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Sample records for analgesia epidural sobre

  1. Epidural Analgesia in the Postoperative Period

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathsen, Curtis

    2001-01-01

    .... This descriptive study was conducted to determine which surgical patients experienced the most analgesia with the fewest side effects when receiving epidural analgesia in the postoperative period...

  2. Epidural analgesia during labor vs no analgesia: A comparative study

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    Wesam Farid Mousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidural analgesia is claimed to result in prolonged labor. Previous studies have assessed epidural analgesia vs systemic opioids rather than to parturients receiving no analgesia. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of epidural analgesia on labor duration compared with parturients devoid of analgesia. Methods: One hundred sixty nulliparous women in spontaneous labor at full term with a singleton vertex presentation were assigned to the study. Parturients who request epidural analgesia were allocated in the epidural group, whereas those not enthusiastic to labor analgesia were allocated in the control group. Epidural analgesia was provided with 20 mL bolus 0.5% epidural lidocaine plus fentanyl and maintained at 10 mL for 1 h. Duration of the first and second stages of labor, number of parturients receiving oxytocin, maximal oxytocin dose required for each parturient, numbers of instrumental vaginal, vacuum-assisted, and cesarean deliveries and neonatal Apgar score were recorded. Results: There was no statistical difference in the duration of the active-first and the second stages of labor, instrumental delivery, vacuum-assisted or cesarean delivery rates, the number of newborns with 1-min and 5-min Apgar scores less than 7 between both groups and number of parturients receiving oxytocin, however, the maximal oxytocin dose was significantly higher in the epidural group. Conclusion: Epidural analgesia by lidocaine (0.5% and fentanyl does not prolong labor compared with parturients without analgesia; however, significant oxytocin augmentation is required during the epidural analgesia to keep up the aforementioned average labor duration.

  3. Labor epidural analgesia: Past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most severe pains experienced by a woman is that of childbirth. Providing analgesia for labor has always been a challenge more so because of the myths and controversies surrounding labor. It is imperative to understand the pain transmission during various stages of labor in order to select a proper technique for providing labor analgesia. The adverse effects of labor pain are numerous and affect both the mother as well as the fetus. Currently lumbar epidural is considered to be the gold standard technique for labor analgesia. Local anaesthetics like bupivacaine and ropivacaine are commonly used and adjuvants like clonidine, fentanyl and neostigmine have been extensively studied. However, despite being so popular, epidural analgesia is not without complications, with hypotension being the most common. Other complications include accidental dural puncture, infection, intravascular placement, high block and epidural hematoma. Other neuraxial techniques include continuous caudal analgesia, and combined spinal epidural analgesia. The numerous studies investigating the various aspects of this method have also served to dispel various myths surrounding epidural analgesia like increased incidence of cesarean section and instrumental delivery, prolongation of labor and future back pain. The future of labor analgesia lies in the incorporation of ultrasound in identifying the epidural space helping in proper catheter placement. The keywords "labor epidural" in the PUBMED revealed a total of 5018 articles with 574 review articles and 969 clinical trials. The relevant articles along with their references were extensively studied.

  4. Epidural analgesia, neonatal care and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppa, Antonio Alberto; Alighieri, Giovanni; Riccardi, Riccardo; Cavani, Maria; Iafisco, Alma; Cota, Francesco; Romagnoli, Costantino

    2014-11-29

    The objective of our study is to evaluate the correlation between epidural analgesia during labor, start of breastfeeding and type of maternal-neonatal care.Two different assistance models were considered: Partial and Full Rooming-in.In this cohort study, 2480 healthy infants were enrolled, 1519 in the Partial Rooming-in group and 1321 in the Full Rooming-in group; 1223 were born to women subjected to epidural analgesia in labor.In case of Partial Rooming-in the rate of exclusive or prevailing breastfeeding is significant more frequent in newborns born to mothers who didn't receive analgesia. Instead, in case of Full Rooming-in the rate of exclusive or prevailing breastfeeding is almost the same and there's no correlation between the use or not of epidural analgesia.The good start of lactation and the success of breastfeeding seems to be guaranteed by the type of care offered to the couple mother-infant, that reverses any possible adverse effects of the use of epidural analgesia in labor.

  5. Epidural Analgesia after Rib Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Andrea A; Murry, Jason; Hoang, David; Chen, Kevin; Louy, Charles; Bloom, Matthew B; Melo, Nicolas; Alban, Rodrigo F; Margulies, Daniel R; Ley, Eric J

    2015-10-01

    Pain associated with rib fractures impairs respiratory function and increases pulmonary morbidity. The purpose of this study was to determine how epidural catheters alter mortality and complications in trauma patients. We performed a retrospective study involving adult blunt trauma patients with moderate-to-severe injuries from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2013. During the 10-year period, 526 patients met the inclusion criteria; 43/526 (8%) patients had a catheter placed. Mean age of patients with epidural catheter (CATH) was higher compared with patients without epidural catheter (NOCATH) (54 vs 48 years, P = 0.021), Injury Severity Score was similar (26 CATH vs 27 NOCATH, P = 0.84), and CATH had higher mean rib fractures (7.4 vs 4.1, P ribs fractured. The epidural cohort had longer hospital LOS and decreased mortality. In contrast to other studies, DVT rates were increased in patients who received epidural catheters.

  6. Neuraxial block and postoperative epidural analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leslie, K; McIlroy, D; Kasza, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We assessed associations between intraoperative neuraxial block and postoperative epidural analgesia, and a composite primary outcome of death or non-fatal myocardial infarction, at 30 days post-randomization in POISE-2 Trial subjects. METHODS: 10 010 high-risk noncardiac surgical pat...

  7. Neonatal respiratory depression associated with epidural analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gálvez Toro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidural analgesia is the most effective analgesics used during childbirth but is not without its problems.In the Hospital San Juan de la Cruz of Ubeda from November 2011 we have detected 3 cases of newborn infants with signs of respiratory depression. Appeared in them: normal cardiotocographic records during childbirth, use of epidural associated with fentanyl, termination by vacuum and elevated temperature in one case.ObjectivesKnow if the neonatal adaptation to extrauterine life may be influenced by the use of epidural analgesia in childbirth. Review what role can have the rise in maternal temperature and the use of epidural fentanyl with the appearance of newborn respiratory distress.MethodsLiterature Review conducted in February of 2012 in Pubmed and the Cochrane Library, using the key words: childbirth, epidural analgesia, neonatal respiratory depression.ResultsOn the respiratory depression associated with fentanyl, a Cochrane review found indicating that newborns of mothers with an epidural, had a lower pH and were less need for administration of naloxone.On PubMed we find a review study that indicates that the respiratory depression caused by the administration of opioids via neuroaxial is rare, placing it below 1 per 1000, and a clinical case that concluded that doses of fentanyl exceeding 300 µg (approx. 5 µg/kg for 4 hours previous to childbirth, have a high risk of neonatal respiratory depression at birth.The same Cochrane review indicates that the women with epidural analgesia had increased risk of maternal fever of at least 38 ° C and a recent cohort study relates this increase in temperature with a greater likelihood of neonatal adverse events (from 37.5 ° C.ConclusionsThe studies found considered safe epidurals to the neonate and the mother, except when certain conditions are met. The literature and our clinical experience have been reports linking neonatal respiratory depression with increasing temperature (37

  8. Registered nurses' and midwives' knowledge of epidural analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Annette; Wallis, Marianne; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Despite epidural analgesia increasingly being utilized in hospitals, very little research-based evidence is available about registered nurses' (RNs) and midwives' knowledge of this technique. To describe the current epidural knowledge levels of RNs and midwives in a multi-site setting. RNs and midwives at four, regional teaching facilities completed an epidural knowledge test. The instrument included demographic items and five knowledge subscales relating to epidural analgesia: spinal cord anatomy and physiology; epidural pharmacology; complications of epidural analgesia; assessment of sensory and motor blockade and the general management of patients with epidural analgesia. A total of 408 (99.7% response) RNs and midwives completed the test. Respondents demonstrated good knowledge of sensory and motor blockade assessment and the general management of epidural analgesia subscales with correct responses to 75 and 77% of the questions in these subscales, respectively. Fair knowledge relating to the spinal cord anatomy and physiology subscale was demonstrated with 69% of the questions answered correctly. The knowledge subscales relating to epidural pharmacology (57% correct responses) and the complications of epidural analgesia (56% correct responses) were problematic for the sample. The research results provide generalizable information about what RNs and midwives know about epidural analgesia. These results are an important guide in the development of new and existing dedicated epidural education programs. The results also provide some direction for further research into this important topic.

  9. Epidural Analgesia and Fever at Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. M. Shifman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the incidence of labor fever under epidural analgesia (EA and to evaluate its impact on the courses of puerperium and early neonatality. Subjects and methods. The paper presents the data of a prospective study of the course of labor, puerperium, and early neonatality in 397 women in whom labors occurred at the Republican Peritoneal Center in 2006. A study group included 324 parturients in whom labor pain was relieved by EA. A comparison group comprised 55 parturients in whom no analgesics were used at labor. Results. There were no significant statistical differences between the groups in the incidence of labor fever and complicated puerperium and in that of neonatal pyoseptic diseases. Key words: labor hyperthermia, epidural analgesia, labor pain relief.

  10. OUR EXPERIENCE WITH EPIDURAL LABOUR ANALGESIA

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    Uršula Reš Muravec

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. To evaluate the effects of regional labour analgesia used at the Hospital for Gynecology and Obstetrics in Postojna, Slovenia, in the year 2002.Patients and methods. In this retrospective study we enrolled 294 parturients who delivered in the year 2002 in the Postojna Maternity Hospital: in group 1 there were 147 parturients in whom three different regional analgesic techniques (study group were used at labour; in group 2 there were 147 parturients in whom regional analgesia was not used (control group. In the first step the two groups were compared in terms of maternal demographic data, duration and outcome of labour and 1' and 5' Apgar scores. In the second step the three regional analgesic groups were compared in terms of the course and outcome of labour, fetal condition, side and adverse effects of regional analgesic techniques, and patient satisfaction with a particular analgesic technique.Results. Regional labour analgesia was used in 147 (14% of the 1048 women who delivered in 2002: epidural analgesia (EPI was performed in 51.0%, combined spinal-epidural (CSE in 42.2% and spinal analgesia (SA in 6.8% of cases. The women in the regional analgesia group were significantly older, more educated, more often nulliparous and accompanied by their partner at labour than the women in the control group. Further, the duration of labour was significantly longer, oxytocin more frequently administered than in the control group. In terms of labour outcome there were no differences in the Cesarean section rates and 1- and 5-min Apgar scores minutes, but and the vacuum extraction rate was significantly higher in the regional analgesia group. Among the three regional analgesia techniques used, there were no statistically significant differences observed in terms of labour duration and outcome, and Apgar scores. The patient satisfaction was greatest with CSE. Adverse side effects such as weak muscles, reduced motion abilities, itching, nausea

  11. Efeitos da analgesia peridural e do bloqueio contínuo do plexo lombar sobre a reabilitação funcional após artroplastia total do quadril Efectos de la analgesia epidural y del bloqueo continuo del plexo lumbar sobre la rehabilitación funcional después de la artroplastia total de cadera Effects of epidural analgesia and continuous lumbar plexus block on functional rehabilitation after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Teixeira Domingues Duarte

    2009-10-01

    ésica eficaz y que permita la movilidad precoz, la participación en las actividades de rehabilitación, y una rápida recuperación funcional. El objetivo de este estudio, fue comparar los efectos de las técnicas de analgesia controlada por el paciente (ACP, por las vías epidural y perineural del plexo lumbar sobre la rehabilitación funcional en pacientes sometidos a la ATC. MÉTODO: Pacientes en estado físico ASA I a III, que fueron ubicados aleatoriamente en los grupos Epidural y Lumbar. Para la ATC, se realizó la anestesia epidural lumbar continua con ropivacaína a 0,5% (Epidural o bloqueo continuo del plexo lumbar con ropivacaína a 0,5% (Lumbar. En la sala de recuperación, se inició ACP con infusión de ropivacaína a 0,2% (Lumbar o ropivacaína a 0,2% + fentanil 3 µg.mL-1 (Epidural. La eficacia de la analgesia en las primeras 48 horas después de la ATC (niveles de dolor, consumo de morfina de rescate y de bolos de la bomba de ACP, se comparó entre los grupos. Los diferentes parámetros de la rehabilitación postoperatoria también se estudiaron. RESULTADOS: Cuarenta y un pacientes se sometieron al análisis estadístico. Los niveles de dolor en reposo fueron similares en los dos grupos. A pesar de un control más efectivo del dolor dinámico en el grupo Epidural y de un uso más potente de la morfina, que se aplicó más a menudo y precozmente en el grupo Lumbar, no hubo diferencia entre los grupos en ninguno de los parámetros estudiados de rehabilitación. Las técnicas de analgesia no influyeron en las fallas en el proceso de rehabilitación. CONCLUSIONES: El más alto nivel de efectividad de la analgesia epidural, no se tradujo en una mejoría en el proceso de rehabilitación, ni tampoco redujo el tiempo necesario para alcanzar los resultados estudiados.BAKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pain after total hip arthroplasty (THA is severe and it is aggravated by movements, which requires an effective analgesic technique that allows early mobilization, participation

  12. Epidural Labor Analgesia and Maternal Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Emily E; Arendt, Katherine W

    2017-06-01

    Women receiving an epidural for labor analgesia are at increased risk for intrapartum fever. This relationship has been supported by observational, before and after, and randomized controlled trials. The etiology is not well understood but is likely a result of noninfectious inflammation as studies have found women with fever have higher levels of inflammatory markers. Maternal pyrexia may change obstetric management and women are more likely to receive antibiotics or undergo cesarean delivery. Maternal pyrexia is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. With these consequences, understanding and preventing maternal fever is imperative.

