline and epidural dexamethasone; and the Neostigmine-dexamethasone group (NDG, spinal neostigmine and epidural dexamethasone. Results: The CG (282 ± 163 min and NG (524 ± 142 min were similar in their times to first rescue analgesic and analgesic consumption. The time to first rescue analgesic was longer for the DG (966 ± 397 min compared with CG and NG (P < 0.0002, and the DG had less ketoprofen consumption and lower overall visual analogue scale-pain sores compared with CG and NG (P < 0.0005. Addition of 1 mg-neostigmine (NDG resulted in longer time to rescue analgesic (1205 ± 303 min; P < 0.02 and lower ketoprofen consumption (P < 0.05 compared to DG. Sporadic cases of vesical catheterization and emesis were observed, however adverse effects were similar among groups. Conclusion: Spinal 1 microgram (μg neostigmine further enhanced analgesia from spinal bupivacaine combined with epidural dexamethasone, without increasing the incidence of adverse effects.

  19. Routes of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics: a review and assessment of the potential impact of abuse-deterrent formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasior, Maciej; Bond, Mary; Malamut, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Prescription opioid analgesics are an important treatment option for patients with chronic pain; however, misuse, abuse and diversion of these medications are a major global public health concern. Prescription opioid analgesics can be abused via intended and non-intended routes of administration, both intact or after manipulation of the original formulation to alter the drug-delivery characteristics. Available data indicate that ingestion (with or without manipulation of the prescribed formulation) is the most prevalent route of abuse, followed by inhalation (snorting, smoking and vaping) and injection. However, reported routes of abuse vary considerably between different formulations. A number of factors have been identified that appear to be associated with non-oral routes of abuse, including a longer duration of abuse, younger age, male sex and a rural or socially deprived location. The development of abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioid analgesics is an important step toward reducing abuse of these medications. Available abuse-deterrent formulations aim to hinder extraction of the active ingredient, prevent administration through alternative routes and/or make abuse of the manipulated product less attractive, less rewarding or even aversive. There are currently five opioid analgesics with a Food and Drug Administration abuse-deterrent label, and a number of other products are under review. A growing body of evidence suggests that introduction of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics in the USA has been associated with decreased rates of abuse of these formulations. The availability of abuse-deterrent formulations therefore appears to represent an important step toward curbing the epidemic of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics, while ensuring the availability of effective pain medications for patients with legitimate medical need.

  20. Analgesic Efficacy of Nephrostomy Tract inFiltration of Bupivacaine and Ketamine after Tubeless Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: A Prospective Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariat Moharari, Reza; Valizade, Ali; Najafi, Atabak; Etezadi, Farhad; Hosseini, Seyed Reza; Khashayar, Patricia; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza; Mojtahedzadeh, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, the use of ketamine as a systemic and local analgesic drug in reducing post-operative pain is studied more frequently. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the analgesic efficacy of IV ketamine injection inaddition to nephrostomy tract infiltration of ketamine-bupivacaine on postoperative pain relief after tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Patients and Methods: Patients (n = 100), with renal stone who were candidates for PCNL were randomized to five groups with 20 cases in each: Group C, 10 mL of saline solution was infiltrated into the nephrostomy tract; Group B, 10 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine was infiltrated into the nephrostomy tract; Group BK1, 10 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine plus 0.5 mg/kg ketamine was infiltrated into the nephrostomy tract; Group BK2, 10 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine plus 1.5 mg/kg ketamine was infiltrated into the nephrostomy tract; Group K, 10 mL of saline solution containing 0.5 mg/kg ketamine was intravenously administered. Post-operative pain scores were compared between groups as the primary objective. Comparison of Sedation Scores, rescue analgesic consumption, time to the first rescue analgesics administration, hemodynamic and SpO2 values were regarded as the secondary objective. Results: Mean VAS scores in the first 30 min and total analgesic consumption in the first 24 h of post-operative period were significantly lower in groups BK1 and BK2 in comparison with the other groups (P ketamine plus bupivacaine provides superior analgesic effects in PCNL surgery compared with other methods. PMID:27642334

  1. The analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block for retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy: A randomized controlled study

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    Beena K Parikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is suitable for lower abdominal surgeries. Blind TAP block has many complications and uncertainty of its effects. Use of ultrasonography increases the safety and efficacy. This study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound (USG-guided TAP block for retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy (RDN. Methods: In a prospective randomized double-blind study, 60 patients undergoing laparoscopic donor nephrectomy were randomly divided into two groups by closed envelope method. At the end of surgery, USG-guided TAP block was given to the patients of both the groups. Study group (group S received inj. Bupivacaine (0.375%, whereas control group (group C received normal saline. Inj. Tramadol (1 mg/kg was given as rescue analgesic at visual analog scale (VAS more than 3 in any group at rest or on movement. The analgesic efficacy was judged by VAS both at rest and on movement, time to first dose of rescue analgesic, cumulative dose of tramadol, sedation score, and nausea score, which were also noted at 30 min, 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h postoperatively. Total tramadol consumption at 24 h was also assessed. Results: Patients in group S had significantly lower VAS score, longer time to first dose of rescue analgesic (547.13±266.96 min vs. 49.17±24.95 min and lower tramadol consumption (103.8±32.18 mg vs. 235.8±47.5 mg in 24 h. Conclusion: The USG-guided TAP block is easy to perform and effective as a postoperative analgesic regimen in RDN, with opioids-sparing effect and without any complications.

  2. An Acetazolamide Based Multimodal Analgesic Approach Versus Conventional Pain Management in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Living Donor Nephrectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rupinder; Sen, Indu; Wig, Jyotsna; Minz, M; Sharma, Ashish; Bala, Indu

    2009-01-01

    Summary Choice of an appropriate anaesthetic technique and adequate pain relief during laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LDN) is likely to make the procedure more appealing to kidney donors. Various analgesic regimens proposed to relieve pain after laparoscopic surgery include: opioids, non-opioid analgesics followed by opioids for the breakthrough pain and intra-peritoneal normal saline irrigation and instillation of local anaesthetics at surgical sites. Thorough literature review and medline search did not reveal any study where a combination of orogastric acetazolamide along with intraperitoneal saline irrigation and bupivacaine instillation techniques have been tried in these patients. In a prospective, double blind, randomized trial, eighty healthy adults undergoing LDN under general anaesthesia were enrolled to compare the efficacy of an acetazolamide based multimodal analgesic approach (Group A) with conventional pain management (Group B). Donors' demographics, intra-operative variables, early allograft function and recovery characteristics were evaluated for 72 hours. The primary end points were postoperative pain intensity on a visual analog scale and the incidence of shoulder tip pain (STP). The secondary end points included the latency of the rescue analgesia request rate, total analgesic consumption and patient satisfaction. Consistently lower mean pain scores were observed in Group A (p<0.03 for visceral pain). Frequency as well as the total dose of rescue analgesics administered was significantly less in Group A (p=0.001). Twelve patients (30.7%) in Group B complained of STP compared to three (7.5%) in Group A (p=0.025). Shoulder pain also presented earlier (8 hours versus 12 hours) and persisted for longer period in Group B (72 hours versus 48 hours, p 0.025). To conclude, a multimodal analgesic approach consisting a combination of orogastric acetazolamide, intraperito-neal saline irrigation and use of bupivacaine in the operated renal fossa

  3. Using the theory of planned behavior to predict self-medication with over-the-counter analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineles, Lisa L; Parente, Rick

    2013-12-01

    Millions of people worldwide use over-the-counter analgesics on a regular basis; yet little is known about how decisions to self-medicate are made. This study used the theory of planned behavior to explore the influence of beliefs about medicines (Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire) and individual pain experience as predictors of intent to self-medicate. Both emerged as significant predictors of intent to self-medicate. Furthermore, intent to self-medicate significantly predicted reported use of analgesics. These findings indicate that use of over-the-counter pain medication is more likely when the value of the pain relief is greater than concerns about harm.

  4. Evaluation of Analgesic Effect of Caudal Epidural Tramadol, Tramadol-Lidocaine, and Lidocaine in Water Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman Atiba; Alaa Ghazy; Naglaa Gomaa; Tarek Kamal; Mustafa Shukry

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this study was to compare the analgesic effect of tramadol and a combination of tramadol-lidocaine with that produced by lidocaine administration in the epidural space in buffalo calves. In a prospective randomized crossover study, ten male buffalo calves were used to compare the epidural analgesic effect of tramadol (1 mg/kg) and tramadol-lidocaine combination (0.5 mg/kg and 0.11 mg/kg, resp.) with that produced by 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg). Loss of sensation was examined by pin-prick...

  5. A CLINICAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANALGESIC EFFECT OF TRAMADOL AND PENTAZOCINE IN POST - OPERATIVE PATIENTS FOLLOWING UPPER ABDOMINAL SURGERY

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    Jamuna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The post - operative pain can be treated by various approaches. Aim of this randomised prospective study was to compare two drugs (Tramadol and Pentazocine . 100 adult patients of both sexes of ASA status 1 & 2 posted for elective upper abdominal surgery were randomly assigned into two groups of 50 each, where Group 1 received Tramadol intravenously and Group 2 received Pentazocine intravenously as post - opera tive pain management. The efficacy of the analgesic effect of intravenous Tramadol & Pentazocine was compared during post - operative pain management. It was observed that Tramadol has got more potent analgesic action compared to equianalgesic dose of Pentaz ocine.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL ESTIMATION OF THE ANALGESIC EFFECT AT COMBINED INFLUENCE OF THE ELECTROSTIMULATION AND THE PERCUSSIVE-FRICTIONAL MASSAGE AND IMPULSE CURRENTS REGISTRATION

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    M. G. Kiselev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental complex of percussive-frictional massager with electrostimulation function and softand hardware of original design gives a possibility to use various mechanical and electrical parameters of massage and electrostimulation and it can be used like the alternative instead of the accepted medicine analgesics. Analgesic effect decreases pain sensation of the patient up to 50 %.

  7. Analgesic, antioedematous and antioxidant activity of γ-butyrolactone derivatives in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salat, Kinga; Librowski, Tadeusz; Moniczewski, Andrzej; Stanisz-Wallis, Krystyna; Wieckowski, Krzysztof; Malawska, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, the analgesic, antioedematous, motor-impairing and antioxidant properties of four γ-butyrolactone derivatives (BM113, BM113A, BM138 and BM138A) are described. Pain was induced by thermal (hot-plate test), chemical (writhing test) or mechanical (Randall-Selitto model) stimulation. All in-vivo assays were carried out in mice pretreated intraperitoneally with the test compounds, except for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model, in which rats were pretreated orally with these compounds. In the hot-plate assay, BM113A and BM138A dose dependently prolonged the latency of the nociceptive reaction. Their analgesic activity, measured as a median effective dose (ED(50)=4.7 mg/kg), was similar to that of morphine (2.4 mg/kg). In the writhing test, all four compounds, in particular BM113A and BM138A, showed higher potency than the reference drug acetylsalicylic acid (the ED(50) values were 3.7, 2.3 and 46.1 mg/kg, respectively). BM138 caused a dose-dependent diminution of paw oedema (up to 49%) in the carrageenan model and BM138A at 200 mg/kg reduced mechanical hyperalgesia in the Randall-Selitto test (∼30% when compared with the control). None of the γ-butyrolactone derivatives tested at the ED(50) obtained in the hot-plate test influenced the locomotor activity of mice, although in the rotarod test at 24 rpm, BM113A and BM138 at 100 mg/kg showed some motor-impairing properties. In vitro, a concentration-dependent ABTS radical cation-scavenging activity of BM138 and BM138A (up to 80% inhibition of the radical absorbance) was observed. The results of the present study suggest that BM138 and BM138A could be of interest for future investigations as antinociceptive and antioedematous agents with potential free radical-scavenging properties.

  8. Assessment of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of crude extracts of ray fish, Narcine brunnea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravitchandirane V; Yogamoorthi A; Thangaraj M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the crude petroleum ether and ether extracts of Narcine brunnea. Methods: The homogenized flesh was extracted exhaustively in a soxhlet apparatus separately with petroleum ether and ether. The Chemical analysis of petroleum ether and ether extracts was carried out by UV-VIS spectrophotometer, FT-IR and GC-MS. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the crude extract was assessed by hot plate, Haffner’s tail clip and carrageenan induced rat paw oedema methods in animal models. Results: The GC-MS and EIMS revealed five compounds viz. 3, 5- dihydroxy phenyl acetic acid, phtha1ic acid, N-methyl 2, 3-dihydro 3-but-2-enyl indole 5-sulphonic acid, 2-methoxy serotonin sulphate and 3-but-2 enyl-indole-5- sulphonic acid. The results (mean±SE) of hot plate showed that the crude petroleum ether and ether extracts exhibited increase in basal reaction time from 2.150±0.043 and 2.300±0.058 at 0 min to 6.102±0.037 and 8.783±0.070 at 120 min respectively. The tail clip method revealed a well marked increase in basal reaction time of 6.817±0.031 in petroleum ether and 8.852±0.043 in ether extract at 120 min. The crude petroleum ether inhibited the oedema volume of 51% with a mean oedema volume of 3.465±0.022 at 4h, where as the crude ether extract produced to the extent of 56% inhibition of oedema volume with a mean 3.363±0.023 at 4 h. Conclusions: This study confirmed the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Narcine brunnea observed during the ethno-pharmacological survey. In order to go towards a valuation of this traditional knowledge, further studies like purification, isolation and NMR must be carried out to determine which of these compounds are actually responsible for such properties.

  9. Analgesic effects of adding lidocaine to morphine pumps after orthopedic surgeries

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    Mahmoud Reza Alebouyeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opiate is used in patient-controlled intravenous analgesia pumps (PCIA for controlling pain in post-surgical patients. Other drugs are remarkably added to opioid pumps to enhance quality, lengthen analgesia, and reduce side effects. Lidocaine, a local anesthetic which inhibits sodium channels, has anesthetic and analgesic effects when injected locally or intravenously. The objective of this study is to evaluate the analgesic effects of adding lidocaine 1% to different doses of morphine via IV pump to patient-controlled analgesia (PCA after orthopedic surgeries. Materials and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 60 patients who had undergone orthopedic surgery of lower extremities were divided into three equal groups to control postoperative pain. Intravenous pump with 5 ml/h flow rate was used as the analgesic method. The solution consisted of lidocaine 1% plus 20 mg morphine for the first group, lidocaine 1% plus 10 mg morphine for the second group, and only 20 mg morphine for the third group (control group. Patients were checked every 12 h, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS, extra opioid doses, nausea/vomiting, and sedation scale were examined. Results: Pain score was lower in the first group compared to the other two groups. Mean VAS was 2.15 ± 0.2, 2.75 ± 0.2, and 2 ± 0.25 on the first day and 1.88 ± 0.1, 2.74 ± 0.3, and 2.40 ± 0.3 on the second day, respectively, in the three groups and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01 and <0.05, respectively. Also, 10% of patients in the first group needed extra opioid doses, while this figure was 30% in the second group and 25% in the third group (P < 0.01. Nausea/vomiting and sedation scores were not statistically different among the three groups. Conclusion: Compared to lidocaine 1% plus 10 mg morphine or 20 mg morphine alone in PCIA, adding lidocaine 1% to 20 mg morphine decreases the pain score and opioid dose after orthopedic surgeries without having side

  10. Patterns of analgesic use, pain and self-efficacy: a cross-sectional study of patients attending a hospital rheumatology clinic

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    Greenfield Sheila

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people attending rheumatology clinics use analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories for persistent musculoskeletal pain. Guidelines for pain management recommend regular and pre-emptive use of analgesics to reduce the impact of pain. Clinical experience indicates that analgesics are often not used in this way. Studies exploring use of analgesics in arthritis have historically measured adherence to such medication. Here we examine patterns of analgesic use and their relationships to pain, self-efficacy and demographic factors. Methods Consecutive patients were approached in a hospital rheumatology out-patient clinic. Pattern of analgesic use was assessed by response to statements such as 'I always take my tablets every day.' Pain and self-efficacy (SE were measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC and Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES. Influence of factors on pain level and regularity of analgesic use were investigated using linear regression. Differences in pain between those agreeing and disagreeing with statements regarding analgesic use were assessed using t-tests. Results 218 patients (85% of attendees completed the study. Six (2.8% patients reported no current pain, 26 (12.3% slight, 100 (47.4% moderate, 62 (29.4% severe and 17 (8.1% extreme pain. In multiple linear regression self efficacy and regularity of analgesic use were significant (p Low SE was associated with greater pain: 40 (41.7% people with low SE reported severe pain versus 22 (18.3% people with high SE, p Conclusion Our study confirms that there is a strong inverse relationship between self-efficacy and pain severity. Analgesics are often used irregularly by people with arthritis, including some reporting severe pain.

