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Sample records for analgesia pca intravenosa

  1. Analgesia PCA por catéter interesternocleidomastoideo frente analgesia PCA intravenosa tras cirugía proximal de húmero Continuous Intersternocleidomastoid PCA analgesia Vs intravenous PCA analgesia after proximal shoulder surgery

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    R. Ortiz de la Tabla

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Comparar la eficacia analgésica e incidencia de efectos adversos entre el bloqueo interesternocleidomastoideo continuo y una pauta analgésica intravenosa tras cirugía proximal de húmero. Material y Métodos: Estudio prospectivo descriptivo no aleatorizado de pacientes intervenidos de cirugía de hombro bajo anestesia general con fentanilo intravenoso como analgesia intraoperatoria. Al grupo 1 se realizó bloqueo interesternocleidomastoideo con ropivacaína 0,5% 0,4 mL Kg-1 y en URPA se comenzó una perfusión de ropivacaína 0,2% 5mL h-1, con bolos PCA 5 mL y tiempo de cierre de 30 minutos. Al grupo 2, a su llegada a la URPA se administró una dosis carga de metamizol 2 gr, tramadol 100 mgr y ondansetrón 4 mgr, seguido por una perfusión de metamizol 0,16%, tramadol 0,04% y ondansetrón 0,0016% a 1,5 mL h-1 bolos PCA 1 mL y tiempo de cierre 20 minutos. La variable principal fue la valoración del dolor postoperatorio, en reposo y movimiento, mediante escala verbal numérica de 0 (no dolor a 10 (máximo dolor y la aparición de efectos indeseables. Resultados: Se incluyeron 38 pacientes en el grupo 1 y 39 en el 2. La valoración del dolor postoperatorio puso de manifiesto valores más elevados en las primeras 24 horas al movimiento y a las 48 horas, tanto en reposo como al movimiento, en el grupo 2 (pObjectives: We have compared results in postoperative analgesia and incidence of side effects between a continuous intersternocleidotnastoid blockade and intravenous analgesia after proximal shoulder surgery. Methods: In a prospective no randomized study on patients scheduled for unilateral shoulder surgery under general anaesthesia with intravenous fentanil as intraoperative analgesia. In group 1, a continuous intersternocleidomastoid blockade was performed with a bolus of ropivacaine 0,5% 0,4 mL/kg before surgery and a postoperative patient-controlled analgesia (PCA infusión pump of 0,2% ropivacaine (5ml/h, PCA bolus 5 mi / 30

  2. Analgesia postoperatoria en la queiloplastia del lactante. Estudio comparativo: bloqueo infraorbitario intraoral bilateral con bupivacaína 0,25% con adrenalina vs. analgesia intravenosa con tramadol

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    J. A. Delgado

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Comparar la eficacia y duración del bloqueo del nervio infraorbitario intraoral bilateral frente a la analgesia intravenosa convencional con tramadol en el control del dolor postoperatorio en lactantes sometidos a queiloplastia por labio leporino. Material y métodos: Tras la realización de una adecuada valoración preanestésica y la obtención del consentimiento informado de los padres, realizamos un estudio prospectivo, controlado aleatorizado y doble ciego en 25 niños, ASA I, con edades comprendidas entre los 3-10 meses, tras obtener el consentimiento informado de los padres, propuestos para cirugía correctora de labio leporino (queiloplastia. Todos ellos fueron premeditados, media hora antes de la intervención quirúrgica, con midazolan oral (0,5 mg.kg-1 y, en todos los casos, se practicó la técnica anestésica y el bloqueo nervioso por el mismo anestesiólogo, que consistió en una inducción inhalatoria con sevoflurano previa a la venoclisis. La anestesia general se completó con atropina, fentanilo y rocuronio a las dosis establecidas que se administraron, por vía intravenosa, previamente a la intubación endotraqueal y la ventilación mecánica. Los pacientes fueron divididos aleatoriamente en dos grupos: Grupo A (n = 12: se administró 1-2 ml de bupivacaína al 0,25% con adrenalina para el bloqueo infraorbitario bilateral y solución salina intravenosa como sustitutivo de la analgesia intravenosa con tramadol. Grupo B (n = 13: se administró solución salina para el bloqueo nervioso, en lugar de la bupivacaína, y tramadol intravenoso (1,5 mg.kg-1 como analgesia postoperatoria. En todos ellos se realizó anestesia general con sevoflurano y fentanilo "a demanda" según parámetros convencionales (tensión arterial, frecuencia cardiaca, tamaño pupilar, etc.. Durante sus primeras seis horas de estancia en Reanimación se valoró la duración de la analgesia, grado de disconfort e intensidad dolorosa. Además se anot

  3. Estudio descriptivo de la analgesia obtenida durante el trabajo de parto con PCA de remifentanilo: modelo británico

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    C. Morales Muñoz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la analgesia epidural obstétrica continúa siendo el "gold-standard" para controlar el dolor durante el trabajo de parto, pero en determinadas ocasiones la técnica está contraindicada o la analgesia es incompleta. El remifentanilo es un opioide potente de rápida acción y vida media ultracorta, que se adapta perfectamente a la dinámica del parto. La coordinación entre el comienzo de las contracciones y la administración del fármaco mediante un dispositivo PCA hacen que esta técnica pueda ser considerada de elección para el alivio de dolor durante el parto y no solo como alternativa a la epidural. Objetivo: este estudio pretende valorar la eficacia y seguridad en el parto del remifentanilo administrado por vía intravenosa, así como la satisfacción materna de la analgesia recibida. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo prospectivo basado en el análisis de la recogida de datos realizado por los investigadores durante el parto donde se recoge el dolor durante la dilatación y el expulsivo antes y después de la aplicación de la PCA de remifentanilo, así como las complicaciones y la incidencia de efectos secundarios. Paralelamente se realiza una encuesta de satisfacción materna de la técnica recibida y su vivencia personal. Resultados: se han recogido un total de 32 casos durante el periodo de estudio (6 meses. Todas las pacientes han presentado una reducción de dolor manifestado por una disminución del EVA respecto del dolor basal de 5,9 puntos en los primeros minutos, 4,6 puntos en completa y 3,4 en el expulsivo. No se han registrado complicaciones materno-fetales importantes derivadas de la técnica. La satisfacción materna ha sido alta, volviendo incluso a repetir la técnica en un 90 % de los casos. Conclusiones: la PCA de remifentanilo ha demostrado ser efectiva y segura como analgesia obstétrica. Es por ello que la PCA ha teniendo una amplia aceptación entre matronas, ginecólogos y anestesiólogos en

  4. Stability of piritramide in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remane, D; Scriba, G; Meissner, W; Hartmann, M

    2009-06-01

    For patient controlled analgesia, syringes with solutions of 1.5 mg/ml piritramide in 0.9% aqueous sodium chloride are used. The physical and chemical stability for dilutions of the commercially available preparation of piritramide is limited up to 72 hours by the manufacturer. Since application duration for patient-controlled analgesia can exceed that limited time, stability was investigated by HPLC. Our results show that these solutions are chemically stable over a time period of 60 days.

  5. Age-related postoperative morphine requirements in children following major surgery--an assessment using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Henneberg, Steen Winther; Hole, P

    1996-01-01

    To investigate if small children require less morphine for postoperative analgesia than do older children and adolescents we analysed the morphine consumption pattern of 28 consecutive children on intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) following major surgery. The median age-specific morp...

  6. Analgesia postoperatoria en la queiloplastia del lactante. Estudio comparativo: bloqueo infraorbitario intraoral bilateral con bupivacaína 0,25% con adrenalina vs. analgesia intravenosa con tramadol Postoperative analgesia for the management of chieloplasty in the breast-fed baby. Comparative study: bilateral intraoral blockade of the infraorbitary nerve with bupivacaine 0.25% plus adrenaline versus intravenous analgesia with tramadol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Delgado

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Comparar la eficacia y duración del bloqueo del nervio infraorbitario intraoral bilateral frente a la analgesia intravenosa convencional con tramadol en el control del dolor postoperatorio en lactantes sometidos a queiloplastia por labio leporino. Material y métodos: Tras la realización de una adecuada valoración preanestésica y la obtención del consentimiento informado de los padres, realizamos un estudio prospectivo, controlado aleatorizado y doble ciego en 25 niños, ASA I, con edades comprendidas entre los 3-10 meses, tras obtener el consentimiento informado de los padres, propuestos para cirugía correctora de labio leporino (queiloplastia. Todos ellos fueron premeditados, media hora antes de la intervención quirúrgica, con midazolan oral (0,5 mg.kg-1 y, en todos los casos, se practicó la técnica anestésica y el bloqueo nervioso por el mismo anestesiólogo, que consistió en una inducción inhalatoria con sevoflurano previa a la venoclisis. La anestesia general se completó con atropina, fentanilo y rocuronio a las dosis establecidas que se administraron, por vía intravenosa, previamente a la intubación endotraqueal y la ventilación mecánica. Los pacientes fueron divididos aleatoriamente en dos grupos: Grupo A (n = 12: se administró 1-2 ml de bupivacaína al 0,25% con adrenalina para el bloqueo infraorbitario bilateral y solución salina intravenosa como sustitutivo de la analgesia intravenosa con tramadol. Grupo B (n = 13: se administró solución salina para el bloqueo nervioso, en lugar de la bupivacaína, y tramadol intravenoso (1,5 mg.kg-1 como analgesia postoperatoria. En todos ellos se realizó anestesia general con sevoflurano y fentanilo "a demanda" según parámetros convencionales (tensión arterial, frecuencia cardiaca, tamaño pupilar, etc.. Durante sus primeras seis horas de estancia en Reanimación se valoró la duración de la analgesia, grado de disconfort e intensidad dolorosa. Además se anot

  7. Age-related postoperative morphine requirements in children following major surgery--an assessment using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T G; Henneberg, S W; Hole, P

    1996-01-01

    To investigate if small children require less morphine for postoperative analgesia than do older children and adolescents we analysed the morphine consumption pattern of 28 consecutive children on intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) following major surgery. The median age......-specific morphine requirements between 2 comparable groups of children aged 4-8 years and 9-15 years were compared. We used the Pharmacia-Deltec pump in all children and the same settings: a bolus dose of 25 microgram/kg, an 8 minutes lockout interval and no background infusion. In addition, all children received...... paracetamol as a supplemently to the morphine. In this study children aged 4-8 years had significantly higher total postoperative morphine requirements compared to children aged 9-15 years, i.e. 11.6 microgram/kg/hour and 7.5 microgram/kg/hour respectively (p = 0.037). Hence, we conclude that children...

  8. Analgesia invasiva domiciliaria en el manejo del dolor postoperatorio en cirugía mayor ambulatoria mediante bombas elastoméricas intravenosas Home invasive analgesia in the management of postoperative pain alter outpatient major surgery using intravenous elastomeric pumps

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    R. Rodríguez de la Torre

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el dolor postoperatorio moderado-severo sigue siendo un problema en cirugía ambulatoria, ya que provoca problemas de flujo de pacientes, retrasando el alta de los pacientes, siendo uno de los principales motivos de reingreso en los hospitales, y por tanto un importante indicador de calidad de estas Unidades. El empleo de técnicas analgésicas invasivas domiciliarias, en todos sus regímenes, puede controlar el dolor postoperatorio en estas intervenciones y permitir incluirlas en los programas de cirugía ambulatoria. Objetivos: el objetivo de nuestro estudio es valorar la viabilidad y la seguridad de la utilización de bombas de perfusión continua elastoméricas para la administración de analgesia endovenosa continua domiciliaria, a la vez que valorar la eficacia analgésica y el grado de satisfacción de los pacientes intervenidos en régimen ambulatorio. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo de 463 pacientes. Una vez intervenidos bajo estrategia de analgesia multimodal, se les coloca dos tipos diferentes de bombas elastoméricas endovenosas (elastómero de dexketoprofeno o de metamizol. La intensidad del dolor, para evaluar la necesidad de analgesia de rescate, se cuantifica con la escala visual analógica o con la escala verbal simple. En el domicilio (24 horas tras la cirugía, la Unidad de Atención Domiciliaria revisa los efectos secundarios, alteraciones del sueño, intensidad del dolor, necesidad de analgesia de rescate y grado de satisfacción. Resultados: un 69% de los pacientes presentaron dolor de carácter leve o ausencia de dolor tras la intervención y únicamente 16 de los 463 pacientes presentaron dolor de carácter severo. El 27% de los pacientes necesitaron analgesia de rescate y un 9% de los pacientes presentaron efectos secundarios atribuibles a los fármacos analgésicos (4% vómitos, 2% mareos, 2,5% somnolencia y 0,5% insomnio. Ningún paciente tuvo que ser reingresado después del alta. Un 83% de

  9. Comparação de morfina administrada por via intravenosa e via epidural com/sem bupivacaína ou ropivacaína no tratamento da dor pós-toracotomia com a técnica de analgesia controlada pelo paciente

    OpenAIRE

    Esra Mercanoğlu; Zekeriyya Alanoğlu; Perihan Ekmekçi; Sacide Demiralp; Neslihan Alkış

    2013-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo randomizado, duplo-cego e prospectivo foi determinar a eficácia e os efeitos colaterais da administração por via intravenosa ou epidural de morfina, bupivacaína ou ropivacaína no tratamento da dor pós-toracotomia. MÉTODOS: Sessenta pacientes submetidos a procedimentos de toracotomia eletiva foram randomicamente alocados em quatro grupos com o uso da técnica de envelopes lacrados. Os grupos MIV, ME, MEB e MER receberam morfina controlada pelo ...

  10. Comparação de morfina administrada por via intravenosa e via epidural com/sem bupivacaína ou ropivacaína no tratamento da dor pós-toracotomia com a técnica de analgesia controlada pelo paciente

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    Esra Mercanoğlu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo randomizado, duplo-cego e prospectivo foi determinar a eficácia e os efeitos colaterais da administração por via intravenosa ou epidural de morfina, bupivacaína ou ropivacaína no tratamento da dor pós-toracotomia. MÉTODOS: Sessenta pacientes submetidos a procedimentos de toracotomia eletiva foram randomicamente alocados em quatro grupos com o uso da técnica de envelopes lacrados. Os grupos MIV, ME, MEB e MER receberam morfina controlada pelo paciente por via intravenosa, e morfina, morfina-bupivacaína e morfina- ropivacaína epidural, respectivamente. Frequência cardíaca, pressão arterial e saturação de oxigênio perioperatórias e dor pós-operatória em repouso e durante a tosse, efeitos colaterais e necessidade de analgésicos de resgate foram registrados aos 30 e 60 minutos e em duas, quatro, seis, 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas. RESULTADOS: A necessidade de sódio diclofenaco durante o estudo foi menor no grupo ME. A área sob a curva de tempo na VAS foi menor no grupo ME em comparação com o Grupo MIV, mas similar aos Grupos MEB e MER. Os escores de dor em repouso foram maiores nos tempos 12, 24, 36 e 48 horas no Grupo MIV em comparação com o Grupo ME. Os escores de dor em repouso foram maiores aos 30 e 60 minutos nos Grupos ME e MIV em comparação com o Grupo MEB. Os escores de dor durante a tosse aos 30 minutos foram maiores no grupo ME em comparação com o Grupo MEB. Não houve diferença entre os Grupos MIV e MER. CONCLUSÕES: Morfina administrada por via epidural foi mais eficaz do que por via intravenosa. A eficácia foi maior no grupo EM no período pós-operatório tardio e no Grupo MEB no período pós-operatório inicial. Concluímos que morfina administrada por via epidural foi a mais eficaz e preferida.

  11. Comparação de morfina administrada por via intravenosa e via epidural com/sem bupivacaína ou ropivacaína no tratamento da dor pós-toracotomia com a técnica de analgesia controlada pelo paciente Comparación de la morfina administrada por vía intravenosa y vía epidural con /sin bupivacaína o ropivacaína en el tratamiento del dolor pos toracotomía con la técnica de analgesia controlada por el paciente Comparison of intravenous morphine, epidural morphine with/without bupivacaine or ropivacaine in postthoracotomy pain management with patient controlled analgesia technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Mercanoğlu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo randomizado, duplo-cego e prospectivo foi determinar a eficácia e os efeitos colaterais da administração por via intravenosa ou epidural de morfina, bupivacaína ou ropivacaína no tratamento da dor pós-toracotomia. MÉTODOS: Sessenta pacientes submetidos a procedimentos de toracotomia eletiva foram randomicamente alocados em quatro grupos com o uso da técnica de envelopes lacrados. Os grupos MIV, ME, MEB e MER receberam morfina controlada pelo paciente por via intravenosa, e morfina, morfina-bupivacaína e morfina- ropivacaína epidural, respectivamente. Frequência cardíaca, pressão arterial e saturação de oxigênio perioperatórias e dor pós-operatória em repouso e durante a tosse, efeitos colaterais e necessidade de analgésicos de resgate foram registrados aos 30 e 60 minutos e em duas, quatro, seis, 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas. RESULTADOS: A necessidade de sódio diclofenaco durante o estudo foi menor no grupo ME. A área sob a curva de tempo na VAS foi menor no grupo ME em comparação com o Grupo MIV, mas similar aos Grupos MEB e MER. Os escores de dor em repouso foram maiores nos tempos 12, 24, 36 e 48 horas no Grupo MIV em comparação com o Grupo ME. Os escores de dor em repouso foram maiores aos 30 e 60 minutos nos Grupos ME e MIV em comparação com o Grupo MEB. Os escores de dor durante a tosse aos 30 minutos foram maiores no grupo ME em comparação com o Grupo MEB. Não houve diferença entre os Grupos MIV e MER. CONCLUSÕES: Morfina administrada por via epidural foi mais eficaz do que por via intravenosa. A eficácia foi maior no grupo EM no período pós-operatório tardio e no Grupo MEB no período pós-operatório inicial. Concluímos que morfina administrada por via epidural foi a mais eficaz e preferida.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El objetivo de este estudio aleatorio, doble ciego y prospectivo fue determinar la eficacia y los efectos colaterales de la administraci

  12. PCA facial expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hori, Inas H.; El-Momen, Zahraa K.; Ganoun, Ali

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. The comparative study of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) techniques namely Principal Component's analysis (PCA) and PCA with Gabor filters (GF) is done. The objective of this research is to show that PCA with Gabor filters is superior to the first technique in terms of recognition rate. To test and evaluates their performance, experiments are performed using real database by both techniques. The universally accepted five principal emotions to be recognized are: Happy, Sad, Disgust and Angry along with Neutral. The recognition rates are obtained on all the facial expressions.

  13. Bloqueio 3-em-1 prolongado versus analgesia sistêmica no tratamento da dor pós-operatória após a reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior do joelho Bloqueo 3 en 1 prolongado versus analgesia sistemica en el tratamiento del dolor postoperatorio después de la reconstrucción del ligamento cruzado anterior de la rodilla Extended three-in-one block versus intravenous analgesia for postoperative pain management after reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament of the knee

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    Víctor A. Contreras-Domínguez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio femoral contínuo (3-em-1 é usado para a analgesia pós-operatória de artroplastia de quadril e joelho com bons resultados, apresentando vantagens sobre outras técnicas de analgesia locorregional ou sistêmica e com baixa incidência de complicações. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar clinicamente a utilidade do bloqueio femoral contínuo em comparação com a analgesia por via venosa na reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior. MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo prospectivo, controlado, com 60 pacientes com estado físico ASA I. Os paciente foram divididos em dois grupos: Grupo 1 (n = 30: bloqueio femoral contínuo com infusão de bupivacaína e clonidina; Grupo 2 (n = 30: infusão por via venosa de cetoprofeno. A intervenção cirúrgica foi realizada sob raquianestesia e sedação. O tratamento da dor pós-operatória foi feito com analgesia controlada pelo paciente (PCA usando morfina. A dor pós-operatória foi registrada 2, 4, 6, 24 e 36 horas após a intervenção cirúrgica usando a Escala Visual Analógica (VAS. O consumo de morfina, a satisfação dos pacientes e as complicações também foram registradas. RESULTADOS: No Grupo 1, o VAS pós-operatório entre 4 e 48 horas após a intervenção cirúrgica foi de 21 mm ± 2 e no Grupo 2 foi de 45 mm ± 4 (p JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El bloqueo femoral continuo (tres-en-uno se usa para la analgesia postoperatoria de artroplastia de cadera y rodilla con buenos resultados, presentando ventajas sobre otras técnicas de analgesia loco regional o sistemica y con baja incidencia de complicaciones. El objetivo de este estudio fue el de evaluar clínicamente la utilidad del bloqueo femoral continuo en comparación con la analgesia intravenosa en la reconstrucción del ligamento cruzado anterior. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo controlado con 60 pacientes de estado físico ASA I. Los pacientes fueron divididos en dos grupos: Grupo 1 (n

  14. Acciones inmunofarmacológicas de las inmunoglobulinas intravenosas

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    Amaury Noda

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Se ha recorrido un largo camino en la comprensión de los mecanismos de acción relativos a la infusión de preparados de inmunoglobulinas intravenosas desde los días donde un crudo de fracción II de Cohn obtenido de plasma humano fue administrado intramuscularmente a pacientes aquejados de agammaglobulinemia de Brutton, hasta nuestros días. Debemos hacer una distinción entre los mecanismos de acción al nivel del patógeno que provoca la enfermedad, de aquellos al nivel de una enfermedad dada provocada por la reacción del huésped contra el patógeno. El efecto de supresión de las inmunoglobulinas intravenosas en las respuestas autoinmunes abre nuevas perspectivas terapéuticas y permite un nuevo acercamiento a la comprensión de los mecanismos básicos que explican la autoinmunidad patológica.

  15. No morphine sparing effect of ketamine added to morphine for patient-controlled intravenous analgesia after uterine artery embolization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Luana Leonora; Handberg, Gitte; Helbo-Hansen, H S

    2008-01-01

    group, n=26) by i.v. patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA). Pump settings were bolus dose 1 ml, lockout 10 min, no background infusion. In addition, all patients received diclofenac and acetaminophen for pain relief. Pain scores, morphine consumption and adverse events like nausea, vomiting, itching...... conditions of basal analgesia with acetaminophen and diclofenac, we failed to demonstrate any morphine-sparing effect of IV-PCA ketamine and morphine compared with IV-PCA morphine alone....

  16. Pain relief and clinical outcome: from opioids to balanced analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1996-01-01

    were administered with patient controlled (PCA) or epidural techniques. However, the most optimal pain relief seems to be best achieved with balanced analgesia techniques using combinations of epidural opioids and local anesthetics and systemic non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Future efforts...... should aim at including physical rehabilitation programs in the pain treatment regimen....

  17. Comparación entre dexmedetomidina en infusión intravenosa vs. lidocaína en infusión intravenosa para el control de dolor refractario a tratamiento opioide en pacientes de cuidados paliativos

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    O. Carrillo Torres

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: se define dolor refractario como aquel que se mantiene persistente (EVA 6 o más a pesar de tratamiento con opioides (con 1 o más rotaciones previas + antiinflamatorios (AINE o corticoides. Para tratamiento se han utilizado agonistas alfa-2 y/o anestésicos locales. La respuesta analgésica a la administración de dexmedetomidina parece producirse a nivel de la neurona de la raíz dorsal, donde los agonistas alfa-2 bloquean la liberación de la sustancia P en la vía nociceptiva. El efecto analgésico central está mediado por la activación de las vías inhibitorias descendentes gracias al bloqueo de los receptores del aspartato y glutamato. La utilización de lidocaína intravenosa puede suprimir descargas neurales ectópicas procedentes de fibras aferentes primarias lesionadas debido a sus propiedades de bloqueo dependiente de canales de voltaje de sodio. Además se ha evidenciado la activación endógena del sistema de opioides por infusión de lidocaína por vía sistémica. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto analgésico de la infusión de dexmedetomidina intravenosa comparada con infusión de lidocaína intravenosa para dolor refractario a opioides en pacientes bajo cuidados paliativos. Material y métodos: se trata de un ensayo clínico aleatorizado, triple ciego, con muestreo consecutivo. El análisis de resultados con medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión. Para comparar variables cuantitativas se usó t de Student para muestras independientes. Se construyeron tablas de contingencia y gráficos a través del programa estadístico SPSS versión 17. Población de estudio: pacientes con dolor refractario, hospitalizados dentro del Programa de Cuidados Paliativos asignados aleatoriamente a uno de los 2 grupos cuyo número de muestra (n = 14 se obtuvo por fórmula de diferencia de proporciones. Resultados: en cuanto a la analgesia con ambas infusiones no hubo diferencias significativas. De los 16 pacientes, 18 % (n: 3

  18. [Locally administered ropivacaine vs. standard analgesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarría-Pérez, Teresa; Cabrera-Leal, Carlos Fernando; Ramírez-Vargas, Susana; Reynada, José Luis; Arce-Salinas, César Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: se desconoce qué modalidad analgésica brinda mejores resultados después de una colecistectomía laparoscópica. El objetivo de este estudio consistió en valuar la eficacia analgésica de la ropivacaína usada localmente contra la dipirona por vía intravenosa en colecistectomía laparoscópica. Métodos: ensayo clínico al azar, de no inferioridad, en 50 pacientes con colecistectomía laparoscópica para comparar el uso de ropivacaína al 0.75 % infiltrada en el lugar de inserción de los trócares y en la fosa vesicular frente a dipirona por vía intravenosa. El desenlace primario fue dolor evaluado mediante escala visual análoga (EVA) en las primeras 24 horas. Resultados: el promedio de las EVA de dolor al término de la cirugía fue de 3.8 frente a 3.56 en el grupo de ropivacaína o de dipirona, mientras que a las 6, 12 y 24 horas fueron 2.64 frente a 2.6, 1.92 frente a 1.88 y 1.28 frente a 1.2, respectivamente. No hubo efectos adversos en ningún grupo y la necesidad de rescates analgésicos con tramadol fue similar entre ambos grupos. Conclusiones: la ropivacaína al 0.75 % infiltrada en el lugar de inserción de los trócares y la fosa vesicular muestra una analgesia similar a la dipirona por vía intravenosa en las primeras 24 horas después de una colecistectomía laparoscópica, sin efectos adversos.

  19. PCA meets RG

    CERN Document Server

    Bradde, Serena

    2016-01-01

    A system with many degrees of freedom can be characterized by a covariance matrix; principal components analysis (PCA) focuses on the eigenvalues of this matrix, hoping to find a lower dimensional description. But when the spectrum is nearly continuous, any distinction between components that we keep and those that we ignore becomes arbitrary; it then is natural to ask what happens as we vary this arbitrary cutoff. We argue that this problem is analogous to the momentum shell renormalization group (RG). Following this analogy, we can define relevant and irrelevant operators, where the role of dimensionality is played by properties of the eigenvalue density. These results also suggest an approach to the analysis of real data. As an example, we study neural activity in the vertebrate retina as it responds to naturalistic movies, and find evidence of behavior controlled by a nontrivial fixed point. Applied to financial data, our analysis separates modes dominated by sampling noise from a smaller but still macros...

  20. Comparação de ibuprofeno via oral e indometacina intravenosa no tratamento da persistência do canal arterial em neonatos com extremo baixo peso ao nascer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Mi Yang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Existem poucos relatórios publicados com relação à eficácia do ibuprofeno via oral no tratamento da persistência do canal arterial (PCA em neonatos com extremo baixo peso ao nascer (EBPN. Comparamos o ibuprofeno via oral à indometacina intravenosa no que diz respeito à eficácia e segurança no tratamento de PCA em neonatos com peso inferior a 1.000 g ao nascer. MÉTODO: Este foi um estudo retrospectivo em um único centro. Coletamos dados de neonatos com EBPN que tiveram PCA ecocardiograficamente confirmada. Os neonatos foram tratados tanto com indometacina intravenosa quanto com ibuprofeno via oral. A taxa de fechamento do canal, a necessidade de tratamentos adicionais, os efeitos colaterais ou as complicações relacionadas ao medicamento e a mortalidade foram comparados entre os dois grupos de tratamento. RESULTADO: Examinamos 26 neonatos que receberam indometacina e 22 que receberam ibuprofeno. A taxa geral de fechamento do canal foi semelhante nos dois tratamentos: o fechamento do canal ocorreu em 23 dos 26 neonatos (88,5% no grupo indometacina, e em 18 dos 22 neonatos (81,8% no grupo ibuprofeno (p = 0,40. A taxa de ligadura cirúrgica (11,5% em comparação a 18,2%; p = 0,40 não diferiu de forma significativa entre os dois grupos de tratamento. Após o tratamento, não foi encontrada nenhuma diferença significativa nas concentrações de creatinina sérica entre os dois grupos. Não houve diferenças significativas com relação a efeitos colaterais ou complicações adicionais. CONCLUSÃO: Em neonatos com EBPN, o ibuprofeno via oral é tão eficaz quanto a indometacina intravenosa no tratamento da PCA. Não há diferenças entre os medicamentos no que diz respeito à segurança. O ibuprofeno via oral poderia ser usado como um agente alternativo no tratamento da PCA em neonatos com EBPN.

  1. Anestesia regional intravenosa primeiro centenário (1908-2008: Início, desenvolvimento e estado atual A anestesia regional intravenosa primer centenario (1908-2008: Inicio, desarrollo y estado actual Intravenous regional anesthesia first century (1908-2008: Beggining, development, and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almiro dos Reis Jr

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A anestesia regional intravenosa completa neste ano de 2008 um século de existência. Sendo técnica anestésica amplamente utilizada, justifica-se recordar o fato, comemorar a data, lembrar aos anestesiologistas brasileiros o processo evolutivo pelo qual ela passou, sobretudo nos últimos 40 anos, e prestar um tributo àquele que a iniciou: August Karl Gustav Bier. CONTEÚDO: O texto relata a origem da anestesia locorregional em geral e da anestesia regional intravenosa em particular, desde a introdução do garroteamento de membros e da descoberta e do aperfeiçoamento das agulhas de punção, das seringas e dos anestésicos locais. São descritos os detalhes técnicos inicialmente utilizados por Bier e os conceitos fisiopatológicos e clínicos por ele emitidos em princípios do século XX. Retrata a evolução inicial e das décadas seguintes da anestesia regional intravenosa, cita os pioneiros nacionais e internacionais no seu uso, explica as razões do seu estudo científico relativamente tardio, descreve as principais contribuições havidas até hoje para sua utilização eficiente e segura. Finalmente, narra o estado atual dos principais conhecimentos adquiridos ao longo do tempo, como mecanismo e local de ação do anestésico e da isquemia, uso de soluções anestésicas modernas, aperfeiçoamento da analgesia pós-operatória e do bloqueio motor, conceitos farmacocinéticos e fisiopatológicos e melhor interpretação das principais complicações possíveis. CONCLUSÕES: A anestesia regional intravenosa é técnica anestésica criada por A.K.G. Bier há exatamente 100 anos. Evoluiu pouco e lentamente na primeira metade do século XX e muito nos últimos anos, graças a numerosos desenvolvimentos técnicos, fisiopatológicos, farmacológicos, farmacocinéticos e clínicos, para o que a Anestesiologia brasileira deu grande contribuição. Completando neste ano de 2008 seu primeiro centenário, a anestesia

  2. Analgesia postoperatoria en cirugía mayor: ¿es hora de cambiar nuestros protocolos?

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    N. Esteve Pérez

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available La analgesia postoperatoria es uno de los componentes básicos en la recuperación funcional tras una intervención quirúrgica. No obstante, es difícil aislar los efectos de la analgesia postoperatoria de otros aspectos relacionados con la técnica quirúrgica, la práctica clínica, el tipo de seguimiento analgésico o los factores organizativos del equipo quirúrgico. La introducción de la laparoscopia, la toracoscopia y las técnicas quirúrgicas mínimamente invasivas está modificando los protocolos analgésicos clásicos en la cirugía compleja. La analgesia intravenosa controlada por el paciente e incluso los opioides por vía oral están desplazando a la analgesia epidural en este tipo de técnicas. La evaluación del riesgo/beneficio para la selección de cada tipo de analgesia postoperatoria dependerá de la severidad del dolor dinámico y de los potenciales efectos secundarios de las técnicas y los fármacos analgésicos. Es difícil demostrar el impacto de la analgesia postoperatoria en grandes resultados quirúrgicos como la mortalidad, la morbilidad o la estancia media, que dependen de factores múltiples y heterogéneos. El efecto del tipo de analgesia en el proceso quirúrgico debería investigarse sobre otros resultados orientados al paciente, como la calidad analgésica, los efectos adversos o el bienestar postoperatorio. Otras áreas en las que se plantea el posible impacto de la analgesia postoperatoria son la recurrencia oncológica y el dolor crónico postoperatorio.

  3. The impact of patients controlled analgesia undergoing orthopedic surgery

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    Aluane Silva Dias

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The currently common musculoskeletal disorders have been increasingly treated surgically, and the pain can be a limiting factor in postoperative rehabilitation. RATIONALE: Patient controlled analgesia (PCA controls pain, but its adverse effects can interfere with rehabilitation and in the patient discharge process. This study becomes important, since there are few studies evaluating this correlation. OBJECTIVES: To compare the outcomes of patients who used and did not use patient controlled analgesia in postoperative orthopedic surgery with respect to pain, unscheduled need for O2 (oxygen, and time of immobility and in-hospital length of stay. METHODS: This is an observational, prospective study conducted at Hospital Abreu Sodré from May to August 2012. The data was daily obtained through assessments and interviews of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA and total knee arthroplasty (TKA, thoracolumbar spine arthrodesis (long PVA, cervical spine arthrodesis (cervical AVA and lumbar spine arthrodesis (lumbar PVA. RESULTS: The study showed some differences between groups, namely: the painful level was higher in the group undergoing lumbar PVA without PCA compared with the group with PCA (p = 0.03 and in the group of long PVA without PCA in the early postoperative period. This latter group used O2 for a longer time (p = 0.09. CONCLUSION: In this study, PCA was useful for analgesia in patients undergoing lumbar PVA and probably would have influenced the usage time of O2 in the group of long PVA in face of a larger sample. The use of PCA did not influence the time of leaving the bed and the in-hospital length of stay for the patients studied.

  4. Liposome Bupivacaine for Postsurgical Analgesia in Adult Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Colectomy: Results from Prospective Phase IV Sequential Cohort Studies Assessing Health Economic Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A. Candiotti, MD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Compared with intravenous opioid PCA, a liposome bupivacaine-based multimodal analgesia regimen reduced postsurgical opioid use, hospital length of stay, and ORAEs, and may lead to improved postsurgical outcomes following laparoscopic colectomy.

  5. Epidural Analgesia Versus Patient-Controlled Analgesia for Pain Relief in Uterine Artery Embolization for Uterine Fibroids: A Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooij, Sanne M. van der, E-mail: s.m.vanderkooij@amc.uva.nl; Moolenaar, Lobke M.; Ankum, Willem M. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Gynaecology (Netherlands); Reekers, Jim A. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Mol, Ben Willem J. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Gynaecology (Netherlands); Hehenkamp, Wouter J. K. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Gynaecology (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to compare the costs and effects of epidural analgesia (EDA) to those of patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCA) for postintervention pain relief in women having uterine artery embolization (UAE) for systematic uterine fibroids. Methods: Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) based on data from the literature by constructing a decision tree to model the clinical pathways for estimating the effects and costs of treatment with EDA and PCA. Literature on EDA for pain-relief after UAE was missing, and therefore, data on EDA for abdominal surgery were used. Outcome measures were compared costs to reduce one point in visual analogue score (VAS) or numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain 6 and 24 h after UAE and risk for complications. Results: Six hours after the intervention, the VAS was 3.56 when using PCA and 2.0 when using EDA. The costs for pain relief in women undergoing UAE with PCA and EDA were Euro-Sign 191 and Euro-Sign 355, respectively. The costs for EDA to reduce the VAS score 6 h after the intervention with one point compared with PCA were Euro-Sign 105 and Euro-Sign 179 after 24 h. The risk of having a complication was 2.45 times higher when using EDA. Conclusions: The results of this indirect comparison of EDA for abdominal surgery with PCA for UAE show that EDA would provide superior analgesia for post UAE pain at 6 and 24 h but with higher costs and an increased risk of complications.

  6. Multiple levels paravertebral block versus morphine patient-controlled analgesia for postoperative analgesia following breast cancer surgery with unilateral lumpectomy, and axillary lymph nodes dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summayah Fallatah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative pain after breast cancer surgery is not uncommon. Narcotic based analgesia is commonly used for postoperative pain management. However, the side-effects and complications of systemic narcotics is a significant disadvantage. Different locoregional anesthetic techniques have been tried including, single and multiple levels paravertebral block (PVB, which seems to have a significant reduction in immediate postoperative pain with fewer side-effects. The aim of this study was to compare unilateral multiple level PVB versus morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA for pain relief after breast cancer surgery with unilateral lumpectomy and axillary lymph nodes dissection. Materials and Methods: Forty patients scheduled for breast cancer surgery were randomized to receive either preoperative unilateral multiple injections PVB at five thoracic dermatomes (group P, 20 patients or postoperative intravenous PCA with morphine (group M, 20 patients for postoperative pain control. Numerical pain scale, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, Time to first analgesic demand, 24-h morphine consumption side-effects and length of hospital stay were recorded. Results: PVB resulted in a significantly more postoperative analgesia, maintained hemodynamic, more significant reduction in nausea and vomiting, and shorter hospital stay compared with PCA patients. Conclusion: Multiple levels PVB is an effective regional anesthetic technique for postoperative pain management, it provides superior analgesia with less narcotics consumption, and fewer side-effects compared with PCA morphine for patients with breast cancer who undergo unilateral lumpectomy, with axillary lymph nodes dissection.

  7. PCaPAC 2006 Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavel Chevtsov; Matthew Bickley (Eds.)

    2007-03-30

    The 6-th international PCaPAC (Personal Computers and Particle Accelerator Controls) workshop was held at Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia, from October 24-27, 2006. The main objectives of the conference were to discuss the most important issues of the use of PCs and modern IT technologies for controls of accelerators and to give scientists, engineers, and technicians a forum to exchange the ideas on control problems and their solutions. The workshop consisted of plenary sessions and poster sessions. No parallel sessions were held.Totally, more than seventy oral and poster presentations as well as tutorials were made during the conference, on the basis of which about fifty papers were submitted by the authors and included in this publication. This printed version of the PCaPAC 2006 Proceedings is published at Jefferson Lab according to the decision of the PCaPAC International Program Committee of October 26, 2006.

  8. Incremental PCA-LDA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issam Dagher

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a recursive algorithm of calculating the discriminant features of thePCA-LDA procedure is introduced. This algorithm computes the principalcomponents of a sequence of vectors incrementally without estimating thecovariance matrix (so covariance-free and at the same time computing the lineardiscriminant directions along which the classes are well separated. Two majortechniques are used sequentially in a real time fashion in order to obtain the mostefficient and linearly discriminative components. This procedure is done bymerging the runs of two algorithms based on principal component analysis (PCAand linear discriminant analysis (LDA running sequentially. This algorithm isapplied to face recognition problem. Simulation results on different databasesshowed high average success rate of this algorithm compared to PCA and LDAalgorithms. The advantage of the incremental property of this algorithmcompared to the batch PCA-LDA is also shown.

  9. Speeding up PCA in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.

    tools, the possibility for exploring images with PCA. Most of multivariate datasets used in chemometrics have a number of varia- bles (significantly) larger than a number of objects (observations) and many algorithms are optimized for this case. When PCA is applied to a hyperspectral image, each pixel...... of the image is an individual observation (spectrum). Nowa- days many laboratory hyperspectral cameras can obtain an image with hun- dreds of thousands of pixels. In remote sensing the images can easily have resolution up to several million pixels. Working with such images can easily lead to memory....../C++ at the current stage. Three PCA state-of-art algorithms have been considered — singular value de- composition (SVD), eigenvectors of variance-covariance matrix and non- iterative partial least squares (NIPALS). Each algorithm was investigated in order to find the steps critical for working with datasets...

  10. SISTEMA COMPUTARIZADO EN LAZO CERRADO PARA EL SUMINISTRO DE LA ANESTESIA INTRAVENOSA

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    Alberto Vanegas-Saavedra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El sistema de suministro de la anestesia total intravenosa en lazo cerrado es una técnica reciente que ofrece ventajas sobre las técnicas actuales como la estabilidad intraoperatoria y la menor y más segura dosificación. OBJETIVO: El objetivo general de este artículo es el de resumir los hallazgos sobre un nuevo método computarizado sencillo, en lazo cerrado, para suministrar la anestesia total intravenosa de forma automatizada y segura bajo la supervisión permanente del Anestesiólogo. Este sistema se ha desarrollado para la administración de anestesia intravenosa implementando varios subsistemas. Un modelo multicompartimental de distribución de fármacos en el paciente, un algoritmo para determinar la curva de velocidades del hipnótico (propofol a infundir, un protocolo de comunicación para establecer las velocidades de infusión y un lazo de realimentación para controlar la profundidad hipnótica mediante el índice biespectral. RESULTADO: El resultado final ha sido el desarrollo de un instrumento de fácil uso, con una interfaz interactiva, que facilita la operación anestésica por parte del anestesiólogo valiéndose de un computador convencional y un monitor de profundidad hipnótica. CONCLUSIÓN: Se ha implementado una herramienta informática dotada de un modelo farmacocinético multicompartimental de gran interés académico y clínico, que tal y como se ha demostrado de forma cuantitativa, proporciona idénticos resultados a los ofrecidos por equipos comerciales; con importantes ventajas adicionales como una interfaz de usuario interactiva y la posibilidad de administrar anestesia total intravenosa.

  11. Comparação de lornoxicam e fentanil adicionados à lidocaína em anestesia regional intravenosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezih Sertoz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVO: Comparar os efeitos analgésicos nos períodos intra e pós-operatório de lornoxicam e fentanil adicionados à lidocaína para anestesia regional intravenosa (ARIV em um grupo de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de mão. MÉTODOS: Estudo randômico, duplo-cego e controlado. Foram incluídos e randomizados 45 pacientes em três grupos: o Grupo I recebeu 3 mg.kg-1 de lidocaína a 2% (40 mL; o Grupo II recebeu 3 mg.kg-1 de lidocaína (38 mL + 2 mL de lornoxicam; o Grupo III recebeu 3 mg.kg-1 de lidocaína (38 mL + 2 mL de fentanil. O desfecho primário avaliado foi o tempo até a primeira necessidade de analgésicos no pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Lornoxicam adicionado à lidocaína em ARIV aumentou o tempo de recuperação do bloqueio sensorial sem aumentar os efeitos colaterais, e o tempo até a primeira necessidade de analgésicos no pós-operatório em comparação com lidocaína sozinha (p 0,05, embora os escores da escala visual analógica (EVA relacionados à dor ocasionada pelo torniquete tenham sido menores no grupo fentanil. Lornoxicam adicionado à lidocaína em ARIV não foi superior à lidocaína sozinha para diminuir a dor ocasionada pelo torniquete. CONCLUSÃO: A adição de fentanil à lidocaína em ARIV parece ser superior à lidocaína sozinha e ao lornoxicam adicionado à lidocaína para diminuir a dor ocasionada pelo torniquete, apesar de aumentar os efeitos secundários. No entanto, lornoxicam não aumentou os efeitos secundários e proporcionou analgesia nos períodos tanto intraoperatório quanto pós-operatório. Portanto, lornoxicam pode ser mais adequado para o uso clínico.

  12. Abordaje de la analgesia postoperatoria en cirugía de cadera: comparativa de 3 técnicas Post-surgical analgesia in hip surgery: A comparison of three techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Segado Jiménez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Resulta indispensable tratar el dolor postoperatorio de cirugía de cadera para iniciar una rehabilitación precoz y para disminuir la morbimortalidad. Dada la pluripatología y edad de los pacientes, la analgesia locorregional se revela como el arma más eficaz para tratarlo. Objetivos: Valorar la eficacia del bloqueo iliofascial y del bloqueo de los nervios obturador y femorocutáneo frente a analgesia intravenosa, así como registrar el grado de satisfacción, las complicaciones, inicio de rehabilitación y costes económicos en cada grupo. Pacientes y método: Estudio prospectivo con 90 pacientes sometidos a cirugía de cadera. Se dividieron en 3 grupos aleatorios: A: solo analgesia intravenosa, B: bloqueo iliofascial y C: bloqueo de los nervios obturador y femorocutáneo lateral. Se investigó el grado de dolor y satisfacción analgésica, tiempo transcurrido hasta el inicio de la sedestación, necesidad de analgésicos postoperatorios, efectos secundarios y los costes económicos farmacéuticos en cada grupo. Resultados: La eficacia analgésica y el grado de satisfacción fueron significativamente mayores en los pacientes con bloqueos nerviosos (EVA medio 2,14±1,24, satisfacción 3,75±0,8 que en los que solo recibieron analgesia intravenosa (EVA medio 5,57±0,64, satisfacción 2,83±0,7 (pIntroduction: The treatment of postoperative pain after hip surgery is essential for an early start of rehabilitation and for reducing morbidity and mortality. Given that patients are elderly and have multiple medical conditions, local-regional analgesia can be an effective approach. Objectives: Our aim was to compare the efficacy of the fascia iliaca compartment block, the obturator and femoral cutaneous nerve blocks and total intravenous analgesia in terms of level of patient satisfaction, complications, start of rehabilitation and cost in each group. Patients and methods: Prospective study of 90 patients undergoing hip surgery

  13. Advances in patient-controlled analgesia: the role of fentanyl ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Power

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ian Power, Jon G McCormackDepartment of Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, The University of Edinburgh, Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, UKAbstract: Effective pain relief is an essential component of a patient’s peri-operative care package. Good analgesia has been shown to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular, respiratory and thrombo-embolic complications following surgery. Satisfactory analgesia facilitates early patient ambulation following surgery, which may reduce in-patient stay. Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA systems are a well established standard therapy for acute post-operative pain; however some practical limitations limit their clinical utility. The fentanyl inotophoretic transdermal system (ITS is a novel self-contained needle-free PCA device, which delivers boluses of fentanyl transdermally. This system has been shown to provide analgesia equivalent to conventional PCA modalities, with unique design features that may confer advantages to patients and staff, including facilitating patient mobilization in the post-operative phase. This review will discuss the technology of iontophoretic systems, the pharmacology of transdermal fentanyl delivery, and some practical implications of the fentanyl ITS.Keywords: iontophoresis, transdermal, patient-controlled analgesia, fentanyl, post-operative pain

  14. [Systemic analgesia for postoperative pain management in the adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binhas, M; Marty, J

    2009-02-01

    Severe postsurgical pain contributes to prolonged hospital stay and is also believed to be a risk factor for the development of chronic pain. Locoregional anesthesia, which results in faster patient recovery with fewer side effects, is favored wherever feasible, but is not applicable to every patient. Systemic analgesics are the most widely used method for providing pain relief in the postoperative period. Improvements in postoperative systemic analgesia for pain management should be applied and predictive factors for severe postoperative pain should be anticipated in order to control pain while minimizing opioid side effects. Predictive factors for severe postoperative pain include severity of preoperative pain, prior use of opiates, female gender, non-laparoscopic surgery, and surgeries involving the knee and shoulder. Pre- and intraoperative use of small doses of ketamine has a preventive effect on postoperative pain. Multimodal or balanced analgesia (the combined use of various analgesic agents) such as NSAID/morphine, NSAID/nefopam, morphine/ketamine improves analgesia with morphine-sparing effects. Nausea and vomiting, the principle side effects of morphine, can be predicted using Apfel's simplified score; patients with a high Apfel score risk should receive preemptive antiemetic agents aimed at different receptor sites, such as preoperative dexamethasone and intraoperative droperidol. Droperidol can be combined with morphine for postoperative patient-controlled anesthesia (PCA). When PCA is used, dosage parameters should be adjusted every day based on pain evaluation. Patients with presurgical opioid requirements will require preoperative administration of their daily opioid maintenance dose before induction of anesthesia: PCA offers useful options for effective postsurgical analgesia using a basal rate equivalent to the patient's hourly oral usage plus bolus doses as required.

  15. Robust PCA via Outlier Pursuit

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Huan; Sanghavi, Sujay

    2010-01-01

    Singular Value Decomposition (and Principal Component Analysis) is one of the most widely used techniques for dimensionality reduction: successful and efficiently computable, it is nevertheless plagued by a well-known, well-documented sensitivity to outliers. Recent work has considered the setting where each point has a few arbitrarily corrupted components. Yet, in applications of SVD or PCA such as robust collaborative filtering or bioinformatics, malicious agents, defective genes, or simply corrupted or contaminated experiments may effectively yield entire points that are completely corrupted. We present an efficient convex optimization-based algorithm we call Outlier Pursuit, that under some mild assumptions on the uncorrupted points (satisfied, e.g., by the standard generative assumption in PCA problems) recovers the exact optimal low-dimensional subspace, and identifies the corrupted points. Such identification of corrupted points that do not conform to the low-dimensional approximation, is of paramount ...

  16. Optimizing Face Recognition Using PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Abdullah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Principle Component Analysis PCA is a classical feature extraction and data representation technique widely used in pattern recognition. It is one of the most successful techniques in face recognition. But it has drawback of high computational especially for big size database. This paper conducts a study to optimize the time complexity of PCA (eigenfaces that does not affects the recognition performance. The authors minimize the participated eigenvectors which consequently decreases the computational time. A comparison is done to compare the differences between the recognition time in the original algorithm and in the enhanced algorithm. The performance of the original and the enhanced proposed algorithm is tested on face94 face database. Experimental results show that the recognition time is reduced by 35% by applying our proposed enhanced algorithm. DET Curves are used to illustrate the experimental results.

  17. Optimizing Face Recognition Using PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Abdullah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Principle Component Analysis PCA is a classical feature extraction and data representation technique widely used in pattern recognition. It is one of the most successful techniques in face recognition. But it has drawback of high computational especially for big size database. This paper conducts a study to optimize the time complexity of PCA (eigenfaces that does not affects the recognition performance. The authorsminimize the participated eigenvectors which consequently decreases the computational time. A comparison is done to compare the differences between the recognition time in the original algorithm and in the enhanced algorithm. The performance of the original and the enhanced proposed algorithm is tested on face94 face database. Experimental results show that the recognition time is reduced by 35% by applying our proposed enhanced algorithm. DET Curves are used to illustrate the experimental results.

  18. Ethanol-induced analgesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohorecky, L.A.; Shah, P.

    1987-09-07

    The effect of ethanol (ET) on nociceptive sensitivity was evaluated using a new tail deflection response (TDR) method. The IP injection of ET (0.5 - 1.5 g/kg) produced raid dose-dependent analgesia. Near maximal effect (97% decrease in TDR) was produced with the 1.5 g/kg dose of ET ten minutes after injection. At ninety minutes post-injection there was still significant analgesia. Depression of ET-induced nociceptive sensitivity was partially reversed by a 1 mg/kg dose of naloxone. On the other hand, morphine (0.5 or 5.0 mg/kg IP) did not modify ET-induced analgesia, while 3.0 minutes of cold water swim (known to produce non-opioid mediated analgesia) potentiated ET-induced analgesic effect. The 0.5 g/kg dose of ET by itself did not depress motor activity in an open field test, but prevented partially the depression in motor activity produced by cold water swim (CWS). Thus, the potentiation by ET of the depression of the TDR produced by CWS cannot be ascribed to the depressant effects of ET on motor activity. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  19. COMPARISON OF PATIENT CONTROLLED EPIDURAL ANALGESIA WITH CONTINUOUS EPIDURAL INFUSION FOR LABOUR ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaiah Tahseen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a study to compare the efficacy and safety of Patient Controlled Epidural Analgesia (PCEA with that of Continuous Infusion of Epidural Analgesia (CIEA for maintenance of labour analgesia and evaluated the quality of analgesia and obstetric and safety outcomes. METHODS The study was a hospital-based prospective, randomised control trial on 80 parturients who had a normal antenatal period. Each parturient received 500-1000 mL lactated ringer solution Intravenously (IV prior to initiating epidural blockade. Epidural catheter placement was performed in a standard manner and all patients received an initial dose of 8-10 mL bupivacaine 0.25%. Parturients self-administered 0.125% bupivacaine with fentanyl 2.5 µg/mL using PCA pumps programmed as follows: 4 mL bolus with a 20 mins Lockout Interval (LI. Group B received CIEA of 8 mL 0.125% bupivacaine with fentanyl 2.5/mL. Hourly assessments included: VAS scores for pain and satisfaction, sensory and motor block, analgesic supplements, bupivacaine and fentanyl consumption. RESULTS Data from 80 patients showed no differences among groups in pain relief. Maternal satisfaction was greater in PCEA group. Anaesthetic interventions by way of supplemental doses of Bupivacaine and Fentanyl in the PCEA group were minimal (4 and 2 vs 25 and 12 P <0.001 compared to CEI group. PCEA group received less local anaesthetic (5.2 vs 9.4 p <0.001 and few patients in PCEA group had motor weakness compared to CEI group (6 vs 17 p <0.05. Both methods were safe for mother and newborn. CONCLUSION Patients who received PCEA required less anaesthetic interventions, required lower doses of local anaesthetic, fentanyl and have less motor weakness than those who received CEI.

  20. Semi-Supervised Kernel PCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walder, Christian; Henao, Ricardo; Mørup, Morten

    We present three generalisations of Kernel Principal Components Analysis (KPCA) which incorporate knowledge of the class labels of a subset of the data points. The first, MV-KPCA, penalises within class variances similar to Fisher discriminant analysis. The second, LSKPCA is a hybrid of least...... squares regression and kernel PCA. The final LR-KPCA is an iteratively reweighted version of the previous which achieves a sigmoid loss function on the labeled points. We provide a theoretical risk bound as well as illustrative experiments on real and toy data sets....

  1. CENTRAL MECHANISMS OF ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S. Mansour

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acupuncture is an component of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM that has been used for three thousand years to treat diseases and relieve pain. Pain is found to be the most common reason for people to use acupuncture. Due to recent scientific findings, acupuncture treatment has been accepted worldwide. Numerous trials have been conducted especially in analgesia. The mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia has been widely investigated, however, the underlying mechanism still not clear. This article summarizes the central mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia and reviews recent studies on the topic. Method: We have focused on examining the recent literature on acupuncture analgesia. The central mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia and reviews recent studies on the topic. We focused on the studies related to central mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia from these aspects: (neurophysiology, neurochemistry and neuroanatomy. Result: The result revealed that acupuncture act on various parts of the central nervous system, including the spinal cord, brain stem, cerebral ganglia and cerebral cortex to alleviate pain. The central mechanisms underlying the effects of acupuncture include neurohumors and neurotransmitters, which are involved in analgesia. At spinal level, Spinal opioids, glutamate, norepinephrine and serotonin are the key elements acupuncture-induced analgesia. At brain level, Endogenous opioid peptides, limbic system play essential roles in mediating the analgesia. Conclusion: Acupuncture is an effective approach to pain management. There is good evidence in both experimental and clinical research that supports acupuncture efficacy in management of chronic pain through central nervous system. Acupuncture should be strongly used as a part of pain management plans. This work helps in improving our understanding of the scientific basis underlying acupuncture analgesia.

  2. An efficient algorithm for weighted PCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, W.P.; Kiers, H.A.L.

    1995-01-01

    The method for analyzing three-way data where one of the three components matrices in TUCKALS3 is chosen to have one column is called Replicated PCA. The corresponding algorithm is relatively inefficient. This is shown by offering an alternative algorithm called Weighted PCA. Specifically it is prov

  3. PCA-based lung motion model

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ruijiang; Jia, Xun; Zhao, Tianyu; Lamb, James; Yang, Deshan; Low, Daniel A; Jiang, Steve B

    2010-01-01

    Organ motion induced by respiration may cause clinically significant targeting errors and greatly degrade the effectiveness of conformal radiotherapy. It is therefore crucial to be able to model respiratory motion accurately. A recently proposed lung motion model based on principal component analysis (PCA) has been shown to be promising on a few patients. However, there is still a need to understand the underlying reason why it works. In this paper, we present a much deeper and detailed analysis of the PCA-based lung motion model. We provide the theoretical justification of the effectiveness of PCA in modeling lung motion. We also prove that under certain conditions, the PCA motion model is equivalent to 5D motion model, which is based on physiology and anatomy of the lung. The modeling power of PCA model was tested on clinical data and the average 3D error was found to be below 1 mm.

  4. 2DPCA versus PCA for face recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jian-jun; TAN Guan-zheng; LUAN Feng-gang; A. S. M. LIBDA

    2015-01-01

    Dimensionality reduction methods play an important role in face recognition. Principal component analysis (PCA) and two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) are two kinds of important methods in this field. Recent research seems like that 2DPCA method is superior to PCA method. To prove if this conclusion is always true, a comprehensive comparison study between PCA and 2DPCA methods was carried out. A novel concept, called column-image difference (CID), was proposed to analyze the difference between PCA and 2DPCA methods in theory. It is found that there exist some restrictive conditions when 2DPCA outperforms PCA. After theoretical analysis, the experiments were conducted on four famous face image databases. The experiment results confirm the validity of theoretical claim.

  5. Uso de la gammaglobulina intravenosa y sus efectos en la mortalidad por sepsis en niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaida Montero López

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión sistemática sobre el uso de inmunoglobulina intravenosa y su efecto sobre la mortalidad en el niño menor de un año. Se analizaron artículos originales y revisiones sistemáticas realizadas en los últimos años acerca del tema; se incluyeron artículos originales publicados en los años 2002 al 2011 y las revisiones sistemáticas publicadas en los años 2007 al 2011, que resultaron en total siete. Se concluye que no existe un consenso en la prescripción de inmunoglobulina intravenosa en el tratamiento de la sepsis y aunque no existe reducción significativa de la mortalidad, se evidencia un mayor número de vidas salvadas en el grupo de pacientes con este tratamiento

  6. Model selection for Gaussian kernel PCA denoising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Winther; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2012-01-01

    We propose kernel Parallel Analysis (kPA) for automatic kernel scale and model order selection in Gaussian kernel PCA. Parallel Analysis [1] is based on a permutation test for covariance and has previously been applied for model order selection in linear PCA, we here augment the procedure to also...... tune the Gaussian kernel scale of radial basis function based kernel PCA.We evaluate kPA for denoising of simulated data and the US Postal data set of handwritten digits. We find that kPA outperforms other heuristics to choose the model order and kernel scale in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR...

  7. Performance comparisons between PCA-EA-LBG and PCA-LBG-EA approaches in VQ codebook generation for image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jinn-Tsong; Chou, Ping-Yi; Chou, Jyh-Horng

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to generate vector quantisation (VQ) codebooks by integrating principle component analysis (PCA) algorithm, Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG) algorithm, and evolutionary algorithms (EAs). The EAs include genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimisation (PSO), honey bee mating optimisation (HBMO), and firefly algorithm (FF). The study is to provide performance comparisons between PCA-EA-LBG and PCA-LBG-EA approaches. The PCA-EA-LBG approaches contain PCA-GA-LBG, PCA-PSO-LBG, PCA-HBMO-LBG, and PCA-FF-LBG, while the PCA-LBG-EA approaches contain PCA-LBG, PCA-LBG-GA, PCA-LBG-PSO, PCA-LBG-HBMO, and PCA-LBG-FF. All training vectors of test images are grouped according to PCA. The PCA-EA-LBG used the vectors grouped by PCA as initial individuals, and the best solution gained by the EAs was given for LBG to discover a codebook. The PCA-LBG approach is to use the PCA to select vectors as initial individuals for LBG to find a codebook. The PCA-LBG-EA used the final result of PCA-LBG as an initial individual for EAs to find a codebook. The search schemes in PCA-EA-LBG first used global search and then applied local search skill, while in PCA-LBG-EA first used local search and then employed global search skill. The results verify that the PCA-EA-LBG indeed gain superior results compared to the PCA-LBG-EA, because the PCA-EA-LBG explores a global area to find a solution, and then exploits a better one from the local area of the solution. Furthermore the proposed PCA-EA-LBG approaches in designing VQ codebooks outperform existing approaches shown in the literature.

  8. Algoritmo assistencial de enfermagem para infusão de amiodarona intravenosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francimar Tinoco de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos fueron identificar publicaciones científicas sobre flebitis causado por amiodarona y proponer un algoritmo de atención de enfermería para intervenciones en la administración intravenosa de amiodarona, basada en la Infusion Nursing Society y Center for Disease Control and Prevention . Estudio descriptivo, llevado a cabo por revisión integradora en bases MedLine, LILACS, IBECS, BDENF, Biblioteca Cochrane y Scielo, publicados de 2006 a 2013. La muestra consistió de nueve artículos. Las evidencias señalaron incidencia de flebitis debido a la infusión de amiodarona y la necesidad de su control. El algoritmo propuesto nortea los materiales que deben ser utilizados y el procedimiento de administración del medicamento, objetivando minimizar agravios. Esto algoritmo, además de subsidiar el desarrollo de futuros estudios, también promueve la incorporación de mejores recomendaciones para la práctica clínica de forma intervencionista y legítima.

  9. Simultaneous Estimation of Hydrochlorothiazide, Hydralazine Hydrochloride, and Reserpine Using PCA, NAS, and NAS-PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Badyal, Pragya Nand; Rawal, Ravindra K

    2015-01-01

    In this study, new and feasible UV-visible spectrophotometric and multivariate spectrophotometric methods were described for the simultaneous determination of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), hydralazine hydrochloride (H.HCl), and reserpine (RES) in combined pharmaceutical tablets. Methanol was used as a solvent for analysis and the whole UV region was scanned from 200-400 nm. The resolution was obtained by using multivariate methods such as the net analyte signal method (NAS), principal component analysis (PCA), and net analyte signal-principal component analysis (NAS-PCA) applied to the UV spectra of the mixture. The results obtained from all of the three methods were compared. NAS-PCA showed a lot of resolved data as compared to NAS and PCA. Thus, the NAS-PCA technique is a combination of NAS and PCA methods which is advantageous to obtain the information from overlapping results.

  10. Intrathecal morphine is superior to intravenous PCA in patients undergoing minimally invasive cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Chirojit; Koch, Eva; Banusch, Joergen; Scholz, Markus; Kaisers, Udo X; Ender, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    Aim of our study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of low dose intrathecal morphine on postoperative analgesia, over the use of intravenous patient controlled anesthesia (PCA), in patients undergoing fast track anesthesia during minimally invasive cardiac surgical procedures. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken after approval from local ethical committee. Written informed consent was obtained from 61 patients receiving mitral or tricuspid or both surgical valve repair in minimal invasive technique. Patients were assigned randomly to 2 groups. Group 1 received general anesthesia and intravenous patient controlled analgesia (PCA) pump with Piritramide (GA group). Group 2 received a single shot of intrathecal morphine (1.5 μg/kg body weight) prior to the administration of general anesthesia (ITM group). Site of puncture was confined to lumbar (L1-2 or L2-3) intrathecal space. The amount of intravenous piritramide used in post anesthesia care unit (PACU) and the first postoperative day was defined as primary end point. Secondary end points included: time for tracheal extubation, pain and sedation scores in PACU upto third postoperative day. For statistical analysis Mann-Whitney-U Test and Fishers exact test (SPSS) were used. We found that the demand for intravenous opioids in PACU was significantly reduced in ITM group (P <0.001). Pain scores were significantly decreased in ITM group until second postoperative day (P <0.01). There was no time delay for tracheal extubation in ITM group, and sedation scores did not differ in either group. We conclude that low dose single shot intrathecal morphine provides adequate postoperative analgesia, reduces the intravenous opioid consumption during the early postoperative period and does not defer early extubation.

  11. Intrathecal morphine is superior to intravenous PCA in patients undergoing minimally invasive cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirojit Mukherjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of our study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of low dose intrathecal morphine on postoperative analgesia, over the use of intravenous patient controlled anesthesia (PCA, in patients undergoing fast track anesthesia during minimally invasive cardiac surgical procedures. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken after approval from local ethical committee. Written informed consent was obtained from 61 patients receiving mitral or tricuspid or both surgical valve repair in minimal invasive technique. Patients were assigned randomly to 2 groups. Group 1 received general anesthesia and intravenous patient controlled analgesia (PCA pump with Piritramide (GA group. Group 2 received a single shot of intrathecal morphine (1.5 μg/kg body weight prior to the administration of general anesthesia (ITM group. Site of puncture was confined to lumbar (L1-2 or L2-3 intrathecal space. The amount of intravenous piritramide used in post anesthesia care unit (PACU and the first postoperative day was defined as primary end point. Secondary end points included: time for tracheal extubation, pain and sedation scores in PACU upto third postoperative day. For statistical analysis Mann-Whitney-U Test and Fishers exact test (SPSS were used. We found that the demand for intravenous opioids in PACU was significantly reduced in ITM group (P <0.001. Pain scores were significantly decreased in ITM group until second postoperative day (P <0.01. There was no time delay for tracheal extubation in ITM group, and sedation scores did not differ in either group. We conclude that low dose single shot intrathecal morphine provides adequate postoperative analgesia, reduces the intravenous opioid consumption during the early postoperative period and does not defer early extubation.

  12. PCA3 and PCA3-Based Nomograms Improve Diagnostic Accuracy in Patients Undergoing First Prostate Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Vlaeminck-Guillem

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available While now recognized as an aid to predict repeat prostate biopsy outcome, the urinary PCA3 (prostate cancer gene 3 test has also been recently advocated to predict initial biopsy results. The objective is to evaluate the performance of the PCA3 test in predicting results of initial prostate biopsies and to determine whether its incorporation into specific nomograms reinforces its diagnostic value. A prospective study included 601 consecutive patients addressed for initial prostate biopsy. The PCA3 test was performed before ≥12-core initial prostate biopsy, along with standard risk factor assessment. Diagnostic performance of the PCA3 test was evaluated. The three available nomograms (Hansen’s and Chun’s nomograms, as well as the updated Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risk calculator; PCPT were applied to the cohort, and their predictive accuracies were assessed in terms of biopsy outcome: the presence of any prostate cancer (PCa and high-grade prostate cancer (HGPCa. The PCA3 score provided significant predictive accuracy. While the PCPT risk calculator appeared less accurate; both Chun’s and Hansen’s nomograms provided good calibration and high net benefit on decision curve analyses. When applying nomogram-derived PCa probability thresholds ≤30%, ≤6% of HGPCa would have been missed, while avoiding up to 48% of unnecessary biopsies. The urinary PCA3 test and PCA3-incorporating nomograms can be considered as reliable tools to aid in the initial biopsy decision.