  13. Patient controlled analgesia with remifentanil versus epidural analgesia in labour: randomised multicentre equivalence trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freeman, Liv M.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W.; Franssen, Maureen T.; Papatsonis, Dimitri N.; Hajenius, Petra J.; Hollmann, Markus W.; Woiski, Mallory D.; Porath, Martina; van den Berg, Hans J.; van Beek, Erik; Borchert, Odette W. H. M.; Schuitemaker, Nico; Sikkema, J. Marko; Kuipers, A. H. M.; Logtenberg, Sabine L. M.; van der Salm, Paulien C. M.; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Lopriore, Enrico; van den Akker-van Marle, M. Elske; le Cessie, Saskia; van Lith, Jan M.; Struys, Michel M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Dahan, Albert; Middeldorp, Johanna M.

    2015-01-01

    To determine women's satisfaction with pain relief using patient controlled analgesia with remifentanil compared with epidural analgesia during labour. Multicentre randomised controlled equivalence trial. 15 hospitals in the Netherlands. Women with an intermediate to high obstetric risk with an

  14. Labour pain with remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia versus epidural analgesia : a randomised equivalence trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logtenberg, Slm; Oude Rengerink, K; Verhoeven, C J; Freeman, L M; van den Akker, Esa; Godfried, M B; van Beek, E; Borchert, Owhm; Schuitemaker, N; van Woerkens, Ecsm; Hostijn, I; Middeldorp, J M; van der Post, J A; Mol, B W

    OBJECTIVE: To distinguish satisfaction with pain relief using remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia (RPCA) compared with epidural analgesia (EA) in low-risk labouring women. DESIGN: Randomised controlled equivalence trial. SETTING: Eighteen midwifery practices and six hospitals in the

  15. Patient controlled analgesia with remifentanil versus epidural analgesia in labour : randomised multicentre equivalence trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freeman, Liv M; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W; Franssen, Maureen T; Papatsonis, Dimitri N; Hajenius, Petra J; Hollmann, Markus W; Woiski, Mallory D; Porath, Martina; van den Berg, Hans J; van Beek, Erik; Borchert, Odette W H M; Schuitemaker, Nico; Sikkema, J Marko; Kuipers, A H M; Logtenberg, Sabine L M; van der Salm, Paulien C M; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Lopriore, Enrico; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske; le Cessie, Saskia; van Lith, Jan M; Struys, Michel M; Mol, Ben Willem J; Dahan, Albert; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Oude Rengerink, K

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine women's satisfaction with pain relief using patient controlled analgesia with remifentanil compared with epidural analgesia during labour. DESIGN: Multicentre randomised controlled equivalence trial. SETTING: 15 hospitals in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Women with an

  16. Patient controlled analgesia with remifentanil versus epidural analgesia in labour : randomised multicentre equivalence trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freeman, Liv M.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W.; Franssen, Maureen T.; Papatsonis, Dimitri N.; Hajenius, Petra J.; Hollmann, Markus W.; Woiski, Mallory D.; Porath, Martina; van den Berg, Hans J.; van Beek, Erik; Borchert, Odette W. H. M.; Schuitemaker, Nico; Sikkema, J. Marko; Kuipers, A. H. M.; Logtenberg, Sabine L. M.; van der Salm, Paulien C. M.; Rengerink, Katrien Oude; Lopriore, Enrico; van den Akker-van Marle, M. Elske; le Cessie, Saskia; van Lith, Jan M.; Struys, Michel M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Dahan, Albert; Middeldorp, Johanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine women's satisfaction with pain relief using patient controlled analgesia with remifentanil compared with epidural analgesia during labour. Design Multicentre randomised controlled equivalence trial. Setting 15 hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants Women with an

  17. Patient controlled analgesia with remifentanil versus epidural analgesia in labour: randomised multicentre equivalence trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freeman, L.M.; Bloemenkamp, K.W.; Franssen, M.T.; Papatsonis, D.N.; Hajenius, P.J.; Hollmann, M.W.; Woiski, M.D.; Porath, M.; Berg, H.J. van den; Beek, E. van; Borchert, O.W.; Schuitemaker, N.; Sikkema, J.M.; Kuipers, A.H.; Logtenberg, S.L.; Salm, P.C. van der; Oude Rengerink, K.; Lopriore, E.; Akker-van Marle, M.E. van den; Cessie, S. le; Lith, J.M. van; Struys, M.M.; Mol, B.W.; Dahan, A; Middeldorp, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine women's satisfaction with pain relief using patient controlled analgesia with remifentanil compared with epidural analgesia during labour. DESIGN: Multicentre randomised controlled equivalence trial. SETTING: 15 hospitals in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Women with an

  18. Antenatal education for childbirth-epidural analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutajar, Lisa; Cyna, Allan M

    2018-05-07

    The language structures used by antenatal educators have not been previously researched in the context of antenatal childbirth classes. Epidural analgesia for labour is a common, and a frequently asked about, component of antenatal education for parents in hospitals providing maternity care. We aimed to identify the way information is described and presented by childbirth educators to assess content and determine which language structures such as metaphor, suggestion, information and storytelling are utilized. This observational study of antenatal education was conducted at a single tertiary referral center for maternity care in Western Sydney, Australia. All three childbirth educators agreed to be video recorded whilst providing information to parents during antenatal classes. Audio data was subsequently transcribed and then analysed by two researchers, independently categorising the various language structures and types of information provided. For the purposes of the current study, data concerning a single topic was used for the analysis-'epidural analgesia for labour'. Language structures used were highly variable between educators, as was the content and time taken for the information being provided. Our findings represent a first attempt to identify baseline information used in the clinical setting of antenatal education in order to categories communication structures used. This study has identified areas for further improvements and consistency in the way educators provide information to parents and has important implications for future midwifery practice, education and research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Bani Ismail

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1 and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2. The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg, bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg, ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg, xylazine (0.05 mg/kg, medetomidine (15 μg/kg, romifidine (30-50 μg/kg, ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg, tramadol (1 mg/kg, and neostigmine (10 μg/kg, and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed.

  20. Patient controlled remifentanil and epidural analgesia during labour : satisfaction, costs and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freeman, Liv

    2016-01-01

    Epidural analgesia provided superior analgesia to remifentanil PCA. Women randomised to epidural analgesia with a request for pain relief are more satisfied with their analgesia than women randomised to remifentanil PCA. Costs of epidural analgesia and remifentanil PCA are not significantly

  1. Epidural analgesia for labour: maternal knowledge, preferences and informed consent.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-29

    Epidural analgesia has become increasingly popular as a form of labour analgesia in Ireland. However obtaining true inform consent has always been difficult. Our study recruited 100 parturients who had undergone epidural analgesia for labour, aimed to determine the information they received prior to regional analgesia, and to ascertain their preferences regarding informed consent. Only 65 (65%) of patients planned to have an epidural. Knowledge of potential complications was variable and inaccurate, with less than 30 (30%) of women aware of the most common complications. Most women 79 (79%) believed that discomfort during labour affected their ability to provide informed consent, and believe consent should be taken prior to onset of labour (96, 96%). The results of this study helps define the standards of consent Irish patients expect for epidural analgesia during labour.

  2. Comparison of dural puncture epidural technique versus conventional epidural technique for labor analgesia in primigravida

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    Pritam Yadav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available >Background: Dural puncture epidural (DPE is a method in which a dural hole is created prior to epidural injection. This study was planned to evaluate whether dural puncture improves onset and duration of labor analgesia when compared to conventional epidural technique.Methods and Materials: Sixty term primigravida parturients of ASA grade I and II were randomly assigned to two groups of 30 each (Group E for conventional epidural and Group DE for dural puncture epidural. In group E, epidural space was identified and 18-gauge multi-orifice catheter was threaded 5 cm into the epidural space. In group DE, dura was punctured using the combines spinal epidural (CSE spinal needle and epidural catheter threaded as in group E followed by 10 ml of injection of Ropivacaine (0.2% with 20 mcg of Fentanyl (2 mcg/ml in fractions of 2.5 ml. Later, Ropivacaine 10 ml was given as a top-up on patient request. Onset, visual analouge scale (VAS, sensory and motor block, haemodynamic variables, duration of analgesia of initial dose were noted along with mode of delivery and the neonatal outcome.Results: Six parturients in group DE achieved adequate analgesia in 5 minutes while none of those in group E (P 0.05.Conclusions: Both techniques of labor analgesia are efficacious; dural puncture epidural has the potential to fasten onset and improve quality of labor analgesia when compared with conventional epidural technique.

  3. Analgesia after total hip replacement: epidural versus psoas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tive analgesia following total hip replacement surgery. The research design was a ... matoma, intra-abdominal injury and pain due to spasm of the lumbar paravertebral ..... 2. Brown DL. Spinal, epidural, and caudal anesthesia In: Miller RD, ed.

  4. Expectant fathers' experience during labor with or without epidural analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capogna, G; Camorcia, M; Stirparo, S

    2007-04-01

    For men the worst aspect of childbirth is witnessing their partner in pain. The aim of this study was to investigate fathers' attitudes towards labor and delivery with and without epidural analgesia. The study was performed using a questionnaire that included yes/no, multiple choice or 6-point ordinal scale answers. Expectant fathers whose partners were nullipara between 36 and 38 weeks of gestation were recruited and the questionnaires were administered on the day after the birth. To investigate paternal anxiety during labor, the State part of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used. The questionnaire was completed by 243 fathers. Sixty percent (145) of the parturients received epidural analgesia and 40% (98) did not. Paternal characteristics were comparable. Fathers whose partners did not receive epidural analgesia felt their presence as troublesome and unnecessary (Pinvolvement (Pfathers whose partners did not or did receive epidural analgesia (Pinvolvement, participation and satisfaction with the experience of childbirth.

  5. Effect of epidural analgesia on labor and its outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawad, A.; Naz, H.; Nelofar, T.; Abbasi, A.U.N.