  11. Systematic review of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saunders, D.P.; Epstein, J.B.; Elad, S.; Allemano, J.; Bossi, P.; Wetering, M.D. van de; Rao, N.G.; Potting, C.M.J.; Cheng, K.K.; Freidank, A.; Brennan, M.T.; Bowen, J.; Dennis, K.; Lalla, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this project was to develop clinical practice guidelines on the use of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the prevention and management of oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients. METHODS: A systematic review of the available literature was con

  12. Phenolic acids isolated from the fungus Schizophyllum commune exert analgesic activity by inhibiting voltage-gated sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hui-Min; Wang, Gan; Liu, Ya-Ping; Rong, Ming-Qiang; Shen, Chuan-Bin; Yan, Xiu-Wen; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Lai, Ren

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to search for compounds with analgesic activity from the Schizophyllum commune (SC), which is widely consumed as edible and medicinal mushroom world. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), tosilica gel column chromatography, sephadex LH 20, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were used to isolate and purify compounds from SC. Structural analysis of the isolated compounds was based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The effects of these compounds on voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels were evaluated using patch clamp. The analgesic activity of these compounds was tested in two types of mouse pain models induced by noxious chemicals. Five phenolic acids identified from SC extracts in the present study included vanillic acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid, o-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid, 3-hydroxy-5-methybenzoic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They inhibited the activity of both tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-r) and tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-s) NaV channels. All the compounds showed low selectivity on NaV channel subtypes. After intraperitoneal injection, three compounds of these compounds exerted analgesic activity in mice. In conclusion, phenolic acids identified in SC demonstrated analgesic activity, facilitating the mechanistic studies of SC in the treatment of neurasthenia.

  13. Phytopharmacological Assessment from Two Medicinal Plants Used for Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Purposes in Burkina Faso

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    M. Ouédraogo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous acetone extracts from Cienfuegosia digitata Cav; and Sida Alba L. in Swiss mice, with an aim to provide a scientific basis for the traditional use of these plants in the treatment of inflammation disorders. In anti-inflammatory activity, the carrageenan-induced paw edema and oil croton-induced ear edema in Swiss mice. As for analgesic effects, acetic acid writhing and formalin test methods were used in mice. About anti-inflammatory potential, the extracts at doses of 100; 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight produced significant comparatively to the control groups (p<0.05; p<0.01 and p<0.001 and we noticed a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. The dose-dependent inhibition of edema was observed at 1; 2 and 3 h. However, extracts showed dose-dependent inhibition of croton oil induced ear oedema, at doses of 200; 300 and 500 µg/ear. As for analgesic activity, extracts produced significant analgesic effects in acetic acid writhing and formalin test method (p<0.05; p<0.01 and p<0.001 compared to the control groups and a dose-dependent inhibition was observed. The present study concludes that Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. and Sida Alba L. have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.

  14. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modelling of the Analgesic and Antihyperalgesic Effects of Morphine after Intravenous Infusion in Human Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Foster, David J. R.; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2014-01-01

    evidence for adding between-occasion variability (BOV) on baseline and the placebo slope for EPTo and 2HA, respectively. The sensitivity covariate was significant on baseline EPTo values and genetics as a covariate on the placebo slope for 2HA. The analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects of morphine were...

  15. Non-Opioid Analgesics Consumption At The Surgery Departments Of A Secondary Care Hospital In General Hospital In Kraljevo, Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksic Dejan; Bukonjic Andriana; Stefanovic Srdjan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the amount of non-opioid analgesics consumed at the surgical departments of a secondary care hospital in Serbia, a developing country undergoing a socioeconomic transition that thus lacks sufficient funds to finance and invest in the healthcare system.

  16. Non-Opioid Analgesics Consumption At The Surgery Departments Of A Secondary Care Hospital In General Hospital In Kraljevo, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksic Dejan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the amount of non-opioid analgesics consumed at the surgical departments of a secondary care hospital in Serbia, a developing country undergoing a socioeconomic transition that thus lacks sufficient funds to finance and invest in the healthcare system.

  17. Analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects of ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale (Roscoe) rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, John A O

    2006-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects of Zingiber officinale dried rhizomes ethanol extract (ZOE) in mice and rats. The analgesic effect of ZOE was evaluated by 'hot-plate' and 'acetic acid' analgesic test methods in mice; while the antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects of the plant extract were investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced pedal oedema, and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus models. Morphine (MPN, 10 mg/kg), diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg) and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg) were used as reference drugs for comparison. ZOE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced dose-dependent, significant (p diabetic rats. The findings of this experimental animal study indicate that Zingiber officinale rhizomes ethanol extract possesses analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic properties; and thus lend pharmacological support to folkloric, ethnomedical uses of ginger in the treatment and/or management of painful, arthritic inflammatory conditions, as well as in the management and/or control of type 2 diabetes mellitus in some rural Africa communities.

  18. Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and GC-MS Studies on Castanospermum australe A. Cunn. & C. Fraser ex Hook.

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    Thankarajan Sajeesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Castanospermum australe and to profile phytochemicals by GC-MS. The ethanolic extracts were prepared by successive solvent extraction using Soxhlet apparatus. The analgesic activity was analyzed by hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing test whereas anti-inflammatory study was done by carrageenan induced paw oedema model. The acute toxicity study revealed that ethanol extracts of leaf and bark of C. australe were safe even at a higher dose of 2000 mg/kg whereas ethanol extract of seed was toxic at the same dose. In both hot plate method (5.85 s and acetic acid-induced writhing test (57%, the leaf ethanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity (P<0.001 at a dose of 400 mg/kg. The anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract was exhibited by the reduction in paw linear diameter by 64.76% at 400 mg/kg in carrageenan induced paw oedema. The GC-MS analysis of the ethanol extract of leaf revealed sixteen major compounds of which 1,7-dimethyl-4,10-dioxa-1,7-diazacyclododecane, (+-N-methylephedrine, and permethylspermine were found to be pharmaceutically and the most important. These findings justify that C. australe can be a valuable natural analgesic and anti-inflammatory source which seemed to provide potential phytotherapeutics against various ailments.

  19. Analgesic Effect of Intra-Articular Injection of Temperature-Responsive Hydrogel Containing Bupivacaine on Osteoarthritic Pain in Rats

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    Taemin Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the analgesic effects of slow-releasing bupivacaine from hydrogel on chronic arthritic pain in rats. Osteoarthritis (OA was induced by monosodium iodoacetate (MIA injection into the right knee joint. Hydrogel (HG: 20, 30, and 50 μL and temperature-sensitive hydrogel containing bupivacaine (T-gel: 20, 30, and 50 μL were injected intra-articularly 14 days after MIA injection. Behavioral tests were conducted. The rats showed a significant decrease in weight load and paw withdrawal threshold (PWT. Intra-articular 0.5% bupivacaine (10 and 20 μL significantly reversed MIA-induced decreased PWT, with no effect on weight load. In normal rats, hydrogel did not produce significant changes in PWT but at 30 and 50 μL slightly decreased weight bearing; T-gel did not cause any changes in both the weight load and PWT. In OA rats, T-gel at 20 μL had a significant analgesic effect for 2 days, even though T-gel at 50 μL further reduced the weight load, demonstrating that intra-articular T-gel (20 μL has long-lasting analgesic effects in OA rats. Thus, T-gel designed to deliver analgesics into the joint cavity could be an effective therapeutic tool in the clinical setting.

  20. Investigation on the anti- inflammatory and analgesic effects of Olea europaea L. metanolic extract on male NMRI mouse

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    Elaheh Tekye

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different mediators are involved in pain and edema induction during different stages of inflammation. Then, treatment of them encounters some difficulties. Medicinal plants are an important source of substances which are claimed to induce anti-inflammatory effects. This study was aimed to investigate anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Olea europaea L.methanolic extract on male NMRI mouse. Methods: Methanolic extraction was done for leaf of Olea europaea L. and different doses (200, 300 and 400 mg/kg were intraperitoneally (i.p. adminstered to male NMRI mice. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of extract was measured during both phases of Formalin test, Acetic acid induced visceral pain and xylene inflammation tests. A standard analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug such as indomethacin, dexamethasone and morphine were administered in positive control groups where appropriates. Results: Results indicated significant dose-dependent analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of methanolic extract of Olea europaea L. leaf on pain which induced by formalin (both phase and acetic acid, and inflammation caused by xylene. Conclusion: Our findings Showed that administration of methanolic extract of Olea europaea L.leaf can suppress pain and inflammation dose dependently which, may mediate via different components of extract. However, more investigations need to be done.

  1. Does transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS have a clinically relevant analgesic effect on different pain conditions? A literature review

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    Asami Naka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS is a standard therapy used in different painful conditions such as low back pain, diabetic polyneuropathy or arthrosis. However, literature reviews focusing on the effects and the clinical implication of this method in various painful conditions are yet scarce. The purpose of this literature research was to determine, whether TENS provides an analgesic effect on common painful conditions in clinical practice. Literature research was performed using three data bases (Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Database, focusing on papers published in the space of time from 2007 to 2012. Papers were evaluated from two reviewers independently concerning the clinical outcome, taking account for the level of external evidence according to the German Cochrane levels of evidence (Ia – IV. 133 papers of varying methodological quality dealing with different painful conditions were selected in total. A clinically relevant analgesic effect was described in 90 painful conditions (67%. In 30 painful states (22%, the outcome was inconclusive due to the study design. No significant analgesic effect of TENS was observed in 15 painful conditions (11%. The vast majority of the papers were classified as Cochrane evidence level Ib (n = 64; 48%, followed by level Ia (n = 23; 17%, level III (n = 18; 14%, level IV (n = 15; 11%, level IIb (n = 10; 8% and level IIa (n = 3; 2%. Most of the studies revealed an analgesic effect in various painful conditions, confirming the usefulness of TENS in clinical practice.

  2. A comparison Comparison between analgesic effects of aqueous ethanolic extract of mentha longifolia and morphine in male rats

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    Ezatollah Paknia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Long-term consumption of many drugs followed by reduction of their effectiveness has necessitated performing research on new analgesics .Thus, the present study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic effects of mentha longifolia and morphine in mice using writhing and hot plate tests. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 70 male rats were divided into 7 equal groups. The groups included the control, three experimental groups receiving 400, 800, or 1600 mg/kg of mentha extract and three experimental groups which received 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg of morphine .In order to measure pain, the two acceptable tests, writhing and hot plate tests, were applied. Pain scores were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45 or 60 min after administration of algogenic stimulus. Results: It was found that in hot plate test, only the dose of 1600mg/kg of Mentha extract after 60 minutes was significantly able to exert an analgesic effect (P<0.05. In wrighting test, mentha extract at different doses significantly reduced the number and time of wrightes in the rats, comparable to morphine (P<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that all doses of mentha extract in wrighting test have analgesic effects which indicate chronic pain inhibition of mentha hydroalcholic extract.

  3. TO EVALUATE THE ROLE OF GABAPENTIN AS A PREEMPTIVE ANALGESIC IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING TOTAL ABDOMINAL HYSTERECTOMY UNDER SPINAL ANAESTHESIA

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    Gunavathi Kandappan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF THE STUDY To evaluate whether Gabapentin when given orally preoperatively at a dose of 300 mg has an effect on postoperative pain and analgesic requirement in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy under spinal anaesthesia. The study also evaluates the side effects associated with administration of Gabapentin. METHODOLOGY This is a prospective, randomised, single blinded case controlled study. This study was conducted in total of 60 patients who underwent elective abdominal hysterectomy in our institute over a period of four months. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups: Group G (Gabapentin Group and Group P (Placebo Group. Patients in Group G received Gabapentin 300 mg orally and Group P patients received placebo capsules with sips of water two hours before surgery. Time since spinal anaesthesia to first requirement of analgesic (T, total analgesic requirement in first 24 hours, visual analogue scale (VAS scores at rest and movement, Ramsay sedation score, side effects of the drug like somnolence, dizziness, confusion, nausea, vomiting were recorded in first 24 hours postoperatively. RESULT Single oral dose of Gabapentin 300 mg when given preoperatively reduces the postoperative pain scores and total tramadol consumption in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy under spinal anaesthesia. Sedation was the only significant side effect observed with the Gabapentin usage. Thus, Gabapentin can be considered as an adjunct in treating postoperative pain. CONCLUSION Oral Gabapentin 300 mg given preoperatively as preemptive analgesic is effective in total abdominal hysterectomy patients under spinal anaesthesia without any significant complications.

  4. Identification and Quantitative Analysis of Acetaminophen, Acetylsalicylic Acid, and Caffeine in Commercial Analgesic Tablets by LC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenk, Christopher J.; Hickman, Nicole M.; Fincke, Melissa A.; Motry, Douglas H.; Lavine, Barry

    2010-01-01

    An undergraduate LC-MS experiment is described for the identification and quantitative determination of acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid, and caffeine in commercial analgesic tablets. This inquiry-based experimental procedure requires minimal sample preparation and provides good analytical results. Students are provided sufficient background…

  5. Role of central arginine vasopressin receptors in the analgesic effect of CDP-choline on acute and neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdas, Deniz; Yucel-Ozboluk, Hasret; Orhan, Fulya; Kanat, Ozkan; Isbil-Buyukcoskun, Naciye; Gurun, Mine S

    2013-12-04

    Recent studies have demonstrated that arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays a crucial role in pain modulation. In addition, our previous studies have proven that centrally administered cytidine-5'-diphosphate-choline (CDP-choline; citicoline) elicits an analgesic effect in different pain models in rats. Given that CDP-choline enhances central and peripheral vasopressin levels, the present study was designed to investigate the role of central AVP receptors in the analgesic effect of CDP-choline in acute and chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain models. For this purpose, rats were pretreated intracerebroventricularly with the AVP V1 or AVP V2 receptor antagonist 15 min before intracerebroventricular injection of CDP-choline or saline, and pain threshold was determined using the Randall-Selitto test. AVP V1 and AVP V2 receptor antagonist blocked the CDP-choline-induced analgesic effect either in acute or neuropathic models of pain in rats. These results suggest, for the first time, that central AVP receptors are involved in the CDP-choline-elicited analgesic effect.