  13. A comparison of the postoperative analgesic efficacy between epidural and intravenous analgesia in major spine surgery: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Y

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Yichen Meng,* Heng Jiang,* Chenglin Zhang,* Jianquan Zhao, Ce Wang, Rui Gao, Xuhui Zhou Department of Orthopedics, Changzheng Hospital, Second Affiliated Hospital of Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Postoperative analgesia remains a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. The aim of this meta-analysis is to compare the efficacy of epidural analgesia (EA and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA following major spine surgery. We searched electronic databases, including the PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid and Cochrane databases, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs published before June 2016. The quality of the included trials was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Random effects models were used to estimate the standardized mean differences (SMDs and relative risks (RRs, with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI. Subgroup analyses stratified by the type of epidural-infused medication and epidural delivery were also performed. A total of 17 trials matched the inclusion criteria and were chosen for the following meta-analysis. Overall, EA provided significantly superior analgesia, higher patient satisfaction and decreased overall opioid consumption compared with IV-PCA following major spine surgery. Additionally, no differences were found in the side effects associated with these two methods of analgesia. Egger’s and Begg’s tests showed no significant publication bias. We suggest that EA is superior to IV-PCA for pain management after major spine surgery. More large-scale, high-quality trials are needed to verify these findings. Keywords: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, lumbar fusion, epidural analgesia, intravenous application, perioperative pain

  14. Patient Controlled Analgesia Used to Assess the Efficacy and Potency of a New Opioid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Ginsberg

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient controlled analgesia (PCA is widely used for the management of postoperative pain. PCA also permits a comparison to be made among analgesics in the clinical setting because it limits the variability introduced by third parties. Use of PCA to establish efficacy and potency data for an investigational drug, pentamorphone, compared with morphine is reported. Pentamorphone was found to be more efficacious than morphine in the first hour after surgery because significantly more patients were able to achieve a visual analogue scale of less than 30 mm with pentamorphone. Thereafter pentamorphone and morphine were found to be equally efficacious. Initially pentamorphone may be more potent than morphine based on the greater volume of morphine used in the first hour of therapy. However, a potency ratio could not be determined because this result was under conditions of unequal analgesia. The potency ratio determined at 24 h of therapy under equianalgesic conditions (252:1 is similar to previously reported potency data from laboratory studies (200:1. This study supports the use of PCA as a model to investigate and compare new drugs to establish their efficacy and potency.

  15. Tratamento das formas severas de miastenia pelo ACTH por via intravenosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lamartine de Assis

    1960-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor inicia o trabalho referindo as bases bioquímicas, fisiopatológicas e anátomo-patológicas do tratamento da miastenia pelo ACTH. Na miastenia grave há diminuição da síntese da acetilcolina no organismo, atuando o ACTH no sentido de aumentar esta síntese seja diretamente, por ativação da colinacetilase, seja indiretamente, mediante a redução da massa dos tecidos linfóides, em particular do timo, responsáveis pela elaboração de substâncias que diminuem a síntese da acetilcolina. O autor empregou o ACTH "Armour" e a Cortrofina "Organon", nas doses de 2,5 a 25 mg, sempre pela via intravenosa, diluídos em 250 a 1.000 ml de soluto glicosado a 5%, administrado gota a gôta, na velocidade média de 20 gôtas por minuto, durante 8 horas. Como medicação associada foi administrada a Prostigmina a todos os pacientes, substituída, depois, em alguns casos, pelo Mestinon ou pela Mytelaze. Como adjuvantes foram empregados o cloreto de potássio (2 a 8 g por dia e o sulfato de efedrina (25 mg 3 vêzes ao dia. Os pacientes foram mantidos em regime hiperprotéico e acloretado, sendo tomados todos os cuidados inerentes ao uso do ACTH. Foram estudados 10 pacientes portadores de miastenia com sintomatologia acentuada (8 casos e média (2 casos. Todos os doentes vinham sendo tratados com drogas anticolinesterásicas em doses adequadas (Prostigmina, Mestinon, Mytelaze e a sua sintomatologia respondia cada vez menos a esta terapêutica. Em alguns casos haviam sido tentados outros tratamentos (timectomia, denervação do seio carotídeo, irradiação da região tímica sem resultado. É de notar que as remissões espontâneas neste grupo de enfermos foram excepcionais e de curta duração. A evolução foi acompanhada do ponto de vista clínico, com a sintomatologia classificada como muito acentuada, acentuada, média e leve. Em todos os casos houve remissão completa ou quase completa da sintomatologia após dosagens variáveis de ACTH; no

  16. Abordaje de la analgesia postoperatoria en cirugía de cadera: comparativa de 3 técnicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Segado Jiménez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Resulta indispensable tratar el dolor postoperatorio de cirugía de cadera para iniciar una rehabilitación precoz y para disminuir la morbimortalidad. Dada la pluripatología y edad de los pacientes, la analgesia locorregional se revela como el arma más eficaz para tratarlo. Objetivos: Valorar la eficacia del bloqueo iliofascial y del bloqueo de los nervios obturador y femorocutáneo frente a analgesia intravenosa, así como registrar el grado de satisfacción, las complicaciones, inicio de rehabilitación y costes económicos en cada grupo. Pacientes y método: Estudio prospectivo con 90 pacientes sometidos a cirugía de cadera. Se dividieron en 3 grupos aleatorios: A: solo analgesia intravenosa, B: bloqueo iliofascial y C: bloqueo de los nervios obturador y femorocutáneo lateral. Se investigó el grado de dolor y satisfacción analgésica, tiempo transcurrido hasta el inicio de la sedestación, necesidad de analgésicos postoperatorios, efectos secundarios y los costes económicos farmacéuticos en cada grupo. Resultados: La eficacia analgésica y el grado de satisfacción fueron significativamente mayores en los pacientes con bloqueos nerviosos (EVA medio 2,14±1,24, satisfacción 3,75±0,8 que en los que solo recibieron analgesia intravenosa (EVA medio 5,57±0,64, satisfacción 2,83±0,7 (p<0,001, con una duración superior a las 24h (p<0,01 y un menor consumo de analgésicos suplementarios y otros fármacos que en el grupo A, por lo que tuvieron menos reacciones adversas (p<0,01, iniciaron la rehabilitación más precozmente (31,2±5,01h vs 44,62±7,9h (p<0,001 y supusieron un menor coste económico farmacéutico (13,26±6,34€/paciente vs 30,26±1,88€/paciente no encontrándose complicaciones en la realización de los bloqueos. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre la eficacia de ambos bloqueos, evolución de los EVAs medio, grado de satisfacción ni gasto económico entre los pacientes que recibieron alg

  17. Grassmann Averages for Scalable Robust PCA

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    As the collection of large datasets becomes increasingly automated, the occurrence of outliers will increase—“big data” implies “big outliers”. While principal component analysis (PCA) is often used to reduce the size of data, and scalable solutions exist, it is well-known that outliers can arbitrarily corrupt the results. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art approaches for robust PCA do not scale beyond small-to-medium sized datasets. To address this, we introduce the Grassmann Average (GA), whic...

  18. Five-year experience of critical incidents associated with patient-controlled analgesia in an Irish University Hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, I

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a common and effective means of managing post-operative pain. We sought to identify factors that may lead to critical incidents (CIs) in patient safety when using PCA in our institution. METHODS: An observational study of prospectively collected data of patients who received PCA from 2002 to 2006 was performed. All CIs were documented and analysed by staff members of the acute pain service (APS). Cause analysis of CIs was undertaken to determine if measures can be instituted to prevent recurrence of similar events. RESULTS: Over eight thousand patients (8,240) received PCA. Twenty-seven CIs were identified. Eighteen were due to programming errors. Other CIs included co-administration of opioids and oversedation. CONCLUSION: In our institution, the largest contributory factor to CIs with PCAs was programming error. Strategies to minimize this problem include better education and surveillance.

  19. Insuficiência renal aguda após uso de imunoglobulina intravenosa para tratamento de miocardite

    OpenAIRE

    Pordeus, Vitor; Tostes,Andréa; Mesquita,Cláudio Tinoco; Mady, Charles; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco

    2005-01-01

    Mulher de 60 anos com quadro de insuficiência cardíaca classe funcional III/IV (NYHA) de etiologia imuno-mediada (miocardite autoimune). Após tentativas terapêuticas sem sucesso, foi utilizada imunoglobulina intravenosa, deteriorando a função renal, complicação rara desta terapia. Após hemodiálise a paciente recuperou a função renal e ocorreu melhora da insuficiência cardíaca crônica para classe funcional I.

  20. Patient controlled intravenous analgesia with tramadol for labor pain relief

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙健晶; 岳云

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and analgesic efficacy of patient controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) with tramadol, and to compare its benefits and risks with combined spinal-epidural analgesia (CSEA)+ patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA). Methods Eighty American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) Ⅰ-Ⅱ at term parturients in active labor were randomly divided into 3 groups: the control group (n=30) received no analgesia; group A (n=30) received spinal administration with ropivacaine 2.5 mg and fentanyl 5 μg, then with PCEA; group B (n=20) received 1 mg/kg tramadol loading dose I.v.. PCIA with 0.75% tramadol and it included: PCA dose 2 ml, lockout time 10 minutes, background infusion 2 ml/h, total dose no more than 400 mg. The intensity of pain was evaluated using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Results Both group A and B showed good pain relief. VAS pain scores were significantly decreased in group A and B compared with those in the control group (P<0.01). In comparison with group B, the VAS pain scores decreased in group A (P<0.05). The onset times of analgesia in group A were shorter than those in group B (P<0.05). Apgar scores in group B were lower than those in group A (P<0.05). The periods of second stage of labor in group A were longer than those in the control group and group B (P<0.05). The cesarean delivery rate was significantly higher in the control group (16.7%) than in group A (3.3%) and group B (5.0%), but it did not differ between group A and B. There were no significant differences in vital signs, fetal heart rate, degree of motor block, and uterine contractions among the 3 groups. Conclusions PCIA with tramadol is now a useful alternative when patients are not candidates for CSEA for labor, or do not want to have a neuraxial block anesthesia. However, sometimes it may not provide satisfactory analgesic effect.

  1. Escolha de veias periféricas para terapia intravenosa em recém-nascidos pela equipe de enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria Rêgo Maciel Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementar la terapia intravenosa en el recién nacido es compleja y desafiadora. Se planteó identificar la eleccíón de venas periféricas para la punción venosa en el recién nacido y describir los criterios adoptados por el equipo de enfermería al elegir esos vasos, en una Unidad de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal de Río de [aneiro, Brasil. Fueron entrevistados 10 profesionales de enfermería, de mayo a junio de 2007. El análisis temático originó las categorías: Elección de la vena periférica en RJ.\\J; Prioridades del equipo de enfermería; Criterios adoptados y dificultades enfrentadas al elegir las venas para punción venosa periférica. Las venas del arco dorsal de la mano fueron las primeras elegidas y las epícraneales las de última elección. Los criterios de elección fueron visualización, facilidad, durabilidad y fármaco infundido. Las dificultades enfrentadas para realizar terapia intravenosa en RJ.'\\J fueron: el desgaste de la red venosa y el dolor advenido de las múltiples punciones.

  2. MEDICAMENTOS UTILIZADOS NA TERAPIA INTRAVENOSA PEDIÁTRICA: UM ESTUDO SOBRE COMBINAÇÕES POTENCIALMENTE INTERATIVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Silva de Souza Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos fueron: identificar y clasificar los principales fármacos administrados por vía intravenosa en las prescripciones de las unidades pediátricas y verificar la ocurrencia de interacciones medicamentosas potenciales. Investigación exploratoria descriptiva, con enfoque cuantitativo. La populación fue de 1248 prescripciones pediátricas y amuestra de 205, con el criterio de inclusión: prescripciones con terapia intravenosa de dos o más fármacos. La coleta de datos ocurrió en el Archivo Médico de un Hospital Universitario. Se verificó que la mayoría de los medicamentos usados presentó potencial interactivo; 60 % de la amuestra fueron expuestas a coadministración de antimicrobianos, siendo la vancomicina el agente más presente, todos los niños hicieron uso de un antimicrobiano durante el periodo de internación. Se concluye que la coadministración de fármacos potencialmente interactivos asociada al aplazamiento simultáneo de horarios en la administración de eses agentes podría predisponer el paciente a eventos indeseados, afectando, así, la seguranza de la terapia.

  3. Comparação de ibuprofeno via oral e indometacina intravenosa no tratamento da persistência do canal arterial em neonatos com extremo baixo peso ao nascer Comparison of oral ibuprofen and intravenous indomethacin for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Mi Yang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Existem poucos relatórios publicados com relação à eficácia do ibuprofeno via oral no tratamento da persistência do canal arterial (PCA em neonatos com extremo baixo peso ao nascer (EBPN. Comparamos o ibuprofeno via oral à indometacina intravenosa no que diz respeito à eficácia e segurança no tratamento de PCA em neonatos com peso inferior a 1.000 g ao nascer. MÉTODO: Este foi um estudo retrospectivo em um único centro. Coletamos dados de neonatos com EBPN que tiveram PCA ecocardiograficamente confirmada. Os neonatos foram tratados tanto com indometacina intravenosa quanto com ibuprofeno via oral. A taxa de fechamento do canal, a necessidade de tratamentos adicionais, os efeitos colaterais ou as complicações relacionadas ao medicamento e a mortalidade foram comparados entre os dois grupos de tratamento. RESULTADO: Examinamos 26 neonatos que receberam indometacina e 22 que receberam ibuprofeno. A taxa geral de fechamento do canal foi semelhante nos dois tratamentos: o fechamento do canal ocorreu em 23 dos 26 neonatos (88,5% no grupo indometacina, e em 18 dos 22 neonatos (81,8% no grupo ibuprofeno (p = 0,40. A taxa de ligadura cirúrgica (11,5% em comparação a 18,2%; p = 0,40 não diferiu de forma significativa entre os dois grupos de tratamento. Após o tratamento, não foi encontrada nenhuma diferença significativa nas concentrações de creatinina sérica entre os dois grupos. Não houve diferenças significativas com relação a efeitos colaterais ou complicações adicionais. CONCLUSÃO: Em neonatos com EBPN, o ibuprofeno via oral é tão eficaz quanto a indometacina intravenosa no tratamento da PCA. Não há diferenças entre os medicamentos no que diz respeito à segurança. O ibuprofeno via oral poderia ser usado como um agente alternativo no tratamento da PCA em neonatos com EBPN.OBJECTIVE: There are few published reports concerning the efficacy of oral ibuprofen for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus

  4. Patient controlled analgesia with remifentanil versus epidural analgesia in labour : randomised multicentre equivalence trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freeman, Liv M; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W; Franssen, Maureen T; Papatsonis, Dimitri N; Hajenius, Petra J; Hollmann, Markus W; Woiski, Mallory D; Porath, Martina; van den Berg, Hans J; van Beek, Erik; Borchert, Odette W H M; Schuitemaker, Nico; Sikkema, J Marko; Kuipers, A H M; Logtenberg, Sabine L M; van der Salm, Paulien C M; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Lopriore, Enrico; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske; le Cessie, Saskia; van Lith, Jan M; Struys, Michel M; Mol, Ben Willem J; Dahan, Albert; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Oude Rengerink, K

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine women's satisfaction with pain relief using patient controlled analgesia with remifentanil compared with epidural analgesia during labour. DESIGN: Multicentre randomised controlled equivalence trial. SETTING: 15 hospitals in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Women with an interm

  5. Information criterion based fast PCA adaptive algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jiawen; Li Congxin

    2007-01-01

    The novel information criterion (NIC) algorithm can find the principal subspace quickly, but it is not an actual principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm and hence it cannot find the orthonormal eigen-space which corresponds to the principal component of input vector.This defect limits its application in practice.By weighting the neural network's output of NIC, a modified novel information criterion (MNIC) algorithm is presented.MNIC extractes the principal components and corresponding eigenvectors in a parallel online learning program, and overcomes the NIC's defect.It is proved to have a single global optimum and nonquadratic convergence rate, which is superior to the conventional PCA online algorithms such as Oja and LMSER.The relationship among Oja, LMSER and MNIC is exhibited.Simulations show that MNIC could converge to the optimum fast.The validity of MNIC is proved.

  6. Imaging Prostate Cancer (PCa) Phenotype and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    it inhibited aconitase activity or expression. On the other hand, no changes were detected at any time in the rate of incorporation of 2-13C-acetate...deplete the tumor of iron. Decreases in tumor iron concentration induced by DFP are expected to be detectable by MRI using spin echo T2 (spin-spin...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0386 TITLE: Imaging Prostate Cancer (PCa) Phenotype and Evolution PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jason A. Koutcher

  7. Placebo analgesia: understanding the mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, Zev M; Colloca, Luana

    2015-01-01

    Expectations of pain relief drive placebo analgesia. Understanding how expectations of improvement trigger distinct biological systems to shape therapeutic analgesic outcomes has been the focus of recent pharmacologic and neuroimaging studies in the field of pain. Recent findings indicate that placebo effects can imitate the actions of real painkillers and promote the endogenous release of opioids and nonopioids in humans. Social support and observational learning also contribute to placebo analgesic effects. Distinct psychological traits can modulate expectations of analgesia, which facilitate brain pain control mechanisms involved in pain reduction. Many studies have highlighted the importance and clinical relevance of these responses. Gaining deeper understanding of these pain modulatory mechanisms has important implications for personalizing patient pain management.

  8. Administration of paracetamol versus dipyrone by intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for postoperative pain relief in children after tonsillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Sener

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We compared the efficacy of intravenous (IV paracetamol versus dipyrone via patient-controlled analgesia (PCA for postoperative pain relief in children. METHODS: The study was composed of 120 children who had undergone elective tonsillectomy after receiving general anesthesia. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the dosage of postoperative intravenous-patient-controlled analgesia: paracetamol, dipyrone, or placebo. Pain was evaluated using a 0- to 100-mm visual analog scale and 1- to 4-pain relief score at 30 min, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h postoperatively. Pethidine (0.25 mg kg-1 was administered intravenously to patients requiring rescue analgesia. Pethidine requirements were recorded during the first 24 h postoperatively, and treatment related adverse effects were noted. RESULTS: Postoperative visual analog scale scores were significantly lower with paracetamol group compared with placebo group at 6 h (p 0.05. Postoperative pethidine requirements were significantly lower with paracetamol and dipyrone groups compared with placebo group (62.5%, 68.4% vs 90%, p 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Paracetamol and dipyrone have well tolerability profile and effective analgesic properties when administered IV-PCA for postoperative analgesia in children after tonsillectomy.

  9. The experience of labour with epidural analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Ingrid; Keller, Kurt Dauer

    2014-01-01

    of the epidural analgesia as high, in general, their satisfaction with labour is unchanged or even lower when epidural analgesia is used. Question: How do women experience being in labour with epidural analgesia, and what kind of midwifery care do they, consequently, need? Methods: A field study and semi......-structured interviews were conducted on a phenomenological basis. Nine nulliparous women were observed from initiation of epidural analgesia until birth of their baby. They were interviewed the day after the birth and again 2 months later. The involved midwives were interviewed 2–3 h after the birth. Findings......: Initiation of epidural analgesia can have considerable implications for women’s experience of labour. Two different types of emotional reactions towards epidural analgesia are distinguished, one of which is particularly marked by a subtle sense of worry and ambivalence. Another important finding refers...

  10. Efficacy of trans abdominis plane block for post cesarean delivery analgesia: A double-blind, randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The transverse abdominis plane (TAP block, a regional block provides effective analgesia after lower abdominal surgeries if used as part of multimodal analgesia. In this prospective, randomized double-blind study, we determined the efficacy of TAP block in patients undergoing cesarean section. Materials and Methods: Totally, 62 parturients undergoing cesarean section were randomized in a double-blind manner to receive either bilateral TAP block at the end of surgery with 20 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine or no TAP block, in addition to standard analgesic comprising 75 mg diclofenac 8 hourly and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA tramadol. Each patient was assessed at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after surgery by an independent observer for pain at rest and on movement using numeric rating scale of 0-10, time of 1 st demand for tramadol, total consumption of PCA tramadol, satisfaction with pain management and side effects. Results: Use of tramadol was reduced in patients given TAP block by 50% compared to patients given no block during 48 h after surgery (P < 0.001. Pain scores were lower both on rest and activity at each time point for 24 h in study group (P < 0.001, time of first analgesia was significantly longer, satisfaction was higher, and side effects were less in study group compared to control group. Conclusion: Transverse abdominis plane block was effective in providing analgesia with a substantial reduction in tramadol use during 48 h after cesarean section when used as adjunctive to standard analgesia.

  11. Pharmacogenomic considerations in opioid analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuilleumier PH

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pascal H Vuilleumier,1 Ulrike M Stamer,1 Ruth Landau21Klinik für Anästhesiologie und Schmerztherapie, Inselspital Universität Bern, Switzerland; 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Translating pharmacogenetics to clinical practice has been particularly challenging in the context of pain, due to the complexity of this multifaceted phenotype and the overall subjective nature of pain perception and response to analgesia. Overall, numerous genes involved with the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of opioids response are candidate genes in the context of opioid analgesia. The clinical relevance of CYP2D6 genotyping to predict analgesic outcomes is still relatively unknown; the two extremes in CYP2D6 genotype (ultrarapid and poor metabolism seem to predict pain response and/or adverse effects. Overall, the level of evidence linking genetic variability (CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 to oxycodone response and phenotype (altered biotransformation of oxycodone into oxymorphone and overall clearance of oxycodone and oxymorphone is strong; however, there has been no randomized clinical trial on the benefits of genetic testing prior to oxycodone therapy. On the other hand, predicting the analgesic response to morphine based on pharmacogenetic testing is more complex; though there was hope that simple genetic testing would allow tailoring morphine doses to provide optimal analgesia, this is unlikely to occur. A variety of polymorphisms clearly influence pain perception and behavior in response to pain. However, the response to analgesics also differs depending on the pain modality and the potential for repeated noxious stimuli, the opioid prescribed, and even its route of administration.Keywords: pain perception, opioid analgesia, genetic variation, pharmacogenetics

  12. Placebo analgesia: understanding the mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Medoff, Zev M; Colloca, Luana

    2015-01-01

    Expectations of pain relief drive placebo analgesia. Understanding how expectations of improvement trigger distinct biological systems to shape therapeutic analgesic outcomes has been the focus of recent pharmacologic and neuroimaging studies in the field of pain. Recent findings indicate that placebo effects can imitate the actions of real painkillers and promote the endogenous release of opioids and nonopioids in humans. Social support and observational learning also contribute to placebo a...

  13. Cost of opioid intravenous patient-controlled analgesia: results from a hospital database analysis and literature assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer P

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pamela Palmer,1 Xiang Ji,2 Jennifer Stephens21AcelRx Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Redwood City, CA, 2Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, USABackground: Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA equipment and opioid cost analyses on specific procedures are lacking. This study estimates the intravenous PCA hospital cost for the first 48 postoperative hours for three inpatient surgeries.Methods: Descriptive analyses using the Premier database (2010–2012 of more than 500 US hospitals were conducted on cost (direct acquisition and indirect cost for the hospital, such as overhead, labor, pharmacy services of intravenous PCA after total knee/hip arthroplasty (TKA/THA or open abdominal surgery. Weighted average cost of equipment and opioid drug and the literature-based cost of adverse events and complications were aggregated for total costs.Results: Of 11,805,513 patients, 272,443 (2.3%, 139,275 (1.2%, and 195,062 (1.7% had TKA, THA, and abdominal surgery, respectively, with approximately 20% of orthopedic and 29% of abdominal patients having specific intravenous PCA database cost entries. Morphine (57% and hydromorphone (44% were the most frequently used PCA drugs, with a mean cost per 30 cc syringe of $16 (30 mg and $21 (6 mg, respectively. The mean number of syringes used for morphine and hydromorphone in the first 48 hours were 1.9 and 3.2 (TKA, 2.0 and 4.2 (THA, and 2.5 and 3.9 (abdominal surgery, respectively. Average costs of PCA pump, intravenous tubing set, and drug ranged from $46 to $48, from $20 to $22, and from $33 to $46, respectively. Pump, tubing, and saline required to maintain patency of the intravenous PCA catheter over 48 hours ranged from $9 to $13, from $8 to $9, and from $20 to $22, respectively. Supplemental non-PCA opioid use ranged from $56 for THA to $87 for abdominal surgery. Aggregated mean intravenous PCA equipment and opioid cost per patient were $196 (THA, $204 (TKA, and $243 (abdominal surgery. Total costs, including

  14. Comparação de lornoxicam e fentanil adicionados à lidocaína em anestesia regional intravenosa

    OpenAIRE

    Nezih Sertoz; Nazan Kocaoglu; Hilmi Ö. Ayanoğlu

    2013-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVO: Comparar os efeitos analgésicos nos períodos intra e pós-operatório de lornoxicam e fentanil adicionados à lidocaína para anestesia regional intravenosa (ARIV) em um grupo de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de mão. MÉTODOS: Estudo randômico, duplo-cego e controlado. Foram incluídos e randomizados 45 pacientes em três grupos: o Grupo I recebeu 3 mg.kg-1 de lidocaína a 2% (40 mL); o Grupo II recebeu 3 mg.kg-1 de lidocaína (38 mL) + 2 mL de lornoxicam; o Grupo III receb...

  15. Grassmann Averages for Scalable Robust PCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Feragen, Aasa; Black, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    arbitrarily corrupt the results. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art approaches for robust PCA do not scale beyond small-to-medium sized datasets. To address this, we introduce the Grassmann Average (GA), which expresses dimensionality reduction as an average of the subspaces spanned by the data. Because averages...... to vectors (subspaces) or elements of vectors; we focus on the latter and use a trimmed average. The resulting Trimmed Grassmann Average (TGA) is particularly appropriate for computer vision because it is robust to pixel outliers. The algorithm has low computational complexity and minimal memory requirements...

  16. Analgesia adjuvante e alternativa Analgesia adyuvante y alternativa Adjuvant and alternative analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Bezerra do Vale

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Embora a dor aguda e a crônica sejam habitualmente controladas com intervenções farmacológicas, 14 métodos complementares de analgesia adjuvante e alternativa (AAA podem reduzir o uso e abuso na prescrição de analgésicos e diminuir os efeitos colaterais que eventualmente comprometem o estado fisiológico do paciente. CONTEÚDO: Todos os mecanismos antiálgicos atuam através da via espinal de controle da comporta de Melzack e Wall e/ou através da transdução do sinal nos sistemas de neurotransmissão e neuromodulação central relacionados com analgesia, relaxamento e humor: peptidérgico, monaminérgico, gabaérgico, colinérgico e canabinóide. A analgesia adjuvante complementar é habitualmente utilizada nos tratamentos fisiátricos, ortopédicos, reumatológicos, obstétricos e com acupuntura. A analgesia alternativa complementar pode potencializar os métodos analgésicos convencionais, a exposição à luz do sol matutino, luz e cores sob luz artificial, o tempo (T - anestésicos gerais mais potentes à noite, opióides de manhã e anestésicos locais à tarde, dieta, bom humor e riso, espiritualidade, religião, meditação, musicoterapia, hipnose e efeito placebo. CONCLUSÕES: Se a dor aguda é um mecanismo de defesa, a dor crônica é um estado patológico desagradável relacionado com a depressão endógena e a uma baixa qualidade de vida. É importante estabelecer relações interdisciplinares entre a Medicina adjuvante e alternativa nas terapias analgésicas e antiinflamatórias clássicas.JUSTIFICACIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: Aunque el dolor agudo y el crónico sean habitualmente controlados con intervenciones farmacológicas, 14 métodos complementarios de analgesia adyuvante y alternativa (AAA pueden reducir el uso y el abuso en la prescripción de analgésicos y disminuir los efectos colaterales que eventualmente comprometen el estado fisiológico del paciente. CONTENIDO: Todos los mecanismos anti

  17. PCA-induced respiratory depression simulating stroke following endoluminal repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Javed

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To report a case of severe respiratory depression with PCA fentanyl use simulating stroke in a patient who underwent routine elective endoluminal graft repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA Case presentation A 78-year-old obese lady underwent routine endoluminal graft repair for AAA that was progressively increasing in size. Following an uneventful operation postoperative analgesia was managed with a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA device with fentanyl. On the morning following operation the patient was found to be unusually drowsy and unresponsive to stimuli. Her GCS level was 11 with plantars upgoing bilaterally. A provisional diagnosis of stroke was made. Urgent transfer to a high-dependency unit (HDU was arranged and she was given ventilatory support with a BiPap device. CT was performed and found to be normal. Arterial blood gas (ABG analysis showed respiratory acidosis with PaCO2 81 mmHg, PaO2 140 mmHg, pH 7.17 and base excess -2 mmol/l. A total dose of 600 mcg of fentanyl was self-administered in the 16 hours following emergence from general anaesthesia. Naloxone was given with good effect. There was an increase in the creatinine level from 90 μmol/L preoperatively to 167 μmol/L on the first postoperative day. The patient remained on BiPap for two days that resulted in marked improvement in gas exchange. Recovery was complete.

  18. APPLICATION OF LORNOXICAM TO PATIENT-CONTROLLED ANALGESIA IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING ABDOMINAL SURGERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zhao; Tie-hu Ye; Zhi-yi Gong; Yang Xue; Zhang-gang Xue; Wen-qi Huang

    2005-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of lomoxicam, one non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in patientcontrolled analgesia (PCA) in patients undergoing abdominal surgeries.Methods Thirty-nine patients scheduled for abdominal surgeries were randomly assigned to different PCA treatment groups using either lomoxicam or fentanyl postoperatively. Pain intensity difference (PID) and sum of pain intensity difference (SPID) were used to assess the analgesic efficacy of both drugs during a 24-hour period.Results The analgesic efficacy of lornoxicam is 1/66 of fentanyl, which was shown by SPID value of 3.250 and 3.058,respectively (P > 0.05). Lornoxicam caused fewer adverse events than fentanyl (33% vs. 68%, P < 0.05).Conclusion In clinic, we can use lomoxicam to treat postoperative pain effectively and with less adverse reactions compared with fentanyl.

  19. A Patient-Controlled Analgesia Adaptor to Mitigate Postsurgical Pain for Combat Casualties With Multiple Limb Amputation: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquina, Paul F; Isaacson, Brad M; Johnson, Elizabeth; Rhoades, Daniel S; Lindholm, Mark P; Grindle, Garrett G; Cooper, Rory A

    2016-08-01

    The use of explosive armaments during Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn has resulted in a significant number of injured U.S. service members. These weapons often generate substantial extremity trauma requiring multiple surgical procedures to preserve life, limb, and restore function. For those individuals who require multiple surgeries, the use of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) devices can be an effective way to achieve adequate pain management and promote successful rehabilitation and recovery during inpatient treatment. A subpopulation of patients are unable to independently control a PCA device because of severe multiple limb dysfunction and/or loss. In response to the needs of these patients, our team designed and developed a custom adaptor to assist service members who would otherwise not be able to use a PCA. Patient feedback of the device indicated a positive response, improved independence, and overall satisfaction during inpatient hospitalization.

  20. Improved PCA + LDA Applies to Gastric Cancer Image Classification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Lan; Lv, Wenya; Zhang, Xu; Meng, Xiuming

    Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) are two most widely used pattern recognition methods in the field of feature extraction,while PCA + LDA is often used in image recognition.Here,we apply PCA + LDA to gastric cancer image feature classification, but the traditional PCA + LDA dimension reduction method has good effect on the training sample dimensionality and clustering, the effect on test samples dimension reduction and clustering is very poor, that is, the traditional PCA + LDA exists Generalization problem on the test samples. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an improved PCA + LDA method, which mainly considers from the LDA transform; improves the traditional PCA + LDA;increase the generalization performance of LDA on test samples and increases the classification accuracy on test samples. The experiment proves that the method can achieve good clustering.

  1. Considerações sobre analgesia controlada pelo paciente em hospital universitário Consideraciones sobre analgesia controlada por el paciente en hospital universitario Patient controlled analgesia in a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Antônio Moreira de Barros

    2003-02-01

    ás utilizado (54,2%, siendo la vía peridural la que tiene preferencia (49,5%. La escala numérica verbal media fue de 0,8 (0-10. Los efectos colaterales ocurrieron en 22,4% de los enfermos tratados. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados fueron considerados excelentes en lo que se refiere a la calidad de la analgesia, no obstante con ocurrencia de efectos colaterales indeseables, siendo que hubo buena aceptación de la técnica de analgesia por las clínicas atendidas.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The rapid development seen in recent years in surgical and anesthetic techniques allowed for an increased indication of invasive procedures. At the same time, with the aging of the population, the postoperative recovery period became the focus of major concern for the healthcare team. For such, new analgesic techniques were developed, among them, Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA. In Brazil, the Acute Pain Service (SEDA of the Anesthesiology Department, Botucatu Medical School - UNESP, has been using PCA for many years. Aiming at verifying the quality of the service provided, this research has evaluated the efficacy and safety of the technique, in addition to identifying and characterizing patients submitted to PCA. METHODS: Participated in this retrospective study 679 patients treated by SEDA with the PCA method only, during a 3-year period. Patients were randomly included in the study with no restrictions concerning age, gender and type of surgery, considering only the possibility of PCA. The following parameters were evaluated: gender, age, type of surgery, pain score, treatment duration, analgesic drugs used, administration route, side effects and complications. RESULTS: The PCA technique was used in 3.96% of patients submitted to surgical procedures and in 1.64% of all hospitalized patients. Thoracic surgeries were the most frequent procedures and accounted for 25% of patients. Morphine was the most commonly used analgesics (54.2% and the epidural route was the most frequent route of

  2. The evaluation of efficacy and safety of paravertebral block for perioperative analgesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paravertebral block is a popular regional anesthetic technique used for perioperative analgesia in multiple surgical procedures. There are very few randomized trials of its use in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in medical literature. This study was aimed at assessing its efficacy and opioid-sparing potential in this surgery. Methods: Fifty patients were included in this prospective randomized study and allocated to two groups: Group A (25 patients receiving general anesthesia alone and Group B (25 patients receiving nerve-stimulator-guided bilateral thoracic Paravertebral Block (PVB at T6 level with 0.3 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine prior to induction of general anesthesia. Intraoperative analgesia was supplemented with fentanyl (0.5 μg/kg based on hemodynamic and clinical parameters. Postoperatively, patients in both the groups received Patient-Controlled Analgesia (PCA morphine for the first 24 hours. The efficacy of PVB was assessed by comparing intraoperative fentanyl requirements, postoperative VAS scores at rest, and on coughing and PCA morphine consumption between the two groups. Results: Intraoperative supplemental fentanyl was significantly less in Group B compared to Group A (17.6 μg and 38.6 μg, respectively, P =0.001. PCA morphine requirement was significantly low in the PVB group at 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively compared to that in Group A (4.4 mg vs 6.9 mg, 7.6 mg vs 14.2 mg, 11.6 mg vs 20.0 mg, 16.8 mg vs 27.2 mg, respectively; P <0.0001 at all intervals. Conclusion: Pre-induction PVB resulted in improved analgesia for 24 hours following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in this study, along with a significant reduction in perioperative opioid consumption and opioid-related side effects.

  3. Analgesia regional em cuidados intensivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Guedes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVAS E OBJETIVOS: A analgesia regional desempenha um papel importante na abordagem multimodal da dor no doente crítico e permite amenizar o desconforto do doente e reduzir os estresses fisiológico e psicológico associados. Ao diminuir as doses de opioides sistêmicos, reduz alguns dos seus efeitos colaterais, como a síndrome de abstinência, possíveis alterações psicológicas e disfunção gastrintestinal. Apesar desses benefícios, seu uso é controverso, uma vez que os doentes em unidades de cuidados intensivos apresentam frequentemente contraindicações, como coagulopatia, instabilidade hemodinâmica e dificuldade na avaliação neurológica e na execução da técnica regional. CONTEÚDO: Os autores apresentam uma revisão sobre analgesia regional em cuidados intensivos, com foco nas principais vantagens e limitações de seu uso no doente crítico, e descrevem as técnicas regionais mais usadas e a sua aplicabilidade nesse contexto.

  4. Image Fusion Using Pca in Cs Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Sadeghi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Compressive sampling (CS, also called Compressed Sensing, has generated a tremendous amount of excitement in the image processing community. It provides an alternative to Shannon/Nyquist sampling when the signal under acquisition is known to be sparse or compressible. In this paper, we propose a new efficient image fusion method for compressed sensing imaging. In this method, we calculate the twodimensional discrete cosine transform of multiple input images, these achieved measurements are multiplied with sampling filter, so compressed images are obtained. we take inverse discrete cosine transform of them. Finally, fused image achieves from these results by using PCA fusion method. This approach also is implemented for multi-focus and noisy images. Simulation results show that our methodprovides promising fusion performance in both visual comparison and comparison using objective measures. Moreover, because this method does not need to recovery process the computational time is decreased very much.

  5. Nonlinear peculiar-velocity analysis and PCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekel, A. [and others

    2001-02-20

    We allow for nonlinear effects in the likelihood analysis of peculiar velocities, and obtain {approximately}35%-lower values for the cosmological density parameter and for the amplitude of mass-density fluctuations. The power spectrum in the linear regime is assumed to be of the flat {Lambda}CDM model (h = 0:65, n = 1) with only {Omega}{sub m} free. Since the likelihood is driven by the nonlinear regime, we break the power spectrum at k{sub b} {approximately} 0.2 (h{sup {minus}1} Mpc){sup {minus}1} and fit a two-parameter power-law at k > k{sub b} . This allows for an unbiased fit in the linear regime. Tests using improved mock catalogs demonstrate a reduced bias and a better fit. We find for the Mark III and SFI data {Omega}{sub m} = 0.35 {+-} 0.09 with {sigma}{sub 8}{Omega}P{sub m}{sup 0.6} = 0.55 {+-} 0.10 (90% errors). When allowing deviations from {Lambda}CDM, we find an indication for a wiggle in the power spectrum in the form of an excess near k {approximately} 0.05 and a deficiency at k {approximately} 0.1 (h{sup {minus}1} Mpc){sup {minus}1}--a cold flow which may be related to a feature indicated from redshift surveys and the second peak in the CMB anisotropy. A {chi}{sup 2} test applied to principal modes demonstrates that the nonlinear procedure improves the goodness of fit. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) helps identifying spatial features of the data and fine-tuning the theoretical and error models. We address the potential for optimal data compression using PCA.

  6. Partial reinforcement, extinction, and placebo analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au Yeung, Siu Tsin; Colagiuri, Ben; Lovibond, Peter F; Colloca, Luana

    2014-06-01

    Numerous studies indicate that placebo analgesia can be established via conditioning procedures. However, these studies have exclusively involved conditioning under continuous reinforcement. Thus, it is currently unknown whether placebo analgesia can be established under partial reinforcement and how durable any such effect would be. We tested this possibility using electrocutaneous pain in healthy volunteers. Sixty undergraduates received placebo treatment (activation of a sham electrode) under the guise of an analgesic trial. The participants were randomly allocated to different conditioning schedules, namely continuous reinforcement (CRF), partial reinforcement (PRF), or control (no conditioning). Conditioning was achieved by surreptitiously reducing pain intensity during training when the placebo was activated compared with when it was inactive. For the CRF group, the placebo was always followed by a surreptitious reduction in pain during training. For the PRF group, the placebo was followed by a reduction in pain stimulation on 62.5% of trials only. In the test phase, pain stimulation was equivalent across placebo and no placebo trials. Both CRF and PRF produced placebo analgesia, with the magnitude of initial analgesia being larger after CRF. However, although the placebo analgesia established under CRF extinguished during test phase, the placebo analgesia established under PRF did not. These findings indicate that PRF can induce placebo analgesia and that these effects are more resistant to extinction than those established via CRF. PRF may therefore reflect a novel way of enhancing clinical outcomes via the placebo effect.

  7. Paediatric analgesia in an Emergency Department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, C

    2012-02-03

    Timely management of pain in paediatric patients in the Emergency Department (ED) is a well-accepted performance indicator. We describe an audit of the provision of analgesia for children in an Irish ED and the introduction of a nurse-initiated analgesia protocol in an effort to improve performance. 95 children aged 1-16 presenting consecutively to the ED were included and time from triage to analgesia, and the rate of analgesia provision, were recorded. The results were circulated and a nurse initiated analgesia protocol was introduced. An audit including 145 patients followed this. 55.6% of patients with major fractures received analgesia after a median time of 54 minutes, which improved to 61.1% (p = 0.735) after 7 minutes (p = 0.004). Pain score documentation was very poor throughout, improving only slightly from 0% to 19.3%. No child had a documented pain score, which slightly improved to 19.3%. We recommend other Irish EDs to audit their provision of analgesia for children.

  8. [Pneumoencephalotomography under diaz-analgesia and narco-analgesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, J L; Renou, A M; Boulard, G; Vernhiet, J; Nicod, J

    1978-01-01

    The authors reported 92 observations of anesthesia for gaseous encephalotomography interest the adult. The contrast produce is air. 49 under diazanalgesia and myoresolution. Diazepam, +Fentanyl, pancuronium bromide N2O to 60 p. 100. 25 under diazanalgesia and myoresolution. Diazepam, +Fentanyl, succinylcholine, N2O to 60 p. 100. 18 under narco-analgesia and myoresolution. +Fentyl, pancuronium bromide N2O to 60 p. 100. The conditions of the study are described in the first part. The results and their analysis permit the appreciation of: - the patient confort, the quality of the examination; -the respect of the hemodynamics for this examination, reputed to be "difficult"; -the immediatly noticeable diminution of side effects; -the absence of side effects; -the justification and interesting of the control ventilation; -the quality of waking up. In the conclusion the authors underline the interest of their different techniques and the possibility of using them in operations in sitting position in neurosurgery, and all important chirurgical intervention.

  9. Beyond textbook neuroanatomy: The syndrome of malignant PCA infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogela, Steven L; Gozal, Yair M; Rahme, Ralph; Zuccarello, Mario; Ringer, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Given its limited vascular territory, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) usually does not result in malignant infarction. Challenging this concept, we present 3 cases of unilateral PCA infarction with secondary malignant progression, resulting from extension into what would classically be considered the posterior middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Interestingly, these were true PCA infarctions, not "MCA plus" strokes, since the underlying occlusive lesion was in the PCA. We hypothesize that congenital and/or acquired variability in the distribution and extent of territory supplied by the PCA may underlie this rare clinical entity. Patients with a PCA infarction should thus be followed closely and offered early surgical decompression in the event of malignant progression.

  10. COMPARISON OF PATIENT-CONTROLLED ANALGESIA WITH TRAMADOL VS MORPHINE IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING ABDOMINAL GYNECOLOGICAL SURGERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚志毅; 叶铁虎; 于广祥; 秦小涛

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To compare the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with tramadol and with morphine for postoperative middle or severe pain. Methods. Fifty-nine patients, scheduled for elective hysterectomy or hysteromyomectomy, were ran domly divided into Group T (tramadol-treated group) and Group M (morphine-treated group). The 2 drugs were administered intravenously via a patient-controlled analgesia device till 24 h postoperatively. Efficacy was assessed by comparing total pain relief (TOTPAR) and the sum of pain intensity difference (SPID) values over 24 h. Results. Statistically significant equivalence of tramadol and morphine was shown by TOTPAR values (15.9+4.4 and 16.4+3.5, respectively) and SPID values (9.2+4.7 and 9.0±2.0, respectively) (P>0.05). Tramadol caused fewer adverse events than morphine(16.7% and 26.7% of patients, respectively). Conclusion. The analgesic efficacy of PCA with tramadol and with morphine were equivalent in the treatment of postoperative pain, and tramadol can cause slighter gastrointestinal adverse effects.

  11. SVD vs PCA: Comparison of Performance in an Imaging Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Oblefias

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of basis spectra from a spectral library is an important prerequisite of any compact imaging spectrometer. In this paper, we compare the basis spectra computed by singular-value decomposition (SVD and principal component analysis (PCA in terms of estimation performance with respect to resolution, presence of noise, intensity variation, and quantization error. Results show that SVD is robust in intensity variation while PCA is not. However, PCA performs better with signals of low signal-to-noise ratio. No significant difference is seen between SVD and PCA in terms of resolution and quantization error.

  12. PCA of PCA: Principal Component Analysis of Partial Covering Absorption in NGC 1365

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, M L; Fabian, A C; Risaliti, G

    2014-01-01

    We analyse 400 ks of XMM-Newton data on the active galactic nucleus NGC 1365 using principal component analysis (PCA) to identify model independent spectral components. We find two significant components and demonstrate that they are qualitatively different from those found in MCG?6-30-15 using the same method. As the variability in NGC 1365 is known to be due to changes in the parameters of a partial covering neutral absorber, this shows that the same mechanism cannot be the driver of variability in MCG-6-30-15. By examining intervals where the spectrum shows relatively low absorption we separate the effects of intrinsic source variability, including signatures of relativistic reflection, from variations in the intervening absorption. We simulate the principal components produced by different physical variations, and show that PCA provides a clear distinction between absorption and reflection as the drivers of variability in AGN spectra. The simulations are shown to reproduce the PCA spectra of both NGC 1365...

  13. Intranasal sufentanil/ketamine analgesia in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bettina Nygaard; Friis, Susanne M; Rømsing, Janne;

    2014-01-01

    The management of procedural pain in children ranges from physical restraint to pharmacological interventions. Pediatric formulations that permit accurate dosing, are accepted by children and a have a rapid onset of analgesia are lacking.......The management of procedural pain in children ranges from physical restraint to pharmacological interventions. Pediatric formulations that permit accurate dosing, are accepted by children and a have a rapid onset of analgesia are lacking....

  14. PCA for predicting quaternary structure of protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong WANG; Hongbin SHEN; Lixiu YAO; Jie YANG; Kuochen CHOU

    2008-01-01

    The number and arrangement of subunits that form a protein are referred to as quaternary structure. Knowing the quaternary structure of an uncharacterized protein provides clues to finding its biological function and interaction process with other molecules in a biological system. With the explosion of protein sequences generated in the Post-Genomic Age, it is vital to develop an automated method to deal with such a challenge. To explore this prob-lem, we adopted an approach based on the pseudo position-specific score matrix (Pse-PSSM) descriptor, proposed by Chou and Shen, representing a protein sample. The Pse-PSSM descriptor is advantageous in that it can combine the evolution information and sequence-correlated informa-tion. However, incorporating all these effects into a descriptor may cause 'high dimension disaster'. To over-come such a problem, the fusion approach was adopted by Chou and Shen. A completely different approach, linear dimensionality reduction algorithm principal component analysis (PCA) is introduced to extract key features from the high-dimensional Pse-PSSM space. The obtained dimension-reduced descriptor vector is a compact repre-sentation of the original high dimensional vector. The jack-knife test results indicate that the dimensionality reduction approach is efficient in coping with complicated problems in biological systems, such as predicting the quaternary struc-ture of proteins.

  15. Analgesia pós-operatória Postoperative analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Sílvia Beozzo Bassanezi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVAS E OBJETIVOS: A dor sempre foi uma das maiores preocupações do homem, entretanto, apesar dos progressos da ciência, ainda existem várias barreiras ao seu adequado tratamento, incluindo a falta de conhecimento por parte da equipe médica, sobre o mecanismo das diversas drogas e técnicas empregadas. O objetivo deste trabalho é abordar as principais drogas e técnicas empregadas no controle da dor pós-operatória, visando estimular o interesse sobre o assunto bem como aumentar a eficácia do tratamento dado aos pacientes. CONTEÚDO: Está ressaltada neste artigo, a importância da adequada analgesia pós-operatória, considerando as principais drogas e técnicas utilizadas no controle da dor, seus mecanismos de ação, posologias, vias de administração e efeitos colaterais, bem como a importância da integração de toda a equipe envolvida nos cuidados do paciente para o sucesso do tratamento. O tratamento inadequado da dor no pós-operatório não se justifica, pois há um arsenal considerável de drogas e técnicas analgésicas. O que se faz necessário, portanto, é que toda equipe, anestesistas, cirurgiões, e enfermeiros tenham conhecimento e estejam integrados na utilização deste arsenal.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pain has been one of the men's biggest worries. Despite of scientific progress there still exist many barriers in an adequate treatment of pain including the lack of knowledge of many drugs and pain management techniques. The objective of this study is to discuss the main drugs and analgesics process in an effort to stimulate our colleague interest about the subject and thus increasing treatment efficiency of our patients. CONTENTS: It is emphasized in this study the importance of an adequate postoperative analgesia discussing the main drugs and techniques used in pain management, their mechanism of action, dose, administration route and side effects of each drug. It is also pointed out the great importance

  16. Hypno-analgesia and acupuncture analgesia: a neurophysiological reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletu, B; Saletu, M; Brown, M; Stern, J; Sletten, I; Ulett, G

    1975-01-01

    The effects of hypnosis, acupuncture and analgesic drugs on the subjective experience of pain and on objective neurophysiological parameters were investigated. Pain was produced by brief electric stimuli on the wrist. Pain challengers were: hypnosis (induced by two different video tapes), acupuncture (at specific and unspecific loci, with and without electrical stimulation of the needles), morphine and ketamine. Evaluation of clinical parameters included the subjective experience of pain intensity, blood pressure, puls, temperature, psychosomatic symptoms and side effects. Neurophysiological parameters consisted of the quantitatively analyzed EEG and somatosensory evlked potential (SEP). Pain was significantly reduced by hypnosis, morphine and ketamine, but not during the control seesion. Of the four acupuncture techniques, only electro-acupuncture at specific loci significantly decreased pain. The EEG changes during hypnosis were dependent on the wording of the suggestion and were characterized by an increase of slow and a decrease of fast waves. Acupuncture induced just the opposite changes, which were most significant when needles were inserted at traditional specific sites and stimulated electrically. The evoked potential findings suggested that ketamine attenuates pain in the thalamo-cortical pathways, while hypnosis, acupuncture and morphine induce analgesia at the later CNS stage of stimulus processing. Finally some clinical-neurophysiological correlations were explored.

  17. Denoising by semi-supervised kernel PCA preimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Toke Jansen; Abrahamsen, Trine Julie; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    Kernel Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has proven a powerful tool for nonlinear feature extraction, and is often applied as a pre-processing step for classification algorithms. In denoising applications Kernel PCA provides the basis for dimensionality reduction, prior to the so-called pre......-image problem where denoised feature space points are mapped back into input space. This problem is inherently ill-posed due to the non-bijective feature space mapping. We present a semi-supervised denoising scheme based on kernel PCA and the pre-image problem, where class labels on a subset of the data points...... are used to improve the denoising. Moreover, by warping the Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS) we also account for the intrinsic manifold structure yielding a Kernel PCA basis that also benefit from unlabeled data points. Our two main contributions are; (1) a generalization of Kernel PCA...

  18. Resolving the Brainstem Contributions to Attentional Analgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jonathan C.W.; Davies, Wendy-Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Previous human imaging studies manipulating attention or expectancy have identified the periaqueductal gray (PAG) as a key brainstem structure implicated in endogenous analgesia. However, animal studies indicate that PAG analgesia is mediated largely via caudal brainstem structures, such as the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and locus coeruleus (LC). To identify their involvement in endogenous analgesia, we used brainstem optimized, whole-brain imaging to record responses to concurrent thermal stimulation (left forearm) and visual attention tasks of titrated difficulty in 20 healthy subjects. The PAG, LC, and RVM were anatomically discriminated using a probabilistic atlas. Pain ratings disclosed the anticipated analgesic interaction between task difficulty and pain intensity (p pain intensity. Intersubject analgesia scores correlated to activity within a distinct region of the RVM alone. These results identify distinct roles for a brainstem triumvirate in attentional analgesia: with the PAG activated by attentional load; specific RVM regions showing pronociceptive and antinociceptive processes (in line with previous animal studies); and the LC showing lateralized activity during conflicting attentional demands. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Attention modulates pain intensity, and human studies have identified roles for a network of forebrain structures plus the periaqueductal gray (PAG). Animal data indicate that the PAG acts via caudal brainstem structures to control nociception. We investigated this issue within an attentional analgesia paradigm with brainstem-optimized fMRI and analysis using a probabilistic brainstem atlas. We find pain intensity encoding in several forebrain structures, including the insula and attentional activation of the PAG. Discrete regions of the rostral ventromedial medulla bidirectionally influence pain perception, and locus coeruleus activity mirrors the interaction between attention and nociception. This approach has enabled the

  19. Remifentanil patient controlled analgesia versus epidural analgesia in labour. A multicentre randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Liv M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain relief during labour is a topic of major interest in the Netherlands. Epidural analgesia is considered to be the most effective method of pain relief and recommended as first choice. However its uptake by pregnant women is limited compared to other western countries, partly as a result of non-availability due to logistic problems. Remifentanil, a synthetic opioid, is very suitable for patient controlled analgesia. Recent studies show that epidural analgesia is superior to remifentanil patient controlled analgesia in terms of pain intensity score; however there was no difference in satisfaction with pain relief between both treatments. Methods/design The proposed study is a multicentre randomized controlled study that assesses the cost-effectiveness of remifentanil patient controlled analgesia compared to epidural analgesia. We hypothesize that remifentanil patient controlled analgesia is as effective in improving pain appreciation scores as epidural analgesia, with lower costs and easier achievement of 24 hours availability of pain relief for women in labour and efficient pain relief for those with a contraindication for epidural analgesia. Eligible women will be informed about the study and randomized before active labour has started. Women will be randomly allocated to a strategy based on epidural analgesia or on remifentanil patient controlled analgesia when they request pain relief during labour. Primary outcome is the pain appreciation score, i.e. satisfaction with pain relief. Secondary outcome parameters are costs, patient satisfaction, pain scores (pain-intensity, mode of delivery and maternal and neonatal side effects. The economic analysis will be performed from a short-term healthcare perspective. For both strategies the cost of perinatal care for mother and child, starting at the onset of labour and ending ten days after delivery, will be registered and compared. Discussion This study, considering cost

  20. Incidência de depressão respiratória no pós-operatório em pacientes submetidos à analgesia venosa ou peridural com opioides Incidencia de depresión respiratoria en el postoperatorio en pacientes sometidos a la analgesia venosa o epidural con opioides The incidence of postoperative respiratory depression in patients undergoing intravenous or epidural analgesia with opioids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Teixeira Domingues Duarte

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A analgesia controlada pelo paciente (PCA, por via venosa ou peridural, é técnica segura e eficaz no tratamento da dor pós-operatória. Todavia, o uso de opioides não é isento de risco, e a depressão respiratória é a complicação mais temida. Os objetivos deste estudo foram descrever a incidência de depressão respiratória associada à analgesia pós-operatória com opioides administrados por via peridural ou venosa e as características dos pacientes que apresentaram a complicação. MÉTODO: Estudo de incidência, retrospectivo, em pacientes operados no Hospital SARAH Brasília entre dezembro de 1999 e dezembro de 2007 e tratados com PCA com opioides por via venosa ou peridural. Foram definidos como casos de depressão respiratória: frequência respiratória JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La analgesia controlada por el paciente (PCA, por vía venosa o epidural, es una técnica segura y eficaz en el tratamiento del dolor postoperatorio. Sin embargo, el uso de opioides no está exento de riesgos y la depresión respiratoria es la complicación más temida. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron describir la incidencia de depresión respiratoria asociada a la analgesia postoperatoria con opioides administrados por vía epidural o venosa, y las características de los pacientes que presentaron la complicación. MÉTODO: Estudio de incidencia retrospectiva en pacientes operados en el Hospital SARAH Brasília entre diciembre de 1999 y diciembre de 2007 y tratados con PCA con opioides por vía venosa o epidural. Se definieron como casos de depresión respiratoria, frecuencia respiratoria d" 8 irpm, necesidad del uso de naloxona, o saturación periférica de oxígeno por debajo de un 90%. RESULTADOS: Fueron evaluados 2790 pacientes, de los cuales 635 pacientes recibieron PCA venosa y 2155, analgesia epidural. Se dieron siete casos de depresión respiratoria postoperatoria (incidencia de 0,25%. De ellos, seis pacientes

  1. Analgesia preventiva y multimodal con ketamina y dipirona en mastectomía radical por cáncer de mama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladys Justo Hernández

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El dolor agudo es frecuente en los pacientes que requieren intervención quirúrgica; su tratamiento satisfactorio es uno de los retos más importantes, presentando ventajas la terapéutica multimodal y preventiva. Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, prospectivo en 22 pacientes, a los que se les practicó mastectomía radical por cáncer de mama, con el objetivo de describir el uso de la analgesia multimodal y preventiva con ketalar y dipirona en el manejo del dolor posoperatorio de estos pacientes. La técnica anestésica utilizada fue total intravenosa, con propofol y fentanyl, dosis convencional. En el postoperatorio se vigiló la aparición de efectos colaterales. Los datos se colocaron en tablas de contingencia, procesados mediante el sistema de cálculos estadísticos que presenta Microsoft Excel. El análisis se realizó fundamentalmente a través de medidas de resúmenes, porcentaje y media aritmética. Se concluyó que la analgesia multimodal preventiva con ketamina y dipirona fue efectiva y segura en todos los casos, a los que se realizó radical de mama. Predominó el grupo de edad entre 46 y 65 años y ASA II. Las variables hemodinámicas y respiratorias se mantuvieron estables en todos los pacientes. No necesitaron analgesia de rescate. La somnolencia se manifestó en 13,6% de los casos.

  2. Effect of postoperative epidural analgesia on surgical outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, K; Holte, Kathrine

    2002-01-01

    Pain relief allowing sufficient mobilization after major surgical procedures can only be achieved by continuous epidural analgesia with local anesthetics, which also reduces the stress response to surgery. However, the role of postoperative epidural analgesia on postoperative morbidity is controv...

  3. Involvement of connexin 43 in acupuncture analgesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Guang-ying; ZHENG Cui-hong; YU Wei-chang; TIAN Dai-shi; WANG Wei

    2009-01-01

    Background Connexin 43 (Cx43) is one of the major components of human keratinocyte gap junctions. To study whether gap junctional intercellular communication participates in the transfer of acupoint signals and acupuncture analgesia, the expression of Cx43 was studied in Zusanli (ST36) acupoints compared with control non-acupoint regions in rats after acupuncture. In addition, Cx43 heterozygous gene knockout mice were used to further explore the relationship between Cx43 and acupuncture analgesia. Methods The expression of Cx43 was detected by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and RT-PCR for the Cx43 protein and mRNA. The influence of the Cx43 gene knockout on acupuncture analgesia was measured by a hot plate and observing the writhing response on Cx43 heterozygous gene knockout mice. Results Immunohistochemistry showed abundant Cx43 expression in some cells in the skin and subcutaneous tissue of rat ST36 acupoints. The mRNA and protein levels of Cx43 in acupoints were significantly higher than those in the control points in the non-acupuncture group, and even more so after acupuncture. The hot plate and writhing response experiments showed that partial knockout of the Cx43 gene decreased acupuncture analgesia. Conclusion Cx43 expression and acupuncture analgesia showed a positive correlation.

  4. Classification Accuracy of Neural Networks with PCA in Emotion Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novakovic Jasmina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents classification accuracy of neural network with principal component analysis (PCA for feature selections in emotion recognition using facial expressions. Dimensionality reduction of a feature set is a common preprocessing step used for pattern recognition and classification applications. PCA is one of the popular methods used, and can be shown to be optimal using different optimality criteria. Experiment results, in which we achieved a recognition rate of approximately 85% when testing six emotions on benchmark image data set, show that neural networks with PCA is effective in emotion recognition using facial expressions.

  5. PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS (PCA DAN APLIKASINYA DENGAN SPSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermita Bus Umar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available PCA (Principal Component Analysis are statistical techniques applied to a single set of variables when the researcher is interested in discovering which variables in the setform coherent subset that are relativity independent of one another.Variables that are correlated with one another but largely independent of other subset of variables are combined into factors. The Coals of PCA to which each variables is explained by each dimension. Step in PCA include selecting and mean measuring a set of variables, preparing the correlation matrix, extracting a set offactors from the correlation matrixs. Rotating the factor to increase interpretabilitv and interpreting the result.

  6. Bupivacaine versus lidocaine analgesia for neonatal circumcision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolik-Dollberg Orit C

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analgesia for neonatal circumcision was recently advocated for every male infant, and its use is considered essential by the American Academy of Pediatrics. We compared the post-operative analgesic quality of bupivacaine to that of lidocaine for achieving dorsal penile nerve block (DPNB when performing neonatal circumcision. Methods Data were obtained from 38 neonates following neonatal circumcision. The infants had received DPNB analgesia with either lidocaine or bupivacaine. The outcome variable was the administration by the parents of acetaminophen during the ensuing 24 hours. Results Seventeen infants received lidocaine and 19 received bupivacaine DPNB. Ten infants in the lidocaine group (59% were given acetaminophen following circumcision compared to only 3 (16% in the bupivacaine group (P 2 = 20.6; P = 0.006. Conclusion DPNB with bupivacaine for neonatal circumcision apparently confers better analgesia than lidocaine as judged by the requirement of acetaminophen over the ensuing 24-hour period.

  7. Epidural anaesthesia and analgesia for liver resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzimas, P; Prout, J; Papadopoulos, G; Mallett, S V

    2013-06-01

    Although epidural analgesia is routinely used in many institutions for patients undergoing hepatic resection, there are unresolved issues regarding its safety and efficacy in this setting. We performed a review of papers published in the area of anaesthesia and analgesia for liver resection surgery and selected four areas of current controversy for the focus of this review: the safety of epidural catheters with respect to postoperative coagulopathy, a common feature of this type of surgery; analgesic efficacy; associated peri-operative fluid administration; and the role of epidural analgesia in enhanced recovery protocols. In all four areas, issues are raised that question whether epidural anaesthesia is always the best choice for these patients. Unfortunately, the evidence available is insufficient to provide definitive answers, and it is clear that there are a number of areas of controversy that would benefit from high-quality clinical trials.

  8. Nerve injury caused by mandibular block analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, S; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-four injection injuries in 52 patients were caused by mandibular block analgesia affecting the lingual nerve (n=42) and/or the inferior alveolar nerve (n=12). All patients were examined with a standardized test of neurosensory functions. The perception of the following stimuli was assessed......: feather light touch, pinprick, sharp/dull discrimination, warm, cold, point location, brush stroke direction, 2-point discrimination and pain perception. Gustation was tested for recognition of sweet, salt, sour and bitter. Mandibular block analgesia causes lingual nerve injury more frequently than...

  9. Palmprint Recognition by Applying Wavelet-Based Kernel PCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Murat Ekinci; Murat Aykut

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a wavelet-based kernel Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method by integrating the Daubechies wavelet representation of palm images and the kernel PCA method for palmprint recognition. Kernel PCA is a technique for nonlinear dimension reduction of data with an underlying nonlinear spatial structure. The intensity values of the palmprint image are first normalized by using mean and standard deviation. The palmprint is then transformed into the wavelet domain to decompose palm images and the lowest resolution subband coefficients are chosen for palm representation.The kernel PCA method is then applied to extract non-linear features from the subband coefficients. Finally, similarity measurement is accomplished by using weighted Euclidean linear distance-based nearest neighbor classifier. Experimental results on PolyU Palmprint Databases demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves highly competitive performance with respect to the published palmprint recognition approaches.

  10. Análisis de la analgesia en la baja de combate: Experiencia de la Sanidad Militar española Analgesia in the management of the combat casualty: Experience of the Spanish Medical Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Navarro Suay

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes y Objetivos: La analgesia del herido ha jugado un papel trascendental en la medicina militar. En la actualidad, continúa siendo un reto médico, táctico y logístico dentro del tratamiento integral de la baja en combate. El objetivo de este estudio es valorar la homogeneidad de los fármacos analgésicos administrados, del momento de inicio del tratamiento, del número y tipos de vías de acceso para administración de analgesia, así como del tipo de anestesia realizada en las bajas por arma de fuego o por artefacto explosivo atendidas en el ROLE 2E español de Herat (Afganistán entre 2005 y 2008, siguiendo un índice de gravedad anatómico (NISS de las lesiones. Material y métodos: Se realiza un estudio observacional, retrospectivo, obteniendo una muestra de 256 pacientes. Resultados: Los fármacos analgésicos más empleados fueron los AINEs (73%, seguidos de los mórficos mayores (44%, coadyuvantes (29%, mórficos menores (21% y ketamina (12%. La analgesia se realizó a nivel prehospitalario en un 61% y a nivel intrahospitalario en un 31% de los casos. La vía de administración más frecuente fue la intravenosa (79%. En el 75% sólo se consiguió un acceso para medicación analgésica. El procedimiento anestésico más empleado fue la anestesia general (32%. Conclusiones: El tratamiento analgésico prestado a las bajas en combate de la muestra es homogéneo en cuanto a los fármacos empleados, el tipo y número de vías de administración conseguidas. Sin embargo es heterogéneo en cuanto al tipo de AINE elegido y al inicio en la administración de los fármacos analgésicos.Antecedents and Objectives: The analgesia of the wounded has played a vital role in military medicine. Nowadays it still is a medical, tactical and logistical challenge in the integral management of the combat casualty. The objective of this study is to evaluate the homogeneity of the analgesic drugs used, starting point of the treatment, number and

  11. PCA3: from basic molecular science to the clinical lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John R; Jost, Matthias; Reynolds, Mark A; Groskopf, Jack; Rittenhouse, Harry

    2011-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in the United States. Use of the serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) test to screen men for prostate cancer since the late 1980s has improved the early detection of prostate cancer, however low specificity of the test translates to numerous false positive results and many unnecessary biopsies. New biomarkers to aid in prostate cancer diagnosis are emerging and prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) is one such marker. PCA3 is a noncoding RNA that is highly over-expressed in prostate cancer tissue compared to benign tissue. A non-invasive test for PCA3 was developed using whole urine collected after a digital rectal exam (DRE). Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated the utility of PCA3 for the diagnosis of prostate cancer and some studies suggest that PCA3 may also have prognostic value. The use of PCA3 in combination with serum PSA and other clinical information enhances the diagnostic accuracy of prostate cancer detection and will enable physicians to make more informed decisions with patients at risk for prostate cancer.

  12. The effects of maternal labour analgesia on the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Felicity

    2010-06-01

    Maternal labour pain and stress are associated with progressive fetal metabolic acidosis. Systemic opioid analgesia does little to mitigate this stress, but opioids readily cross the placenta and cause fetal-neonatal depression and impair breast feeding. Pethidine remains the most widely used, but alternatives, with the possible exception of remifentanil, have little more to offer. Inhalational analgesia using Entonox is more effective and, being rapidly exhaled by the newborn, is less likely to produce lasting depression. Neuraxial analgesia has maternal physiological and biochemical effects, some of which are potentially detrimental and some favourable to the fetus. Actual neonatal outcome, however, suggests that benefits outweigh detrimental influences. Meta-analysis demonstrates that Apgar score is better after epidural than systemic opioid analgesia, while neonatal acid-base balance is improved by epidural compared to systemic analgesia and even compared to no analgesia. Successful breast feeding is dependent on many factors, therefore randomized trials are required to elucidate the effect of labour analgesia.

  13. Oxycodone versus fentanyl for intravenous patient-controlled analgesia after laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nan Seol; Lee, Jeong Seok; Park, Su Yeon; Ryu, Aeli; Chun, Hea Rim; Chung, Ho Soon; Kang, Kyou Sik; Chung, Jin Hun; Jung, Kyung Taek; Mun, Seong Taek

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Oxycodone, a semisynthetic thebaine derivative opioid, is widely used for the relief of moderate to severe pain. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and side effects of oxycodone and fentanyl in the management of postoperative pain by intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) in patients who underwent laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LSH). Methods: The 127 patients were randomized to postoperative pain treatment with either oxycodone (n = 64, group O) or fentanyl group (n = 63, group F). Patients received 7.5 mg oxycodone or 100 μg fentanyl with 30-mg ketorolac at the end of anesthesia followed by IV-PCA (potency ratio 75:1) for 48 hours postoperatively. A blinded observer assessed postoperative pain based on the numerical rating scale (NRS), infused PCA dose, patient satisfaction, sedation level, and side effects. Results: Accumulated IV-PCA consumption in group O was less (63.5 ± 23.9 mL) than in group F (85.3 ± 2.41 mL) during the first 48 hours postoperatively (P = 0.012). The NRS score of group O was significantly lower than that of group F at 4 and 8 hours postoperatively (P dizziness, and drowsiness was significantly higher in group O than in group F. Patient satisfaction was lower in group O than in group F during the 48 hours after surgery (P dizziness, and drowsiness, suggests that the doses used in this study were not equipotent. PMID:28272250

  14. Evaluation the effects of adding ketamine to morphine in intravenous patient-controlled analgesia after orthopedic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godrat Akhavanakbari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA with morphine is commonly used for post-operative pain after major surgery. Ketamine has analgesic property at lower doses, and in combination with opioids it could have synergistic effect. The aim of this study is to determine effects of the addition of ketamine to morphine for PCA after orthopedic surgery. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 60 patients were randomly allocated to receive PCA consisting: Group 1 (morphine 0.2 mg/ml, Group 2 (morphine 0.2 mg/ml + ketamine 1 mg/ml, and Group 3 (morphine 0.1 mg/ml + ketamine 2 mg/ml. In this, anesthesiologists managed study, patients had orthopedic surgery. Assessments were made at 24 h and 48 h post-operatively. Visual analog scale (VAS was used for recording pain score. PCA morphine use was recorded at 24 h and 48 h. VAS scores over 48 h were analyzed with analysis of variance for repeated measures. Significance level was taken as 0.05. Results: There is no significant difference between demographic information of the three groups ( P > 0.05. Control of pain in Group 2 and Group 3 was better than in Group 1 (only morphine ( P = 0.001 but there was no significant difference between Group 2 and Group 3 ( P > 0.05. Rate of narcotic consumption in groups 2 and 3 was significantly lower than Group 1 ( P < 0.05. Conclusion: After orthopedic surgery, the addition of ketamine to morphine for intravenous PCA was superior to Intravenous PCA opioid alone. The combination induces a significant reduction in pain score and cumulative morphine consumption.