    2015-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is an effective and popular way to relieve labour pain but it may interfere with normal mechanism of labour. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of labour in women with effective epidural analgesia in terms of duration of labour, mode of delivery and neonatal outcome. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Shaikh Zayed Federal Postgraduate Medical Institute and Hospital, Lahore. One hundred pregnant women were selected by non-probability convenient sampling method. Subjects were divided into two groups of 50 each as per convenience. Patients of any gravidity at term from 37-41 weeks were included in the sample. Epidural analgesia was applied to group B and distilled water to group A at the lumber region and the progress of labour, mode of delivery and effects on Apgar scores of neonates were evaluated. Out of hundred patients, 77 had normal duration of second stage while 23 had prolonged second stage. Among them, 18 patients (36%) were in epidural group and 5 patients (10%) in non-epidural group, while 4 patients (8%) in epidural group developed intra-partum complications; whereas among non-epidural group had such complications. 65 patients had spontaneous vaginal delivery while 35 patients had instrumental delivery. Among them 29 patients (58%) were in epidural group while only 6 patients (12%) were in non-epidural group. Babies born had Apgar score 5/10 (21.8%), 6/10 (59.4%) and 7/10 (17.8%) at 1 minute and 8/10 (74.3%) and 9/10 (24.8%) at 5 minutes in both groups and none of them needed bag and mask resuscitation. Conclusion: Epidural analgesia does prolong the duration of second stage of labour and increases the instrumental delivery rate. Neonatal outcome is satisfactory while only a few intra-partum complications are found with epidural analgesia. (author)

  6. EFFECT OF EPIDURAL ANALGESIA ON LABOR AND ITS OUTCOMES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Sadia; Anwar, Muhannad Waseem; Ahmad, Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is an effective and popular way to relieve labour pain but it may interfere with normal mechanism of labour. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of labour in women with effective epidural analgesia in terms of duration of labour, mode of delivery and neonatal outcome. This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Shaikh Zayed Federal Postgraduate Medical Institute and Hospital, Lahore. One hundred pregnant women were selected by non-probability convenient sampling method. Subjects were divided into two groups of. 50 each as per convenience. Patients of any gravidity at term from 37-41 weeks were included in the sample. Epidural analgesia was applied to group B and distilled water to group A at the lumber region and the progress of labour, mode of delivery and effects on Apgar scores of neonates were evaluated. Out of hundred patients, 77 had normal duration of second stage while 23 had prolonged second stage. Among them, 18 patients (36%) were in epidural group and 5 patients (10%) in non-epidural group, while 4 patients (8%) in epidural group developed intra-partum complications; whereas among non-epidural group had such complications. 65 patients had spontaneous vaginal delivery while 35 patients had instrumental delivery. Among them 29 patients (58%) were in epidural group while only 6 patients (12%) were in non-epidural group. Babies born had Apgar score 5/10 (21.8%), 6/10 (59.4%) and 7/10 (17.8%) at 1 minute and 8/10 (74.3%) and 9/10 (24.8%) at 5 minutes in both groups and none of them needed bag and mask resuscitation. Epidural analgesia does prolong the duration of second stage of labour and increases the instrumental delivery rate. Neonatal outcome is satisfactory while only a few intra-partum complications are found with epidural analgesia.

  7. How first time mothers experience the use of epidural analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    How first time mothers experience the use of epidural analgesia during birth Ingrid Jepsen, Midwife, SD, MPH, Kurt Dauer Keller cand.psych, PhD Contact email irj@ucn.dk Aim: to investigate the experiences of epidural analgesia as to the choice of epidurals, the changes in pain, the period from...... and two months later. The midwives were interviewed two hours after the birth. Method of analysis: The “Idealtype-” method, the “importance-” method and the “process-” method described by Bo Eneroth. Results: Two ideal-types were discovered: the worried and the unworried mother. Important and common...

  8. Combined spinal epidural labour analgesia: Complications and their management

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, Nurullah; KOCAMANOGLU, Ismail Serhat; ABANOZ, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Combined spinal-epidural analgesia (CSEA) is an effective and increasingly popular analgesia method used in vaginal delivery. CSEA provides rapid and excellent analgesia, allows mobilization, reduces drug consumption significantly and generally causes negligible maternal and fetal /neonatal adverse effects /complications not requiring treatment. The resulting adverse effects /complications are often associated with technical and /or agent/agents used and cause maternal and fetal /neonatal or,...

  9. LABOUR ANALGESIA: EPIDURAL DEXMEDITOMIDINE WITH EITHER BUPIVACAINE OR ROPIVACAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Varaprasad

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain relief in labour is associated with myths and controversies. Providing effective and safe analgesia has remained a challenge. AIM: The purpose of the study was to compare the effect of analgesia with epidural bupivacain or ropivacain along with dexme ditomidine. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Sixty parturients of ASA grade I and II were randomly selected for the study. Each group consisted of thirty patients. The analgesia, motor loss and level of seda...

  10. EPIDURAL LABOUR ANALGESIA IN IZOLA GENERAL HOSPITAL

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    Sabina Verem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study presents the experience with epidural analgesia (EPA for pain relief in Izola General Hospital from 2003 to 2006, the differences of labour between epidural analgesia and without it and the parturients’ satisfaction. Methods. A retrospective observational study was performed. Data were compared between 214 parturients with EPA matched by 214 parturients without. The control parturient was the equiipara with a term birth and the cephalic presentation of fetus that delivered just before the parturient of the EPA group. Maternal age, labor length, rate of oxitocin use, instrumental deliveries and cesarean sections, Apgar scores and birthweights were compared. The questionnaire was used to estimate the pain in 62 parturients. Results. In GH Izola in 214 parturients (10 % EPA was applied for labour pain relief in the period from July 2003 till December 2006. In the EPA group there was a statistically significance compared with the control group: higher parturients’ mean age (30.5 vs 28.7 y.o.; p < 0.0005, longer labour length (278 vs 222 min; p < 0.0005, higher oxitocin use rate (93.4 % vs 72.9 %; p < 0.0001 and higher instrumental delivery rate (vacuum extraction 14 % vs 1.9 %; p < 0.0001. The cesarean section rates were equal in both groups. Despite the higher instrumental delivery rate and the longer labour length in the EPA group there were no worse perinatal outcomes, neither was statisticaly significant difference in Apgar scores compared with the control group. The mean intensity of pain was highest before the EPA application (VAS 7, lowest during the transition stage (VAS 1.5 and some higher during the second phase (VAS 2.7. Most of parturients in the EPA group were satisfied; 92 % of them evaluated the EPA as good or very good. Conclusions. EPA is a very effective method for pain control during labor. The parturients’ satisfaction with this pain control method is appropriate. Despite the higher instrumental

  11. Fluoroscopically guided tunneled trans-caudal epidural catheter technique for opioid-free neonatal epidural analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Andrew D; Hughes, Elisabeth M

    2016-06-01

    Epidural analgesia confers significant perioperative advantages to neonates undergoing surgical procedures but may be very technically challenging to place using a standard interlaminar loss-of-resistance to saline technique given the shallow depth of the epidural space. Thoracic epidural catheters placed via the caudal route may reduce the risk of direct neural injury from needle placement, but often pose higher risks of infection and/or improper positioning if placed without radiographic guidance. We present a detailed method of placing a fluoroscopically guided, tunneled transcaudal epidural catheter, which may reduce both of these risks. The accuracy and precision of this technique often provides adequate analgesia to allow for opioid-free epidural infusions as well as significant reductions in systemic opioids through the perioperative period. Opioid-free analgesia using a regional anesthetic technique allows for earlier extubation and reduced perioperative sedation, which may have a less deleterious neurocognitive effect on the developing brain of the neonate.

  12. Is urinary drainage necessary during continuous epidural analgesia after colonic resection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, L; Werner, M; Kehlet, H

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Postoperative urinary retention may occur in between 10% and 60% of patients after major surgery. Continuous lumbar epidural analgesia, in contrast to thoracic epidural analgesia, may inhibit urinary bladder function. Postoperative urinary drainage has been common...... that routine bladder catheterization beyond postoperative day 1 may not be necessary in patients with ongoing continuous low-dose thoracic epidural analgesia....

  13. Epidural blood flow and regression of sensory analgesia during continuous postoperative epidural infusion of bupivacaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Højgaard, L; Scott, N B

    1988-01-01

    Epidural blood flow was measured in seven patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery during combined lumbar epidural and general anesthesia. After an initial dose of 20 ml plain bupivacaine 0.5%, a continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine 0.5% (8 ml/hr) was given for 16 hours for postopera......Epidural blood flow was measured in seven patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery during combined lumbar epidural and general anesthesia. After an initial dose of 20 ml plain bupivacaine 0.5%, a continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine 0.5% (8 ml/hr) was given for 16 hours...... surgery, and 8, 12, and 16 hours later during the continuous infusion. Initial blood flow was 6.0 +/- 0.7 ml/min per 100 g tissue (mean +/- SEM). After epidural bupivacaine, blood flow increased in all seven patients to 7.4 +/- 0.7 ml (P less than 0.02). Initial level of sensory analgesia was T4.5 +/- 0...... than 0.03) in the other five patients as the level of sensory analgesia regressed postoperatively. These data suggest that changes in epidural blood flow during continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine, and thus changes in rates of vascular absorption of bupivacaine from the epidural space, may...

  14. Remifentanil patient controlled analgesia versus epidural analgesia in labour. A multicentre randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Liv M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain relief during labour is a topic of major interest in the Netherlands. Epidural analgesia is considered to be the most effective method of pain relief and recommended as first choice. However its uptake by pregnant women is limited compared to other western countries, partly as a result of non-availability due to logistic problems. Remifentanil, a synthetic opioid, is very suitable for patient controlled analgesia. Recent studies show that epidural analgesia is superior to remifentanil patient controlled analgesia in terms of pain intensity score; however there was no difference in satisfaction with pain relief between both treatments. Methods/design The proposed study is a multicentre randomized controlled study that assesses the cost-effectiveness of remifentanil patient controlled analgesia compared to epidural analgesia. We hypothesize that remifentanil patient controlled analgesia is as effective in improving pain appreciation scores as epidural analgesia, with lower costs and easier achievement of 24 hours availability of pain relief for women in labour and efficient pain relief for those with a contraindication for epidural analgesia. Eligible women will be informed about the study and randomized before active labour has started. Women will be randomly allocated to a strategy based on epidural analgesia or on remifentanil patient controlled analgesia when they request pain relief during labour. Primary outcome is the pain appreciation score, i.e. satisfaction with pain relief. Secondary outcome parameters are costs, patient satisfaction, pain scores (pain-intensity, mode of delivery and maternal and neonatal side effects. The economic analysis will be performed from a short-term healthcare perspective. For both strategies the cost of perinatal care for mother and child, starting at the onset of labour and ending ten days after delivery, will be registered and compared. Discussion This study, considering cost

  15. Optimal Dose of Epidural Dexmedetomidine Added to Ropivacaine for Epidural Labor Analgesia: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wangping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dexmedetomidine combined with local anesthetics can decrease the concentration of epidural ropivacaine. However, the optimal dose of epidural dexmedetomidine combined with ropivacaine for labor analgesia is still uncertain. This study investigated the effect of adding different dose of epidural dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine during epidural labor analgesia. Methods. One hundred women were randomly assigned to one of the four groups (Groups A, B, C, and D received 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 μg/ml of dexmedetomidine plus 0.1% ropivacaine, resp.. The onset of epidural anesthesia and stages of labor were studied, and pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS. Hemodynamic parameters and fetal heart rate were monitored. Apgar scores and umbilical artery pH were recorded. The side effects, if any, were recorded also. Results. The addition of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 μg/ml of dexmedetomidine to 0.1% ropivacaine provided safe and effective analgesia, but 1 μg/ml of dexmedetomidine resulted in increasing incidence of motor block. The hemodynamic parameters were similar between groups (P>0.05. Side effects in Group D were significantly higher than those in the other three groups (P<0.05. Conclusions. When dexmedetomidine is combined with 0.1% ropivacaine, the optimal concentration of dexmedetomidine is 0.5 μg/ml for epidural labor analgesia (this trial is registered with ChiCTR-OPC-16008548.