  6. 3-Aminothiophene-2-Acylhydrazones: Non-Toxic, Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Lead-Candidates

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    Yolanda Karla Cupertino da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Different chemotypes are described as anti-inflammatory. Among them the N-acylhydrazones (NAH are highlighted by their privileged structure nature, being present in several anti-inflammatory drug-candidates. In this paper a series of functionalized 3-aminothiophene-2-acylhydrazone derivatives 5a–i were designed, synthesized and bioassayed. These new derivatives showed great anti-inflammatory and analgesic potency and efficacy. Compounds 5a and 5d stand out in this respect, and were also active in CFA-induced arthritis in rats. After daily treatment for seven days with 5a and 5d (50 µmol/Kg, by oral administration, these compounds were not renal or hepatotoxic nor immunosuppressive. Compounds 5a and 5d also displayed good drug-scores and low risk toxicity calculated in silico using the program OSIRIS Property Explorer.

  7. Effect of sedative-hypnotics, anesthetics and analgesics on sleep architecture in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Dan M; Kirkpatrick, Daniel R; Kerfeld, Mitchell J; Hambsch, Zakary J; Reisbig, Mark D; Agrawal, Devendra K; Youngblood, Charles F

    2014-11-01

    The perioperative care of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients is currently receiving much attention due to an increased risk for complications. It is established that postoperative changes in sleep architecture occur and this may have pathophysiological implications for OSA patients. Upper airway muscle activity decreases during rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). Severe OSA patients exhibit exaggerated chemoreceptor-driven ventilation during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS), which leads to central and obstructive apnea. This article critically reviewed the literature relevant to preoperative screening for OSA, prevalence of OSA in surgical populations and changes in postoperative sleep architecture relevant to OSA patients. In particular, we addressed three questions in regard to the effects of sedative-hypnotics, anesthetics and analgesics on sleep architecture, the underlying mechanisms and the relevance to OSA. Indeed, these classes of drugs alter sleep architecture, which likely significantly contributes to abnormal postoperative sleep architecture, exacerbation of OSA and postoperative complications.

  8. Synthesis and analysis of the opioid analgesic [[sup 14]C]-fentanyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagley, J.R.; Wilhelm, J.A. (Anaquest Inc., Murray Hill, NJ (United States))

    1992-11-01

    The synthesis of [[sup 14]C]-fentanyl, the radiolabelled congener of the potent opioid analgesic chosen for utilization in drug disposition studies, is described. [[sup 14]C]-Labelling was achieved in the first of two steps, a room temperature reduction of the in situ generated Schiff base from 1-phenylethyl-4-piperidone and [UL-[sup 14]C]-aniline hydrochloride with sodium triacetoxyborohydride. A nearly instantaneous production of fentanyl was accomplished at room temperature with the addition of propionyl chloride. The overall radiochemical yield was 18%. The method described is efficiently adaptable for submicromolar scale while yielding a product of sufficient specific activity for in vivo studies. Our solvent system for thin layer chromatography was superior to the USP system reported for chromatographic analysis of fentanyl. This is the first reported preparation of [[sup 14]C]-fentanyl with the radiolabel in the aniline benzene ring. (author).

  9. UP1306, a botanical composition with analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect

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    Mesfin Yimam

    2016-01-01

    Pain is the most common clinical manifestations of arthritisCarrageenan.induced rat paw edema and abdominal constriction (writhingfs assays in mouse are among the widely used models to evaluate the anti.inflammatory and analgesic effects of nutraceuticalsCyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase (LO inhibition assays were carried out to determine the IC50 of Acacia and Morus extractsEfficacy of UP1306, a composition containing a blend of two standardized extracts from the heartwood of Acacia catechu and root bark of Morus alba, was evaluated in the above modelsUP1306 demonstrated its enhanced significance by improving the major cardinal signs of arthritis in vivo and inflammation markers in vitroUP1306 could potentially be considered as a dietary supplement product for the management of arthritis.

  10. Evaluation of 2 celecoxib derivatives: analgesic effect and selectivity to cyclooxygenase-2/1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-hong LU; Xiao-yun XIONG; Bang-le ZHANG; Guo-cheng LIN; Yu-xiang SHI; Zhen-guo LIU; Jing-ru MENG; Yu-mei ZHOU; Qi-bing MEI

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the analgesic effects of 2 celecoxib derivatives and their inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase (COX). Methods: Four antinociceptive assays were used: the acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot plate test, hot tail-flick test and formalin test. Three doses were used in the analgesic assays and ED50 values were calculated. For the selectivity assay, macrophages were incubated with test compounds at various concentrations and then stimulated with calcimycin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The amounts of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α)and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the supernatant were examined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The selectivity of the test compounds was expressed as the IC50,COX-1/IC50,COX-2 value. Results: Celecoxib and its 2 derivatives had a significant analgesic effect. The ED50 values of celecoxib, PC-406 and PC-407 were 94.2, 67.9, and 63.3mg/kg, respectively, for the acetic acid-induced writhing test; 104.7, 89.1, and 30.0mg/kg, respectively, for the hot tail-flick response test; 60.7, 56.7, and 86.2 mg/kg,respectively, for the hot plate response test; 67.1,55.8, and 68.8 mg/kg, respectively,for the formalin-induced response. That is, the ED50 of PC-406 was the lowest for the formalin and hot plate tests, which focus on changes above the spinal cord level; however, the ED50 of PC-407 was lowest for the tail-flick and writhing tests,which focus on changes at the spinal cord level. Celecoxib and PC-407 inhibited COX-1 with IC50 values of 39.8 and 27.5 nmol/L, respectively. PC-406 inhibited COX-1 with an IC50 value of more than 1000 nmol/L. The IC50 values for the effect of celecoxib, PC-406 and PC-407 on COX-2 were 4.8, 8.9, and 1.9 nmol/L respectively.The IC50,COX-1/IC50,COX-2 ratios for celecoxib and PC-407 were 8.3 and 14.4, respectively. For PC-406, the ratio was greater than 112.2. Conclusion: Derivatives of celecoxib via substitution with an isopropyl or naphthyl group at the 5 position in the pyrazole ring still have

  11. The effects of a new opioid analgesic, meptazinol, on the respiration of the conscious rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowlrick, I S; Shepperson, N B

    1985-05-01

    In the conscious rat arterial PCO2 was measured as an index of respiratory status. The opioid analgesic meptazinol (7.5 - 30 mg kg-1) evoked small but significant increases in arterial PCO2 which were attenuated by naloxone. Meptazinol significantly reduced the increase in arterial PCO2 evoked by morphine. The respiratory depression induced by meptazinol, but not that induced by morphine, was enhanced by pretreatment with atropine. The (+)-enantiomer, but not the (-)-enantiomer of meptazinol increased arterial PCO2. In contrast, only the (-)-enantiomer reduced the respiratory depressant effect of morphine. It is proposed that the degree of respiratory depression induced by meptazinol is limited by its opioid antagonist and cholinomimetic properties.

  12. Tailored delivery of analgesic ziconotide across a blood brain barrier model using viral nanocontainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Prachi; O'Neil, Alison; Lin, Emily; Douglas, Trevor; Holford, Mandë

    2015-08-01

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) is often an insurmountable obstacle for a large number of candidate drugs, including peptides, antibiotics, and chemotherapeutic agents. Devising an adroit delivery method to cross the BBB is essential to unlocking widespread application of peptide therapeutics. Presented here is an engineered nanocontainer for delivering peptidic drugs across the BBB encapsulating the analgesic marine snail peptide ziconotide (Prialt®). We developed a bi-functional viral nanocontainer based on the Salmonella typhimurium bacteriophage P22 capsid, genetically incorporating ziconotide in the interior cavity, and chemically attaching cell penetrating HIV-Tat peptide on the exterior of the capsid. Virus like particles (VLPs) of P22 containing ziconotide were successfully transported in several BBB models of rat and human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) using a recyclable noncytotoxic endocytic pathway. This work demonstrates proof in principle for developing a possible alternative to intrathecal injection of ziconotide using a tunable VLP drug delivery nanocontainer to cross the BBB.

  13. PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF ISOLATED COMPOUND FROM MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA SEEDS GIVES SIGNIFICANT ANALGESIC EFFECT

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    Chirantan S. Chakma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess the analgesic effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of isolated compound from M.longifolia seeds in rats and mice model. All three animal groups were administered the aq. and alc.ext of M.longifolia at a dose of 4 mg to 64 mg/kg body weight. The standard drug diclofenac 5 mg/kg b.w is used in three screening method. The paw licking time, tail withdrawal time and chemical writhings in mice both aq. and alc. extracts of M.longifolia prevents significant dose dependent anti-nociceptive effect. Diclofenac 5 mg/kg failed to alter significantly the antinociceptive effect of 16 to 32 mg of both extracts or the effect on chemical assay.

  14. Analgesic effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy versus ultrasound therapy in chronic tennis elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizis, Paweł

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the analgesic effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy with those of ultrasound therapy in patients with chronic tennis elbow. [Subjects] Fifty patients with tennis elbow were randomized to receive extracorporeal shock wave therapy or ultrasound therapy. [Methods] The extracorporeal shock wave therapy group received 5 treatments once per week. Meanwhile, the ultrasound group received 10 treatments 3 times per week. Pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale during grip strength evaluation, palpation of the lateral epicondyle, Thomsen test, and chair test. Resting pain was also recorded. The scores were recorded and compared within and between groups pre-treatment, immediately post-treatment, and 3 months post-treatment. [Results] Intra- and intergroup comparisons immediately and 3 months post-treatment showed extracorporeal shock wave therapy decreased pain to a significantly greater extent than ultrasound therapy. [Conclusion] Extracorporeal shock wave therapy can significantly reduce pain in patients with chronic tennis elbow.

  15. Superior analgesic effect of an active distraction versus pleasant unfamiliar sounds and music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garza Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene

    2012-01-01

    of valence they relieved pain to a similar degree. The emotional ratings of the conditions were correlated with the amount of pain relief and cognitive styles seemed to influence the analgesia effect. These findings suggest that the pain relieving effect previously seen in relation to music may be at least......Previous studies have shown a superior analgesic effect of favorite music over other passive or active distractive tasks. However, it is unclear what mediates this effect. In this study we investigated to which extent distraction, emotional valence and cognitive styles may explain part...... of the relationship. Forty-eight healthy volunteers received heat stimuli during an active mental arithmetic task (PASAT), and passive listening to music (Mozart), environmental sounds (rain and water), and control (noise). The participants scored the conditions according to affective scales and filled out...

  16. INTRATHECAL MIDAZOLAM PROLONGS THE ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF SPINAL BLOCKADE WITH LIDOCAINE FOR PERINEAL OPERATION

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    B. Jahangiri R. Jahangiri

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal administration of midazolam has been reported to have antinociceptive action, and to be an effective analgesic agent. In this prospective double-blind study we aimed to evaluate the postoperative effects of intrathecal midazolam with lidocaine following perineal operation. Forty patients were randomly allocated to two groups: 20 patients in the control group received 2 ml of 5% heavy lidocaine plus 0.4 ml of 0.9% saline intrathecally; 20 patients in the midazolam group received 2 ml of 5% heavy lidocaine plus 0.4 ml of 0.5% midazolam. Duration of analgesia was significantly greater in the midazolam group (7  1 hours compared to the control group (1.5  0.5 hours.

  17. [Optimization on the production of analgesic peptide from Buthus martensii Karsch in Pichia pastoris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-ling; He, Hui-xia; Zhu, Hui-xin; Cheng, Ke-di; Zhu, Ping

    2009-01-01

    The technology of liquid fermentation for producing the recombinant analgesic peptide BmK AngM1 from Buthus martensii Karsch in Pichia pastoris was studied by single-factor and orthogonal test. The results showed that the optimal culture conditions were as follows: 1.2% methanol, 0.6% casamino acids, initial pH 6.0, and three times of basal inoculation volume. Under the above culture conditions, the expression level of recombinant BmK AngM1 in Pichia pastoris was above 500 mg x L(-1), which was more than three times of the control. The study has laid a foundation for the large-scale preparation of BmK AngM1 to meet the needs of theoretical research of BmK AngM1 and development of new medicines.

  18. Impact of surgical severity and analgesic treatment on plasma corticosterone in rats during surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldkuhl, Renée; Klockars, Anica; Hau, Jann;

    2010-01-01

    of the present investigation was to study the effect of surgical severity and analgesic treatment on circulating corticosterone in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Male rats were treated with either lidocaine infiltrated during surgery, buprenorphine (0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg subcutaneously) or saline subcutaneously. Each...... to saline treatment after catheterisation but not after laparotomy. Buprenorphine treatment reduced the corticosterone levels during the first hour after surgery after both catheterisation and laparotomy. The higher buprenorphine dose led to an earlier and more pronounced reduction, especially after...... laparotomy. In the present study, the corticosterone response during surgery in laboratory rats is correlated with the severity of the procedure, and buprenorphine reduces the surgical stress response more effectively than lidocaine treatment....

  19. Buprenorphine: an analgesic with an expanding role in the treatment of opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Susan E

    2002-01-01

    Buprenorphine, a long-acting opioid with both agonist and antagonist properties, binds to mu-opioid (OP(3)), kappa-opioid (OP(2)), delta-opioid (OP(1)), and nociceptin (ORL-1) receptors. Its actions at these receptors have not been completely characterized, although buprenorphine is generally regarded as a mu-opioid receptor partial agonist and a kappa-opioid receptor antagonist. Its pharmacology is further complicated by an active metabolite, norbuprenorphine. Although buprenorphine can be used as an analgesic agent, it is of greater importance in the treatment of opioid abuse. Because of its partial agonist activity at mu-opioid receptors and its long half-life, buprenorphine has proven to be an excellent alternative to methadone for either maintenance therapy or detoxification of the opioid addict. Although buprenorphine may ultimately prove to be superior to methadone in the maintenance of the pregnant addict, its effects on the developing fetus must be carefully evaluated.

  20. Analgesic effect of perioperative escitalopram in high pain catastrophizing patients after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, Troels H; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Hansen, Torben Bæk

    2015-01-01

    has not previously been investigated. The authors hypothesized that perioperative escitalopram would reduce pain after TKA in high pain catastrophizing patients. METHODS: A total of 120 pain catastrophizing patients (selected using the pain catastrophizing scale as preoperative screening tool......) scheduled for TKA were randomized in a double-blind manner to either 10 mg escitalopram or placebo daily from preanesthesia to postoperative day 6 in addition to a standardized analgesic regime. The primary outcome was pain upon ambulation 24 h after surgery. Secondary outcomes were overall pain during well......-defined mobilizations and at rest from 2 to 48 h and from days 2 to 6, morphine equivalents, anxiety, depression, and side effects. RESULTS: Pain upon ambulation (mean [95% CI]) 24 h after surgery in the escitalopram versus placebo group was 58 (53 to 64) versus 64 (58 to 69), the mean difference being -5 (-13 to 3), P...