  15. Neuraxial block and postoperative epidural analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leslie, K; McIlroy, D; Kasza, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We assessed associations between intraoperative neuraxial block and postoperative epidural analgesia, and a composite primary outcome of death or non-fatal myocardial infarction, at 30 days post-randomization in POISE-2 Trial subjects. METHODS: 10 010 high-risk noncardiac surgical pat...

  16. Avaliação da buprenorfina pelas vias intravenosa ou intramuscular em cães anestesiados pelo desfluorano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Almir Pereira de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar comparativamente os efeitos da buprenorfina, administrada pelas vias intramuscular(IM ou intravenosa (IV, sobre variáveis cardiovasculares, em cães anestesiados com desfluorano. Para tanto, foram utilizados dezesseis cães adultos, clinicamente saudáveis, distribuídos em dois grupos (n=8 denominados de GI e GII. Em ambos os grupos, a anestesia foi induzida com propofol (8 mg/kg, IV e em seguida os animais foram intubados com sonda orotraqueal de Magill, a qual foi conectada ao aparelho de anestesia volátil para administração de desfluorano (1,5 CAM. Após 30 minutos do início da anestesia inalatória, foi aplicado no GI buprenorfina na dose de 0,02 mg/kg pela via IV, enquanto no GII administrou-se o opióide na mesma dose porém pela via IM. Avaliaram-se: freqüência cardíaca (FC; pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média (PAS, PAD e PAM; débito cardíaco (DC; pressão venosa central (PVC e pressão da artéria pulmonar (PAP. As colheitas foram feitas nos seguintes momentos: M1 - 30 minutos após o início da anestesia inalatória antes da aplicação do opióide; M2 - 15 minutos após a administração da buprenorfina; M3, M4 e M5 - de 15 em 15 minutos após M2. A avaliação estatística dos dados foi efetuada por meio de Análise de Perfil (p<0,05. As variáveis PAS, PAM, DC, PVC e PAP, não apresentaram alterações significativas de seus valores em ambos os grupos. Entretanto, a FC e a PAD apresentaram reduções significativas após a administração do opióide apenas no GI. Assim, pôde-se concluir que a buprenorfina administrada pelas vias IV ou IM não interferiu nos índices cardiovasculares de forma a manifestar efeitos clínicos importantes em cães anestesiados com desfluorano.

  17. Toxicidad hepática recurrente secundaria a metilprednisolona intravenosa Recurrent acute liver toxicity from intravenous methyprednisolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rivero Fernández

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Las reacciones adversas hepáticas relacionadas con la administración de fármacos (hepatotoxicidad son cuadros relativamente frecuentes que presentan una amplia variabilidad clínica e histológica. La identificación precoz de estos cuadros es fundamental en la práctica clínica debido a su potencial gravedad. En la mayoría de los casos la suspensión del fármaco desencadenante es suficiente para la resolución del cuadro clínico. A pesar de que los esteroides son utilizados en una amplia variedad de situaciones clínicas, la notificación de cuadros de hepatotoxicidad secundaria a esteroides intravenosos es excepcional. Presentamos el caso clínico de una mujer diagnosticada de esclerosis múltiple, que recibió metilprednisolona a altas dosis en forma de "pulsos" intravenosos como tratamiento de las reagudizaciones de su enfermedad y presentó 3 brotes recurrentes de hepatitis de predominio hepatocelular con un patrón clínico, analítico e histológico compatible con toxicidad hepática aguda secundaria a metilprednisolona intravenosa. En el tercer episodio se realizó una biopsia hepática que demostró un patrón de hepatitis aguda con necrosis líticas confluentes, histología no descrita previamente en pacientes tratados con esteroides intravenosos.Adverse drug reactions (hepatotoxicity are a frequent cause of acute liver injury with a wide clinical and histological spectrum. An early recognition of drug-related liver disease has been considered essential in clinical practice due to potential risks. In most cases exposure discontinuation improves the clinical picture. Steroids are used in a variety of clinical settings. However, intravenous steroids have rarely been associated with hepatotoxicity. We report the case of a middle-aged woman with multiple sclerosis who received a bolus of methylprednisolone on three occasions for the management of relapsing disease, with the development of repeated episodes of elevated liver enzymes

  18. Comparison of the pro-postoperative analgesia of intraoperative dexmedetomidine with and without loading dose following general anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Yang, Haikou; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Jun; Li, Guangming; Zheng, Ying; Liu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Intraoperative dexemdetomidine (DEX) with or without loading dose is well-established to improve postoperative pain control in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). This study was designed to compare the pro-analgesia effect between the 2 in patients received general anesthesia. Seventy patients shceduced abdominal surgery under general anesthesia were randomly assigned into 3 groups which were maintained using propofol/remifentanil/Ringer solution (PRR), propofol/remifentanil/dexmedetomidine with (PRDw) or without (PRDo) a loading dose of dexmedetomidine before induction. PRDw/o patients displayed a greater Romsay sedation score measured immediately after surgery. When compared with PRR patients, those from the PRDw/o group had an increased time to first request of postoperative morphine and decreased 24 hours total morphine consumption. No significant difference was observed between patients from the PRDw and PRDo groups with respect to these parameters. The present study suggests that the administration of a DEX loading dose does not affect the pro-analgesic effect of intraoperative use of DEX on morphine-based PCA. PMID:28207529

  19. On a PCA-based lung motion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ruijiang; Lewis, John H; Jia Xun; Jiang, Steve B [Department of Radiation Oncology and Center for Advanced Radiotherapy Technologies, University of California San Diego, 3855 Health Sciences Dr, La Jolla, CA 92037-0843 (United States); Zhao Tianyu; Wuenschel, Sara; Lamb, James; Yang Deshan; Low, Daniel A [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Pl, St. Louis, MO 63110-1093 (United States); Liu Weifeng, E-mail: sbjiang@ucsd.edu [Amazon.com Inc., 701 5th Ave. Seattle, WA 98104 (United States)

    2011-09-21

    Respiration-induced organ motion is one of the major uncertainties in lung cancer radiotherapy and is crucial to be able to accurately model the lung motion. Most work so far has focused on the study of the motion of a single point (usually the tumor center of mass), and much less work has been done to model the motion of the entire lung. Inspired by the work of Zhang et al (2007 Med. Phys. 34 4772-81), we believe that the spatiotemporal relationship of the entire lung motion can be accurately modeled based on principle component analysis (PCA) and then a sparse subset of the entire lung, such as an implanted marker, can be used to drive the motion of the entire lung (including the tumor). The goal of this work is twofold. First, we aim to understand the underlying reason why PCA is effective for modeling lung motion and find the optimal number of PCA coefficients for accurate lung motion modeling. We attempt to address the above important problems both in a theoretical framework and in the context of real clinical data. Second, we propose a new method to derive the entire lung motion using a single internal marker based on the PCA model. The main results of this work are as follows. We derived an important property which reveals the implicit regularization imposed by the PCA model. We then studied the model using two mathematical respiratory phantoms and 11 clinical 4DCT scans for eight lung cancer patients. For the mathematical phantoms with cosine and an even power (2n) of cosine motion, we proved that 2 and 2n PCA coefficients and eigenvectors will completely represent the lung motion, respectively. Moreover, for the cosine phantom, we derived the equivalence conditions for the PCA motion model and the physiological 5D lung motion model (Low et al 2005 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63 921-9). For the clinical 4DCT data, we demonstrated the modeling power and generalization performance of the PCA model. The average 3D modeling error using PCA was within 1

  20. Multivariate analysis in dam monitoring data with PCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Given the limitation of traditional univariate analysis method in processing the multicollinearity of dam monitoring data,this paper reconstructs the multivariate response variables by introducing principal component analysis(PCA) method,explores the ways of determining principal components(PCs),and extracts a few PCs that have major influence on data variance.For steady observation series,a control field for the whole observation values has been established based upon PCA;for unsteady observation series that have significant tendency,a control field for the future observation values has been constructed according to PC statistical predication model.These methods have already been applied to an actual project and the results showed that data interpretation method with PCA can not only realize data reduction,lower data redundancy,and reduce noise and false alarm rate,but also be effective to data analysis,having a broad application prospect.

  1. 基于STATA的FA-DEA与PCA-DEA%Implementing FA-DEA and PCA-DEA in STATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭江平

    2015-01-01

    针对应用FA-DEA与PCA-DEA模型时,一般都需要同时使用统计分析软件与数据包络分析软件,提出了在STATA中的实现过程与方法,并进行了案例分析。方便了在实际应用过程中使用FA-DEA与PCA-DEA的过程,并为在统一STATA的环境下设计与应用新的数据包络法提供解决思路。%In general, the dimension reduction methods, such as FA and PCA, are implemented in statistical analysis software, but the data envelopment analysis is doing by DEA software. Simultaneously implementing FA-DEA and PCA-DEA all in STATA is puts forward, and an example is also listed. This approach will facilitate the process using FA-DEA and PCA-DEA in the practical application, and will provided a new solution in the STATA to design and application of data envelopment analysis.

  2. Analysis of PCA Method in Image Recognition with MATALAB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ping

    2014-01-01

    The growing need for effective biometric identification is widely acknowledged. Human face recognition is an important area in the field of biometrics. It has been an active area of research for several decades,but still remains a challenging problem because of the complexity of the human face. The Principal Component Analysis(PCA),or the eigenface method,is a de - facto standard in human face recognition. In this paper,the principle of PCA is introduced and the compressing and rebuilding of the image is accomplished with matlab program.

  3. A novel image fusion method using WBCT and PCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiguang Miao; Baoshu Wang

    2008-01-01

    A novel image fusion algorithm based on wavelet-based contourlet transform (WBCT)and principal component analysis(PCA)is proposed.The PCA method is adopted for the low-frequency components.Using the proposed algorithm to choose the greater of the active measures,the region consistency test is performed for the high-frequency components.Experiments show that the proposed method works better in preserving the edge and texture information than wavelet transform method and Laplacian pyramid (LP)method do in image fusion.Four indicators for the fusion image are given to compare the proposed method with other methods.

  4. Technology Marketing using PCA , SOM, and STP Strategy Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghae Jun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology marketing is a total processing about identifying and meeting the technological needs of human society. Most technology results exist in intellectual properties like patents. In our research, we consider patent document as a technology. So patent data are analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Self Organizing Map (SOM for STP(Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning strategy modeling. STP is a popular approach for developing marketing strategies. We use STP strategy modeling for technology marketing. Also PCA and SOM are used to analyze patent data in STP modeling. To verify improved performance of our study, we make experiments using patent data from USPTO.

  5. [Epidural analgesia in combination with general anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Antje; Poepping, Daniel M

    2015-07-01

    Epidural anaesthesia is a widely used and accepted technique for perioperative analgesia in different kinds of surgery. Apart from analgetic effect and due to wide positve effects on patients outcome epidural analgesia is often used with general anaesthesia. It represents a reliable and reversible neural deafferentation technique that effectively contributes to a reduction of the surgical stress response with subsequent positive effects on cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal, and immune function. Animal studies suggest that the use of epidural anaesthesia may be beneficial for cancer surgery because of less tumour recurrence. Further, a benefit is expected in patient's mortality. This article summarizes and critically discusses the current knowledge on the effects of epidural anaesthesia on pain management, cardiopulmonary as well as gastrointestinal functions and patient's outcome.

  6. Remifentanil for labor analgesia: an evidence-based narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, M; Carvalho, B

    2016-02-01

    This manuscript reviews the available literature on remifentanil patient-controlled intravenous analgesia in labor focusing on efficacy and safety. Remifentanil compares favorably to other potent systemic opioids but with fewer opioid-related neonatal effects. However, remifentanil provides modest and short-lasting labor analgesia that is consistently inferior when compared to neuraxial analgesia. The initial analgesic effect provided with remifentanil also diminishes as labor progresses. In several studies, remifentanil induced significant respiratory depressant effects in laboring women with episodes of desaturation, hypoventilation and even apnea. Given the safety concerns, we recommend that remifentanil patient-controlled intravenous analgesia should not be a routine analgesia technique during labor. In cases where neuraxial analgesia is refused or contraindicated and the use of remifentanil justified, continuous and careful monitoring is required to detect respiratory depression to provide safe care of both the pregnant woman and unborn child.

  7. DD3(PCA3)-based molecular urine analysis for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, D.; Klein Gunnewiek, J.M.T.; Oort, I.M. van; Karthaus, H.F.M.; Leenders, G.J.L.H. van; Balken, B. van; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Witjes, J.A.; Schalken, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: DD3(PCA3) is the most prostate cancer-specific gene described to date. To assess the clinical utility of DD3(PCA3) a time-resolved fluorescence-based, quantitative RT-PCR analysis for DD3(PCA3) was developed. METHODS: The diagnostic potential of DD3(PCA3) was determined by quantitative

  8. Epidural Analgesia in the Postoperative Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    epidurally. They are opiods and local anesthetics. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of each class are different, and they may act...overall pharmacodynamics of the drug. Epidural Opioids Brown (2000) states that opioids are one class of drug that may be used for epidural analgesia...morphine with lidocaine or bupivacaine with the effects of these medications when administered alone in mice. They used various tests to measure

  9. Sedation and analgesia in gastrointestinal endoscopy: What’s new?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lorella; Fanti; Pier; Alberto; Testoni

    2010-01-01

    Various types of sedation and analgesia technique have been used during gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures.The best methods for analgesia and sedation during gastrointestinal endoscopy are still debated.Providing an adequate regimen of sedation/analgesia might be considered an art,influencing several aspects of endoscopic procedures: the quality of the examination,the patient’s cooperation and the patient’s and physician’s satisfaction with the sedation.The properties of a model sedative agent for endosc...

  10. Sedation and analgesia in gastrointestinal endoscopy: What’s new?

    OpenAIRE

    Fanti, Lorella; Testoni, Pier Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Various types of sedation and analgesia technique have been used during gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures. The best methods for analgesia and sedation during gastrointestinal endoscopy are still debated. Providing an adequate regimen of sedation/analgesia might be considered an art, influencing several aspects of endoscopic procedures: the quality of the examination, the patient’s cooperation and the patient’s and physician’s satisfaction with the sedation. The properties of a model sedat...

  11. Hands-and-knees positioning during labor with epidural analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stremler, Robyn; Halpern, Stephen; Weston, Julie; Yee, Jennifer; Hodnett, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Hands-and-knees position has shown promise as an intervention to improve labor and birth outcomes, but no reports exist that examine its use with women laboring with epidural analgesia. Concerns of safety, effects on analgesia, and acceptability of use may limit use of active positioning during labor with regional analgesia. This article presents a case study series of 13 women who used hands-and-knees position in the first stage of labor.

  12. Intrathecal analgesia and palliative care: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen S Salins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal analgesia is an interventional form of pain relief with definite advantages and multiple complications. Administration of intrathecal analgesia needs a good resource setting and expertise. Early complications of intrathecal analgesia can be very distressing and managing these complications will need a high degree of knowledge, technical expertise and level of experience. Pain control alone cannot be the marker of quality in palliative care. A holistic approach may need to be employed that is more person and family oriented.

  13. Offset analgesia is reduced in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, Kelly M; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Fillingim, Roger B; Riley, Joseph L

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that aging is associated with dysfunctional changes in pain modulatory capacity, potentially contributing to increased incidence of pain in older adults. However, age-related changes in offset analgesia (offset), a form of temporal pain inhibition, remain poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to investigate age differences in offset analgesia of heat pain in healthy younger and older adults. To explore the peripheral mechanisms underlying offset, an additional aim of the study was to test offset at 2 anatomical sites with known differences in nociceptor innervation. A total of 25 younger adults and 20 older adults completed 6 offset trials in which the experimental heat stimulus was presented to the volar forearm and glabrous skin of the palm. Each trial consisted of 3 continuous phases: an initial 15-second painful stimulus (T1), a slight increase in temperature from T1 for 5 seconds (T2), and a slight decrease back to the initial testing temperature for 10 seconds (T3). During each trial, subjects rated pain intensity continuously using an electronic visual analogue scale (0-100). Older adults demonstrated reduced offset compared to younger adults when tested on the volar forearm. Interestingly, offset analgesia was nonexistent on the palm for all subjects. The reduced offset found in older adults may reflect an age-related decline in endogenous inhibitory systems. However, although the exact mechanisms underlying offset remain unknown, the absence of offset at the palm suggests that peripheral mechanisms may be involved in initiating this phenomenon.

  14. LABOUR ANALGESIA: EPIDURAL DEXMEDITOMIDINE WITH EITHER BUPIVACAINE OR ROPIVACAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varaprasad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain relief in labour is associated with myths and controversies. Providing effective and safe analgesia has remained a challenge. AIM: The purpose of the study was to compare the effect of analgesia with epidural bupivacain or ropivacain along with dexme ditomidine. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Sixty parturients of ASA grade I and II were randomly selected for the study. Each group consisted of thirty patients. The analgesia, motor loss and level of sedation were studied. RESULTS: There was no significant differ ence between the two groups in maternal satisfaction, analgesia and neonatal outcome .

  15. Selective REM Sleep Deprivation Improves Expectation-Related Placebo Analgesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Chouchou

    Full Text Available The placebo effect is a neurobiological and psychophysiological process known to influence perceived pain relief. Optimization of placebo analgesia may contribute to the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of medication for acute and chronic pain management. We know that the placebo effect operates through two main mechanisms, expectations and learning, which is also influenced by sleep. Moreover, a recent study suggested that rapid eye movement (REM sleep is associated with modulation of expectation-mediated placebo analgesia. We examined placebo analgesia following pharmacological REM sleep deprivation and we tested the hypothesis that relief expectations and placebo analgesia would be improved by experimental REM sleep deprivation in healthy volunteers. Following an adaptive night in a sleep laboratory, 26 healthy volunteers underwent classical experimental placebo analgesic conditioning in the evening combined with pharmacological REM sleep deprivation (clonidine: 13 volunteers or inert control pill: 13 volunteers. Medication was administered in a double-blind manner at bedtime, and placebo analgesia was tested in the morning. Results revealed that 1 placebo analgesia improved with REM sleep deprivation; 2 pain relief expectations did not differ between REM sleep deprivation and control groups; and 3 REM sleep moderated the relationship between pain relief expectations and placebo analgesia. These results support the putative role of REM sleep in modulating placebo analgesia. The mechanisms involved in these improvements in placebo analgesia and pain relief following selective REM sleep deprivation should be further investigated.

  16. Selective REM Sleep Deprivation Improves Expectation-Related Placebo Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchou, Florian; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Rainville, Pierre; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2015-01-01

    The placebo effect is a neurobiological and psychophysiological process known to influence perceived pain relief. Optimization of placebo analgesia may contribute to the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of medication for acute and chronic pain management. We know that the placebo effect operates through two main mechanisms, expectations and learning, which is also influenced by sleep. Moreover, a recent study suggested that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is associated with modulation of expectation-mediated placebo analgesia. We examined placebo analgesia following pharmacological REM sleep deprivation and we tested the hypothesis that relief expectations and placebo analgesia would be improved by experimental REM sleep deprivation in healthy volunteers. Following an adaptive night in a sleep laboratory, 26 healthy volunteers underwent classical experimental placebo analgesic conditioning in the evening combined with pharmacological REM sleep deprivation (clonidine: 13 volunteers or inert control pill: 13 volunteers). Medication was administered in a double-blind manner at bedtime, and placebo analgesia was tested in the morning. Results revealed that 1) placebo analgesia improved with REM sleep deprivation; 2) pain relief expectations did not differ between REM sleep deprivation and control groups; and 3) REM sleep moderated the relationship between pain relief expectations and placebo analgesia. These results support the putative role of REM sleep in modulating placebo analgesia. The mechanisms involved in these improvements in placebo analgesia and pain relief following selective REM sleep deprivation should be further investigated.

  17. [Application of PCA to diesel engine oil spectrometric analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Tian, Hong-Xiang; Guo, Wen-Yong

    2010-03-01

    In order to study wear characteristics of a 6-cylinder diesel engine, six different working statuses were arranged by altering the clearance between cylinder and piston. Sixty-nine oil samples were taken from engine at different loads under 6 working statuses and analyzed by Spectroil M Instrument made in US. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to analyzing spectrometric data of sixty-nine oil samples and clustering those data according to elements and oil samples separately based on the weighted coefficient and principal component scores. All 21 elements were used in element clustering and only 6 wear-related elements, namely iron, chromium, aluminum, copper, plumbum and silicon, were used in sample clustering. It is shown that PCA effectively clustered oil spectrometric data into three different principal components according to elements. The projection of two different principal components exhibited five types of elements combinations, namely wear elements (Fe, Cr, Cu, Al and Pb), high concentration additives elements (Na, Zn, P, Ca and Mg), low concentration additives elements (Ba and B), base constituent of lubricating oils (C and H) and interferential elements (Ni, Ti, Mo, V, Ag and Sn). Furthermore, PCA clearly clustered oil samples according to different clearance between cylinder and piston in the diesel engine. The study suggests that analyzing oil spectrographic data by PCA could find the sources of different elements, monitor engine conditions and diagnose wear faults.

  18. Adaptive partitioning PCA model for improving fault detection and isolation☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kangling Liu; Xin Jin; Zhengshun Fei; Jun Liang

    2015-01-01

    In chemical process, a large number of measured and manipulated variables are highly correlated. Principal com-ponent analysis (PCA) is widely applied as a dimension reduction technique for capturing strong correlation un-derlying in the process measurements. However, it is difficult for PCA based fault detection results to be interpreted physical y and to provide support for isolation. Some approaches incorporating process knowledge are developed, but the information is always shortage and deficient in practice. Therefore, this work proposes an adaptive partitioning PCA algorithm entirely based on operation data. The process feature space is partitioned into several sub-feature spaces. Constructed sub-block models can not only reflect the local behavior of process change, namely to grasp the intrinsic local information underlying the process changes, but also improve the fault detection and isolation through the combination of local fault detection results and reduction of smearing effect. The method is demonstrated in TE process, and the results show that the new method is much better in fault detection and isolation compared to conventional PCA method.

  19. 24 CFR 401.451 - PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PAE Physical Condition Analysis... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.451 PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). (a) Review and certification of owner evaluation. (1) The PAE must independently evaluate the physical...

  20. DCT-PCA Based Watermarking on E-governance Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maheswari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study an efficient copyright protection scheme for e-governance documents has been proposed. The proposed method uses Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and Principal Component Analysis (PCA to watermark the digital content. Experimental results show that the proposed method offers high imperceptibility and also the watermark is extracted perfectly.

  1. PCA-Based Speech Enhancement for Distorted Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Takiguchi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated a robust speech feature extraction method using kernel PCA (Principal Component Analysis for distorted speech recognition. Kernel PCA has been suggested for various image processing tasks requiring an image model, such as denoising, where a noise-free image is constructed from a noisy input image. Much research for robust speech feature extraction has been done, but it remains difficult to completely remove additive or convolution noise (distortion. The most commonly used noise-removal techniques are based on the spectraldomain operation, and then for speech recognition, the MFCC (Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient is computed, where DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform is applied to the mel-scale filter bank output. This paper describes a new PCA-based speech enhancement algorithm using kernel PCA instead of DCT, where the main speech element is projected onto low-order features, while the noise or distortion element is projected onto high-order features. Its effectiveness is confirmed by word recognition experiments on distorted speech.

  2. A Hold-out method to correct PCA variance inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Moreno, Pablo; Artes-Rodriguez, Antonio; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the problem of variance inflation experienced by the PCA algorithm when working in an ill-posed scenario where the dimensionality of the training set is larger than its sample size. In an earlier article a correction method based on a Leave-One-Out (LOO) procedure was int...

  3. Avaliação do efeito trombogênico da perfusão regional intravenosa com gentamicina em equinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Rafael

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A extremidade distal dos equinos é frequentemente afetada por processos sépticos de difícil tratamento. A perfusão regional intravenosa de antimicrobianos é uma opção de tratamento para esses processos, pois aumenta a concentração do fármaco no local mediante pequenas doses. Entretanto, apesar de ser muito utilizada recentemente, ainda apresenta várias questões. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as possíveis complicações da técnica, com o uso da gentamicina na dose de 2,2mg/kg na veia cefálica de equinos. Utilizaram-se 15 equinos hígidos divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos de cinco animais: grupo somente com torniquete (GT, grupo que recebeu 40mL de solução fisiológica (GSF e grupo que recebeu gentamicina na dose de 2,2mg/kg, acrescida de solução fisiológica até completar o volume de 40mL (GSG. O membro perfundido foi avaliado por termografia e ultrassonografia duplex em cores ao longo do tempo. Os dados foram submetidos à análise pelos testes de Tukey e de Dunnett, e o nível de significância adotado foi de P<0,05. Todos os grupos apresentaram escore trombótico zero, e não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos quanto ao diâmetro médio da veia e da temperatura dos membros. A antibiose intravenosa regional com 2,2mg/kg de gentamicina, em dose única, não acarretou o desenvolvimento de trombose na veia cefálica.

  4. 基于CUDA的PCA-SIFT算法研究%Study of PCA-SIFT algorithm based on CUDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申昊; 孙永奇

    2012-01-01

    主成分不变特征检测算法PCA-SIFT被广泛应用于图像特征的检测。本文利用最新的图形处理单元(GPU)并行架构和统一计算设备架构(CUDA)灵活的编程性,提出了一种基于CUDA的快速PCA-SIFT特征检测算法。实验结果表明,与CPU架构下的算法相比,本文设计的算法能够在保证特征检测结果不变的情况下获得3-5倍的加速。%The feature detection algorithms based on the principal component invariant PCA-SIFT are widely used in image feature detection. Using the latest graphics processing unit (GPU) and compute unified device architecture (CUDA) which has flexiblility in the programming, a rapid PCA-SIFT feature detection algorithm based on CUDA is designed in this paper. The experimental results show that compared with the algorithm on CPU architecture, the speedup of the algorithm based on CUDA is 3-5 under the condition of the same results of feature detection.

  5. Remifentanil patient controlled analgesia versus epidural analgesia in labour. A multicentre randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freeman, Liv M.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Franssen, Maureen T. M.; Papatsonis, Dimitri N. M.; Hajenius, Petra J.; van Huizen, Marloes E.; Bremer, Henk A.; van den Akker, Eline S. A.; Woiski, Mallory D.; Porath, Martina M.; van Beek, Erik; Schuitemaker, Nico; van der Salm, Paulien C. M.; Fong, Bianca F.; Radder, Celine; Bax, Caroline J.; Sikkema, Marko; van den Akker-van Marle, M. Elske; van Lith, Jan M. M.; Lopriore, Enrico; Uildriks, Renske J.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Dahan, Albert; Middeldorp, Johanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pain relief during labour is a topic of major interest in the Netherlands. Epidural analgesia is considered to be the most effective method of pain relief and recommended as first choice. However its uptake by pregnant women is limited compared to other western countries, partly as a res

  6. Labor analgesia: An update on the effect of epidural analgesia on labor outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the introduction of epidural for labor analgesia, debate has centered on the issue of its effect on outcome of labor; in terms of length of labor and increase in the rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and cesarean section (CS. There is no ideal study on the effect of epidural analgesia (EA on the outcome of labor due to logistic problems in randomization, blinding and getting a control group; as a result these queries are partly answered. Despite these problems, it has been established that labor epidural has minimal effect on progress of established labor and maternal request should be a sufficient indication to start an epidural. Although instrumental vaginal delivery is probably increased with epidural but obstetrician practice, pain free patient and teaching opportunity are likely factors increasing the incidence. Maternal-fetal factors and obstetric management and not the use of EA are the most important determinants of the CS rate. The purpose of this review is to summarize data from controlled trials addressing the question of whether neuraxial labor analgesia causes an increased risk of CS or rate of instrumental delivery. In addition, the review discusses whether the timing of initiation of analgesia infl uences the mode of delivery.

  7. Predisposing factors for peripheral intravenous puncture failure in children Factores predisponentes para fracaso de la punción intravenosa periférica en niños Fatores predisponentes para insucesso da punção intravenosa periférica em crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cavalcante de Negri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify predisposing factors for peripheral intravenous puncture failure in children. METHODS: Cross-sectional cohort study conducted with 335 children in a pediatric ward of a university hospital after approval of the ethics committee. The Wald Chi-squared, Prevalence Ratio (PR and backward procedure (p≤0.05 tests were applied. RESULTS: Success of peripheral intravenous puncture was obtained in 300 (89.5% children and failure in 35 (10.4%. The failure rates were significantly influenced by: presence of clinical history of difficult venous access, malnourishment, previous use of peripherally inserted central venous catheter, previous use of central venous catheter, and history of phlebitis or infiltration. In the multivariate model, being malnourished and having previously been submitted to central venous catheterization were the predisposing factors for the failure. CONCLUSION: The failure rate of 10.4% is similar to that identified in analogous studies and was influenced by characteristics of the children and intravenous therapy. In association with this, malnutrition and previous use of a central venous catheter were the most important variables influencing increase in peripheral intravenous puncture failure.OBJETIVO: Verificar factores predisponentes para el fracaso de la punción intravenosa periférica realizada en niños. MÉTODO: Estudio de cohorte transversal realizado con 335 niños internados en unidad pediátrica de un hospital universitario, después de la aprobación del mérito ético. Se utilizaron testes Jue-cuadrado de Wald, Razón de Superioridad (RP y procedimiento de backward (p≤0,05. RESULTADOS: se evidenció éxito de la punción en 300 (89,5% niños e fracaso en 35 (10,4%. Influenciaron significantemente las proporciones de fracaso: presentar historia clínica para dificultad en la punción, estar desnutrido, uso previo de catéter central de inserción periférica, uso previo de catéter venoso central

  8. Influence of adrenergic and cholinergic mechanisms in baclofen induced analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, L; Rifo, J; Contreras, E

    1988-01-01

    1. Baclofen induced analgesia was confirmed by means of the mouse hot plate test. 2. Physostigmine significantly increased the response to baclofen whilst neostigmine was ineffective. Baclofen analgesia was reduced by atropine. 3. The response to baclofen was increased by the administration of tolazoline, propranolol and nadolol. In contrast, the analgesic response to morphine was attenuated by the antiadrenergic drugs phenoxybenzamine, tolazoline and nadolol.

  9. Effect of postoperative epidural analgesia on surgical outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, K; Holte, Kathrine

    2002-01-01

    epidural analgesia significantly lowers the risk of thromboembolic complications after lower body procedures, while no effect is seen after major abdominal surgery. Unfortunately, many studies have inadequate study design, with use of lumbar epidural analgesia for abdominal procedures, or the epidural...

  10. ZAP -- Enhanced PCA Sky Subtraction for Integral Field Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Soto, Kurt T; Bacon, Roland; Richard, Johan; Conseil, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Zurich Atmosphere Purge (ZAP), an approach to sky subtraction based on principal component analysis (PCA) that we have developed for the Multi Unit Spectrographic Explorer (MUSE) integral field spectrograph. ZAP employs filtering and data segmentation to enhance the inherent capabilities of PCA for sky subtraction. Extensive testing shows that ZAP reduces sky emission residuals while robustly preserving the flux and line shapes of astronomical sources. The method works in a variety of observational situations from sparse fields with a low density of sources to filled fields in which the target source fills the field of view. With the inclusion of both of these situations the method is generally applicable to many different science cases and should also be useful for other instrumentation. ZAP is available for download at http://muse-vlt.eu/science/tools.

  11. Human Gait Recognition Based on Kernel PCA Using Projections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Murat Ekinci; Murat Aykut

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for human identification at a distance using gait recognition. Recog- nition of a person from their gait is a biometric of increasing interest. The proposed work introduces a nonlinear machine learning method, kernel Principal Component Analysis (PCA), to extract gait features from silhouettes for individual recognition. Binarized silhouette of a motion object is first represented by four 1-D signals which are the basic image features called the distance vectors. Fourier transform is performed to achieve translation invariant for the gait patterns accumulated from silhouette sequences which are extracted from different circumstances. Kernel PCA is then used to extract higher order relations among the gait patterns for future recognition. A fusion strategy is finally executed to produce a final decision. The experiments are carried out on the CMU and the USF gait databases and presented based on the different training gait cycles.

  12. Video watermarking with empirical PCA-based decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilian, Hanieh; Bajic, Ivan V

    2013-12-01

    A new method for video watermarking is presented in this paper. In the proposed method, data are embedded in the LL subband of wavelet coefficients, and decoding is performed based on the comparison among the elements of the first principal component resulting from empirical principal component analysis (PCA). The locations for data embedding are selected such that they offer the most robust PCA-based decoding. Data are inserted in the LL subband in an adaptive manner based on the energy of high frequency subbands and visual saliency. Extensive testing was performed under various types of attacks, such as spatial attacks (uniform and Gaussian noise and median filtering), compression attacks (MPEG-2, H. 263, and H. 264), and temporal attacks (frame repetition, frame averaging, frame swapping, and frame rate conversion). The results show that the proposed method offers improved performance compared with several methods from the literature, especially under additive noise and compression attacks.

  13. CUDA Based Speed Optimization of the PCA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Görgünoğlu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Principal Component Analysis (PCA is an algorithm involving heavy mathematical operations with matrices. The data extracted from the face images are usually very large and to process this data is time consuming. To reduce the execution time of these operations, parallel programming techniques are used. CUDA is a multipurpose parallel programming architecture supported by graphics cards. In this study we have implemented the PCA algorithm using both the classical programming approach and CUDA based implementation using different configurations. The algorithm is subdivided into its constituent calculation steps and evaluated for the positive effects of parallelization on each step. Therefore, the parts of the algorithm that cannot be improved by parallelization are identified. On the other hand, it is also shown that, with CUDA based approach dramatic improvements in the overall performance of the algorithm arepossible.

  14. Nonstationary multiscale turbulence simulation based on local PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghi, Alessandro; Cenedese, Angelo; Masiero, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    Turbulence simulation methods are of fundamental importance for evaluating the performance of control strategies for Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. In order to obtain a reliable evaluation of the performance a statistically accurate turbulence simulation method has to be used. This work generalizes a previously proposed method for turbulence simulation based on the use of a multiscale stochastic model. The main contributions of this work are: first, a multiresolution local PCA representation is considered. In typical operating conditions, the computational load for turbulence simulation is reduced approximately by a factor of 4, with respect to the previously proposed method, by means of this PCA representation. Second, thanks to a different low resolution method, based on a moving average model, the wind velocity can be in any direction (not necessarily that of the spatial axes). Finally, this paper extends the simulation procedure to generate, if needed, turbulence samples by using a more general model than that of the frozen flow hypothesis.

  15. Copenhagen uPAR prostate cancer (CuPCa) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Solvej; Berg, Kasper D; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) plays a central role during cancer invasion by facilitating pericellular proteolysis. We initiated the prospective 'Copenhagen uPAR Prostate Cancer' study to investigate the significance of uPAR levels in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. METHODS......PAR(I) levels were significantly higher in hormone-naive and castrate-resistant patients compared with patients with localized disease (both: p

  16. Relationship between analgesia and turnover of brain biogenic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensemana, D; Gascon, A L

    1978-10-01

    The analgesic activity of morphine, delta9THC, and sodium salicylate was studied concomitantly with changes in brainstem and cortex turnover of dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), and serotonin (5HT). The results show that a correlation exists between the presence of analgesia and the increased turnover rates of the three biogenic amines. Morphine and sodium salicylate induced analgesia is accompanied by an increased turnover rate of all three biogenic amines; delta9THC-induced analgesia is accompanied by an increased turnover rate of DA and 5HT only. There is, however, no consistent relationship between the degree of analgesia and the degree of change in the turnover rates. The existence of the endogenous morphine-like substances, endorphines, may explain why morphine analgesia is distinct from that of delta9THC and sodium salicylate. The possible relationship between this morphine-like substance and biogenic amines is discussed.

  17. Epidural analgesia for labour: maternal knowledge, preferences and informed consent.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-29

    Epidural analgesia has become increasingly popular as a form of labour analgesia in Ireland. However obtaining true inform consent has always been difficult. Our study recruited 100 parturients who had undergone epidural analgesia for labour, aimed to determine the information they received prior to regional analgesia, and to ascertain their preferences regarding informed consent. Only 65 (65%) of patients planned to have an epidural. Knowledge of potential complications was variable and inaccurate, with less than 30 (30%) of women aware of the most common complications. Most women 79 (79%) believed that discomfort during labour affected their ability to provide informed consent, and believe consent should be taken prior to onset of labour (96, 96%). The results of this study helps define the standards of consent Irish patients expect for epidural analgesia during labour.

  18. ToF-SIMS PCA analysis of Myrtus communis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, F. M.; Dettori, M. F.; Magnani, A.

    2009-06-01

    Nowadays there is a growing interest of researchers for the application of sophisticated analytical techniques in conjunction with statistical data analysis methods to the characterization of natural products to assure their authenticity and quality, and for the possibility of direct analysis of food to obtain maximum information. In this work, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) in conjunction with principal components analysis (PCA) are applied to study the chemical composition and variability of Sardinian myrtle ( Myrtus communis L.) through the analysis of both berries alcoholic extracts and berries epicarp. ToF-SIMS spectra of berries epicarp show that the epicuticular waxes consist mainly of carboxylic acids with chain length ranging from C20 to C30, or identical species formed from fragmentation of long-chain esters. PCA of ToF-SIMS data from myrtle berries epicarp distinguishes two groups characterized by a different surface concentration of triacontanoic acid. Variability in antocyanins, flavonols, α-tocopherol, and myrtucommulone contents is showed by ToF-SIMS PCA analysis of myrtle berries alcoholic extracts.

  19. A COMPARISON OF ANALGESIA AND FOETAL OUTCOME IN TERM PARTURIENTS WITH AND WITHOUT LOW DOSE COMBINED SPINAL EPIDURAL LABOUR ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : STUDY OBJECTIVE: We aimed to find a safe method of labor analgesia with minimal side effects and toxicity in mother and fetus using combined ‘low dose’ spinal and epidural (CSE. DESIGN: prospective case control study. SETTING: Labour suite of a tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS: study population included 120 pregnant women of ASA physical status I and II parturients in active labor who requested analgesia, 60 of these patients were given labour analgesia - ‘GROUP T’ and 60 of who underwent a delivery without labour analgesia -‘GROUP C’. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Maternal hemodynamics, degree of pain relief, duration of labour, fetal heart rate, Apgar scores, mode of delivery, intervention to relieve pain, Adverse effects because of procedure and drugs used were also noted. Low dose epidural analgesia does not prolong labour and does not increase the incidence of instrumental deliveries when compared to parturients undergoing delivery without labour analgesia. Even with the reduced dose of fentanyl the parturients had acceptable pain relief and a decreased incidence of intervention for pain. It does not cause more fetal depression when compared to normally laboring term parturients. ‘Low dose’ labour analgesia is a safe technique for painless labour with no harmful effects on the mother or baby and it does not significantly affect the obstetric outcome. CONCLUSION: ‘Low dose’ labour analgesia is a safe technique for painless labour with no harmful effects on the mother or baby and it does not significantly affect the obstetric outcome.

  20. Bloqueio dos nervos ilioinguinal e ílio-hipogástrico com dexcetoprofeno intravenoso melhora a analgesia após histerectomia abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Yucel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da aplicação intravenosa(IV de dexcetoprofeno trometamol em bloqueio dos nervos ilioinguinal e ílio-hipogástrico na qualidade analgésica e no consumo de morfina após histerectomia abdominal total. MÉTODO: Estudo clínico controlado e randomizado conduzido com 61 pacientes. O estudo foi feito em sala de operação, sala de recuperação pós-anestésica e ambulatório. Os 61 pacientes foram randomicamente alocados em três grupos: grupo controle (Grupo C, grupo bloqueio (Grupo B e grupo bloqueio com dexcetoprofeno (Grupo BD. Antes da incisão cirúrgica feita após a indução da anestesia, fizemos o bloqueio dos nervos ilioinguinal e ilio-hipogástrico (Grupo C recebeu solução salina e grupos B e BD receberam levobupivacaína. Em contraste com os grupos C e B, o Grupo BD recebeu dexcetoprofeno. Administramos morfina a todos os pacientes para analgesia, com o uso do método de analgesia controlada pelo paciente (ACP durante o pós-operatório de 24 horas. Registramos os escores para dor pela escala visual analógica (EVA, os índices de satisfação, o consumo de morfina e os efeitos colaterais durante o pós-operatório de 24 horas. RESULTADOS: Os escores EVA do Grupo BD foram menores do que os dos grupos C e B no pós-operatório (p < 0,05 nos intervalos de 1, 2, 6 e 12 horas. Os escores EVA do Grupo C foram maiores do que os do Grupo B nas primeiras 2 horas de pós-operatório. O tempo até a primeira demanda de ACP foi mais longo, os valores de consumo de morfina mais baixos e os índices de satisfação maiores no Grupo BD do que nos outros dois grupos (p < 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: O bloqueio dos nervos ilioinguinal e ílio-hipogástrico com dexcetoprofeno IV aumenta a satisfação do paciente e diminui o consumo de opioides e sugere que dexcetoprofeno trometamol é um analgésico anti-inflamatório não esteroide eficaz em analgesia pós-operatória.

  1. Patient-Controlled Analgesia:Proxy-Comrolled Analgesia?%患者自控镇痛:代理人控制镇痛?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elliot I.Irane; 吴水晶

    2009-01-01

    @@ 在过去的一段时间里医院实施镇痛不是南患者自己完成的,而是根据患者的疼痛程度和要求由他人(医生/护士)操作完成.确实如此,从Crimean War开始,护士在决定给予患者阿片类镇痛药时只是依据患者对疼痛的需要,而没有任何客观的临床指标可循.那段时间让我们伤透了脑筋.许多医药和护理文献都是关于患者没有获得满意镇痛的报道.但是,大约40年前,一项革命性的实施镇痛的方法.患者自控镇痛(patient-controlled analgesia,PCA)[1]首次在本杂志发表.并且在接下来的几十年里,PCA已经成为成人和大龄儿童持续阿片类药物镇痛的常用方法[2].

  2. Developments in labour analgesia and their use in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, V A; Callaway, L; van Zundert, A A

    2015-07-01

    Since the introduction of chloroform for labour analgesia in 1847, different methods and medications have been used to relieve the pain of labour. The use of heavy sedative medication in the early 1900s was encouraged by enthusiastic doctors and by women empowered by the women's suffrage movement in America. Nitrous oxide by inhalation has been used in Australia since the 1950s and improved methods of administration have made this method of analgesia safe and practical. Caudal epidural analgesia and lumbar epidural analgesia were first made popular in America and by the 1970s these techniques were more widely available in Australia. In 1847, physicians and the public were unsure whether relieving labour pains was the 'right' thing to do. However, many medical and social changes have occurred thanks to the clinical connection between Australia and the United Kingdom and those first settlers to land on Australian shores. Thanks to this historical connection, in today's Australia there is no question that women should use analgesia as a pain relief if they wish. Currently, the majority of women worldwide use some form of analgesia during labour and different methods are widely available. This paper discusses the four milestones of the development of obstetric analgesia and how they were introduced into patient care in Australia.

  3. Intracortical modulation, and not spinal inhibition, mediates placebo analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, M; Lee, M C H; Valentini, E; Iannetti, G D

    2015-02-01

    Suppression of spinal responses to noxious stimulation has been detected using spinal fMRI during placebo analgesia, which is therefore increasingly considered a phenomenon caused by descending inhibition of spinal activity. However, spinal fMRI is technically challenging and prone to false-positive results. Here we recorded laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) during placebo analgesia in humans. LEPs allow neural activity to be measured directly and with high enough temporal resolution to capture the sequence of cortical areas activated by nociceptive stimuli. If placebo analgesia is mediated by inhibition at spinal level, this would result in a general suppression of LEPs rather than in a selective reduction of their late components. LEPs and subjective pain ratings were obtained in two groups of healthy volunteers - one was conditioned for placebo analgesia while the other served as unconditioned control. Laser stimuli at three suprathreshold energies were delivered to the right hand dorsum. Placebo analgesia was associated with a significant reduction of the amplitude of the late P2 component. In contrast, the early N1 component, reflecting the arrival of the nociceptive input to the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), was only affected by stimulus energy. This selective suppression of late LEPs indicates that placebo analgesia is mediated by direct intracortical modulation rather than inhibition of the nociceptive input at spinal level. The observed cortical modulation occurs after the responses elicited by the nociceptive stimulus in the SI, suggesting that higher order sensory processes are modulated during placebo analgesia.

  4. Clinical utility of the PCA3 urine assay in European men scheduled for repeat biopsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haese, A.; Taille, A de la; Poppel, H van; Marberger, M.; Stenzl, A.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Huland, H.; Abbou, C.C.; Remzi, M.; Tinzl, M.; Feyerabend, S.; Stillebroer, A.B.; Gils, M.P.M.Q.; Schalken, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Prostate CAncer gene 3 (PCA3) assay has shown promise as an aid in prostate cancer (pCA) diagnosis in identifying men with a high probability of a positive (repeat) biopsy. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the clinical utility of the PROGENSA PCA3 assay. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPA

  5. Insights on the spectral signatures of RV jitter from PCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Allen Bradford; Cisewski, Jessica; Dumusque, Xavier; Fischer, Debra; Ford, Eric B.

    2017-01-01

    Stellar activity features such as spots and faculae can mimic radial velocity (RV) motion by creating spurious time-varying centroid shifts in the stellar spectral lines. This "RV jitter" hinders the detection of large planetary signals (100 m s-1) around young, active stars, and it dominates the Keplerian signals of Earth-analogs (10 to 20 cm s-1) even around quiet stars. However, appropriate statistical techniques may be able to distinguish these phenomena by exploiting the spectral-line dependence and temporal coherence of RV jitter.We produce simulated disk-integrated time-series spectra of a rotating star with a spot, with a facula, or with a planet of various sizes using the SOAP 2.0 code, which uses real high-resolution and high-S/N spectra of the quiet solar photosphere and sunspots as a starting point. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to identify and quantify the wavelength-dependent intensity variations of the spectra in each of these cases. We find that the PCA signatures of these three phenomena are distinct, suggesting that they can be distinguished in theory. We then lower the resolution and S/N of these simulated spectra and use PCA to quantify their information content. We find that high-resolution (R > 100,000) observations are better able to recover information in the spectra of spots and faculae than would be expected compared to an equivalent increase in S/N. This effect is especially pronounced for large spots and faculae (S ≥ 1%), suggesting that high-resolution spectrographs will be particularly well-suited for characterizing stellar activity.

  6. Assessment of phlebitis, infiltration and extravasation events in neonates submitted to intravenous therapy Avaliacion de la ocurrencia de flebitis, infiltración y extravasamiento en neonatos submetidos a terapia intravenosa Avaliação da ocorrência de flebite, infiltração e extravasamento em neonatos submetidos à terapia intravenosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Caroline Rodrigues Gomes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe phlebitis, infiltration and extravasation events in newborn infants hospitalized at the neonatal intensive care unit of a public maternity in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A quantitative and descriptive study was carried out, involving 36 newborns under intravenous therapy and indicated for the removal of the peripheral intravenous device. Fifty puncture sites were assessed immediately after the peripheral catheter removal, resulting in an average 1.40 punctures per infant. Complications were responsible for 48% of catheter removals before discharge from treatment, predominantly infiltration (79.2%, followed by phlebitis (16.7% and extravasation (4.2%. To avoid aggravations and enhance the security of newborns submitted to intravenous therapy, the nursing team should periodically assess the peripheral venous access and gain knowledge on interventions needed when signs of complications are detected.El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la ocurrencia de flebitis, infiltración y extravasamiento en recién nacidos internados en la unidad de terapia intensiva neonatal de una maternidad pública de Rio de Janeiro. Se trata de un estudio cuantitativo descriptivo con 36 recién nacidos en uso de terapia intravenosa y con indicación de remoción del dispositivo intravenoso periférico. Fueron evaluados 50 sitios de punción inmediatamente después de la remoción de catéteres periféricos originando una media de 1,40 punciones venosas por neonato. Las complicaciones fueron responsables por 48% de las remociones de los catéteres, antes del alta del tratamiento, con predominio de infiltraciones (79,2%, seguida por flebitis (16,7% e extravasamiento (4,2%. Con el fin de evitar los lesiones y promover la seguridad de los recién nacidos sometidos a terapia intravenosa, el equipo de enfermería debe evaluar periódicamente el acceso venoso periférico y obtener conocimiento acerca de las intervenciones necesarias cuando

  7. Innovative Comparison of Transient Ignition Temperature at the Booster Interface, New Stainless Steel Pyrovalve Primer Chamber Assembly "V" (PCA) Design Versus the Current Aluminum "Y" PCA Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulsberry, Regor L.; McDougle, Stephen H.; Garcia,Roberto; Johnson, Kenneth L.; Sipes, William; Rickman, Steven; Hosangadi, Ashvin

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of four spacecraft pyrovalve anomalies that occurred during ground testing was conducted by the NASA Engineering & Safety Center (NESC) in 2008. In all four cases, a common aluminum (Al) primer chamber assembly (PCA) was used with dual NASA Standard Initiators (NSIs) and the nearly simultaneous (separated by less than 80 microseconds) firing of both initiators failed to ignite the booster charge. The results of the assessment and associated test program were reported in AIAA Paper AIAA-2008-4798, NESC Independent Assessment of Pyrovalve Ground Test Anomalies. As a result of the four Al PCA anomalies, and the test results and findings of the NESC assessment, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) project team decided to make changes to the PCA. The material for the PCA body was changed from aluminum (Al) to stainless steel (SS) to avoid melting, distortion, and potential leakage of the NSI flow passages when the device functioned. The flow passages, which were interconnected in a Y-shaped configuration (Y-PCA) in the original design, were changed to a V-shaped configuration (V-PCA). The V-shape was used to more efficiently transfer energy from the NSIs to the booster. Development and qualification testing of the new design clearly demonstrated faster booster ignition times compared to the legacy AL Y-PCA design. However, the final NESC assessment report recommended that the SS V-PCA be experimentally characterized and quantitatively compared to the Al Y-PCA design. This data was deemed important for properly evaluating the design options for future NASA projects. This test program has successfully quantified the improvement of the SS V-PCA over the Al Y-PCA. A phase B of the project was also conducted and evaluated the effect of firing command skew and enlargement of flame channels to further assist spacecraft applications.

  8. Preemptive analgesia with ketamine for laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsimran Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of preemptive analgesia is to reduce central sensitization that arises from noxious inputs across the entire perioperative period. N-methyl d-aspartate receptor antagonists have the potential for attenuating central sensitization and preventing central neuroplasticity. Materials and Methods: Patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into four groups of 20 patients each, who were administered the study drug intravenously 30 min before incision. Groups A, B, and C received ketamine in a dose of 1.00, 0.75 and 0.50 mg/kg, respectively, whereas group D received isotonic saline. Anesthetic and surgical techniques were standardized. Postoperatively, the degree of pain at rest, movement, and deep breathing using visual analogue scale, time of request for first analgesic, total opioid consumption, and postoperative nausea and vomiting were recorded in postanesthesia care unit for 24 h. Results: Pain scores were highest in Group D at 0 h. Groups A, B, and C had significantly decreased postoperative pain scores at 0, 0.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 12 h. Postoperative analgesic consumption was significantly less in groups A, B, and C as compared with group D. There was no significant difference in the pain scores among groups A, B, and C. Group A had a significantly higher heart rate and blood pressure than groups B and C at 0 and 0.5 h along with 10% incidence of hallucinations. Conclusion: Preemptive ketamine has a definitive role in reducing postoperative pain and analgesic requirement in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The lower dose of 0.5 mg/kg being devoid of any adverse effects and hemodynamic changes is an optimal dose for preemptive analgesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  9. Preemptive analgesia with Ketamine for Laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harsimran; Kundra, Sandeep; Singh, Rupinder M; Grewal, Anju; Kaul, Tej K; Sood, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of preemptive analgesia is to reduce central sensitization that arises from noxious inputs across the entire perioperative period. N-methyl d-aspartate receptor antagonists have the potential for attenuating central sensitization and preventing central neuroplasticity. Materials and Methods: Patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into four groups of 20 patients each, who were administered the study drug intravenously 30 min before incision. Groups A, B, and C received ketamine in a dose of 1.00, 0.75 and 0.50 mg/kg, respectively, whereas group D received isotonic saline. Anesthetic and surgical techniques were standardized. Postoperatively, the degree of pain at rest, movement, and deep breathing using visual analogue scale, time of request for first analgesic, total opioid consumption, and postoperative nausea and vomiting were recorded in postanesthesia care unit for 24 h. Results: Pain scores were highest in Group D at 0 h. Groups A, B, and C had significantly decreased postoperative pain scores at 0, 0.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 12 h. Postoperative analgesic consumption was significantly less in groups A, B, and C as compared with group D. There was no significant difference in the pain scores among groups A, B, and C. Group A had a significantly higher heart rate and blood pressure than groups B and C at 0 and 0.5 h along with 10% incidence of hallucinations. Conclusion: Preemptive ketamine has a definitive role in reducing postoperative pain and analgesic requirement in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The lower dose of 0.5 mg/kg being devoid of any adverse effects and hemodynamic changes is an optimal dose for preemptive analgesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:24249984

  10. Post operatory analgesia in caesarean surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Lucía Cabezas Poblet

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-operatory pain is a spread and constant problem during the care of the surgical patient. The tendency to find new therapeutic techniques to alleviate pain has lead scientists to make and use a great variety of analgesics which are administered by different vias. The effects of narcotics on the new born are well known and the author´s worries about this problem has been the motivational point to search about the use of epidural and intratecal narcotics in the obstetric patient. Objective: To assess the use of peridural liophilized morphine in the Caesarean Section Method: A study of a series of cases was carried out at the Surgical Unit of the Gynecobstetric service of the University Hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ from February 2001 to August 2002 . This search included 120 patient who were selected to elective iterative caesarean section The variables under study were blood pressure, pulse and respiration during the pre- trans and post operative phases, onset of the anaesthetic effect and its duration, peri operatory complications , quality of the post operatory analgesia and its effect on the newborn measured by using Apgar values . The statistical procedure was developed by using the statistical package Epi Info 6. Results: The onset of the anesthetic effect and the duration of the anesthesia were not modified with the use of liophilized morphine. Vital signs remained within normal limits in most of the patients during the pre- trans and post operatory phases. The complications were: pruritus, urinary retention, nausea nad vomiting. The quality of the analgesia was satisfactory in most of the patients. The Apgar values were normal in all neonates. Conclusion: The administration of peridural liophilized morphine in elective caesarean sections is a reliable, sure and useful method in our environment.

  11. Órfãos de terapia medicamentosa: a administração de medicamentos por via intravenosa em crianças hospitalizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterlini Maria Angélica Sorgini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudo descritivo, realizado em um hospital universitário, que verificou quantidade e tipo de medicamentos administrados por via intravenosa em crianças, além da adequação da apresentação farmacológica para uso em pediatria e custo estimado de administração de algumas drogas. Em trinta dias, foram administradas 8.245 doses de medicamentos, com média diária de 274,83 doses, e projeção anual de 98.940. Os principais medicamentos utilizados foram metilpredinosolona, vancomicina, furosemida, ranitidina, penicilina, amicacina, midazolan, fentanil, ceftriaxone e cefalotina. Nenhum dos 41 medicamentos identificados possuía apresentação pediátrica, acarretando, em alguns casos, maior manipulação durante o preparo, risco de contaminação e perda da estabilidade. Observou-se que a falta de apresentação pediátrica gerou aumento dos custos de atendimento; na prescrição de uma criança em pós-operatório, com tempo de internação estimado de cinco dias, a terapia administrada diária foi de US$ 6.71, e US$ 39.52 de medicamentos tiveram que ser desprezados, por excederem as necessidades terapêuticas da criança.

  12. Segurança do paciente: análise do preparo de medicação intravenosa em hospital da rede sentinela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Giron Camerini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tubo como objetivo identificar el tipo y frecuencia de los errores en la preparación de medicamentos intravenosos. Se trata de una investigación observacional transversal, en tres unidades de un hospital. Se observaron 365 dosis de medicamentos por vía intravenosa preparados por 35 técnicos de enfermería. Los datos se recolectaron de enero a febrero de 2008. Se encontraron tasas de errores en todos los sectores, por encima de 70,00%. Los errores se agruparon en las siguientes categorías: cambio de jeringas, desinfección de las ampollas, higiene de la encimera, hora y dosis errada. Las tasas de errores fueron superiores a 50,00% en todos las categorías, excepto en la dosis errada (6,58%. Se concluye que estas tasas pueden afectar la seguridad microbiológica del procedimiento, aumentando la posibilidad de daño si ocurre la contaminación del medicamento. La preparación en el momento equivocado, antes de una hora, se produjo con tenoxicam y dipirona. La estabilidad de los medicamentos pudo haber sido comprometida, al producir cambios en el resultado terapéutico esperado, lo que puede dar lugar a consecuencias indeseables para los pacientes.

  13. Target Recognition Algorithm Based on PCA-SIFT%基于PCA-SIFT特征的目标识别算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹤; 谢刚

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,a target identification and matching algorithm based on PCA-SIFT is proposed to deal with the problem that a long time is taken caused by excessive number of characteristics in the matching with SIFT algorithm.Firstly,the robust and salient feature points and vectors of the image frames according to the local invariant features is extracted.Then,PCA analytic method is introduced into image matching to reduce the dimensions of SIFT feature vector.Finally,use the reduced feature points to image matching and analytic methods.Experimental results show that the algorithm proposed in this.paper not only has maintain the robustness and stability,but also improves the matching efficiency and enhancing the real-time performance,comparing with the original SIFT algorithm.%针对尺度不变特征变换(SIFT)算法在匹配时特征向量过多,从而导致耗时过长的问题,提出PCA-SIF]算法,对目标进行匹配与识别.首先,利用SIFT算法提取出原图像中稳健的特征点以及特征向量;其次,利用PCA算法对SIFT特征向量的维数进行约减;最后利用降维后的图像与原始图像进行匹配.实验证明,与原始SIFT算法相比,该算法不仅保持了SIFT算法的鲁棒性和稳定性,同时提高了匹配效率,增强了实时性.

  14. Pattern Recognition by Dinamic Feature Analysis Based on PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Valencia-Aguirre

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Usually, in pattern recognition problems we represent the observations by mean of measures on appropriate variables of data set, these measures can be categorized as Static and Dynamic Features. Static features are not always an accurate representation of data. In these sense, many phenomena are better modeled by dynamic changes on their measures. The advantage of using an extended form (dynamic features is the inclusion of new information that allows us to get a better representation of the object. Nevertheless, sometimes it is difficult in a classification stage to deal with dynamic features, because the associated computational cost often can be higher than we deal with static features. For analyzing such representations, we use Principal Component Analysis (PCA, arranging dynamic data in such a way we can consider variations related to the intrinsic dynamic of observations. Therefore, the method made possible to evaluate the dynamic information about of the observations on a lower dimensionality feature space without decreasing the accuracy performance. Algorithms were tested on real data to classify pathological speech from normal voices, and using PCA for dynamic feature selection, as well.

  15. Batch process monitoring based on multilevel ICA-PCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-qiang GE; Zhi-huan SONG

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we describe a new batch process monitoring method based on multilevel independent component analysis and principal component analysis (MLICA-PCA).Unlike the conventional multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) method,MLICA-PCA provides a separated interpretation for multilevel batch process data.Batch process data are partitioned into two levels:the within-batch level and the between-batch level.In each level,the Gaussian and non-Ganssian components of process information can be separately extracted.I2,T2 and SPE statistics are individually built and monitored.The new method facilitates fault diagnosis.Since the two variation levels arc decomposed,the variables responsible for faults in each level can be identified and interpreted more easily.A case study of the Dupont benchmark process showed that the proposed method was more efficient and interpretable in fault detection and diagnosis,compared to the alternative batch process monitoring method.

  16. Proinflammatory cytokines oppose opioid induced acute and chronic analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, Mark R.; Coats, Benjamen D; Lewis, Susannah S.; Zhang, Yingning; Sprunger, David B.; Rezvani, Niloofar; Baker, Eric M.; Jekich, Brian M.; Wieseler, Julie L.; Somogyi, Andrew A; Martin, David; Poole, Stephen; Judd, Charles M.; Steven F. Maier; Watkins, Linda R.

    2008-01-01

    Spinal proinflammatory cytokines are powerful pain-enhancing signals that contribute to pain following peripheral nerve injury (neuropathic pain). Recently, one proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1, was also implicated in the loss of analgesia upon repeated morphine exposure (tolerance). In contrast to prior literature, we demonstrate that the action of several spinal proinflammatory cytokines oppose systemic and intrathecal opioid analgesia, causing reduced pain suppression. In vitro morp...

  17. DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS SELECTION USING PCA-DEA APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Andrejić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Strategic decision making is very important in logistics. One of the most important strategic decisions in logistics is the selection of distribution channels. This paper proposes the efficiency of distribution channels as one of the main selection criteria. The efficiency of distribution channels simultaneously affects logistics costs and customer satisfaction. Based on the main characteristics of the distribution channels, such as delivery time, service level, volume of business, the level of errors and the different cost categories in this paper the PCA-DEA approach for measuring the efficiency and selection of certain types of distribution channels is proposed. Model is tested on the numerical example. Results show the great capability of the proposed model.

  18. REAL TIME FACE RECOGNITION USING ADABOOST IMPROVED FAST PCA ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Susheel Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automated system for human face recognition in a real time background world fora large homemade dataset of persons face. The task is very difficult as the real time backgroundsubtraction in an image is still a challenge. Addition to this there is a huge variation in human face imagein terms of size, pose and expression. The system proposed collapses most of this variance. To detect realtime human face AdaBoost with Haar cascade is used and a simple fast PCA and LDA is used torecognize the faces detected. The matched face is then used to mark attendance in the laboratory, in ourcase. This biometric system is a real time attendance system based on the human face recognition with asimple and fast algorithms and gaining a high accuracy rate..

  19. PCA method for automated detection of mispronounced words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhenhao; Sharma, Sudhendu R.; Smith, Mark J. T.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a method for detecting mispronunciations with the aim of improving Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) tools used by foreign language learners. The algorithm is based on Principle Component Analysis (PCA). It is hierarchical with each successive step refining the estimate to classify the test word as being either mispronounced or correct. Preprocessing before detection, like normalization and time-scale modification, is implemented to guarantee uniformity of the feature vectors input to the detection system. The performance using various features including spectrograms and Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) are compared and evaluated. Best results were obtained using MFCCs, achieving up to 99% accuracy in word verification and 93% in native/non-native classification. Compared with Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) which are used pervasively in recognition application, this particular approach is computational efficient and effective when training data is limited.

  20. Nonlinear sensor fault diagnosis using mixture of probabilistic PCA models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Reza; Langari, Reza

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a methodology for sensor fault diagnosis in nonlinear systems using a Mixture of Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis (MPPCA) models. This methodology separates the measurement space into several locally linear regions, each of which is associated with a Probabilistic PCA (PPCA) model. Using the transformation associated with each PPCA model, a parity relation scheme is used to construct a residual vector. Bayesian analysis of the residuals forms the basis for detection and isolation of sensor faults across the entire range of operation of the system. The resulting method is demonstrated in its application to sensor fault diagnosis of a fully instrumented HVAC system. The results show accurate detection of sensor faults under the assumption that a single sensor is faulty.