  16. Fetal effects of combined spinal-epidural vs epidural labour analgesia: a prospective, randomised double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, N P; El-Wahab, N; Fernando, R; Wilson, S; Robson, S C; Columb, M O; Lyons, G R

    2014-05-01

    We have compared fetal heart rate patterns, Apgar scores and umbilical cord gas values following initiation of labour analgesia using either combined spinal-epidural or epidural. One hundred and fifteen healthy women requesting neuraxial analgesia in the first stage of labour were randomly assigned to receive either combined spinal-epidural (n = 62) or epidural analgesia (n = 53). Fetal heart rate traces, recorded for 30 min before and 60 min after neuraxial block, were categorised as normal, suspicious or pathological according to national guidelines. Sixty-one fetal heart rate tracings were analysed in the combined spinal-epidural group and 52 in the epidural group. No significant differences were found in fetal heart rate patterns, Apgar scores or umbilical artery and vein acid-base status between groups. However, in both combined spinal-epidural and epidural groups, there was a significant increase in the incidence of abnormal fetal heart rate patterns following neuraxial analgesia (p analgesia in the combined spinal-epidural group and zero before compared with 11 after in the epidural group. These changes comprised increased decelerations (p = 0.0045) (combined spinal-epidural group nine before and 14 after analgesia, epidural group four before and 16 after), increased late decelerations (p analgesia, epidural group zero before and eight after), and a reduction in acceleration rate (p = 0.034) (combined spinal-epidural group mean (SD) 12.2 (6.7) h(-1) before and 9.9 (6.1) h(-1) after analgesia, epidural group 11.0 (7.3) h(-1) before and 8.4 (5.9) h(-1) after). These fetal heart rate changes did not affect neonatal outcome in this healthy population. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. Thoracic epidural analgesia in donor hepatectomy: An analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Archna; Pant, Deepanjali; Rudravaram, Swetha; Sood, Jayashree

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze whether supplementation of general anesthesia (GA) with thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) for right lobe donor hepatectomy is a safe modality of pain relief in terms of changes in postoperative coagulation profile, incidence of epidural catheter-related complications, and timing of removal of epidural catheter. Retrospective analysis of the record of 104 patients who received TEA for right lobe donor hepatectomy was done. Platelet count, international normalized ratio, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase were recorded postoperatively until the removal of the epidural catheter. The day of removal of the epidural catheter and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were also recorded. Any complication encountered was documented. Intraoperatively, central venous pressure (CVP), hemodynamic variables, and volume of intravenous fluids infused were also noted. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS statistical package, version 17.0 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL). Continuous variables were presented as mean ± standard deviation. A total of 90% of patients had mean VAS scores between 1 and 4 in the postoperative period between days 1 and 5. None of the patients had a VAS score above 5. Although changes in coagulation status were encountered in all patients in the postoperative period, these changes were transient and did not persist beyond postoperative day (POD) 5. There was no delay in removal of the epidural catheter, and the majority of patients had the catheter removed by POD 4. There was no incidence of epidural hematoma. Aside from good intraoperative and postoperative analgesia, TEA in combination with balanced GA and fluid restriction enabled maintenance of low CVP and prevention of hepatic congestion. In conclusion, vigilant use of TEA appears to be safe during donor hepatectomy. Living liver donors should not be denied efficient analgesia for the fear of complications. Liver Transplantation 24 214

  18. Paraplegia following epidural analgesia: A potentially avoidable cause?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeson R Doctor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological deficit is an uncommon but catastrophic complication of epidural anesthesia. Epidural hematomas and abscesses are the most common causes of such neurological deficit. We report the case of a patient with renal cell carcinoma with lumbar vertebral metastasis who developed paraplegia after receiving thoracic epidural anesthesia for a nephrectomy. Subsequently, on histo-pathological examination of the laminectomy specimen, the patient was found to have previously undiagnosed thoracic vertebral metastases which led to a thoracic epidural hematoma. In addition, delayed reporting of symptoms of neurological deficit by the patient may have impacted his outcome. Careful pre-operative investigation, consideration to using alternative modalities of analgesia, detailed patient counseling and stringent monitoring of patients receiving central neuraxial blockade is essential to prevent such complications.

  19. Effects of maternal epidural analgesia on the neonate--a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bikash; Devgan, Amit; Sharma, Mukti

    2014-12-10

    Epidural analgesia is one of the most popular modes of analgesia for child birth. There are controversies regarding adverse effects and safety of epidural analgesia. This study was conducted to study the immediate effects of the maternal epidural analgesia on the neonate during early neonatal phase. A prospective cohort study of 100 neonates born to mothers administered epidural analgesia were compared with 100 neonates born to mothers not administered epidural analgesia in terms of passage of urine, initiation of breast feeding, birth asphyxia and incidence of instrumentation. There was significant difference among the two groups in the passage of urine (P value 0.002) and incidence of instrumentation (P value 0.010) but there was no significant difference in regards to initiation of breast feeding and birth asphyxia. Epidural analgesia does not have any effect on the newborns in regards to breast feeding and birth asphyxia but did have effects like delayed passage of urine and increased incidence of instrumentation.

  20. Extending labor epidural analgesia using lidocaine plus either dexmedetomidine or epinephrine for emergency cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riham Hasanein

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Epidural dexmedetomidine is comparable to epinephrine as an adjuvant to epidural lidocaine in fastening the onset of surgical anesthesia and resulted in better intraoperative analgesia and in longer duration of sensory and motor block in the settings of converting labor epidural analgesia for emergency CS.

  1. Labor analgesia: An update on the effect of epidural analgesia on labor outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the introduction of epidural for labor analgesia, debate has centered on the issue of its effect on outcome of labor; in terms of length of labor and increase in the rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and cesarean section (CS. There is no ideal study on the effect of epidural analgesia (EA on the outcome of labor due to logistic problems in randomization, blinding and getting a control group; as a result these queries are partly answered. Despite these problems, it has been established that labor epidural has minimal effect on progress of established labor and maternal request should be a sufficient indication to start an epidural. Although instrumental vaginal delivery is probably increased with epidural but obstetrician practice, pain free patient and teaching opportunity are likely factors increasing the incidence. Maternal-fetal factors and obstetric management and not the use of EA are the most important determinants of the CS rate. The purpose of this review is to summarize data from controlled trials addressing the question of whether neuraxial labor analgesia causes an increased risk of CS or rate of instrumental delivery. In addition, the review discusses whether the timing of initiation of analgesia infl uences the mode of delivery.

  2. Safety and efficacy of prolonged epidural analgesia after oncologic colorectal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Garyaev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates effective thoracic epidural analgesia by ropivacain 0.2 %, phentanyl 2 mkg/ml, adrenaline 2 mkg/ml in single-use infusion pumps in 124 patients, who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer. Safe, effective and controllable analgesia was observed during surgery and postoperative period. Prolonged analgesia facilitates early rehabilitation and improves gastrointestinal peristaltic activity.  Prolonged epidural analgesia is the recommended method of analgesia in this group of patients.

  3. Epidural postoperative analgesia with tramadol after abdominal hysterectomy

    OpenAIRE

    González-Pérez, E.; González-Cabrera, N.; Nieto-Monteagudo, C. G.; Águila, D. P. C.; Santiago, A.; Rodríguez-Santos, C.

    2006-01-01

    Introducción: El dolor postoperatorio es un tipo especial de dolor agudo cuyo control inadecuado conduce a reacciones fisiopatológicas anormales. Objetivos: Evaluar la utilidad del tramadol por vía epidural en la analgesia postoperatoria de las pacientes a quienes se les practicó histerectomía abdominal. Material y método: Se estudiaron 90 pacientes que conformaron tres grupos: Grupo I: recibió 100 mg de tramadol epidural cada 6 h. Grupo II: recibió 1,2 g de metamizol por vía intramuscular ca...

  4. EPIDURAL ANALGESIA DURING LABOR Analgesia epidural para el trabajo de parto

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    Juan Carlos Zafra Pedone

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The labor pain affect to all pregnant woman and it has biochemical and physiological changes that affect to mother and fetus and interact with your normal evolution. Currently there are analgesic techniques to less effectively labor pain, to provide a high satisfaction level and supply clinical and laboratory beneficial outcomes. In own context these techniques are very low used. Objective: To describe the use of epidural analgesic procedures in a pregnancy woman group during labor at the Universitarian Hospital San Jose – Popayan, Colombia. Materials and methods: Case series design. We recollected information of patients from Obstetric service during two months of 2006. The patient’s information was recollected from medical history with an instrument that content variables related with the analgesic technique and labor. The analyses were performed using descriptive statistics Results: 41 pregnant woman with a mean age of 23,4 were included. 65,9% were nulliparous and 85,4% were term pregnancy. At the moment of dural puncture the dilation and EVA pain scale mode was 6 and 8 respectively. The latency mean was 14,1 minutes. 95,1% were require a booster applied in a mean of 80 minutes and 61% were required a second booster applied in a mean of 49 min after that. The way of termination of pregnancy was vaginal predominantly. Conclusions: The results of this study are congruent to reporting in the world literature. These conclusions support the effectiveness of epidural analgesia and its favorable benefit/risk relation to the control of labor pain. Introducción: El dolor asociado con el trabajo de parto afecta a todas las pacientes e involucra alteraciones que afectan a la madre y al feto e interactúan interfiriendo con su evolución normal. Actualmente disponemos de alternativas analgésicas peridurales que han demostrado controlar en forma efectiva el dolor, proporcionar un alto grado de satisfacción de las pacientes y proveer

  5. The experience of labour with epidural analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Ingrid; Keller, Kurt Dauer

    2014-01-01

    to the labouring woman’s relationship with the midwife, which represents an essential influencing factor on the woman’ experience of labour. Within this relationship, some rather unnoticed matters of communication and recognition appear to be of decisive significance. Conclusion: After initiation of epidural...

  6. Analgesia epidural para el alivio del dolor después del reemplazo de cadera o de rodilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Conclusiones de los autores: La analgesia epidural puede ser útil para el alivio del dolor postoperatorio después de reemplazos importantes de articulaciones de los miembros inferiores. Sin embargo, los efectos beneficiosos pueden estar limitados al período postoperatorio temprano (cuatro a seis horas. Una infusión epidural de anestésico local o una mezcla de anestésico-narcótico local puede ser mejor que un narcótico epidural solo. La magnitud del alivio del dolor se debe sopesar contra la frecuencia de eventos adversos. Las pruebas actuales no son suficientes para establecer conclusiones sobre la frecuencia de complicaciones poco frecuentes de la analgesia epidural, la morbilidad o mortalidad postoperatorias, los resultados funcionales o la duración de la estancia hospitalaria.

  7. Remifentanil patient controlled analgesia versus epidural analgesia in labour. A multicentre randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freeman, Liv M.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Franssen, Maureen T. M.; Papatsonis, Dimitri N. M.; Hajenius, Petra J.; van Huizen, Marloes E.; Bremer, Henk A.; van den Akker, Eline S. A.; Woiski, Mallory D.; Porath, Martina M.; van Beek, Erik; Schuitemaker, Nico; van der Salm, Paulien C. M.; Fong, Bianca F.; Radder, Celine; Bax, Caroline J.; Sikkema, Marko; van den Akker-van Marle, M. Elske; van Lith, Jan M. M.; Lopriore, Enrico; Uildriks, Renske J.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Dahan, Albert; Middeldorp, Johanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pain relief during labour is a topic of major interest in the Netherlands. Epidural analgesia is considered to be the most effective method of pain relief and recommended as first choice. However its uptake by pregnant women is limited compared to other western countries, partly as a

  8. Remifentanil patient controlled analgesia versus epidural analgesia in labour. A multicentre randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freeman, L.M.; Bloemenkamp, K.W.; Franssen, M.T.; Papatsonis, D.N.; Hajenius, P.J.; Huizen, M.E. van; Bremer, H.A.; Akker, E.S. van den; Woiski, M.D.; Porath, M.M.; Beek, E. van; Schuitemaker, N.; Salm, P.C. van der; Fong, B.F.; Radder, C.; Bax, C.J.; Sikkema, M.; Akker-van Marle, M.E. van den; Lith, J.M. van; Lopriore, E.; Uildriks, R.J.; Struys, M.M.; Mol, B.W.; Dahan, A; Middeldorp, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pain relief during labour is a topic of major interest in the Netherlands. Epidural analgesia is considered to be the most effective method of pain relief and recommended as first choice. However its uptake by pregnant women is limited compared to other western countries,

  9. Epidural analgesia practices for labour: results of a 2005 national survey in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, Rebecca A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The last 25 years have seen changes in the management of epidural analgesia for labour, including the advent of low-dose epidural analgesia, the development of new local anaesthetic agents, various regimes for maintaining epidural analgesia and the practice of combined spinal-epidural analgesia. We conducted a survey of Irish obstetric anaesthetists to obtain information regarding the conduct and management of obstetric epidural analgesia in Ireland in 2005. The specific objective of this survey was to discover whether new developments in obstetric anaesthesia have been incorporated into clinical practice. METHODS: A postal survey was sent to all anaesthetists with a clinical commitment for obstetric anaesthesia in the sites approved for training by the College of Anaesthetists, Ireland. RESULTS: Fifty-three per cent of anaesthetists surveyed responded. The majority of anaesthetists (98%) use low-dose epidural analgesia for the maintenance of analgesia. Only 11% use it for test-dosing and 32% for the induction of analgesia. The combined spinal-epidural analgesia method is used by 49%, but two-thirds of those who use it perform fewer than five per month. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia was in use at only one site. CONCLUSION: It appears that Irish obstetric anaesthetists have adopted the low-dose epidural analgesia trend for the maintenance of labour analgesia. This practice is not as widespread, however, for test dosing, the induction of analgesia dose or in the administration of intermittent epidural boluses to maintain analgesia when higher concentrations are used. Since its introduction in 2000, levobupivacaine has become the most popular local anaesthetic agent.