  1. Ice freezes pain? A review of the clinical effectiveness of analgesic cold therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E; Fialka, V

    1994-01-01

    Among the physical treatments to reduce pain, ice has had its place for many years. Experience tells us that ice has a strong short-term analgesic effect in many painful conditions, particularly those related to the musculoskeletal system. Serial applications may also be helpful. The scientific evidence from clinical trials is, however, fragmentary. This applies both for acute and serial cold-induced analgesia. The mechanisms by which cryotherapy might elevate pain threshold include an antinociceptive effect on the gate control system, a decrease in nerve conduction, reduction in muscle spasms, and prevention of edema after injury. It is concluded that ice may be useful for a variety of musculoskeletal pains, yet the evidence for its efficacy should be established more convincingly.

  2. Absence of analgesic effect of intravenous melatonin administration during daytime after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Kücükakin, Bülent; Werner, Mads U

    2014-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether melatonin administered intraoperatively reduced pain following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. SETTING: Two surgical departments in Copenhagen. PATIENTS: 44 women between 18 and 70 years of age, who...... mg of intravenous (IV) melatonin or placebo were administered at the time of surgical incision. MEASUREMENTS: Pain was assessed by a set of questionnaires documenting "pain at rest" using a visual analog scale (VAS). The use of rescue medication was recorded. Sleep quality and general well-being were...... between the two groups in the postoperative period. The use of postoperative rescue medication did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The use of 10mg of IV melatonin administered during laparoscopic cholecystectomy did not affect postoperative pain or use of analgesic medication....

  3. Comparison Relation to Analgesics Between Nurses and Patients Perception in Pain in Patients who had Undergone Coronary Bypass Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karamporian

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Pain is the most important and current nursing diagnosis at I.C.U of heart surgery. So it must be relive for its acute complication. The purpose of this study was to compare nurses and patients perception of pain and its relation to analgesics in patients undergone coronary bypass surgery in one of the selected hospital in Iran medical university in 2000 and to give some suggestions according to results of this study. This research was a descriptive study. In this study 30 patients with30 nurses caring of them in cardiac surgery I.C.U in one of the hospital of Iran medical university were participated .The materials in this study included question forms, scale of intensity of pain and analgesic dose check list. The first part included questions related to personal specifications of nurses and patients participating in study. The second part included 25 sentences about patients and nurses understanding of pain. For evaluating the degree of pain and severity of its perception in patients the statistical method was used. According to its"10" scores column the "o" was for no pain perception and "10" was for the most possible sense pain. The result of this study was summarized in 6 figures. The " T " statistical analysis showed that the patients average of pain perception was more than pain perception of nurses (P=0.001. The "pair t-test" detected significant differences between degree of perception of pain in patients before and after injection of analgesics and also perception of patients pain in their nurses (P=0.001. In addition according to "t-test" there was significant differences between the degree of pain in patients and degree of perception of this pain in nurses before and after the injection of analgesics (P=0.001. But, there was no relation between dose of analgesics with the patients’ and nurses’ perception of pain, and also the degree of patients pain before and after the injection of analgesics and degree of nurses perception of

  4. Effect of the analgesic butorphanol on activity behaviour in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwalder, T; Huber-Eicher, B

    2005-12-01

    During fattening, the bodyweight of modern broad-breasted turkeys increases considerably within a very short space of time. In particular, the breast muscles increase disproportionately. This leads to a disadvantageous distribution in weight, and as a consequence, to a disturbed leg position and skeletal deformations like antitrochanteric degeneration, tibial dyschondroplasia, bending, twisting and rotation of the tibia, osteochondrosis, osteomyelitis, rickets, and epiphyseolysis of the femoral head increases. This cases of degenerative joint disease cause severe pain in humans and there are indications that this is also true for turkeys. The purpose of this study was to determine if behaviour indicative of such pain in turkeys of the B.U.T. Big 6 breeding line could be attenuated by administering a quick-acting analgesic, butorphanol. Twelve pairs of turkeys were tested at the ages of 7 and 12 weeks. One bird in each pair received an analgesic opioid injection, while the other one received a control injection of physiologically balanced saline solution. The time the birds spent putting weight on their legs, i.e., 'walking' and 'standing' and the distance covered by the birds were recorded during the 30 min periods before and after the application of the drug. At week seven the treated birds spent significantly more time putting weight on their legs than control birds. At week 12, the same tendency was observed. No significant differences were found in the distances covered by the animals. It is concluded that fattening turkeys reduce the time they are putting weight on their legs because these behaviours may be associated with pain.

  5. MECHANISM OF ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF PROPOFOL ON INCISIONAL PAIN: A RAT MODEL STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhi-hua; SONG Xiao-xing; HU Jiong; YU Bu-wei

    2009-01-01

    Objective To clarify the role of propofol in controlling incisional pain and its potential effects on the spinal opioid receptor expression.Methods A postoperative model of nociception was established in male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g. A total of 96 rats were randomly divided into 8 groups. All drugs were administered intravenously either 5min pre-operation or 5min post-operation. The analgesic effects of systemic propofol were demonstrated by the measurement of a cumulative pain score (CPS). After that, the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord was removed to evaluate the mRNA level of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and δ-opioid receptor (DOR) by RT-PCR.Results CPS and DOR mRNA expressions significantly increased after the operation. Both propofol post-treatment and propofol pre-treatment groups showed significant suppression of the increased CPS and the expression of DOR mRNA evoked by pain stimulation. Interestingly, propofol pre-treatment had a more pronounced effect in decreasing CPS and the expression of DOR mRNA. Furthermore, these observations were dose-dependent. MOR mRNA expression significantly increased after operation in all animals and propofol treatment had no impact on it.Conclusion Based on these findings, we suggest that propofol can serve as a valuable adjunct in acute postoperative pain management. Systemic propofol induces an analgesic effect on acute incisional pain in a dose-dependant manner, and this effect is mediated in the spinal cord and may be associated with the spinal DOR.

  6. Efficacy of Tramadol as a Sole Analgesic for Postoperative Pain in Male and Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, A Marissa; Kennedy, Lucy H; Na, Jane J; Nemzek-Hamlin, Jean A

    2015-07-01

    Tramadol is a centrally acting weak μ opioid agonist that has few of the adverse side effects common to other opioids. Little work has been done to establish an effective analgesic dose of tramadol specific for surgical laparotomy and visceral manipulation in mice. We used general appearance parameters to score positive indicators of pain including posture, coat condition, activity, breathing, and interactions with other mice, activity events (that is, the number of times each mouse stretched up in a 3-min period) used as an indicator of decreased pain, von Frey fibers, and plasma levels of corticosterone to determine whether tramadol at 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg prevented postoperative pain in male and female C57BL/6 mice. A ventral midline laparotomy with typhlectomy was used as a model of postoperative pain. In male mice, none of the markers differed between groups that received tramadol (regardless of dose) and the saline-treated controls. However, general appearance scores and plasma corticosterone levels were lower in female mice that received 80 mg/kg tramadol compared with saline. In summary, for severe postoperative pain after laparotomy and aseptic typhlectomy, tramadol was ineffective in male C57BL/6 mice at all doses tested. Although 80 mg/kg ameliorated postoperative pain in female C57BL/6 mice, this dose is very close to the threshold reported to cause toxic side effects, such as tremors and seizures. Therefore, we do not recommend the use of tramadol as a sole analgesic in this mouse model of postoperative pain.

  7. Histamine-releasing and allergenic properties of opioid analgesic drugs: resolving the two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, B A; Pham, N H

    2012-03-01

    Opioid analgesics are amongst the most commonly administered drugs in hospitals. Whether natural or synthetic, they show some common structural features, morphine-like pharmacological action and binding specificity for complementary opioid receptors. Tramadol differs from the other opioid analgesics in possessing monoaminergic activity in addition to its affinity for the µ opioid receptor. Many opioids are potent histamine releasers producing a variety of haemodynamic changes and anaphylactoid reactions, but the relationship of the appearance of these effects to the histamine plasma concentration is complex and there is no direct and invariable relationship between the two. Studies of the histamine-releasing effects, chiefly centred on morphine, reveal variable findings and conclusions often due to a range of factors including differences in technical measurements, dose, mode of administration, site of injection, the anatomical distribution of histamine receptors and heterogeneity of patient responses. Morphine itself has multiple direct effects on the vasculature and other haemodynamically-active mediators released along with histamine contribute to the variable responses to opioid drug administration. Despite their heavy use and occasional apparent anaphylactic-like side-effects, immunoglobulin E antibody-mediated immediate hypersensitivity reactions to the drugs are not often encountered. Uncertainties associated with skin testing with these known histamine-releasers, and the general unavailability of opioid drug-specific immunoglobulin E antibody tests contribute to the frequent failure to adequately investigate and establish underlying mechanisms of reactions by distinguishing anaphylactoid from true anaphylactic reactions. Clinical implications for diagnosis of reactions and some speculations on the rarity of true Type 1 allergies to these drugs are presented.

  8. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the hydroalcoholic extract from Gloriosa superba Linn

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    John Jomy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gloriosa supberba (family: Liliaceae is widely used as a medicinal plant, and the alkaloids from the plant (Colchicines and Gloriosine are used in the treatment of gout and rheumatism. We evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of hydroalcoholic extract (50% v/v of dried aerial parts of G. superba. The analgesic activity of the extract was evaluated by using Eddy′s hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing method. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by using the cotton wool granuloma model and the carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The percentage inhibitions of writhes or percentage protection were found to be 64.09%, 78.56% and 81.45% for extract at a dose 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively, in the acetic acid-induced writhing method (P < 0.01 when compared with control. The percentage increase in reaction time at 90 minutes were 21.02%, 79.96% and 158.05% for extract at a dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively, in Eddy′s hot plate method (P < 0.01 when compared with control. The percentage inhibition of paw edema was increased with time and gave maximum effect at 2 hours, then declined in case of standard extract 400 mg/kg body weight. Only the 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight extracts exhibited significant result (P < 0.05 when compared with control. The rats exhibited 9.59%, 28.72% and 45.8% inhibition of granuloma mass formation after the 7 days treatment with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of extract when compared with control (P < 0.05 in cotton pellet granuloma.

  9. Evaluation of piroxicam-β-cyclodextrin as a preemptive analgesic in functional endoscopic sinus surgery

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    G.T. Keleş

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The preemptive analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of preoperatively administered piroxicam-β-cyclodextrin for post-endoscopic sinus surgery pain was determined in a prospective, double-blind, randomized, clinical study. Seventy-five American Society of Anesthesiologists status I-II patients, aged 18-65 years, were divided into three groups with similar demographic characteristics: group 1 received 20 mg piroxicam-β-cyclodextrin, group 2 received 40 mg piroxicam-β-cyclodextrin and group 3 received placebo orally before induction of general anesthesia. A blinded observer recorded the incidence and severity of pain at admission to the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU, at 15, 30, and 45 min in the PACU, and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 24 h postoperatively. All patients received patient-controlled morphine analgesia during the postoperative period and consumption was recorded for 24 h. During the PACU period, mean visual analogue scale values were significantly lower in groups 1 and 2 compared to group 3 (P < 0.05. During the postoperative period, morphine consumption was 3.03 ± 2.54, 2.7 ± 2.8, and 5.56 ± 3.12 mg for each group, respectively (P < 0.05. As a side effect, bleeding was observed in groups 1 and 3, nausea and vomiting in all groups, and edema only in group 3. However, no significant differences were detected in any of the parameters analyzed, which also included epigastric pain, constipation/diarrhea and headache. Similar hematological test results were obtained for all groups. Preemptive administration of piroxicam-β-cyclodextrin effectively reduced analgesic consumption, and 40 mg of the drug was more effective than 20 mg piroxicam-β-cyclodextrin without side effects during the postoperative period.

  10. Antinociceptive synergy, additivity, and subadditivity with combinations of oral glucosamine plus nonopioid analgesics in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarida, Ronald J; Cowan, Alan; Raffa, Robert B

    2003-11-01

    Glucosamine (2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucose) and glucosamine-containing products have been reported to have efficacy in the treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders. Glucosamine's efficacy, including reduction of pain, is attributed to disease-modifying properties, specifically to cartilage-rebuilding associated with modulation of interleukin-1-induced activation of chondrocytes and to inhibition of proinflammatory effects of the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway. However, glucosamine has not been shown to have direct analgesic activity. We report here that commercial glucosamine (90.4% glucosamine sulfate + 9.6% excipients) administered as the sole agent (up to 500 mg/kg p.o.) was inactive in the mouse abdominal irritant test but that certain combinations of glucosamine with nonopioid analgesics at the oral doses and ratios tested resulted in a synergistic (ibuprofen and ketoprofen), additive (diclofenac, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam), or subadditive (aspirin and acetaminophen) antinociceptive interaction. In the specific case of ibuprofen, the racemate (standard ibuprofen) produced dose-related antinociception with ED50 = 26.1 +/- 3.4 mg/kg. Combinations containing racemic ibuprofen and glucosamine in greater than 1:1 ratio (glucosamine/ibuprofen) were synergistic in the test (e.g., ED50 = 11.0 +/- 2.1 for the 9:1 ratio; p < 0.01, analysis of variance). Combinations containing glucosamine and ibuprofen (2:1 and 9:1) yielded plasma levels of ibuprofen that were no different from administration of ibuprofen alone. The possibility that combinations containing certain fixed ratios of glucosamine and certain nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) might enhance pain relief in patients with pain or might achieve acceptable levels of pain relief with lower doses of NSAIDs (reduced adverse effects) is presently being pursued in clinical trials.

  11. Spinal analgesic action of endomorphins in acute, inflammatory and neuropathic pain in rats.

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    Przewłocka, B; Mika, J; Labuz, D; Toth, G; Przewłocki, R

    1999-02-19

    We studied spinal analgesic and antiallodynic effects of endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 administered i.t. in comparison with Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-MePhe-Gly-ol (DAMGO) or morphine, during acute, inflammatory and neuropathic pain in rats chronically implanted with intrathecal cannulas. Endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 (2.5, 5, 10 microg i.t.) increased the tail-flick latency and, to the lesser extent, the paw pressure latency. The range of potencies in both those models of acute pain was as follows: DAMGO > morphine = endomorphin-1 > endomorphin-2. In a model of inflammatory pain, the number of formalin-induced flinching episodes was decreased by endomorphin-1. The effect of endomorphin-2 was much less pronounced. Both DAMGO and morphine significantly inhibited the pain-related behavior evoked by formalin. In a neuropathic pain model (sciatic nerve crushing in rats), endomorphin-1 and -2 (5 microg i.t.) had a statistically significant effect on the tail-flick latency and on the cold-water tail flick latency. Morphine, 5 microg, was found to be ineffective. Endomorphin-1 and -2 (2.5 and 5 microg i.t.) dose-dependently antagonized allodynia. Those effects of endomorphins were antagonized in acute (30 microg), inflammatory (30 microg) and neuropathic pain models (60 microg) by cyprodime, a selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist. In conclusion, our results show a strong analgesic action of endomorphins at the spinal cord level. The most interesting finding is a strong, stronger than in the case of morphine, antiallodynic effect of endomorphins in rats subjected to sciatic nerve crushing, which suggests a possible use of these compounds in a very difficult therapy of neuropathic pain.