  1. Peripheral morphine analgesia in dental surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likar, R; Sittl, R; Gragger, K; Pipam, W; Blatnig, H; Breschan, C; Schalk, H V; Stein, C; Schäfer, M

    1998-05-01

    The recent identification of opioid receptors on peripheral nerve endings of primary afferent neurons and the expression of their mRNA in dorsal root ganglia support earlier experimental data about peripheral analgesic effects of locally applied opioids. These effects are most prominent under localized inflammatory conditions. The clinical use of such peripheral analgesic effects of opioids was soon investigated in numerous controlled clinical trials. The majority of these have tested the local, intraarticular administration of morphine in knee surgery and have demonstrated potent and long-lasting postoperative analgesia. As the direct application of morphine into the pain-generating site of injury and inflammation appears most promising, we examined direct morphine infiltration of the surgical site in a unique clinical model of inflammatory tooth pain. Forty-four patients undergoing dental surgery entered into this prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Before surgery they received, together with a standard local anesthetic solution (articaine plus epinephrine) a submucous injection of either 1 mg of morphine (group A) or saline (group B). Postoperative pain intensity was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) and numeric rating scale (NRS) at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h after surgery. In addition, patients recorded the occurrence of side effects and the supplemental consumption of diclofenac tablets. Results of 27 patients were analyzed (group A: n=14, group B: n=13). Pain scores which were moderate to severe preoperatively were reduced to a similar extent in both groups up to 8 h postoperatively. Thereafter, pain scores in group A were significantly lower than those in group B for up to 24 h, demonstrating the analgesic efficacy of additional morphine. The time to first analgesic intake and the total amount of supplemental diclofenac were less in group A than in group B. No serious side effects were reported. Our results show that 1 mg of

  2. Meningitis tras anestesia y analgesia espinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Robles Romero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta revisión es una puesta al día en la etiología, diagnóstico, profilaxis y tratamiento de la meningitis tras anestesia y analgesia espinales. Aunque es una complicación mayor de esta técnica y su incidencia es baja, cada vez son más frecuentes los casos publicados en la literatura médica. Según su etiología se les clasifica en meningitis sépticas, víricas y asépticas. Las meningitis sépticas son las más frecuentes, y en su etiología cada vez juega un papel más destacado como agente implicado el estreptococo salivarius. Como meningitis asépticas se clasifican aquellas en las que el cultivo de líquido cefalorraquídeo es negativo, con un periodo de latencia de síntomas inferior a seis horas, que pueden cursar con eosinofilia en el líquido cefalorraquídeo y unos niveles cercanos a la normalidad en la glucorraquia. Suelen tener buena respuesta y evolución con tratamiento antibiótico con vancomicina y cefalosporinas de tercera generación. Como profilaxis incidir en las medidas de asepsia, sobre todo en el uso de mascarilla facial para realizar la técnica, como práctica para disminuir la incidencia de gérmenes cuyo origen está en la cavidad oral y orofaringe. Asimismo podrían reducir la incidencia de meningitis las medidas de asepsia tales como el lavado de manos, uso de guantes y asepsia de la piel. La diferenciación entre meningitis séptica y aséptica se hará con mayor seguridad cuando se estandaricen las técnicas para detectar genoma bacteriano en el líquido cefalorraquídeo; actualmente se etiquetan como meningitis asépticas aquellas en las que el cultivo de líquido cefalorraquídeo es negativo y cuya tinción de Gram es negativa. Pese a que el pronóstico y evolución en rasgos generales de las meningitis tras anestesia y analgesia espinal es bueno, en comparación con las meningitis adquiridas en la comunidad, por la escasa virulencia de las bacterias implicadas (Estreptococo salivarius

  3. Analgesia epidural para parto en la gestante obesa Epidural analgesia for labour in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guasch

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La obesidad es un problema global de salud en continuo aumento en el mundo desarrollado. Dado que la incidencia de la obesidad es mayor en mujeres que en hombres, los anestesiólogos con especial dedicación a la obstetricia, tendrán mayor oportunidad de enfrentarse a este tipo de pacientes. Nuestro objetivo es determinar la dificultad en la realización de la técnica epidural para analgesia de parto y analizar la incidencia de complicaciones ocurridas durante la punción en las gestantes obesas, así como evaluar la eficacia de la analgesia epidural en este grupo de pacientes en un estudio observacional retrospectivo de todos los bloqueos epidurales para analgesia de parto realizados en un hospital universitario de nivel 4 durante un periodo de cuatro años. Se ha estudiado un total de 13616 pacientes, clasificándolas según el índice de masa corporal en Kg./m² (IMC. En las pacientes no obesas (IMCObesity is an increasing global health problem in Developer countries. As its incidence is grater in women than men, obstetric anesthesiologists wil be envolved in the care of the obese patient more often. Our aim is to study punction dificulties in obese parturients requiring epidural analgesia for labor, and to compare punction complications between obese and non obese parturients as analgesic efficacy between obese and non obese patients in a retrospective observational study among all the epidural analgesic blocks performed in a universitary hospital in a four years period. We studied 13616 patients, who were classified according to body mass index in Kg/m² (BMI. In the non obese group patients (BMI<30; first attempt epidural success was achieved in 76,5%. Mild obese patients (BMI 30-32, severe obese (BMI 33-39 and morbid obese (BMI≥40, the percents were 69, 3%, 63,2% y 47,4% respectively. The comparison among obese and non obese patients was significati-vely different (p<0,001. Punction complications did not show differences among groups

  4. Multimodal analgesia versus traditional opiate based analgesia after cardiac surgery, a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafiq, Sulman; Steinbrüchel, Daniel Andreas; Wanscher, Michael Jaeger;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate if an opiate sparing multimodal regimen of dexamethasone, gabapentin, ibuprofen and paracetamol had better analgesic effect, less side effects and was safe compared to a traditional morphine and paracetamol regimen after cardiac surgery. METHODS: Open-label, prospective....... 1, p = 0.31). 30-day mortality was 1 vs. 2, p = 0.54. CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing cardiac surgery, a multimodal regimen offered significantly better analgesia than a traditional opiate regimen. Nausea and vomiting complaints were significantly reduced. No safety issues were observed...

  5. Effects of two kinds of analgesia methods on the postoperative recovery of patients receiving thoracotomy%两种不同镇痛方法对开胸手术术后恢复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢强; 黄立军; 张志培; 闫小龙; 李小飞; 韩勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of intravenous analgesia with intercostal nerve cryotherapy on postoperative recovery in patients receiving thoracotomy. Methods Sixty patients undergoing thoracic surgery were randomly divided into 2 groups (each n = 30) : intercostal nerve freezing group (INC group) and patient-controlled intravenous analgesia group (PCA group). The degree of pain was assessed by numeric pain intensity score (NRS). The adverse reaction was recorded also. Results Postoperative complications, ambulation time, and time to normal activity were not significantly different between the two groups (P> 0.05). The postoperative side effects in PCA group were severer than those in INC group (P 0.05). The pain score was significantly decreased in INC group than that in PCA group in 3 ~ 7 days after surgery (P 0.05). Conclusions Intercostal nerve freezing technique is a better analgesia method after thoracic surgery treatment with fewer side effects, but the chest tube drainage was increased and the time to remove the chest tube was longer.%目的:比较经静脉自控镇痛、肋间神经冷冻术两种镇痛方法对开胸手术患者术后恢复的影响.方法:60 例开胸手术患者随机分为肋间神经冷冻组(INC 组)和患者静脉自控镇痛组(PCA 组).疼痛强度评分法(NRS)评估术后疼痛程度.结果:(1)两组比较,术后并发症、下床时间、正常活动时间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).而术后副反应比较,PCA 组较INC 组严重(P0.05);术后第3 ~ 7 天,INC 组较PCA 组疼痛明显减轻(P0.05).结论:肋间神经冷冻术是比较好的胸部手术术后镇痛治疗方法,副作用小,但术后胸引管引流量增加,拔除胸引管时间延长.

  6. Anestesia para colonoscopia: anestesia inhalatoria con sevoflurano frente a anestesia intravenosa con propofol Colonoscopic anesthesia: Inhalatory anesthesia with sevoflurane versus intravenous anesthesia with propofol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. De la Torre Carazo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las exploraciones endoscópicas como la colonoscopia son actualmente cada vez más frecuentes, tanto por prescripción clínica, como para despistaje del cáncer de colon, siendo precisa Anestesia/sedación prácticamente en todos los casos. La técnica más frecuentemente usada es la intravenosa con propofol, en algunos casos no puede realizarse, y se plantea una alternativa inhalatoria. Objetivo: comparación de las características de una técnica habitual con propofol (A y de una inhalatoria con Sevoflurano (B. Sujetos y Método: Se estudian las características de ambas técnicas en dos grupos de 150 pacientes cada uno, valorándose las ventajas de cada una, complicaciones, tolerancia, tiempo de recuperación, aceptación por el endoscopista y el paciente de ambas técnicas. Resultados: en ambas técnicas las complicaciones son muy escasas, el grado de tolerancia es buena/muy buena en el 99% del grupo (A, frente a un 97% del grupo (B. Discusión: Aunque no hemos encontrado publicaciones comparando ambas técnicas en anestesia para colonoscopia, el uso de Sevoflurano ha demostrado características similarmente favorables en pacientes contraindicados para el uso de propofol, siempre que cambiemos el esquema de anestésia intravenosa por inhalatoria. Conclusión: Ambas técnicas son igualmente útiles y seguras, pudiendo emplearse la técnica inhalatoria con Sevoflurano en los pacientes en los que el propofol resulte inadecuado, con iguales prestaciones y versatilidad.Introduction: The exploratory endoscopy and colonoscopy are now increasingly common, both clinical prescription, and for colon cancer screening, needing Anesthesia / sedation in virtually all cases. The most commonly used is intravenous propofol, which in some cases cannot be performed, and an alternative is inhaled. Objective: To compare the characteristics of a standard technique with propofol (A and an inhalation with sevoflurane (B. Subjects and Methods: We

  7. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zuhair Bani

    2016-12-01

    Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1) and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2). The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg), bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg), ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg), xylazine (0.05 mg/kg), medetomidine (15 µg/kg), romifidine (30-50 µg/kg), ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg), tramadol (1 mg/kg), and neostigmine (10 µg/kg), and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed.

  8. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zuhair Bani

    2016-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1) and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2). The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg), bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg), ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg), xylazine (0.05 mg/kg), medetomidine (15 µg/kg), romifidine (30-50 µg/kg), ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg), tramadol (1 mg/kg), and neostigmine (10 µg/kg), and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed. PMID:28096620

  9. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Bani Ismail

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1 and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2. The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg, bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg, ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg, xylazine (0.05 mg/kg, medetomidine (15 μg/kg, romifidine (30-50 μg/kg, ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg, tramadol (1 mg/kg, and neostigmine (10 μg/kg, and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed.

  10. Newborn Analgesia Mediated by Oxytocin during Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzuca, Michel; Minlebaev, Marat; Shakirzyanova, Anastasia; Tyzio, Roman; Taccola, Giuliano; Janackova, Sona; Gataullina, Svetlana; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Giniatullin, Rashid; Khazipov, Rustem

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms controlling pain in newborns during delivery are poorly understood. We explored the hypothesis that oxytocin, an essential hormone for labor and a powerful neuromodulator, exerts analgesic actions on newborns during delivery. Using a thermal tail-flick assay, we report that pain sensitivity is two-fold lower in rat pups immediately after birth than 2 days later. Oxytocin receptor antagonists strongly enhanced pain sensitivity in newborn, but not in 2-day-old rats, whereas oxytocin reduced pain at both ages suggesting an endogenous analgesia by oxytocin during delivery. Similar analgesic effects of oxytocin, measured as attenuation of pain-vocalization induced by electrical whisker pad stimulation, were also observed in decerebrated newborns. Oxytocin reduced GABA-evoked calcium responses and depolarizing GABA driving force in isolated neonatal trigeminal neurons suggesting that oxytocin effects are mediated by alterations of intracellular chloride. Unlike GABA signaling, oxytocin did not affect responses mediated by P2X3 and TRPV1 receptors. In keeping with a GABAergic mechanism, reduction of intracellular chloride by the diuretic NKCC1 chloride co-transporter antagonist bumetanide mimicked the analgesic actions of oxytocin and its effects on GABA responses in nociceptive neurons. Therefore, endogenous oxytocin exerts an analgesic action in newborn pups that involves a reduction of the depolarizing action of GABA on nociceptive neurons. Therefore, the same hormone that triggers delivery also acts as a natural pain killer revealing a novel facet of the protective actions of oxytocin in the fetus at birth.

  11. Análisis de la eficacia y seguridad del bloqueo iliofascial continuo para analgesia postoperatoria de artroplastia total de rodilla Analysis of the efficiency and safety of the ileofascial block for postoperatory pain after total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. López González

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: la importancia del dolor agudo postoperatorio radica en su alta frecuencia, en su inadecuado tratamiento y en las repercusiones que tiene en la evolución y en la recuperación del paciente. El bloqueo iliofascial puede ser una técnica adecuada para analgesia postoperatoria en la artroplastia total de rodilla. El objetivo de este estudio es valorar la eficacia y seguridad del bloqueo iliofascial, en comparación con el bloqueo epidural, a efectos de analgesia postquirúrgica en pacientes sometidos a artroplastia total de rodilla bajo anestesia subaracnoidea. Se valoró además si la realización del bloqueo iliofascial es una técnica analgésica segura, las complicaciones derivadas de la misma, los efectos secundarios y el grado de satisfacción del paciente. Material y métodos: estudio multicéntrico, prospectivo, aleatorio, observacional, controlado, con evaluador ciego, en 54 pacientes, adultos, ASA I-III, de ambos sexos, sometidos a cirugía de artroplastia total de rodilla bajo anestesia intradural. Los pacientes incluidos en el estudio se dividieron en dos grupos, BIF y BE. En el grupo BIF (n = 27 se colocó un catéter iliofascial, mientras que en el otro grupo BE (n = 27 se colocó un catéter epidural lumbar (a nivel L3-L4, en ambos casos para la analgesia postoperatoria continua. Ambos grupos recibieron el mismo protocolo analgésico con paracetamol y metamizol pautados, y rescate con bolos de morfina intravenosa. Se utilizó t-Student para comparar las variables cuantitativas. Se consideró significativo (p Objective: the importance of acute postoperative pain lies in its high frequency, where inadequate treatment and the impact it has on the evolution and the patient's recovery. Iliofascial block may be a suitable technique for postoperative analgesia after total knee arthroplasty. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of the blockade iliofascial compared with epidural analgesia in postoperative

  12. Gabor-based kernel PCA with fractional power polynomial models for face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengjun

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents a novel Gabor-based kernel Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method by integrating the Gabor wavelet representation of face images and the kernel PCA method for face recognition. Gabor wavelets first derive desirable facial features characterized by spatial frequency, spatial locality, and orientation selectivity to cope with the variations due to illumination and facial expression changes. The kernel PCA method is then extended to include fractional power polynomial models for enhanced face recognition performance. A fractional power polynomial, however, does not necessarily define a kernel function, as it might not define a positive semidefinite Gram matrix. Note that the sigmoid kernels, one of the three classes of widely used kernel functions (polynomial kernels, Gaussian kernels, and sigmoid kernels), do not actually define a positive semidefinite Gram matrix either. Nevertheless, the sigmoid kernels have been successfully used in practice, such as in building support vector machines. In order to derive real kernel PCA features, we apply only those kernel PCA eigenvectors that are associated with positive eigenvalues. The feasibility of the Gabor-based kernel PCA method with fractional power polynomial models has been successfully tested on both frontal and pose-angled face recognition, using two data sets from the FERET database and the CMU PIE database, respectively. The FERET data set contains 600 frontal face images of 200 subjects, while the PIE data set consists of 680 images across five poses (left and right profiles, left and right half profiles, and frontal view) with two different facial expressions (neutral and smiling) of 68 subjects. The effectiveness of the Gabor-based kernel PCA method with fractional power polynomial models is shown in terms of both absolute performance indices and comparative performance against the PCA method, the kernel PCA method with polynomial kernels, the kernel PCA method with fractional power

  13. Psychophysical testing of spatial and temporal dimensions of endogenous analgesia: conditioned pain modulation and offset analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honigman, Liat; Yarnitsky, David; Sprecher, Elliot; Weissman-Fogel, Irit

    2013-08-01

    The endogenous analgesia (EA) system is psychophysically evaluated using various paradigms, including conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and offset analgesia (OA) testing, respectively, the spatial and temporal filtering processes of noxious information. Though both paradigms assess the function of the EA system, it is still unknown whether they reflect the same aspects of EA and consequently whether they provide additive or equivalent data. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers (15 males) underwent 5 trials of different stimulation conditions in random order including: (1) the classic OA three-temperature stimulus train ('OA'); (2) a three-temperature stimulus train as control for the OA ('OAcon'); (3) a constant temperature stimulus ('constant'); (4) the classic parallel CPM ('CPM'); and (5) a combination of OA and CPM ('OA + CPM'). We found that in males, the pain reduction during the OA + CPM condition was greater than during the OA (P = 0.003) and CPM (P = 0.07) conditions. Furthermore, a correlation was found between OA and CPM (r = 0.62, P = 0.01) at the time of maximum OA effect. The additive effect found suggests that the two paradigms represent at least partially different aspects of EA. The moderate association between the CPM and OA magnitudes indicates, on the other hand, some commonality of their underlying mechanisms.

  14. The fentanyl HCl patient-controlled transdermal system (PCTS): an alternative to intravenous patient-controlled analgesia in the postoperative setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinatra, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    Inadequate pain control in the postoperative period not only contributes to patient discomfort, but also causes physiological changes that may result in increased risk of myocardial ischaemia, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. These events complicate postoperative recovery and may lead to longer hospital stays as well as increased healthcare costs. Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) has emerged as an effective way for patients to manage their pain, allowing self-administration of small doses of analgesics to maintain a certain level of pain control. PCA is most commonly delivered via an intravenous (IV) or epidural route, and while patient satisfaction is higher with PCA than with conventional methods of analgesic administration, the invasiveness, costs and risk of errors associated with currently available modalities may limit their utility. These systems also require significant healthcare resources, as nurses must manually program the pumps to deliver the correct amount of medication. Several new PCA modalities are being developed to address these limitations. These systems deliver drug through a variety of routes, including nasal transmucosal and transdermal. Most notably, a self-contained, credit card-sized, transdermal PCA system is currently in the final stages of development. The fentanyl HCl patient-controlled transdermal system (PCTS; IONSYS, Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical, Inc., Raritan, NJ) uses an imperceptible, low-intensity direct current to transfer fentanyl on demand across the skin into the systemic circulation. This compact system is patient-activated, can be applied to the patient's upper arm or chest, and is designed to manage moderate-to-severe pain requiring opioid analgesia. The system delivers a preprogrammed amount of fentanyl HCI over 10 minutes, for a total of 80 doses, or for 24 hours, whichever occurs first. The on-demand dosing and pharmacokinetics of this system differentiate it from the passive transdermal formulation of

  15. A systematic review of randomized trials evaluating regional techniques for postthoracotomy analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, G.P.; Bonnet, F.; Shah, R.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thoracotomy induces severe postoperative pain and impairment of pulmonary function, and therefore regional analgesia has been intensively studied in this procedure. Thoracic epidural analgesia is commonly considered the "gold standard" in this setting; however, evaluation of the evide...

  16. A randomized, controlled trial comparing local infiltration analgesia with epidural infusion for total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karen Vestergaard; Bak, Marie; Christensen, Birgitte Viebæk;

    2010-01-01

    There have been few studies describing wound infiltration with additional intraarticular administration of multimodal analgesia for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In this study, we assessed the efficacy of wound infiltration combined with intraarticular regional analgesia with epidural infusion...

  17. Preemptive analgesia I: physiological pathways and pharmacological modalities.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, D J

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: This two-part review summarizes the current knowledge of physiological mechanisms, pharmacological modalities and controversial issues surrounding preemptive analgesia. SOURCE: Articles from 1966 to present were obtained from the MEDLINE databases. Search terms included: analgesia, preemptive; neurotransmitters; pain, postoperative; hyperalgesia; sensitization, central nervous system; pathways, nociception; anesthetic techniques; analgesics, agents. Principal findings: The physiological basis of preemptive analgesia is complex and involves modification of the pain pathways. The pharmacological modalities available may modify the physiological responses at various levels. Effective preemptive analgesic techniques require multi-modal interception of nociceptive input, increasing threshold for nociception, and blocking or decreasing nociceptor receptor activation. Although the literature is controversial regarding the effectiveness of preemptive analgesia, some general recommendations can be helpful in guiding clinical care. Regional anesthesia induced prior to surgical trauma and continued well into the postoperative period is effective in attenuating peripheral and central sensitization. Pharmacologic agents such as NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) opioids, and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) - and alpha-2-receptor antagonists, especially when used in combination, act synergistically to decrease postoperative pain. CONCLUSION: The variable patient characteristics and timing of preemptive analgesia in relation to surgical noxious input requires individualization of the technique(s) chosen. Multi-modal analgesic techniques appear most effective.

  18. Preemptive analgesia II: recent advances and current trends.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, D J

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: This two-part review summarizes the current knowledge of physiological mechanisms, pharmacological modalities and controversial issues surrounding preemptive analgesia. SOURCE: Articles from 1966 to present were obtained from the MEDLINE databases. Search terms included analgesia, preemptive; neurotransmitters; pain, postoperative; hyperalgesia; sensitization, central nervous system; pathways, nociception; anesthetic techniques; analgesics, agents. Principal findings: In Part I of this review article, techniques and agents that attenuate or prevent central and peripheral sensitization were reviewed. In Part II, the conditions required for effective preemptive techniques are evaluated. Specifically, preemptive analgesia may be defined as an antinociceptive treatment that prevents establishment of altered central processing of afferent input from sites of injury. The most important conditions for establishment of effective preemptive analgesia are the establishment of an effective level of antinociception before injury, and the continuation of this effective analgesic level well into the post-injury period to prevent central sensitization during the inflammatory phase. Although single-agent therapy may attenuate the central nociceptive processing, multi-modal therapy is more effective, and may be associated with fewer side effects compared with the high-dose, single-agent therapy. CONCLUSION: The variable patient characteristics and timing of preemptive analgesia in relation to surgical noxious input require individualization of the technique(s) chosen. Multi-modal analgesic techniques appear more effective.

  19. PCA-based groupwise image registration for quantitative MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, W; Poot, D H J; Guyader, J-M; Klaassen, R; Coolen, B F; van Kranenburg, M; van Geuns, R J M; Uitterdijk, A; Polfliet, M; Vandemeulebroucke, J; Leemans, A; Niessen, W J; Klein, S

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) is a technique for estimating quantitative tissue properties, such as the T1 and T2 relaxation times, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and various perfusion measures. This estimation is achieved by acquiring multiple images with different acquisition parameters (or at multiple time points after injection of a contrast agent) and by fitting a qMRI signal model to the image intensities. Image registration is often necessary to compensate for misalignments due to subject motion and/or geometric distortions caused by the acquisition. However, large differences in image appearance make accurate image registration challenging. In this work, we propose a groupwise image registration method for compensating misalignment in qMRI. The groupwise formulation of the method eliminates the requirement of choosing a reference image, thus avoiding a registration bias. The method minimizes a cost function that is based on principal component analysis (PCA), exploiting the fact that intensity changes in qMRI can be described by a low-dimensional signal model, but not requiring knowledge on the specific acquisition model. The method was evaluated on 4D CT data of the lungs, and both real and synthetic images of five different qMRI applications: T1 mapping in a porcine heart, combined T1 and T2 mapping in carotid arteries, ADC mapping in the abdomen, diffusion tensor mapping in the brain, and dynamic contrast-enhanced mapping in the abdomen. Each application is based on a different acquisition model. The method is compared to a mutual information-based pairwise registration method and four other state-of-the-art groupwise registration methods. Registration accuracy is evaluated in terms of the precision of the estimated qMRI parameters, overlap of segmented structures, distance between corresponding landmarks, and smoothness of the deformation. In all qMRI applications the proposed method performed better than or equally well as

  20. Utilidad de la lidocaína intravenosa para reducir la tos tras la extubación en pacientes fumadores intervenidos de cirugía electiva bajo anestesia general

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco Montes, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos El objetivo principal de este estudio es comprobar si la lidocaína intravenosa a dosis de 1 mg/kg (ajustados según el peso ideal) disminuye la tos y la severidad de la misma tras la extubación. También se valoró su efecto sobre otras complicaciones respiratorias, su utilidad para atenuar los cambios hemodinámicos y de SatO2 que ocurren tras la retirada del tubo endotraqueal, si mejora la calidad subjetiva de la extubación, si reduce las molestias faríngeas postoperatorias y su se...

  1. Estudio piloto sobre el manejo de la fluidoterapia intravenosa en pacientes adultos de un hospital de tercer nivel Pilot study of intravenous fluid therapy management in adult patients at a tertiary care hospital

    OpenAIRE

    A. M.ª Cordero Cruz; J. M. Moreno Villares; P Gomis Muñoz; M.ª Á. Valero Zanuy; M. Á. Calleja Hernández

    2012-01-01

    La fluidoterapia intravenosa (FTI) tiene por objeto mantener el equilibrio interno o restaurarlo mediante la administración de líquidos y/o de diversos componentes electrolíticos. Su correcto empleo y la prevención de las complicaciones derivadas de su mal uso dependen de los conocimientos en esta materia por parte del equipo médico. Analizamos este aspecto en diferentes áreas clínicas de un hospital de tercer nivel. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio-piloto transversal descriptivo por...

  2. Terapia intravenosa con células mesenquimales en la fase aguda del daño cerebral: estudio experimental en un modelo animal de trauma craneal pediátrico

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Suárez, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Pediatría. Fecha de lectura: 26-11-2014 Objetivo: Estudiar si la terapia intravenosa con células madre mesenquimales en la fase aguda del daño cerebral, es segura y consigue mejorar la recuperación motora, sensitiva y cognitiva a medio plazo, en ratas jóvenes que sufren un traumatismo craneoencefálico grave. También se realiza estudio de la distribución y supervivencia de estas células...

  3. Sunspot Pattern Classification using PCA and Neural Networks (Poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, T.; Thompson, D. E.; Slater, G. L.

    2005-01-01

    The sunspot classification scheme presented in this paper is considered as a 2-D classification problem on archived datasets, and is not a real-time system. As a first step, it mirrors the Zuerich/McIntosh historical classification system and reproduces classification of sunspot patterns based on preprocessing and neural net training datasets. Ultimately, the project intends to move from more rudimentary schemes, to develop spatial-temporal-spectral classes derived by correlating spatial and temporal variations in various wavelengths to the brightness fluctuation spectrum of the sun in those wavelengths. Once the approach is generalized, then the focus will naturally move from a 2-D to an n-D classification, where "n" includes time and frequency. Here, the 2-D perspective refers both to the actual SOH0 Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) images that are processed, but also refers to the fact that a 2-D matrix is created from each image during preprocessing. The 2-D matrix is the result of running Principal Component Analysis (PCA) over the selected dataset images, and the resulting matrices and their eigenvalues are the objects that are stored in a database, classified, and compared. These matrices are indexed according to the standard McIntosh classification scheme.

  4. Effect of sufentanil combined with different concentrations of ropivacaine for labor analgesia on maternal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-He Wang; Min-Jia Jiang; Wan-Dong Liao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of sufentanil combined with different concentration of ropivacaine for stepped analgesia on stage of labor, stress indexes and blood coagulation function.Methods:A total of 178 cases of full-term singleton primiparas who awaited delivery and received epidural labor analgesia in our hospital from January 2015 to June 2016 were selected and randomly divided into stepped analgesia group and routine analgesia group, and the stage of labor, levels of stress hormones and pain mediators during childbirth and blood coagulation function indexes after childbirth were observed between two groups.Results: The duration of latent phase of labor of stepped analgesia group was shorter than that of routine analgesia group while the duration of active phase of labor, the duration of second stage of labor and the duration of third stage of labor were not significantly different from those of routine analgesia group; serum PRL level of stepped analgesia group was significantly higher than that of routine analgesia group while PA, NE, E, DYN,β-EP, SP, PGE2, 5-HT, TF, TFPI, FPA, AT-III and DD levels were not significantly different from those of routine analgesia group.Conclusions: Sufentanil combined with different concentration of ropivacaine for stepped analgesia is with equivalent effect to routine analgesia, and can shorten the latent phase of labor and reduce the inhibitory effect of pain on prolactin without affecting the degree of stress during childbirth and the blood coagulation function after childbirth.

  5. Mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia: effective therapy for musculoskeletal pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staud, Roland

    2007-12-01

    Acupuncture (AP) is effective for the treatment of postoperative and chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting and for postoperative dental pain. Several recent randomized trials have provided strong evidence for beneficial AP effects on chronic low-back pain and pain from knee osteoarthritis. For many other chronic pain conditions, including headaches, neck pain, and fibromyalgia, the evidence supporting AP's efficacy is less convincing. AP's effects on experimental pain appear to be mediated by analgesic brain mechanisms through the release of neurohumoral factors, some of which can be inhibited by the opioid antagonist naloxone. In contrast to placebo analgesia, AP-related pain relief takes considerable time to develop and to resolve. Thus, some of the long-term effects of AP analgesia cannot be explained by placebo mechanisms. Furthermore, it appears that some forms of AP are more effective for providing analgesia than others. Particularly, electro-AP seems best to activate powerful opioid and non-opioid analgesic mechanisms.

  6. Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for acute postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Lone; Haroutiunian, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Intravenous patient-controlled therapy is used routinely in postoperative care in much of the developed world. Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia results in higher patient satisfaction than conventional administration of analgesics, although it appears to have no advantage over conventional...... analgesia in terms of adverse effects and consumption of opioids. Standard orders and nursing procedure protocols are recommended for patients receiving intravenous patient-controlled analgesia to monitor treatment efficacy and development of adverse effects. Some subgroups of patients need special...... consideration. For example, opioid-tolerant patients need higher postoperative opioid doses to achieve satisfactory analgesic effect. In patients with renal or hepatic insufficiency, the elimination of some opioids may be substantially impaired, and the optimal opioid should be selected based on its...

  7. Classical conditioning and pain: conditioned analgesia and hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguez, Gonzalo; Laborda, Mario A; Miller, Ralph R

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews situations in which stimuli produce an increase or a decrease in nociceptive responses through basic associative processes and provides an associative account of such changes. Specifically, the literature suggests that cues associated with stress can produce conditioned analgesia or conditioned hyperalgesia, depending on the properties of the conditioned stimulus (e.g., contextual cues and audiovisual cues vs. gustatory and olfactory cues, respectively) and the proprieties of the unconditioned stimulus (e.g., appetitive, aversive, or analgesic, respectively). When such cues are associated with reducers of exogenous pain (e.g., opiates), they typically increase sensitivity to pain. Overall, the evidence concerning conditioned stress-induced analgesia, conditioned hyperalagesia, conditioned tolerance to morphine, and conditioned reduction of morphine analgesia suggests that selective associations between stimuli underlie changes in pain sensitivity.

  8. Remifentanil em analgesia para o trabalho de parto Remifentanil en analgesia para el trabajo de parto Remifentanil as analgesia for labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C S Soares

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: As técnicas neuroaxiais representam atualmente os métodos mais efetivos para controle da dor durante o trabalho de parto e a analgesia peridural utilizando soluções anestésicas ultradiluídas é considerada o padrão ouro, promovendo alívio adequado da dor com mínimos efeitos colaterais. Em algumas situações, no entanto, o emprego dessas técnicas é limitado pela existência de contraindicações maternas ou obstáculos estruturais e materiais. Nestes casos, as opções alternativas ainda são precárias e escassas, oferecendo resultados pouco otimistas e de eficácia questionável. CONTEÚDO: Este artigo apresenta, com base em uma revisão da literatura, as informações disponíveis relacionadas ao emprego do remifentanil como técnica alternativa para a analgesia de parto discutindo aspectos farmacocinéticos, farmacodinâmicos, eficácia analgésica, satisfação materna e efeitos colaterais maternos e fetais. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados iniciais apontam o remifentanil como uma opção promissora a ser empregada nas situações em que a gestante não quer ou não pode receber a analgesia neuroaxial.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Las técnicas neuroaxiales representan actualmente los métodos más efectivos para el control del dolor durante el trabajo de parto, y la analgesia epidural utilizando soluciones anestésicas ultradiluidas se considera el estándar oro, promoviendo el alivio correcto del dolor con los mínimos efectos colaterales. En algunas situaciones, sin embargo, el uso de esas técnicas queda limitado por la existencia de contraindicaciones maternas u obstáculos estructurales y materiales. En esos casos, las alternativas todavía son precarias y escasas, ofreciendo resultados poco optimistas y de una eficacia cuestionable. CONTENIDO: Con base en una revisión de la literatura, este artículo muestra que las informaciones disponibles relacionadas a lo empleo de lo remifetanil como técnica alternativa

  9. Regional anesthesia and analgesia for oral and dental procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Judy

    2005-07-01

    Regional anesthesia and analgesia benefit the client, the patient, and the practitioner, and their use is becoming the standard for care. Familiarity with the processes involved in the generation of pain aids in understanding the benefits of preemptive and multimodal analgesia. Local anesthetic blocks should be a key component of a treatment plan, along with opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, and other therapies. Nerve blocks commonly used for dentistry and oral surgery include the infraorbital, maxillary, mental,and mandibular blocks.

  10. Effects of hypnotic focused analgesia on dental pain threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facco, Enrico; Casiglia, Edoardo; Masiero, Serena; Tikhonoff, Valery; Giacomello, Margherita; Zanette, Gastone

    2011-01-01

    The rate, intensity, and selectivity of hypnotic focused analgesia (HFA) were tested with dental pulp stimulation. Thirty-one healthy subjects were hypnotized, and hypnotic suggestions were given for anesthesia of the right mandibular arch. A posthypnotic suggestion of persisting analgesia was also given. The pain threshold of the first premolar was bilaterally measured before, during, and after hypnosis using a pulp tester. During hypnosis, the pain threshold increased significantly (p < .0001) for both sides. The posthypnotic right pain threshold was also significantly (p < .0015) higher than in the basal condition.

  11. Stellate ganglion blockade for analgesia following upper limb surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, J G

    2012-01-31

    We report the successful use of a stellate ganglion block as part of a multi-modal postoperative analgesic regimen. Four patients scheduled for orthopaedic surgery following upper limb trauma underwent blockade of the stellate ganglion pre-operatively under ultrasound guidance. Patients reported excellent postoperative analgesia, with postoperative VAS pain scores between 0 and 2, and consumption of morphine in the first 24 h ranging from 0 to 14 mg. While these are preliminary findings, and must be confirmed in a clinical trial, they highlight the potential for stellate ganglion blockade to provide analgesia following major upper limb surgery.

  12. How first time mothers experience the use of epidural analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    How first time mothers experience the use of epidural analgesia during birth Ingrid Jepsen, Midwife, SD, MPH, Kurt Dauer Keller cand.psych, PhD Contact email irj@ucn.dk Aim: to investigate the experiences of epidural analgesia as to the choice of epidurals, the changes in pain, the period from...... the epidural to the birth, and the relationship to the midwife. Place of origin: The labor ward, Aalborg Sygehus Nord, Aalborg. The homes of the women. Method: Field study and interviews. Nine women were observed from the establishment of the epidural until birth. They were interviewed the day after the birth...

  13. CLINICAL EFFECTS OF ROPIVACAINE MESYLATE IN EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-qing Xu; Bo Zhu; Tie-hu Ye

    2005-01-01

    @@ SINCE the report that ropivacaine hydrochloride, a new amide local anesthetic, is of lower cardiac toxicity both in animals and humans,1 several studies have shown it to be a clinically effective local anesthetic widely used for both epidural anesthesia2-4 and analgesia5-7. Ropivacaine mesylate made in China is structurally from ropivacaine hydrochloride by substituting a mesylate group for hydrochloride group.8 This study was designed to clinically provide a double-blind comparison of ropivacaine mesylate with ropivacaine hydrochloride in epidural anesthesia and analgesia.

  14. Evaluación de una solución gluco-electrolítica isotónica e isoclorada propuesta como recurso único a emplear en la rehidratación intravenosa a ritmo genérico de las distintas deshidrataciones por pérdidas digestivas en la edad pediátrica

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Buselo, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    La rehidratación intravenosa (RIV) es a menudo inevitable cuando hay impedimento absoluto para satisfacer la deseable rehidratación oral (RHO). Coexisten históricamente dos modalidades de rehidratación intravenosa (RIV) en Pediatría: la convencional (RIC), basada en los estudios de Darrow (1949), Holliday y Segar (1957), y la llamada “rápida” (RIR), fundamentada en los de Hirschhorn (1968), y Rahman (1979), bajo cuya denominación se han publicado métodos muy dispares. Cada una ofrece alguna v...

  15. Developing and Evaluating Creativity Gamification Rehabilitation System: The Application of PCA-ANFIS Based Emotions Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chung-Ho; Cheng, Ching-Hsue

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the factors in a patient's rehabilitation achievement after a total knee replacement (TKR) patient exercises, using a PCA-ANFIS emotion model-based game rehabilitation system, which combines virtual reality (VR) and motion capture technology. The researchers combine a principal component analysis (PCA) and an adaptive…

  16. PCA Based Rapid and Real Time Face Recognition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T R Chandrashekar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Economical and efficient that is used in various applications is face Biometric which has been a popular form biometric system. Face recognition system is being a topic of research for last few decades. Several techniques are proposed to improve the performance of face recognition system. Accuracy is tested against intensity, distance from camera, and pose variance. Multiple face recognition is another subtopic which is under research now a day. Speed at which the technique works is a parameter under consideration to evaluate a technique. As an example a support vector machine performs really well for face recognition but the computational efficiency degrades significantly with increase in number of classes. Eigen Face technique produces quality features for face recognition but the accuracy is proved to be comparatively less to many other techniques. With increase in use of core processors in personal computers and application demanding speed in processing and multiple face detection and recognition system (for example an entry detection system in shopping mall or an industry, demand for such systems are cumulative as there is a need for automated systems worldwide. In this paper we propose a novel system of face recognition developed with C# .Net that can detect multiple faces and can recognize the faces parallel by utilizing the system resources and the core processors. The system is built around Haar Cascade based face detection and PCA based face recognition system with C#.Net. Parallel library designed for .Net is used to aide to high speed detection and recognition of the real time faces. Analysis of the performance of the proposed technique with some of the conventional techniques reveals that the proposed technique is not only accurate, but also is fast in comparison to other techniques.

  17. Comparison of relative oxycodone consumption in surgical pleth index-guided analgesia versus conventional analgesia during sevoflurane anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Young Ju; Lim, Byung Gun; Lee, So Hyun; Park, Sangwoo; Kim, Heezoo; Lee, Il Ok; Kong, Myoung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The surgical pleth index (SPI) is proposed for titration of analgesic drugs during general anesthesia. Several reports have investigated the effect of SPI on the consumption of opioids including remifentanil, fentanyl, and sufentanil during anesthesia, but there are no reports about oxycodone. We aimed to investigate intravenous oxycodone consumption between SPI-guided analgesia and conventional analgesia practices during sevoflurane anesthesia in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Methods: Forty-five patients undergoing elective thyroidectomy were randomly assigned to an SPI group (SPI-guided analgesia group, n = 23) or a control group (conventional analgesia group, n = 22). Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane to achieve bispectral index values between 40 and 60. In the SPI group, oxycodone 1 mg was administered intravenously at SPI values over 50; in the control group, oxycodone 1 mg was administered intravenously at the occurrence of tachycardia or hypertension event. Intraoperative oxycodone consumption and extubation time were recorded. The number of hemodynamic and somatic movement events was recorded, as were postoperative pain and recovery scores. Results: Patients’ characteristics were comparable between the groups. Intraoperative oxycodone consumption in the SPI group was significantly lower than the control group (3.5 ± 2.4 vs 5.1 ± 2.4 mg; P = 0.012). Extubation time was significantly shorter in the SPI group (10.6 ± 3.5 vs 13.4 ± 4.6 min; P = 0.026). Hemodynamic and somatic movement events during anesthesia were comparable between the groups, as were numeric rating scales for pain and modified Aldrete scores at postanesthesia care unit. Conclusions: SPI-guided analgesia reduces intravenous oxycodone consumption and extubation time compared with conventional analgesia based on clinical parameters during sevoflurane anesthesia in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. PMID:27583920

  18. Application of PCA and HCA to the Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Fluoroquinolones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Xian-zhou; Cheng, Xin-lu; Yang, Xiang-dong; Zhu, Zun-lue

    2006-04-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) was used to calculate molecular descriptors (properties) for 12 fluoroquinolone with anti-S.pneumoniae activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were employed to reduce dimensionality and investigate in which variables should be more effective for classifying fluoroquinolones according to their degree of an-S.pneumoniae activity. The PCA results showed that the variables ELUMO, Q3, Q5, QA, logP, MR, VOL and ΔEHL of these compounds were responsible for the anti-S.pneumoniae activity. The HCA results were similar to those obtained with PCA. The methodologies of PCA and HCA provide a reliable rule for classifying new fluoroquinolones with anti-S.pneumoniae activity. By using the chemometric results, 6 synthetic compounds were analyzed through the PCA and HCA and two of them are proposed as active molecules with anti-S.pneumoniae, which is consistent with the results of clinic experiments.

  19. Active Shape Model of Combining Pca and Ica: Application to Facial Feature Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Lin; RAO Ni-ni; WANG Gang

    2006-01-01

    Active Shape Model (ASM) is a powerful statistical tool to extract the facial features of a face image under frontal view. It mainly relies on Principle Component Analysis (PCA) to statistically model the variability in the training set of example shapes. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has been proven to be more efficient to extract face features than PCA . In this paper, we combine the PCA and ICA by the consecutive strategy to form a novel ASM. Firstly, an initial model, which shows the global shape variability in the training set, is generated by the PCA-based ASM. And then, the final shape model, which contains more local characters, is established by the ICA-based ASM. Experimental results verify that the accuracy of facial feature extraction is statistically significantly improved by applying the ICA modes after the PCA modes.

  20. Remifentanil combined with low-dose ketamine for post-operative analgesia of lower limb fracture: a double-blind, controlled study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Gui-feng; ZHENG Jin-ping; WANG Song; TIAN Bin; ZHANG Shi-gang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the adjuvant effect of intra-operative and postoperative low-dose ketamine administra-tion to remifentanil consumption in patient-controlled anal-gesia (PCA) for lower limb fracture.Methods: A total of 200 patients with lower limb frac-ture receiving the surgery were randomly divided into 4 groups. In Groups A, B and C, patients received 0.5 mg/kgketamine infusion under general anesthesia, and ketamine in a dose of 0.1 mg/kg, 0.05 mg/kg, 0.01 mg/kg per hour continuously for 24 hours after surgery, respectively. The control group (Group D) received an equivalent volume of normal saline only. With 20 μg/ml remifentanil in normal saline, postoperative PCA was administered with a back-ground infusion at 2 ml/h following 2 ml as a loading dose and 1 ml demand dose with a 3-minute lockout period. Remifentanil consumption, 11-point visual analog scale (VAS) scores, global satisfaction score (GSS), and side ef-fects were also recorded by the acute pain service. Results: Cumulative PCA remifentanil consumption in Groups A and B were (1378±377) μg and (1531±402) μg,significantly lower than (1807±510) μg and (1838±523) μg in Groups C and D (P<0.01). VAS scores in Groups A and B were significantly lower than those in Groups C and D (P<0.01). In the first 12 hours after operation, GSS was improved (P<0.01). No respiratory depression was observed. No significant dif-ference in side effects was observed among groups. Conclusion: Low-dose ketamine can relieve postop-erative pain and moderately decrease remifentanil consump-tion for PCA, with no obvious side effects of ketamine.

  1. Mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia for clinical and experimental pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staud, Roland; Price, Donald D

    2006-05-01

    There is convincing evidence that acupuncture (AP) is effective for the treatment of postoperative and chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting, as well as postoperative dental pain. Less convincing data support AP's efficacy for chronic pain conditions, including headache, fibromyalgia and low back pain. There is no evidence that AP is effective in treating addiction, insomnia, obesity, asthma or stroke deficits. AP seems to be efficacious for alleviating experimental pain by increasing pain thresholds in human subjects and it appears to activate analgesic brain mechanisms through the release of neurohumoral factors, some of which can be inhibited by the opioid antagonist naloxone. In contrast to placebo analgesia, AP-related pain relief takes some time to develop and to resolve. Furthermore, repetitive use of AP analgesia can result in tolerance that demonstrates cross-tolerance with morphine. However, it appears that not all forms of AP are equally effective for providing analgesia. In particular, electro-AP seems to best deliver stimuli that activate powerful opioid and nonopioid analgesic mechanisms. Thus, future carefully controlled clinical trials using adequate electro-AP may be able to provide the necessary evidence for relevant analgesia in chronic pain conditions, such as headache, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and low back pain.

  2. Bayesian prediction of placebo analgesia in an instrumental learning model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Won-Mo; Lee, Ye-Seul; Wallraven, Christian; Chae, Younbyoung

    2017-01-01

    Placebo analgesia can be primarily explained by the Pavlovian conditioning paradigm in which a passively applied cue becomes associated with less pain. In contrast, instrumental conditioning employs an active paradigm that might be more similar to clinical settings. In the present study, an instrumental conditioning paradigm involving a modified trust game in a simulated clinical situation was used to induce placebo analgesia. Additionally, Bayesian modeling was applied to predict the placebo responses of individuals based on their choices. Twenty-four participants engaged in a medical trust game in which decisions to receive treatment from either a doctor (more effective with high cost) or a pharmacy (less effective with low cost) were made after receiving a reference pain stimulus. In the conditioning session, the participants received lower levels of pain following both choices, while high pain stimuli were administered in the test session even after making the decision. The choice-dependent pain in the conditioning session was modulated in terms of both intensity and uncertainty. Participants reported significantly less pain when they chose the doctor or the pharmacy for treatment compared to the control trials. The predicted pain ratings based on Bayesian modeling showed significant correlations with the actual reports from participants for both of the choice categories. The instrumental conditioning paradigm allowed for the active choice of optional cues and was able to induce the placebo analgesia effect. Additionally, Bayesian modeling successfully predicted pain ratings in a simulated clinical situation that fits well with placebo analgesia induced by instrumental conditioning. PMID:28225816

  3. Inhaled analgesia for pain management in labour (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, T.; Poppel, M. van; Jones, L.; Lazet, J.; Nisio, M. Di; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many women would like to have a choice in pain relief during labour and also would like to avoid invasive methods of pain management in labour. Inhaled analgesia during labour involves the self-administered inhalation of sub-anaesthetic concentrations of agents while the mother remains a

  4. Analgesia in the horse, assessing and treating pain in equines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, Thijs van

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on pain and nociception in horses and is based on the PhD thesis “Analgesia in the Horse, various approaches for assessment and treatment of pain and nociception in equines” by J.P.A.M. van Loon. Apart from a scientific review of the related literature, a multi-disciplinary appro

  5. Information Models of Acupuncture Analgesia and Meridian Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hua Zou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture and meridian channels have been major components of Chinese and Eastern Asian medicine—especially for analgesia—for over 2000 years. In recent decades, electroacupuncture (EA analgesia has been applied clinically and experimentally. However, there were controversial results between different treatment frequencies, or between the active and the placebo treatments; and the mechanisms of the treatments and the related meridian channels are still unknown. In this study, we propose a new term of infophysics therapy and develop information models of acupuncture (or EA analgesia and meridian channels, to understand the mechanisms and to explain the controversial results, based on Western theories of information, trigonometry and Fourier series, and physics, as well as published biomedical data. We are trying to build a bridge between Chinese medicine and Western medicine by investigating the Eastern acupuncture analgesia and meridian channels with Western sciences; we model the meridians as a physiological system that is mostly constructed with interstices in or between other physiological systems; we consider frequencies, amplitudes and wave numbers of electric field intensity (EFI as information data. Our modeling results demonstrate that information regulated with acupuncture (or EA is different from pain information, we provide answers to explain the controversial published results, and suggest that mechanisms of acupuncture (or EA analgesia could be mostly involved in information regulation of frequencies and amplitudes of EFI as well as neuronal transmitters such as endorphins.

  6. Side effects of pain and analgesia in animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirkof, Paulin

    2017-03-22

    This review highlights selected effects of untreated pain and of widely used analgesics such as opioids, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and antipyretics, to illustrate the relevance of carefully planned, appropriate and controlled analgesia for greater reproducibility in animal experiments involving laboratory rodents.

  7. Analgesia and anesthesia for neonates : Study design and ethical issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, KJS; Aranda, JV; Berde, CB; Buckman, S; Capparelli, EV; Carlo, WA; Hummel, P; Lantos, P; Johnston, CC; Lehr, VT; Lynn, AM; Oberlander, TF; Raju, TNK; Soriano, SG; Taddio, A; Walco, GA; Maxwell, L.G.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to summarize the clinical, methodologic, and ethical considerations for researchers interested in designing future trials in neonatal analgesia and anesthesia, hopefully stimulating additional research in this field. Methods: The MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and

  8. Epidural analgesia practices for labour: results of a 2005 national survey in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, Rebecca A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The last 25 years have seen changes in the management of epidural analgesia for labour, including the advent of low-dose epidural analgesia, the development of new local anaesthetic agents, various regimes for maintaining epidural analgesia and the practice of combined spinal-epidural analgesia. We conducted a survey of Irish obstetric anaesthetists to obtain information regarding the conduct and management of obstetric epidural analgesia in Ireland in 2005. The specific objective of this survey was to discover whether new developments in obstetric anaesthesia have been incorporated into clinical practice. METHODS: A postal survey was sent to all anaesthetists with a clinical commitment for obstetric anaesthesia in the sites approved for training by the College of Anaesthetists, Ireland. RESULTS: Fifty-three per cent of anaesthetists surveyed responded. The majority of anaesthetists (98%) use low-dose epidural analgesia for the maintenance of analgesia. Only 11% use it for test-dosing and 32% for the induction of analgesia. The combined spinal-epidural analgesia method is used by 49%, but two-thirds of those who use it perform fewer than five per month. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia was in use at only one site. CONCLUSION: It appears that Irish obstetric anaesthetists have adopted the low-dose epidural analgesia trend for the maintenance of labour analgesia. This practice is not as widespread, however, for test dosing, the induction of analgesia dose or in the administration of intermittent epidural boluses to maintain analgesia when higher concentrations are used. Since its introduction in 2000, levobupivacaine has become the most popular local anaesthetic agent.

  9. EFFECT OF INTRATHECAL CLONIDINE ON DURATION OF SPINAL ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clonidine is an α 2 adrenoreceptor agonist that has been shown to effectively prolong the duration of analgesia when administered intrathecally or in the epidural space along with local anaesthetic. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of two different doses of intrathecal clonidine (37.5 μg and 75 μg on the duration of analgesia and side effects produced by hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5%. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A prospective hospital based, randomized and double blind study. Selected 75 patients who was scheduled for elective below umbilical surgeries were randomly allocated to one of three groups. Group I (n=25, control group received 3ml hyperbaric bupivacaine, Group II (n=25 3ml hyperbar ic bupivacaine + 37.5 μg clonidine and Group III (n=25 3 ml hyperbaric bupivacaine + 75μg clonidine intrathecally. Total volume (4ml remained constant by adding sterile water. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software ver.18. RESULTS: The (mean ±SD dura tion of analgesia was found to be 171.3±6.37 mins in Group I, 217.7±7.01 mins in Group II and 257.1±6.50 mins in Group III (p<0.05. It shows that 37.5  g & 75  g intrathecal clonidine increases the duration of analgesia of 15mg hyperbaric bupivacaine by abo ut 46 mins & 86 mins respectively. The addition of intrathecal clonidine upto 75 μg does not cause any significant major side effect except mild sedation, without an increase in incidence of hypotension, bradycardia and respiratory depression. CONCLUSION: Intrathecal clonidine (37.5  g & 75  g as an adjuvant to hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% prolong the duration of analgesia in a dose dependent manner without increase in incidence of significant side effects

  10. EPIDURAL ANALGESIA DURING LABOR Analgesia epidural para el trabajo de parto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Zafra Pedone

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The labor pain affect to all pregnant woman and it has biochemical and physiological changes that affect to mother and fetus and interact with your normal evolution. Currently there are analgesic techniques to less effectively labor pain, to provide a high satisfaction level and supply clinical and laboratory beneficial outcomes. In own context these techniques are very low used. Objective: To describe the use of epidural analgesic procedures in a pregnancy woman group during labor at the Universitarian Hospital San Jose – Popayan, Colombia. Materials and methods: Case series design. We recollected information of patients from Obstetric service during two months of 2006. The patient’s information was recollected from medical history with an instrument that content variables related with the analgesic technique and labor. The analyses were performed using descriptive statistics Results: 41 pregnant woman with a mean age of 23,4 were included. 65,9% were nulliparous and 85,4% were term pregnancy. At the moment of dural puncture the dilation and EVA pain scale mode was 6 and 8 respectively. The latency mean was 14,1 minutes. 95,1% were require a booster applied in a mean of 80 minutes and 61% were required a second booster applied in a mean of 49 min after that. The way of termination of pregnancy was vaginal predominantly. Conclusions: The results of this study are congruent to reporting in the world literature. These conclusions support the effectiveness of epidural analgesia and its favorable benefit/risk relation to the control of labor pain. Introducción: El dolor asociado con el trabajo de parto afecta a todas las pacientes e involucra alteraciones que afectan a la madre y al feto e interactúan interfiriendo con su evolución normal. Actualmente disponemos de alternativas analgésicas peridurales que han demostrado controlar en forma efectiva el dolor, proporcionar un alto grado de satisfacción de las pacientes y proveer

  11. 主成分分析法(PCA)在SIFT匹配算法中的应用%Application of PCA Method in SIFT Matching Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莉; 韩燮

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm based on PCA-SIFT feature detection method(Principal Components Analysis-scale invariant keypoints) is introduced into image feature detecting and matching for better real time performance and higher precision. Traditional SIFT method has a large amount of data,and needs long time, PCA-SIFT changed histogram method for main element analysis method, effectively reducing the dimension of the feature descriptor. The extracted feature points are matched with the euclidean distance ratio, and then using the RANSAC algorithm to remove false matching. The experimental results show that the PCA-SIFT algorithm is more stable, more accurate and more rapid.%针对传统SIFT匹配算法数据量大、耗时长的问题,采用了主成分不变特征变换(PCA-SIFT)匹配算法.PCA-SIFT匹配算法将传统SIFT算法中的直方图法换做主元分析法,降低了传统SIFT特征描述符的维数,减少了数据量,提高了匹配效率.首先提取出两幅待匹配图像中的所有特征点及其特征向量,其次将提取出的特征向量采用距离比阈值筛选出匹配点对,再采用RANSAC法消除错配,最后得到精确的匹配结果.实验结果表明,PCA-SIFT算法较稳定、精确、快速.

  12. Different levels of implicit emotional recognition in posterior cortical atrophy (PCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gadea, María Luz; Ibanez, Agustín; Damm, Juliane; Ramirez Romero, Diana Andrea; Abrevaya, Sofia; Manes, Facundo; Richly, Pablo; Roca, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Previous single-case reports in posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) have shown preserved nonconscious visual recognition despite the absence of explicit recognition. In this study, we investigated three levels of visual recognition in both a female patient with PCA and a control group during the presentation of neutral, positive, and negative affective stimuli. Our results confirmed the profile of impaired explicit recognition and intact psychophysiological responses in the patient. In addition, she was able to implicitly recognize the valence and intensity of arousal of these stimuli. We suggest that implicit emotional awareness may mediates explicit and psychophysiological recognition in PCA.

  13. Value of PCA3 to Predict Biopsy Outcome and Its Potential Role in Selecting Patients for Multiparametric MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leyten, G.H.J.M.; Wierenga, E.A.; Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Oort, I.M. van; Futterer, J.J.; Barentsz, J.O.; Schalken, J.A.; Mulders, P.F.A.

    2013-01-01

    PCA3 (prostate cancer gene 3) and multiparametric 3 tesla MRI are new promising diagnostic tools in the detection of PCa. Our aim was to study the clinical value of the Progensa PCA3-test: its predictive value for biopsy outcome, Gleason score and MRI outcome. We evaluated, retrospectively, 591 pati

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIMENSIONALITY REDUCTION TECHNIQUES USING PCA AND LDA FOR CONTENT BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereena V. B

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a comparative study of two linear dimension reduction methods namely PCA (Principal Component Analysis and LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis. The main idea of PCA is to transform the high dimensional input space onto the feature space where the maximal variance is displayed. The feature selection in traditional LDA is obtained by maximizing the difference between classes and minimizing the distance within classes. PCA finds the axes with maximum variance for the whole data set where LDA tries to find the axes for best class seperability. The proposed method is experimented over a general image database using Matlab. The performance of these systems has been evaluated by Precision and Recall measures. Experimental results show that PCA based dimension reduction method gives the better performance in terms of higher precision and recall values with lesser computational complexity than the LDA based method.

  15. Outcomes of subcutaneous patient-controlled analgesia with buprenorphine combined with dezocine%丁丙诺啡复合地佐辛皮下患者自控镇痛的术后镇痛效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玮玲; 陈海涛; 郁燕; 曹汉忠

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨丁丙诺啡联合地佐辛皮下患者自控镇痛(PCA )的术后镇痛效果。方法择期手术患者643例实施皮下 PCA。镇痛药:S组(153例)为丁丙诺啡(0.034~0.036) mg/kg+0.75%左旋布比卡因20 m l+雷莫司琼0.6 m g ,用0.9%氯化钠稀释至150 m l;P组(490例)在上述配方中增加地佐辛10 mg。于术后1、24、48和72 h采用痛觉数字评价量表(NRS)评分和镇静程度(LOS )评分评估镇痛、镇静效果,记录相关不良反应发生情况。结果两组患者静息和活动状态下的NRS评分相仿,镇痛效果满意(P>0.05)。P组术后24 h的LOS评分低于S组(P<0.01)。P组丁丙诺啡用量少于S组[(0.027±0.007) mg/kg vs .(0.034±0.013) mg/kg](P<0.01)。S组镇痛泵夹管、恶心、呕吐、皮肤瘙痒及嗜睡发生率高于P组(P<0.05)。结论丁丙诺啡联合地佐辛皮下PCA镇痛效果满意,加用地佐辛可减少丁丙诺啡用量及其相关不良反应。%Objective To observe the efficacy of subcutaneous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with buprenorphine combined with dezocine .Methods Subcutaneous PCA was performed in 643 patients after elective surgeries .The analgesic solution in group S (153 cases ) consisted of buprenorphine 0.034~0.036 mg/kg ,0.75% levobupivacaine 20 ml and ramosetron 0.6 mg ,which was diluted with normal saline up to 150 ml .Dezocine 10 mg in group P(490 cases) was added into the analgesic solution of group S .The outcomes of analgesia and sedation were evaluated with numeric rating scale (NRS) and level of sedation (LOS) scoring at 1 ,24 ,48 and 72 hours during PCA .The analgesia-related adverse effects were recorded .Results The analgesia of both groups was all satisfactory and there was no significant difference in NRS scores at rest and active status between groups of P and S(P>0 .05) .The LOS score at 24 hours was significantly lower in group P than that in

  16. Lactate Oxidation Coupled to Iron or Electrode Reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    KAUST Repository

    Call, D. F.

    2011-10-14

    Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA completely oxidized lactate and reduced iron or an electrode, producing pyruvate and acetate intermediates. Compared to the current produced by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, G. sulfurreducens PCA produced 10-times-higher current levels in lactate-fed microbial electrolysis cells. The kinetic and comparative analyses reported here suggest a prominent role of G. sulfurreducens strains in metaland electrode-reducing communities supplied with lactate. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Faults detection approach using PCA and SOM algorithm in PMSG-WT system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Lamine FADDA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new approach for faults detection in observable data system wind turbine - permanent magnet synchronous generator (WT-PMSG, the studying objective, illustrate the combination (SOM-PCA to build Multi-local-PCA models faults detection in system (WT-PMSG, the performance of the method suggested to faults detection in system data, finding good results in simulation experiment.

  18. PCA-LDA算法在性别鉴别中的应用%Application of PCA and LDA on Gender Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何国辉; 甘俊英

    2006-01-01

    结合主元分析(PrincipalComponentsAnalysis,PCA)与线性鉴别分析(Linear Discriminant Analysis,LDA)的特点,提出用于性别鉴别的PCA-LDA算法.该算法通过PCA算法求得训练样本的特征子空间,并在此基础上计算LDA算法的特征子空间.将PCA算法与LDA算法的特征子空间进行融合,获得PCA-LDA算法的融合特征空间.训练样本与测试样本分别朝融合特征空间投影,从而得到识别特征.利用最近邻准则即可完成性别鉴别.基于ORL(Olivetti Research Laboratory)人脸数据库的实验结果表明,PCA-LDA算法比PCA算法识别性能好,在性别鉴别中是一种有效的方法.

  19. Future daily PM10 concentrations prediction by combining regression models and feedforward backpropagation models with principle component analysis (PCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Saufie, Ahmad Zia; Yahaya, Ahmad Shukri; Ramli, Nor Azam; Rosaida, Norrimi; Hamid, Hazrul Abdul

    2013-10-01

    Future PM10 concentration prediction is very important because it can help local authorities to enact preventative measures to reduce the impact of air pollution. The aims of this study are to improve prediction of Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Feedforward backpropagation (FFBP) by combining them with principle component analysis for predicting future (next day, next two-day and next three-day) PM10 concentration in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Annual hourly observations for PM10 in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia from January 2003 to December 2010 were selected for predicting PM10 concentration level. Eighty percent of the monitoring records were used for training and twenty percent were used for validation of the models. Three accuracy measures - Prediction Accuracy (PA), Coefficient of Determination (R2) and Index of Agreement (IA), as well as two error measures - Normalized Absolute Error (NAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) were used to evaluate the performance of the models. Results show that PCA models combined with MLR and PCA with FFBP improved MLR and FFBP models for all three days in advance of predicting PM10 concentration, with reduced errors by as much as 18.1% (PCA-MLR) and 17.68% (PCA-FFBP) for next day, 19.2% (PCA-MLR) and 22.1% (PCA-FFBP) for next two-day and 18.7% (PCA-MLR) and 22.79% (PCA-FFBP) for next three-day predictions. Including PCA improved the accuracy of the models by as much as by 12.9% (PCA-MLR) and 13.3% (PCA-FFBP) for next day, 32.3% (PCA-MLR) and 14.7% (PCA-FFBP) for next two-day and 46.1% (PCA-MLR) and 19.3% (PCA-FFBP) for next three-day predictions.

  20. Current Strategies in Anesthesia and Analgesia for Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Calin Stefan; Weiser, Mitchell C; Levin, Emily J

    2016-02-01

    Total knee arthroplasty is associated with substantial postoperative pain that may impair mobility, reduce the ability to participate in rehabilitation, lead to chronic pain, and reduce patient satisfaction. Traditional general anesthesia with postoperative epidural and patient-controlled opioid analgesia is associated with an undesirable adverse-effect profile, including postoperative nausea and vomiting, hypotension, urinary retention, respiratory depression, delirium, and an increased infection rate. Multimodal anesthesia--incorporating elements of preemptive analgesia, neuraxial perioperative anesthesia, peripheral nerve blockade, periarticular injections, and multimodal oral opioid and nonopioid medications during the perioperative and postoperative periods--can provide superior pain control while minimizing opioid-related adverse effects, improving patient satisfaction, and reducing the risk of postoperative complications.

  1. Preemptive analgesia: the prevention of neurogenous orofacial pain.

    OpenAIRE

    Foreman, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Chronic neurogenous pain is often an extremely difficult condition to manage. In the orofacial region, trauma from injury or dental procedures may lead to the development of severe neuralgic pains and major distress to the patient. Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that the use of adequate preemptive regional anesthesia, systemic analgesia, and the avoidance of repeated, painful stimuli may reduce the incidence of this problem.

  2. The Neuroanatomy of Sexual Dimorphism in Opioid Analgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-13

    nociception , morphine antinociception and reproductive indices in male and female rats. Pain 103 (3), 285–302. van Bockstaele, E.J., Aston-Jones, G...Review The neuroanatomy of sexual dimorphism in opioid analgesia Dayna R. Loyd a, Anne Z. Murphy b,⁎ a Pain Management Research Area, United States...online 13 April 2014 Keywords: Pain Periaqueductal gray Morphine Mu opioid receptor The influence of sex has been neglected in clinical studies on pain

  3. Intrapartum analgesia as a condition of human satisfaction at hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Polizzi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates parturients’ satisfaction with intrapartum analgesia. It aims to assess their opinions about hospital and health staff involved in delivery, besides investigating emotional control, locus control and bond between mothers and their newborn infants. A multidimensional approach has been used to investigate the variable of woman as a person, the variable of context and the variable of bond with the newborn infant. The study was conducted according to a quasi-experimental design, with a control group. The study was performed within the Analgesia and Intensive Care Operational Unit of the Maternal-Infant Department of the P. Giaccone University General Hospital of Palermo. It involved 60 women subdivided into two groups of 30 women each, the experimental group (women who requested intrapartum analgesia called the A group, and the control group (women who refused it called the B group. The following tools were administered: the STAI-Y (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, form Y scale; the Depression Questionnaire of CBA (Cognitive Behavioural Assessment scale; the Locus of Control questionnaire; and an interview designed for the purpose. The experimental A group women exhibited lower levels of state anxiety and depression post-partum than those of the control B group; moreover, the women in the A group exhibited higher levels of external locus of control and evaluated delivery more positively than those of the B group. There were no significant differences with regard to the relationship with their newborn infants. The study shows that intrapartum analgesia provides hospitals with the possibility to satisfy women’s needs for safety and well-being.

  4. Clinical study of diffusion hypoxia after nitrous oxide analgesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Quarnstrom, F. C.; Milgrom, P.; Bishop, M. J.; DeRouen, T. A.

    1991-01-01

    In order to estimate the incidence of diffusion hypoxia, arterial oxygen saturation was measured in 104 healthy adult dental patients who were administered nitrous oxide-oxygen analgesia and who did not receive postcessation oxygen. Pretreatment saturation levels as determined by pulse oximetry ranged from 93% to 100%. When the nitrous oxide-oxygen administration ceased, the saturation levels were from 95% to 100%. The mean saturation dropped about 2% over the next 4 min and then stabilized. ...

  5. Remifentalino intravenoso mediante infusor elastomerico frente a meperidina intramuscular: Estudio comparativo en analgesia obstetrica Intravenous remifentanil delivered through an elastomeric device versus intramuscular meperidine comparative study for obstetric analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Calderón

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar la eficacia y seguridad de remifentanilo administrado mediante infusor elastomérico con PCA iv en analgesia obstétrica comparado con meperidina intramuscular en parturientas con contraindicación para analgesia epidural. Material y Método: Se seleccionaron aletoriamente 24 parturientas, se asoció infusor elastomérico Baxter® con 250 ml de suero fisiológico con 2,5 mg de remifentanilo y un ritmo de 12 ml·h ¹, lo que supone una infusión media de 0,025 μg·kg-1·min-1 de remifentanilo, permitiendo la administración de bolos de 5 ml con un tiempo de cierre de 30 minutos (Grupo R o 1 mg·kg¹ de meperidina y 2,5 mg de haloperidol (Grupo M vía intramuscular cada 4 h. Valoramos la intensidad del dolor cada 30 min mediante una escala analógica visual (EVA, tiempo de infusión, bolos administrados, el nivel de sedación mediante escala del estado de alerta y sedación evaluada por el observador (OAA/S, efectos adversos y el test de Apgar del recién nacido al minuto y a los 5 min. Resultados: No hubo diferencias en los datos antropométricos de ambos grupos. La duración media de la infusión en el grupo R fue de 280 ± 55 min y las necesidades de bolos de rescate de 1,2 ± 1,5. La dosis media de meperidina intramuscular en el grupo M fue de 120 ± 25 mg. La intensidad del dolor durante el parto fue significativamente menor en el grupo R durante todo el periodo de dilatación y expulsivo (pObjectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and security of remifentanil administered by means of elastomeric infusor with PCA IV compared obstetrical analgesia with intramuscular meperidine in obstetric patients with contraindication for epidural analgesia, Material and Method: 24 patients were randomized, an elastomeric infusor Baxter® with a capacity of 250 ml was filled with 2.5 mg of remifentanil and a 12 mililiter·h-1, was satarted, (average infusion of 0.025·kg-1·min-1 of remifentanil, and boluses of 5 ml with a time of closing

  6. Flow determination of an intravenous fluid delivery system for large animals / Fluxo de escoamento de um sistema de infusão intravenosa de soluções eletrolíticas para grandes animais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cesa de Oliveira Dearo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous (IV administration of fluids is largely practiced in veterinary medicine. For this purpose, a sterile IV set and a large fluid container are required to assure a safe and efficient infusion. Once the IV set has been developed, fluid flow determinations must be established in order to assure the amount of fluid to be delivered to a given animal in a given time. The purpose of this study was to determine the flow of water through an IV set designed specifically for large animals with the flow clamp in a full open position. The flow rate achieved was 7,32 l/h.Em medicina veterinária a administração intravenosa de fluidos é amplamente utilizada. Essa prática necessita de um sistema que, constituído basicamente por um recipiente contendo a solução a ser administrada e um equipo que transfere a solução do recipiente ao paciente, garanta uma administração segura e estéril. Uma vez desenvolvido o sistema, taxas de escoamento devem ser determinadas a fim de se assegurar as quantidades de fluidos a serem administradas por unidade de tempo em situações clínicas reais. O presente trabalho objetivou a determinação do fluxo de escoamento de água em um sistema de infusão intravenosa idealizado para grandes animais com o regulador de fluxo totalmente aberto. A taxa de escoamento obtida foi igual a 7,32 l/h.

  7. Effects of block analgesia on attenuating intraoperative stress responses during oral surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Mamiya, H.; Ichinohe, T.; Kaneko, Y

    1997-01-01

    Surgical intervention affects cardiorespiratory function and deteriorates the homeostatic mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of block analgesia, which may minimize the intraoperative stress responses during oral surgery. In addition, we evaluated whether block analgesia could lessen the anesthetic requirements. Twenty-eight operative patients were randomly allocated to one of four groups: group 1, 1.3MAC without block analgesia; group 2, 1.6MAC without block analgesi...