  10. Epidural analgesia practices for labour: results of a 2005 national survey in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Rebecca A; Briggs, Liam P; Carey, Michael F

    2009-03-01

    The last 25 years have seen changes in the management of epidural analgesia for labour, including the advent of low-dose epidural analgesia, the development of new local anaesthetic agents, various regimes for maintaining epidural analgesia and the practice of combined spinal-epidural analgesia. We conducted a survey of Irish obstetric anaesthetists to obtain information regarding the conduct and management of obstetric epidural analgesia in Ireland in 2005. The specific objective of this survey was to discover whether new developments in obstetric anaesthesia have been incorporated into clinical practice. A postal survey was sent to all anaesthetists with a clinical commitment for obstetric anaesthesia in the sites approved for training by the College of Anaesthetists, Ireland. Fifty-three per cent of anaesthetists surveyed responded. The majority of anaesthetists (98%) use low-dose epidural analgesia for the maintenance of analgesia. Only 11% use it for test-dosing and 32% for the induction of analgesia. The combined spinal-epidural analgesia method is used by 49%, but two-thirds of those who use it perform fewer than five per month. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia was in use at only one site. It appears that Irish obstetric anaesthetists have adopted the low-dose epidural analgesia trend for the maintenance of labour analgesia. This practice is not as widespread, however, for test dosing, the induction of analgesia dose or in the administration of intermittent epidural boluses to maintain analgesia when higher concentrations are used. Since its introduction in 2000, levobupivacaine has become the most popular local anaesthetic agent.

  11. Effects of epidural analgesia on labor length, instrumental delivery, and neonatal short-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Junichi; Farina, Antonio; Turchi, Giovanni; Hasegawa, Yuko; Zanello, Margherita; Baroncini, Simonetta

    2013-02-01

    We aimed to clarify whether the short-term adverse neonatal outcomes associated with epidural analgesia are due to the epidural analgesia itself or to the instrumental delivery. A retrospective case-control study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between epidural analgesia, labor length, and perinatal outcomes. A total of 350 pregnant women at term who delivered under epidural analgesia (cases) were compared with 1400 patients without epidural analgesia (controls). Vacuum extraction (6.5 vs. 2.9 %) and cesarean section (19.9 vs. 11.1 %) were more frequently performed in the cases than controls (p neonatal variables stratified by mode of delivery were not different in cases and controls, except for a slightly lower umbilical arterial pH in spontaneous delivery for the cases group. However, the Apgar scores and umbilical arterial pH were significantly lower in the neonates delivered by vacuum extraction compared with those in the neonates delivered by spontaneous delivery or cesarean section, regardless of whether epidural analgesia was performed. A multivariable analysis showed that vacuum extraction much more consistently affected the arterial pH than the analgesia itself (the β coefficients were -0.036 for epidural analgesia vs. -0.050 for vacuum extraction). Epidural analgesia was associated with slowly progressing labor, thus resulting in an increased rate of instrumental delivery. This instrumental delivery appears to adversely affect the neonatal outcomes more strongly than the analgesia itself.

  12. A randomized, controlled trial comparing local infiltration analgesia with epidural infusion for total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karen Vestergaard; Bak, Marie; Christensen, Birgitte Viebæk

    2010-01-01

    There have been few studies describing wound infiltration with additional intraarticular administration of multimodal analgesia for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In this study, we assessed the efficacy of wound infiltration combined with intraarticular regional analgesia with epidural infusion...

  13. Differences in maternal temperature during labour with remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia or epidural analgesia: a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, M.R.; Stienstra, R.; Middeldorp, J.M.; Arbous, M.S.; Dahan, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidural analgesia and remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia are two popular techniques for the treatment of labour pain, each with its own efficacy and toxicity. METHODS: Parturients requesting analgesia were randomly assigned to either patient-controlled intravenous remifentanil or

  14. Evaluation of prolonged epidural chloroprocaine for postoperative analgesia in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Emma L; Reiter, Pamela D; Murphy, Michael E; Bielsky, Alan R

    2015-09-01

    To describe the use and adverse effects of chloroprocaine for epidural analgesia in young infants for infusion durations greater than 3.5 hours. A retrospective cohort review of the electronic medical record over a 14-month period. The level IV neonatal intensive care unit of a 414-bed free-standing children's hospital. Eighteen infants (mean age, 1.7 ± 1.8 months [0.03-6.3]; mean weight, 3.8 ± 1.3 kg [1.56-6.9]; n = 10 [55%] males) received 1% chloroprocaine for epidural analgesia postoperatively for up to 96-hour duration and met criteria for inclusion. Dosing requirements, placement of epidural catheter, supplementary analgesic therapy, respiratory support, vital signs, and incidence of adverse events associated with local anesthetics were collected. Epidural catheter placement was caudal (n = 8), lumbar (n = 6), or thoracic (n = 4). Mean operative time was 2.48 ± 1 hour (1-5). Initial chloroprocaine dose was 1.3 ± 0.5 mL/h (0.4-2.5) (3.5 ± 1 mg/kg per hour [1.4-5]) with a maximum dose of 1.5 ± 0.6 mL/h (0.4-3) (4.2 ± 1.1 mg/kg per hour [2.2-6.1]). Duration of epidural analgesia was 48.3 ± 21.5 hours (10-96). Duration of epidural infusion did not influence dosing requirement, suggesting the absence of drug tachyphylaxis. All patients received intermittent doses of opioid and nonopioid pain medications while receiving chloroprocaine. Two mechanically ventilated patients required continuous infusion of opioids. No adverse events were directly attributed to chloroprocaine use. Epidural 1% chloroprocaine, in doses of 0.4-3 mL/h (1.5-6.1 mg/kg per hour), was well tolerated in both mechanically ventilated and spontaneously breathing infants for up to 96 hours with no identified adverse effects or tachyphylaxis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Early versus late initiation of epidural analgesia for labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sng, Ban Leong; Leong, Wan Ling; Zeng, Yanzhi; Siddiqui, Fahad Javaid; Assam, Pryseley N; Lim, Yvonne; Chan, Edwin S Y; Sia, Alex T

    2014-10-09

    Pain during childbirth is arguably the most severe pain some women may experience in their lifetime. Epidural analgesia is an effective form of pain relief during labour. Many women have concerns regarding its safety. Furthermore, epidural services and anaesthetic support may not be available consistently across all centres. Observational data suggest that early initiation of epidural may be associated with an increased risk of caesarean section, but the same findings were not seen in recent randomised controlled trials. More recent guidelines suggest that in the absence of a medical contraindication, maternal request is a sufficient medical indication for pain relief during labour. The choice of analgesic technique, agent, and dosage is based on many factors, including patient preference, medical status, and contraindications. There is no systematically reviewed evidence on the maternal and foetal outcomes and safety of this practice. This systematic review aimed to summarise the effectiveness and safety of early initiation versus late initiation of epidural analgesia in women. We considered the obstetric and fetal outcomes relevant to women and side effects of the treatments, including risk of caesarean section, instrumental birth and time to birth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (12 February 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (January 1966 to February 2014), Embase (January 1980 to February 2014) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We included all randomised controlled trials involving women undergoing epidural labour analgesia that compared early initiation versus late initiation of epidural labour analgesia. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted the data and assessed the trial quality. Data were checked for accuracy. We included nine studies with a total of 15,752 women.The overall risk of bias of

  16. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial of thoracic epidural or patient-controlled opiate analgesia on perioperative quality of life.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, M

    2010-03-01

    Perioperative epidural analgesia provides continuous pain control and may have advantages over parenteral opiate administration. This study assessed the impact of epidural analgesia on quality of life (QOL) of patients undergoing major surgery.

  17. [Benefits of epidural analgesia in major neonatal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Chacón, J; Encarnación, J; Couselo, M; Mangas, L; Domenech, A; Gutiérrez, C; García Sala, C

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate the benefits of epidural anesthesia in major surgery neonatal. We have performed a matched case-control (2:1) study of patients undergoing neonatal major surgery (NMSs) who received intra-and postoperative epidural anesthesia (EA) and controls with conventional general anesthesia. The matching criteria were age, weight and baseline pathology. EA was administered by caudal puncture and epidural catheter placed with ultrasound support. Levobupivacaine was selected as anesthetic drug. The time to extubation, intestinal transit time, type of analgesia and complications were studied. This study is based on 11 cases (2 esophageal atresia, 2 diaphragmatic hernias, 1 necrotizing enterocolitis, 3 intestinal atresia, 2 anorectal malformation and 1 bladder exstrophy) and 22 controls. We observed statistically significant differences in time to extubation (95% CI OR 12 1.99 to 72.35; Chi2 p = 0.004, Mann U Whytney p = 0.013) and intestinal transit time (Mann Whitney U p analgesia. Therefore we believe that the intra-and postoperative EA helps improve postoperative management in neonates and should be preferred in centers where this technique is available.

  18. Epidural blood flow and regression of sensory analgesia during continuous postoperative epidural infusion of bupivacaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Højgaard, L; Scott, N B

    1988-01-01

    Epidural blood flow was measured in seven patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery during combined lumbar epidural and general anesthesia. After an initial dose of 20 ml plain bupivacaine 0.5%, a continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine 0.5% (8 ml/hr) was given for 16 hours...... for postoperative pain relief. The epidural blood flow was measured by a local 133Xe clearance technique in which 15-35 MBq 133Xe diluted in 1 ml saline was injected through the epidural catheter on the day before surgery (no bupivacaine), 30 minutes after the initial dose of bupivacaine on the morning before...... surgery, and 8, 12, and 16 hours later during the continuous infusion. Initial blood flow was 6.0 +/- 0.7 ml/min per 100 g tissue (mean +/- SEM). After epidural bupivacaine, blood flow increased in all seven patients to 7.4 +/- 0.7 ml (P less than 0.02). Initial level of sensory analgesia was T4.5 +/- 0...

  19. Effect of postoperative epidural analgesia on rehabilitation and pain after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Bang; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne

    2005-01-01

    Hip fracture surgery usually carries a high demand for rehabilitation and a significant risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Postoperative epidural analgesia may reduce morbidity and has been shown to facilitate rehabilitation in elective orthopedic procedures. No studies exist...... on the effect of postoperative epidural analgesia on pain and rehabilitation after hip fracture surgery....