  12. Non-analgesic effects of opioids: opioid-induced respiratory depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boom, Merel; Niesters, Marieke; Sarton, Elise; Aarts, Leon; Smith, Terry W; Dahan, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Opioids induce respiratory depression via activation of μ-opioid receptors at specific sites in the central nervous system including the pre-Bötzinger complex, a respiratory rhythm generating area in the pons. Full opioid agonists like morphine and fentanyl affect breathing with onset and offset profiles that are primarily determined by opioid transfer to the receptor site, while the effects of partial opioid agonists such as buprenorphine are governed by transfer to the receptor site together with receptor kinetics, in particular dissociation kinetics. Opioid-induced respiratory depression is potentially fatal but may be reversed by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, an agent with a short elimination half-life (30 min). The rate-limiting factor in naloxone-reversal of opioid effect is the receptor kinetics of the opioid agonists that requires reversal. Agents with slow dissociation kinetics (buprenorphine) require a continuous naloxone infusion while agents with rapid kinetics (fentanyl) will show complete reversal upon a single naloxone dose. Since naloxone is non-selective and will reverse analgesia as well, efforts are focused on the development of compounds that reverse opioid-induced respiratory depression without affecting analgesic efficacy. Such agents include ampakines and serotonin agonists which are aimed at selectively enhancing central respiratory drive. A novel approach is aimed at the reduction of respiratory depression from opioid-activation of (micro-)glia cells in the pons and brainstem using micro-glia cell stabilizers. Since this approach simultaneously enhances opioid analgesic efficacy it seems an attractive alternative to the classical reversal strategies with naloxone.

  13. Antimicrobial properties of analgesic kyotorphin peptides unraveled through atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Marta M.B.; Franquelim, Henri G.; Torcato, Ines M. [Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Av. Professor Egas Moniz, 1649-028 Lisboa (Portugal); Ramu, Vasanthakumar G.; Heras, Montserrat; Bardaji, Eduard R. [Laboratori d' Innovacio en Processos i Productes de Sintesi Organica (LIPPSO), Departament de Quimica, Universitat de Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Castanho, Miguel A.R.B., E-mail: macastanho@fm.ul.pt [Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Av. Professor Egas Moniz, 1649-028 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New kyotorphin derivatives have antimicrobial properties against S. aureus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Atomic force microscopy show membrane disturbing effects of KTP-NH{sub 2} and IbKTP-NH{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer None of the KTP derivatives are hemolytic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The minimal peptidic sequence with antimicrobial activity is Tyr-Arg, if amidated. -- Abstract: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising candidates as alternatives to conventional antibiotics for the treatment of resistant pathogens. In the last decades, new AMPs have been found from the cleavage of intact proteins with no antibacterial activity themselves. Bovine hemoglobin hydrolysis, for instance, results in AMPs and the minimal antimicrobial peptide sequence was defined as Tyr-Arg plus a positively charged amino acid residue. The Tyr-Arg dipeptide alone, known as kyotorphin (KTP), is an endogenous analgesic neuropeptide but has no antimicrobial activity itself. In previous studies new KTP derivatives combining C-terminal amidation and Ibuprofen (Ib) - KTP-NH{sub 2}, IbKTP, IbKTP-NH{sub 2} - were designed in order to improve KTP brain targeting. Those modifications succeeded in enhancing peptide-cell membrane affinity towards fluid anionic lipids and higher analgesic activity after systemic injection resulted therefrom. Here, we investigated if this affinity for anionic lipid membranes also translates into antimicrobial activity because bacteria have anionic membranes. Atomic force microscopy revealed that KTP derivatives perturbed Staphylococcus aureus membrane structure by inducing membrane blebbing, disruption and lysis. In addition, these peptides bind to red blood cells but are non-hemolytic. From the KTP derivatives tested, amidated KTP proves to be the most active antibacterial agent. The combination of analgesia and antibacterial activities with absence of toxicity is highly appealing from the clinical point of view

  14. Reporting of cross-over clinical trials of analgesic treatments for chronic pain: Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks systematic review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewandter, Jennifer S; McDermott, Michael P; McKeown, Andrew; Hoang, Kim; Iwan, Katarzyna; Kralovic, Sarah; Rothstein, Daniel; Gilron, Ian; Katz, Nathaniel P; Raja, Srinivasa N; Senn, Stephen; Smith, Shannon M; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2016-11-01

    Cross-over trials are typically more efficient than parallel group trials in that the sample size required to yield a desired power is substantially smaller. It is important, however, to consider some issues specific to cross-over trials when designing and reporting them, and when evaluating the published results of such trials. This systematic review evaluated the quality of reporting and its evolution over time in articles of cross-over clinical trials of pharmacologic treatments for chronic pain published between 1993 and 2013. Seventy-six (61%) articles reported a within-subject primary analysis, or if no primary analysis was identified, reported at least 1 within-subject analysis, which is required to achieve the gain in power associated with the cross-over design. For 39 (31%) articles, it was unclear whether analyses conducted were within-subject or between-group. Only 36 (29%) articles reported a method to accommodate missing data (eg, last observation carried forward, n = 29), and of those, just 14 included subjects in the analysis who provided data from only 1 period. Of the articles that identified a within-subject primary analysis, 21 (51%) provided sufficient information for the results to be included in a meta-analysis (ie, estimates of the within-subject treatment effect and variability). These results and others presented in this article demonstrate deficiencies in reporting of cross-over trials for analgesic treatments. Clearer reporting in future trials could improve readers' ability to critically evaluate the results, use these data in meta-analyses, and plan future trials. Recommendations for proper reporting of cross-over trials that apply to any condition are provided.

  15. Comparative analysis of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of bark and leaves of Acacia ferruginea DC.

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    Samriti Faujdar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves of Acacia ferruginea DC. Hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves were evaluated for analgesic activity using hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing test, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema method. Hydroalcoholic extract of the bark at the dose of 50 mg/kg (6.10 ± 0.30 and leaves at a dose of 100 mg/kg (5.72 ± 0.39 after 45 min exhibited significant (P < 0.001 analgesic activity in hot plate test, which was comparable to Tramadol (6.11 ± 0.31 at a dose of 10 mg/kg. However, in acetic acid-induced writhing test, hydroalcoholic extract of both bark (90% and leaves (90.91% showed maximum protection from acetic acid at the dose of 100 mg/kg as compared to standard drug (50.91% at a dose of 5 mg/kg. In the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, hydroalcoholic extract of leaves at a dose of 400 mg/kg had significantly (74.68% inhibited the inflammation as comparable to indomethacin (82.8% after 3 h of induction of carrageenan. It is concluded that hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves have central analgesic and peripheral analgesic effects, respectively. Both hydroalcoholic extracts of the bark and leaves significantly reduced the paw oedema at a dose of 400 mg/kg and exhibited anti-inflammatory activity.

  16. Analgesic activity and safety of ash of silver used in Indian system of medicine in mice: A reverse pharmacological study

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    Deep Inder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the analgesic activity of ash of silver used in Indian system of medicine and to explore its safety. Materials and Methods: Albino mice of either sex (20-30 gm were used to investigate the role of ash of silver against noxious stimuli: thermal (Eddy′s hot plate and analgesiometer, mechanical (tail clip, and chemical (0.6% acetic acid induced writhing. An effort was made to find nature and site of action of ash of silver following naloxone pre-treatment. Maximum tolerated dose (MTD and lethal dosage 50 (LD50 were also studied along with toxicological aspects of ash of silver. Results: Test drug (ash of silver at a dose of 50 mg/kg p.o exhibited analgesic activity against thermal, mechanical, and chemical stimuli. Analgesic effects were compared with the standard drug, morphine, in thermal and mechanical noxious stimuli and to aspirin in chemical stimulus. Analgesic activity of the test drug was reduced following naloxone pre-treatment. MTD was found out to be greater than 1.5 g/kg p.o. LD50 was 2 g/kg p.o. Fraction of mice showed symptoms of argyria as explained by autopsy reports. Conclusion: Test drug exhibited moderate analgesic activity at 50 mg/kg p.o against all type of noxious stimuli, also suggesting a role of opioidergic system. The ash of silver was been found to be safe upto a dose of 1.5 g/kg p.o. in mice without any untoward toxicity. Further studies are required to explore the effect of ash of silver on pain mediators and excitatory neurotransmitters like glutamate, aspartate, or N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA.

  17. Comparison of analgesic efficacy of flupirtine maleate and ibuprofen in gynaecological ambulatory surgeries: A randomized controlled trial

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    Vanita Ahuja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Flupirtine maleate is a centrally acting, non-opioid analgesic with unique muscle relaxant properties as compared to common analgesics. The aim of this study was to compare post-operative analgesic efficacy of flupirtine maleate and ibuprofen in patients undergoing gynaecological ambulatory surgeries. Methods: This prospective, randomised controlled study was conducted in 60 women of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I/II, 18-70 years of age and scheduled to undergo gynaecological ambulatory surgeries. The participants were randomised to receive either 100 mg oral flupirtine maleate (group flupirtine, n = 30 or 800 mg oral ibuprofen (group ibuprofen, n = 30, 1 h prior to surgery and then every 8 h for 48 h. Verbal Numerical Rating Scale (VNRS on movement was assessed at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h following surgery. Following discharge from hospital, the patients were interviewed telephonically at 12, 24 and 48 h post-operatively. VNRS was statistically analysed using Mann-Whitney test. Results: VNRS on movement was statistically reduced at 2 h after surgery (P = 0.04 in group flupirtine as compared to group ibuprofen. The analgesic efficacy was similar in both the groups at 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after surgery. The satisfaction scores at 24 and 48 h post-operatively were superior in group flupirtine as compared to group ibuprofen (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Analgesic efficacy of flupirtine maleate was comparable with ibuprofen in patients in ambulatory gynaecological patients up to 48 h postoperatively with superior satisfaction scores.

  18. The Efficacy and Clinical Safety of Various Analgesic Combinations for Post-Operative Pain after Third Molar Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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    Alvin Ho Yeung Au

    Full Text Available To run a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials aiming to answer the clinical question "which analgesic combination and dosage is potentially the most effective and safe for acute post-operative pain control after third molar surgery?".A systematic search of computer databases and journals was performed. The search and the evaluations of articles were performed by 2 independent reviewers in 3 rounds. Randomized clinical trials related to analgesic combinations for acute post-operative pain control after lower third molar surgery that matched the selection criteria were evaluated to enter in the final review.Fourteen studies with 3521 subjects, with 10 groups (17 dosages of analgesic combinations were included in the final review. The analgesic efficacy were presented by the objective pain measurements including sum of pain intensity at 6 hours (SPID6 and total pain relief at 6 hours (TOTPAR6. The SPID6 scores and TOTPAR6 scores of the reported analgesic combinations were ranged from 1.46 to 6.44 and 3.24 - 10.3, respectively. Ibuprofen 400mg with oxycodone HCL 5mg had superior efficacy (SPID6: 6.44, TOTPAR6: 9.31. Nausea was the most common adverse effect, with prevalence ranging from 0-55%. Ibuprofen 200mg with caffeine 100mg or 200mg had a reasonable analgesic effect with fewer side effects.This systematic review and meta-analysis may help clinicians in their choices of prescribing an analgesic combination for acute post-operative pain control after lower third molar surgery. It was found in this systematic review Ibuprofen 400mg combined with oxycodone HCL 5mg has superior analgesic efficacy when compared to the other analgesic combinations included in this study.

  19. The Efficacy and Clinical Safety of Various Analgesic Combinations for Post-Operative Pain after Third Molar Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Alvin Ho Yeung; Choi, Siu Wai; Cheung, Chi Wai; Leung, Yiu Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To run a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials aiming to answer the clinical question “which analgesic combination and dosage is potentially the most effective and safe for acute post-operative pain control after third molar surgery?”. Materials and Methods A systematic search of computer databases and journals was performed. The search and the evaluations of articles were performed by 2 independent reviewers in 3 rounds. Randomized clinical trials related to analgesic combinations for acute post-operative pain control after lower third molar surgery that matched the selection criteria were evaluated to enter in the final review. Results Fourteen studies with 3521 subjects, with 10 groups (17 dosages) of analgesic combinations were included in the final review. The analgesic efficacy were presented by the objective pain measurements including sum of pain intensity at 6 hours (SPID6) and total pain relief at 6 hours (TOTPAR6). The SPID6 scores and TOTPAR6 scores of the reported analgesic combinations were ranged from 1.46 to 6.44 and 3.24 – 10.3, respectively. Ibuprofen 400mg with oxycodone HCL 5mg had superior efficacy (SPID6: 6.44, TOTPAR6: 9.31). Nausea was the most common adverse effect, with prevalence ranging from 0-55%. Ibuprofen 200mg with caffeine 100mg or 200mg had a reasonable analgesic effect with fewer side effects. Conclusion This systematic review and meta-analysis may help clinicians in their choices of prescribing an analgesic combination for acute post-operative pain control after lower third molar surgery. It was found in this systematic review Ibuprofen 400mg combined with oxycodone HCL 5mg has superior analgesic efficacy when compared to the other analgesic combinations included in this study. PMID:26053953

  20. Analysis of Prehospital Documentation of Injury-Related Pain Assessment and Analgesic Administration on the Contemporary Battlefield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Robert T; Reeves, Patrick T; Kotwal, Russ S; Mabry, Robert L; Robinson, John B; Butler, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In addition to life-saving interventions, the assessment of pain and subsequent administration of analgesia are primary benchmarks for quality emergency medical services care which should be documented and analyzed. Analyze US combat casualty data from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DoDTR) with a primary focus on prehospital pain assessment, analgesic administration and documentation. Retrospective cohort study of battlefield prehospital and hospital casualty data were abstracted by DoDTR from available records from 1 September 2007 through 30 June 2011. Data included demographics; injury mechanism; prehospital and initial combat hospital pain assessment documented by standard 0-to-10 numeric rating scale; analgesics administered; and survival outcome. Records were available for 8,913 casualties (median ISS of 5 [IQR 2 to 10]; 98.7% survived). Prehospital analgesic administration was documented for 1,313 cases (15%). Prehospital pain assessment was recorded for 581 cases (7%; median pain score 6 [IQR 3 to 8]), hospital pain assessment was recorded for 5,007 cases (56%; median pain score5 [CI95% 3 to 8]), and 409 cases (5%) had both prehospital and hospital pain assessments that could be paired. In this paired group, 49.1% (201/409) had alleviation of pain evidenced by a decrease in pain score (median 4,, IQR 2 to 5); 23.5% (96/409) had worsening of pain evidenced by an increase in pain score (median 3, CI95 2.8 to 3.7, IQR 1 to 5); 27.4% (112/409) had no change; and the overall difference was an average decrease in pain score of 1.1 (median 0, IQR 0 to 3, p prehospital and hospital pain assessment documentation and prehospital analgesic documentation. Our study demonstrates that prehospital pain assessment, management, and documentation remain primary targets for performance improvement on the battlefield. Results of paired prehospital to hospital pain scores and time-series analysis demonstrate both feasibility and benefit of prehospital analgesics