  8. Bilateral Heel Numbness due to External Compression during Obstetric Epidural Analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian P. Kamphuis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 32-year-old woman who developed bilateral heel numbness after obstetric epidural analgesia. We diagnosed her with bilateral neuropathy of the medial calcaneal nerve, most likely due to longstanding pressure on both heels. Risk factors for the development of this neuropathy were prolonged labour with spinal analgesia and a continuation of analgesia during episiotomy. Padded footrests decrease pressure and can possibly prevent this neuropathy.

  9. Assessment of Sedation and Analgesia in Mechanically Ventilated Patients in Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Post traumatic stress resulting from an intensive care unit(ICU) stay may be prevented by adequate level of sedation and analgesia. Aims of the study were reviewing the current practices of sedation and analgesia in our ICU setup and to assess level of sedation and analgesia to know the requirement of sedative and analgesics in mechani-cally ventilated ICU patients. This prospective observational study was conducted on 50 consecutive mechanically ventilated patients in ICU over a period of 6 ...

  10. 潜伏期硬膜外阻滞分娩镇痛临床分析%A clinical analysis of epidural anesthesia in latency of labor for labor analgesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹春艳; 毛邱娴; 郭云怀; 张玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore clinical characteristics and feasibility of epidural anesthesia parturition analgesia in latency (labor analgesia in brief). Methods 272 term primiparae with cephalic presentation who tried to deliver vaginally were divided into 3 groups according to their willings: group A ( n = 92, who didn't receive any analgesia in delivery), group B ( n = 85, who received labor analgesia in active stage of labor when their external cervical orifice dilated to 3cm) and group C ( n = 95, who received labor analgesia in latency when the external cervical orifice opened to 1 ~2cm). The term primiparae in groups B and C received catheter setting in epidural space plus parturient controlled analgesia (CSE + PCA ) for labor analgesia. The labor duration, pattern of delivery, incidences of postpartum hemorrhage and neonatal asphyxia of primiparae were compared among the three groups. Results The duration of latency of primiparae in group C (345 + 58 min) was shorter than that in group A (386 + 98 min) and group B ( 388 + 79 min) ( F = 9.77, P =0. 001 ), and the duration of active stage of labor of primiparae in group A ( 219 + 69 min) was longer than that in group B ( 147 + 59 min)and group C ( 141 + 72 ) ( F = 37.99, P < 0. 001 ). The proportion of primiparae in group A who were given oxytocin in delivery( 19.6% )was less than that in group B ( 80.0% ) and group C ( 85.3% ), the differences were statistically significant (X2 = 28. 9544, P <0. 0001 ). Among the three groups, there were no significant differences in durations of the second and the third stages of labor, rates of cesarean section, forceps delivery and spontaneous delivery, incidence of neonatal asphyxia and amount of postpartum hemorrhage ( all P >0.05 ). Conclusion Labor analgesia starting from latency of labor can effectively shortens duration of labor pain. Increased use of oxytocineffectively shortens durations of latency and active stages of labor. It does not increase the

  11. Effects of hypnotic analgesia and hypnotizability on experimental ischemic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBenedittis, G; Panerai, A A; Villamira, M A

    1989-01-01

    Mechanisms of hypnotic analgesia are still poorly understood and conflicting data are reported regarding the underlying neurochemical correlates. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of hypnotically induced analgesia and hypnotizability on experimental ischemic pain, taking into account pain and distress tolerance as well as the neurochemical correlates. 11 high hypnotizable Ss and 10 low hypnotizable Ss, as determined by scores on the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (Weitzenhoffer & E. R. Hilgard, 1962), were administered an ischemic pain test in both waking and hypnotic conditions. The following variables were measured: (a) pain and distress tolerance, (b) anxiety levels, and (c) plasma concentrations of beta-endorphin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Results confirmed significant increases of pain and distress tolerance during hypnosis as compared to the waking state, with positive correlations between pain and distress relief and hypnotizability. Moreover, a hypnotically induced dissociation between the sensory-discriminative and the affective-motivational dimensions of pain experience was found, but only in high hypnotizable Ss. Hypnotic analgesia was unrelated to anxiety reduction and was not mediated either by endorphins or by ACTH.

  12. A compression bandage improves local infiltration analgesia in total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse; Husted, Henrik; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl Kri;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-volume local infiltration analgesia has been shown to be an effective pain treatment after knee replacement, but the role of bandaging to prolong analgesia has not been evaluated. METHODS: 48 patients undergoing fast-track total knee replacement with high-volume (170 mL) 0...... with compression bandage than in those with non-compression bandage and with a similar low use of oxycodone. Mean hospital stay was similar (2.8 days and 3.3 days, respectively). INTERPRETATION: A compression bandage is recommended to improve analgesia after high-volume local infiltration analgesia in total knee...... arthroplasty Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  13. Patient Controlled Epidural Analgesia during Labour: Effect of Addition of Background Infusion on Quality of Analgesia & Maternal Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA is a well established technique for pain relief during labor. But the inclusion of continuous background infusion to PCEA is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess whether the use of continuous infusion along with PCEA was beneficial for laboring women with regards to quality of analgesia, maternal satisfaction and neonatal outcome in comparison to PCEA alone. Fifty five parturients received epidural bolus of 10ml solution containing 0.125% bupivacaine +2 ìg.ml-1 of fentanyl. For maintenance of analgesia the patients of Group PCEA self administered 8 ml bolus with lockout interval of 20 minutes of above solution on demand with no basal infusion. While the patients of Group PCEA + CI received continuous epidural infusion at the rate of 10 ml.hr-1 along with self administered boluses of 3 ml with lockout interval of 10 minutes of similar epidural solution. Patients of both groups were given rescue boluses by the anaesthetists for distressing pain. Verbal analogue pain scores, incidence of distressing pain, need of supplementary/rescue boluses, dose of bupivacaine consumed, maternal satisfaction and neonatal Apgar scores were recorded. No significant difference was observed between mean VAS pain scores during labor, maternal satisfaction, mode of delivery or neonatal Apgar scores. But more patients (n=8 required rescue boluses in PCEA group for distressing pain. The total volume consumed of bupivacaine and opioid was slightly more in PCEA + CI group. In both the techniques the highest sensory level, degree of motor block were comparable& prolongation of labor was not seen. It was concluded that both the techniques provided equivalent labor analgesia, maternal satisfaction and neonatal Apgar scores. PCEA along with continuous infusion at the rate of 10 ml/ hr resulted in lesser incidence of distressing pain and need for rescue analgesic. Although this group consumed higher dose of bupivacaine

  14. Application of PCA and HCA to the Structure-activity Relationship (SAR) Study of Fluoroquinolones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-Hong; ZHANG Rui-hou; CHENG Xin-Lu; YANG Xiang-Dong

    2006-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) was used to calculate a set of molecular descriptors (properties) for 14 fluoroquinolones with anti-B.fragilis activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were employed in order to reduce dimensionality and investigate which subset of variables should be more effective for classifying fluoroquinolones according to their an-B.fragilis activity degree. The PCA shows that the variables of ELUMO, △EHL, μ, Q2, Q3, Q5, Q6, QB, LogP, MR and MP are responsible for the separation between compounds with higher and lower anti-B.fragilis activities. The HCA results are similar to those obtained with PCA. By using the chemometric results, 4 synthetic compounds were analyzed through PCA and HCA, and 2 of them are proposed as active molecules against B.fragilis, which is consistent with the results of clinic experiments. The methodologies of PCA and HCA provide a reliable rule for classifying new fluoroquinolones with anti-B.fragilis activity.

  15. 2D-3D Face Recognition Method Based on a Modified CCA-PCA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Kamencay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposed methodology for face recognition based on an information theory approach to coding and decoding face images. In this paper, we propose a 2D-3D face-matching method based on a principal component analysis (PCA algorithm using canonical correlation analysis (CCA to learn the mapping between a 2D face image and 3D face data. This method makes it possible to match a 2D face image with enrolled 3D face data. Our proposed fusion algorithm is based on the PCA method, which is applied to extract base features. PCA feature-level fusion requires the extraction of different features from the source data before features are merged together. Experimental results on the TEXAS face image database have shown that the classification and recognition results based on the modified CCA-PCA method are superior to those based on the CCA method. Testing the 2D-3D face match results gave a recognition rate for the CCA method of a quite poor 55% while the modified CCA method based on PCA-level fusion achieved a very good recognition score of 85%.

  16. 4位RGB LED彩灯控制器PCA9633的应用%Application of 4 bit RGB LED driver PCA9633

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯月芹

    2015-01-01

    PCA9633是一款通过I2C总线控制的4路LED控制芯片,每一路LED输出的状态可以设置为没有PWM (Pulse Width Modulation)控制的关或开,或者由其独立的PWM控制器的值和组PWM控制器的值确定.LED驱动输出的信号频率为97 kHz,占空比在0% ~99.6%可调.本文介绍PCA9633的I2C协议,重点介绍它与CPU的硬件电路图以及通过C语言编程实现I2C时序,驱动LED灯发光,最后给出应用实例.

  17. 基于SIFT,PCA-SIFT和SURF特征检测方法的研究%Based on SIFT,PCA-SIFT and SURF Feature Detection Method Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏荣; 李晓明

    2012-01-01

    To study features,we compared with SIFT(Scale Invariant Feature Transform),PCA-SIFT(Principal Component Analysis Scale Invariant Feature Transform)and SURF(Speeded Up Robust Features)three kinds of robust feature detection method.We use KNN(K-Nearest Neighbor)and random sampling method of these three kinds of methods for analysis.Where KNN used to seek matching pairs,random sampling for removing errors from match to match.Feature detection performance robustness is the image rotation,image blurring,illumination variation,the scale change of the image.The experimental evaluation is the use of repetition rate and the number of correct matching of the two statistical methods.In a variety of image transform in SIFT and SURF performance is consistent,but also has faster calculation speed.PCA-SIFT in the image rotation and illumination changes provides a better performance.%文章对SIFT,PCA-SIFT和SURF三种鲁棒性较强的特征检测方法作对比.文中运用KNN(K-Nearest Neighbor)和RANSAC的方法对这三种方法进行分析.其中KNN用于寻求匹配对,RANSAC用于从匹配对中剔除错误匹配.特征检测性能的鲁棒性主要是对图像旋转、图像模糊、光照变化、尺度变化下的图像进行测试.在各种图像变换中SIFT都体现出了稳定性,但计算速度相对比较慢.SURF不仅与SIFT的性能相一致,而且还拥有较快的计算速度.PCA-SIFT在图像旋转和光照变化中有较好的性能.

  18. A Comparative Study of 2D PCA Face Recognition Method with Other Statistically Based Face Recognition Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, R.; Gnanamurthy, R. K.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, two-dimensional principal component analysis (2D PCA) is compared with other algorithms like 1D PCA, Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA), independent component analysis (ICA) and Kernel PCA (KPCA) which are used for image representation and face recognition. As opposed to PCA, 2D PCA is based on 2D image matrices rather than 1D vectors, so the image matrix does not need to be transformed into a vector prior to feature extraction. Instead, an image covariance matrix is constructed directly using the original image matrices and its Eigen vectors are derived for image feature extraction. To test 2D PCA and evaluate its performance, a series of experiments are performed on three face image databases: ORL, Senthil, and Yale face databases. The recognition rate across all trials higher using 2D PCA than PCA, FDA, ICA and KPCA. The experimental results also indicated that the extraction of image features is computationally more efficient using 2D PCA than PCA.

  19. A comparison of intrathecal dexmedetomidine verses intrathecal fentanyl with epidural bupivacaine for combined spinal epidural labor analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Dilesh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: 10 μg dexmedetomidine intrathecally provides a longer duration of analgesia with lesser incidence of pruritus compared to 20 μg fentanyl intrathecally for CSE labor analgesia with comparable neonatal side-effects.

  20. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial of thoracic epidural or patient-controlled opiate analgesia on perioperative quality of life.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, M

    2010-03-01

    Perioperative epidural analgesia provides continuous pain control and may have advantages over parenteral opiate administration. This study assessed the impact of epidural analgesia on quality of life (QOL) of patients undergoing major surgery.

  1. Fault diagnosis for power system transmission line based on PCA and SVMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yuanjun; Li, Kang; Liu, Xueqin [Queen' s Univ., Belfast (United Kingdom). School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the application of a fault detection method based on the principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM) for the detection and classification of faults in power system transmission lines. Consider that the data may be huge with a number of strongly correlated variables, method which incorporates both the principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM) is proposed. This algorithm has two stages. The first stage involves the use of the PCA to reduce the dimensionality as well as to find violating point of the signals according to the confidential limit. The features of each fault extracted from the data are used in the second stage to construct SVM networks. The second stage is to use pattern recognition method to distinguish the phase of the faulty situation. The proposed scheme is able to solve the problems encountered in traditional magnitude and frequency based methods. The benefits of this improvement are demonstrated.

  2. COMBINING PCA ANALYSIS AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS IN MODELLING ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTIONS OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Zekić-Sušac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite increased interest in the entrepreneurial intentions and career choices of young adults, reliable prediction models are yet to be developed. Two nonparametric methods were used in this paper to model entrepreneurial intentions: principal component analysis (PCA and artificial neural networks (ANNs. PCA was used to perform feature extraction in the first stage of modelling, while artificial neural networks were used to classify students according to their entrepreneurial intentions in the second stage. Four modelling strategies were tested in order to find the most efficient model. Dataset was collected in an international survey on entrepreneurship self-efficacy and identity. Variables describe students’ demographics, education, attitudes, social and cultural norms, self-efficacy and other characteristics. The research reveals benefits from the combination of the PCA and ANNs in modeling entrepreneurial intentions, and provides some ideas for further research.

  3. Fault diagnosis of a mine hoist using PCA and SVM techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Yan-wei; WANG Yao-cai; LIU Tao; WANG Zhi-jie

    2008-01-01

    A new method based on principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machines (SVMs) is proposed for fault diagnosis of mine hoists. PCA is used to extract the principal features associated with the gearbox. Then, with the irrelevant gearbox variables removed, the remaining gearbox, the hydraulic system and the wire rope parameters were used as input to a multi-class SVM. The SVM is first trained by using the one class-based multi-class optimization algorithm and it is then applied to fault identification. Comparison of various methods showed the PCA-SVM method successfully removed redundancy to solve the dimensionality curse. These results show that the algorithm using the RBF kernel function for the SVM had the best classification properties.

  4. The effects of multidisciplinary rehabilitation: RePCa-a randomised study among primary prostate cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieperink, K B; Johansen, C; Hansen, Steinbjørn;

    2013-01-01

    with radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy were randomly assigned to either a programme of two nursing counselling sessions and two instructive sessions with a physical therapist (n=79) or to usual care (n=82). Primary outcome was Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC-26) urinary irritative sum......Background:The objective of this study is the effectiveness of multidisciplinary rehabilitation on treatment-related adverse effects after completed radiotherapy in patients with prostate cancer (PCa).Methods:In a single-centre oncology unit in Odense, Denmark, 161 PCa patients treated......-score (d=0.19; P=0.018), and the SF-12 Physical Component Summary, d=0.35; P=0.002. Patients with more severe impairment gained most. Pelvic floor muscle strength measured by electromyography declined in both groups, P=0.0001.Conclusion:Multidisciplinary rehabilitation in irradiated PCa patients improved...

  5. A MEDICAL MULTI-MODALITY IMAGE FUSION OF CT/PET WITH PCA, DWT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guruprasad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a view on the fusion of different modality images like PET and CT (Positron Emission Tomography & Computed Tomography by two domain methods PCA and DWT methods. The spatial domain is PCA method, and another transformation domain method (DWT. In dwt decomposed coefficients of DWT (discrete wavelet transformation are applied with the IDWT to get fused image information. Before that, choose a detailed part of decomposed coefficients by maximum selection and averaging the approximated part of DWT coefficients. In applying the PCA using eigen values and eigen vector of larger values as principal components and after to reconstruct using addition to these to get the fussed image of two modalities CT & PET. So that adds complimentary features of both anatomic, physiological and metabolic information in one image, provides better visual information in single image of patients in medical field. The analytic parameters like, MSE, PSNR, ENTROPY results are better enough to prove the methods each other.

  6. Soft sensor design for hydrodesulfurization process using support vector regression based on WT and PCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saeid Shokri; Mohammad Taghi Sadeghi; Mahdi Ahmadi Marvast; Shankar Narasimhan

    2015-01-01

    A novel method for developing a reliable data driven soft sensor to improve the prediction accuracy of sulfur content in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) process was proposed. Therefore, an integrated approach using support vector regression (SVR) based on wavelet transform (WT) and principal component analysis (PCA) was used. Experimental data from the HDS setup were employed to validate the proposed model. The results reveal that the integrated WT-PCA with SVR model was able to increase the prediction accuracy of SVR model. Implementation of the proposed model delivers the best satisfactory predicting performance (EAARE=0.058 andR2=0.97) in comparison with SVR. The obtained results indicate that the proposed model is more reliable and more precise than the multiple linear regression (MLR), SVR and PCA-SVR.

  7. Online State-Based Structured SVM Combined With Incremental PCA for Robust Visual Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yingjie; Xu, De; Wang, Xingang; Bai, Mingran

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a robust state-based structured support vector machine (SVM) tracking algorithm combined with incremental principal component analysis (PCA). Different from the current structured SVM for tracking, our method directly learns and predicts the object's states and not the 2-D translation transformation during tracking. We define the object's virtual state to combine the state-based structured SVM and incremental PCA. The virtual state is considered as the most confident state of the object in every frame. The incremental PCA is used to update the virtual feature vector corresponding to the virtual state and the principal subspace of the object's feature vectors. In order to improve the accuracy of the prediction, all the feature vectors are projected onto the principal subspace in the learning and prediction process of the state-based structured SVM. Experimental results on several challenging video sequences validate the effectiveness and robustness of our approach.

  8. Effects of Labor Analgesia with Continuous Subarachnoid Spinocath Infusion of Sufentanil on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes%蛛网膜下spinocath连续输注舒芬太尼行分娩镇痛对母婴的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪强; 薛广燕

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨蛛网膜下spinocath连续输注不同剂量舒芬太尼行分娩镇痛对母婴的影响.方法 自愿接受分娩镇痛的足月初产妇120例(ASAⅠ-Ⅱ级),将其按随机数字表法分为4组,每组30例.镇痛药液的配置:A组生理盐水30 mL+舒芬太尼45 μg;B组生理盐水30 mL+舒芬太尼60 μg;C组生理盐水30 mL+舒芬太尼75 μg;D组生理盐水30 mL+舒芬太尼90 μg;4组其他处理均相同.自控镇痛(PCA)设置方案为背景剂量为2 mL,维持剂量为2 mL·h-1,PCA按压1次为1 mL,锁时为45 min.记录镇痛起效时间、首剂镇痛持续时间,PCA用药总量及PCA按压次数和产妇运动阻滞情况,记录产妇第一产程时间、第二产程时间、新生儿Apgar评分、不良反应发生率、镇痛满意度等.结果 C、D组产妇的镇痛起效时间明显较A组缩短,A组首剂镇痛持续时间较C、D组明显缩短,且差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);PCA用药总量及PCA按压次数D组较A组明显减少,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);A组第一产程时间较B、C、D组延长(P<0.05);4组产妇无一出现恶心呕吐、低血压、呼吸抑制等不良反应,D组瘙痒的发生率较A、B、C组明显升高(P<0.05);无一例产妇对镇痛效果不满意.结论 蛛网膜下spinocath单纯连续输注小剂量舒芬太尼可安全、有效地应用于分娩镇痛.%Objective To evaluate the effects of labor analgesia with continuous subarachnoid spinocath infusion of sufentanil on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Methods A total of 120 ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ primiparas who voluntarily accepted labor analgesia were randomly divided into four groups,with 30 primiparas in each group. Group A received normal saline(NS) 30 mL and sufen-tanil 45 μg;Group B received NS 30 mL and sufentanil 60 jug; Group C received NS 30 mL and sufentanil 75 μg; Group D received NS 30 mL and sufentanil 90 jug. Patient controlled analgesia (PCA) regimens were: backgroud dose 2 mL, continuate injection dose 2 mL · h ‐1

  9. Controversies in using urine samples for prostate cancer detection: PSA and PCA3 expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fontenete

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Prostate cancer (PCa is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies in the world. Although PSA utilization as a serum marker has improved prostate cancer detection it still presents some limitations, mainly regarding its specificity. The expression of this marker, along with the detection of PCA3 mRNA in urine samples, has been suggested as a new approach for PCa detection. The goal of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of the urinary detection of PCA3 mRNA and PSA mRNA without performing the somewhat embarrassing prostate massage. It was also intended to optimize and implement a methodological protocol for this kind of sampling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urine samples from 57 patients with suspected prostate disease were collected, without undergoing prostate massage. Increased serum PSA levels were confirmed by medical records review. RNA was extracted by different methods and a preamplification step was included in order to improve gene detection by Real-Time PCR. RESULTS: An increase in RNA concentration with the use of TriPure Isolation Reagent. Despite this optimization, only 15.8% of the cases showed expression of PSA mRNA and only 3.8% of prostate cancer patients presented detectable levels of PCA3 mRNA. The use of a preamplification step revealed no improvement in the results obtained. CONCLUSION: This work confirms that prostate massage is important before urine collection for gene expression analysis. Since PSA and PCA3 are prostate specific, it is necessary to promote the passage of cells from prostate to urinary tract, in order to detect these genetic markers in urine samples.

  10. Unpredictability of regression of analgesia during the continuous postoperative extradural infusion of bupivacaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Hjortsø, N C; Bigler, D;

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four otherwise healthy patients scheduled for elective major abdominal surgery received general anaesthesia plus lumbar extradural analgesia. A loading dose of 0.5% plain bupivacaine was given to produce sensory analgesia (pin prick) from T4 to S5 and followed by a continuous infusion of 0...

  11. The effect of adding epinephrine to combination of sufentanil and bupivacaine in spinal analgesia during labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Golfam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal analgesia is one of the effective and rapid methods for labor. It is not commonly used because of short duration of analgesia and motor block, which limits mother's force in labor progression. We attempted to prolong duration and quality of analgesia by adding Epinephrine.Methods: In this quasi-experimental study 90 pregnant women gravid II and III who referred to Motazedi and Imam Reza Educational & Medical Centers were recruited and divided into two groups of case and control (45 subjects in each group. The case group received spinal analgesia using Sufentanil and Bupivacaine, and Epinephrine while the control group received Sufentanil and Bupivacaine. Data including feeling of pain, motor block, duration of analgesia, fetal heart rate, nausea and vomiting, blood pressure was collected and analyzed using chi-square and t test. Results: duration of analgesia and vomiting were significantly increased in the case group. (p=0.001, p=0.01 respectively. Hemodynamic status in mothers and Apgar score of neonates were not significantly different between two groups.Conclusion: It seems that adding Epinephrine to Sufentanil and Bupivacaine could increase analgesia duration without altering in sensory level although could increase nausea and vomiting its recommended in labor analgesia.

  12. Mode of delivery after epidural analgesia in a cohort of low-risk nulliparas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Lena Mariann; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Although epidural analgesia is widespread and very effective for alleviating labor pain, its use is still controversial, as the literature is inconsistent about the risk of adverse birth outcome after administration of epidural analgesia. The aim of this study was to explore associations between...

  13. Equilibrium and Non-equilibrium Ising Models by Means of PCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancia, Carlo; Scoppola, Benedetto

    2013-11-01

    We propose a unified approach to reversible and irreversible pca dynamics, and we show that in the case of 1D and 2D nearest neighbor Ising systems with periodic boundary conditions we are able to compute the stationary measure of the dynamics also when the latter is irreversible. We also show how, according to (P. Dai Pra et al. in J. Stat. Phys. 149(4):722-737, 2012), the stationary measure is very close to the Gibbs for a suitable choice of the parameters of the pca dynamics, both in the reversible and in the irreversible cases. We discuss some numerical aspects regarding this topic, including a possible parallel implementation.

  14. The elusive rat model of conditioned placebo analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, Christopher T; White, Michelle M; Harris, Amber L; Fuchs, Perry N

    2014-10-01

    Recent research on human placebo analgesia has suggested the need for rodent models to further elucidate the neural substrates of the placebo effect. This series of 3 experiments therefore was performed in an attempt to develop a model of placebo analgesia in rats. In each study, female Sprague-Dawley rats received an L5 spinal nerve ligation to induce a neuropathic pain condition. Each rat then underwent a 4-day conditioning procedure in which an active analgesic drug or its vehicle (unconditioned stimulus) was associated with the following cues (conditioned stimuli): novel testing room (environmental), vanilla scent cue (olfactory), dim incandescent lighting (visual), restraint procedure/injection (tactile), and time of day and injection-test latency (temporal). The analgesics for each experiment were as follows: Experiment 1 used 90 mg/kg gabapentin, experiment 2 used 3mg/kg loperamide hydrochloride, and experiment 3 used 6 mg/kg morphine sulfate. On the following test day, half of the animals received the opposite treatment, resulting in 4 conditioning manipulations: drug/drug, drug/vehicle, vehicle/drug, and vehicle/vehicle. Nociceptive thresholds were assessed with the mechanical paw withdrawal threshold test each day after the conditioning procedure. In all 3 experiments, no significant differences were detected on test day between control and placebo groups, indicating a lack of a conditioned placebo analgesic response. Our results contrast with prior research that implies the existence of a reliable and robust response to placebo treatment. We conclude that placebo analgesia in rats is not particularly robust and that it is difficult to achieve using conventional procedures and proper experimental design.

  15. INTRAVENOUS DEXMEDETOMIDINE FOR LABOUR ANALGESIA IN WOMEN WITH PREECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Parenteral opioids and sedatives are the most frequently prescribed agents for women in labour in many poor resource settings. These have shown poor pain relief and a lot of side effects in both the mother and the foetus. In patients with severe pre-eclampsia who are already haemodynamically compromised labour pains and delivery can result in haemodynamic instability, which can compromise both the mother and the neonate. Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective α-2 agonist, which when used in recommended dose in the form of an infusion has several desirable properties like sedation, anxiolysis, sympatholysis, analgesia, decreased anaesthetic requirements, maintains cardiovascular stability and provides a smooth recovery. AIM The aim of this study was to study the haemodynamic effects of intravenous dexmedetomidine when used in patients with severe pre-eclampsia for labour analgesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Bundelkhand Medical College, Sagar, between January 2015 and December 2016; 40 labouring patients with severe pre-eclampsia were included in the study; 20 each were allocated to the study and control group. The study group received intravenous Dexmedetomidine in the recommended doses (1 ug/kg loading dose over 10-15 minutes followed by an infusion at 0.2-0.7 ug/kg/hour when in active labour, while the control group received Intravenous Fentanyl. The two groups were compared regarding the duration of labour, the mode of delivery, the neonatal outcome, the onset and duration of analgesia and maternal haemodynamic parameters during labour and delivery. The data obtained in this study was tabulated and analysed using the Chi-square test and the Z test with p value of 0.05 taken as significant. RESULTS It was found out that the group of patients who received Dexmedetomidine were more haemodynamically stable during labour and delivery; there was significant pain relief

  16. Imaging-guided hyperstimulation analgesia in low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenberg, Miguel; Schwartz, Kobi

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain in patients with myofascial pain syndrome is characterized by painful active myofascial trigger points (ATPs) in muscles. This article reviews a novel, noninvasive modality that combines simultaneous imaging and treatment, thus taking advantage of the electrodermal information available from imaged ATPs to deliver localized neurostimulation, to stimulate peripheral nerve endings (Aδ fibers) and in turn, to release endogenous endorphins. "Hyperstimulation analgesia" with localized, intense, low-rate electrical pulses applied to painful ATPs was found to be effective in 95% patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain, in a clinical validation study.

  17. Regional anaesthesia and analgesia on the front line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D M

    2009-11-01

    Deployment to a combat zone with the military poses many challenges to the anaesthetist. One of these challenges is the safe, rapid and comfortable initial wound management and repatriation of wounded combat soldiers to their home country or tertiary treatment facility for definitive care and rehabilitation. The current conflict in Afghanistan is associated with injury patterns that differ from wars such as Vietnam or Korea. This report describes the experience of an Australian military anaesthetist and the value of regional anaesthesia and analgesia for the care of the wounded combat soldier

  18. Intravenous regional analgesia in a patient with Glanzmann thrombastenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksu, Sitki; Gul, Rauf; Ozen, Onder; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Buyukbebeci, Orhan; Oner, Unsal

    2010-02-01

    Glanzmann thrombastenia (GT) is a rare condition of an inherited autosomal recessive gene characterized with bleeding tendency. The condition is rarely met in the OR. and therefore it is essential that anesthesiologist be cognizant of the risk involved and be prepared with all necessary precautionary measures. We present a GT case in a 27-year-old male with a mass in the anticubital region of right wrist that was successfully excised using the non-invasive intravenous regional analgesia (IVRA). The use of platelet transfusion and the recombinant factor VIIa, are stressed.

  19. Opioid and nonopioid interactions in two forms of stress-induced analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisel, J E; Fleshner, M; Watkins, L R; Maier, S F

    1993-05-01

    Stressful environmental events activate endogenous mechanisms of pain inhibition. Under some circumstances the analgesia is blocked by naloxone/naltrexone ("opioid"), while under others it is not ("nonopioid"). The existence of these two categories of analgesia leads to the question of how they are related. In a collateral inhibition model proposed by Kirshgessner, Bodnar, and Pasternak (1982), opiate and nonopiate mechanisms were viewed as acting in a mutually inhibitory fashion. In the present experiments, rats were exposed to either of two environmental stressors that produce a nonopioid stress-induced analgesia (SIA) following injections of the opiate antagonist naltrexone or agonist morphine. In the presence of naltrexone, SIA produced by either cold water swim (CWS) or social defeat was enhanced. These same SIAs were found to attenuate the analgesic effect of morphine, demonstrating that an activation of opioid systems can inhibit nonopioid analgesias. These results support an inhibitory interaction of opioid and nonopioid mechanisms in some forms of stress-induced analgesia.

  20. [Assessment of pain relief in patients receiving different variants of multimodal analgesia after major gynecological surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timerbaev, V H; Smimova, O V; Genov, P G; Olejnikova, O N; Rebrova, O Yu

    2014-01-01

    The major gynecology surgery generally results in severe postoperative pain. Currently multimodal analgesia concept is widely used for the aim of postoperative pain relief optimization. According to this theory it is worth using the medication with different mechanism in order to increase analgesia qualify, decrease analgesic consumption and avoid adverse reaction. Unfortunately the surveys recently conducted have been pointed out the postoperative analgesia quality is still insufficient despite of using the concept mentioned above. One way to solve the problem is appearing in daily practice nefopam--centrally acting non-opioid analgesic that inhibits reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine and also mitigates glutamatergic neurotransmission. In this trial we tried to assess the postoperative daily used analgesia quality and potency of preemptive multimodal analgesia model consisted of nefopam, ketoprofen, paracetamol and morphine.

  1. [High thoracic epidural analgesia in the postoperative period after correction of congenital heart defects in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slin'ko, S K

    1999-01-01

    The effects and side effects of thoracic epidural analgesia on the respiratory response, awakening time, and cooperation with nurses were studied. Forty children received epidural analgesia after open-heart surgery. Lidocaine was injected in a dose of 1.5-2 mg/kg every 1.5-2 h. Controls (16 pts) received intravenous fentanyl + diazepam analgesia. Respiratory response and awakening were significantly earlier (p < 0.001) in the epidural group. Cooperation with nurses was much better in this group, too. No side effects were observed in the epidural group. Therefore, thoracic epidural analgesia is a safe and effective method of postoperative analgesia for children subjected to open-heart surgery.

  2. "Perdeu a veia": significados da prática da terapia intravenosa na unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal "The vein is missed": meanings of intravenous therapy practice in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa da Conceição Rodrigues

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A terapia intravenosa (TIV destaca-se entre as tecnologias imprescindíveis para garantir a sobrevivência dos recém-nascidos de risco. Contudo, é fonte de dor, estresse e complicações graves. O objeto de estudo foram os significados da prática da terapia intravenosa na unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal (UTIN, mais especificamente: analisar os significados atribuídos à prática da TIV pela equipe e discutir como esses significados refletem no cuidado do recém-nascido. Trata-se de um estudo de caso etnográfico com referencial teórico da antropologia cultural, realizado em uma UTIN pública do município do Rio de Janeiro. Os sujeitos foram nove enfermeiros, quatro médicos, três técnicos e quatro auxiliares de enfermagem. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevista semiestruturada e observação participante. A análise qualitativa das entrevistas foi realizada utilizando-se o método da interpretação dos sentidos. Os significados, quando entrelaçados na "teia cultural", revelaram que a prática da TIV é reduzida a técnicas de punção venosa periférica, acarretando sérios agravos para os recém-nascidos e desgaste emocional para a equipe e a família. A ressignificação da prática da terapia intravenosa será possível a partir da reflexão crítica dos padrões culturais nos quais ela se estrutura.Intravenous Therapy (IVT is an important item among the necessary technologies for the survival of high-risk new-born babies. However, it is also a source of pain, stress and risk of serious complications. This article aims to assess the meanings of IVT as ascribed by care teams and to discuss the reflection of such meanings on the attention to new-born babies. The article, with a theoretical referential in Cultural Anthropology, presents an ethnographic case study carried out in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of municipal administration in Rio de Janeiro. Subjects were nine nurses, four doctors, and three nurse assistants

  3. Fentanyl versus tramadol with levobupivacaine for combined spinal-epidural analgesia in labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Chatrath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuraxial labor analgesia using new local anesthetics such as levobupivacaine has become very popular by virtue of the safety and lesser motor blockade caused by these agents. Combined spinal-epidural analgesia (CSEA has become the preferred method for labor analgesia as it combines benefits of both spinal analgesia and flexibility of the epidural catheter. Adding opioids to local anesthetic drugs provide rapid onset and prolonged analgesia but may be associated with several maternal and fetal adverse effects. The purpose of this study is to compare fentanyl and tramadol used in CSEA in terms of duration of analgesia and frequency of the adverse fetomaternal outcome. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 primiparas with a singleton pregnancy in active labor were given CSEA after randomly allocating them in two groups of 30 each. Group I received intrathecal 2.5 mg levobupivacaine + 25 μg fentanyl followed by epidural top ups of 20 ml 0.125% solution of the same combination. Group II received 25 mg tramadol instead of fentanyl. Epidural top ups were given when parturient complained of two painful contractions (visual analogue scale ≥ 4. Data collected were demographic profile of the patients, analgesic qualities, side- effects and the fetomaternal outcome. Results: Patients in Group II had significantly prolonged analgesia (145 ± 9 minutes than in Group I (95 ± 7 minutes. Patients receiving fentanyl showed rapid onset of analgesia, but there were more incidence of side-effects like shivering, pruritus, transient fetal bradycardia, hypotension, nausea and vomiting. Only side-effect in the tramadol group was nausea and vomiting. During labor, maternal satisfaction was excellent. Conclusions: Adding tramadol to local anesthetic provides prolonged analgesia with minimal side effects. Fentanyl, when used as adjuvant to local anesthetic, has a rapid onset of analgesia but has certain fetomaternal side-effects.

  4. Analgesia controlada pelo paciente reduz consumo de bupivacaína no bloqueio femoral no tratamento da dor pós-operatória após reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior do joelho Analgesia controlada por el paciente reduce consumo de bupivacaína en bloqueo femoral para manejo de dolor postoperatorio en reconstrucción de ligamento cruzado anterior de rodilla Patient controlled analgesia reduces the consumption of bupivacaine in femoral nerve block for the treatment of postoperative pain after reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A. Contreras-Domínguez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio femoral contínuo (BFC é utilizado na analgesia pós-operatória das substituições articulares de quadril e joelho com bom resultado. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a utilidade do BFC, comparando três esquemas de administração de bupivacaína após reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA do joelho por artroscopia. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo controlado de 90 pacientes estado físico ASA I e II. Os pacientes foram divididos em três grupos: Grupo 1 (n = 30: 10 mL.h-1 em infusão contínua (IC de bupivacaína 0,125% + clonidina 1µg.mL-1 (B + C; Grupo 2 (n = 30: 5 mL.h-1 em IC + 2,5 mL de B + C em PCA a cada 30 min; Grupo 3 (n = 30: 5 mL.h-1 de B + C em PCA cada 30 min. A anestesia foi por via subaracnóidea. A dor pós-operatório foi registrada às 2, 4, 6, 24 e 48 horas após a operação avaliada pela Escala Analógica Visual (VAS. Anotou-se também consumo de bupivacaína e morfina. RESULTADOS: Não foram registradas diferenças nas variáveis demográficas entre ambos os grupos. O VAS pós-operatório entre 2 e 48 horas não mostrou diferenças. O consumo de morfina entre 4 e 48 horas foi similar nos três grupos (p = 0,07. No grupo em que só foi utilizado o modo PCA, o consumo de bupivacaína foi significativamente menor (p JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El bloqueo femoral continuo (BFC se utiliza en la analgesia postoperatoria de los reemplazos articulares de cadera y rodilla con buen resultado. El objetivo es evaluar la utilidad del BFC, comparando 3 esquemas de administración de bupivacaína en reconstrucción de ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA de rodilla asistida por artroscopía. MÉTODO: Estudio prospectivo controlado de 90 pacientes estado físico ASA I y II estables. Los pacientes fueron divididos en tres grupos. El Grupo 1 (n = 30: 10 mL.h-1 en infusión continua (IC de bupivacaína 0,125% + clonidina 1µg.mL-1 (B + C; Grupo 2 (n = 30: 5 mL.h-1 en IC + 2,5 mL de B + C en PCA

  5. Administração de clonidina intravenosa e sua capacidade de reduzir a pressão da artéria pulmonar em pacientes submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Barbosa João

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a capacidade da clonidina de reduzir a pressão arterial pulmonar de pacientes com hipertensão pulmonar, submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca, seja pela diminuição dos valores pressóricos a partir da aferição direta da pressão de artéria pulmonar, seja pela redução ouabolição da necessidade de dobutamina e nitroprussiato de sódio no intraoperatório. Método: Trata-se de estudo controlado, comparativo, randomizado e duplamente encoberto feito com 30 pacientes portadores de hipertensão arterial pulmonar tipo 2, submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca. Avaliaram-se a pressão média de artéria pulmonar e a posologia de dobutaminae nitroprussiato de sódio em quatro momentos: (M0 antes da administração de 2 µg/kg declonidina intravenosa ou placebo; (M1 decorridos 30 minutos do tratamento testado e antes da circulação extracorpórea; (M2 imediatamente após a circulação extracorpórea; e (M310 minutos após a injeção de protamina. Resultados: Não houve diferenças significativas em relação à pressão média de artéria pulmonarem nenhum dos momentos estudados. Entre os grupos não houve também diferença significativa entre as demais variáveis estudadas, como pressão arterial sistêmica média, frequência cardíaca, dosagem total de dobutamina, dosagem total de nitroprussiato de sódio e necessidade do hipnoanalgésico fentanil. Conclusão: A análise dos dados obtidos dos pacientes incluídos neste estudo permite concluir que a clonidina, na dose de 2 µg/kg administrada via intravenosa, não foi capaz de reduzir a pressão média de artéria pulmonar de pacientes com hipertensão pulmonar do grupo 2 (hipertensão venosa pulmonar, submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca, e nem reduzir ou abolir a necessidade da administração de dobutamina e nitroprussiato de sódio no intraoperatório.

  6. Tratamentos da compactação experimental do cólon maior de equinos com hidratação enteral, intravenosa e sene (Cassia augustifolia Vahl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Dantas Ribeiro Filho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a ação da hidratação enteral (HET, da hidratação intravenosa (IV e da sene, associada à hidratação intravenosa (SEN, no tratamento da compactação do cólon maior, em equinos. Foram utilizados 15 animais, divididos em três grupos de cinco, cada. Os animais eram portadores de compactação do cólon maior, induzida experimentalmente. O grupo HET recebeu solução isotônica poliônica enteral (8 mL kg-1 h-1,durante 48 horas; o grupo SEN foi tratado com sene (20 mg kg-1, duas doses de 24/24 h, mais Ringer lactato i.v. (10 mL kg-1 h-1 12h-1, durante dois dias e ao grupo IV foi administrado Ringer lactato i.v. (16 mL kg-1 h-1 12h-1, durante dois dias. O tratamento HET ocasionou maior amolecimento das fezes e desfez a compactação em menor tempo. Entretanto, foi observada hipomotilidade intestinal mais prolongada. O tratamento SEN normalizou mais rapidamente a motilidade intestinal, porém o tempo necessário para desfazer a compactação foi maior. Além disso, ocasionou o maior aumento na distensão abdominal e no grau da dor, assim como a menor capacidade para reverter a desidratação. O tratamento do grupo IV debelou a compactação, igualmente ao HET, e a hipomotilidade intestinal, em menor tempo, mas foi o que menos amoleceu as fezes. Concluiu-se que os tratamentos IV e HET foram os mais eficientes na terapia da compactação, induzida no cólon maior, em equinos. O grupo SEN foi eficiente, porém, foi o que apresentou os efeitos adversos mais importantes.

  7. Estimating stellar fundamental parameters using PCA: application to early type stars of GES data

    CERN Document Server

    Farah, W; Paletou, F; Blomme, R

    2015-01-01

    This work addresses a procedure to estimate fundamental stellar parameters such as T eff , logg, [Fe/H], and v sin i using a dimensionality reduction technique called Principal Component Analysis (PCA), applied to a large database of synthetic spectra. This technique shows promising results for inverting stellar parameters of observed targets from Gaia ESO Survey.

  8. Variational group-PCA for intrinsic dimensionality determination in fMRI data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrich, Jesper Løve; Nielsen, Søren Føns Vind; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard;

    2016-01-01

    implementation using a graphical processing unit (GPU). We test the model on fMRI data from 29 healthy subjects performing a block-design fingertapping experiment. The model identified 10 active components. Neither variational Bayesian PCA on temporally concatenated data nor Group-BPCA, where uncertainties...

  9. Elemental concentration analysis in PCa, BPH and normal prostate tissues using SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, Roberta G.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: roberta@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Correia, Rodrigo C., E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Palumbo Junior, Antonio; Souza, Pedro A.V.R.; Nasciutti, Luiz E., E-mail: nasciutt@ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Lab. de Interacoes Celulares; Ferreira, Luiz C., E-mail: luiz.ferreira@ipec.fiocruz.b [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the main causes of illness and death all over the world. In Brazil, prostate cancer currently represents the second most prevalent malignant neoplasia in men, representing 21% of all cancer cases. Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) is an illness prevailing in men above the age of 50, close to 90% after the age of 80. The prostate presents a high zinc concentration, about 10-fold higher than any other body tissue. In this work, samples of human prostate tissues with cancer (PCa), BPH and normal tissue were analyzed utilizing the total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation technique (SRTXRF) to investigate the differences in the elemental concentrations in these tissues. SR-TXRF analyses were performed at the X-Ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. By using Mann-Whitney U test it was observed that almost all elements presented concentrations with significant differences alpha = 0.05) between the groups studied. The elements and groups were: S, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Br and Rb (PCa X Normal); S, Fe, Zn and Br (PCa X BPH); K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Br and Rb (BPH X Normal). (author)

  10. Applications of PCA and SVM-PSO Based Real-Time Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Shieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper incorporates principal component analysis (PCA with support vector machine-particle swarm optimization (SVM-PSO for developing real-time face recognition systems. The integrated scheme aims to adopt the SVM-PSO method to improve the validity of PCA based image recognition systems on dynamically visual perception. The face recognition for most human-robot interaction applications is accomplished by PCA based method because of its dimensionality reduction. However, PCA based systems are only suitable for processing the faces with the same face expressions and/or under the same view directions. Since the facial feature selection process can be considered as a problem of global combinatorial optimization in machine learning, the SVM-PSO is usually used as an optimal classifier of the system. In this paper, the PSO is used to implement a feature selection, and the SVMs serve as fitness functions of the PSO for classification problems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method simplifies features effectively and obtains higher classification accuracy.

  11. Regularized Pre-image Estimation for Kernel PCA De-noising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Trine Julie; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2011-01-01

    The main challenge in de-noising by kernel Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is the mapping of de-noised feature space points back into input space, also referred to as “the pre-image problem”. Since the feature space mapping is typically not bijective, pre-image estimation is inherently illposed...

  12. Wood defect detection method with PCA feature fusion and compressed sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yizhuo Zhang; Chao Xu; Chao Li; Huiling Yu; Jun Cao

    2015-01-01

    We used principal component analysis (PCA) and compressed sensing to detect wood defects from wood plate images. PCA makes it possible to reduce data redundancy and feature dimensions and compressed sensing, used as a clas-sifier, improves identification accuracy. We extracted 25 features, including geometry and regional features, gray-scale texture features, and invariant moment features, from wood board images and then integrated them using PCA, and se-lected eight principal components to express defects. After the fusion process, we used the features to construct a data dic-tionary, and realized the classification of defects by computing the optimal solution of the data dictionary in l1 norm using the least square method. We tested 50 Xylosma samples of live knots, dead knots, and cracks. The average detection time with PCA feature fusion and without were 0.2015 and 0.7125 ms, respectively. The original detection accuracy by SOM neural network was 87%, but after compressed sensing, it was 92%.

  13. Improving on the empirical covariance matrix using truncated PCA with white noise residuals

    CERN Document Server

    Jewson, S

    2005-01-01

    The empirical covariance matrix is not necessarily the best estimator for the population covariance matrix: we describe a simple method which gives better estimates in two examples. The method models the covariance matrix using truncated PCA with white noise residuals. Jack-knife cross-validation is used to find the truncation that maximises the out-of-sample likelihood score.

  14. Global Clustering Quality Coefficient Assessing the Efficiency of PCA Class Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Praisler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An essential factor influencing the efficiency of the predictive models built with principal component analysis (PCA is the quality of the data clustering revealed by the score plots. The sensitivity and selectivity of the class assignment are strongly influenced by the relative position of the clusters and by their dispersion. We are proposing a set of indicators inspired from analytical geometry that may be used for an objective quantitative assessment of the data clustering quality as well as a global clustering quality coefficient (GCQC that is a measure of the overall predictive power of the PCA models. The use of these indicators for evaluating the efficiency of the PCA class assignment is illustrated by a comparative study performed for the identification of the preprocessing function that is generating the most efficient PCA system screening for amphetamines based on their GC-FTIR spectra. The GCQC ranking of the tested feature weights is explained based on estimated density distributions and validated by using quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA.

  15. 基于PCA和LDA的方言辨识%Dialect Identification Based on PCA and LDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何艳; 于凤芹

    2012-01-01

    针对PCA没有有效利用样本的类别信息而导致方言识别率低的问题,采用PCA和LDA组合方法进行特征提取.首先用PCA对普通话、上海话、广东话和闽南话四种方言进行降维,然后在降维后的空间中用LDA进一步特征提取,最后将该特征向量送入BP神经网络进行辨识.仿真实验结果表明,基于PCA和LDA的方言识别的平均识别率高达85%.%In order to solve the low dialect identification rate because PCA doesn't effectively use the sample classification information, a method of feature extraction using PCA and LDA is employed. In this paper, PCA is used to effectively reduce the dimensions of Mandarin, Shanghainese, Cantonese, Minnanese, and then LDA is adopted to extract feature vectors from the dimension-reduced space as the input vectors with BP neural network to recognize. The Simulation results demonstrate that the average dialect identification rate based on PCA and LDA can be up to 85%.

  16. Update on epidural analgesia during labor and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, S; Priscu, V

    1993-05-01

    Properly administered epidural analgesia provides adequate pain relief during labor and delivery, shortens the first stage of labor, avoids adverse effects of narcotics, hypnotics, or inhalation drugs and it could be used as anesthesia in case a cesarean section is required. Epidural analgesia should be provided to all patients who need and ask for it with an exception of contraindications such as coagulation disorders, suspected infection or gross anatomic abnormality. The technique must be carried out with care if serious life-threatening complications, such as intravenous or intrathecal injection of local anesthetic, are to be avoided. The aim of many recent investigations has been to reduce the total dose of local anesthetic used. Supplementation of an opioid (mainly fentanyl) and introduction of the patient controlled epidural pump may not only serve this goal, but also reduce the demands on the time of obstetric anesthetists. We conclude that properly and skillfully administered epidural is the best form of pain relief during labor and delivery and we hope that more mothers could enjoy its benefits.

  17. CLINICAL OBSERVATION ON ACUPOINT INJECTION ANALGESIA FOR ARTIFICIAL ABORTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马民玉; 李红; 等

    2000-01-01

    In the present study,the effect of acupoint injection analgesia for artificial abortion Was observed.40patients were divided at random into2groups:Acupoint injection group(n=20)and control group(n=20).In the former group,bilateral Zusanli(ST36)and Sanyinjiao(SP6)were selected.1-1.5ml diluted analgesic solution was injected into each acupoint respectively about5-10minutes before operation.The blood pressure(BP)and heart rate(HR)of the patients were all moni-tored before and during operation.Results showed that the effective rates of analgesia for uterus aspira-tion and dilation of the uterine cervix were90percent and 85percent respectively.Patients'BP and HR during operation were all stable as compared with those before operation(P>0.05).It indicates that this method has a better effect in relieving abdominalgia and preventing nausea and vomiting dur-ing artificial abortion.It can be developed and used in clinic.

  18. Process fault detection and diagnosis based on ICA-PCA and Lasso%基于 ICA-PCA 和 Lasso 的过程故障诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衷路生; 吴秀江; 谭畅; 龚锦红

    2016-01-01

    为了解决复杂工业过程中变量多,难以判断引起故障的主要异常变量的问题,提出一种基于IC A‐PC A (独立成分分析和主成分分析)算法和Lasso (最小绝对收缩和选择算子)回归算法的过程故障检测与诊断的集成模型。首先,建立IC A‐PC A模型提取数据的高斯信号和非高斯信号,构造相关统计量实现在线故障检测;然后,基于ICA‐PCA模型获得的过程状态及故障信息,进一步构造基于Lasso回归算法的故障诊断模型,实现故障发生时的主要异常变量的定位和选择;最后,利用Matlab进行了TE(田纳西‐伊斯曼)过程的数值仿真实验,并与已有故障诊断方法分布式PC A贡献图法进行比较,结果表明所提出的方法是有效的。%In order to solve the complex industrial process variables ,it is difficult to judge caused by failure of the main abnormal variables ,based on ICA‐PCA (independent component analysis and prin‐cipal component analysis ) algorithm and Lasso (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator ) re‐gression algorithm of fault detection and diagnosis of integrated model was proposed .First ,ICA‐PCA model was established to extract the data of the Gaussian signal and the non Gaussian signal ,struc‐ture related statistics for online fault detection ;then ,based on ICA‐PCA model the process state and fault information were obtained ,further structure based on Lasso regression algorithm was estab‐lished for fault diagnosis model and the orientation and choice of the fault occurs were realized when the main abnormal variables .Finally ,the numerical simulation experiment of TE (Eastman Tennes‐see) process was carried out by using the simulation software Matlab ,and the results were compared with that of the existing fault diagnosis method for distributed PCA with diagram method .The results show that the proposed method is effective .

  19. 3D Face Recognition based on Radon Transform, PCA, LDA using KNN and SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Hiremath

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics (or biometric authentication refers to the identification of humans by their characteristics or traits. Bio-metrics is used in computer science as a form of identification and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance. Biometric identifiers are the distinctive, measurable characteristics used to label and describe individuals. Three dimensional (3D human face recognition is emerging as a significant biometric technology. Research interest into 3D face recognition has increased during recent years due to the availability of improved 3D acquisition devices and processing algorithms. Three dimensional face recognition also helps to resolve some of the issues associated with two dimensional (2D face recognition. In the previous research works, there are several methods for face recognition using range images that are limited to the data acquisition and pre-processing stage only. In the present paper, we have proposed a 3D face recognition algorithm which is based on Radon transform, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA. The Radon transform (RT is a fundamental tool to normalize 3D range data. The PCA is used to reduce the dimensionality of feature space, and the LDA is used to optimize the features, which are finally used to recognize the faces. The experimentation has been done using three publicly available databases, namely, Bhosphorus, Texas and CASIA 3D face databases. The experimental results are shown that the proposed algorithm is efficient in terms of accuracy and detection time, in comparison with other methods based on PCA only and RT+PCA. It is observed that 40 Eigen faces of PCA and 5 LDA components lead to an average recognition rate of 99.20% using SVM classifier.

  20. Parallelism exploitation of a PCA algorithm for hyperspectral images using RVC-CAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano, R.; Sidrach-Cardona, I.; Madroñal, D.; Desnos, K.; Pelcat, M.; Juárez, E.; Sanz, C.

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HI) collects information from across the electromagnetic spectrum, covering a wide range of wavelengths. The tremendous development of this technology within the field of remote sensing has led to new research fields, such as cancer automatic detection or precision agriculture, but has also increased the performance requirements of the applications. For instance, strong time constraints need to be respected, since many applications imply real-time responses. Achieving real-time is a challenge, as hyperspectral sensors generate high volumes of data to process. Thus, so as to achieve this requisite, first the initial image data needs to be reduced by discarding redundancies and keeping only useful information. Then, the intrinsic parallelism in a system specification must be explicitly highlighted. In this paper, the PCA (Principal Component Analysis) algorithm is implemented using the RVC-CAL dataflow language, which specifies a system as a set of blocks or actors and allows its parallelization by scheduling the blocks over different processing units. Two implementations of PCA for hyperspectral images have been compared when aiming at obtaining the first few principal components: first, the algorithm has been implemented using the Jacobi approach for obtaining the eigenvectors; thereafter, the NIPALS-PCA algorithm, which approximates the principal components iteratively, has also been studied. Both implementations have been compared in terms of accuracy and computation time; then, the parallelization of both models has also been analyzed. These comparisons show promising results in terms of computation time and parallelization: the performance of the NIPALS-PCA algorithm is clearly better when only the first principal component is achieved, while the partitioning of the algorithm execution over several cores shows an important speedup for the PCA-Jacobi. Thus, experimental results show the potential of RVC-CAL to automatically generate

  1. Naltrexone-sensitive analgesia following exposure of mice to 2450-MHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillefer, R.H.; Quock, R.M. (Univ. of Illinois, Rockford (United States))

    1991-03-11

    This study was conducted to determine whether exposure to RFR might induce sufficient thermal stress to activate endogenous opioid mechanisms and induce analgesia. Male Swiss Webster mice, 20-25 g, were exposed to 10, 15 or 20 mV/cm{sup 2} RFR in a 2,450-MHz waveguide system for 10 min, then tested in the abdominal constriction paradigm. Specific absorption rates (SAR) were 23.7 W/kg at 10 mW/cm{sup 2}, 34.6 W/kg at 15 mW/cm{sup 2} and 45.5 W/kg at 20 mW/cm{sup 2}. Confinement in the exposure chamber alone did not appreciably alter body temperature but did appear to induce a stress-associated analgesia that was insensitive to the opioid receptor blocker naltrexone. Exposure of confined mice to RFR elevated body temperature and further increased analgesia in SAR-dependent manner. The high-SAR RFR-induced analgesia, but not the hyperthermia, was reduced by naltrexone. These findings suggest that (1) RFR produces SAR-dependent hyperthermia and analgesia and (2) RFR-induced analgesia is mediated by opioid mechanisms while confinement-induced analgesia involves non-opioid mechanisms.

  2. Assisting informed decision making for labour analgesia: a randomised controlled trial of a decision aid for labour analgesia versus a pamphlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torvaldsen Siranda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most women use some method of pain relief during labour. There is extensive research evidence available of pharmacological pain relief during labour; however this evidence is not readily available to pregnant women. Decision aids are tools that present evidence based information and allow preference elicitation. Methods We developed a labour analgesia decision aid. Using a RCT design women either received a decision aid or a pamphlet. Eligible women were primiparous, ≥ 37 weeks, planning a vaginal birth of a single infant and had sufficient English to complete the trial materials. We used a combination of affective (anxiety, satisfaction and participation in decision-making and behavioural outcomes (intention and analgesia use to assess the impact of the decision aid, which were assessed before labour. Results 596 women were randomised (395 decision aid group, 201 pamphlet group. There were significant differences in knowledge scores between the decision aid group and the pamphlet group (mean difference 8.6, 95% CI 3.70, 13.40. There were no differences between decisional conflict scores (mean difference -0.99 (95% CI -3.07, 1.07, or anxiety (mean difference 0.3, 95% CI -2.15, 1.50. The decision aid group were significantly more likely to consider their care providers opinion (RR 1.28 95%CI 0.64, 0.95. There were no differences in analgesia use and poor follow through between antenatal analgesia intentions and use. Conclusions This decision aid improves women's labour analgesia knowledge without increasing anxiety. Significantly, the decision aid group were more informed of labour analgesia options, and considered the opinion of their care providers more often when making their analgesia decisions, thus improving informed decision making. Trial Registration Trial registration no: ISRCTN52287533

  3. PCA-SVM stock selection model based on value investment%基于价值投资的PCA-SVM股票选择模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云飞; 龚冬生; 惠晓峰

    2009-01-01

    为了顺应股市价值回归趋势和引导理性投资,在价值投资理论指导下,采用PCA-SVM方法建立了基于价值投资的股票选择模型.根据股票的价值特征集,采用主成分分析方法实现对股票价值特征的提取.采用多组不同的训练样本对支持向量机进行训练,并对训练成功的支持向量机进行样本内和样本外测试.利用该股票选择模型对上证180指数的成分股票进行识别.结果证明PCA-SVM股票选择模型具有良好的选股能力.

  4. Using a cross-model loadings plot to identify protein spots causing 2-DE gels to become outliers in PCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Luise Cederkvist; Jacobsen, Susanne; Jessen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    The multivariate method PCA is an exploratory tool often used to get an overview of multivariate data, such as the quantified spot volumes of digitized 2-DE gels. PCA can reveal hidden structures present in the data, and thus enables identification of potential outliers and clustering. Based on P...

  5. Imaging-guided hyperstimulation analgesia in low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorenberg M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Miguel Gorenberg,1,2 Kobi Schwartz31Department of Nuclear Medicine, B'nai Zion Medical Center, Haifa, Israel; 2The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel; 3Department of Physical Therapy, B'nai Zion Medical Center, Haifa, IsraelAbstract: Low back pain in patients with myofascial pain syndrome is characterized by painful active myofascial trigger points (ATPs in muscles. This article reviews a novel, noninvasive modality that combines simultaneous imaging and treatment, thus taking advantage of the electrodermal information available from imaged ATPs to deliver localized neurostimulation, to stimulate peripheral nerve endings (Aδ fibers and in turn, to release endogenous endorphins. "Hyperstimulation analgesia" with localized, intense, low-rate electrical pulses applied to painful ATPs was found to be effective in 95% patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain, in a clinical validation study.Keywords: myofascial, noninvasive, electrical, impedance

  6. Intravenous sub-anesthetic ketamine for perioperative analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlin, Andrew W; Rosenfeld, David M; Ramakrishna, Harish

    2016-01-01

    Ketamine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist, blunts central pain sensitization at sub-anesthetic doses (0.3 mg/kg or less) and has been studied extensively as an adjunct for perioperative analgesia. At sub-anesthetic doses, ketamine has a minimal physiologic impact though it is associated with a low incidence of mild psychomimetic symptoms as well as nystagmus and double vision. Contraindications to its use do exist and due to ketamine's metabolism, caution should be exercised in patients with renal or hepatic dysfunction. Sub-anesthetic ketamine improves pain scores and reduces perioperative opioid consumption in a broad range of surgical procedures. In addition, there is evidence that ketamine may be useful in patients with opioid tolerance and for preventing chronic postsurgical pain.

  7. Intravenous sub-anesthetic ketamine for perioperative analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Gorlin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist, blunts central pain sensitization at sub-anesthetic doses (0.3 mg/kg or less and has been studied extensively as an adjunct for perioperative analgesia. At sub-anesthetic doses, ketamine has a minimal physiologic impact though it is associated with a low incidence of mild psychomimetic symptoms as well as nystagmus and double vision. Contraindications to its use do exist and due to ketamine′s metabolism, caution should be exercised in patients with renal or hepatic dysfunction. Sub-anesthetic ketamine improves pain scores and reduces perioperative opioid consumption in a broad range of surgical procedures. In addition, there is evidence that ketamine may be useful in patients with opioid tolerance and for preventing chronic postsurgical pain.

  8. 曲马朵复合芬太尼在胰腺切除术术后镇痛的疗效观察%Effect of scopolamine-tramadol-fentanyl mixture for patient-controlled analgesia after hysterectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀峰

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究曲马朵-芬太尼复合液在胰腺切除术后镇痛的效果及不良反应.方法 ASAⅠ-Ⅱ级行胰腺切除术患者30例,随机分为曲马朵组和氟哌利多组,每组15例.均以0.9%氯化钠注射液配置100 ml 药袋,静脉给予负荷剂量5 ml后连接镇痛泵进行患者自控镇痛(PCA).结果 氟哌利多组术后24 h镇静评分比曲马朵组高(P<0.05),不良反应发生率氟哌利多组明显高于曲马朵组.结论 曲马朵配伍芬太尼术后镇痛安全有效,不良反应发生率明显低于氟哌利多.%Objective To study the efficacy and side effects of tramadol combined with and fentanyl for patient-controlled analgesia(PCA) after pancreatectomy. Methods 30 ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ patients were randomly divided into tramadol group (group A) and droperidol group ( group B). Results Sedation score in group B at 24 h was significantly higher than that in group A(P <0. 05). Side-effects were significantly more in group B than those in group A. Conclusion The analgesia efficacy of tramadol combined with and fentanyl was effective and safe with less side effects than Droperidol

  9. Quantitative detection of defects based on Markov-PCA-BP algorithm using pulsed infrared thermography technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qingju; Dai, Jingmin; Liu, Junyan; Liu, Chunsheng; Liu, Yuanlin; Ren, Chunping

    2016-07-01

    Quantitative detection of debonding defects' diameter and depth in TBCs has been carried out using pulsed infrared thermography technology. By combining principal component analysis with neural network theory, the Markov-PCA-BP algorithm was proposed. The principle and realization process of the proposed algorithm was described. In the prediction model, the principal components which can reflect most characteristics of the thermal wave signal were set as the input, and the defect depth and diameter was set as the output. The experimental data from pulsed infrared thermography tests of TBCs with flat bottom hole defects was selected as the training and testing sample. Markov-PCA-BP predictive system was arrived, based on which both the defect depth and diameter were identified accurately, which proved the effectiveness of the proposed method for quantitative detection of debonding defects in TBCs.

  10. Extraction of prostatic lumina and automated recognition for prostatic calculus image using PCA-SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuocai; Xu, Xiangmin; Ding, Xiaojun; Xiao, Hui; Huang, Yusheng; Liu, Jian; Xing, Xiaofen; Wang, Hua; Liao, D Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Identification of prostatic calculi is an important basis for determining the tissue origin. Computation-assistant diagnosis of prostatic calculi may have promising potential but is currently still less studied. We studied the extraction of prostatic lumina and automated recognition for calculus images. Extraction of lumina from prostate histology images was based on local entropy and Otsu threshold recognition using PCA-SVM and based on the texture features of prostatic calculus. The SVM classifier showed an average time 0.1432 second, an average training accuracy of 100%, an average test accuracy of 93.12%, a sensitivity of 87.74%, and a specificity of 94.82%. We concluded that the algorithm, based on texture features and PCA-SVM, can recognize the concentric structure and visualized features easily. Therefore, this method is effective for the automated recognition of prostatic calculi.

  11. A Novel Block-DCT and PCA Based Image Perceptual Hashing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Jie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Image perceptual hashing finds applications in content indexing, large-scale image database management, certification and authentication and digital watermarking. We propose a Block-DCT and PCA based image perceptual hash in this article and explore the algorithm in the application of tamper detection. The main idea of the algorithm is to integrate color histogram and DCT coefficients of image blocks as perceptual feature, then to compress perceptual features as inter-feature with PCA, and to threshold to create a robust hash. The robustness and discrimination properties of the proposed algorithm are evaluated in detail. Experimental results show that the proposed image perceptual hash algorithm can effectively address the tamper detection problem with advantageous robustness and discrimination.

  12. Image Fusion of CT/MRI using DWT , PCA Methods and Analog DSP Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Mane

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Medical image fusion is a technique in which useful information from two or more recorded medical images is integrated into a new image to offer as much details as possible for diagnosis. The fusion of different modality images are Computer Tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI by integrating the DWT & PCA methods. The decomposed coefficients of Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT are applied with the Principal Component Analysis (PCA to get fused image information. Choose decomposed coefficients by fusion rule and using inverse DWT to get the fussed image of two modalities CT and MRI. The RMSE and PSNR analysis shows better improvement on results. For the proposed fusion enhancement technique going to implement on the processor based kit or will show the hardware support.

  13. An Effective Method of Monitoring the Large-Scale Traffic Pattern Based on RMT and PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms to extract the characteristics of network traffic play a significant role in traffic monitoring, offering helpful information for network management and control. In this paper, a method based on Random Matrix Theory (RMT and Principal Components Analysis (PCA is proposed for monitoring and analyzing large-scale traffic patterns in the Internet. Besides the analysis of the largest eigenvalue in RMT, useful information is also extracted from small eigenvalues by a method based on PCA. And then an appropriate approach is put forward to select some observation points on the base of the eigen analysis. Finally, some experiments about peer-to-peer traffic pattern recognition and backbone aggregate flow estimation are constructed. The simulation results show that using about 10% of nodes as observation points, our method can monitor and extract key information about Internet traffic patterns.

  14. [Research on magnetoencephalography-brain computer interface based on the PCA and LDA data reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjia; Zhou, Lina

    2011-12-01

    The magnetoencephalography (MEG) can be used as a control signal for brain computer interface (BCI). The BCI also includes the pattern information of the direction of hand movement. In the MEG signal classification, the feature extraction based on signal processing and linear classification is usually used. But the recognition rate has been difficult to improve. In the present paper, a principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method has been proposed for the feature extraction, and the non-linear nearest neighbor classification is introduced for the classifier. The confusion matrix is analyzed based on the results. The experimental results show that the PCA + LDA method is effective in the analysis of multi-channel MEG signals, improves the recognition rate to the extent of the average recognition rate 55.7%, which is better than the recognition rate 46.9% in the BCI competition IV.

  15. PCA 4 DCA: The Application Of Principal Component Analysis To The Dendritic Cell Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Feng; Oates, Robert; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    As one of the newest members in the ?field of arti?cial immune systems (AIS), the Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA) is based on behavioural models of natural dendritic cells (DCs). Unlike other AIS, the DCA does not rely on training data, instead domain or expert knowledge is required to predetermine the mapping between input signals from a particular instance to the three categories used by the DCA. This data preprocessing phase has received the criticism of having manually over-?tted the data to the algorithm, which is undesirable. Therefore, in this paper we have attempted to ascertain if it is possible to use principal component analysis (PCA) techniques to automatically categorise input data while still generating useful and accurate classication results. The integrated system is tested with a biometrics dataset for the stress recognition of automobile drivers. The experimental results have shown the application of PCA to the DCA for the purpose of automated data preprocessing is successful.