  20. Can oxytocin augmentation modify the risk of epidural analgesia by maternal age in cesarean sections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossen, Janne; Klungsøyr, Kari; Albrechtsen, Susanne; Løkkegård, Ellen; Rasmussen, Steen; Bergholt, Thomas; Skjeldestad, Finn E

    2018-03-07

    Maternal age is an established risk factor for cesarean section; epidural analgesia and oxytocin augmentation may modify this association. We investigated the effects and interactions of oxytocin augmentation, epidural analgesia and maternal age on the risk of cesarean section. In all, 416 386 nulliparous women with spontaneous onset of labor, ≥37 weeks of gestation and singleton infants with a cephalic presentation during 2000-2011 from Norway and Denmark were included [Ten-group classification system (Robson) group 1]. In this case-control study the main exposure was maternal age; epidural analgesia, oxytocin augmentation, birthweight and time period were explanatory variables. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to estimate associations and interactions. The cesarean section rate increased consistently with advancing maternal age, both overall and in strata of epidural analgesia and oxytocin augmentation. We observed strong interactions between maternal age, oxytocin augmentation and epidural analgesia for the risk of cesarean section. Women with epidural analgesia generally had a reduced adjusted odds ratio when oxytocin was used compared with when it was not used. In Norway, this applied to all maternal age groups but in Denmark only for women ≥30 years. Among women without epidural, oxytocin augmentation was associated with an increased odds ratio for cesarean section in Denmark, whereas no difference was observed in Norway. Oxytocin augmentation in nulliparous women with epidural analgesia is associated with a reduced risk of cesarean section in labor with spontaneous onset. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Retrospective study of the association between epidural analgesia during labour and complications for the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Gómez, A; García-Martínez, O; Ramos-Torrecillas, J; De Luna-Bertos, E; Ruiz, C; Ocaña-Peinado, F M

    2015-06-01

    our objective was to determine the association between epidural analgesia and different variables. the effect on newborns of epidural analgesia administered to the mother during labour remains under debate. this association was retrospectively investigated in a cohort of 2399 children born in a Spanish public hospital. Only full-term (>37 weeks of gestation) deliveries were included. Other exclusion criteria were: induced delivery (medical or obstetric indication), elective caesarean section, or the presence of an important pregnancy risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, severe disease, toxaemia, retarded intrauterine growth, chronologically prolonged pregnancy, prolonged membrane rupture (>24 hours), oligoamnios, or polyhydramnios). The Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher׳s exact test were applied to determine the relationship between variables. Apgar index values at one minute and five minutes were slightly but significantly lower in neonates whose mothers had received epidural analgesia. Neonatal intensive care unit admission was significantly more frequent in the epidural versus non-epidural group. Resuscitation was significantly more frequent in the epidural versus non-epidural group. Early breast feeding onset was more frequent in the non-epidural group. The adverse effect of epidural analgesia on early lactation remained significant after adjusting for NICU admission and the need for resuscitation in a logistic regression analysis. Epidural analgesia may have adverse effects on newborns, although the risks are low, and further research is required to elucidate the causal nature of this relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparison of intrathecal dexmedetomidine verses intrathecal fentanyl with epidural bupivacaine for combined spinal epidural labor analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    P K Dilesh; S Eapen; S Kiran; Vivek Chopra

    2014-01-01

    Context: Combined spinal epidural (CSE) analgesia technique is effective for labor analgesia and various concentrations of bupivacaine and lipophilic opioids like fentanyl have been studied. Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective alpha 2 adrenoreceptor agonist with analgesic properties and has been used intrathecally with bupivacaine for prolonged postoperative analgesia. Recent reviews have shown that it is highly lipophilic and does not cross placenta significantly. Aim: The aim of this s...

  3. Combined epidural-spinal opioid-free anaesthesia and analgesia for hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, T; Schouenborg, Lars Øland; Nielsen, D

    1999-01-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are major problems after gynaecological surgery. We studied 40 patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy, allocated randomly to receive opioid-free epidural-spinal anaesthesia or general anaesthesia with continuous epidural bupivacaine 15 mg h-1...... or continuous bupivacaine 10 mg h-1 with epidural morphine 0.2 mg h-1, respectively, for postoperative analgesia. Nausea, vomiting, pain and bowel function were scored on 4-point scales for 3 days. Patients undergoing general anaesthesia had significantly higher nausea and vomiting scores (P ... for hysterectomy caused less PONV, but with less effective analgesia compared with general anaesthesia with postoperative continuous epidural morphine and bupivacaine....

  4. Postoperative analgesia after major spine surgery: patient-controlled epidural analgesia versus patient-controlled intravenous analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Michael R; Putzier, Michael; Kügler, Bjoern; Tohtz, Stephan; Voigt, Kristina; Schink, Tania; Kox, Wolfgang J; Spies, Claudia; Volk, Thomas

    2006-11-01

    Spinal fusion surgery causes severe postoperative pain, hampering reconvalescense. We investigated the efficacy of patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) in a prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled comparison with patient-controlled IV analgesia (PCIA). After lumbar anterior-posterior fusion receiving an epidural catheter intraoperatively, 72 patients were given either PCEA (ropivacaine 0.125% and sufentanil 1.0 microg/mL at 14 mL/h; bolus: 5 mL; lockout time: 15 min) and IV placebo or PCIA (morphine 2.0 mg/mL; bolus: 3 mg; lockout time: 15 min) and epidural placebo. Pain levels (visual analog scale 0-10), functional capabilities (turning in bed, standing, and walking), analgesic consumption, and side effects were evaluated until 72 h after surgery. Fourteen patients were excluded by predetermined criteria, leaving 58 patients for data analysis. Pain levels at rest and during mobilization were significantly lower in the PCEA when compared with that in the PCIA group throughout the study period (P turn in bed was achieved earlier in the PCEA group (P Patients in the PCEA group were significantly more satisfied with pain therapy (P patient satisfaction when compared with PCIA after spinal fusion surgery.

  5. Epidural analgesia in patients with traumatic rib fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duch, P; Møller, M H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traumatic rib fractures are a common condition associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Observational studies have suggested improved outcome in patients receiving continuous epidural analgesia (CEA). The aim of the present systematic review of randomised controlled trials...... (RCTs) was to assess the benefit and harm of CEA compared with other analgesic interventions in patients with traumatic rib fractures. METHODS: We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA). Eligible trials were RCTs comparing CEA with other analgesic...... interventions in patients with traumatic rib fractures. Cumulative relative risks (RRs) and mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, and risk of systematic and random errors was assessed. The predefined primary outcome measures were mortality, pneumonia and duration...

  6. Intravenous Remifentanil versus Epidural Ropivacaine with Sufentanil for Labour Analgesia: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhendong; Su, Jing; Liu, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Remifentanil with appropriate pharmacological properties seems to be an ideal alternative to epidural analgesia during labour. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of remifentanil intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA) compared with epidural analgesia. Medical records of 370 primiparas who received remifentanil IVPCA or epidural analgesia were reviewed. Pain and sedation scores, overall satisfaction, the extent of pain control, maternal side effects and neonatal outcome as primary observational indicators were collected. There was a significant decline of pain scores in both groups. Pain reduction was greater in the epidural group throughout the whole study period (0∼180 min) (Panalgesia. And logistic regression analysis demonstrated that nausea, vomiting were associated with oxytocin usage and instrumental delivery, and dizziness was associated to the type and duration of analgesia. Neonatal outcomes such as Apgar scores and umbilical-cord blood gas analysis were within the normal range, but umbilical pH and base excess of neonatus in the remifentanil group were significantly lower. Remifentanil IVPCA provides poorer efficacy on labor analgesia than epidural analgesia, with more sedation on parturients and a trend of newborn acidosis. Despite these adverse effects, remifentanil IVPCA can still be an alternative option for labor analgesia under the condition of one-to-one bedside care, continuous monitoring, oxygen supply and preparation for neonatal resuscitation. PMID:25386749

  7. Labor induction just after external cephalic version with epidural analgesia at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuerva, Marcos J; Piñel, Carlos S; Caceres, Javier; Espinosa, Jose A

    2017-06-01

    To analyze the benefits of external cephalic version (ECV) with epidural analgesia at term and labor induction just after the procedure. This is a retrospective observational study with patients who did not want trying a breech vaginal delivery and decided trying an ECV with epidural analgesia at term and wanted labor induction or cesarean section after the procedure. We present the results of 40 ECV with epidural analgesia at term and labor induction or cesarean section just after the ECV. ECV succeeded in 26 out of 40 (65%) patients. Among the 26 successful ECV, 6 delivered by cesarean (23.1%). 20 patients delivered vaginally (76.9%; 50% of all patients). Considering that a high number of cesarean deliveries can be avoided, induction of labor after ECV with epidural analgesia at term can be considered after being discussed in selected patient. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Labor induction just after external cephalic version with epidural analgesia at term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos J. Cuerva

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Considering that a high number of cesarean deliveries can be avoided, induction of labor after ECV with epidural analgesia at term can be considered after being discussed in selected patient.

  9. Labor epidural analgesia is independent risk factor for neonatal pyrexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agakidis, Charalampos; Agakidou, Eleni; Philip Thomas, Sumesh; Murthy, Prashanth; John Lloyd, David

    2011-09-01

    To explore whether epidural analgesia (EA) in labor is independent risk factor for neonatal pyrexia after controlling for intrapartum pyrexia. Retrospective observational study of 480 consecutive term singleton infants born to mothers who received EA in labor (EA group) and 480 term infants delivered to mothers who did not receive EA (NEA group). Mothers in the EA group had significantly higher incidence of intrapartum pyrexia [54/480 (11%) vs. 4/480 (0.8%), OR = 15.1, p neonatal pyrexia [68/480 (14.2%) vs. 15/480 (3.1%), OR = 5.1, p Neonates in the EA group had a median duration of pyrexia of 1 h (maximum 5 h) with a peak temperature within 1 h. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that maternal EA was independent risk factor for neonatal pyrexia (>37.5°C) after controlling for intrapartum pyrexia (>37.9°C) and other confounders (OR = 3.44, CI = 1.9-6.3, p neonates. It is unnecessary to investigate febrile offspring of mothers who have had epidurals unless pyrexia persists for longer than 5 h or other signs or risk factors for neonatal sepsis are present.

  10. Comparison of Transversus Abdominis Plane Infiltration with Liposomal Bupivacaine versus Continuous Epidural Analgesia versus Intravenous Opioid Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, Sabry; Babazade, Rovnat; Elsharkawy, Hesham; Nadar, Vinayak; Lokhande, Chetan; Makarova, Natalya; Khanna, Rashi; Sessler, Daniel I; Turan, Alparslan

    2016-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is considered the standard of care but cannot be provided to all patients Liposomal bupivacaine has been approved for field blocks such as transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks but has not been clinically compared against other modalities. In this retrospective propensity matched cohort study we thus tested the primary hypothesis that TAP infiltration are noninferior (not worse) to continuous epidural analgesia and superior (better) to intravenous opioid analgesia in patients recovering from major lower abdominal surgery. 318 patients were propensity matched on 18 potential factors among three groups (106 per group): 1) TAP infiltration with bupivacaine liposome; 2) continuous Epidural analgesia with plain bupivacaine; and; 3) intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA). We claimed TAP noninferior (not worse) over Epidural if TAP was noninferior (not worse) on total morphine-equivalent opioid and time-weighted average pain score (10-point scale) within first 72 hours after surgery with noninferiority deltas of 1 (10-point scale) for pain and an increase less of 20% in the mean morphine equivalent opioid consumption. We claimed TAP or Epidural groups superior (better) over IV PCA if TAP or Epidural was superior on opioid consumption and at least noninferior on pain outcome. Multivariable linear regressions within the propensity-matched cohorts were used to model total morphine-equivalent opioid dose and time-weighted average pain score within first 72 hours after surgery; joint hypothesis framework was used for formal testing. TAP infiltration were noninferior to Epidural on both primary outcomes (pconsumption (p = 0.37). We did not find noninferiority of Epidural over IV PCA on pain scores (P = 0.13) and nor did we find superiority on opioid consumption (P = 0.98). TAP infiltration with liposomal bupivacaine and continuous epidural analgesia were similar in terms of pain and opioid consumption, and not worse in pain compared with IV PCA

  11. Intrathecal opioids versus epidural local anesthetics for labor analgesia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucklin, Brenda A; Chestnut, David H; Hawkins, Joy L

    2002-01-01

    Some anesthesiologists contend that intrathecal opioid administration has advantages over conventional epidural techniques during labor. Randomized clinical trials comparing analgesia and obstetric outcome using single-injection intrathecal opioids versus epidural local anesthetics suggest that intrathecal opioids provide comparable analgesia with few serious side effects. This meta-analysis compared the analgesic efficacy, side effects, and obstetric outcome of single-injection intrathecal opioid techniques versus epidural local anesthetics in laboring women. Relevant clinical studies were identified using electronic and manual searches of the literature covering the period from 1989 to 2000. Searches used the following descriptors: intrathecal analgesia, spinal opioids, epidural analgesia, epidural local anesthetics, and analgesia for labor. Data were extracted from 7 randomized clinical trials comparing analgesic measures, incidence of motor block, pruritus, nausea, hypotension, mode of delivery, and/or Apgar scores. Combined test results indicated comparable analgesic efficacy 15 to 20 minutes after injection with single-injection intrathecal opioid administration. Intrathecal opioid injections were associated with a greater incidence of pruritus (odds ratio, 14.01; 99% confidence interval, 6.9 to 28.3), but there was no difference in the incidence of nausea or in the method of delivery. Published studies suggest that intrathecal opioids provide comparable early labor analgesia when compared with epidural local anesthetics. Intrathecal opioid administration results in a greater incidence of pruritus. The choice of technique does not appear to affect the method of delivery.