  1. Combined analgesics in (headache pain therapy: shotgun approach or precise multi-target therapeutics?

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    Fiebich Bernd L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain in general and headache in particular are characterized by a change in activity in brain areas involved in pain processing. The therapeutic challenge is to identify drugs with molecular targets that restore the healthy state, resulting in meaningful pain relief or even freedom from pain. Different aspects of pain perception, i.e. sensory and affective components, also explain why there is not just one single target structure for therapeutic approaches to pain. A network of brain areas ("pain matrix" are involved in pain perception and pain control. This diversification of the pain system explains why a wide range of molecularly different substances can be used in the treatment of different pain states and why in recent years more and more studies have described a superior efficacy of a precise multi-target combination therapy compared to therapy with monotherapeutics. Discussion In this article, we discuss the available literature on the effects of several fixed-dose combinations in the treatment of headaches and discuss the evidence in support of the role of combination therapy in the pharmacotherapy of pain, particularly of headaches. The scientific rationale behind multi-target combinations is the therapeutic benefit that could not be achieved by the individual constituents and that the single substances of the combinations act together additively or even multiplicatively and cooperate to achieve a completeness of the desired therapeutic effect. As an example the fixesd-dose combination of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, paracetamol (acetaminophen and caffeine is reviewed in detail. The major advantage of using such a fixed combination is that the active ingredients act on different but distinct molecular targets and thus are able to act on more signalling cascades involved in pain than most single analgesics without adding more side effects to the therapy. Summary Multitarget therapeutics like combined analgesics broaden

  2. Analgesic Effect of Gabapentin on Post-Operative Pain After Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

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    Mario I. Ortiz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To the Editor Mardani-Kivi et al presented results about a triple blinded randomized controlled trial with gabapentin in patients that underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction (1. In their manuscript, the introduction section is very illustrative about the subject. With respect to methodology, it is well known that the physical diagnosis of ACL injury is particularly difficult in several patients, and partial ACL tears are also difficult to diagnose on physical examination. In this particular case, how did the authors obtain the diagnosis of ACL in the patients? Likewise, ACL reconstruction can be delayed several weeks or months until the swelling has decreased and there is an appropriate range of motion. For this reason, I want to ask: was the cause of the ACL injury homogeneous in all patients?; was the time delay of the surgery the same for everyone; and was the type of damage the same for all participants? Meperidine is an opioid with analgesic effects. The American Pain Society and the Institute for Safe Medication Practice (ISMP do not recommend meperidine use as pain relieving medication or they recommend it only in very special cases and with many precautions during its administration (2, 3. What was the rationale of the authors choosing meperidine as analgesic drug? In this same sense, authors did not indicate in their manuscript whether meperidine was administered by oral, intramuscular or intravenous pathways or patient-controlled analgesia. The time schedule of meperidine administration was not indicate in the manuscript; was meperidine administered q4h or q6h? How many doses were received by patients? I think it was a mistake to publish the demographic data of all patients (n=114. You had to eliminate the patients deleted in the presentation of the demographic characteristics of the patients (n=108, that is more correct. Table 2 and 3 were poorly prepared. Table 2 has missing data about the results at 24 hours in the

  3. The experience of childbrith in first-time mothers who received narcotic analgesics during the first stage of labour

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    L. Jantjes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This research has focused on the birthing experience of first-time mothers who received the narcotic analgesic combination of Pethidine and Hydroxyzine during the first stage of labour. A qualitative research methodology was used to collect data. Unstructured interviews were held with first-time mothers to obtain accounts of their experience of childbirth. These narrations were audio-taped while the participants were still being cared for in the postnatal ward of the hospital where delivery took place. Nine interviews were conducted with first-time mothers who gave birth normally vaginally after a normal pregnancy and who received a narcotic analgesic in the first stage of labour. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Tesch’s method of descriptive analysis (in Creswell, 1994:115.

  4. A facile microwave assisted one pot synthesis of novel xanthene derivatives as potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents

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    Anupam G. Banerjee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microwave assisted irradiation of resorcinol and substituted aryl aldehydes using sulfamic acid as catalyst afforded novel 9-aryl-9H-xanthene-3,6-diol derivatives (1a–f in good yields. The newly synthesized compounds which were previously selected on the basis of PASS prediction were tested for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and analgesic activity using acetic acid induced writhing and formalin-induced paw edema in mice along with the estimation of gastric ulcerogenicity index. Compounds 1e and 1f exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities as compared to standard drug. The study also revealed that compounds (1a–f showed minimum or no ulcerogenicity in mice as that of the standard drug.

  5. Comparative chemical and analgesic properties of essential oils of Cymbopogon nardus (L) Rendle of Benin and Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abena, A A; Gbenou, J D; Yayi, E; Moudachirou, M; Ongoka, R P; Ouamba, J M; Silou, T

    2007-02-16

    The chemical and analgesic comparison of essential oils of Cymbopogon nardus (L) Rendle of Benin and Congo was investigated. The chemical analysis wa carried out by using GS/MS for identification of components of the two essential oils while acetic acid-induced writhings, hot plate and tail flick test models were used for analgesic activity. The results showed that the two essential oils exhibited comparable activity on acetic acid-induced writhings, however, the essential oil of Benin induced more significant effect on hot plate model while the Congolese specie showed more effect in the tail flick test. These observations could be explained by some qualitative and/or quantitative differences observed between the constituents of the two essential oils studied.

  6. Pharmacological screening of plants recommended by folk medicine as anti-snake venom: I. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

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    Bettina M. Ruppelt

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available We have observed that several plants used popularly as anti-snake venom show anti-inflammatory activity. From the list prepared by Rizzini, Mors and Pereira some species have been selected and tested for analgesic activity (number of contortions and anti-inflammatory activity (Evans blue dye diffusion - 1% solution according to Whittle's technique (intraperitoneal administration of 0.1 N-acetic acid 0.1 ml/10 g in mice. Previous oral administration of a 10% infusion (dry plant or 20% (fresh plant corresponding to 1 or 2 g/Kg of Apuleia leiocarpa, Casearia sylvestris, Brunfelsia uniflora, Chiococca brachiata, Cynara scolymus, Dorstenia brasiliensis, Elephantopus scaber, Marsypianthes chamaedrys, Mikania glomerata and Trianosperma tayuya demonstrated analgesic and/or anti-inflammatory activities of varied intensity

  7. Investigation of the Central and Peripheral Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Kutajarishta, an Indian Ayurvedic formulation

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    Ashraful Kabir

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kutajarishta (KTJ is an Ayurvedic formulation approved by the “National formulary of Ayurvedic Medicine 2011”, of Bangladesh. It is widely available in the Bangladeshi market as an effective preparation to treat lumbago, sciatia and arthritic pain of joints. Our present studies make an attempt toward identifying probable anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of KTJ. KTJ, at three doses, (10mL/kg, 20mL/kg, and 40mL/kg showed no involvement of the CNS in anti-nociceptive activity of KTJ. Carrageenan induced paw edema and acetic acid writhing tests both gave significant results (P ≤ 0.05, indicating possible peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory action. Formalin induced paw-licking test showed that KTJ had significant effect in suppressing inflammatory pain (P≤0.05 but not neurogenic pain. Hence our study shows anti-inflammatory and peripheral analgesic action for KTJ.

  8. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL, ANTI-BACTERIAL, ANALGESIC, ANTI-DIARRHOEAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF POLYALTHIA SUBEROSA LEAVES

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    S.M. Moazzem Hossen et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The MeOH extract of leaves of Polyalthia suberosa Roxb. (Annonaceae was screened for its antibacterial, analgesic, Antidiarrhoeal and cytotoxic activities. The extract showed moderate anti-bacterial activity against Vibrio cholerae, Sheigella sonnei, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus saprophyticus. It also produced significant (P<0.01 writhing inhibition in acetic acid induced writhing in mice at dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg, which was comparable to the standard drug diclofenac sodium. Moreover, when tested for its antidiarrhoeal effects on castor oil induced diarrhea in mice, it decreased the frequency of defecation and increased mean latent period significantly (P<0.01 at the dose of 500 mg/kg comparable to the standard drug loperamide. The extract also exhibited high level of cytotoxicity in brine shrimp lethality bioassay (LC50: 30 µg/ml. The overall results tend to suggest the antibacterial, analgesic, antidiarrhoeal and cytotoxic activities of the extract.

  9. EXTRACTION AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF MIKANIA SCANDENS LINN. AND EVALUATION OF ITS METHANOLIC EXTRACT FOR ANALGESIC ACTIVITY

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    Raja Chakraverty and Sudeshna Saha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mikania scandens is a rapidly growing herbaceous to semi-woody, perennial vine. It grows quickly over other plants such as young trees, smothering them; it can climb trees up to 25 m tall. Although not as serious a weed as M. chordate, in Southeast Asia it has become a hard to eradicate weed of tea, rubber, and other plantation crops. It also reduces the carrying capacity of pasture. The achenes are spread by wind, water and animals. The plant also reproduces by old rootstocks, runners and suckers. It is still under investigation. Although it has some analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, but these uses are not widely accepted till now. Folkloric uses include utilisation of the herb as an anticoagulant or other medicinal purpose. The aim of the undertaken work is to identify and isolate the chemical constituents of the plant Mikania scandens and to evaluate its reported analgesic activity.

  10. Resistance to morphine analgesic tolerance in rats with deleted transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1-expressing sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S-R; Prunean, A; Pan, H-M; Welker, K L; Pan, H-L

    2007-03-16

    Deletion of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1)-expressing afferent neurons reduces presynaptic mu opioid receptors but paradoxically potentiates the analgesic efficacy of mu opioid agonists. In this study, we determined if removal of TRPV1-expressing afferent neurons by resiniferatoxin (RTX), an ultrapotent capsaicin analog, influences the development of opioid analgesic tolerance. Morphine tolerance was induced by daily intrathecal injections of 10 microg of morphine for 14 consecutive days or by daily i.p. injections of 10 mg/kg of morphine for 10 days. In vehicle-treated rats, the effect of intrathecal or systemic morphine on the mechanical withdrawal threshold was gradually diminished within 7 days. However, the analgesic effect of intrathecal and systemic morphine was sustained in RTX-treated rats at the time the morphine effect was lost in the vehicle group. Furthermore, the mu opioid receptor-G protein coupling in the spinal cord was significantly decreased ( approximately 22%) in vehicle-treated morphine tolerant rats, but was not significantly altered in RTX-treated rats receiving the same treatment with morphine. Additionally, there was a large reduction in protein kinase Cgamma-immunoreactive afferent terminals in the spinal dorsal horn of RTX-treated rats. These findings suggest that loss of TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons attenuates the development of morphine analgesic tolerance possibly by reducing mu opioid receptor desensitization through protein kinase Cgamma in the spinal cord. These data also suggest that the function of presynaptic mu opioid receptors on TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons is particularly sensitive to down-regulation by mu opioid agonists during opioid tolerance development.

  11. Individual Difference Variables and the Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Analgesic Imagery Interventions on Cancer Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Kwekkeboom, Kristine L.; Wanta, Britt; Bumpus, Molly

    2008-01-01

    Clinicians in acute care settings are often called upon to manage cancer pain unrelieved by medications. Cognitive-behavioral strategies, such as relaxation and imagery, are recommended for cancer pain management; however, there appear to be individual differences in their effects. This pilot study examined variation in pain outcomes achieved with progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and analgesic imagery interventions among hospitalized patients with cancer pain, and assessed the influence of...

  12. Effects of lidocaine and esmolol infusions on hemodynamic changes, analgesic requirement, and recovery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy operations

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    Serpil Dagdelen Dogan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of lidocaine and esmolol infusions on intraoperative hemodynamic changes, intraoperative and postoperative analgesic requirements, and recovery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery. METHODS: The first group (n = 30 received IV lidocaine infusions at a rate of 1.5 mg/kg/min and the second group (n = 30 received IV esmolol infusions at a rate of 1 mg/kg/min. Hemodynamic changes, intraoperative and postoperative analgesic requirements, and recovery characteristics were evaluated. RESULTS: In the lidocaine group, systolic arterial blood pressures values were lower after the induction of anesthesia and at 20 min following surgical incision (p < 0.05. Awakening time was shorter in the esmolol group (p < 0.001; Ramsay Sedation Scale scores at 10 min after extubation were lower in the esmolol group (p < 0.05. The modified Aldrete scores at all measurement time points during the recovery period were relatively lower in the lidocaine group (p < 0.05. The time to attain a modified Aldrete score of ≥9 points was prolonged in the lidocaine group (p < 0.01. Postoperative resting and dynamic VAS scores were higher in the lidocaine group at 10 and 20 min after extubation (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively. Analgesic supplements were less frequently required in the lidocaine group (p < 0.01. CONCLUSION: In laparoscopic cholecystectomies, lidocaine infusion had superiorities over esmolol infusions regarding the suppression of responses to tracheal extubation and postoperative need for additional analgesic agents in the long run, while esmolol was more advantageous with respect to rapid recovery from anesthesia, attenuation of early postoperative pain, and modified Aldrete recovery (MAR scores and time to reach MAR score of 9 points.

  13. Epidural tramadol via intraoperatively placed catheter as a standalone analgesic after spinal fusion procedure: An analysis of efficacy and cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilangovan, Vijaysundar; Vivakaran, Thanga Tirupathi Rajan; Gunasekaran, D.; Devikala, D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This was a prospective analysis of epidural tramadol as a single analgesic agent delivered through intraoperatively placed epidural catheter for postoperative pain relief after spinal fusion procedures in terms of efficacy and cost. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients who underwent spinal fusion procedures were included in the study. After completion of the procedure, an epidural catheter was placed at the highest level of exposed dura and brought out through a separate tract. Postoperatively, tramadol was infused into the epidural space via the catheter at a dose of 1 mg/kg diluted in 10 ml of saline. The dosage frequency was arbitrarily fixed at every 6 h during the first 2 days and thereafter reduced to every 8 h after the first 2 days till day 5. Conventional intravenous analgesics were used only if additional analgesia was required as assessed by visual analog scale (VAS). Results: Patients’ VAS score was assessed every 4 h from the day of surgery. Patients with a VAS score of 6 or more were given additional analgesia in the form of intravenous paracetamol. Of the twenty patients, eight patients needed additional analgesia during the first 24 h and none required additional analgesia after the first 24 h. The median VAS score was 7 within the first 24 h and progressively declined thereafter. Epidural tramadol was noted to be many times cheaper than conventional parenteral analgesics. Conclusion: Epidural tramadol infusion is safe and effective as a standalone analgesic after open spinal fusion surgery, especially after the 1st postoperative day. Intraoperative placement of the epidural catheter is a simple way of delivering tramadol to the epidural space. The cost of analgesia after spinal fusion surgery can be reduced significantly using epidural tramadol alone. PMID:28149082

  14. Screening in mice of some medicinal plants used for analgesic purposes in the state of São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Stasi, L C; Costa, M; Mendaçolli, S L; Kirizawa, M; Gomes, C; Trolin, G

    1988-12-01

    Twelve medicinal plants used popularly for their reputed analgesic properties were tested in mice by the writhing and tail-flick methods. All extractions were made using 50% aqueous ethanol at low temperatures. The oral dose administered was always 1 g solids/kg. While several extracts showed a positive effect in one of the tests, significant effects in both tests were produced by Serjania communis only. Morphine and acetylsalicylic acid were used as reference drugs.