  16. Product Quality Prediction by a Neural Soft-Sensor Based on MSA and PCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Shi; Xing-Gao Liu

    2006-01-01

    A novel soft-sensor model which incorporates PCA (principal component analysis), RBF (Radial Basis Function)networks, and MSA (Multi-scale analysis), is proposed to infer the properties of manufactured products from real process variables. PCA is carried out to select the most relevant process features and to eliminate the correlations of input variables;multi-scale analysis is introduced to acquire much more information and to reduce uncertainty in the system; and RBF networks are used to characterize the nonlinearity of the process. A prediction of the melt index (MI), or quality of polypropylene produced in an actual industrial process, is taken as a case study. Research results show that the proposed method provides promising prediction reliability and accuracy.

  17. Prediction Model of TPC Reception Iron Amount Based on PCA-GA-BP%基于PCA-GA-BP的TPC受铁量预测模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄颖雷; 刘业峰; 黄辉; 郑秉霖

    2009-01-01

    Prediction problem of torpedo ladle car (TPC) actual reception iron amount under the blast furnace is discussed,which has an important function to coordinate molten iron balance,decrease exchanging bottles,reduce temperature loss and raise TPC utilization.A prediction model of TPC reception iron amount based on PCA-GA-BP is proposed.The principle component analysis is used to select the most relevant process features and to eliminate the correlations of the input variables.Back-propagation neural network is used to characterize the nonlinearity and accuracy.Genetic algorithm is employed to optimize the parameters and structure of the BP neural network by improving GA fitness function.Experiment results through the actual production data of an enterprise show the prediction rationality and validity,and the prediction accuracy of TiC actual reception iron amount is increased.%预测鱼雷罐车(TPC)在高炉的实际受铁量,时协调铁水平衡、减少兑罐次数和温降损失,保证高炉出铁安全,提高TPC利用率具有重要作用.采用主成分分析(PCA)提取过程特征参数,并剔除相关冗余信息;BP神经网络用来逼近受铁量预测这一非线性过程;改进了遗传算法(GA)的适应度函数,并精确给定BP神经网络的权值和阈值,进而建立了基于PCA-GA-BP的TPC受铁量预测模型.采用某钢铁企业实际生产数据运算,结果表明模型合理、有效,提高了鱼雷罐车(TPC)受铁量预测准确性.

  18. Intrathecal ketorolac enhances intrathecal morphine analgesia following total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela R Lauretti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Total knee arthroplasty represents one of the most painful surgeries. The aim of the study was to compare analgesia and adverse effects of intrathecal (IT ketorolac versus IT morphine, versus the combination of IT ketorolac and morphine. Materials and Methods: After ethical approval and patient consent, 80 patients undergoing knee arthroplasty were randomized to one of 4 groups. All groups received 15 mg IT bupivacaine plus IT test drug (2 ml. The control group (CG received saline as IT test drug. The morphine group (MG received IT 200 g morphine, the ketorolac group (KG IT 2 mg ketorolac and the morphine-ketorolac group (MKG 200 g morphine + 2 mg ketorolac as test drugs. Pain and adverse effects were evaluated. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The MG and KG were similar in their times to time to first rescue analgesic (440 ± 38 min and 381 ± 44 min, respectively. Both groups were longer when compared to the CG (170 ± 13 min (P < 0.01. The MG and KG had lesser ketoprofen consumption compared to the CG (P < 0.05. The time to first rescue analgesic was longer to the MKG (926 ± 222 min (15 h compared to CG (P < 0.001 and to the MG and the KG (P < 0.01. MKG displayed lesser ketoprofen consumption compared to MG and KG (P < 0.05 and to the CG (P < 0.02. Conclusions: The data suggest a role for spinal ketorolac and morphine in orthopaedic surgery because this combination of agents provided 15 h of analgesia compared to 7 h after each drug alone, with no significant side-effects.

  19. Randomized comparison of effectiveness of unimodal opioid analgesia with multimodal analgesia in post–cesarean section pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniji AO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Adetunji Oladeni Adeniji,1 Oluseyi Olaboyede A Atanda21Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, NigeriaBackground: Postoperative pain leads to patient discomfort, decreased level of satisfaction, prolonged recovery, and higher health costs. Acute pain control therefore improves the overall quality of life in patients undergoing cesarean section. Pain relief is a fundamental human right, but there is no gold standard for post–cesarean section pain management.Objective: To compare the efficacy of pentazocine and tramadol used in unimodal and multimodal (in combination with piroxicam approach, in the management of post–cesarean section pain.Materials and methods: This study employed a random allocation design to compare the effectiveness of intramuscular pentazocine (60 mg or tramadol (100 mg as single analgesic agent and in combination with daily intramuscular piroxicam 20 mg, for the management of post–cesarean section pain during the immediate 12 hours after surgery. The primary outcome measure was control of postoperative pain, while the secondary outcome measures were the analgesic agent onset of action, duration of action, patient satisfaction, and maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes. Data obtained were entered into a predesigned sheet and analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Means ± standard deviation (SD were calculated for the quantitative variables, and the difference between two independent groups was compared using unpaired Student's t-test. The level of significance was set at 0.05.Results: A total of 120 patients were equally and randomly allocated to four study groups – two that received unimodal analgesia (the pentazocine group and the tramadol group and two that received multimodal analgesia (the pentazocine

  20. A Whole Genome Pairwise Comparative and Functional Analysis of Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Geobacter species are involved in electricity production, bioremediations, and various environmental friendly activities. Whole genome comparative analyses of Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA, Geobacter bemidjiensis Bem, Geobacter sp. FRC-32, Geobacter lovleyi SZ, Geobacter sp. M21, Geobacter metallireducens GS-15, Geobacter uraniireducens Rf4 have been made to find out similarities and dissimilarities among them. For whole genome comparison of Geobacter species, an in-house tool, Geobacter Compa...

  1. Tracing sub-structure in the European American population with PCA-informative markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peristera Paschou

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic structure in the European American population reflects waves of migration and recent gene flow among different populations. This complex structure can introduce bias in genetic association studies. Using Principal Components Analysis (PCA, we analyze the structure of two independent European American datasets (1,521 individuals-307,315 autosomal SNPs. Individual variation lies across a continuum with some individuals showing high degrees of admixture with non-European populations, as demonstrated through joint analysis with HapMap data. The CEPH Europeans only represent a small fraction of the variation encountered in the larger European American datasets we studied. We interpret the first eigenvector of this data as correlated with ancestry, and we apply an algorithm that we have previously described to select PCA-informative markers (PCAIMs that can reproduce this structure. Importantly, we develop a novel method that can remove redundancy from the selected SNP panels and show that we can effectively remove correlated markers, thus increasing genotyping savings. Only 150-200 PCAIMs suffice to accurately predict fine structure in European American datasets, as identified by PCA. Simulating association studies, we couple our method with a PCA-based stratification correction tool and demonstrate that a small number of PCAIMs can efficiently remove false correlations with almost no loss in power. The structure informative SNPs that we propose are an important resource for genetic association studies of European Americans. Furthermore, our redundancy removal algorithm can be applied on sets of ancestry informative markers selected with any method in order to select the most uncorrelated SNPs, and significantly decreases genotyping costs.

  2. TCD study of hemodynamic changes in PCA response to photic stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑旭宁; 朱雄超; 徐秋芳; 黄一宁; 柳扬

    2003-01-01

    Obiectives:During visual stimulation,the elevated metabolism rate will couple wity increase of blood flow velocity(BFV) in posterior cerebral artery(PCA),This strudy with TCD was aimed to investigate whether the coupling might change according to the different vasoneuronal conditions.Methods:Ninety-nine volunteers including 24 hypertension(HT) patients and 2 patients suffering from both HT and diabetes mellitus (DM) were enrolled in this trial.BFV and pulse indexes(PI) in P2 segments of PCA on both sides were mon-itored during visual stimulation.Results:In all subjects,Mean BFV increased and PI went down in response to visual stimulation.The percentages of changtes(△V and △P) of both mean BFV and PI were larger in young group(<55 years old)than in old one(≥55 years old),There was significant positive correlation be-tween △V and △P.Multivariated regression analysis did not show HT and DM,but age related to △V(△P).We did not find significant difference of △V(△P) between left and right sides,Conclusions:Blood flow ve-locity in PCA P2 segment increased due to decreased cerebrovascular resistance during visual stimulation and the response weakened with aging of the patient.

  3. TCD study of hemodynamic changes in PCA response to photic stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑旭宁; 朱雄超; 徐秋芳; 黄一宁; 柳扬

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: During visual stimulation, the elevated metabolism rate will couple with increase of blood flow velocity(BFV) in posterior cerebral artery(PCA). This study with TCD was aimed to investigate whether the coupling might change according to the different vasoneuronal conditions. Methods: Ninety-nine volunteers including 24 hypertension(HT) patients and 2 patients suffering from both HT and diabetes mellitus(DM) were enrolled in this trial. BFV and pulse indexes(PI) in P2 segments of PCA on both sides were monitored during visual stimulation. Results: In all subjects, Mean BFV increased and PI went down in response to visual stimulation. The percentages of changes (ΔV and ΔP) of both mean BFV and PI were larger in young group(<55 years old) than in old one(≥55 years old). There was significant positive correlation between ΔV and ΔP. Multivariated regression analysis did not show HT and DM, but age related to ΔV(ΔP). We did not find significant difference of ΔV(ΔP) between left and right sides. Conclusions: Blood flow velocity in PCA P2 segment increased due to decreased cerebrovascular resistance during visual stimulation and the response weakened with aging of the patient.

  4. Face Detection and Recognition Using Viola-Jones with PCA-LDA and Square Euclidean Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaf Hazim Barnouti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an automatic face recognition system is proposed based on appearance-based features that focus on the entire face image rather than local facial features. The first step in face recognition system is face detection. Viola-Jones face detection method that capable of processing images extremely while achieving high detection rates is used. This method has the most impact in the 2000’s and known as the first object detection framework to provide relevant object detection that can run in real time. Feature extraction and dimension reduction method will be applied after face detection. Principal Component Analysis (PCA method is widely used in pattern recognition. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA method that used to overcome drawback the PCA has been successfully applied to face recognition. It is achieved by projecting the image onto the Eigenface space by PCA after that implementing pure LDA over it. Square Euclidean Distance (SED is used. The distance between two images is a major concern in pattern recognition. The distance between the vectors of two images leads to image similarity. The proposed method is tested on three databases (MUCT, Face94, and Grimace. Different number of training and testing images are used to evaluate the system performance and it show that increasing the number of training images will increase the recognition rate.

  5. An empirical method for improving the quality of RXTE PCA spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, Javier A.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Steiner, James F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Remillard, Ronald A.; Grinberg, Victoria, E-mail: javier@head.cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jem@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jsteiner@head.cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: rr@space.mit.edu, E-mail: grinberg@space.mit.edu [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    We fitted all of the several hundred RXTE PCA spectra of the Crab individually to a simple power-law model; the total number of counts in the composite spectrum is >10{sup 9}. We then used the spectrum of residuals to derive a calibration tool, called pcacorr, that we apply to large samples of spectra for GX 339-4, H1743-322, and XTE J1550-564. Application of the tool improved the quality of all the fits, and the improvement is dramatic for spectra with ≳ 10{sup 7} counts. The Crab residual spectrum is somewhat different for each of the five Proportional Counter Array (PCA) detectors, but it was relatively stable over the course of the mission. We recommend that pcacorr be routinely applied to spectra with ≳ 10{sup 6} counts and that one include a systematic error of 0.1%, rather than the 0.5-1% value that has customarily been used. We expect that application of the tool will result in an increase in sensitivity of the PCA to faint spectral features by up to an order of magnitude.

  6. [Research on spectra recognition method for cabbages and weeds based on PCA and SIMCA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Qin; Deng, Wei; Wang, Xiu; Zhao, Chun-Jiang

    2013-10-01

    In order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of weed identification, the difference of spectral reflectance was employed to distinguish between crops and weeds. Firstly, the different combinations of Savitzky-Golay (SG) convolutional derivation and multiplicative scattering correction (MSC) method were applied to preprocess the raw spectral data. Then the clustering analysis of various types of plants was completed by using principal component analysis (PCA) method, and the feature wavelengths which were sensitive for classifying various types of plants were extracted according to the corresponding loading plots of the optimal principal components in PCA results. Finally, setting the feature wavelengths as the input variables, the soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) classification method was used to identify the various types of plants. The experimental results of classifying cabbages and weeds showed that on the basis of the optimal pretreatment by a synthetic application of MSC and SG convolutional derivation with SG's parameters set as 1rd order derivation, 3th degree polynomial and 51 smoothing points, 23 feature wavelengths were extracted in accordance with the top three principal components in PCA results. When SIMCA method was used for classification while the previously selected 23 feature wavelengths were set as the input variables, the classification rates of the modeling set and the prediction set were respectively up to 98.6% and 100%.

  7. Geometric Features of 3D Face and Recognition of It by PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqi Lei

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The extraction algorithms for geometric features of 3D face and recognition of the face by PCA (Principal Component Analysis is proposed. Firstly, by normalizing the original scattered 3D face point cloud, much less amount of the points is acquired, which still contains the main characteristics of the face. Secondly, by calculating and analyzing the curvatures of pre-processed 3D face profiles, which are extracted from the normalized point cloud, the facial feature points are located. And then the 3D geometric features are obtained by the facial feature points. Finally, some merging strategies are performed to recognize the face, where we use the 3D geometric features and implement the scheme of 2D PCA. The experimental results on 3DFACE-XMU and ZJU-3DFED databases showed that, the merging strategy which uses the identification results via the geometric features then to screen out the candidates for the recognition by PCA performed on 2D equalized gray image improves recognition accuracy, and the strategy is more robust on expression changes.

  8. Fusion of PCA-Based and LDA-Based Similarity Measures for Face Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittler Josef

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of fusing similarity measure-based classifiers is considered in the context of face verification. The performance of face verification systems using different similarity measures in two well-known appearance-based representation spaces, namely Principle Component Analysis (PCA and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA is experimentally studied. The study is performed for both manually and automatically registered face images. The experimental results confirm that our optimised Gradient Direction (GD metric within the LDA feature space outperforms the other adopted metrics. Different methods of selection and fusion of the similarity measure-based classifiers are then examined. The experimental results demonstrate that the combined classifiers outperform any individual verification algorithm. In our studies, the Support Vector Machines (SVMs and Weighted Averaging of similarity measures appear to be the best fusion rules. Another interesting achievement of the work is that although features derived from the LDA approach lead to better results than those of the PCA algorithm for all the adopted scoring functions, fusing the PCA- and LDA-based scores improves the performance of the system.

  9. [Eutopic parturition: psychoprophylaxis or extradural analgesia. Influence on the endocrine response].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, M S; Iglesias, J; Freire, J; Martín, M L; Marín Santana, A; Cobo, I; García Rendón, A

    1989-01-01

    Prolactin, ACTH, cortisol and HGH levels have been studied on 30 pregnant women in three different periods: during the labour, at the delivery and 24 hours later. They were divided into 3 groups depending on the analgesia: I) no analgesia (n = 10); II) psychoprophylaxis (n = 10), and III) extradural analgesia (n = 10). Prolactin levels increased during delivery and 24 hours later. A significant increase of ACTH levels (p less than 0.01) was observed during the delivery in the 3 groups even though they were under hasal values 24 hours later. Cortisol increased 38% (p less than 0.01) and 52% (p less than 0.02) in II and III groups, respectively during the delivery. No difference was found with HGH. Our results suggest that endocrine response modified by labour and delivery doesn't change with different analgesia techniques.

  10. Postoperative pain and gastro-intestinal recovery after colonic resection with epidural analgesia and multimodal rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Basse, L;

    2005-01-01

    and ten consecutive patients scheduled for elective open colonic resection under general anaesthesia with combined thoracic epidural analgesia were prospectively studied. Postoperative epidural analgesia was maintained for 48 h with bupivacaine 2.5 mg/ml and morphine 50 µg/ml, 4 ml/h. Postoperative pain......The aim of the study was to evaluate initial postoperative pain intensity and the association with recovery of gastrointestinal function and length of stay (LOS) in a multimodal programme with epidural analgesia, early oral nutrition and mobilisation with a 48 h planned hospital stay. One hundred......, respectively. Gastrointestinal recovery and LOS did not differ between patients with high (3-6) versus low (0-2) dynamic pain scores (P > 0.4 and P > 0.1, respectively). It is concluded that a multimodal rehabilitation program including continuous thoracic epidural analgesia leads to early recovery...

  11. Fentanyl, dexmedetomidine, dexamethasone as adjuvant to local anesthetics in caudal analgesia in pediatrics: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham M. El-Feky

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Both caudal dexmedetomidine and caudal dexamethasone added to local anesthetics are good alternatives in prolongation of postoperative analgesia compared to caudal local anesthetic alone or added to caudal fentanyl. Also they showed less side effects compared to caudal fentanyl.

  12. Topical versus caudal ketamine/bupivacaine combination for postoperative analgesia in children undergoing inguinal herniotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Saad Abdel-Ghaffar

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Wound instillation of bupivacaine/ketamine is a simple, noninvasive, and effective technique that could be a safe alternative to CK for postoperative analgesia in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair.

  13. Dexamethasone prolongs local analgesia after subcutaneous infiltration of bupivacaine microcapsules in human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Werner, Mads U; Lacouture, Peter G;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The addition of small amounts of dexamethasone to extended-release formulations of bupivacaine in microcapsules has been found to prolong local analgesia in experimental studies, but no clinical data are available. METHODS: In a double-blinded study, 12 healthy male volunteers were...... randomized to receive simultaneous subcutaneous injections of bupivacaine microcapsules with dexamethasone and bupivacaine microcapsules without dexamethasone in each calf. Local analgesia was assessed with a validated human pain model; main parameters evaluated were thermal, mechanical, and pain detection...... curve [AUC]) were considered best estimate of analgesia. Safety evaluations were performed daily for the first week and at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 6 months after injection. RESULTS: The addition of dexamethasone significantly prolonged local analgesia of bupivacaine microcapsules without influence...

  14. 基于PCA-SDG的水轮机调节系统故障诊断%Fault diagnosis of hydro turbine regulation system based on PCA-SDG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明华; 南海鹏; 余向阳

    2013-01-01

    讨论了基于符号有向图SDG的故障诊断方法,建立了闭环控制系统的SDG模型及故障诊断推理规则.利用经验方法建立了典型的水轮机调节系统的SDG模型及故障诊断推理规则.针对SDG模型节点符号确定的主观性问题及节点阈值的组合爆炸问题,将主元分析PCA方法与SDG模型结合用于故障诊断.利用系统运行数据建立主元分析PCA模型,根据PCA模型构造残差统计量进行故障检测,当有故障发生时,将每一检测分量对残差统计量的贡献率与设定的贡献率阈值比较,得到各检测分量的定性符号值,该符号值作为SDG模型中相应节点的符号,根据SDG推理规则进行故障推理,找出故障源.根据现场运行数据建立水轮机调节系统的PCA模型,应用PCA-SDG故障诊断方法对其进行故障诊断,模拟系统传感器恒偏差故障,对故障诊断过程进行仿真,结果证明该PCA-SDG故障诊断方法对水轮机调节系统是有效的.

  15. Intrapleural analgesia after endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy Analgesia intrapleural após simpatectomia videotoracoscópica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Gomes da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare analgesia traditionally used for thoracic sympathectomy to intrapleural ropivacaine injection in two different doses. METHODS: Twenty-four patients were divided into three similar groups, and all of them received intravenous dipyrone. Group A received intravenous tramadol and intrapleural injection of saline solution. Group B received intrapleural injection of 0.33% ropivacaine, and Group C 0.5% ropivacaine. The following aspects were analyzed: inspiratory capacity, respiratory rate and pain. Pain was evaluated in the immediate postoperative period by means of the visual analog scale and over a one-week period. RESULTS: In Groups A and B, reduced inspiratory capacity was observed in the postoperative period. In the first postoperative 12 hours, only 12.5% of the patients in Groups B and C showed intense pain as compared to 25% in Group A. In the subsequent week, only one patient in Group A showed mild pain while the remainder reported intense pain. In Group B, half of the patients showed intense pain, and in Group C, only one presented intense pain. CONCLUSION: Intrapleural analgesia with ropivacaine resulted in less pain in the late postoperative period with better analgesic outcomes in higher doses, providing a better ventilatory pattern.OBJETIVO: Comparar a analgesia tradicionalmente utilizada para simpatectomia videotoracoscópica à injeção intrapleural de ropivacaína em duas doses diferentes. MÉTODOS: Vinte e quatro pacientes foram distribuídos em três grupos semelhantes, e todos eles receberam dipirona endovenosa. O grupo A recebeu tramadol endovenoso e injeção intrapleural de solução salina. O grupo B recebeu injeção intrapleural de ropivacaína a 0,33%, e Grupo C ropivacaína a 0,5%. Os aspectos analisados foram: capacidade inspiratória, freqüência respiratória e dor. A dor foi avaliada no período pós-operatório por meio da escala visual analógica e durante o período de uma semana. RESULTADOS

  16. Continuous postoperative analgesia via quadratus lumborum block - an alternative to transversus abdominis plane block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visoiu, Mihaela; Yakovleva, Nataliya

    2013-10-01

    Different transversus abdominis plane blocks techniques cause variations in postoperative analgesia characteristics. We report the use of unilateral quadratus lumborum catheter for analgesia following colostomy closure. The catheter was placed under direct ultrasound visualization and had good outcomes: low pain scores and minimal use of rescue analgesic medication. No complications were reported in this pediatric patient. More studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this regional anesthesia technique.

  17. Ultrasound-guided continuous quadratus lumborum block for postoperative analgesia in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arunangshu; Goswami, Jyotsna; Patro, Viplab

    2015-02-01

    Quadratus lumborum block is a recently introduced variation of transversus abdominis plane block. In this report, we describe the use of ultrasound-guided continuous quadratus lumborum block for postoperative analgesia in a 7-year-old child scheduled to undergo radical nephrectomy (left-sided) for Wilms tumor. The result was excellent postoperative analgesia and minimal requirement for rescue analgesics. The modification described may allow easier placement of a catheter for continuous infusion of local anesthetic.

  18. Comparison of parenteral tramadol and epidural ropivacaine for labour analgesia: a prospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Lamba

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Maternal outcome in labour analgesia is similar with 100 mg I/M tramadol and epidural ropivacaine. There is no significant difference between duration of labour, rate of LSCS, incidence of instrumental delivery and neonatal outcome in the two modes of analgesia. Analgesic efficacy with epidural ropivacaine seems to be better compared to intramuscular tramadol. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1722-1727

  19. [Labor epidural analgesia for a woman with a pityriasis versicolor in the lumbar region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubar, G; Omarjee, M; Viguié, C; Barbarot, S; Mignon, A

    2011-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is usually contraindicated in case of infection at the site of needle insertion. Tinea versicolor is a benign superficial cutaneous fungal infection caused by the proliferation of a skin commensal yeast of low pathogenicity. We report the case of a pregnant woman with a tinea versicolor in the lumbar region, who benefited from a labor epidural analgesia, realised with reinforced antiseptic measures. No neurological or infectious complication occurred.

  20. Opioid therapy: a trade-off between opioid-analgesia and opioid-induced respiratory depression

    OpenAIRE

    Boom, Maria Catharina Anna

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions that may be drawn from the data in this thesis: 1. The ideal drug for antagonism of respiratory depression has not yet been found. At present naloxone seems the most appropriate drug although reversal of respiratory depression coincides with loss of analgesia. New reversal agents acting via non-opioidergic pathways are under investigation and are aimed at reversal of opioid-induced respiratory depression without compromising analgesia. 2. Mathematical modelling of the non-steady s...

  1. Analgesia for Older Adults with Abdominal or Back Pain in the Emergency Department

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    Mills, Angela M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the association between age and analgesia for emergency department (ED patients with abdominal or back pain.Methods: Using a fully electronic medical record, we performed a retrospective cohort study of adults presenting with abdominal or back pain to two urban EDs. To assess differences in analgesia administration and time to analgesia between age groups, we used chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis test respectively. To adjust for potential confounders, we used a generalized linear model with log link and Gaussian error.Results: Of 24,752 subjects (mean age 42 years, 65% female, 69% black, mean triage pain score 7.5, the majority (76% had abdominal pain and 61% received analgesia. The ≥80 years group (n=722; 3%, compared to the 65-79 years group (n=2,080; 8% and to the (n=21,950; 89%, was more often female (71 vs. 61 vs. 65%, black (72 vs. 65 vs. 69%, and had a lower mean pain score (6.6 vs. 7.1 vs. 7.6. Both older groups were less likely to receive any analgesia (48 vs. 59 vs. 62%, p<0.0001 and the oldest group less likely to receive opiates (35 vs. 47 vs. 44%, p<0.0001. Of those who received analgesia, both older groups waited longer for their medication (123 vs. 113 vs. 94 minutes; p<0.0001. After controlling for potential confounders, patients ≥80 years were 17% less likely than the <65 years group to receive analgesia (95% CI 14-20%.Conclusion: Older adults who present to the ED for abdominal or back pain are less likely to receive analgesia and wait significantly longer for pain medication compared to younger adults. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1;43-50.

  2. ANAESTHESIA, POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA AND EARLY REHABILITATION FOR UPPER EXTREMITY BONE AND MAJOR JOINTS SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kurnosov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method was developed to perform prolonged brachial plexus block with almost 100% effectiveness. It was also shown in 44 patients to be 33 % safer for local complications and 11,3 % safer for general complications than common used supraclavicular Winnie block (42 patients in control group, received opiates and NSAID for post-operative analgesia. This new method of analgesia allows effective rehabilitation after elbow arthroplasty to be started on the first day after the surgery.

  3. Analgesia for pain control during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: Current status

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    Narmada P Gupta

    2008-01-01

    Conclusion: The ideal analgesic, offering optimal pain control, minimal side effects, and cost-effectiveness is still elusive. Opioids administered using various techniques, provide effective analgesia, but require active monitoring of patient for potential adverse effects. Combination therapy (oral NSAID and occlusive dressing of EMLA, DMSO with lidocaine offers an effective alternative mode for achieving analgesia with minimal morbidity. This therapy avoids the need for general anesthesia, injectable analgesics, and opioids along with their side effects.

  4. TRPM8 is the principal mediator of menthol-induced analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyi; Fan, Lu; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Sui, Aiwei; Morris, John B; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2013-10-01

    Menthol, the cooling natural product of peppermint, is widely used in medicinal preparations for the relief of acute and inflammatory pain in sports injuries, arthritis, and other painful conditions. Menthol induces the sensation of cooling by activating TRPM8, an ion channel in cold-sensitive peripheral sensory neurons. Recent studies identified additional targets of menthol, including the irritant receptor, TRPA1, voltage-gated ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors. It remains unclear which of these targets contribute to menthol-induced analgesia, or to the irritating side effects associated with menthol therapy. Here, we use genetic and pharmacological approaches in mice to probe the role of TRPM8 in analgesia induced by L-menthol, the predominant analgesic menthol isomer in medicinal preparations. L-menthol effectively diminished pain behavior elicited by chemical stimuli (capsaicin, acrolein, acetic acid), noxious heat, and inflammation (complete Freund's adjuvant). Genetic deletion of TRPM8 completely abolished analgesia by L-menthol in all these models, although other analgesics (acetaminophen) remained effective. Loss of L-menthol-induced analgesia was recapitulated in mice treated with a selective TRPM8 inhibitor, AMG2850. Selective activation of TRPM8 with WS-12, a menthol derivative that we characterized as a specific TRPM8 agonist in cultured sensory neurons and in vivo, also induced TRPM8-dependent analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain. L-menthol- and WS-12-induced analgesia was blocked by naloxone, suggesting activation of endogenous opioid-dependent analgesic pathways. Our data show that TRPM8 is the principal mediator of menthol-induced analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain. In contrast to menthol, selective TRPM8 agonists may produce analgesia more effectively, with diminished side effects.

  5. Improved Algorithms for the Classification of Rough Rice Using a Bionic Electronic Nose Based on PCA and the Wilks Distribution

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    Sai Xu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Principal Component Analysis (PCA is one of the main methods used for electronic nose pattern recognition. However, poor classification performance is common in classification and recognition when using regular PCA. This paper aims to improve the classification performance of regular PCA based on the existing Wilks ?-statistic (i.e., combined PCA with the Wilks distribution. The improved algorithms, which combine regular PCA with the Wilks ?-statistic, were developed after analysing the functionality and defects of PCA. Verification tests were conducted using a PEN3 electronic nose. The collected samples consisted of the volatiles of six varieties of rough rice (Zhongxiang1, Xiangwan13, Yaopingxiang, WufengyouT025, Pin 36, and Youyou122, grown in same area and season. The first two principal components used as analysis vectors cannot perform the rough rice varieties classification task based on a regular PCA. Using the improved algorithms, which combine the regular PCA with the Wilks ?-statistic, many different principal components were selected as analysis vectors. The set of data points of the Mahalanobis distance between each of the varieties of rough rice was selected to estimate the performance of the classification. The result illustrates that the rough rice varieties classification task is achieved well using the improved algorithm. A Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN was also established to test the effectiveness of the improved algorithms. The first two principal components (namely PC1 and PC2 and the first and fifth principal component (namely PC1 and PC5 were selected as the inputs of PNN for the classification of the six rough rice varieties. The results indicate that the classification accuracy based on the improved algorithm was improved by 6.67% compared to the results of the regular method. These results prove the effectiveness of using the Wilks ?-statistic to improve the classification accuracy of the regular PCA approach. The

  6. Bilateral interpleural versus lumbar epidural bupivacaine-morphine analgesia for upper abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demian, Atef D; Wahba, Ashraf M; Atia, Emad M; Hussein, Sami H

    2003-10-01

    This randomized study was designed to compare the effectiveness of bilateral interpleural analgesia with lumbar epidural analgesia, on postoperative pain relief in upper abdominal surgery. The studied patients were randomely allocated into either interpleural group "IP" (n = 15) or epidural group "EP" (n = 15). In "IP" group, preanesthetic bilateral interpleural block was done using a mixture of bupivacaine 0.5% (0.8 mg/kg) and 2 mg morphine diluted to 50 ml saline for each side. In "EP" group, the same mixture-diluted in 20 ml saline-was injected in the epidural space (L2-3). The general anesthetic technique was the same in both groups. Hemodynamic, gasometric, verbal pain score (VPS) values and complications were compared in both techniques. Heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) readings were in the accepted normal range in the perioperative period although significant lower readings were detected in "EP" group. No significant differences were displayed in blood gasometric variables between the two groups. There were considerable level of analgesia in both groups in the postoperative period although "EP" analgesia was superior to "IP". More pain free patients (9 versus 4) and significant lower consumption of nalbuphine were detected in "EP" group. The results of this study indicate that bilateral "IP" analgesia may offer a satisfactory analgesia for upper abdominal surgery when the use of other analgesic techniques may be contraindicated.

  7. Clonidine as an adjuvant for propranolol enhances its effect on infiltrative cutaneous analgesia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Hsia; Chiu, Chong-Chi; Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chen, Yu-Wen

    2016-03-11

    Clonidine prolongs duration of analgesia when used as an adjunct to local anesthetics for infiltrative cutaneous analgesia, and propranolol produces local anesthesia. The purpose of the experiment was to evaluate clonidine as an adjuvant for propranolol on the quality and duration of cutaneous analgesia. A rat model of cutaneous trunci muscle reflex (CTMR) in response to local skin pinprick was employed to evaluate the cutaneous analgesic effect of propranolol combined with clonidine. The long-lasting local anesthetic bupivacaine was used as control. Cutaneous analgesia elicited by propranolol and bupivacaine was dose-dependent, and both propranolol (9.0μmol) and bupivacaine (1.8μmol) produced 100% nociceptive blockade. On an 50% effective dose (ED50) basis, the relative potency was bupivacaine [0.48 (0.42-0.55) μmol] greater than propranolol [2.27 (1.98-2.54) μmol] (ppropranolol or bupivacaine) at ED50 or ED95 increased the potency and extended the duration at producing cutaneous analgesia. The resulting data demonstrated that propranolol is less potent than bupivacaine as an infiltrative anesthetic. Clonidine as an adjuvant for propranolol or bupivacaine has a significant peripheral action in increasing the depth and duration of action on infiltrative cutaneous analgesia.

  8. Analgesia, sedação e relaxamento neuromuscular no doente ventilado em cuidados intensivos cardíacos: parte I: analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Vilela, H; D. Ferreira

    2006-01-01

    Neste artigo são revistos aspectos clínicos relevantes relacionados com a sedação, analgesia e relaxamento neuromuscular em Cuidados Intensivos Cardíacos, incluindo métodos de monitorização e opções terapêuticas disponíveis. São ainda abordadas as implicações fisiopatológicas da dor, agitação, ansiedade e delírio no doente ventilado. Apesar de terem sido publicadas recentemente normas de orientação para sedação, analgesia e relaxamento neuromuscular em Cuidados Intensi...

  9. Approaches to Sample Size Determination for Multivariate Data: Applications to PCA and PLS-DA of Omics Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccenti, Edoardo; Timmerman, Marieke E

    2016-08-01

    Sample size determination is a fundamental step in the design of experiments. Methods for sample size determination are abundant for univariate analysis methods, but scarce in the multivariate case. Omics data are multivariate in nature and are commonly investigated using multivariate statistical methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). No simple approaches to sample size determination exist for PCA and PLS-DA. In this paper we will introduce important concepts and offer strategies for (minimally) required sample size estimation when planning experiments to be analyzed using PCA and/or PLS-DA.

  10. Sedação e analgesia em neonatologia Sedación y analgesia en neonatología Sedation and analgesia in neonatology

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    Yerkes Pereira e Silva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A importância do estudo da dor em Neonatologia se deve ao fato de que a sensação de dor e estresse significa sofrimento e desconforto para os recém-nascidos e, apesar desse conhecimento, pouco tem sido feito para minimizá-los. Nessa revisão foram discutidas: a prevenção da dor, as medidas não-farmacológicas e farmacológicas para o seu tratamento e a sedação em recém-nascidos. CONTEÚDO: Várias são as medidas não-farmacológicas que podem ser tomadas com intuito de prevenir a dor nas Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal e também para tornar o ambiente mais humanizado e menos estressante para os pacientes e seus familiares. O tratamento da dor no recém-nascido consiste em medidas não-farmacológicas (sucção não-nutritiva, glicose e farmacológicas (analgésicos não-opióides, opióides e anestésicos locais. A sedação em recém-nascidos é produzida por fármacos que agem diminuindo a atividade, a ansiedade e a agitação do paciente, podendo levar à amnésia de eventos dolorosos ou não-dolorosos. A sedação pode ser feita pela administração de hidrato de cloral, barbitúricos, propofol e benzodiazepínicos. CONCLUSÕES: A prevenção da dor e a indicação de analgesia devem ser individualizadas e sempre consideradas em todos os recém-nascidos portadores de doenças potencialmente dolorosas e/ou submetidos a procedimentos invasivos, cirúrgicos ou não.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La importancia del estudio del dolor en neonatología se debe al hecho de que la sensación de dolor y de estrés significa sufrimiento e incomodidad para los recién nacidos y, a pesar de ese conocimiento poco se ha hecho para reducirlo. Dentro de esa revisión se discutieron: la prevención del dolor, las medidas no farmacológicas ye farmacológicas para su tratamiento y la sedación en recién nacidos. CONTENIDO: Varias son las medidas no-farmacológicas que pueden ser tomadas con el objetivo de prevenir el

  11. Comparison of continuous thoracic epidural and paravertebral block for postoperative analgesia after robotic-assisted coronary artery bypass surgery

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    Mehta Yatin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive surgery with robotic assistance should elicit minimal pain. Regional analgesic techniques have shown excellent analgesia after thoracotomy. Thus the aim of this study was to compare thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA technique with paravertebral block (PVB technique in these patients with regard to quality of analgesia, complications, and haemodynamic and respiratory parameters. This was a prospective randomised study involving 36 patients undergoing elective robotic-assisted coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. TEA or PVB were administered in these patients. The results revealed no significant differences with regard to demographics, haemodynamics, and arterial blood gases. Pulmonary functions were better maintained in PVB group postoperatively; however, this was statistically insignificant. The quality of analgesia was also comparable in both the groups. We conclude that PVB is a safe and effective technique for postoperative analgesia after robotic-assisted CABG and is comparable to TEA with regard to quality of analgesia.

  12. Effect of parecoxib sodium on vein analgesia after orthopaedic lumbar spine surgery%帕瑞昔布钠对腰椎内固定术后静脉镇痛效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓光; 侯轶楠; 李平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of parecoxib sodium on vein analgesia after orthopaedic lumbar spine surgery. Methods 60 cases underwent selective orthopaedic lumbar spine surgery under general anesthesia were randomly divided equally into two groups. Group A received intravenous parecoxib sodium 40 mg,and group B received intravenous NS 2 mL instead of parecoxib sodium at 30 min before the end of operation. All the patients received PCIA immediately after surgery. Pain intensity was measured by visual analog scale( VAS )score at the time of awaking and 2 ,4 ,8 ,24 ,48 h after operation. The total consumption of sufentanil, the valid number of pressing PCA pump were recorded at 24,48 h after operation. Meanwhile, the score of Ramsay sedation scale and the adverse effects were observed after operation. Results There were significant differences in the VAS score, valid number of pressing PCA pump and sufentanil consumption between the two groups( P 0.05),镇痛期间各种不良反应发生率比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 静脉注射帕瑞昔布钠40 mg用于腰椎内固定手术术后镇痛可以增强舒芬太尼PCA镇痛效果.

  13. A Study of Fetomaternal Outcome of Epidural Analgesia During Labour

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    Shital H Halvadia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidural anesthesia is regional anesthesia that blocks pain in a particular region of the body. This produces pain relief with minimal side effects. These medications may be used in combination with epinephrine, fentanyl, morphine, or clonidine to prolong the epidural’s effect or to stabilize the mother’s blood pressure. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the fetomaternal outcome of epidural analgesia in labour. Methods: This study was descriptive case series study which was conducted in department of obstetrics and gynecology, GMERS medical college, Gandhinagar, Gujarat from January 2012 to December 2012. Pregnant women who received epidural analgesia during labour were involved in the study. The inclusion criteria were primi gravida patients who had gestational age of greater than 37 weeks (confirmed by ultrasound without any risk factors, in true labour (cervical dilatation >3 cm with regular uterine contraction and with vertex presentation. Results: Total number of patients was 80 with the mean age of 21.9±1.7 years. Mode of delivery was spontaneous vaginal in 46 patients (57.5%, forceps delivery in 4 patients (5%, ventouse in 14 patients (17.5% and caesarean section in 16 patients (20%. At one minute majority of the babies (n 63, 78.75% had Apgar score of more than 7, only 5 babies (6.25% had Apgar score less than 4, and 12 babies (15% had Apgar score between 4-7. At 5 minutes majority of the babies (n 74, 92.5% had Apgar score of more than 7, only one baby (1.25% had Apgar score less than 4, and 5 babies (6.25% had Apgar score between 4-7. Conclusion: Epidural anaesthesia provided excellent pain relief in majority of the patients. It can also be associated with increase duration of second stage of labour but not associated with fetal compromise in a properly managed patient. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 184-186

  14. Occult Spinal Dysraphism in Obstetrics: A Case Report of Caesarean Section with Subarachnoid Anaesthesia after Remifentanil Intravenous Analgesia for Labour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, A.; Frassanito, L.; Natale, L.; Draisci, G.

    2012-01-01

    Neuraxial techniques of anaesthesia and analgesia are the current choice in obstetrics for efficacy and general low risk of major complications. Concern exists about neuraxial anaesthesia in patients with occult neural tube defects, regarding both labour analgesia and anaesthesia for Caesarean section. Recently, remifentanil infusion has been proposed as an analgesic technique alternative to lumbar epidural, especially when epidural analgesia appears to be contraindicated. Here, we discuss the case of a pregnant woman attending at our institution with occult, symptomatic spinal dysraphism who requested labour analgesia. She was selected for remifentanil intravenous infusion for labour pain and then underwent urgent operative delivery with spinal anaesthesia with no complications. PMID:22844625

  15. Occult Spinal Dysraphism in Obstetrics: A Case Report of Caesarean Section with Subarachnoid Anaesthesia after Remifentanil Intravenous Analgesia for Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Valente

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuraxial techniques of anaesthesia and analgesia are the current choice in obstetrics for efficacy and general low risk of major complications. Concern exists about neuraxial anaesthesia in patients with occult neural tube defects, regarding both labour analgesia and anaesthesia for Caesarean section. Recently, remifentanil infusion has been proposed as an analgesic technique alternative to lumbar epidural, especially when epidural analgesia appears to be contraindicated. Here, we discuss the case of a pregnant woman attending at our institution with occult, symptomatic spinal dysraphism who requested labour analgesia. She was selected for remifentanil intravenous infusion for labour pain and then underwent urgent operative delivery with spinal anaesthesia with no complications.

  16. Evaluation of significant sources influencing the variation of water quality of Kandla creek, Gulf of Katchchh, using PCA

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dalal, S.G.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Jagtap, T.G.; Naik, B.G.; Rao, G.S.

    To evaluate the significant sources contributing to water quality parameters, we used principal component analysis (PCA) for the interpretation of a large complex data matrix obtained from the Kandla creek environmental monitoring program. The data...

  17. Coupled mercury-cell sorption, reduction, and oxidation on methylmercury production by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Rao, Balaji; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2014-10-21

    G. sulfurreducens PCA cells have been shown to reduce, sorb, and methylate Hg(II) species, but it is unclear whether this organism can oxidize and methylate dissolved elemental Hg(0) as shown for Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. Using Hg(II) and Hg(0) separately as Hg sources in washed cell assays in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4), we report how cell-mediated Hg reduction and oxidation compete or synergize with sorption, thus affecting the production of toxic methylmercury by PCA cells. Methylation is found to be positively correlated to Hg sorption (r = 0.73) but negatively correlated to Hg reduction (r = -0.62). These reactions depend on the Hg and cell concentrations or the ratio of Hg to cellular thiols (-SH). Oxidation and methylation of Hg(0) are favored at relatively low Hg to cell-SH molar ratios (e.g., <1). Increasing Hg to cell ratios from 0.25 × 10(-19) to 25 × 10(-19) moles-Hg/cell (equivalent to Hg/cell-SH of 0.71 to 71) shifts the major reaction from oxidation to reduction. In the absence of five outer membrane c-type cytochromes, mutant ΔomcBESTZ also shows decreases in Hg reduction and increases in methylation. However, the presence of competing thiol-binding ions such as Zn(2+) leads to increased Hg reduction and decreased methylation. These results suggest that the coupled cell-Hg sorption and redox transformations are important in controlling the rates of Hg uptake and methylation by G. sulfurreducens PCA in anoxic environments.

  18. Degradation of malathion by Pseudomonas during activated sludge treatment system using principal component analysis (PCA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hashmi Imran; Khan M Altaf; Kim Jong-Guk

    2006-01-01

    Popular descriptive multivariate statistical method currently employed is the principal component analyses (PCA) method.PCA is used to develop linear combinations that successively maximize the total variance of a sample where there is no known group structure. This study aimed at demonstrating the performance evaluation of pilot activated sludge treatment system by inoculating a strain of Pseudomonas capable of degrading malathion which was isolated by enrichment technique. An intensive analytical program was followed for evaluating the efficiency of biosimulator by maintaining the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration at 4.0 mg/L.Analyses by high performance liquid chromatographic technique revealed that 90% of malathion removal was achieved within 29 h of treatment whereas COD got reduced considerably during the treatment process and mean removal efficiency was found to be 78%.The mean pH values increased gradually during the treatment process ranging from 7.36-8.54. Similarly the mean ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) values were found to be fluctuating between 19.425-28.488 mg/L, mean nitrite-nitrogen (NO3-N) ranging between 1.301-2.940 mg/L and mean nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) ranging between 0.0071-0.0711 mg/L. The study revealed that inoculation of bacterial culture under laboratory conditions could be used in bioremediation of environmental pollution caused by xenobiotics. The PCA analyses showed that pH, COD, organic load and total malathion concentration were highly correlated and emerged as the variables controlling the first component, whereas dissolved oxygen, NO3-N and NH3-N govemed the second component. The third component repeated the trend exhibited by the first two components.

  19. Comparisons of different methods of anesthesia and analgesia on the levels of glycometabolism rate-limiting enzymes in erythrocytes and plasma glucose and stress hormones in patients undergoing esophagus surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaokun Zhan; Xiongxiong Pan; Yinbin Pan; Jie Sun; Yanning Qian

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of different methods of anesthesia and analgesia on the activities of phosphofmctokinase(PFK), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase(G-tPD) and aldose reductase(AR) in erythrocytes and levels of plasma glucose and stress hormones in patients undergoing esophagus surgery. Methods: Sixty-two patients scheduled for esophagus surgery were randomly divided into three groups: group I (n = 20) receiving only general anesthesia(GA) followed by intravenous patient controlled analgesia(PCA) with fentanyl 15 μg/kg. The other two groups receiving both general anesthesia combined with thoracic epidural anesthesia (GEA) and either intravenous PCA with fentanyl 15 μg/kg (group Ⅱ, n = 21) or thoracic epidurai analgesia(TEA) with 0.125% ropivaeaine and 0.0002% fentanyl mixture(group Ⅲ, n = 21) after the operation. Venous blood samples were collected for measurements of PFK, G-tPD and AR activities in erythrocytes and plasma glucose, conisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine before induction (T,1), 60 rain following the incision (T,2), 60 min(T,3) after operation, on the lst(T,4) and 2nd postoperative day(T5). Results: The activities of PFK decreased(P<0.01 or P=0.004) and the activities of G-tPD and AR increased(P<0.01) in groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ on T,4 compared with those on T,1. Between the two groups, the activities of these enzymes in group Ⅱ changed less than those of group Ⅰ (P<0.01 or P<0.05). These enzymes activities changed slightly in group Ⅲ on T,4(P>0.05). There were significant differences between group Ⅲ and the other two groups(P<0.01 or P<0.05). The levels of plasma glucose increased significantly on T,2(P<0.01), reached peak values on T,4(P<0.01) and fell on T,5 in the three groups. Compared to those of groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ, the values of plasma glucose in group Ⅲ were lower on T,4 and T,5(P<0.05 or P<0.01). The cortisol concentration in each group increased significantly at T,2(P<0.01 or P<0.05), and

  20. PMSVM: An Optimized Support Vector Machine Classification Algorithm Based on PCA and Multilevel Grid Search Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukai Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an optimized Support Vector Machine classifier, named PMSVM, in which System Normalization, PCA, and Multilevel Grid Search methods are comprehensively considered for data preprocessing and parameters optimization, respectively. The main goals of this study are to improve the classification efficiency and accuracy of SVM. Sensitivity, Specificity, Precision, and ROC curve, and so forth, are adopted to appraise the performances of PMSVM. Experimental results show that PMSVM has relatively better accuracy and remarkable higher efficiency compared with traditional SVM algorithms.

  1. Combined spinal epidural (CSE) analgesia: technique, management, and outcome of 300 mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, R E; Baxandall, M L; Srikantharajah, I D; Edge, G; Kadim, M Y; Morgan, B M

    1994-04-01

    Epidural analgesia in labour is commonly associated with some degree of lower limb weakness often severe enough to be described as paralysis by the mother. We aimed to produce rapid reliable analgesia with no motor block throughout labour. We report a pilot survey of 300 consecutive women requesting regional analgesia in labour who received a combined spinal epidural blockade (CSE). The initial dose was given into the subarachnoid space and analgesia maintained via an epidural catheter. A subarachnoid injection of 2.5 mg bupivacaine and 25 mug fentanyl was successfully given in 268 women (89.3%). Completely pain-free contractions within 3 min of this injection occurred in 195 women (65%) and in all 300 within 20 min and there was no associated motor block in 291 (97%). 141 women chose to stand, walk or sit in a rocking chair at some time during labour. Only 38 women (12.6%) were immobile during the first stage of labour. Analgesia was maintained via the epidural catheter with bolus doses of 10-15 ml of 0.1% bupivacaine and 0.0002% fentanyl. The mean bupivacaine requirement was 9.5 mg/h throughout the entire duration of analgesia. The incidence of post lumbar puncture headache was 2.3%. Transient hypotension occurred in 24 women (8%) and was treated with 6 mg intravenous boluses of ephedrine. Complete satisfaction with analgesia and mobility was reported 12-24 h post partum by 95% of mothers. The use of this analgesic technique caused no alteration in obstetric management or post partum care of the women.

  2. Differential effects of experimental central sensitization on the time-course and magnitude of offset analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martucci, Katherine T; Yelle, Marc D; Coghill, Robert C

    2012-02-01

    Pain perception is temporally altered during states of chronic pain and acute central sensitization; however, the mechanisms contributing to temporal processing of nociceptive information remain poorly understood. Offset analgesia is a phenomenon that reflects the presence of temporal contrast mechanisms for nociceptive information and can provide an end point to study temporal aspects of pain processing. In order to investigate whether offset analgesia is disrupted during sensitized states, 23 healthy volunteers provided real-time continuous visual analogue scale responses to noxious heat stimuli that evoke offset analgesia. Responses to these stimuli were evaluated during capsaicin-heat sensitization (45°C stimulus, capsaicin cream 0.1%) and heat-only sensitization (40°C stimulus, placebo cream). Capsaicin-heat sensitization produced significantly larger regions of secondary mechanical allodynia compared to heat-only sensitization. Although areas of mechanical allodynia were positively related to individual differences in heat pain sensitivity, this relationship was altered at later time points after capsaicin-heat sensitization. Heat hyperalgesia was observed in the secondary region following both capsaicin-heat and heat-only sensitization. Increased latencies to maximal offset analgesia and prolonged aftersensations were observed only in the primary regions directly treated by capsaicin-heat or heat alone. However, contrary to the hypothesis that offset analgesia would be reduced following capsaicin-heat sensitization, the magnitude of offset analgesia remained remarkably intact after both capsaicin-heat and heat-only sensitization in zones of both primary and secondary mechanical allodynia. These data indicate that offset analgesia is a robust phenomenon and engages mechanisms that interact minimally with those supporting acute central sensitization.

  3. A comparative study of oral tapentadol with thoracic epidural analgesia versus intravenous tramadol and paracetamol combination for postoperative analgesia in off pump CABG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu A. Shah

    2013-12-01

    Conclusions: Our study concludes that Tapentadol with Thoracic epidural is very much effective as a multimodal analgesia approach in controlling acute postoperative pain after CABG. Tapentadol is quite a newer drug so its usefulness for other patients and different surgeries is still to be debated. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 723-727

  4. Estudio de los efectos térmicos de la sedación postoperatoria tras cirugía cardíaca con circulación extracorpórea: Estudio comparativo entre la sedación intravenosa con propofol versus inhalatoria con sevofluorano

    OpenAIRE

    Arce Ramos, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    Comparamos los efectos térmicos dos tipos de sedación: intravenosa con propofol versus inhalatoria con sevoflurano durante postoperatorio hasta la extubación en pacientes de cirugía cardiaca electiva con circulación extracorpórea. Estudio prospectivo, de cohortes, controlado y aleatorizado, para 100 pacientes adultos. Termometría central-nasofaríngea y cutánea-digital infrarroja fueron múltiples, horarias. Análisis estadístico de los registros (termometría, tiempos sedación-despertar-extubaci...

  5. The effect of Hegu acupoint stimulation in dental acupuncture analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransiskus Andrianto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In daily life, dental treatments are often related with oral pain sensation which needs anesthesia procedures. Sometimes local anesthetics can not be used because patients have hypersensitive reaction or systemic diseases which may lead to complications. Stimulating acupoint, such as Hegu activates hypothalamus and pituitary gland to release endogenous opioid peptide substances that reduce pain sensitivity. The aim of the study was to determine Hegu acupoint stimulation effect on the pain sensitivity reduction in maxillary central incisor gingiva. The laboratory experimental research was conducted on 12 healthy male Wistar rats (3 months old, weights 150–200 grams. All rat samples received the same treatments and adapted within 1 month. The research was done in pre and post test control group design. 40-Volt electro-stimulation was done once on the maxillary central incisor gingiva prior to the bilateral Hegu acupoint stimulation, then followed by 3 times electro-stimulation with 3 minutes intervals. The pain scores were obtained based on the samples’ contraction in each electro-stimulation. The responses were categorized into 5 pain scores and statistically analyzed using Wilcoxon Test. The results showed that Hegu acupoint stimulation lowered the pain scores significantly (p < 0.05. Hegu acupoint stimulation could reduce the pain sensitivity in maxillary central incisor gingiva. Therefore, the use of acupuncture analgesia in dental pain management can be considered in the future.

  6. Kin interaction enhances morphine analgesia in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, F R

    1998-07-01

    The additive effect of social and pharmacological treatments was evaluated in pairs of male mice. Ineffective and effective doses of morphine (2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg, i.p.) were tested on pain threshold in dyads of males at different times after pair formation and drug treatment. During the second hour of social interaction after reunion, saline-injected adult sibling male mice showed a decrease in nociception as measured by the tail-flick test. Pairs of unrelated, unfamiliar control mice showed no changes in pain sensitivity during a 2-h social session. An ineffective dose of 2.5 mg/kg of morphine in non-sibling males, significantly increased tail-flick latencies in sibling pairs, before the effect of the social environment (sibling) reached statistical significance. The higher dose of morphine (5.0 mg/kg) produced analgesia in sibling as well as in non-sibling males, but the effect in the latter disappeared 60 min after drug treatment, whereas siblings were still analgesic. These results indicate that an ineffective dose of morphine, combined with the activation of the endogenous opioid system by social factors, can affect nociception.

  7. Sedations and analgesia in patients undergoing percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatzidakis, A.A.; Charonitakis, E.; Athanasiou, A.; Tsetis, D.; Chlouverakis, G.; Papamastorakis, G.; Roussopoulou, G.; Gourtsoyiannis, N.C

    2003-02-01

    AIM: To present our experience using intravenous sedoanalgesia for percutaneous biliary drainage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study comprised 100 patients, all of whom were continuously monitored [electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure, pulse oxymetry] and received an initial dose of 2 mg midazolam followed by 0.02 mg fentanyl. Before every anticipated painful procedure, a maintenance dose of 0.01 mg fentanyl was administered. If the procedure continued and the patient became aware, another 1 mg midazolam was given. This was repeated if patients felt pain. A total dose of 0.08 mg fentanyl and 7 mg midazolam was never exceeded. Immediately after the procedure, the nurse was asked to evaluate patients' pain score. The patients were asked 3 h later to complete a visual 10-degree pain score scale. RESULTS: The average dose of fentanyl and midazolam was 0.042 mg (0.03-0.08 mg) and 4.28 mg (2-7 mg), respectively. Only one patient recorded the procedure as painful. The scores given by the attending nurse (1-7 points, mean 2.9) correlated well with those given by the patients (1-6 points, mean 2.72). No complications were noted. CONCLUSION: According to our experience, interventional radiologists practising biliary procedures can administer low doses of midazolam and minimize the doses of fentanyl, without loss of adequate sedation and analgesia. Hatzidakis, A. A. et al. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 121-127.

  8. Meditative analgesia: the current state of the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Joshua A

    2014-01-01

    Since the first demonstrations that mindfulness-based therapies could have a positive influence on chronic pain patients, numerous studies have been conducted with healthy individuals in an attempt to understand meditative analgesia. This review focuses explicitly on experimental pain studies of meditation and attempts to draw preliminary conclusions based on the work completed in this new field over the past 6 years. Dividing meditative practices into the broad categories of focused attention (FA) and open monitoring (OM) techniques allowed several patterns to emerge. The majority of evidence for FA practices suggests they are not particularly effective in reducing pain. OM, on the other hand, seems to influence both sensory and affective pain ratings depending on the tradition or on whether the practitioners were meditating. The neural pattern underlying pain modulation during OM suggests meditators actively focus on the noxious stimulation while inhibiting other mental processes, consistent with descriptions of mindfulness. A preliminary model is presented for explaining the influence of mindfulness practice on pain. Finally, the potential analgesic effect of the currently unexplored technique of compassion meditation is discussed.

  9. RESULTS OF THE MEGAVERTEBRATE ANALGESIA SURVEY: ELEPHANTS AND RHINO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottwitz, Jack; Boothe, Matthew; Harmon, Roy; Citino, Scott B; Zuba, Jeffery R; Boothe, Dawn M

    2016-03-01

    An online survey utilizing Survey Monkey linked through the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians listserve examined current practices in megavertebrate analgesia. Data collected included drugs administered, dosing regimens, ease of administration, efficacy, and adverse events. Fifty-nine facilities (38 housing elephants, 33 housing rhinoceroses) responded. All facilities administered nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), with phenylbutazone (0.25-10 mg/kg) and flunixin meglumine (0.2-4 mg/kg) being most common. Efficacy was reported as "good" to "excellent" for these medications. Opioids were administered to elephants (11 of 38) and rhinoceroses (7 of 33), with tramadol (0.5-3.0 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.05-1.0 mg/kg) being most common. Tramadol efficacy scores were highly variable in both elephants and rhinoceroses. While drug choices were similar among institutions, substantial variability in dosing regimens and reported efficacy between and within facilities indicates the need for pharmacokinetic studies and standardized methods of analyzing response to treatment to establish dosing regimens and clinical trials to establish efficacy and safety.

  10. Perioperative analgesia and the effects of dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Andrew; Kaye, Alan David; Gritsenko, Karina; Urman, Richard D; Kaye, Adam Marc

    2014-06-01

    With over 50,000 dietary supplements available, resurgence in consumer interest over the past few decades has resulted in an explosion of use of these agents worldwide. Disillusionment with current medications and belief in "natural medicines" has resulted in a multibillion dollar industry. Active ingredients in a number of herbs are being tested for therapeutic potential, and some are efficacious, so herbal medicines cannot be dismissed. The prevalence of herbology is further encouraged by a relatively relaxed policy of the FDA regarding these compounds, which they consider foods. As herbal products are included in the "supplement" category, there is no existing protocol for standardization of these products. There are numerous examples of herbals that can adversely affect patient recovery and outcomes in anesthesia. The prudent anesthesia provider will make sure to obtain correct information as to accurate herbal usage of each patient and attempt to discontinue these products two to three weeks prior to the delivery of an anesthetic. Postoperative analgesia, bleeding, and level of sedation can be negatively impacted related to herbal products and herbal-drug interactions. Over 90 herbal products are associated with bleeding and this can be a specific problem intraoperatively or when considering placement of a regional anesthetic for postoperative pain management.

  11. Fetal and maternal analgesia/anesthesia for fetal procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Marc; De Buck, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    For many prenatally diagnosed conditions, treatment is possible before birth. These fetal procedures can range from minimal invasive punctions to full open fetal surgery. Providing anesthesia for these procedures is a challenge, where care has to be taken for both mother and fetus. There are specific physiologic changes that occur with pregnancy that have an impact on the anesthetic management of the mother. When providing maternal anesthesia, there is also an impact on the fetus, with concerns for potential negative side effects of the anesthetic regimen used. The question whether the fetus is capable of feeling pain is difficult to answer, but there are indications that nociceptive stimuli have a physiologic reaction. This nociceptive stimulation of the fetus also has the potential for longer-term effects, so there is a need for fetal analgesic treatment. The extent to which a fetus is influenced by the maternal anesthesia depends on the type of anesthesia, with different needs for extra fetal anesthesia or analgesia. When providing fetal anesthesia, the potential negative consequences have to be balanced against the intended benefits of blocking the physiologic fetal responses to nociceptive stimulation.

  12. Preventive local analgesia in orthopedic and Traumatology surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Jiménez Vázquez

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: One of the most important aims of modern surgery is the recovery of the ill patients and heir integration to society. Sometimes, this wish has its limitations because of the persistence of pain after surgery. The development of an effective analgesic for after surgery pain is therefore a priority in modern medicine. Objective: To characterize the results obtained with the application of a preventive analgesic by infiltrating without limitations of the use of any other analgesic if necessary. Method: Prospective-descriptive study in a series of 30 patients assisted at the Orthopaedic Service of the ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ Hospital from Cienfuegos province in the period that covers September 2004- march 2005. Anaesthetic infiltration in the surgical area was applied once the surgery was ended . Bupivacaine 0,125 % in a volume of 20 ml and 2 drops of epinephrine without avoiding the use of any other analgesic. Results: a group of 13 patients presented pain in the first 24-48 hours after surgery followed by another group of 9 patients who alleviated pain in the period between 12 and 23 hours after surgery. Conclusions: In this series of patients it was shown the benefits of anaesthetic infiltration in the surgical area with analgesic purposes, since it causes pain alleviation in a period greater than 24 hours. Bupivacaine shows good results since it causes after surgery analgesia and the early application in the rehabilitation of a great number of patients.

  13. Anesthesia and analgesia for caesaren section in dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Maja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a case of a pregnant female dog, of English bulldog breed, three years old, which was brought to Belgrade Faculty of Veterinary Medicine because of inability for normal parturition. Cesarean section is an urgent intervention both in human and in veterinary medicine. Anesthesia of a pregnant dog should be carried out very carefully, because of all the physiological changes that appear during pregnancy, as well as the impact of anesthetics on embryos themselves. Anesthetics, analgesics and sedatives pass through blood brain barrier, but also their transport goes through placenta to embryo, so for that reason it is not possible to anesthetize only mother and to avoid anesthesia effects on the embryo. Therefore, anesthetics with short time of action which metabolize quickly and have minimal negative effect on embryos are recommended. When choosing the right analgesics and anesthetics, there should be known that female dogs in which it is necessary to do Cesarean section belong to the group of high risk patients. Pregnant female dogs are exposed to hypoventilation, hypoxia, hypercapnia, intense heart work, vomiting and regurgitation as well. Reversible anesthetics are recommended to provide shorter duration time of anesthesia, and in accordance, inhalation anesthetics doses are minimal. Application of α2- agonist in premedication, propophol in induction, as well as maintaining general inhalation anesthesia with sevofluran, along with local analgesia, proved to be the ideal combination in this case of cesarean section.

  14. Application of PCA-SDG Based Multiple Fault Diagnosis%PCA-SDG在TEP多源故障诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田娟; 谢刚; 王培鑫

    2012-01-01

    针对传统基于SDG(符号有向图)的故障诊断方法对每个变量节点状态和高低阈值难以确定,且对各个变量单独统计,不考虑变量间相互关系的缺点,提出一种PCA(主元分析)与SDG相结合的故障诊断方法,并将其用于多源故障诊断中.将PCA得到的出现故障征兆的变量在SDG模型上进行反向推理,找到故障源.通过TEP仿真实验验证,表明该方法能够及时有效地检测出单个或多个故障,提高了诊断的准确性与分辨率.

  15. Study on Deception Attacks on Control System Using PCA%基于 PCA 的过程控制系统欺骗攻击研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚楠; 王华忠; 颜秉勇

    2015-01-01

    针对控制系统所面临的信息安全威胁,开展了工业过程控制系统欺骗攻击研究。把欺骗攻击与过程故障都看作引起系统工作状态异常的诱发因素,统一用故障检测的方法加以检测。首先建立了欺骗攻击模型,接着开发了 TE 过程控制器在环模拟系统,在该仿真系统上对三个欺骗攻击场景利用主元分析统计监控算法进行异常检测。结果表明,传统的故障检测算法在欺骗攻击中漏检率和误报率明显增加。%As industrial networks can be exposed to serious cyber threat ,the paper investigates the vulnera‐bilities of industrial control system under deception attack .Firstly ,models for deception attack were proposed . Secondly ,a hardware‐in‐loop control system of TE process was developed .Finally ,the attack with PCA to de‐tect abnormity was studied on three different scenarios .The results have shown that fault detection algorithm possesses poor performance under deception attacks .

  16. Dexmedetomidine Combined with Fentanil on Haemorrhoidectomy Postoper-ative Patient Controlled In-travenous Analgesia%右美托咪定复合芬太尼用于痔术后自控镇痛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔艳苓; 耿立成

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨右美托咪啶复合芬太尼在痔手术后行自控镇痛的效果。方法:100例痔术后患者随机双盲分为F组(芬太尼8μg/mL,PCA)和FD组(芬太尼8μg/mL复合右美托咪啶4μg/mL,PCA)行自控镇痛。观察24 h内PCA自控追加要求,疼痛强度,患者情绪变化以及PCA相关的不良事件的记录。结果:FD组在术后0~48 h内显著降低芬太尼需要量,从术后第4 h开始显著降低疼痛级别;FD组焦虑情绪和血浆皮质醇浓度较F组显著降低。结论:右美托咪定复合芬太尼行静脉自控镇痛可显著节约芬太尼用量,减少恶心发生率,无过度镇静和不良的血流动力学变化。%Objective To examine whether combining dexmedetomidine and fentanyl for patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) could improve analgesia while reducing fentanyl-related side-effects. Methods One hundred patients undergoing haemorrhoidectomy were allocated to receive either fentanyl alone 8μg/mL (Group F) or fen-tanyl 8 μg/mL plus dexmedetomidine 4 μg/mL (Group FD) for postoperative i.v. PCA, which was programmed to deliver 0.5 mL per demand with a 15 min lockout interval. Cumulative PCA requirements, pain intensities and PCA-related adverse events were recorded for 24 h after operation. Results Compared with Group F, patients in Group FD required considerably less fentanyl during the 0~48 h postoperative period and reported significant-ly lower pain levels from the fourth postoperative hour onwards. At each observational time point, decreases in level of anxiety and plasma cortisol concentration were significantly greater in Group FD than in Group F. Their was no apparent bradycardia, hypotension, oversedation, or respiratory depression in Group FD. Conclusion The addition of dexmedetomidine to i.v. fentanyl resulted in superior analgesia, significant fentanyl sparing, less fentanyl-induced nausea, and was devoid of additional sedation and untoward haemodynamic changes.

  17. Intravenous remifentanil versus epidural ropivacaine with sufentanil for labour analgesia: a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Lin

    Full Text Available Remifentanil with appropriate pharmacological properties seems to be an ideal alternative to epidural analgesia during labour. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of remifentanil intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA compared with epidural analgesia. Medical records of 370 primiparas who received remifentanil IVPCA or epidural analgesia were reviewed. Pain and sedation scores, overall satisfaction, the extent of pain control, maternal side effects and neonatal outcome as primary observational indicators were collected. There was a significant decline of pain scores in both groups. Pain reduction was greater in the epidural group throughout the whole study period (0 ∼ 180 min (P < 0.0001, and pain scores in the remifentanil group showed an increasing trend one hour later. The remifentanil group had a lower SpO2 (P < 0.0001 and a higher sedation score (P < 0.0001 within 30 min after treatment. The epidural group had a higher overall satisfaction score (3.8 ± 0.4 vs. 3.7 ± 0.6, P = 0.007 and pain relief score (2.9 ± 0.3 vs. 2.8 ± 0.4, P < 0.0001 compared with the remifentanil group. There was no significant difference on side effects between the two groups, except that a higher rate of dizziness (1% vs. 21.8%, P < 0.0001 was observed during remifentanil analgesia. And logistic regression analysis demonstrated that nausea, vomiting were associated with oxytocin usage and instrumental delivery, and dizziness was associated to the type and duration of analgesia. Neonatal outcomes such as Apgar scores and umbilical-cord blood gas analysis were within the normal range, but umbilical pH and base excess of neonatus in the remifentanil group were significantly lower. Remifentanil IVPCA provides poorer efficacy on labor analgesia than epidural analgesia, with more sedation on parturients and a trend of newborn acidosis. Despite these adverse effects, remifentanil IVPCA can still be an alternative

  18. Application of artificial neural network and PCA to predict the thermal conductivities of nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Fakhri; Mohammadiyan, Somayeh; Karimi, Hajir

    2016-10-01

    This paper applies a model including back-propagation network (BPN) and principal component analysis (PCA) to compute the effective thermal conductivities of nanofluids such as Al2O3/(60:40)EG:H2O, Al2O3/W, Al2O3/(20:80)EG:W, Al2O3/(50:50)EG:W, ZnO/(60:40) EG:W, CuO/(60:40)EG:W, CuO/W, CuO/(50:50)EG:W, TiO2/W, TiO2/(20:80)EG:W, Fe3O4/(20:80) EG:W, Fe3O4/(60:40) EG:W, Fe3O4/(40:60) EG:W and Fe3O4/W, as a function of the temperature, thermal conductivity of nano particle, volume fraction of nanoparticle, diameter of nanoparticle and the thermal conductivity of base fluids. The obtained results by BPN-PCA model have good agreement with the experimental data with absolute average deviation and high correlation coefficients 1.47 % and 0.9942, respectively.