  12. Predicting early epidurals: association of maternal, labor, and neonatal characteristics with epidural analgesia initiation at a cervical dilation of 3 cm or less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Albert R; Shan, William Li Pi; Hatzakorzian, Roupen

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective studies have associated early epidural analgesia with cesarean delivery, but prospective studies do not demonstrate a causal relationship. This suggests that there are other variables associated with early epidural analgesia that increase the risk of cesarean delivery. This study was undertaken to determine the characteristics associated with early epidural analgesia initiation. Information about women delivering at 37 weeks or greater gestation with epidural analgesia, who were not scheduled for cesarean delivery, was extracted from the McGill Obstetric and Neonatal Database. Patients were grouped into those who received epidural analgesia at a cervical dilation of ≤3 cm and >3 cm. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the maternal, neonatal, and labor characteristics that increased the risk of inclusion in the early epidural group. Of the 13,119 patients analyzed, multivariable regression demonstrated odds ratios (OR) of 2.568, 5.915 and 10.410 for oxytocin augmentation, induction, and dinoprostone induction of labor (P analgesia (OR 0.780, P analgesia (P neonatal weight (OR 0.943, P analgesia. Labor augmentation and induction, nulliparity, rupture of membranes spontaneously and before labor starts, increasing maternal weight, and decreasing neonatal weight are associated with early epidural analgesia. Many of these variables are also associated with cesarean delivery.

  13. Epidural Hematoma and Abscess Related to Thoracic Epidural Analgesia: A Single-Center Study of 2,907 Patients Who Underwent Lung Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupersztych-Hagege, Elisa; Dubuisson, Etienne; Szekely, Barbara; Michel-Cherqui, Mireille; François Dreyfus, Jean; Fischler, Marc; Le Guen, Morgan

    2017-04-01

    To report the major complications (epidural hematoma and abscess) of postoperative thoracic epidural analgesia in patients who underwent lung surgery. Prospective, monocentric study. A university hospital. All lung surgical patients who received postoperative thoracic epidural analgesia between November 2007 and November 2015. Thoracic epidural analgesia for patients who underwent lung surgery. During the study period, data for 2,907 patients were recorded. The following 3 major complications were encountered: 1 case of epidural hematoma (0.34 case/1,000; 95% confidence interval 0.061-1.946), for which surgery was performed, and 2 cases of epidural abscesses (0.68 case/1,000; 95% confidence interval 0.189-2.505), which were treated medically. The risk range of serious complications was moderate; only the patient who experienced an epidural hematoma also experienced permanent sequelae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A prospective, randomized, blinded-endpoint, controlled study - continuous epidural infusion versus programmed intermittent epidural bolus in labor analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Nunes

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: There is evidence that administration of a programmed intermittent epidural bolus (PIEB compared to continuous epidural infusion (CEI leads to greater analgesia efficacy and maternal satisfaction with decreased anesthetic interventions. Methods: In this study, 166 women with viable pregnancies were included. After an epidural loading dose of 10 mL with Ropivacaine 0.16% plus Sufentanil 10 µg, parturient were randomly assigned to one of three regimens: A - Ropivacaine 0.15% plus Sufentanil 0.2 µg/mL solution as continuous epidural infusion (5 mL/h, beginning immediately after the initial bolus; B - Ropivacaine 0.1% plus Sufentanil 0.2 µg/mL as programmed intermittent epidural bolus and C - Same solution as group A as programmed intermittent epidural bolus. PIEB regimens were programmed as 10 mL/h starting 60 min after the initial bolus. Rescue boluses of 5 mL of the same solution were administered, with the infusion pump. We evaluated maternal satisfaction using a verbal numeric scale from 0 to 10. We also evaluated adverse, maternal and neonatal outcomes. Results: We analyzed 130 pregnants (A = 60; B = 33; C = 37. The median verbal numeric scale for maternal satisfaction was 8.8 in group A; 8.6 in group B and 8.6 in group C (p = 0.83. We found a higher caesarean delivery rate in group A (56.7%; p = 0.02. No differences in motor block, instrumental delivery rate and neonatal outcomes were observed. Conclusions: Maintenance of epidural analgesia with programmed intermittent epidural bolus is associated with a reduced incidence of caesarean delivery with equally high maternal satisfaction and no adverse outcomes.

  15. A prospective, randomized, blinded-endpoint, controlled study - continuous epidural infusion versus programmed intermittent epidural bolus in labor analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Joana; Nunes, Sara; Veiga, Mariano; Cortez, Mara; Seifert, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that administration of a programmed intermittent epidural bolus (PIEB) compared to continuous epidural infusion (CEI) leads to greater analgesia efficacy and maternal satisfaction with decreased anesthetic interventions. In this study, 166 women with viable pregnancies were included. After an epidural loading dose of 10mL with Ropivacaine 0.16% plus Sufentanil 10μg, parturient were randomly assigned to one of three regimens: A - Ropivacaine 0.15% plus Sufentanil 0.2μg/mL solution as continuous epidural infusion (5mL/h, beginning immediately after the initial bolus); B - Ropivacaine 0.1% plus Sufentanil 0.2μg/mL as programmed intermittent epidural bolus and C - Same solution as group A as programmed intermittent epidural bolus. PIEB regimens were programmed as 10mL/h starting 60min after the initial bolus. Rescue boluses of 5mL of the same solution were administered, with the infusion pump. We evaluated maternal satisfaction using a verbal numeric scale from 0 to 10. We also evaluated adverse, maternal and neonatal outcomes. We analyzed 130 pregnants (A=60; B=33; C=37). The median verbal numeric scale for maternal satisfaction was 8.8 in group A; 8.6 in group B and 8.6 in group C (p=0.83). We found a higher caesarean delivery rate in group A (56.7%; p=0.02). No differences in motor block, instrumental delivery rate and neonatal outcomes were observed. Maintenance of epidural analgesia with programmed intermittent epidural bolus is associated with a reduced incidence of caesarean delivery with equally high maternal satisfaction and no adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Do antenatal education classes decrease use of epidural analgesia during labour? – a Danish RCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Axelsen, Solveig Forberg

    Background: Epidural analgesia is widely used as pain relief during labour but has negative side effects, such as prolonged labour and increased risk of obstetric interventions. Antenatal education in small groups may increase trust in own ability to cope at home in the early stages of labour...... of an antenatal education program in small classes on use of epidural analgesia. Methods: Data from the NEWBORN trial were used. A total of 1766 women from the Copenhagen area, Denmark were randomized to participate in either antenatal education in small groups or standard care. Data were analysed according...... on whether to implement the NEWBORN program in a clinical setting also depend upon the trial effect on psycho-social outcomes which will be analysed in near future. Main messages (max 200 anslag): 1. No effect of antenatal education in small groups on use of epidural analgesia as pain relief during labour...

  17. Postoperative Paraplegia as a Result of Undiagnosed Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor, Not Epidural Analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ching Hung

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative paraplegia is a rare complication after epidural analgesia and often occurs with spinal hematoma or cord injury. We present the case of a 16-year-old girl who suffered from a tumor mass in the neck and abdomen who underwent gynecologic operation. Preoperatively, liver metastasis was found by computed tomography. Pathologic findings revealed that the abdominal mass was an ovarian dermoid cyst. After the operation, the patient complained of paraplegia while receiving epidural analgesia for postoperative pain control. A peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the thoracic and lumbar spines with spinal cord compression was later detected using magnetic resonance imaging. Learning from this case, we suggest that when a patient is preoperatively diagnosed with tumor metastasis, back pain and soreness, spinal cord compression from tumor metastasis should be excluded before epidural analgesia is implemented.

  18. Epidural analgesia during labor among immigrant women in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekéus, Cecilia; Cnattingius, Sven; Hjern, Anders

    2010-01-01

    To investigate differences in the use of epidural analgesia (EDA) during labor between native Swedish and immigrant women and whether such possible differences could be explained by other maternal factors or birthweight. Population-based register study. Nationwide study in Sweden. A total of 455,274 primiparous women, who gave birth to a singleton infant at 37-41 completed gestational weeks during 1992-2005. Of the 72,086 (16%) immigrants, data on 31,148 women from the eight most common countries of origin were analyzed to test our hypotheses. Register study with perinatal data from the Medical Birth Register and socio-demographic variables from national income and population registers. Use of EDA during vaginal delivery. Compared with native Swedish women, EDA was more often used by women from Chile, odds ratio (OR) 1.39 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-1.57); Iran, OR 1.38 (1.26-1.53); Poland, OR 1.22 (1.08-1.37) and Finland, OR 1.10 (1.03-1.17) after adjustments for perinatal and socio-demographic confounders, while EDA was less often used among women from Somalia, OR 0.57 (0.46-0.70); Iraq, OR 0.71 (0.64-0.78); Turkey, OR 0.77(0.69-0.86) and Yugoslavia, OR 0.85 (0.79-0.91). Having a native Swedish partner increased the use of EDA in immigrant women. EDA use during labor varies more by maternal country of origin than by socio-economic factors. This suggests that expectations of care from the country of origin continue to influence the use of EDA after immigration to Sweden.

  19. Epidural analgesia in labour and neonatal respiratory distress: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Chandra, Sue; Ijaz, Zainab; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2014-03-01

    Epidural analgesia is the commonest mode for providing pain relief in labour, with a combination of bupivacaine and fentanyl most often used in practice. To test whether late-preterm and term neonates exposed to opioids in epidural analgesia in labour are more likely to develop respiratory distress in the immediate neonatal period. A case-control study was conducted of singleton infants born during January 2006 to December 2010. Cases were neonates ≥34 weeks gestation, who developed respiratory distress within 24 h of life requiring supplemental oxygen ≥2 h and/or positive pressure ventilation in the neonatal intensive care unit. Controls were gestation and site-matched neonates who did not develop any respiratory distress within the same period. The information on exposure to epidural analgesia and on potential confounding variables was obtained from the standardised delivery record, routinely filled out on all women admitted to the labour wards. In our study, 206 cases and 206 matched controls were enrolled. Exposure to epidural analgesia was present in 146 (70.9%) cases as compared with 131 (63.6%) of the controls. The association between exposure to epidural analgesia and respiratory distress in neonates was statistically significant upon adjustment for all potential confounders (adjusted OR: 1.75, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.99; p = 0.04). When data was separately analysed for term and late-preterm infants, the results were consistent across these subpopulations, showing no interaction effect. Late-preterm and term infants exposed to maternal epidural analgesia in labour are more likely to develop respiratory distress in the immediate neonatal period.

  20. A prospective, randomized, blinded-endpoint, controlled study – continuous epidural infusion versus programmed intermittent epidural bolus in labor analgesia

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    Joana Nunes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is evidence that administration of a programmed intermittent epidural bolus (PIEB compared to continuous epidural infusion (CEI leads to greater analgesia efficacy and maternal satisfaction with decreased anesthetic interventions. Methods: In this study, 166 women with viable pregnancies were included. After an epidural loading dose of 10 mL with Ropivacaine 0.16% plus Sufentanil 10 μg, parturient were randomly assigned to one of three regimens: A – Ropivacaine 0.15% plus Sufentanil 0.2 μg/mL solution as continuous epidural infusion (5 mL/h, beginning immediately after the initial bolus; B – Ropivacaine 0.1% plus Sufentanil 0.2 μg/mL as programmed intermittent epidural bolus and C – Same solution as group A as programmed intermittent epidural bolus. PIEB regimens were programmed as 10 mL/h starting 60 min after the initial bolus. Rescue boluses of 5 mL of the same solution were administered, with the infusion pump. We evaluated maternal satisfaction using a verbal numeric scale from 0 to 10. We also evaluated adverse, maternal and neonatal outcomes. Results: We analyzed 130 pregnants (A = 60; B = 33; C = 37. The median verbal numeric scale for maternal satisfaction was 8.8 in group A; 8.6 in group B and 8.6 in group C (p = 0.83. We found a higher caesarean delivery rate in group A (56.7%; p = 0.02. No differences in motor block, instrumental delivery rate and neonatal outcomes were observed. Conclusions: Maintenance of epidural analgesia with programmed intermittent epidural bolus is associated with a reduced incidence of caesarean delivery with equally high maternal satisfaction and no adverse outcomes. Resumo: Justificativa: Há evidências de que a administração de um bolus epidural intermitente programado (BEIP comparada à infusão epidural contínua (IEC resulta em maior eficácia da analgesia e da satisfação materna, com redução das intervenções anestésicas. Métodos: Neste estudo, 166

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EPIDURAL FENTANYL AND FENTANYL PLUS MAGNESIUM SULPHATE FOR POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA

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    Shiva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Magnesium has antinociceptive effects in animal and human models of pain. It is found that the addition of Magnesium sulphate to postoperative Epidural infusion of Fentanyl may decrease the need for Fentanyl. We undertook a study to compare the duration of postoperative analgesia after Epidural Fentanyl and Epidural Fentanyl plus Magnesium sulphate administered postoperatively, along with side effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 patients undergoing elective lower limb and abdominal surgeries were randomized into one of the two groups with 25 patients in each group. Combined Spinal Epidural Anaesthesia was used for all patients. Spinal anaesthesia with 2.5 cc of 0.5% Hyperbaric Bupivacaine was given. When sensory blockade regressed to L1, patients were given either 50 µg of Fentanyl (diluted to 6cc with normal saline, Group F or 50 µg of Fentanyl plus 50 mg Magnesium sulphate (diluted to 6cc with normal saline, Group FM. Parameters like blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were monitored, and other side effects were noted. Data were analysed by using Student t test and Chi-square/ Fisher Exact tests. RESULTS There was significant difference in duration of analgesia between Group F (107 min and Group FM (143 min. Hemodynamic parameters were stable in both the groups with minimal side effects. CONCLUSION Co-administration of Magnesium sulphate with Fentanyl for postoperative Epidural analgesia results in prolongation of Fentanyl analgesia without significant side-effects.