  15. Comparative evaluation of pre-emptive analgesic efficacy of intramuscular ketorolac versus tramadol following third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashwin V; Arun Kumar, K V; Rai, Kirthi Kumar; Rajesh Kumar, B P

    2013-06-01

    Pre-emptive analgesia aims at preventing the central nervous system from reaching a hyper-excitable state known as central sensitization, in which it responds excessively to afferent inputs. The clinical implication would be more effective pain management, thereby reducing post-operative pain and analgesic requirements. This study aimed at investigating the existence of pre-emptive analgesia and to compare the pre-emptive analgesic efficacy of im ketorolac [NSAID] versus tramadol [SYNTHETIC OPIOD] for post-operative pain management following third molar surgery. Fifty patients under the age group of 16-25 years with asymptomatic, symmetrically impacted mandibular third molars were equally divided into 2 groups and underwent third molar surgery under local anesthesia. Ketorolac 30 mg and tramadol 50 mg were used in the study group, while sodium chloride 0.9 % was used in the control group. Study parameters included pain intensity scores for 12 post-operative hours, time to 1st rescue analgesia, total number of analgesics consumed during the 5 post-operative days and patients' self assessment of efficacy of the surgery with regardsto no pain. Statistically, the data are presented as the mean values with their standard deviations and a 95 % confidence interval [p is significant, if p complications were mild and did not require any intervention. Pre-operative ketorolac or tramadol in comparison to placebo resulted in a significantly better post-operative pain management. However as against tramadol, ketorolac is a better choice as a pre-emptive analgesic agent for the post-operative pain management following third molar surgery.

  16. Imidazopyridine CB2 agonists: optimization of CB2/CB1 selectivity and implications for in vivo analgesic efficacy.

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    Trotter, B Wesley; Nanda, Kausik K; Burgey, Christopher S; Potteiger, Craig M; Deng, James Z; Green, Ahren I; Hartnett, John C; Kett, Nathan R; Wu, Zhicai; Henze, Darrell A; Della Penna, Kimberly; Desai, Reshma; Leitl, Michael D; Lemaire, Wei; White, Rebecca B; Yeh, Suzie; Urban, Mark O; Kane, Stefanie A; Hartman, George D; Bilodeau, Mark T

    2011-04-15

    A new series of imidazopyridine CB2 agonists is described. Structural optimization improved CB2/CB1 selectivity in this series and conferred physical properties that facilitated high in vivo exposure, both centrally and peripherally. Administration of a highly selective CB2 agonist in a rat model of analgesia was ineffective despite substantial CNS exposure, while administration of a moderately selective CB2/CB1 agonist exhibited significant analgesic effects.

  17. Perioperative analgesic requirements in severely obese adolescents and young adults undergoing laparoscopic versus robotic-assisted gastric sleeve resection

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    Anita Joselyn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: One of the major advantages for patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery as compared to an open surgical procedure is the improved recovery profile and decreased opioid requirements in the perioperative period. There are no definitive studies comparing the analgesic requirements in patients undergoing two different types of minimally invasive procedure. This study retrospectively compares the perioperative analgesic requirements in severely obese adolescents and young adults undergoing laparoscopic versus robotic-assisted, laparoscopic gastric sleeve resection. Materials and Methods: With Institutional Review Board approval, the medication administration records of all severely obese patients who underwent gastric sleeve resection were retrospectively reviewed. Intra-operative analgesic and adjuvant medications administered, postoperative analgesic requirements, and visual analog pain scores were compared between those undergoing a laparoscopic procedure versus a robotic-assisted procedure. Results: This study cohort included a total of 28 patients who underwent gastric sleeve resection surgery with 14 patients in the laparoscopic group and 14 patients in the robotic-assisted group. Intra-operative adjuvant administration of both intravenous acetaminophen and ketorolac was similar in both groups. Patients in the robotic-assisted group required significantly less opioid during the intra-operative period as compared to patients in the laparoscopic group (0.15 ± 0.08 mg/kg vs. 0.19 ± 0.06 mg/kg morphine, P = 0.024. Cumulative opioid requirements for the first 72 postoperative h were similar in both the groups (0.64 ± 0.25 vs. 0.68 ± 0.27 mg/kg morphine, P = NS. No difference was noted in the postoperative pain scores. Conclusion: Although intraoperative opioid administration was lower in the robotic-assisted group, the postoperative opioid requirements, and the postoperative pain scores were similar in both groups.

  18. Microbial and physicochemical assays of paracetamol in different brands of analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City-Yemen

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    Ali G. Al−Kaf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Contamination of pharmaceuticals with microorganisms irrespective whether they are harmful or nonpathogenic can bring about changes in physicochemical characteristics of the drugs. Aims: To assay the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of paracetamol of two hundreds samples of different brands of analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City, Yemen. Methods: Total viable aerobic count, type of isolated microorganisms, physical properties, and content of active ingredients were identified and evaluated by standard methods and techniques. The SPSS program was used to statistical analysis of variance for results obtained. Results: The total bacterial count of <10 CFU/mL and <100 CFU/mL in 179 (89.5% and 21 (10.5% samples, respectively was recorded, while the total fungal count was ≤10 CFU/mL in all analyzed syrup samples. The isolated bacteria were Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus fulvum, and Staphylococcus epidermidis while isolated fungi were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Penicillium notatum. Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger were the predominant bacteria and fungi isolated. The color results had a light red liquid with a sweet taste in the analyzed analgesic syrups. The pH values were ranged from 4.44–5.88. However, the density fluctuated from 1.149–1.184 g/mL. The paracetamol concentration as an active ingredient in the analgesic syrup was recorded from 98.19% – 106.53%. Conclusions: This finding showed that all analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City followed Pharmacopeia specifications on microbial and physicochemical qualities.

  19. Comparison of Postoperative Analgesic Efficacy of Penile Block, Caudal Block and Intravenous Paracetamol for Circumcision: A prospective Randomized Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Hakan Haliloglu; Mehmet Ilker Gokce; Semih Tangal; Mehmet Salih Boga; Hakan Tapar; Ebru Aladag

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the postoperative analgesic efficacy of penile block, caudal block and intravenous paracetamol administration following circumcision. Materials and Methods In this prospective randomized study a total of 159 patients underwent circumcision under general anesthesia at urology clinic of Ufuk University Faculty of Medicine and Sorgun State Hospital between May 2012 and September 2012. The patients were randomized to three groups to receive penile block (Group 1), caudal blo...

  20. Analgesic effectiveness of the association of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and cryotherapy for chronic low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu,Eliziete Almeida de; Santos, Jean Douglas Moura dos; Ventura,Patrícia Lima

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and cryotherapy are physical therapy resources individually used, since there is the possibility of interaction between TENS and cryotherapy if they are associated. This study aimed at evaluating the analgesic effectiveness of the association or not of TENS and cryotherapy to relieve chronic low back pain. METHOD: Clinical trial involving six chronic low back pain patients distributed in three groups: cryotherapy, T...

  1. The analgesic effect of orexin-A in a murine model of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Satoshi; Shimoyama, Naohito; Shimoyama, Megumi

    2017-02-01

    Orexins are neuropeptides that are localized to neurons in the lateral and dorsal hypothalamus but its receptors are distributed to many different regions of the central nervous system. Orexins are implicated in a variety of physiological functions including sleep regulation, energy homeostats, and stress reactions. Furthermore, orexins administered exogenously have been shown to have analgesic effects in animal models. A type of intractable pain in patients is pain due to chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Several chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of malignant diseases induce dose-limiting neuropathic pain that compromises patients' quality of life. Here, we examined the analgesic effect of orexin-A in a murine model of CIPN, and compared it with the effect of duloxetine, the only drug recommended for the treatment of CIPN pain in patients. CIPN was induced in male BALB/c mice by repeated intraperitoneal injection of oxaliplatin, a platinum chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. Neuropathic mechanical allodynia was assessed by the von Frey test, and the effect on acute thermal pain was assessed by the tail flick test. Intracerebroventricularly administered orexin-A dose-dependently attenuated oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia and increased tail flick latencies. Oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia was completely reversed by orexin-A at a low dose that did not increase tail flick latency. Duloxetine only partially reversed mechanical allodynia and had no effect on tail flick latency. The analgesic effect of orexin-A on oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia was completely antagonized by prior intraperitoneal injection of SB-408124 (orexin type-1 receptor antagonist), but not by prior intraperitoneal injection of TCS-OX2-29 (orexin type-2 receptor antagonist). Our findings suggest that orexin-A is more potent than duloxetine in relieving pain CIPN pain and its analgesic effect is

  2. Analgesic and uterine relaxant effects of isoliquiritigenin, a flavone from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yulu; Wu, Debin; Sun, Zhen; Yang, Jing; Chai, Hongyan; Tang, Li; Guo, Yue

    2012-09-01

    Shaoyao-gancao-tang, a Chinese medicinal formula consisting of peony and licorice has been used for the treatment of dysmenorrhea for thousands of years. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the analgesic and uterine relaxant effects of isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra (a type of licorice). In vitro, isoliquiritigenin caused concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous contraction of isolated rat uterus and the contraction induced by various types of stimulants, such as acetylcholine (Ach, 10 mM), KCl (40 mM) and oxytocin (1 mU/mL). The uterine contractile response to cumulative concentrations of CaCl₂ was blocked by 0.1 and 1 mM of isoliquiritigenin. The isoliquiritigenin-induced relaxation was partly inhibited by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor Nv-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME, 100 mM) and the COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor indomethacin (10mM). In vivo, isoliquiritigenin could cause a significant reduction in the acetic acid-induced writhing response and hot-plate test at the high dose. These results indicate that isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra, not only has a spasmolytic effect on uterine contraction, which is in relation to Ca²⁺ channels, NOS and COX, but also an effective activity in reducing pain.

  3. Analgesic and Antioxidant Activities of Algerian Retama raetam (Forssk. Webb & Berthel Extracts

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    Samah Djeddi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Part of this work deals with t he isolation and structure elucidation of the main polar secondary metabolites of the aerial parts of Retama raetam (Forssk. Webb & Berthel, as well as the evaluation of their potential analgesic properties , while the rest deals with the antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of roots, stem, fruits and flowers of the plant . It was found that the isoflavones g enistein 1, 6-hydroxygenistein 2, 3'-O-methylorobol 3, pratensein 4, biochanin A 8, the flavones 6-hydroxyapigenin 7 and luteolin 5, the flavonol kaempferol 6,as well as the phenolic compound p-coumaric acid 9 reduce significantly the pain at a concentration dose of 1 mg/kg. The most active compounds were 3 and 8 (86.19% and 75.23%, respectively. The obtained aqueous extracts of R. raetam were also evaluated for their antioxidant activities using two different photometric methods; the results revealed that all extracts exerted very low free radical scavenging activity compared to the well-known butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT and lower hydrogen peroxide blocking activity than positive control gallic acid.

  4. Electroacupuncture Reduces Postoperative Pain and Analgesic Consumption in Patients Undergoing Thoracic Surgery: A Randomized Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tongyu; Xu, Jianjun; Ma, Wen; Zhou, Jia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on postoperative pain management in patients undergoing thoracic surgery. A randomized study was conducted. Ninety-two thoracic surgical patients were randomly divided into an EA group and a sham group. Postoperative intravenous analgesia was applied with a half dose of the conventional drug concentration in both groups. In the EA group, EA treatment was administered for three consecutive days after the surgery with 6 sessions of 30 min each. Compared with the sham group, patients in the EA group had a lower visual analogue scale (VAS) score at 2, 24, 48, and 72 hours and consumed less analgesic after surgery. The incidence of opioid-related adverse effects of nausea was lower in the EA group. The time to first flatus and defecation was also shorter in the EA group. Furthermore, the plasma β-endorphin (β-EP) level was higher by radioimmunoassay and the plasma 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) level was lower in the EA group by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay during the first 72 hr after thoracic surgery. Therefore, EA is suitable as an adjunct treatment for postoperative pain management after thoracic surgery. PMID:27073400

  5. Analgesic Neural Circuits Are Activated by Electroacupuncture at Two Sets of Acupoints

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    Man-Li Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate analgesic neural circuits activated by electroacupuncture (EA at different sets of acupoints in the brain, goats were stimulated by EA at set of Baihui-Santai acupoints or set of Housanli acupoints for 30 min. The pain threshold was measured using the potassium iontophoresis method. The levels of c-Fos were determined with Streptavidin-Biotin Complex immunohistochemistry. The results showed pain threshold induced by EA at set of Baihui-Santai acupoints was 44.74%±4.56% higher than that by EA at set of Housanli acupoints (32.64%±5.04%. Compared with blank control, EA at two sets of acupoints increased c-Fos expression in the medial septal nucleus (MSN, the arcuate nucleus (ARC, the nucleus amygdala basalis (AB, the lateral habenula nucleus (HL, the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (vlPAG, the locus coeruleus (LC, the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM, the pituitary gland, and spinal cord dorsal horn (SDH. Compared with EA at set of Housanli points, EA at set of Baihui-Santai points induced increased c-Fos expression in AB but decrease in MSN, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, HL, and SDH. It suggests that ARC-PAG-NRM/LC-SDH and the hypothalamus-pituitary may be the common activated neural pathways taking part in EA-induced analgesia at the two sets of acupoints.

  6. Effect of analgesics and their derivatives on antibiotic resistance of environmental microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapal, L P; Morse, A N

    2009-01-01

    This research is a preliminary study conducted to determine the effects of aspirin (acetyl-salicylic acid) and salicylic acid (analgesics and their derivatives) on the antibiotic resistance of ammonia oxidizing bacterium (AOB) (a non-pathogenic environmental microbe) cultured from the Texas Tech University-Water Recovery System that treats a space related wastewater for NASA. The effect of salicylic acid was investigated by obtaining the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) of antibiotics (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid) in the presence of aspirin and salicylic acid. The possibility of transfer of resistance genes between unrelated species was investigated by analyzing the similarity of the AcrA protein (a multi-drug efflux protein) in Nitrosomonas europaea, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. The protein alignment analysis was done using ExPASy, a proteomics tool. The results of this preliminary study indicated that the antibiotic resistance of AOBs increased in the presence of aspirin and salicylic acid and similarities in the AcrA protein of different species indicated the likelihood of possible resistance transfer between the species. This paper high lights the importance of research and further investigation on antibiotic resistance and resistance transfer, highlighting the number of parameters that should be considered while assessing antibiotic resistance in environmental samples.

  7. Intracerebroventricular administration of N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG peptidase inhibitors is analgesic in inflammatory pain

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    Kozikowski Alan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The peptide neurotransmitter N-Acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG is the third most prevalent transmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. Local, intrathecal and systemic administration of inhibitors of enzymes that inactivate NAAG decrease responses to inflammatory pain in rat models. Consistent with NAAG's activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors, this analgesia is blocked by a group II antagonist. Results This research aimed at determining if analgesia obtained following systemic administration of NAAG peptidase inhibitors is due to NAAG activation of group II mGluRs in brain circuits that mediate perception of inflammatory pain. NAAG and NAAG peptidase inhibitors, ZJ43 and 2-PMPA, were microinjected into a lateral ventricle prior to injection of formalin in the rat footpad. Each treatment reduced the early and late phases of the formalin-induced inflammatory pain response in a dose-dependent manner. The group II mGluR antagonist reversed these analgesic effects consistent with the conclusion that analgesia was mediated by increasing NAAG levels and the peptide's activation of group II receptors. Conclusion These data contribute to proof of the concept that NAAG peptidase inhibition is a novel therapeutic approach to inflammatory pain and that these inhibitors achieve analgesia by elevating synaptic levels of NAAG within pain processing circuits in brain.