  19. A PCA-based method for ancestral informative markers selection in structured populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Identification of population structure can help trace population histories and identify disease genes. Structured association (SA) is a commonly used approach for population structure identification and association mapping. A major issue with SA is that its performance greatly depends on the informa-tiveness and the numbers of ancestral informative markers (AIMs). Present major AIM selection meth-ods mostly require prior individual ancestry information, which is usually not available or uncertain in practice. To address this potential weakness, we herein develop a novel approach for AIM selection based on principle component analysis (PCA), which does not require prior ancestry information of study subjects. Our simulation and real genetic data analysis results suggest that, with equivalent AIMs, PCA-based selected AIMs can significantly increase the accuracy of inferred individual ancestries compared with traditionally randomly selected AIMs. Our method can easily be applied to whole genome data to select a set of highly informative AIMs in population structure, which can then be used to identify potential population structure and correct possible statistical biases caused by population stratification.

  20. Rotation Invariant Face Detection Using Wavelet, PCA and Radial Basis Function Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M; Islam, Md Saiful; Haque, Md Emdadul; Alam, Mohammad Shamsul

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel method for human face detection with its orientation by using wavelet, principle component analysis (PCA) and redial basis networks. The input image is analyzed by two-dimensional wavelet and a two-dimensional stationary wavelet. The common goals concern are the image clearance and simplification, which are parts of de-noising or compression. We applied an effective procedure to reduce the dimension of the input vectors using PCA. Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network is then used as a function approximation network to detect where either the input image is contained a face or not and if there is a face exists then tell about its orientation. We will show how RBF can perform well then back-propagation algorithm and give some solution for better regularization of the RBF (GRNN) network. Compared with traditional RBF networks, the proposed network demonstrates better capability of approximation to underlying functions, faster learning speed, better size of network, and high ro...

  1. SSA, PCA, TDPSC, ACFA: Useful combination of methods for analysis of short and nonstationary time series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitanov, Nikolay K. [Institute of Mechanics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Akad. G. Bonchev Street, Bl. 4, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: vitanov@imech.imbm.bas.bg; Sakai, Kenshi [Department of Eco-Regional Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, 183-8509 (Japan); Dimitrova, Zlatinka I. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Blvd. Tzarigradsko Chausee 72, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2008-07-15

    Singular spectrum analysis (SSA), principal component analysis (PCA), and autocorrelation function analysis (ACFA) are useful tools for extracting information from time series. But the combination of these methods and the time delay phase space construction (TDPSC) is not much used. In this paper we present the opportunities of this bundle of four methods for analysis of short and nonstationary time series. The basis of our analysis are time series for the piglet prices and production in Japan before and after the Japan government intervention in the agriculture sector aiming at stabilization of the agriculture prices after the oil crisis in 1974. As a comparison we analyse long stationary chaotic time series from the classical Lorenz system. We show that SSA, PCA and TDPSC perfectly recognize the dimension of the Lorenz system only on the basis of time series for one of its three variables. The bundle of four methods leads us to enough information to make the conclusion that the intervention of the Japan government in agriculture sector was very successful and leaded (i) to stabilization of prices; (ii) to a coupling between the prices and production cycles and (iii) to decreasing the dimension of the phase space of price and production fluctuations around the year trend thus making their dynamics more forecastable.

  2. A PCA Based Automatic Image Categorization Approach Using Dominant Color Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUChunming; QIANHui; WANGDonghui

    2005-01-01

    Automatic Image categorization is a universal problem in area of Content-based image retrieval (CBIR). The goal of automatic image categorization is to find a mapping between images and the predefined image categories. The difficulty of this problem is that how to describe image content and incorporate low-level features into semantic categories. As a solution, we propose a Principal component analysis (PCA) based approach. This approach assumes that the images in the same semantic category have the similar spatial distribution of color components and treats the images in the same category as a linear combination of a fixed set of dominant color blocks with special textural information. A three-step algorithm is designed: (1) extracting Dominant colors (DC) of images, which describe the major color information in an image; (2) Establishing a feature space based on DC blocks and its textural information; (3) using PCA to reduce dimensionality of feature space and using the basis vectors to categorize images. An experimental database containing nine categories including cars, flowers, houses, portraits, fish, bark, sunshine, leaves and fresco is constructed to test the algorithm based on our image categorization approach. The results show that this approach is effective and a reasonable compromise between accuracy and speed in practice.

  3. PCA-based ANN approach to leak classification in the main pipes of VVER-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadad, Kamal; Jabbari, Masoud; Tabadar, Z. [Shiraz Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). School of Mechanical Engineering; Hashemi-Tilehnoee, Mehdi [Islamic Azad Univ., Aliabad Katoul (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Engineering

    2012-11-15

    This paper presents a neural network based fault diagnosing approach which allows dynamic crack and leaks fault identification. The method utilizes the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique to reduce the problem dimension. Such a dimension reduction approach leads to faster diagnosing and allows a better graphic presentation of the results. To show the effectiveness of the proposed approach, two methodologies are used to train the neural network (NN). At first, a training matrix composed of 14 variables is used to train a Multilayer Perceptron neural network (MLP) with Resilient Backpropagation (RBP) algorithm. Employing the proposed method, a more accurate and simpler network is designed where the input size is reduced from 14 to 6 variables for training the NN. In short, the application of PCA highly reduces the network topology and allows employing more efficient training algorithms. The accuracy, generalization ability, and reliability of the designed networks are verified using 10 simulated events data from a VVER-1000 simulation using DINAMIKA-97 code. Noise is added to the data to evaluate the robustness of the method and the method again shows to be effective and powerful. (orig.)

  4. Spike sorting of heterogeneous neuron types by multimodality-weighted PCA and explicit robust variational Bayes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eTakekawa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a new spike sorting method that classifies spike waveforms from multiunit recordings into spike trains of individual neurons. In particular, we develop a method to sort a spike mixture generated by a heterogeneous neural population. Such a spike sorting has a significant practical value, but was previously difficult. The method combines a feature extraction method, which we may term multimodality-weighted principal component analysis (mPCA, and a clustering method by variational Bayes for Student’s t mixture model (SVB. The performance of the proposed method was compared with that of other conventional methods for simulated and experimental data sets. We found that the mPCA efficiently extracts highly informative features as clusters clearly separable in a relatively low-dimensional feature space. The SVB was implemented explicitly without relying on Maximum-A-Posterior (MAP inference for the degree of freedom parameters. The explicit SVB is faster than the conventional SVB derived with MAP inference and works more reliably over various data sets that include spiking patterns difficult to sort. For instance, spikes of a single bursting neuron may be separated incorrectly into multiple clusters, whereas those of a sparsely firing neuron tend to be merged into clusters for other neurons. Our method showed significantly improved performance in spike sorting of these difficult neurons. A parallelized implementation of the proposed algorithm (EToS version 3 is available as open-source code at http://etos.sourceforge.net/.

  5. PCA algorithm for detection, localisation and evolution of damages in gearbox bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirra, M; Gandino, E; Garibaldi, L; Machorro-Lopez, J M [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Torri, A, E-mail: luigi.garibaldi@polito.it [Avio S.p.A., Strada del Drosso 145, 10135 Torino (Italy)

    2011-07-19

    A fundamental aspect when dealing with rolling element bearings, which often represent a key component in rotating machineries, consists in correctly identifying a degraded behaviour of a bearing with a reasonable level of confidence. This is one of the main requirements a health and usage monitoring system (HUMS) should have. This paper introduces a monitoring technique for the diagnosis of bearing faults based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This method overcomes the problem of acquiring data under different environmental conditions (hardly biasing the data) and allows accurate damage recognition, also assuring a rather low number of False Alarms (FA). In addition, a novel criterion is proposed in order to isolate the area in which the faulty bearing stands. Another useful feature of this PCA-based method concerns the capability to observe an increasing trend in the evolution of bearing degradation. The described technique is tested on an industrial rig (designed by Avio S.p.A.), consisting of a full size aeroengine gearbox. Healthy and variously damaged bearings, such as with an inner or rolling element fault, are set up and vibration signals are collected and processed in order to properly detect a fault. Finally, data collected from a test rig assembled by the Dynamics and Identification Research Group (DIRG) are used to demonstrate that the proposed method is able to correctly detect and to classify different levels of the same type of fault and also to localise it.

  6. A new LPV modeling approach using PCA-based parameter set mapping to design a PSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabali, Mohammad B Abolhasani; Kazemi, Mohammad H

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for the modeling and control of power systems based on an uncertain polytopic linear parameter-varying (LPV) approach using parameter set mapping with principle component analysis (PCA). An LPV representation of the power system dynamics is generated by linearization of its differential-algebraic equations about the transient operating points for some given specific faults containing the system nonlinear properties. The time response of the output signal in the transient state plays the role of the scheduling signal that is used to construct the LPV model. A set of sample points of the dynamic response is formed to generate an initial LPV model. PCA-based parameter set mapping is used to reduce the number of models and generate a reduced LPV model. This model is used to design a robust pole placement controller to assign the poles of the power system in a linear matrix inequality (LMI) region, such that the response of the power system has a proper damping ratio for all of the different oscillation modes. The proposed scheme is applied to controller synthesis of a power system stabilizer, and its performance is compared with a tuned standard conventional PSS using nonlinear simulation of a multi-machine power network. The results under various conditions show the robust performance of the proposed controller.

  7. Improvements in Alzheimer's disease diagnosis using principle components analysis (PCA) in combination with Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, John K. J.; Sudworth, Caroline D.; Williams, Rachel; How, Thien; Stone, Nicholas; Mann, David; Black, Richard A.

    2007-07-01

    The significant achievements of medical science over the last century are evident in the increasing age of the global population, however this now brings new problems, the most prominent being the growth in the number of people suffering from dementia. Over half the people with dementia in the UK are sufferers of Alzheimer's disease, a condition in which intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles and extraneuronal senile tangles take over neurons prompting their death. A definitive diagnosis is still only currently available post-mortem, whilst current symptom based processes of elimination are far from perfect, especially when the only treatments available are symptom inhibiting drugs. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the Raman spectra taken from brain tissue has proved to be a potential tool in the diagnosis. However, this work now has to be refined in order to progress to tissue less associated with the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. The first step of this has already been taken in progressing from frontal tissue to occipital tissue point spectra taken at random positions from bulk tissue. Now we present initial work into acquiring Raman spectral maps from across a tissue area, in pursuit of identifying unique plaque and tangle spectra. These spectra are presented alongside synthetic β-Amyloid spectra, in a study of the role that the peptide plays in the biomarker spectra, and how this information can aid the PCA of bulk tissue, and point towards a Raman spectroscopic test on less sensitive tissue, such as blood.

  8. Modeling of the ORNL PCA Benchmark Using SCALE6.0 Hybrid Deterministic-Stochastic Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Matijević

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Revised guidelines with the support of computational benchmarks are needed for the regulation of the allowed neutron irradiation to reactor structures during power plant lifetime. Currently, US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.190 is the effective guideline for reactor dosimetry calculations. A well known international shielding database SINBAD contains large selection of models for benchmarking neutron transport methods. In this paper a PCA benchmark has been chosen from SINBAD for qualification of our methodology for pressure vessel neutron fluence calculations, as required by the Regulatory Guide 1.190. The SCALE6.0 code package, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was used for modeling of the PCA benchmark. The CSAS6 criticality sequence of the SCALE6.0 code package, which includes KENO-VI Monte Carlo code, as well as MAVRIC/Monaco hybrid shielding sequence, was utilized for calculation of equivalent fission fluxes. The shielding analysis was performed using multigroup shielding library v7_200n47g derived from general purpose ENDF/B-VII.0 library. As a source of response functions for reaction rate calculations with MAVRIC we used international reactor dosimetry libraries (IRDF-2002 and IRDF-90.v2 and appropriate cross-sections from transport library v7_200n47g. The comparison of calculational results and benchmark data showed a good agreement of the calculated and measured equivalent fission fluxes.

  9. A PCA-based method for ancestral informative markers selection in structured populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng; ZHANG Lei; DENG Hong-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Identification of population structure can help trace population histories and identify disease genes.Structured association (SA) is a commonly used approach for population structure identification and association mapping. A major issue with SA is that its performance greatly depends on the informativeness and the numbers of ancestral informative markers (AIMs). Present major AIM selection methods mostly require prior individual ancestry information, which is usually not available or uncertain in practice. To address this potential weakness, we herein develop a novel approach for AIM selection based on principle component analysis (PCA), which does not require prior ancestry information of study subjects. Our simulation and real genetic data analysis results suggest that, with equivalent AIMs,PCA-based selected AIMs can significantly increase the accuracy of inferred individual ancestries compared with traditionally randomly selected AIMs. Our method can easily be applied to whole genome data to select a set of highly informative AIMs in population structure, which can then be used to identify potential population structure and correct possible statistical biases caused by population stratification.

  10. An Efficient Hybrid Face Recognition Algorithm Using PCA and GABOR Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjong Cho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of computers and the increasing, mass use of high-tech mobile devices, vision-based face recognition has advanced significantly. However, it is hard to conclude that the performance of computers surpasses that of humans, as humans have generally exhibited better performance in challenging situations involving occlusion or variations. Motivated by the recognition method of humans who utilize both holistic and local features, we present a computationally efficient hybrid face recognition method that employs dual-stage holistic and local feature-based recognition algorithms. In the first coarse recognition stage, the proposed algorithm utilizes Principal Component Analysis (PCA to identify a test image. The recognition ends at this stage if the confidence level of the result turns out to be reliable. Otherwise, the algorithm uses this result for filtering out top candidate images with a high degree of similarity, and passes them to the next fine recognition stage where Gabor filters are employed. As is well known, recognizing a face image with Gabor filters is a computationally heavy task. The contribution of our work is in proposing a flexible dual-stage algorithm that enables fast, hybrid face recognition. Experimental tests were performed with the Extended Yale Face Database B to verify the effectiveness and validity of the research, and we obtained better recognition results under illumination variations not only in terms of computation time but also in terms of the recognition rate in comparison to PCA- and Gabor wavelet-based recognition algorithms.

  11. A Method for Aileron Actuator Fault Diagnosis Based on PCA and PGC-SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Li Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aileron actuators are pivotal components for aircraft flight control system. Thus, the fault diagnosis of aileron actuators is vital in the enhancement of the reliability and fault tolerant capability. This paper presents an aileron actuator fault diagnosis approach combining principal component analysis (PCA, grid search (GS, 10-fold cross validation (CV, and one-versus-one support vector machine (SVM. This method is referred to as PGC-SVM and utilizes the direct drive valve input, force motor current, and displacement feedback signal to realize fault detection and location. First, several common faults of aileron actuators, which include force motor coil break, sensor coil break, cylinder leakage, and amplifier gain reduction, are extracted from the fault quadrantal diagram; the corresponding fault mechanisms are analyzed. Second, the data feature extraction is performed with dimension reduction using PCA. Finally, the GS and CV algorithms are employed to train a one-versus-one SVM for fault classification, thus obtaining the optimal model parameters and assuring the generalization of the trained SVM, respectively. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach, four types of faults are introduced into the simulation model established by AMESim and Simulink. The results demonstrate its desirable diagnostic performance which outperforms that of the traditional SVM by comparison.

  12. No evidence of a clinically important effect of adding local infusion analgesia administrated through a catheter in pain treatment after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Kirsten; Leonhardt, Jane Schwartz; Revald, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Postoperative analgesia after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) using opioids is associated with troublesome side effects such as nausea and dizziness, and epidural analgesic means delayed mobilization. Thus, local infiltration analgesia (LIA) during surgery prolonged...

  13. Combined spinal-epidural analgesia in labour: its effects on delivery outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneet Kaur Sra Charanjit Singh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Combined spinal-epidural (CSE has become an increasingly popular alternative to traditional labour epidural due to its rapid onset and reliable analgesia provided. This was a prospective, convenient sampling study to determine the effects of CSE analgesia on labour outcome. METHODS: One hundred and ten healthy primigravida parturients with a singleton pregnancy of ≥37 weeks gestation and in the active phase of labour were studied. They were enrolled to the CSE (n = 55 or Non-CSE (n = 55 group based on whether they consented to CSE analgesia. Non-CSE parturients were offered other methods of labour analgesia. The duration of the first and second stage of labour, rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and emergency cesarean section, and Apgar scores were compared. RESULTS: The mean duration of the first and second stage of labour was not significantly different between both groups. Instrumental delivery rates between the groups were not significantly different (CSE group, 11% versus Non-CSE group, 16%. The slightly higher incidence of cesarean section in the CSE group (16% versus 15% in the Non-CSE group was not statistically significant. Neonatal outcome in terms of Apgar score of less than 7 at 1 and 5 min was similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: There were no significant differences in the duration of labour, rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and emergency cesarean section, and neonatal outcome in parturients who received compared to those who did not receive CSE for labour analgesia.

  14. Effects of Flurbiprofen Axetil on Postoperative Analgesia and Cytokines in Peripheral Blood of Thoracotomy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mi; Li, Beiping; Kong, Ming

    2015-06-01

    The objective is to study the effects of flurbiprofen axetil (FA) with fentanyl together in postoperative controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) on pain intensity, cytokine levels in peripheral blood and adverse reactions of thoracotomy patients. Fifty thoracotomy patients were divided into a FA and a control group, each with 25 cases. Postoperative analgesia was administered in the two groups using PCIA. The pressing times of analgesia pump, the visual analog scale (VAS) scores during resting and coughing at 2, 6, 24, 48, 72 h after surgery and the incidence of adverse drug reactions were recorded. Levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-2, and TNF-α in peripheral blood were determined before the administration of FA (T0), and at 24 h (T1), 48 h (T2), 72 h (T3) after surgery. The analgesia pump pressing times in the FA group was less than that of the control group. The VAS scores during resting and coughing at 2, 6, 24, 48, 72 h after surgery, were statistically less than those of control group. The incidence rate of nausea and vomiting was insignificantly different between the two groups. Administration of FA together with PCIA in thoracotomy patients can improve postoperative analgesia.

  15. Obstetrical and perinatal outcomes in patients with or without obstetric analgesia during labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedrahíta-Gutiérrez, Dany Leandro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe and compare the obstetric and perinatal outcomes in patients with or without obstetric analgesia during labor, and to determine whether such analgesia is associated with adverse maternal or perinatal outcomes. Methodology: Comparative, retrospective, descriptive study, between January and November 2014, that included 502 healthy patients with normal pregnancies, out of which 250 received obstetric analgesia. The groups were compared as to maternal and perinatal outcomes. Results: Young, single and nulliparous mothers predominated; delivery was vaginal in 86 % of the cases, and by caesarean section in 14 %. Obstetric analgesia was associated with longer duration of the second stage of labor, instrumental delivery and cesarean section due to arrest of dilatation or fetal bradycardia; however, it was not related with higher incidence of postpartum hemorrhage or adverse perinatal outcomes such as meconium-stained amniotic fluid, Apgar under 5 at one minute or under 7 at 5 minutes, the need for neonatal resuscitation or for admission to NICU. Conclusion: Obstetric analgesia increases the duration of the second stage of labor and can increase the rate of caesarean sections and instrumental delivery, but it is not associated with adverse maternal or perinatal outcomes. Therefore, its use in labor is justified.

  16. Post operatory analgesia in caesarean surgery. Analgesia posoperatoria en la operación cesárea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando T. Espín González

    Full Text Available Background: Post-operatory pain is a spread and constant problem during the care of the surgical patient. The tendency to find new therapeutic techniques to alleviate pain has lead scientists to make and use a great variety of analgesics which are administered by different vias. The effects of narcotics on the new born are well known and the author´s worries about this problem has been the motivational point to search about the use of epidural and intratecal narcotics in the obstetric patient. Objective: To assess the use of peridural liophilized morphine in the Caesarean Section Method: A study of a series of cases was carried out at the Surgical Unit of the Gynecobstetric service of the University Hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ from February 2001 to August 2002 . This search included 120 patient who were selected to elective iterative caesarean section The variables under study were blood pressure, pulse and respiration during the pre- trans and post operative phases, onset of the anaesthetic effect and its duration, peri operatory complications , quality of the post operatory analgesia and its effect on the newborn measured by using Apgar values . The statistical procedure was developed by using the statistical package Epi Info 6. Results: The onset of the anesthetic effect and the duration of the anesthesia were not modified with the use of liophilized morphine. Vital signs remained within normal limits in most of the patients during the pre- trans and post operatory phases. The complications were: pruritus, urinary retention, nausea nad vomiting. The quality of the analgesia was satisfactory in most of the patients. The Apgar values were normal in all neonates. Conclusion: The administration of peridural liophilized morphine in elective caesarean sections is a reliable, sure and useful method in our environment.

  17. PCA-SIFT 特征匹配算法研究%Research on the matching algorithm of PCA-SIFT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钦; 游雄; 李科; 张彦喜

    2016-01-01

    SIFT特征具有旋转、尺度和明暗变化的不变性,在图像匹配中得到广泛应用。针对SIFT 特征匹配中耗时长、匹配点对少、准确率低的问题,提出PCA‐SIFT特征匹配的方法。使用更加精简的方法构建特征点描述向量,通过预先构建的投影矩阵对描述向量进行主成分分析,降低描述向量的维度从而提高了特征匹配的速度,同时降维也对描述向量进行了去噪提纯,使得匹配更加准确。实验证明,利用PCA‐SIFT 特征进行匹配在降低匹配耗时的同时,增加了匹配点对,匹配准确率也得到提高。%SIFT is widely used in the feature matching because it is resistant to the rotation ,scale and illumination changes .The matching method of PCA‐SIFT is proposed aiming at the problems of time‐consuming ,fewer matching points and low accuracy rate in SIFT .A simplified method is adopted to build the descriptor .T he process of PCA reduces the dimensionality of the key point descriptors and improves the matching efficiency .In addition ,reducing the dimension is also helpful to denoise the description vector ,which makes feature matching more accurate .The experiments prove that the PCA‐SIFT proposed in the paper can reduce the matching time ,increase the number of matching points and improve the accuracy rate .

  18. Modafinil reduces patient-reported tiredness after sedation/analgesia but does not improve patient psychomotor skills.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvin, E.; Boesjes, H.; Hol, J.; Ubben, J.F.; Klein-Nulend, J.; Verbrugge, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early recovery of patients following sedation/analgesia and anesthesia is important in ambulatory practice. The aim of this study was to assess whether modafinil, used for the treatment of narcolepsy, improves recovery following sedation/analgesia. METHODS: Patients scheduled for extraco

  19. Efficacy of clonidine as an adjuvant to bupivacaine for caudal analgesia in children undergoing sub-umbilical surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Parameswari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Caudal epidural analgesia with bupivacaine is very popular in paediatric anaesthesia for providing intra- and postoperative analgesia. Several adjuvants have been used to prolong the action of bupivacaine. We evaluated the efficacy of clonidine added to bupivacaine in prolonging the analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine in children undergoing sub-umbilical surgery. One hundred children, age one to three years, undergoing sub-umbilical surgery, were prospectively randomized to one of two groups: caudal analgesia with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine in normal saline (Group A or caudal analgesia with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine with 1 μg/kg of clonidine in normal saline (Group B. Post-operative pain was assessed for 24 hours using the FLACC scale. The mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer in Group B (593.4 ± 423.3 min than in Group A (288.7 ± 259.1 min; P < 0.05. The pain score assessed using FLACC scale was compared between the two groups, and children in Group B had lower pain scores, which was statistically significant. The requirement of rescue medicine was lesser in Group B. Clonidine in a dose of 1 μg/kg added to 0.25% bupivacaine for caudal analgesia, during sub-umbilical surgeries, prolongs the duration of analgesia of bupivacaine, without any side effects.

  20. Efeito alcalinizante de soluções eletrolíticas intravenosas com concentrações elevadas de lactato de sódio infundidas em bezerros sadios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R.C. Junqueira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar o potencial alcalinizante de soluções eletrolíticas com concentrações elevadas de lactato de sódio em bezerros sadios, foram idealizadas seis soluções contendo 28, 56 e 84mEq/L de lactato (L28, L56 e L84 ou de bicarbonato (B28, B56 e B84, com concentrações de sódio, de potássio e de cálcio semelhantes às da solução de Ringer com lactato (SRL. As soluções contendo bicarbonato de sódio foram utilizadas como padrão para comparação. Seis bezerros receberam, por via intravenosa, todas as seis soluções, uma a cada vez, com intervalo de quatro a cinco dias entre as infusões, em volume correspondente a 10% do peso corporal, durante cinco horas (20mL/kg/h. Amostras de sangue venoso e de urina foram coletadas antes de iniciar a infusão, na metade do volume, ao término e duas horas e meia após o término da infusão. Determinaram-se concentração de proteína plasmática total, pH sanguíneo e urinário, pCO2, HCO3 -, BE, concentração plasmática e urinária de lactato L e concentrações séricas e urinárias de Na+, K+, Cl- e creatinina. A solução L28, idêntica à SRL, provocou discreto incremento da reserva alcalina e, consequentemente, produziu efeito alcalinizante insuficiente para a correção de estados de acidose metabólica. A solução L84, além de provar-se segura, provocou o maior aumento da reserva alcalina, equivalente à B84, e, assim, produziu efeito capaz de corrigir o grau moderado de acidose metabólica.

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NALBUPHINE VS. PENTAZOCINE FOR POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Ganpatrao Tirpude

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND To provide postoperative pain relief is a prime duty of health care providers. Failure to relieve pain is morally and ethically unacceptable. Post-operative pain may results in adverse effects such as: a Physiological Changes: Reduced pulmonary functions, e.g. vital capacity, tidal volume, functional residual capacity; sympathetic stimulation; reduced the physical activity of patients; thereby increasing the risk of venous thrombosis. b Psychological disturbances: Anger, Resentment, Depression, Adversarial Relationship with Doctors, Insomnia. Aim of this study was 1. To investigate whether “Postoperative analgesia with Nalbuphine is longer than Pentazocine”. 2. To investigate whether “Side effects/complications are less with Nalbuphine as compared to Pentazocine”. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was a prospective randomized double blind observational study. Eighty patients of hydrocoele & inguinal hernia were operated under spinal anaesthesia of age group 20-70 years, ASA grade I & II & patients with controlled co-morbid conditions. In postoperative period, Group N- Inj. Nalbuphine (0.3 mg/kg IM or Group P- Inj. Pentazocine (0.5 mg/kg IM was administered to provide postoperative pain relief & to know the duration of pain relief & its side effects. RESULTS On statistical analysis, demographic data i.e. age, sex had no influence on outcome of study. Mean VAS score in group N was highly significant (p-value in Inj. Pentazocine group. 2. Side Effects - Incidence of sedation was more in Nalbuphine group as compared to Pentazocine group. Nausea & Vomiting were more so in Pentazocine group as compared to Nalbuphine group. Limitation of the present study was that sample size was very small.

  2. Intrathecal administration of resiniferatoxin produces analgesia against prostatodynia in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Wei; SONG Bo; ZHOU Zan-song; LU Gen-sheng

    2007-01-01

    Background Prostatodynia remains a difficult clinical problem. Resiniferatoxin (RTX), an ultrapotent vanilloid, can produce a selective and long-lasting desensitization of nociception via C-fiber sensory neurons. Substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) released from C-fibers are key neurotransmitters in visceral pain. In this study,we evaluated the analgesic effect of intrathecal RTX on rat prostatodynia.Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups for different treatment. In group A, sham operation was preformed. In group B, 100 μl complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) was injected into the rat's bilateral ventral prostate to induce chronic inflammation. In group C, after prostatitis formed, 50 μl 10 nmol/L RTX was injected into the rat's lumbosacral (L5-S2) vertebral canal. SP and CGRP contents in the spinal cord were investigated by immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Their transcriptional levels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, pelvic nerve afferent discharge was recorded to explore the neuro-electrophysiological mechanisms underlying RTX-induced effect.Results SP and CGRP released in the spinal cord and their synthesis in DRG were increased significantly in response to CFA-induced chronic prostatitis, whereas this increase was effectively inhibited by intrathecal RTX. Meanwhile, pelvic nerve afferent electrical activity was enhanced significantly in rats with chronic prostatitis, but it was attenuated markedly in RTX-treated rats paralleled by the change of neuropeptides.Conclusions Intrathecal RTX administration could produce an analgesic effect on rat prostatodynia. Suppression of pelvic nerve afferent electrical activity may be a crucial mechanism underlying RTX-induced analgesia. RTX intrathecal application may present a novel analgesic strategy of prostatodynia.

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA AND MET- ENKEPHALIN OR DYNORPHIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TsogoevAlanS; 王一菱; 吴景兰; 金辉

    2001-01-01

    subjective: The effect of 4~5 Hz electroacupuncture (EA) on alterations of both met-enkephalin (MEK) and dynorphin (Dyn) in the patient plasma or mouse spinal cord and its relation with analgesic effect were studied. Methods: In acupuncture clinic 10 patients with acute pain were treated with 4 Hz EA at Zusanli(ST 36) and/or Hegu(LI 4) acupoints for 30 min. 20 BALB/C mice were randomly divided into 2 groups: a. EA group(n=10), treated with 4~5 Hz EA at bilateral "Zusanli"(ST 36) for 15 min; b. control group(n=10) treated with no EA, but also restrained for 15 min. Before and after EA or restraining acupoints, the pain threshold of the patients or mice was detected. 10 μI of the patient plasma before and after EA and each mouse spinal cord suspension, of the 2 groups were blotted onto nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) respectively. The protein dot blot signals were detected by immunoreactivity (IR) and using Shimadu TLC Scanner and analyzed statistically. Results: The results showed that an increase in patient plasma MEK-IR or Dyn-IR and a decrease in mouse spinal MEK-IR or Dyn-IR could be detected, and the alteration of plasma or spinal MEK-IR was more significant than that of plasma or spinal Dyn-IR. There was a positive correlation in alteration between plasma or spinal MEK-IR and plasma or spinal Dyn-IR with respective parallel levels in individuals. The increased plasma MEK-IR or the decreased spinal MEK-IR was positively or negatively correlated with the analgesic effect, while the correlation between plasma or spinal Dyn-IR and analgesic effect was insignificant. Conclusion: The results suggest that under lower frequency EA the met-enkephalin may play an important role in analgesia.

  4. Endogenous opiate analgesia induced by tonic immobility in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R.A. Leite-Panissi

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A function of the endogenous analgesic system is to prevent recuperative behaviors generated by tissue damage, thus preventing the emission of species-specific defensive behaviors. Activation of intrinsic nociception is fundamental for the maintenance of the behavioral strategy adopted. Tonic immobility (TI is an inborn defensive behavior characterized by a temporary state of profound and reversible motor inhibition elicited by some forms of physical restraint. We studied the effect of TI behavior on nociception produced by the formalin and hot-plate tests in guinea pigs. The induction of TI produced a significant decrease in the number of flinches (18 ± 6 and 2 ± 1 in phases 1 and 2 and lickings (6 ± 2 and 1 ± 1 in phases 1 and 2 in the formalin test when compared with control (75 ± 13 and 22 ± 6 flinches in phases 1 and 2; 28 ± 7 and 17 ± 7 lickings in phases 1 and 2. In the hot-plate test our results also showed antinociceptive effects of TI, with an increase in the index of analgesia 30 and 45 min after the induction of TI (0.67 ± 0.1 and 0.53 ± 0.13, respectively when compared with control (-0.10 ± 0.08 at 30 min and -0.09 ± 0.09 at 45 min. These effects were reversed by pretreatment with naloxone (1 mg/kg, ip, suggesting that the hypoalgesia observed after induction of TI behavior, as evaluated by the algesimetric formalin and hot-plate tests, is due to activation of endogenous analgesic mechanisms involving opioid synapses.

  5. Sedation and analgesia in the pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Joseph D

    2005-08-01

    Various clinical situations may arise in the PICU that necessitate the use of sedation, analgesia, or both. Although there is a large clinical experience with midazolam in the PICU population and it remains the most commonly used benzodiazepine in this setting, lorazepam may provide an effective alternative, with a longer half-life and more predictable pharmacokinetics without the concern of active metabolites. However, there are limited reports regarding its use in the PICU population, and concerns exist regarding the potential for toxicity related to its diluent, propylene glycol. Although the synthetic opioid fentanyl frequently is chosen for use in the PICU setting because of its hemodynamic stability, preliminary data suggest morphine may have a slower development of tolerance and may cause fewer withdrawal symptoms than fentanyl. Morphine's safety profile includes long-term follow-up studies that have demonstrated no adverse central nervous system developmental effects from its use in neonates and infants. In the critically ill infant at risk following surgery for congenital heart disease, clinical experience supports the use of the synthetic opioids, given their ability to modulate PVR and prevent pulmonary hypertensive crisis. Alternatives to the benzodiazepines and opioids include ketamine, pentobarbital, or dexmedetomidine. Ketamine may be useful for patients with hemodynamic instability or airway reactivity. There are limited reports regarding the use of pentobarbital in the PICU, with one study raising concerns of a high incidence of adverse effects associated with its use. Propofol has gained great favor in the adult population as a means of providing deep sedation while allowing for rapid awakening; however, its routine use is not recommended because of its potential association with "propofol infusion syndrome." As the pediatric experience increases, it appears that there will be a role for newer agents such as dexmedetomidine.

  6. [Use of analgesia and sedation in dental implantology in patients with concomitant hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitkin, S I; Davydova, O B; Kostin, I O; Gasparian, A L

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants surgery in patients with hypertension increases the risk of vascular complications. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of analgesia and sedation on blood pressure and postoperative pain in dental implantology. In 76 patients with hypertension implant surgery was performed under local anesthesia only (40 patients) or under local anesthesia with propofol sedation and pre-emptive analgesia with ketorolac (36 patients). Intraoperative systolic blood pressure in the second group was 20% less than in the first group while the intensity of pain in the postoperative period in the second group was three times less than in the first one. Propofol sedation in dental implantology provides hemodynamic stability in patients with concomitant hypertension and preemptive analgesia with ketorolac allows minimizing postoperative pain.

  7. Pulsed Nd: YAG laser induces pulpal analgesia: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, A; Armati, P; Moorthy, A P

    2012-07-01

    This double-blind, randomized, clinical trial investigated the effectiveness and underlying mechanism of neural inhibition of pulsed Nd:YAG laser induction of pulpal analgesia compared with 5% EMLA anesthetic cream. Forty-four paired premolars from 44 orthodontic patients requiring bilateral premolar extraction from either dental arch were randomly assigned to the 'Laser plus Sham-EMLA' or 'EMLA plus Sham-Laser' treatment group. Analgesia was tested by an Electric Pulp Tester (EPT) and the cutting of a standardized cavity, which was terminated when participants reported sensitivity, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and numbness were recorded. Statistical analyses were done by paired t test, McNemar's test, and a chi-squared test (p analgesia, by suppression of intradental nerve responses to electrical and mechanical stimuli. Such a laser provides an alternative for dental pain management (ANZ-Clinical Trial Registry: N12611001099910).

  8. Understanding Central Mechanisms of Acupuncture Analgesia Using Dynamic Quantitative Sensory Testing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Ti Kong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the emerging translational tools for the study of acupuncture analgesia with a focus on psychophysical methods. The gap between animal mechanistic studies and human clinical trials of acupuncture analgesia calls for effective translational tools that bridge neurophysiological data with meaningful clinical outcomes. Temporal summation (TS and conditioned pain modulation (CPM are two promising tools yet to be widely utilized. These psychophysical measures capture the state of the ascending facilitation and the descending inhibition of nociceptive transmission, respectively. We review the basic concepts and current methodologies underlying these measures in clinical pain research, and illustrate their application to research on acupuncture analgesia. Finally, we highlight the strengths and limitations of these research methods and make recommendations on future directions. The appropriate addition of TS and CPM to our current research armamentarium will facilitate our efforts to elucidate the central analgesic mechanisms of acupuncture in clinical populations.

  9. Effect of Age, Adernaline and Operation Site on Duration of Caudal Analgesia in Paediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharirat Mohd., Yasir,G.A.Mir

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect ofage, operative site and addition of 1: 200,000 adrenaline to bupivacaine was evaluatedon the duration ofpost operative analgesia after caudal block in 200 children between the age groupof 1 year to 14 years. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained on Halothane/N20I02• After thiscaudal block was performed with 0.5 mllkg of0.25% bupivacaine in one group of 100 Children andwith 0.25% bupivacaine with adrenaline 1 : 200,000 in another 100 children. The duration of postoperative analgesia was noted to be significantly longer in young children, in children having penoscrotaloperations and when adrenaline was added to bupivacaine. Conclusion was drawn that durationofpost-operative analgesia depended upon age, site and addition of adrenaline to bupivacaine.

  10. Analgesic efficacy of local infiltration analgesia in hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Østergaard; Kehlet, H

    2014-01-01

    clinical trials even when combined with multimodal systemic analgesia. In contrast, LIA may have limited additional analgesic efficacy in THA when combined with a multimodal analgesic regimen. Postoperative administration of local anaesthetic in wound catheters did not provide additional analgesia when......In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in local infiltration analgesia (LIA) as a technique to control postoperative pain. We conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials investigating LIA for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) to evaluate...... the analgesic efficacy of LIA for early postoperative pain treatment. In addition, the analgesic efficacy of wound catheters and implications for length of hospital stay (LOS) were evaluated. Twenty-seven randomized controlled trials in 756 patients operated on with THA and 888 patients operated on with TKA...

  11. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of the age-dependency of opioid analgesia and tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jing

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The age-dependency of opioid analgesia and tolerance has been noticed in both clinical observation and laboratory studies. Evidence shows that many molecular and cellular events that play essential roles in opioid analgesia and tolerance are actually age-dependent. For example, the expression and functions of endogenous opioid peptides, multiple types of opioid receptors, G protein subunits that couple to opioid receptors, and regulators of G protein signaling (RGS proteins change with development and age. Other signaling systems that are critical to opioid tolerance development, such as N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptors, also undergo age-related changes. It is plausible that the age-dependent expression and functions of molecules within and related to the opioid signaling pathways, as well as age-dependent cellular activity such as agonist-induced opioid receptor internalization and desensitization, eventually lead to significant age-dependent changes in opioid analgesia and tolerance development.

  12. Analgesic efficacy of lidocaine and multimodal analgesia for chest tube removal: A randomized trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdecy Ferreira de Oliveira Pinheiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the analgesic efficacy of subcutaneous lidocaine and multimodal analgesia for chest tube removal following heart surgery. Methods: sixty volunteers were randomly allocated in two groups; 30 participants in the experimental group were given 1% subcutaneous lidocaine, and 30 controls were given a multimodal analgesia regime comprising systemic anti-inflammatory agents and opioids. The intensity and quality of pain and trait and state anxiety were assessed. The association between independent variables and final outcome was assessed by means of the Chi-squared test with Yates' correction and Fisher's exact test. Results: the groups did not exhibit significant difference with respect to the intensity of pain upon chest tube removal (p= 0.47. The most frequent descriptors of pain reported by the participants were pressing, sharp, pricking, burning and unbearable. Conclusion: the present study suggests that the analgesic effect of the subcutaneous administration of 1% lidocaine combined with multimodal analgesia is most efficacious.

  13. Do antenatal education classes decrease use of epidural analgesia during labour? – a Danish RCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Axelsen, Solveig Forberg;

    , and reduce fear during birth which in turn may decrease use of pain relief. Few randomised trials have examined the effect of attending antenatal education in small groups on use of epidural analgesia and among these conclusions are conflicting. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the effect......Background: Epidural analgesia is widely used as pain relief during labour but has negative side effects, such as prolonged labour and increased risk of obstetric interventions. Antenatal education in small groups may increase trust in own ability to cope at home in the early stages of labour...... on whether to implement the NEWBORN program in a clinical setting also depend upon the trial effect on psycho-social outcomes which will be analysed in near future. Main messages (max 200 anslag): 1. No effect of antenatal education in small groups on use of epidural analgesia as pain relief during labour...

  14. PROSPECTIVE RANDOMISED CONTROL STUDY OF POST OP EPIDURAL ANALGESIA WITH BUPIVACAINE AND FENTANYL VS. BUPIVACAINE AND CLONIDINE

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    Rachana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the relative potencies and clinical characteristics of epidural Clonidine and Fentanyl with Bupivacaine in lower limb and lower abdominal surgeries using patient-controlled analgesia. In a randomised double-blinded study, 60 ASA I or II patients requiring epidural analgesia for post- operative pain relief were allocated to receive either 0.125% Bupivacaine with Clonidine 1µg/kg or 0.125% Bupivacaine with Fentanyl 1µg/kg via a sterile syringe by trained anaesthesiologists. Analgesia was established with 10-15 ml bolus of study solution. There were significant differences in onset time, duration and quality of analgesia, local anaesthetic consumption, between the two groups. We conclude that 0.125% Bupivacaine with Clonidine 1µg/kg group of patients clinically had better quality of analgesia and for a longer duration in comparison with patients receiving 0.125% Bupivacaine with Fentanyl 1µg/kg.

  15. Improved algorithms for the classification of rough rice using a bionic electronic nose based on PCA and the Wilks distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sai; Zhou, Zhiyan; Lu, Huazhong; Luo, Xiwen; Lan, Yubin

    2014-03-19

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is one of the main methods used for electronic nose pattern recognition. However, poor classification performance is common in classification and recognition when using regular PCA. This paper aims to improve the classification performance of regular PCA based on the existing Wilks Λ-statistic (i.e., combined PCA with the Wilks distribution). The improved algorithms, which combine regular PCA with the Wilks Λ-statistic, were developed after analysing the functionality and defects of PCA. Verification tests were conducted using a PEN3 electronic nose. The collected samples consisted of the volatiles of six varieties of rough rice (Zhongxiang1, Xiangwan13, Yaopingxiang, WufengyouT025, Pin 36, and Youyou122), grown in same area and season. The first two principal components used as analysis vectors cannot perform the rough rice varieties classification task based on a regular PCA. Using the improved algorithms, which combine the regular PCA with the Wilks Λ-statistic, many different principal components were selected as analysis vectors. The set of data points of the Mahalanobis distance between each of the varieties of rough rice was selected to estimate the performance of the classification. The result illustrates that the rough rice varieties classification task is achieved well using the improved algorithm. A Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN) was also established to test the effectiveness of the improved algorithms. The first two principal components (namely PC1 and PC2) and the first and fifth principal component (namely PC1 and PC5) were selected as the inputs of PNN for the classification of the six rough rice varieties. The results indicate that the classification accuracy based on the improved algorithm was improved by 6.67% compared to the results of the regular method. These results prove the effectiveness of using the Wilks Λ-statistic to improve the classification accuracy of the regular PCA approach. The results

  16. Inhibiting spinal neuron-astrocytic activation correlates with synergistic analgesia of dexmedetomidine and ropivacaine.

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    Huang-Hui Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to identify that intrathecal (i.t. injection of dexmedetomidine (Dex and ropivacaine (Ropi induces synergistic analgesia on chronic inflammatory pain and is accompanied with corresponding "neuron-astrocytic" alterations. METHODS: Male, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham, control and i.t. medication groups. The analgesia profiles of i.t. Dex, Ropi, and their combination detected by Hargreaves heat test were investigated on the subcutaneous (s.c. injection of complete Freund adjuvant (CFA induced chronic pain in rat and their synergistic analgesia was confirmed by using isobolographic analysis. During consecutive daily administration, pain behavior was daily recorded, and immunohistochemical staining was applied to investigate the number of Fos-immunoreactive (Fos-ir neurons on hour 2 and day 1, 3 and 7, and the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP within the spinal dorsal horn (SDH on day 1, 3, 5 and 7 after s.c. injection of CFA, respectively, and then Western blot to examine spinal GFAP and β-actin levels on day 3 and 7. RESULTS: i.t. Dex or Ropi displayed a short-term analgesia in a dose-dependent manner, and consecutive daily administrations of their combination showed synergistic analgesia and remarkably down-regulated neuronal and astrocytic activations indicated by decreases in the number of Fos-ir neurons and the GFAP expression within the SDH, respectively. CONCLUSION: i.t. co-delivery of Dex and Ropi shows synergistic analgesia on the chronic inflammatory pain, in which spinal "neuron-astrocytic activation" mechanism may play an important role.

  17. Commercial Orange Juice Beverages Detection by Fluorescence Spectroscopy Combined with PCA-ED and PLSR Methods%荧光光谱结合PCA-ED与PLSR方法检测市售橙汁饮品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡扬俊; 朱纯; 陈国庆; 张咏; 孔凡标; 李润; 朱焯炜; 王旭; 高淑梅

    2014-01-01

    In order to classify the orange juice beverages effectively,the fluorescence character differences of two kinds of orange juice beverages including 100% orange juice and orange drink were analyzed and compared,principal component analysis com-bined with Euclidean distance was adopted to classify two kinds of orange juice beverages,and ideal classification results were obtained.Meanwhile,the orange juice content estimation model was established by using fluorescence spectroscopy combined with partial least squares regression method,and the correlation coefficient R,root mean square error of calibration RMSEC and root mean square error of prediction RMSEP were 0. 997,0. 87% and 2. 05%,respectively.The experimental results indicate that the calibration model offers comparatively accurate content estimation,which reflect the actual orange juice content in the commercial orange juice beverages.The exploration to classify orange juice beverages was carried out from two aspects of quali-tative and quantitative analysis by employing fluorescence spectroscopy combined with chemometrics method,which can provide a new idea for the classification and adulteration detection of commercial orange juice beverages,and also can give certain refer-ence basis for the quality control of orange juice raw material.%为实现市售橙汁饮品的有效鉴别,在分析与比较100%橙汁与橙汁饮料两类饮品荧光特性差异的基础上,采用主成分分析结合欧氏距离(PCA-ED)的方法对市售橙汁饮品进行定性鉴别,效果良好。同时,利用荧光光谱结合偏最小二乘回归(PLSR)方法建立市售橙汁饮品中橙汁含量的估测模型,PLSR多元校正模型的相关系数r为0.997,校正均方根误差为0.87%,预测均方根误差为2.05%,实验结果表明,校正模型较准确地反映了市售橙汁饮品中的真实橙汁含量。通过采用荧光光谱结合化学计量学方法从定性与定量两方面对

  18. [The dispute and prospect of sedation and analgesia treatments in outpatient dental procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Yu

    2015-12-01

    The topic of eliminating the fear or pain of patients during dental therapy is gaining increasing attention from dentists across the country. The field of painless dental therapeutics involves a wide range of subjects, including stomatology, anesthesiology, and hospital management. We summarized the characteristics of sedation and analgesia technology in outpatient oral therapy, reviewed the common sedative and analgesic treatments, and discussed the disputes on the use of sedation and analgesia in dental procedures. We also reviewed the trends and breakthroughs in this area on the basis of our own clinica experiences.

  19. Sterile water injection labour analgesia in a parturient with preeclampsia with thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivali Panwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy induced hypertension is one of the most common causes of maternal morbidity and mortality. A G2L1A1 female with period of gestation 36 weeks presented in our hospital with early labour pains. She was a known case of pregnancy induced hypertension with thrombocytopenia and had been operated on the lumbar spine for Potts spine. She was administered intradermal sterile water injection labour analgesia every 3 hours. The labour was uneventful and patient had a normal vaginal delivery of a male baby. The postnatal course was uneventful and patient was satisfied with the labour analgesia.

  20. Age-dependency of analgesia elicited by intraoral sucrose in acute and persistent pain models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anseloni, Vanessa C Z; Weng, H-R; Terayama, R; Letizia, David; Davis, Barry J; Ren, Ke; Dubner, Ronald; Ennis, Matthew

    2002-05-01

    Treatment of pain in newborns is associated with problematic drug side effects. Previous studies demonstrate that an intraoral infusion of sucrose and other sweet components of mother's milk are effective in alleviating pain in infant rats and humans. These findings are of considerable significance, as sweet tastants are used in pain and stress management in a number of clinical procedures performed in human infants. The ability of sweet stimuli to induce analgesia is absent in adult rats, suggesting that this is a developmentally transient phenomenon. However, the age range over which intraoral sucrose is capable of producing analgesia is not known. We investigated the effects of intraoral sucrose (7.5%) on nocifensive withdrawal responses to thermal and mechanical stimuli in naive and inflamed rats at postnatal days (P) P0-21. In some rats, Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) was injected in a fore- or hindpaw to produce inflammation. In non-inflamed animals, for noxious thermal stimuli, sucrose-induced analgesia emerged at P3, peaked at P7-10, then progressively declined and was absent at P17. For mechanical forepaw stimuli, sucrose-induced analgesia emerged, and was maximal at approximately P10, then declined and was absent at P17. By contrast, maximal sucrose-induced analgesia for mechanical hindpaw stimuli was delayed (P13) compared to that for the forepaw, although it was also absent at P17. In inflamed animals, sucrose reduced hyperesthesia and hyperalgesia assessed with mechanical stimuli. Sucrose-induced analgesia in inflamed animals was initially present at P3 for the forepaw and P13 for the hindpaw, and was absent by P17 for both limbs. Intraoral sucrose produced significantly greater effects on responses in fore- and hindpaws in inflamed rats than in naive rats indicating that it reduces hyperalgesia and allodynia beyond its effects on responses in naive animals. These findings support the hypothesis that sucrose has a selective influence on analgesic

  1. Analgesia preemptiva em cirurgias de implantes dentários : estudo comparativo com dexametasona e cetorolaco

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A analgesia preemptiva é um regime analgésico instituído previamente ao estímulo nocivo, com o objetivo de prevenir a hiperalgesia inflamatória e o subsequente estímulo que amplifica a dor no sistema nervoso central. Para aplicá-la na clínica cirúrgica odontológica, alguns fármacos com propriedades analgésicas e anti-inflamatórias têm sido avaliados, todavia com resultados ainda conflitantes. Por este motivo, propôs-se investigar, de forma comparativa, a analgesia preemptiva com dexametasona ...

  2. [Effect of met- and leu-enkephalins and their synthetic analog on stimulation and acupunture analgesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatov, Iu D; Vasil'ev, Iu N; Kovalenko, V S; Titov, M I

    1981-08-01

    Experiments on unrestrained rats were carried out to study the effect of intraventricularly injected met- and leu-enkephalins and their synthetic analog Tyr-dAla-Cly-Phe-NH2 on analgesia induced by electrical stimulation of the central gray. It was shown that subanalgesic doses of enkephalins and their synthetic analog facilitated the appearance of analgesic action on subthreshold antinociceptive-brain stimulation and potentiated the analgesic effect of threshold central gray stimulation. Subanalgesic and low analgesic doses of the peptides increased antinociceptive effect of electroacupuncture. The data obtained are discussed from the standpoint of the implication of the peptidergic mechanisms in the realization of acupuncture and stimulation analgesia.

  3. Labor analgesia with ropivacaine added to clonidine: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giane Nakamura

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have led to speculation that the association between ropivacaine and clonidine might be more effective than ropivacaine alone. We examined the maternal-fetal effects of two pharmacological approaches: a low dose of ropivacaine or a lower dose of ropivacaine plus clonidine for epidural analgesia during labor. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study at Department of Anesthesiology, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista. METHODS: Thirty-two pregnant women in American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II randomly underwent epidural analgesia using 15 ml of ropivacaine 0.125% (R group or 15 ml of ropivacaine 0.0625% plus 75 µg clonidine (RC group. Pain intensity, sensory block level, latency time, motor block intensity, duration of labor analgesia and duration of epidural analgesia were evaluated. The newborns were evaluated using Apgar scores and the Amiel-Tison method (neurological and adaptive capacity score. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups regarding pain score, sensory block level, duration of epidural analgesia or Apgar score. The latency time, duration of labor analgesia and motor block were R group < RC group. The half-hour and two-hour neurological and adaptive capacity scores were higher in the R group. All of the R group newborns and 75% of the RC group newborns were found to be neurologically healthy at the 24-hour examination. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups regarding pain score, sensory block level, duration of epidural analgesia or Apgar score. The latency time, duration of labor analgesia and motor block were R group < RC group. The half-hour and two-hour neurological and adaptive capacity scores were higher in the R group. All of the R group newborns and 75% of the RC group newborns were found to be neurologically healthy at the 24-hour examination

  4. Adding ketamine to morphine for intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for acute postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, M; Møller, A M

    2010-01-01

    In experimental trials, ketamine has been shown to reduce hyperalgesia, prevent opioid tolerance, and lower morphine consumption. Clinical trials have found contradictory results. We performed a review of randomized, double-blinded clinical trials of ketamine added to opioid in i.v. patient...... for i.v. PCA was superior to i.v. PCA opioid alone. The combination allows a significant reduction in pain score, cumulative morphine consumption, and postoperative desaturation. The benefit of adding ketamine to morphine in i.v. PCA for orthopaedic or abdominal surgery remains unclear. Owing to huge...

  5. Evaluation of the application of BIM technology based on PCA - Q Clustering Algorithm and Choquet Integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiaozhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For the development of the construction industry, the construction of data era is approaching, BIM (building information model with the actual needs of the construction industry has been widely used as a building information clan system software, different software for the practical application of different maturity, through the expert scoring method for the application of BIM technology maturity index mark, establish the evaluation index system, using PCA - Q clustering algorithm for the evaluation index system of classification, comprehensive evaluation in combination with the Choquet integral on the classification of evaluation index system, to achieve a reasonable assessment of the application of BIM technology maturity index. To lay a foundation for the future development of BIM Technology in various fields of construction, at the same time provides direction for the comprehensive application of BIM technology.

  6. Magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) of ferromagnetic pipelines using principal component analysis (PCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinker, Arie; Moldwin, Mark B.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) method is used for detection of visually obscured ferromagnetic objects. The method exploits the magnetic field originating from the ferromagnetic object, which constitutes an anomaly in the ambient earth’s magnetic field. Traditionally, MAD is used to detect objects with a magnetic field of a dipole structure, where far from the object it can be considered as a point source. In the present work, we expand MAD to the case of a non-dipole source, i.e. a ferromagnetic pipeline. We use principal component analysis (PCA) to calculate the principal components, which are then employed to construct an effective detector. Experiments conducted in our lab with real-world data validate the above analysis. The simplicity, low computational complexity, and the high detection rate make the proposed detector attractive for real-time, low power applications.

  7. Optimizing Kernel PCA Using Sparse Representation-Based Classifier for MSTAR SAR Image Target Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Different kernels cause various class discriminations owing to their different geometrical structures of the data in the feature space. In this paper, a method of kernel optimization by maximizing a measure of class separability in the empirical feature space with sparse representation-based classifier (SRC is proposed to solve the problem of automatically choosing kernel functions and their parameters in kernel learning. The proposed method first adopts a so-called data-dependent kernel to generate an efficient kernel optimization algorithm. Then, a constrained optimization function using general gradient descent method is created to find combination coefficients varied with the input data. After that, optimized kernel PCA (KOPCA is obtained via combination coefficients to extract features. Finally, the sparse representation-based classifier is used to perform pattern classification task. Experimental results on MSTAR SAR images show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. P/Ca in Gastropod Shells as a Nutrient Proxy in Tropical Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, E. L.; Tao, K.; Robbins, J.; O'Dea, A.

    2013-12-01

    , doi:10.1029/2005GC001233). However, high Sr/Ca values are associated with δ18O minima, suggesting that Sr/Ca may also correlate inversely with salinity. Trace element/Ca ratios for Mg, Ba, Mn, Fe, P, and U show no consistent relationship with δ18O or δ13C. On the other hand, P/Ca ratios in modern Conus shells correlate with general trends in seawater phosphate, with generally higher values in the Pacific relative to the Caribbean. Preliminary results with fossils specimens are also encouraging. Whereas modern southwest Caribbean specimens show low P/Ca and δ18O range consistent with an oligotrophic environment with minimal upwelling and freshwater input, Plio-Pleistocene SWC specimens show higher P/Ca and δ18O range, arguing for greater nutrient delivery. Pacific samples show the opposite trend, greater nutrient availability in the modern environment than in the Plio-Pleistocene. These results, while preliminary, show the potential of P/Ca analyses in characterizing the nutrient status of Plio-Pleistocene oceans.

  9. Bayesian timing analysis of giant flare of SGR 1806-20 by RXTE PCA

    CERN Document Server

    Hambaryan, V; Kokkotas, K D

    2010-01-01

    By detecting high frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) and estimating frequencies of them during the decaying tail of giant flares from Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs) useful constraints for the equation of state (EoS) of superdense matter may be obtained via comparison with theoretical predictions of eigenfrequencies. We used the data collected by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE/XTE) Proportional Counter Array (PCA) of a giant flare of SGR 1806-20 on 2004 Dec 27 and applied a Bayesian periodicity detection method (Gregory & Loredo, 1992) for the search of oscillations of transient nature. In addition to the already detected frequencies, we found a few new frequencies (f_{QPOs} ~ 16.9, 21.4, 36.4, 59.0, 116.3 Hz) of oscillations predicted by Colaiuda et al. (2009) based on the APR_{14} EoS (Akmal et al., 1998) for SGR 1806-20.

  10. An Inverse Power Method for Nonlinear Eigenproblems with Applications in 1-Spectral Clustering and Sparse PCA

    CERN Document Server

    Hein, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Many problems in machine learning and statistics can be formulated as (generalized) eigenproblems. In terms of the associated optimization problem, computing linear eigenvectors amounts to finding critical points of a quadratic function subject to quadratic constraints. In this paper we show that a certain class of constrained optimization problems with nonquadratic objective and constraints can be understood as nonlinear eigenproblems. We derive a generalization of the inverse power method which is guaranteed to converge to a nonlinear eigenvector. We apply the inverse power method to 1-spectral clustering and sparse PCA which can naturally be formulated as nonlinear eigenproblems. In both applications we achieve state-of-the-art results in terms of solution quality and runtime. Moving beyond the standard eigenproblem should be useful also in many other applications and our inverse power method can be easily adapted to new problems.

  11. Mine-hoist fault-condition detection based on the wavelet packet transform and kernel PCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Shi-xiong; NIU Qiang; ZHOU Yong; ZHANG Lei

    2008-01-01

    A new algorithm was developed to correctly identify fault conditions and accurately monitor fault development in a mine hoist. The new method is based on the Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT) and kernel PCA (Kernel Principal Component Analysis, KPCA). For non-linear monitoring systems the key to fault detection is the extracting of main features. The wavelet packet transform is a novel technique of signal processing that possesses excellent characteristics of time-frequency localization. It is suitable for analysing time-varying or transient signals. KPCA maps the original input features into a higher dimension feature space through a non-linear mapping. The principal components are then found in the higher dimension feature space. The KPCA transformation was applied to extracting the main nonlinear features from experimental fault feature data after wavelet packet transformation. The results show that the proposed method affords credible fault detection and identification.

  12. Quantitative analysis of organic additive content in a polymer by ToF-SIMS with PCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidemi; Kono, Teiichiro

    2008-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of organic materials by ToF-SIMS is intrinsically difficult because of their tendency to decompose under ion irradiation. In this study, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) as a means of compensation for the spectral degradation caused by this decomposition and thus improve the accuracy of the quantitative analysis, using as models two organic additives of quite different composition and vulnerability to decomposition under ion irradiation, in polystyrene. This enables the extraction of a principal component related to their content that is independent of the decomposition. The effectiveness of this approach in quantitative analysis of organic additives content in polymers without loss in accuracy due to spectral degradation will be discussed.

  13. Bootstrap-based confidence estimation in PCA and multivariate statistical process control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babamoradi, Hamid

    Traditional/Asymptotic confidence estimation has limited applicability since it needs statistical theories to estimate the confidences, which are not available for all indicators/parameters. Furthermore, in case the theories are available for a specific indicator/parameter, the theories are based...... on assumptions that do not always hold in practice. The aim of this thesis was to illustrate the concept of bootstrap-based confidence estimation in PCA and MSPC. It particularly shows how to build bootstrapbased confidence limits in these areas to be used as alternative to the traditional/asymptotic limits....... The goal was to improve process monitoring by improving the quality of MSPC charts and contribution plots. Bootstrapping algorithm to build confidence limits was illustrated in a case study format (Paper I). The main steps in the algorithm were discussed where a set of sensible choices (plus...

  14. Information compression and speckle reduction for multifrequency polarimetric SAR images based on kernel PCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Lei Xiaogang; Bai Bendu; Zhang Yanning

    2008-01-01

    Multifrequency polarimetric SAR imagery provides a very convenient approach for signal processing and acquisition of radar image. However, the amount of information is scattered in several images, and redundancies exist between different bands and polarizations. Similar to signal-polarimetric SAR image, multifrequency polarimetric SAR image is corrupted with speckle noise at the same time. A method of information compression and speckle reduction for multifrequency polarimetric SAR imagery is presented based on kernel principal component analysis (KPCA). KPCA is a nonlinear generalization of the linear principal component analysis using the kernel trick. The NASA/JPL polarimetric SAR imagery of P, L, and C bands quadpolarizations is used for illustration. The experimental results show that KPCA has better capability in information compression and speckle reduction as compared with linear PCA.

  15. Use of Wavelet-Fuzzy Features with PCA for Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safia Sadruddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss an Image Registration system based on neural network, which uses Wavelet-fuzzy features of an image. In this system, Wavelet-fuzzy features are extracted from an image and then reduced using Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The reduced feature set is then used for training the neural network for image registration. The geometric transformation between the reference and sensed image sets are evaluated using affine transformation parameters. The trained neural network produces registration parameters (translation, rotation and scaling with respect to reference and sensed image. Two parameters namely Mean Absolute Registration Error and Mutual Information are used as evaluation parameters. Experimentally, we show that the proposed technique for image registration is accurate and robust for distorted and noisy inputs.

  16. Unsupervised component analysis: PCA, POA and ICA data exploring - connecting the dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jorge Costa; Azevedo, Julio Cesar R.; Knapik, Heloise G.; Burrows, Hugh Douglas

    2016-08-01

    Under controlled conditions, each compound presents a specific spectral activity. Based on this assumption, this article discusses Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Principal Object Analysis (POA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithms and some decision criteria in order to obtain unequivocal information on the number of active spectral components present in a certain aquatic system. The POA algorithm was shown to be a very robust unsupervised object-oriented exploratory data analysis, proven to be successful in correctly determining the number of independent components present in a given spectral dataset. In this work we found that POA combined with ICA is a robust and accurate unsupervised method to retrieve maximal spectral information (the number of components, respective signal sources and their contributions).

  17. Sparse PCA, a new method for unsupervised analyses of fMRI data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Lund, Torben E.; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2006-01-01

    Exploratory analysis of functional MRI data aims at revealing known as well as unknown properties in a data-driven manner devoid of hypotheses on the time course of the hemodynamic response. This uncommitted approach usually precedes confirmatory modeling and may point to unexpected results...... that otherwise would be lost. Common approaches include clustering methods, principal component analysis (PCA) and in particular independent component analysis (ICA). ICA assumes that the measured activity patterns consist of linear combinations of a set of statistically independent source signals. Under...... favorable circumstances, one of more of these signals describe activation patterns, while others model noise and other nuisance factors. This work introduces a competing method for fMRI analysis known as sparse principal component analysis (SPCA). We argue that SPCA is less committed than ICA and show...

  18. GPCA vs. PCA in Recognition and 3-D Localization of Ultrasound Reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Luna

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method of classification and localization of reflectors, using the time-of-flight (TOF data obtained from ultrasonic transducers, is presented. The method of classification and localization is based on Generalized Principal Component Analysis (GPCA applied to the TOF values obtained from a sensor that contains four ultrasound emitters and 16 receivers. Since PCA works with vectorized representations of TOF, it does not take into account the spatial locality of receivers. The GPCA works with two-dimensional representations of TOF, taking into account information on the spatial position of the receivers. This report includes a detailed description of the method of classification and localization and the results of achieved tests with three types of reflectors in 3-D environments: planes, edges, and corners. The results in terms of processing time, classification and localization were very satisfactory for the reflectors located in the range of 50–350 cm.

  19. Effect of Spatial Alignment Transformations in PCA and ICA of Functional Neuroimages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukic, Ana S.; Wernick, Miles N.; Yang, Yongui;

    2007-01-01

    It has been previously observed that spatial independent component analysis (ICA), if applied to data pooled in a particular way, may lessen the need for spatial alignment of scans in a functional neuroimaging study. In this paper we seek to determine analytically the conditions under which...... this observation is true, not only for spatial ICA, but also for temporal ICA and for principal component analysis (PCA). In each case we find conditions that the spatial alignment operator must satisfy to ensure invariance of the results. We illustrate our findings using functional magnetic-resonance imaging (f......MRI) data. Our analysis is applicable to both inter-subject and intra-subject spatial normalization....

  20. Experimentation and Optimization of Surface Roughness in WEDM Process using Full Factorial Design integrated PCA Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rismaya Kumar Mishra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Application of WEDM is growing rapidly since the last three decades due its several advantages and applicability of the process to produce complicated intrinsic, extrinsic shapes of miniaturized size, so there is a need to analyze and optimize the process. In this research work the experiments were conducted using the general full factorial design methodology with 48 experimental runs. The values response parameters Ra, Rq and Rz were measured and the effect of process parameters wire type, wire tension, power, pulse on time and discharge current on these responses were studied qualitatively and quantitatively using main effect plots, interaction plots and ANOVA. Finally the optimal process parameter setting for responses were found by using full factorial design integrated PCA Approach.

  1. Classification of Photogrammetric Point Clouds of Scaffolds for Construction Site Monitoring Using Subspace Clustering and PCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Tuttas, S.; Heogner, L.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an approach for the classification of photogrammetric point clouds of scaffolding components in a construction site, aiming at making a preparation for the automatic monitoring of construction site by reconstructing an as-built Building Information Model (as-built BIM). The points belonging to tubes and toeboards of scaffolds will be distinguished via subspace clustering process and principal components analysis (PCA) algorithm. The overall workflow includes four essential processing steps. Initially, the spherical support region of each point is selected. In the second step, the normalized cut algorithm based on spectral clustering theory is introduced for the subspace clustering, so as to select suitable subspace clusters of points and avoid outliers. Then, in the third step, the feature of each point is calculated by measuring distances between points and the plane of local reference frame defined by PCA in cluster. Finally, the types of points are distinguished and labelled through a supervised classification method, with random forest algorithm used. The effectiveness and applicability of the proposed steps are investigated in both simulated test data and real scenario. The results obtained by the two experiments reveal that the proposed approaches are qualified to the classification of points belonging to linear shape objects having different shapes of sections. For the tests using synthetic point cloud, the classification accuracy can reach 80%, with the condition contaminated by noise and outliers. For the application in real scenario, our method can also achieve a classification accuracy of better than 63%, without using any information about the normal vector of local surface.

  2. Anti-inflammatory therapies in TRAMP mice: delay in PCa progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Larissa Akemi; Montico, Fabio; Sauce, Rafael; Macedo, Aline Barbosa; Minatel, Elaine; Costa, Débora Barbosa Vendramini; Carvalho, João Ernesto de; Pilli, Ronaldo Aloise; Cagnon, Valeria Helena Alves

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the structural and molecular biology as well as evaluate the immediate and late responses of prostatic cancer in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model after treatment with goniothalamin (GTN) and celecoxib. The treated mice received GTN (150 mg/kg, gavage) or celecoxib (10 mg/kg, gavage) from 8 to 12 weeks of age. They were killed at different ages: the immediate-response groups at 12 weeks and the late-response groups at 22 weeks. The ventral prostate was collected for light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, western blotting, TUNEL, and ELISA. Morphological analyses indicated that GTN treatment delayed the progression of prostatic adenocarcinoma, leading to a significant decrease of prostatic lesion frequency in both experimental period responses to this treatment, mainly high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Also, the celecoxib treatment showed a particular decrease in the proliferative processes (PCNA) in both the experimental periods. Despite celecoxib diminishing the COX2 and IGFR1 levels, GTN presented higher action spectrum considering the decrease of a greater molecular number involved in the proliferative and inflammatory processes in prostatic cancer. Goniothalamin attenuated the pro-inflammatory response in TRAMP prostatic microenvironment, delaying prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Celecoxib treatment was efficient in the regulation of COX2 in the TRAMP mice, mainly in the advanced disease grade. Finally, we concluded that inflammatory process control in early grades of PCa was crucial for the downregulation of the signaling pathways involved in the proliferative processes in advanced cancer grades.

  3. CLASSIFICATION OF PHOTOGRAMMETRIC POINT CLOUDS OF SCAFFOLDS FOR CONSTRUCTION SITE MONITORING USING SUBSPACE CLUSTERING AND PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach for the classification of photogrammetric point clouds of scaffolding components in a construction site, aiming at making a preparation for the automatic monitoring of construction site by reconstructing an as-built Building Information Model (as-built BIM. The points belonging to tubes and toeboards of scaffolds will be distinguished via subspace clustering process and principal components analysis (PCA algorithm. The overall workflow includes four essential processing steps. Initially, the spherical support region of each point is selected. In the second step, the normalized cut algorithm based on spectral clustering theory is introduced for the subspace clustering, so as to select suitable subspace clusters of points and avoid outliers. Then, in the third step, the feature of each point is calculated by measuring distances between points and the plane of local reference frame defined by PCA in cluster. Finally, the types of points are distinguished and labelled through a supervised classification method, with random forest algorithm used. The effectiveness and applicability of the proposed steps are investigated in both simulated test data and real scenario. The results obtained by the two experiments reveal that the proposed approaches are qualified to the classification of points belonging to linear shape objects having different shapes of sections. For the tests using synthetic point cloud, the classification accuracy can reach 80%, with the condition contaminated by noise and outliers. For the application in real scenario, our method can also achieve a classification accuracy of better than 63%, without using any information about the normal vector of local surface.

  4. Estudio piloto sobre el manejo de la fluidoterapia intravenosa en pacientes adultos de un hospital de tercer nivel Pilot study of intravenous fluid therapy management in adult patients at a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M.ª Cordero Cruz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La fluidoterapia intravenosa (FTI tiene por objeto mantener el equilibrio interno o restaurarlo mediante la administración de líquidos y/o de diversos componentes electrolíticos. Su correcto empleo y la prevención de las complicaciones derivadas de su mal uso dependen de los conocimientos en esta materia por parte del equipo médico. Analizamos este aspecto en diferentes áreas clínicas de un hospital de tercer nivel. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio-piloto transversal descriptivo por cuestionario a los facultativos médicos especialistas en medicina interna (MI y cirugía del aparato digestivo (CD cuya práctica asistencial se desarrolla en las plantas de hospitalización con sistema de dispensación de medicamentos en dosis unitaria. Se diseñó un cuestionario anónimo con 25 preguntas relativas a los conocimientos de los teóricos y prácticos así como a la opinión de los facultativos sobre FTI. Se evaluó la asociación entre variables cualitativas nominales con el test Chi-cuadrado o test exacto de Fischer. El comportamiento de las variables cuantitativas se evaluó mediante el test t-student. El análisis de los datos fue generado usando SAS/STAT, Versión 9. Resultados: Se recogieron 28 cuestionarios correspondientes a 13 cirujanos digestivos y 15 médicos internistas. Más de un 40% de los especialistas consideran una necesidad seguir formándose en FTI, especialmente sobre su prescripción (CD: 61,54%, MI: 71,43%. No existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ambas especialidades en cuanto a la frecuencia percibida de complicaciones asociadas a la FTI y tampoco en cuanto a la frecuencia de indicación a excepción del shock hipovolémico, considerado más prevalente en cirugía digestiva (p = 0,046. El 90% de los profesionales prefiere una prescripción individualizada. Existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas en cuanto a las puntuaciones obtenidas en el área de conocimientos, siendo los m

  5. 基于NIR-PCA-SVM联用技术的烤烟烟叶产地模式识别%NIR-PCA-SVM Based Pattern Recognition of Growing Area of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    束茹欣; 孙平; 杨凯; 张建平; 刘太昂

    2011-01-01

    To accurately identify the growing area of flue - cured tobacco, the contents of chemical components, including total sugar, reducing sugar, total nitrogen, nicotine, total chlorine and total potassium, in 402 cured tobacco samples collected from Yunnan, Henan, Anhui, Fujian, Guizhou and Jilin Provinces in 2010 were tested, and the samples were scanned by near infrared spectrometer. The near infrared spectra (NIR) pattern recognition models of growing area were developed by principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms, and the growing areas of the samples were recognized. The results indicated that: 1) The prediction accuracy recognized by NIR-PCA-SVM models reached 97%, while that by chemical component-SVM and NIR-SVM models were lower. 2) The NIR - PCA - SVM, and chemical component - SVM models all offered better recoginition for Yunnan tobacco samples. NIR-PCA-SVM model could be applied to pattern recognition of flue-cured tobacco samples of different origins.%为了更准确地对烟叶样品进行产地模式识别,检测了云南、河南、安徽、福建、贵州、吉林6省2010年生产的402个初烤烟叶样品的总糖、还原糖、总氮、烟碱、总氯、总钾含量,同时进行了近红外( NIR)光谱扫描,利用主成分分析( PCA)法和支持向量机算法(SVM)建立了烟叶产地模式识别模型,并对云南、河南、安徽、福建、贵州、吉林6省烟叶样品进行了产地模式识别.结果表明:①NIR-PCA-SVM模型对6省烟叶样品识别的预报正确率高达97%,而化学成分-SVM模型和NIR-SVM模型对6省烟叶产地的识别效果差;②NIR-PCA-SVM、化学成分-SVM和NIR-SVM 3个模型对云南省烟叶都有着较好的识别效果.NIR-PCA-SVM模型可用于不同烟叶样品产地的模式识别.

  6. Performance Evaluation of Image Fusion Algorithms for Underwater Images-A study based on PCA and DWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansar MK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative study between two image fusion algorithm based on PCA and DWT is carried out in underwater image domain. Underwater image fusion is emerged as one of the main image fusion area, here two or more images will be fused by retaining the most desirable characteristics of each underwater images. The DWT technique is used to decompose the input image into four frequency sub bands and the low-low sub band images will be considered in fusion processing. In PCA method significant eigen values will be considered in fusion process to retain the important characteristics of the input images. The results acquired from both experiments are tabulated and compared by considering the statistical measures such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR, Mean Square Error (MSE and Entropy. Results shows that underwater image fusion based on DWT outperforms the PCA based method.

  7. Acupuntura e analgesia: aplicações clínicas e principais acupontos Acupuncture and analgesia: clinical applications and main acupoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Onghero Taffarel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A dor é uma resposta protetora do organismo a estímulos nocivos, que resulta em efeitos indesejáveis quando não controlada. A analgesia pode ser promovida mediante a utilização de vários tipos de fármacos. No entanto, estes podem causar efeitos adversos de acordo com a espécie e condição física do paciente. A acupuntura tem se mostrado eficaz como coanalgésico pela capacidade de diminuir a quantidade de fármacos utilizados para o controle da dor e raramente ser contraindicada. Objetivou-se com este trabalho fazer uma breve revisão sobre as aplicações clínicas e os efeitos fisiológicos da acupuntura nos mecanismos da dor, bem como demonstrar os principais pontos de acupuntura utilizados para analgesia em animais. A pesquisa foi realizada em bases de dados eletrônicas por palavra-chave, durante o período de março a dezembro de 2008.Pain is a protective response of the body to harmful stimulus, which results in undesirable effects if not controlled. Analgesia can be achieved with the use of different types of drugs. However, these drugs can cause adverse effects according to species and patient physical condition. Acupuncture has been proved to be an effective analgesic adjuvant, by the capacity to decrease the amount of drug used for pain control, rarely contra-indicated. The aim of this paper was to review the physiological effects of acupuncture on pain mechanisms, and demonstrate the main acupoints used for animal analgesia. The search was done in electronic search database using key words, in 2008.

  8. Investigação da qualidade de farinhas enriquecidas utilizando Análise por Componentes Principais (PCA Enriched flour quality investigation using Principal Component Analysis (PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Thiago Soeiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Alguns países, incluindo o Brasil (RDC 344, 2002, instituíram uma regulamentação indicando que farinhas de milho e trigo devem ser enriquecidas com ácido fólico e ferro. O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi a avaliação de algumas características de farinhas enriquecidas usando a Análise por Componentes Principais (PCA. Parâmetros como o teor de ácido fólico, ferro, proteína, lipídios, umidade, cinzas e carboidratos foram avaliados em 30 embalagens de farinhas adquiridas em comércio local. As farinhas de trigo e milho apresentaram, em média, composição centesimal aceitável de acordo com a Legislação Brasileira. Para as farinhas de trigo, a concentração de ácido fólico estava, em média, próxima ao esperado. As farinhas de milho continham quantidade superior da vitamina. Para os dois tipos de farinha, constatou-se teor de ferro acima do valor declarado no rótulo dos produtos. Uma matriz com 30 linhas (amostras e 7 colunas (variáveis foi organizada e os dados foram autoescalados. A primeira informação observada foi uma clara diferenciação entre os tipos de farinhas. As farinhas de trigo foram caracterizadas por maior quantidade de proteínas, umidade e cinzas. Por outro lado, as farinhas de milho apresentaram maior concentração de ferro, lipídios, carboidratos e ácido fólico. Foi possível notar também que farinhas acondicionadas em embalagens de plástico apresentaram menor quantidade de ácido fólico (152 µg.100 g-1, em média, quando comparadas às amostras armazenadas em embalagens de papel (259 µg.100 g-1, em média. Esse estudo pode fornecer ferramentas importantes para a avaliação dos programas de enriquecimento de alimentos com ácido fólico, principalmente, por apontar, preliminarmente, para a importância do tipo de embalagem para o acondicionamento das farinhas enriquecidas com a vitamina.Some countries, including Brazil (resolution - RDC # 344, 2004, have issued a regulation stipulating

  9. An inter-comparison of PM10 source apportionment using PCA and PMF receptor models in three European sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, Daniela; Amato, F; Pandolfi, M; Alastuey, A; Querol, X; Contini, D

    2016-08-01

    Source apportionment of aerosol is an important approach to investigate aerosol formation and transformation processes as well as to assess appropriate mitigation strategies and to investigate causes of non-compliance with air quality standards (Directive 2008/50/CE). Receptor models (RMs) based on chemical composition of aerosol measured at specific sites are a useful, and widely used, tool to perform source apportionment. However, an analysis of available studies in the scientific literature reveals heterogeneities in the approaches used, in terms of "working variables" such as the number of samples in the dataset and the number of chemical species used as well as in the modeling tools used. In this work, an inter-comparison of PM10 source apportionment results obtained at three European measurement sites is presented, using two receptor models: principal component analysis coupled with multi-linear regression analysis (PCA-MLRA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF). The inter-comparison focuses on source identification, quantification of source contribution to PM10, robustness of the results, and how these are influenced by the number of chemical species available in the datasets. Results show very similar component/factor profiles identified by PCA and PMF, with some discrepancies in the number of factors. The PMF model appears to be more suitable to separate secondary sulfate and secondary nitrate with respect to PCA at least in the datasets analyzed. Further, some difficulties have been observed with PCA in separating industrial and heavy oil combustion contributions. Commonly at all sites, the crustal contributions found with PCA were larger than those found with PMF, and the secondary inorganic aerosol contributions found by PCA were lower than those found by PMF. Site-dependent differences were also observed for traffic and marine contributions. The inter-comparison of source apportionment performed on complete datasets (using the full range of

  10. Intraoperative haloperidol does not improve quality of recovery and postoperative analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ebneshahidi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Intraoperative small-dose IV haloperidol is effective against post-operative nausea and vomiting with no significant effect on overall QoR. It may also attenuate the analgesic effects of morphine PCA.

  11. Dexamethasone prolongs local analgesia after subcutaneous infiltration of bupivacaine microcapsules in human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Werner, Mads U; Lacouture, Peter G;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The addition of small amounts of dexamethasone to extended-release formulations of bupivacaine in microcapsules has been found to prolong local analgesia in experimental studies, but no clinical data are available. METHODS: In a double-blinded study, 12 healthy male volunteers were ra...

  12. Effect of postoperative epidural analgesia on rehabilitation and pain after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Bang; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne;

    2005-01-01

    Hip fracture surgery usually carries a high demand for rehabilitation and a significant risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Postoperative epidural analgesia may reduce morbidity and has been shown to facilitate rehabilitation in elective orthopedic procedures. No studies exist on the e...

  13. Morphine- and buprenorphine-induced analgesia and antihyperalgesia in a human inflammatory pain model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Secher, EL; Skram, U

    2013-01-01

    Opioid therapy is associated with the development of tolerance and paradoxically increased sensitivity to pain. It has been suggested that buprenorphine is associated with a higher antihyperalgesia/analgesia ratio than μ-opioid receptor agonists. The primary outcome of this study was therefore to...

  14. Effect of preemptive analgesia with parecoxib sodium on the postoperative pain for gynecological laparoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Jing Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of preemptive analgesia with parecoxib sodium on the postoperative pain and complications for patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopy. Methods:A total of 100 patients with ASA I-II grade who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2013 to February, 2014 and were undergoing gynecological laparoscopy were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group. The patients in the observation group were given parecoxib sodium injection (40 mg) 30 min before operation and fentanyl citrate injection (1.0μg/kg) 30 min before the end of the surgery, while the patients in the control group were givens injections of parecoxib sodium injection (40 mg) and fentanyl citrate injection (1.0μg/kg) 30 min before the end of the surgery. The analgesia and sedation effects 4, 8, 12 h after the operation in the two groups were observed, and the postoperative additional fentanyl dosage and the adverse reactions were recorded.Results: The postoperative VAS score in each timing point and the total dosage of fentanyl in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P0.05).Conclusions: The preemptive analgesia with parecoxib sodium can reduce the dosage of postoperative analgesia medications with an accurate analgesic effect; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  15. Regional analgesia for video-assisted thoracic surgery – a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julia Steinthorsdottir, Kristin; Wildgaard, Lorna; Jessen Hansen, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    there is no gold standard for regional analgesia for VATS. This systematic review aimed to assess different regional techniques in regards to effect on acute post-operative pain following VATS, with emphasis on VATS lobectomy. The systematic review of the PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase databases yielded...

  16. Opioid-Induced Glial Activation: Mechanisms of Activation and Implications for Opioid Analgesia, Dependence, and Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Hutchinson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review will introduce the concept of toll-like receptor (TLR–mediated glial activation as central to all of the following: neuropathic pain, compromised acute opioid analgesia, and unwanted opioid side effects (tolerance, dependence, and reward. Attenuation of glial activation has previously been demonstrated both to alleviate exaggerated pain states induced by experimental pain models and to reduce the development of opioid tolerance. Here we demonstrate that selective acute antagonism of TLR4 results in reversal of neuropathic pain as well as potentiation of opioid analgesia. Attenuating central nervous system glial activation was also found to reduce the development of opioid dependence, and opioid reward at a behavioral (conditioned place preference and neurochemical (nucleus accumbens microdialysis of morphine-induced elevations in dopamine level of analysis. Moreover, a novel antagonism of TLR4 by (+- and (˗-isomer opioid antagonists has now been characterized, and both antiallodynic and morphine analgesia potentiating activity shown. Opioid agonists were found to also possess TLR4 agonistic activity, predictive of glial activation. Targeting glial activation is a novel and as yet clinically unexploited method for treatment of neuropathic pain. Moreover, these data indicate that attenuation of glial activation, by general or selective TLR antagonistic mechanisms, may also be a clinical method for separating the beneficial (analgesia and unwanted (tolerance, dependence, and reward actions of opioids, thereby improving the safety and efficacy of their use.

  17. PKC-mediated potentiation of morphine analgesia by St. John's Wort in rodents and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Nicoletta; Farzad, Mersedeh; Bianchi, Enrica; Ghelardini, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose was to combine the use of morphine with clinically available inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), finally potentiating morphine analgesia in humans. Thermal tests were performed in rodents and humans previously administered with acute or chronic morphine combined or not with increasing doses of the PKC-blocker St. John's Wort (SJW) or its main component hypericin. Phosphorylation of the γ subunit of PKC enzyme was assayed by western blotting in the periaqueductal grey matter (PAG) from rodents co-administered with morphine and hypericin and was prevented in rodent PAG by SJW or hypericin co-administration with morphine, inducing a potentiation of morphine analgesia in thermal pain. The score of pain assessment in healthy volunteers were decreased by 40% when morphine was co-administered with SJW at a dose largely below those used to obtain an antidepressant or analgesic effect in both rodents and humans. The SJW/hypericin potentiating effect lasted in time and preserved morphine analgesia in tolerant mice. Our findings indicate that, in clinical practice, SJW could reduce the dose of morphine obtaining the same analgesic effect. Therefore, SJW and one of its main components, hypericin, appear ideal to potentiate morphine-induced analgesia.

  18. Magnesium sulfate in femoral nerve block, does postoperative analgesia differ? A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. ELShamaa

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The current study concluded that the admixture of magnesium to bupivacaine provides a profound prolongation of the femoral nerve block, in addition to a significant decrease in postoperative pain scores and total dose of rescue analgesia, with a longer bearable pain periods in the first postoperative day.

  19. THE PHARMACOLOGY RESEARCH OF THENORPHINE,A NEW DRUG OF ANALGESIA AND DETOXIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GongZe-Hui; YueYong-Juan; CuiMeng-Xun; QinBo-Yi

    2004-01-01

    Thenorphine is a new parrtail agonist of opioid recepter synthesized by our institute of pharmacology and toxicology.There are double effects of agonist and antegonist on opioid recepter. The agonist effect was showed by analgesia. The analgesic properties are stronger efficacy (ED50 1 mg/kg po) ; longer duration (t1/2 9h) and lower dependence (no physiological

  20. Opioid therapy : a trade-off between opioid-analgesia and opioid-induced respiratory depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, Maria Catharina Anna

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions that may be drawn from the data in this thesis: 1. The ideal drug for antagonism of respiratory depression has not yet been found. At present naloxone seems the most appropriate drug although reversal of respiratory depression coincides with loss of analgesia. New reversal agents acting

  1. Central administration of neuropeptide FF and related peptides attenuate systemic morphine analgesia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Quan; Jiang, Tian-nan; Li, Ning; Han, Zheng-lan; Wang, Rui

    2011-04-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) belongs to an opioid-modulating peptide family. NPFF has been reported to play important roles in the control of pain and analgesia through interactions with the opioid system. However, very few studies examined the effect of supraspinal NPFF system on analgesia induced by opiates administered at the peripheral level. In the present study, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of NPFF (1, 3 and 10 nmol) dose-dependently inhibited systemic morphine (0.12 mg, i.p.) analgesia in the mouse tail flick test. Similarly, i.c.v. administration of dNPA and NPVF, two agonists highly selective for NPFF(2) and NPFF(1) receptors, respectively, decreased analgesia induced by i.p. morphine in mice. Furthermore, these anti-opioid activities of NPFF and related peptides were blocked by pretreatment with the NPFF receptors selective antagonist RF9 (10 nmol, i.c.v.). These results demonstrate that activation of central NPFF(1) and NPFF(2) receptors has the similar anti-opioid actions on the antinociceptive effect of systemic morphine.

  2. The transversus abdominis plane block provides effective postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carney, John

    2008-12-01

    Patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy suffer significant postoperative pain. The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a recently described approach to providing analgesia to the anterior abdominal wall. We evaluated the analgesic efficacy of the TAP block in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy via a transverse lower abdominal wall incision, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

  3. Ipsilateral transversus abdominis plane block provides effective analgesia after appendectomy in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carney, John

    2010-10-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block provides effective postoperative analgesia in adults undergoing major abdominal surgery. Its efficacy in children remains unclear, with no randomized clinical trials in this population. In this study, we evaluated its analgesic efficacy over the first 48 postoperative hours after appendectomy performed through an open abdominal incision, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

  4. [Epidural anesthesia and analgesia in the perioperative treatment of a patient with Kartagener syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errando, C L; Sifre, C; López-Alarcón, D

    1998-12-01

    Kartagener's syndrome is an inherited disease characterized by a triad of symptoms--bronchiectasis, situs inversus and sinusitis--and is classified as an immotile cilia syndrome. Patients may experience specific airway problems when undergoing anesthesia for surgical procedures. We report the case of a woman with Kartagener's syndrome who underwent surgery under epidural anesthesia with postoperative epidural analgesia, both techniques proving successful.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of 400 mg ropivacaine after periarticular local infiltration analgesia for total knee arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenten, M.; Bakker, S.; Heesterbeek, P.; Van Den Bemt, B.; Scheffer, G.J.; Touw, D.; Stienstra, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Although considered safe, no pharmacokinetic data of high dose, high volume local infiltration analgesia (LIA) with ropivacaine without the use of a surgical drain or intra-articular catheter have been described. The purpose of this study is to describe the maximum total and unb

  6. Postoperative analgesia for Enhanced recovery in Joint replacement: Audit of a new electronic prescribing order set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jonathan; Cullinger, Benjamin; Bacarese-Hamilton, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced recovery in joint replacement has been shown to reduce length of inpatient stay, reduce re-admission rates, and can improve early functional recovery. Postoperative analgesia is an important component of the group of interventions required to form a holistic enhanced recovery protocol. The introduction of electronic prescribing provides the opportunity to introduce some standardisation, where clinically appropriate, in the prescription of an evidence based postoperative analgesia protocol. Enhanced recovery following joint replacement has been used at this institution since 2011. An order set for the postoperative analgesia protocol was introduced to the in house electronic prescribing system in August 2014 (JAC Medicines Management; JAC Computer Services Ltd., Basildon, UK). An audit was performed to follow the effect of the new system on compliance with the postoperative analgesia guidelines. Improvements were seen following introduction of the electronic prescribing protocol in all criteria of the guideline with a demonstrated improvement in overall compliance from 0% to 35% in the first loop, with subsequent audit showing further improvement to 59% compliance. Use of an embedded order set within an electronic prescribing system has demonstrated improved compliance with an enhanced recovery protocol. This ensures that the correct evidence based protocol is available to guide the junior clinician at the point of care, when the medication is being prescribed.

  7. Effect of ropivacaine in combined with sufentanil epidural analgesia after cesarean section on maternal lactation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Feng; Bao-Xia Chen; Xi Ren; Hong-Xia Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of application of ropivacaine in combined with sufentanil epidural analgesia after cesarean section on the lactation and neonates.Methods:The puerpera who were underwent cesarean section with different analgesia methods were observed. The included puerpera were performed with the cesarean section under combined spinal epidural anesthesia. A total of 30 puerpera who were given ropivacaine in combined with sufentanil epidural analgesia after operation were served as the observation group, while 30 cases who were intermittently given intramuscular injection of pethidine after operation were served as the control group. The postpartum analgesic effects in the two groups were observed. The radioimmunoassay was used to detect the plasma PRL level. The postpartum colostrum time, 24 h lactation number, and NBNA scores in the two groups were compared.Results:The postoperative VAS score in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05), while the plasma PRL level was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). The postoperative colostrum time in the observation group was significantly earlier than that in the control group (P<0.05), while the lactation number was significantly greater than that in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Application of ropivacaine in combined with sufentanil epidural analgesia after cesarean section can effectively alleviate the postoperative pain, and improve the lactation, with no obvious adverse reactions on the neonates and reliable effects.

  8. Postoperative pain and gastro-intestinal recovery after colonic resection with epidural analgesia and multimodal rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Basse, L;

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate initial postoperative pain intensity and the association with recovery of gastrointestinal function and length of stay (LOS) in a multimodal programme with epidural analgesia, early oral nutrition and mobilisation with a 48 h planned hospital stay. One hundred...

  9. Postoperative analgesia in children: A comparison of three different doses of caudal epidural morphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Baduni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Caudal epidural block is the most commonly used neuraxial block in children. Morphine has been used as a caudal additive for more than three decades. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and duration of analgesia of three different doses of caudal epidural morphine (CEM, and to find out the incidence of side effects. Material and Methods: This study was conducted on 75 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists grades I and II, aged 2-12 years, undergoing lower abdominal and urogenital surgeries. Patients were randomly allocated to one of the three groups according to the dose of morphine. Group I received 30 μg/kg, group II 50 μg/kg, and group III 70 μg/kg. Heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, electrocardiogram, pain score, sedation score, duration of analgesia, and side-effects were noted. Results: The mean duration of analgesia was 8.63 h in group I, 13.36 h in group II and 19.19 h in group III. Respiratory depression was noted in three patients in group III. One patient in group I had itching. One patient each in groups I, II, and III had nausea/vomiting. Conclusion: CEM significantly prolongs the duration of analgesia, though with a higher dose the risk of respiratory depression should always be kept in mind.

  10. Does epidural sufentanil provide effective analgesia per- and postoperatively for abdominal aortic surgery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, AA; Kuizenga, K; Hennis, PJ

    1996-01-01

    assess the efficacy of epidural sufentanil in providing per- and postoperative analgesia, 40 patients undergoing elective abdominal aortic surgery received either 50 mu g sufentanil in 10 ml normal saline solution (n=20, ES group) or 10 mi normal saline (n=20, control group) via a thoracic epidural

  11. Postoperative analgesia with continuous epidural sufentanil and bupivacaine : A prospective study in 614 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, AA; Gielen, MJM; Hennis, PJ

    1996-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of postoperative analgesia with continuous epidural sufentanil and bupivacaine, we performed a prospective study in 614 patients undergoing major surgery. Before surgical incision, all patients received an initial dose of 50 mu g sufentanil in 6-10 mL bupivacaine 0.

  12. 舒芬太尼与丁丙诺啡对老年骨科患者术后镇痛效果比较%Comparison of postoperative analgesia effect between sufentanil and buprenorphine on elderly orthopedic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟海; 王宁

    2014-01-01

    Objective To Compare effect of postoperative analgesia between equivalent dose of sufentanil and buprenor -phine on elderly orthopedic patients .Methods 60 cases of ASA Ⅱ-Ⅲ patients, aged 65~78 and ready for open reduction and internal fixation,were randomly divided into a sufentanil group (S) and a buprenorphine group (D),30 cases in each one.Both were treated with intravenous patient-controlled intravenous analgesia ( PCIA) administration ( group S sufentanil 100 μg;group D buprenorphine 1.2mg, total 100ml).After 5,10,20 and 40 hs respectively,VAS pain and Ramsay scores were graded .The number of effective PCA pressing and incidence of adverse reaction were accordingly recorded .Results The two groups had no significant statistic difference in terms of VAS pain score ,Ramsay score and PCA effective pressing number , but the incidence of adverse reactions in group D was significantly higher than that in group S (P<0.01).Conclusion Sufentanil and buprenorphine of equivalent dose ,if used after operation in elderly orthopedic patients ,have nearly equal analge-sia effect.But the adverse reaction rate of sufentanil is relatively lower .Thus it is more suitable for postoperative analgesia for elderly orthopedic patients .%目的:比较等效剂量舒芬太尼与丁丙诺啡对骨科老年病人患者术后镇痛的效果。方法选择60例ASAⅠ~Ⅱ级65~78岁的下肢骨折需行切开复位内固定术的患者,随机分为舒芬太尼组(S)和丁丙诺啡组(D),每组30例。2组均采用静脉自控镇痛(PCIA)给药,S组:舒芬太尼100μg,D组:丁丙诺啡1.2 mg,总量100 ml,术后5、10、20及40 h行VAS疼痛与Ramsay评分,记录PCA有效按压次数及不良反应发生率。结果2组VAS疼痛评分、Ramsay评分及PCA有效按压次数差异均无统计学意义,而不良反应发生率D组显著高于S组(P<0.01)。结论等效剂量舒芬太尼与丁丙诺啡用于骨科老年病人术后镇痛效

  13. IMAGE CLASSIFICATION ALGORITHM BASED ON PCA-SIFT FEATURES AND BAYESIAN DECISION%基于PCA-SIFT特征与贝叶斯决策的图像分类算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂秋洁; 王晅

    2016-01-01

    In order to cope with the problems that existing SIFT-based image classification algorithms require a large amount of storage space and are sensitive to image backgrounds,this paper presents a novel image classification algorithm which is based on PCA-SIFT features and Bayesian decision.The algorithm first applies the principal component analysis (PCA)to reduce the dimensionality of SIFT from 128 to 36,in training process,it makes regional matching on PCA-SIFT descriptors of the training sample images.In order to improve its robustness on background image interference,we selected the stable PCA-SIFT descriptors in object images based on their matching rates,and then used the maximum likelihood estimation to estimate the probability distribution parameters.Finally we used Bayesian decision theory to implement the image classification.Simulation experiment showed that this algorithm has higher classification accuracy compared with existing SIFT-based image classification methods.It also has minimum storage space requirement and higher computation efficiency.%针对现有的基于SIFT特征的图像分类算法具有较大的储存空间需求及对图像背景较为敏感的问题,提出一种基于PCA-SIFT特征和贝叶斯决策的图像分类算法。该算法首先应用主成分分析将SIFT特征从128维降为36维,在训练过程中,对训练样本图像的PCA-SIFT进行区域匹配。基于匹配率选择目标图像中的稳定PCA-SIFT以提高算法对背景图像干扰的鲁棒性,然后应用最大似然估计估计概率分布参数,最后,应用贝叶斯决策理论实现图像分类。仿真实验表明,该算法与现有的SIFT图像分类算法相比分类精度高,而且具有最小的储存空间需求与较高的计算效率。

  14. A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN INTRATHECAL MORPHINE AND INTRATHECAL BUPRENORPHINE FOR POST - OPERATIVE ANALGESIA FOLLOWING CAESARIAN SECTION UNDER SUB ARACHNOID BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Good pain relief following caesarian section is of great importance and intrathecal opioids provide good quality postoperative analgesia for longer duration. So the following study describes a comparative study between intrathecal morphine and intrathecal buprenorphine for postoperative pain relief following caesarian section (CS under subarachnoid blockade. AIMS: The study was conducted to compare intrathecal morphine and buprenorphine for post of analgesia following CS, to achieve analgesia without seda tion for better maternal child bondage and to popularize intrathecal opioids . MATERIALS AND METHODS: 60 patients posted for CS under SAB were randomly allocated into group A and group B of 30 each, the group A received morphine 0.1 mg and buprenorphine 0 . 0 3 mg was given for group B patients along with the local anaesthetic. Subjective assessment of post - operative analgesia was done by direct questioning of the patient and by a five point pain scores. Duration of analgesia was taken as the time interval betw een the time of injection of intrathecal opiate and the time at which the patient felt pain and requested for additional analgesics. Data’s were analyzed using SPSS 16th version. OBSERVATION AND RESU LTS: The mean duration of post - operative analgesia with i ntrathecal morphine was 24.19+4 . 8 hours and that with buprenorphine was only 11.7+3.28 hours. Over weight patients reported a lower mean duration of analgesia. None of the patients in the study showed any bradycardia, hypotension, desaturation or respirato ry depression. Intrathecal opiates decreased the parenteral opiate requirements. The main side effects noticed were nausea in about 43% of patients in morphine group and 33% of patients in buprenorphine group. CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal morphine 0 . 1 mg gives good post - operative analgesia of longer duration than buprenorphine 0 . 03mg. The quality of analgesia provided by intrathecal morphine was superior to

  15. Hypnotizability and Placebo Analgesia in Waking and Hypnosis as Modulators of Auditory Startle Responses in Healthy Women: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Scacchia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of hypnotizability, pain expectation, placebo analgesia in waking and hypnosis on tonic pain relief. We also investigated how placebo analgesia affects somatic responses (eye blink) and N100 and P200 waves of event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by auditory startle probes. Although expectation plays an important role in placebo and hypnotic analgesia, the neural mechanisms underlying these treatments are still poorly understood. We used the cold cup test (CCT) to induce tonic pain in 53 healthy women. Placebo analgesia was initially produced by manipulation, in which the intensity of pain induced by the CCT was surreptitiously reduced after the administration of a sham analgesic cream. Participants were then tested in waking and hypnosis under three treatments: (1) resting (Baseline); (2) CCT-alone (Pain); and (3) CCT plus placebo cream for pain relief (Placebo). For each painful treatment, we assessed pain and distress ratings, eye blink responses, N100 and P200 amplitudes. We used LORETA analysis of N100 and P200 waves, as elicited by auditory startle, to identify cortical regions sensitive to pain reduction through placebo and hypnotic analgesia. Higher pain expectation was associated with higher pain reductions. In highly hypnotizable participants placebo treatment produced significant reductions of pain and distress perception in both waking and hypnosis condition. P200 wave, during placebo analgesia, was larger in the frontal left hemisphere while placebo analgesia, during hypnosis, involved the activity of the left hemisphere including the occipital region. These findings demonstrate that hypnosis and placebo analgesia are different processes of top-down regulation. Pain reduction was associated with larger EMG startle amplitudes, N100 and P200 responses, and enhanced activity within the frontal, parietal, and anterior and posterior cingulate gyres. LORETA results showed that placebo analgesia modulated pain-responsive areas

  16. The critical role of spinal 5-HT7 receptors in opioid and non-opioid type stress-induced analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilyurt, Ozgur; Seyrek, Melik; Tasdemir, Serdar; Kahraman, Serdar; Deveci, Mehmet Salih; Karakus, Emre; Halici, Zekai; Dogrul, Ahmet

    2015-09-05

    The opioid and non-opioid types of stress-induced analgesia have been well defined. One of the non-opioid type involve the endocannabinoid system. We previously reported that the spinal serotonin 7 receptor (5-HT7) blockers inhibit both morphine and cannabinoid-induced analgesia, thus we hypothesized that descending serotonergic pathways-spinal 5-HT7 receptor loop might contribute to stress-induced analgesia. Stress-induced analgesia was induced with warm (32°C) or cold (20°C) water swim stress in male Balb-C mice. The effects of intrathecal injection of a selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB 269970, of the denervation of serotonergic neurons by intrathecal administration of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) and of lesions of the dorsolateral funiculus on opioid and non-opioid type stress-induced analgesia were evaluated with the tail-flick and hot plate tests. The expression of 5-HT7 receptors mRNA in the dorsal lumbar region of spinal cord were analyzed by RT-PCR following spinal serotonin depletion or dorsolateral funiculus lesion. The effects of the selective 5-HT7 receptor agonists LP 44 and AS 19 were tested on nociception. Intrathecal SB 269970 blocked both opioid and non-opioid type stress-induced analgesia. Dorsolateral funiculus lesion or denervation of the spinal serotonergic neurons resulted in a marked decrease in 5-HT7 receptor expression in the dorsal lumbar spinal cord, accompanied by inhibition of opioid and non-opioid type stress-induced analgesia. However, the systemic or intrathecal LP 44 and AS 19 alone did not produce analgesia in unstressed mice. These results indicate that descending serotonergic pathways and the spinal 5-HT7 receptor loop play a crucial role in mediating both opioid and non-opioid type stress-induced analgesia.

  17. Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPCa) increased the neighboring PCa chemo-resistance via altering the PTHrP/p38/Hsp27/androgen receptor (AR)/p21 signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yun; Sun, Yin; Hu, Shuai; Luo, Jie; Li, Lei; Li, Xin; Yeh, Shuyuan; Jin, Jie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic neuroendocrine cells (NE) are an integral part of prostate cancer (PCa) that are associated with PCa progression. As the current androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) with anti-androgens may promote the neuroendocrine PCa (NEPCa) development, and few therapies can effectively suppress NEPCa, understanding the impact of NEPCa on PCa progression may help us to develop better therapies to battle PCa. Here we found NEPCa cells could increase the docetaxel-resistance of their neighboring PCa cells. Mechanism dissection revealed that through secretion of PTHrP, NEPCa cells could alter the p38/MAPK/Hsp27 signals in their neighboring PCa cells that resulted in increased androgen receptor (AR) activity via promoting AR nuclear translocation. The consequences of increased AR function might then increase docetaxel-resistance via increasing p21 expression. In vivo xenograft mice experiments also confirmed NEPCa could increase the docetaxel-resistance of neighboring PCa, and targeting this newly identified PTHrP/p38/Hsp27/AR/p21 signaling pathway with either p38 inhibitor (SB203580) or sh-PTHrP may result in improving/restoring the docetaxel sensitivity to better suppress PCa. PMID:27375022

  18. Lumbosacral epidural magnesium prolongs ketamine analgesia in conscious sheep Sulfato de magnésio prolonga a analgesia epidural lombosacral induzida pela quetamina em carneiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael DeRossi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the analgesic, motor, sedation and systemic effects of lumbosacral epidural magnesium sulphate added to ketamine in the sheep. METHODS: Six healthy adult male mixed-breed sheep; weighing 43 ± 5 kg and aged 20-36 months. Each sheep underwent three treatments, at least 2 weeks apart, via epidural injection: (1 ketamine (KE; 2.5 mg/kg, (2 magnesium sulphate (MG; 100 mg, and (3 KE + MG (KEMG; 2.5 mg/kg + 100 mg, respectively. Epidural injections were administered through the lumbosacral space. Analgesia, motor block, sedation, cardiovascular effects, respiratory rate, skin temperature, and rectal temperature were evaluated before (baseline and after drug administration as needed. RESULTS: The duration of analgesia with the lumbosacral epidural KEMG combination was 115 ± 17 min (mean ± SD, that is, more than twice that obtained with KE (41 ± 7 min or MG (29 ± 5 min alone. KE and KEMG used in this experiment induced severe ataxia. The heart rate and arterial blood pressures changes were no statistical difference in these clinically health sheep. CONCLUSION: The dose of magnesium sulphate to lumbosacral epidural ketamine in sheep is feasible, and can be used in procedures analgesics in sheep.OBJETIVO: Determinar os efeitos analgésicos, motores, sedativos e sistêmicos da adição de sulfato de magnésio na analgesia epidural com quetamina em carneiros. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados seis carneiros machos sadios, pesando 43 ± 5 kg, com idade entre 20 a 36 meses. Cada animal recebeu três tratamentos, com duas semanas entre experimentos via administração epidural: (1 quetamina (KE; 2,5 mg/kg, (2 sulfato de magnésio (MG; 100 mg e (3 KE + MG (KEMG; 2,5 mg/kg + 100 mg, respectivamente. As administrações epidurais foram administradas no espaço lombosacral. Analgesia, bloqueio motor, sedação, efeitos cardiovasculares, freqüência respiratória, temperatura retal e de pele foram avaliados antes (basal e depois da administra

  19. Effects of epidural lidocaine analgesia on labor and delivery: A randomized, prospective, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafisi Shahram

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether epidural analgesia for labor prolongs the active-first and second labor stages and increases the risk of vacuum-assisted delivery is a controversial topic. Our study was conducted to answer the question: does lumbar epidural analgesia with lidocaine affect the progress of labor in our obstetric population? Method 395 healthy, nulliparous women, at term, presented in spontaneous labor with a singleton vertex presentation. These patients were randomized to receive analgesia either, epidural with bolus doses of 1% lidocaine or intravenous, with meperidine 25 to 50 mg when their cervix was dilated to 4 centimeters. The duration of the active-first and second stages of labor and the neonatal apgar scores were recorded, in each patient. The total number of vacuum-assisted and cesarean deliveries were also measured. Results 197 women were randomized to the epidural group. 198 women were randomized to the single-dose intravenous meperidine group. There was no statistical difference in rates of vacuum-assisted delivery rate. Cesarean deliveries, as a consequence of fetal bradycardia or dystocia, did not differ significantly between the groups. Differences in the duration of the active-first and the second stages of labor were not statistically significant. The number of newborns with 1-min and 5-min Apgar scores less than 7, did not differ significantly between both analgesia groups. Conclusion Epidural analgesia with 1% lidocaine does not prolong the active-first and second stages of labor and does not increase vacuum-assisted or cesarean delivery rate.

  20. Role of wound instillation with bupivacaine through surgical drains for postoperative analgesia in modified radical mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Jonnavithula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Modified Radical Mastectomy (MRM is the commonly used surgical procedure for operable breast cancer, which involves extensive tissue dissection. Therefore, wound instillation with local anaesthetic may provide better postoperative analgesia than infiltration along the line of incision. We hypothesised that instillation of bupivacaine through chest and axillary drains into the wound may provide postoperative analgesia. Methods: In this prospective randomised controlled study 60 patients aged 45-60 years were divided into three groups. All patients were administered general anaesthesia. At the end of the surgical procedure, axillary and chest wall drains were placed before closure. Group C was the control with no instillation; Group S received 40 ml normal saline, 20 ml through each drain; and Group B received 40 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine and the drains were clamped for 10 min. After extubation, pain score for both static and dynamic pain was evaluated using visual analog scale and then 4 th hourly till 24 h. Rescue analgesia was injection tramadol, if the pain score exceeds 4. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 13. Results : There was a significant difference in the cumulative analgesic requirement and the number of analgesic demands between the groups (P: 0.000. The mean duration of analgesia in the bupivacaine group was 14.6 h, 10.3 in the saline group and 4.3 h in the control group. Conclusion : Wound instillation with local anaesthetics is a simple and effective means of providing good analgesia without any major side-effects.

  1. Estudo comparativo entre doses de morfina intratecal para analgesia após cesariana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Amaral Egydio de Carvalho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Analgesia após cesarianas é importante, pois puérperas com dor têm dificuldade na movimentação, o que prejudica o aleitamento. Morfina intratecal proporciona analgesia adequada e duradoura após cesarianas. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a qualidade da analgesia proporcionada por duas doses de morfina intratecal e seus efeitos colaterais em pacientes submetidas à cesariana. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 123 gestantes, com idade gestacional superior a 38 semanas e plano de cesariana eletiva. As gestantes foram alocadas de maneira aleatória em dois grupos que receberam 50 ou 100 µg de morfina intratecal (Grupo 50/Grupo 100. Todas as pacientes foram anestesiadas com 12 mg de bupivacaína 0,5% hiperbárica via intratecal. As pacientes foram avaliadas entre a 9ª e a 11ª horas e entre a 22ª e a 24ª horas após o bloqueio, em relação à qualidade da analgesia, ao consumo de analgésico, aos efeitos colaterais e à principal causa de desconforto nas primeiras 24 horas após a cirurgia. RESULTADOS: Os grupos foram semelhantes em relação aos dados antropométricos e antecedente obstétrico. Não houve diferença estatística na intensidade dolorosa entre os grupos. Nos dois grupos a dor foi maior nas primeiras 12 horas após a anestesia (p < 0,001. O consumo de cloridrato de tramadol e o intervalo até a primeira dose foram semelhantes nos dois grupos. Prurido foi o efeito colateral mais frequente, com incidência estatisticamente maior no Grupo 100 (p = 0,026. CONCLUSÕES: Morfina intratecal em 50 µg tem a mesma qualidade de analgesia que 100 µg, com menor incidência de efeitos colaterais.

  2. Comparative study of caudal bupivacaine versus bupivacaine with tramadol for postoperative analgesia in paediatric cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Hegazy; Ayman A. Ghoneim

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Caudal epidural analgesia has become very common analgesic technique in paediatric surgery. Add-ing tramadol to bupivacaine for caudal injection prolongs duration of analgesia with minimal side effects. The aim of the study was to investigate the different effects of caudal bupivacaine versus bupivacaine with thamadol for postoperative analgesia in paediatric cancer patients. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted over 40 paediatric cancer pa-tients who were recruited from Children Cancer Hospital of Egypt (57357 Hospital). Patients were randomized into 2 groups: bupivacaine group (group B, 20 patients) to receive single shot caudal block of 1 mL/kg 0.1875% bupivacaine; tramadol group (group T, 20 patients) prepared as group B with the addition of 1 mg/kg caudal tramadol. Results: The mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer among group T than group B [(24 ± 13.7) hours versus (7 ± 3.7) hours respectively with P = 0.001]. Group T showed a significantly lower mean FLACC score than group B (2.2 ± 0.9 versus 3.6 ± 0.6 with P = 0.002). The difference in FLACC score was comparable on arrival, and after 2 and 4 hours. At 8 and 12 hours the group B recorded significantly higher scores (P = 0.002 and 0.0001 respectively). There were no significant differences between the groups as regards sedation score [the median in both groups was 1 (0–1) with P value = o.8]. No one developed facial flush or pruritis. Conclusion: Caudal injection of low dose tramadol 1 mg/kg with bupivacaine 0.1875% is proved to be effective, long standing technique for postoperative analgesia in major paediatric cancer surgery and almost devoid of side effect.

  3. Comparison of Interpleural and Thoracic Epidural Bupivacaine with Buprenorphine for Post-Thoracotomy Analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Mathur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to compare the efficacy of interpleural and thoracic epidural analgesia after thorac-otomy with regard to quality of analgesia and complications. Sixty patients undergoing elective thoracotomy were randomly and equally placed into either interpleural (IP or thoracic epidural (TE group. In IP group an interpleural catheter was placed in paravertebral space under direct vision during surgery and received 0.25% bupivacaine 20 ml with buprenorphine 150 mcg. In TE group an epidural catheter was inserted in the T6-7 / T7-8 interspace and received 0.25% bupivacaine 10 ml with buprenorphine 150 mcg. Dosage were repeated in both the groups to keep a VAS score < 40 for 48 hours post-operatively. Spirometry was done preoperatively and 12, 24 and 36 hours post-opera-tively. Vital parameters were monitored for 48 hours. The mean analgesia time was 331.73±94.03 min and 567.33±127.33 min in IP and TE groups respectively. The VAS score was significantly reduced within the first 30 minutes of injection in both the groups. Post injection VAS was significantly better in TE group. Mean time taken for interpleural and epidural catheter placement was 5.0±0.0 min and 33.83±3.39 min respectively. Postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second(FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC and forced expiratory ratio (FER were similar in both the groups while peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, maximal expiratory flow (MEF and F50 were slightly better in TE group. Vital parameters showed similar changes in both the groups. The TE group had more complications. Interpleural analgesia, though of shorter duration, is a safe and effective alternative technique for post-thoracotomy analgesia and has a low complication rate.

  4. Comparison of efficacy of bupivacaine and fentanyl with bupivacaine and sufentanil for epidural labor analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalra Sumit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A study to compare the efficacy between fentanyl and sufentanil combined with low concentration (0.0625% of bupivacaine for epidural labor analgesia in laboring women. Materials and Methods: Fifty full term parturients received an initial bolus dose of a 10 ml solution containing 0.125% bupivacaine. The patients were randomly divided into two: group F received 0.0625% bupivacaine with 2.5 mcg/ml fentanyl and group S received 0.0625% bupivacaine with 0.25 mcg/ml sufentanil. Verbal analogue pain scores, need of supplementary/rescue boluses dose of bupivacaine consumed, mode of delivery, maternal satisfaction, and neonatal Apgar scores were recorded. No significant difference was observed between both groups. Results: Both the groups provided equivalent labor analgesia and maternal satisfaction. The chances of cesarean delivery were also not increased in any group. No difference in the cephalad extent of sensory analgesia, motor block or neonatal Apgar score were observed. Although mean pain scores throughout the labor and delivery were similar in both groups, more patients in fentanyl group required supplementary boluses though not statistically significant. Conclusion: We conclude that both 0.0625% bupivacaine-fentanyl (2.5 μg/ml and 0.0625% bupivacaine-sufentanil (0.25 μg/ml were equally effective by continuous epidural infusion in providing labor analgesia with hemodynamic stability achieving equivalent maternal satisfaction without serious maternal or fetal side effects. We found that sufentanil was 10 times more potent than fentanyl as an analgesic for continuous epidural labor analgesia.

  5. Influence of preemptive analgesia on pulmonary function and complications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Meral; Özol, Duygu; Bozer, Mikdat

    2009-12-01

    Pain and diaphragmatic dysfunction are the major reasons for postoperative pulmonary complications after upper abdominal surgery. Preoperative administration of analgesics helps to reduce and prevent pain. The objective of this study was first to research the rate of pulmonary complications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and then analyze the influence of preemptive analgesia on pulmonary functions and complications. Seventy patients scheduled for elective LC were included in our double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective study. Randomly, 35 patients received 1 g etofenamate (group 1) and 35 patients 0.9% saline (group 2) intramuscularly 1 h before surgery. All patients underwent physical examination, chest radiography, lung function tests, and pulse oxygen saturation measurements 2 h before surgery and postoperatively on day 2. Atelectasis was graded as micro, focal, segmental, or lobar. With preemptive analgesia, the need for postoperative analgesia decreased significantly in group 1. In both groups mean spirometric values were reduced significantly after the operation, but the difference and proportional change according to preoperative recordings were found to be similar [29.5 vs. 31.3% reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC) and 32.9 vs. 33.5% reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) for groups 1 and 2, respectively]. There was an insignificant drop in oxygen saturation rates for both groups. The overall incidence of atelectasia was similar for group 1 and 2 (30.2 vs. 29.2%). Although the degree of atelectesia was found to be more severe in the placebo group, the difference was not statistically significant. We concluded that although preemptive analgesia decreased the need for postoperative analgesia, this had no effect on pulmonary functions and pulmonary complications.

  6. Femoral versus Multiple Nerve Blocks for Analgesia after Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stav, Anatoli; Reytman, Leonid; Sevi, Roger; Stav, Michael Yohay; Powell, Devorah; Dor, Yanai; Dudkiewicz, Mickey; Bayadse, Fuaz; Sternberg, Ahud; Soudry, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background The PROSPECT (Procedure-Specific Postoperative Pain Management) Group recommended a single injection femoral nerve block in 2008 as a guideline for analgesia after total knee arthroplasty. Other authors have recommended the addition of sciatic and obturator nerve blocks. The lateral femoral cutaneous nerve is also involved in pain syndrome following total knee arthroplasty. We hypothesized that preoperative blocking of all four nerves would offer superior analgesia to femoral nerve block alone. Methods This is a prospective, randomized, controlled, and observer-blinded clinical study. A total of 107 patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a femoral nerve block group, a multiple nerve block group, and a control group. All patients were treated postoperatively using patient-controlled intravenous analgesia with morphine. Pain intensity at rest, during flexion and extension, and morphine consumption were compared between groups over three days. Results A total of 90 patients completed the study protocol. Patients who received multiple nerve blocks experienced superior analgesia and had reduced morphine consumption during the postoperative period compared to the other two groups. Pain intensity during flexion was significantly lower in the “blocks” groups versus the control group. Morphine consumption was significantly higher in the control group. Conclusions Pain relief after total knee arthroplasty immediately after surgery and on the first postoperative day was significantly superior in patients who received multiple blocks preoperatively, with morphine consumption significantly lower during this period. A preoperative femoral nerve block alone produced partial and insufficient analgesia immediately after surgery and on the first postoperative day. (Clinical trial registration number (NIH): NCT01303120) PMID:28178436

  7. Ultrassonografia modo B e Doppler na avaliação renal de cães após administração intravenosa de meio de contraste iodado: validação da técnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Matsunaga Martín

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Meios de contraste iodado podem promover efeitos hemodinâmicos relacionados à vasoconstrição intrarrenal prolongada e redução da perfusão, predispondo à hipóxia e isquemia medular. Alterações de resistência vascular renal podem representar os primeiros sinais de mudança funcional desse órgão. A técnica Doppler pulsado é considerada acessível, não invasiva e permite avaliar a dinâmica vascular dos rins, por meio da aferição dos índices de resistividade (IR e pulsatilidade (IP. Contudo, na espécie canina, a aquisição de traçados espectrais pode ser penosa devido às dificuldades de varredura e captação de sinal Doppler, sobretudo em relação ao rim direito, devido à sua localização dorsocranial na cavidade abdominal, o que prolonga substancialmente a realização do exame. O objetivo deste estudo é comprovar que a avaliação Doppler pulsado das artérias intrarrenais do rim esquerdo de cães representa a repercussão hemodinâmica renal da administração intravenosa de meios de contraste iodado não sendo necessária a realização do exame nos dois rins. Foram avaliados ambos os rins de seis cadelas adultas em quatro momentos distintos: antes da infusão intravenosa do contraste radiológico e após 1,5 horas, 24 horas e 48 horas, por meio da análise subjetiva da morfologia, ecogenicidade cortical e grau de perfusão renais e análise objetiva do comprimento, volume e resistência vascular intrarrenais (IR e IP. Os parâmetros avaliados ao modo B e Doppler dos rins direito e esquerdo não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre si em cada momento avaliado. Assim, constatou-se que o exame ultrassonográfico Doppler pulsado do rim esquerdo representou a repercussão hemodinâmica renal da aplicação intravenosa de meios de contraste iodado, desde que morfometria, morfologia, ecogenicidade cortical e perfusão de ambos os rins fossem consideradas semelhantes na abordagem

  8. Discrimination of liver cancer in cellular level based on backscatter micro-spectrum with PCA algorithm and BP neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Cheng; Cai, Gan; Dong, Xiaona

    2016-10-01

    The incidence and mortality rate of the primary liver cancer are very high and its postoperative metastasis and recurrence have become important factors to the prognosis of patients. Circulating tumor cells (CTC), as a new tumor marker, play important roles in the early diagnosis and individualized treatment. This paper presents an effective method to distinguish liver cancer based on the cellular scattering spectrum, which is a non-fluorescence technique based on the fiber confocal microscopic spectrometer. Combining the principal component analysis (PCA) with back propagation (BP) neural network were utilized to establish an automatic recognition model for backscatter spectrum of the liver cancer cells from blood cell. PCA was applied to reduce the dimension of the scattering spectral data which obtained by the fiber confocal microscopic spectrometer. After dimensionality reduction by PCA, a neural network pattern recognition model with 2 input layer nodes, 11 hidden layer nodes, 3 output nodes was established. We trained the network with 66 samples and also tested it. Results showed that the recognition rate of the three types of cells is more than 90%, the relative standard deviation is only 2.36%. The experimental results showed that the fiber confocal microscopic spectrometer combining with the algorithm of PCA and BP neural network can automatically identify the liver cancer cell from the blood cells. This will provide a better tool for investigating the metastasis of liver cancers in vivo, the biology metabolic characteristics of liver cancers and drug transportation. Additionally, it is obviously referential in practical application.

  9. Identification of Novel, Inherited Genetic Markers for Aggressive PCa in European and African Americans Using Whole Genome Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    spondylitis (Szczypiorska 2011), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (Hinks 2011), and psoriasis (Trembath 2010). More importantly, genetic variants located on...evasion by tumor cells which in turn accelerate tumor progression. More experimental efforts are needed to pinpoint the biological implication of...identified variants can provide more insight into the etiology of aggressive PCa and provide potential effective targets for therapy of aggressive

  10. A Report on Multilinear PCA Plus Multilinear LDA to Deal with Tensorial Data: Visual Classification as An Example

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, Shu

    2012-01-01

    In practical applications, we often have to deal with high order data, such as a grayscale image and a video sequence are intrinsically 2nd-order tensor and 3rd-order tensor, respectively. For doing clustering or classification of these high order data, it is a conventional way to vectorize these data before hand, as PCA or FDA does, which often induce the curse of dimensionality problem. For this reason, experts have developed many methods to deal with the tensorial data, such as multilinear PCA, multilinear LDA, and so on. In this paper, we still address the problem of high order data representation and recognition, and propose to study the result of merging multilinear PCA and multilinear LDA into one scenario, we name it \\textbf{GDA} for the abbreviation of Generalized Discriminant Analysis. To evaluate GDA, we perform a series of experiments, and the experimental results demonstrate our GDA outperforms a selection of competing methods such (2D)$^2$PCA, (2D)$^2$LDA, and MDA.

  11. Comparison of PCA and ICA based clutter reduction in GPR systems for anti-personal landmine detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Brian; Larsen, Jan; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing;

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents statistical signal processing approaches for clutter reduction in stepped-frequency ground penetrating radar (SF-GPR) data. In particular, we suggest clutter/signal separation techniques based on principal and independent component analysis (PCA/ICA). The approaches are succes...

  12. Optimized Method for Real-Time Face Recognition System Based on PCA and Multiclass Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Azad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Automatic face recognition system is one of the core technologies in computer vision, machine learning, and biometrics. The present study presents a novel and improved way for face recognition. In the suggested approach, first, the place of face is extracted from the original image and then is sent to feature extraction stage, which is based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA technique. In the previous procedures which were established on PCA technique, the whole picture was taken as a vector feature, then among these features, key features were extracted with use of PCA algorithm, revealing finally some poor efficiency. Thus, in the recommended approach underlying the current investigation, first the areas of face features are extracted; then, the areas are combined and are regarded as vector features. Ultimately, its key features are extracted with use of PCA algorithm. Taken together, after extracting the features, for face recognition and classification, Multiclass Support Vector Machine (SVMs classifiers, which are typical of high efficiency, have been employed. In the result part, the proposed approach is applied on FEI database and the accuracy rate achieved 98.45%.

  13. Accounting for baryonic effects in cosmic shear tomography: Determining a minimal set of nuisance parameters using PCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eifler, Tim; Krause, Elisabeth; Dodelson, Scott; Zentner, Andrew; Hearin, Andrew; Gnedin, Nickolay

    2014-05-28

    Systematic uncertainties that have been subdominant in past large-scale structure (LSS) surveys are likely to exceed statistical uncertainties of current and future LSS data sets, potentially limiting the extraction of cosmological information. Here we present a general framework (PCA marginalization) to consistently incorporate systematic effects into a likelihood analysis. This technique naturally accounts for degeneracies between nuisance parameters and can substantially reduce the dimension of the parameter space that needs to be sampled. As a practical application, we apply PCA marginalization to account for baryonic physics as an uncertainty in cosmic shear tomography. Specifically, we use CosmoLike to run simulated likelihood analyses on three independent sets of numerical simulations, each covering a wide range of baryonic scenarios differing in cooling, star formation, and feedback mechanisms. We simulate a Stage III (Dark Energy Survey) and Stage IV (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope/Euclid) survey and find a substantial bias in cosmological constraints if baryonic physics is not accounted for. We then show that PCA marginalization (employing at most 3 to 4 nuisance parameters) removes this bias. Our study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain robust, precise constraints on the dark energy equation of state even in the presence of large levels of systematic uncertainty in astrophysical processes. We conclude that the PCA marginalization technique is a powerful, general tool for addressing many of the challenges facing the precision cosmology program.

  14. Manejo de la analgesia postoperatoria en las primeras 24 horas en un Hospital de segundo nivel: Estudio observacional Postoperative analgesia treatment during the first 24 hours in a second level hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Fernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el cumplimiento y eficacia de la medicación analgésica no protocolizada y utilizada en un hospital de segundo nivel en las 24 h posteriores a cirugía, donde la intensidad del dolor está catalogada como moderada severa. Método: Estudio prospectivo y observacional. Se incluyeron 119 pacientes mayores de 18 años, intervenidos de cirugía traumatológica: prótesis total de cadera, rodilla, artrodesis vertebral, cirugía de hombro y laparotomías. Ante la falta de protocolos, la medicación analgésica postoperatoria de base y de rescate fue prescrita según criterio del anestesiólogo responsable. La administración de cloruro mórfico y el empleo de los dispositivos de administración: catéteres peridurales, PCA (analgesia controlada por el paciente quedaron restringidos a la unidad de recuperación anestésica (URPA y al área crítica. En planta de hospitalización los opiáceos prescritos fueron la meperidina por vía intramuscular y el tramadol endovenoso. Los opiáceos siempre se asociaron a analgésicos parenterales como metamizol, diclofenaco o paracetamol Se valoró la intensidad del dolor (VAS 0-100 mm y escala verbal EV 1-4 24 h después de la cirugía (24 y se registró la máxima intensidad de dolor percibida en el primer día de postoperatorio (Max. Se consideró el porcentaje de pacientes con dolor no controlado (DNC: VAS >30 y EV >2 para los momentos 24 y Max. Se consignaron las dosis de fármacos analgésicos de base y rescate, prescritos y consumidos. Para cada analgésico prescrito como base, se calculó la diferencia porcentual entre la dosis media prescrita y la dosis media consumida, indicador que se denominó grado de cumplimiento (GC. Resultados: Intensidad de dolor 24: VAS 27.8 ± 22.6, EV 2; porcentaje de pacientes con DNC según VAS /EV: 36.1/ 42.8%, respectivamente. Max: VAS 58.4 ± 28.9, EV 4; DNC según VAS/EV : 79.8 / 82.3 %, respectivamente. Prescripción de opiáceos (Nº pacientes, X ± DE

  15. Biological image construction by using Raman radiation and Pca: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez E, J. C. [IPN, Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria, Campus Guanajuato, Av. Mineral de Valenciana 200, Col. Fracc. Industrial Puerto Interior, 36275 Silao, Guanajuato (Mexico); Cordova F, T. [Universidad de Guanajuato, DIC, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, Loma del Bosque No. 103, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Hugo R, V., E-mail: jcmartineze@ipn.mx [Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de Tonala, Morelos No. 180, 69584 Tonala, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: In the last years, the Raman spectroscopy (Rs) technique has had some applications in the study and analysis of biological samples, due to it is able to detect concentrations or presence of certain organic and inorganic compounds of medical interest. In this work, raw data were obtained through measurements in selected points on a square regions in order to detect specific organic / inorganic compounds on biological samples. Gold nano stars samples were prepared and coated with membrane markers (CD 10+ and CD 19+) and diluted in leukemic B lymphocytes. Each data block was evaluated independently by the method of principal component analysis (Pca) in order to find representative dimensionless values (Cp) for each Raman spectrum in a specific coordinate. Each Cp was normalized in a range of 0-255 in order to generate a representative image of 8 bits of the region under study. Data acquisition was performed with Raman microscopy system Renishaw in Via in the range of 550 to 1700 cm-1 with a 785 nm laser source, with a power of 17 m W and 15 s of exposure time were used for each spectrum. In preliminary results could detect the presence of molecular markers CD 10+ and CD 19+ with gold nano stars and discrimination between both markers. The results suggest conducting studies with specific concentrations organic and inorganic materials. (Author)

  16. Statistical Downscaling Output GCM Modeling with Continuum Regression and Pre-Processing PCA Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno Sutikno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the climate models used to predict the climatic conditions is Global Circulation Models (GCM. GCM is a computer-based model that consists of different equations. It uses numerical and deterministic equation which follows the physics rules. GCM is a main tool to predict climate and weather, also it uses as primary information source to review the climate change effect. Statistical Downscaling (SD technique is used to bridge the large-scale GCM with a small scale (the study area. GCM data is spatial and temporal data most likely to occur where the spatial correlation between different data on the grid in a single domain. Multicollinearity problems require the need for pre-processing of variable data X. Continuum Regression (CR and pre-processing with Principal Component Analysis (PCA methods is an alternative to SD modelling. CR is one method which was developed by Stone and Brooks (1990. This method is a generalization from Ordinary Least Square (OLS, Principal Component Regression (PCR and Partial Least Square method (PLS methods, used to overcome multicollinearity problems. Data processing for the station in Ambon, Pontianak, Losarang, Indramayu and Yuntinyuat show that the RMSEP values and R2 predict in the domain 8x8 and 12x12 by uses CR method produces results better than by PCR and PLS.

  17. An Effective Multi-Frame Super Resolution of Image from Blurry and Noisy Images Using PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati A. Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Image super-resolution are techniques aiming restoration of a high-resolution image from one or several low-resolution observation images, which offer the advantages overcoming some of the inherent resolution limitations of low-cost imaging sensors (e.g., satellite image, cell phone, camera’s or surveillance camera’s, and allow better utilization of the growing capability and noise free image of HR displays. Conventional image super-resolution approaches normally require multiple LR inputs of the same scene with sub-pixel motions. This paper attempts to undertake the study of the super-resolution restoration problem and improved resolution image is restored from several geometrically warped, blurred, noisy images. The super-resolution restoration problem is modeled and analyzed from the filters such as Median Filter, Adaptive Wiener Filter, Gaussian Filter these different noise densities have been removed between 10% to 65%. The Principal Component analysis (PCA is the technique which is useful for improving the image sharpness after the process of de-blurring

  18. 3D MR image denoising using rough set and kernel PCA method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phophalia, Ashish; Mitra, Suman K

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we have presented a two stage method, using kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) and rough set theory (RST), for denoising volumetric MRI data. A rough set theory (RST) based clustering technique has been used for voxel based processing. The method groups similar voxels (3D cubes) using class and edge information derived from noisy input. Each clusters thus formed now represented via basis vector. These vectors now projected into kernel space and PCA is performed in the feature space. This work is motivated by idea that under Rician noise MRI data may be non-linear and kernel mapping will help to define linear separator between these clusters/basis vectors thus used for image denoising. We have further investigated various kernels for Rician noise for different noise levels. The best kernel is then selected on the performance basis over PSNR and structure similarity (SSIM) measures. The work has been compared with state-of-the-art methods under various measures for synthetic and real databases.

  19. Pattern Classification: An Improvement Using Combination of VQ and PCA Based Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sharma

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study firstly presents a survey on basic classifiers namely Minimum Distance Classifier (MDC, Vector Quantization (VQ, Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Nearest Neighbor (NN and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN. Then Vector Quantized Principal Component Analysis (VQPCA which is generally used for representation purposes is considered for performing classification tasks. Some classifiers achieve high classification accuracy but their data storage requirement and processing time are severely expensive. On the other hand some methods for which storage and processing time are economical do not provide sufficient levels of classification accuracy. In both the cases the performance is poor. By considering the limitations involved in the classifiers we have developed Linear Combined Distance (LCD classifier which is the combination of VQ and VQPCA techniques. The proposed technique is effective and outperforms all the other techniques in terms of getting high classification accuracy at very low data storage requirement and processing time. This would allow an object to be accurately classified as quickly as possible using very low data storage capacity.

  20. Improving Efficiency of Classification using PCA and Apriori based Attribute Selection Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rajeswari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to select significant features that contribute for accuracy in classification. Data mining is a field where we find lots of data which can be useful or useless in any form available in Data Warehouse. Implementing classification on these huge, uneven, useless data sets with large number of features is just a waste of time degrading the efficiency of classification algorithms and hence the results are not much accurate. Hence we propose a system in which we first use PCA (Principal Component Analysis for selection of the attributes on which we perform Classification using Bayes theorem, Multi-Layer Perceptron, Decision tree J48 which indeed has given us better result than that of performing Classification on the huge complete data sets with all the attributes. Also association rule mining using traditional Apriori algorithm is experimented to find out sub set of features related to class label. The experiments are conducted using WEKA 3.6.0 Tool.