  8. Seasonal variation and analgesic properties of different parts from Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) grown in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Christiane Regina; de Souza, Marcia Maria; Machado, Marina da Silva; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Navarro, Dionezine; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Delle Monache, Franco; Niero, Rivaldo

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the seasonal variation of curcumenol (1) and dihydrocurdione (2), two active terpenoids from different parts (roots, mother rhizome and rugous rhizome) of Curcuma zedoaria grown in Brazil. The analysis was carried out by high resolution gas chromatography, using external standards for determination. The results showed that both terpenoids are present in all the parts studied. However, C. zedoaria exhibited about three times more terpenoids in the mother rhizome in autumn than in other parts and seasons studied. The antinociceptive activity of the dichloromethane extracts from different parts and collected in different seasons was studied using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction model in mice. The extracts obtained from mother rhizome collected in autumn and winter at doses of 10 mg/kg body weight, i.p., caused considerable antinociceptive activity inhibiting 91.1 and 93.4% of the abdominal constrictions, respectively, whereas compounds 1 and 2 caused inhibitions of 64.0 and 46.0%, respectively. These results confirm that both compounds contribute to explain the antinociceptive effect of the plant but suggest that other compounds are also acting as analgesics.

  9. Non-analgesic effects of opioids: opioids and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jennifer A; Opper, Susan E; Agarwal, Sonali; Fibuch, Eugene E

    2012-01-01

    Opioids are among the oldest known and most widely used analgesics. The application of opioids has expanded over the last few decades, especially in the treatment of chronic non-malignant pain. This upsurge in opioid use has been accompanied by the increasingly recognized occurrence of opioid-associated endocrinopathy. This may arise after exposure to enteral, parenteral, or neuraxial opioids. Opioid-associated endocrinopathy consists primarily of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction and may manifest with symptoms of hypogonadism, adrenal dysfunction, and other hormonal disturbances. Additionally, opioid related endocrine dysfunction may be coupled with such disorders as osteoporosis and mood disturbances including depression. Undesirable changes in pain sensitivity such as opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and reduced potency of opioid analgesia may also be potential consequences of chronic opioid consumption. Few studies to date have been able to establish what degree of opioid exposure, in terms of dose or duration of therapy, may predispose patients to opioid-associated endocrinopathy. This article will review the currently available literature concerning opioid-associated endocrinopathy and will provide recommendations for the evaluation, monitoring, and management of opioid-associated endocrinopathy and its other accompanying undesired effects.

  10. Analgesic effects of intramuscular administration of meloxicam in Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with experimentally induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Gretchen A; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Klauer, Julia M; Medlin, Scott E; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE-To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of meloxicam in parrots with experimentally induced arthritis, with extent of weight bearing and rotational perch walking used as outcome measures. ANIMALS-15 adult Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis). PROCEDURES-Arthritis was experimentally induced via intra-articular injection of microcrystalline sodium urate suspension (MSU) into 1 intertarsal joint. Parrots were treated in a crossover design. Five treatments were compared as follows: meloxicam (4 dosages) at 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg (IM, q 12 h, 3 times) and 0.03 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (IM, q 12 h, 3 times). The first treatment was given 6 hours following MSU administration. Lameness was assessed by use of a biomechanical perch to record weight-bearing load and a rotational perch to determine dexterity. Feces were collected to assay for occult blood. RESULTS-Parrots treated with meloxicam at 1.0 mg/kg had significantly better return to normal (baseline) weight bearing on the arthritic pelvic limb, compared with control parrots or parrots treated with meloxicam at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/kg. All fecal samples collected from parrots following induction of arthritis and treatment with meloxicam had negative results for occult blood. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Meloxicam administered at 1.0 mg/kg, IM, every 12 hours effectively relieved arthritic pain in parrots.

  11. Spectrophotometric determination of some analgesic drugs in pharmaceutical formulations using N-bromosuccinimide as an oxidant

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    Akram M. El-Didamony

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available New sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric methods for the determination of four analgesic drugs namely, nalbuphine (NALB, naltrexone (NALT, morphine (MORF and tramadol (TRAM in pharmaceutical formulations were developed and optimized. The proposed methods involve the addition of a measured excess of N-bromosuccinimide in acid medium followed by determination of unreacted NBS by reacting with either a fixed amount of methyl orange and measuring the absorbance at 508 nm (Method A, or orange G and measuring the absorbance at 478 nm (Method B. In both methods, the amount of NBS reacted corresponds to the amount of drugs. Under the optimum conditions, Beer’s law limit, molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity were calculated. The limits of detection and quantification were also reported for both methods. Statistical evaluation of the methods was examined by determining intra-day and inter-day precisions. The methods were successfully applied to the assay of drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations. No interference was observed from common additives and the validity of the methods was tested.

  12. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic components from "hierba santa," a traditional medicine in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Marii; Otsuka, Mayumi; Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Mikio; Shiota, Tetsuo; Satake, Motoyoshi; Okuyama, Emi

    2009-04-01

    "Hierba santa," a Peruvian herbal medicine, is used to alleviate many symptoms, including headache, hemorrhoids, fever, and rheumatism. Several Cestrum species are said to be the origin of hierba santa. Three lots of hierba santa: Cestrum auriculatum (herb 1 and herb 2) and C. hediundinum (herb 3), which were purchased from Peruvian markets at Cuzco (Andes area) and Equitos (Amazon area), respectively, were examined for their pharmacological activities and active components. Herbs 1-3 showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in the in vivo writhing inhibition test in mouse and inhibited prostaglandin E(1)-, E(2)-, or ACh-induced contractions of guinea pig ileum in the Magnus method. Activity-based separation of each extract yielded cestrumines A and B, cestrusides A and B, a mixture of (+)- and (-)-pinoresinol glucosides, nicotiflorin, rutin, sinapoyl glucose, ursolic acid, beta-sitosteryl glucoside, and 2-sec-butyl-4,6-dihydroxyphenyl-beta-D: -glucopyranoside. Among them, cestrumine A and cestrusides A and B are new compounds. All three lots of hierba santa do not contain exactly the same active components.

  13. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lavender essential oil

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    GABRIELA L. DA SILVA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the antinociceptive, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of compounds found in the lavender essential oil (LEO, however to date, there is still lack of substantial data. The objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of lavender essential oil. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical decolorization assay was used for antioxidant activity evaluation. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested using two models of acute inflammation: carrageenan-induced pleurisy and croton oil-induced ear edema. The antinociceptive activity was tested using the pain model induced by formalin. LEO has antioxidant activity, which is dose-dependent response. The inflammatory response evoked by carrageenan and by croton oil was reduced through the pre-treatment of animals with LEO. In the pleurisy model, the drug used as positive control, dexamethasone, was more efficacious. However, in the ear swelling, the antiedematogenic effect of the oil was similar to that observed for dexamethasone. In the formalin test, LEO consistently inhibited spontaneous nociception and presented a similar effect to that of tramadol. The results of this study reveal (in vivo the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of LEO and demonstrates its important therapeutic potential.

  14. Uliginosin B, a Possible New Analgesic Drug, Acts by Modulating the Adenosinergic System

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    Eveline Dischkaln Stolz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Uliginosin B (ULI is a natural acylphloroglucinol that has been proposed as a new molecular scaffold for developing analgesic and antidepressant drugs. Its effects seem to be due to its ability to increase monoamines in the synaptic cleft by inhibiting their neuronal uptake without binding to their respective transporters, but its exact mode of action is still unknown. Considering the importance of the purinergic system to pain transmission and its modulation by monoamines availability, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of adenosinergic signaling in antinociceptive effect of uliginosin B. The selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX and the selective A2A antagonist ZM 241385 prevented the effect of ULI in the hot-plate test in mice. Pretreatment with inhibitors of adenosine reuptake (dipyridamole or adenosine deaminase (EHNA did not affect the ULI effect. On the other hand, its effect was completely prevented by an inhibitor of ecto-5′-nucleotidase (AMPCP. This finding was confirmed ex vivo, whereby ULI treatment increased AMP and ATP hydrolysis in spinal cord and cerebral cortex synaptosomes, respectively. Altogether, these data indicate that activation of A1 and A2A receptors and the modulation of ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity contribute to the antinociceptive effect of ULI.

  15. Human Mendelian pain disorders: a key to discovery and validation of novel analgesics.

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    Goldberg, Y P; Pimstone, S N; Namdari, R; Price, N; Cohen, C; Sherrington, R P; Hayden, M R

    2012-10-01

    We have utilized a novel application of human genetics, illuminating the important role that rare genetic disorders can play in the development of novel drugs that may be of relevance for the treatment of both rare and common diseases. By studying a very rare Mendelian disorder of absent pain perception, congenital indifference to pain, we have defined Nav1.7 (endocded by SCN9A) as a critical and novel target for analgesic development. Strong human validation has emerged with SCN9A gain-of-function mutations causing inherited erythromelalgia (IEM) and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder, both Mendelian disorder of spontaneous or easily evoked pain. Furthermore, variations in the Nav1.7 channel also modulate pain perception in healthy subjects as well as in painful conditions such as osteoarthritis and Parkinson disease. On the basis of this, we have developed a novel compound (XEN402) that exhibits potent, voltage-dependent block of Nav1.7. In a small pilot study, we showed that XEN402 blocks Nav1.7 mediated pain associated with IEM thereby demonstrating the use of rare genetic disorders with mutant target channels as a novel approach to rapid proof-of-concept. Our approach underscores the critical role that human genetics can play by illuminating novel and critical pathways pertinent for drug discovery.

  16. Analgesic, Anxiolytic and Anaesthetic Effects of Melatonin: New Potential Uses in Pediatrics

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    Lucia Marseglia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous melatonin is used in a number of situations, first and foremost in the treatment of sleep disorders and jet leg. However, the hypnotic, antinociceptive, and anticonvulsant properties of melatonin endow this neurohormone with the profile of a drug that modulates effects of anesthetic agents, supporting its potential use at different stages during anesthetic procedures, in both adults and children. In light of these properties, melatonin has been administered to children undergoing diagnostic procedures requiring sedation or general anesthesia, such as magnetic resonance imaging, auditory brainstem response tests and electroencephalogram. Controversial data support the use of melatonin as anxiolytic and antinociceptive agents in pediatric patients undergoing surgery. The aim of this review was to evaluate available evidence relating to efficacy and safety of melatonin as an analgesic and as a sedative agent in children. Melatonin and its analogs may have a role in antinociceptive therapies and as an alternative to midazolam in premedication of adults and children, although its effectiveness is still controversial and available data are clearly incomplete.

  17. Analgesic effect of high intensity focused ultrasound in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinjin Tan; Jian Chen; Li Ren; Ruilu Lin; Zailian Chen

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic ef ect of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Methods:A total of 106 patients with advanced pancreatic cancer accompanied by abdominal pain were treated by HIFU. Pain intensities and quantities of morphine consumption before and after treatment were observed and compared. Results:The average pain intensities before treatment, and at d3, d7 after treatment were 5.80 ± 2.14, 2.73 ± 2.68, 2.45 ± 2.43 respectively (P<0.01). Fifty-nine cases (55.7%) got to extremely ef ective, and 29 cases (27.4%) ef ective. Total ef icient rate was 83.0%. The average quantities of morphine consumption before and after treatment in the patients with grade III pain were 114.9 ± 132.5 mg, 16.8 ± 39.7 mg each person everyday respectively (P<0.01). Conclusion:HIFU can relieve pain suf ered by patients with pancreatic cancer ef ectively. It is a new adjuvant treatment for pancreatic cancer pain.

  18. The effects of two analgesic regimes on behavior after abdominal surgery in Steller sea lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kristen A; Horning, Markus; Mellish, Jo-Ann E; Weary, Daniel M

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the effects of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment protocols on the behavioral responses of juvenile Steller sea lions after abdominal surgery. Sea lions were randomly assigned to one of two treatments designed to control post-operative pain. The flunixin group (n=6) received flunixin meglumine (1mg/kg) administered as a single intramuscular (IM) injection before extubation from surgery. The carprofen group (n=5) received carprofen (4.4 mg/kg) as an IM injection before extubation, then orally at 24, 48 and 72 h after surgery. Seven behaviors related to post-operative pain were monitored by observers, blinded to treatment, for a total of 10 days (3 days pre-, day of surgery, and 6 days post-surgery). All seven behaviors changed after surgery regardless of NSAID treatment, two of which returned to baseline within 6 days of surgery. Only one behavior was mildly affected by analgesic treatment: sea lions in the carprofen group tended to spend less time lying down in Days 1-3 following surgery (i.e., the days which they received oral carprofen). These results suggested that neither treatment, at the dose administered, was effective in controlling pain in the days following this surgery.

  19. Structure-based discovery of opioid analgesics with reduced side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manglik, Aashish; Lin, Henry; Aryal, Dipendra K; McCorvy, John D; Dengler, Daniela; Corder, Gregory; Levit, Anat; Kling, Ralf C; Bernat, Viachaslau; Hübner, Harald; Huang, Xi-Ping; Sassano, Maria F; Giguère, Patrick M; Löber, Stefan; Da Duan; Scherrer, Grégory; Kobilka, Brian K; Gmeiner, Peter; Roth, Bryan L; Shoichet, Brian K

    2016-09-08

    Morphine is an alkaloid from the opium poppy used to treat pain. The potentially lethal side effects of morphine and related opioids-which include fatal respiratory depression-are thought to be mediated by μ-opioid-receptor (μOR) signalling through the β-arrestin pathway or by actions at other receptors. Conversely, G-protein μOR signalling is thought to confer analgesia. Here we computationally dock over 3 million molecules against the μOR structure and identify new scaffolds unrelated to known opioids. Structure-based optimization yields PZM21-a potent Gi activator with exceptional selectivity for μOR and minimal β-arrestin-2 recruitment. Unlike morphine, PZM21 is more efficacious for the affective component of analgesia versus the reflexive component and is devoid of both respiratory depression and morphine-like reinforcing activity in mice at equi-analgesic doses. PZM21 thus serves as both a probe to disentangle μOR signalling and a therapeutic lead that is devoid of many of the side effects of current opioids.

  20. Analgesic Effects and the Mechanisms of Anti-Inflammation of Hispolon in Mice

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    Heng-Yuan Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hispolon, an active ingredient in the fungi Phellinus linteus was evaluated with analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Treatment of male ICR mice with hispolon (10 and 20 mg/kg significantly inhibited the numbers of acetic acid-induced writhing response. Also, our result showed that hispolon (20 mg/kg significantly inhibited the formalin-induced pain in the later phase (P<.01. In the anti-inflammatory test, hispolon (20 mg/kg decreased the paw edema at the fourth and fifth hour after λ-carrageenin (Carr administration, and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione reductase (GRx in the liver tissue. We also demonstrated that hispolon significantly attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA level in the edema paw at the fifth hour after Carr injection. Hispolon (10 and 20 mg/kg decreased the nitric oxide (NO levels on both the edema paw and serum level at the fifth hour after Carr injection. Also, hispolon (10 and 20 mg/kg diminished the serum TNF-α at the fifth hour after Carr injection. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of hispolon might be related to the decrease in the level of MDA in the edema paw by increasing the activities of SOD, GPx and GRx in the liver. It probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects through the suppression of TNF-α and NO.