  2. Postoperative pain and gastro-intestinal recovery after colonic resection with epidural analgesia and multimodal rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Basse, L

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate initial postoperative pain intensity and the association with recovery of gastrointestinal function and length of stay (LOS) in a multimodal programme with epidural analgesia, early oral nutrition and mobilisation with a 48 h planned hospital stay. One hundred......, respectively. Gastrointestinal recovery and LOS did not differ between patients with high (3-6) versus low (0-2) dynamic pain scores (P > 0.4 and P > 0.1, respectively). It is concluded that a multimodal rehabilitation program including continuous thoracic epidural analgesia leads to early recovery...

  3. Epidural analgesia in early labour blocks the stress response but uterine contractions remain unchanged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, T J; Hemmings, G T; Carli, F; Weeks, S K; Mazza, L; Zingg, H H

    1998-07-01

    To determine the effect of epidural analgesia on biochemical markers of stress, plasma oxytocin concentrations and frequency of uterine contractions during the first stage of labour. Nine nulliparous women, in spontaneous labour, with a singleton fetus and cervical dilatation < or = 5 cm were enrolled. Epidural bupivacaine 0.25% (range 10-14 ml) was administered and bilateral sensory blockade to ice (T8-L4) achieved. Blood samples were collected before the epidermal block and every 10 min for one hour after the block was achieved for the measurement of plasma beta-endorphin, cortical, glucose, lactate and oxytocin concentrations. No exogenous oxytocin was given. Intensity of pain was assessed at the time of the blood sampling using a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS). The frequency of uterine contractions was recorded for 60 min before and after the epidural block. There was a decrease in plasma beta-endorphin and cortisol concentrations after epidural block (P < 0.01). There were no changes in plasma glucose and lactate concentrations. The mean VAS for pain decreased 10 min after epidural block was achieved and remained < 2 throughout the study period (P < 0.001). Mean plasma oxytocin concentrations did not change. The frequency of uterine contractions before and after the epidural block was similar. The metabolic stress response to the pain of labour was attenuated by epidural analgesia. In contrast, plasma oxytocin concentration and frequency of uterine contractions were unaffected by the attenuation of metabolic stress response.

  4. Improved Outcomes Associated with the Liberal Use of Thoracic Epidural Analgesia in Patients with Rib Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Courtney D; Stark, Jamie T; Jacobson, Lewis L; Powers, Jan M; Joseph, Michael F; Kinsella-Shaw, Jeffrey M; Denegar, Craig R

    2017-09-01

    Each year, more than 150,000 patients with rib fractures are admitted to US trauma centers; as many as 10% die. Effective pain control is critical to survival. One way to manage pain is thoracic epidural analgesia. If this treatment reduces mortality, more frequent use may be indicated. We analyzed the patient registry of a level II trauma center. All patients admitted with one or more rib fractures (N = 1,347) were considered. Patients who were not candidates for epidural analgesia (N = 382) were eliminated. Mortality was assessed with binary logistic regressions. Across the total population, mortality was 6.7%; incidence of pneumonia was 11.1%; mechanical ventilation was required in 23.8% of patients, for an average duration of 10.0 days; average stay in the hospital was 7.7 nights; and 49.7% of patients were admitted to the ICU for an average of 7.2 nights. Epidural analgesia was administered to 18.4% of patients. After matching samples for candidacy, patients who received epidurals were 3.7 years older, fractured 2.6 more ribs, had higher injury severity scores, and were more likely to present with bilateral fractures, flail segments, pulmonary contusions, hemothoraces, and pneumothoraces. Despite greater injury severity, mortality among these patients was lower (0.5%) than those who received alternative care (1.9%). Controlling for age, injury severity, and use of mechanical ventilation, epidural analgesia predicted a 97% reduction in mortality. Thoracic epidural analgesia associates with reduced mortality in rib fracture patients. Better care of this population is likely to be facilitated by more frequent reliance on this treatment. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Maternal and foetal outcome after epidural labour analgesia in high-risk pregnancies

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    Sukhen Samanta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Low concentration local anaesthetic improves uteroplacental blood flow in antenatal period and during labour in preeclampsia. We compared neonatal outcome after epidural ropivacaine plus fentanyl with intramuscular tramadol analgesia during labour in high-risk parturients with intrauterine growth restriction of mixed aetiology. Methods: Forty-eight parturients with sonographic evidence of foetal weight <1.5 kg were enrolled in this non-randomized, double-blinded prospective study. The epidural (E group received 0.15% ropivacaine 10 ml with 30 μg fentanyl incremental bolus followed by 7–15 ml 0.1% ropivacaine with 2 μg/ml fentanyl in continuous infusion titrated until visual analogue scale was three. Tramadol (T group received intramuscular tramadol 1 mg/kg as bolus as well as maintenance 4–6 hourly. Neonatal outcomes were measured with cord blood base deficit, pH, ionised calcium, sugar and Apgar score after delivery. Maternal satisfaction was also assessed by four point subjective score. Results: Baseline maternal demographics and neonatal birth weight were comparable. Neonatal cord blood pH, base deficit, sugar, and ionised calcium levels were significantly improved in the epidural group in comparison to the tramadol group. Maternal satisfaction (P = 0.0001 regarding labour analgesia in epidural group was expressed as excellent by 48%, good by 52% whereas it was fair in 75% and poor in 25% in the tramadol group. Better haemodynamic and pain scores were reported in the epidural group. Conclusion: Epidural labour analgesia with low concentration local anaesthetic is associated with less neonatal cord blood acidaemia, better sugar and ionised calcium levels. The analgesic efficacy and maternal satisfaction are also better with epidural labour analgesia.

  6. Efficacy and safety of combined spinal: Epidural versus epidural technique for labor analgesia in parturients with rheumatic valvular heart disease

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    Babita Ghai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodynamic changes induced by labor pain and apprehension in addition to physiological changes may pose risk to parturients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD. Therefore, it is important to provide adequate pain relief during labor in these patients. We planned this study to compare the efficacy and safety of epidural (E versus combined spinal - epidural (CSE for labor analgesia in parturients with rheumatic valvular heart disease. Methods: Twenty-five parturients with RHD included in this study were randomized to one of the two groups - E group (n = 12, received 6 mL of 0.0625% bupivacaine with 25 μg fentanyl or CSE group (n = 13, received 25 μg of fentanyl with 1.25 mg bupivacaine diluted to 1 mL in subarachnoid space. Afterward, a continuous infusion of 0.1% bupivacaine with 2 μg/mL fentanyl was started at 6-8 mL/h. Primary outcome, analgesic efficacy, was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS for pain. VAS ≤ 3 was considered as effective analgesia. Rescue analgesia in the form of epidural bolus was given if VAS > 3. Results: Demographic characteristics of the patients were comparable. Mitral stenosis was the predominant valvular lesion. The VAS at which the parturients received analgesia was comparable. The mean time to achieve effective analgesia was significantly faster in CSE group (4.46 ± 0.87 min compared with group E (15.09 ± 5.7 min (P < 0.001. Significantly lower median pain scores were recorded until the initial 15 min in CSE group. Afterward, median VAS for pain was comparable between the groups. VAS for pain was significantly low at all time intervals than baseline in both the groups. Maternal satisfaction and incidence of cesarean rate and complication were comparable between the groups. Conclusion: Both epidural and CSE are equally effective and safe for labor analgesia in parturients with rheumatic valvular heart disease. However, CSE technique provides a faster onset of analgesia.

  7. Intravenous remifentanil versus epidural ropivacaine with sufentanil for labour analgesia: a retrospective study.

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    Rong Lin

    Full Text Available Remifentanil with appropriate pharmacological properties seems to be an ideal alternative to epidural analgesia during labour. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of remifentanil intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA compared with epidural analgesia. Medical records of 370 primiparas who received remifentanil IVPCA or epidural analgesia were reviewed. Pain and sedation scores, overall satisfaction, the extent of pain control, maternal side effects and neonatal outcome as primary observational indicators were collected. There was a significant decline of pain scores in both groups. Pain reduction was greater in the epidural group throughout the whole study period (0 ∼ 180 min (P < 0.0001, and pain scores in the remifentanil group showed an increasing trend one hour later. The remifentanil group had a lower SpO2 (P < 0.0001 and a higher sedation score (P < 0.0001 within 30 min after treatment. The epidural group had a higher overall satisfaction score (3.8 ± 0.4 vs. 3.7 ± 0.6, P = 0.007 and pain relief score (2.9 ± 0.3 vs. 2.8 ± 0.4, P < 0.0001 compared with the remifentanil group. There was no significant difference on side effects between the two groups, except that a higher rate of dizziness (1% vs. 21.8%, P < 0.0001 was observed during remifentanil analgesia. And logistic regression analysis demonstrated that nausea, vomiting were associated with oxytocin usage and instrumental delivery, and dizziness was associated to the type and duration of analgesia. Neonatal outcomes such as Apgar scores and umbilical-cord blood gas analysis were within the normal range, but umbilical pH and base excess of neonatus in the remifentanil group were significantly lower. Remifentanil IVPCA provides poorer efficacy on labor analgesia than epidural analgesia, with more sedation on parturients and a trend of newborn acidosis. Despite these adverse effects, remifentanil IVPCA can still be an alternative

  8. Lumbosacral epidural magnesium prolongs ketamine analgesia in conscious sheep Sulfato de magnésio prolonga a analgesia epidural lombosacral induzida pela quetamina em carneiros

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    Rafael DeRossi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the analgesic, motor, sedation and systemic effects of lumbosacral epidural magnesium sulphate added to ketamine in the sheep. METHODS: Six healthy adult male mixed-breed sheep; weighing 43 ± 5 kg and aged 20-36 months. Each sheep underwent three treatments, at least 2 weeks apart, via epidural injection: (1 ketamine (KE; 2.5 mg/kg, (2 magnesium sulphate (MG; 100 mg, and (3 KE + MG (KEMG; 2.5 mg/kg + 100 mg, respectively. Epidural injections were administered through the lumbosacral space. Analgesia, motor block, sedation, cardiovascular effects, respiratory rate, skin temperature, and rectal temperature were evaluated before (baseline and after drug administration as needed. RESULTS: The duration of analgesia with the lumbosacral epidural KEMG combination was 115 ± 17 min (mean ± SD, that is, more than twice that obtained with KE (41 ± 7 min or MG (29 ± 5 min alone. KE and KEMG used in this experiment induced severe ataxia. The heart rate and arterial blood pressures changes were no statistical difference in these clinically health sheep. CONCLUSION: The dose of magnesium sulphate to lumbosacral epidural ketamine in sheep is feasible, and can be used in procedures analgesics in sheep.OBJETIVO: Determinar os efeitos analgésicos, motores, sedativos e sistêmicos da adição de sulfato de magnésio na analgesia epidural com quetamina em carneiros. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados seis carneiros machos sadios, pesando 43 ± 5 kg, com idade entre 20 a 36 meses. Cada animal recebeu três tratamentos, com duas semanas entre experimentos via administração epidural: (1 quetamina (KE; 2,5 mg/kg, (2 sulfato de magnésio (MG; 100 mg e (3 KE + MG (KEMG; 2,5 mg/kg + 100 mg, respectivamente. As administrações epidurais foram administradas no espaço lombosacral. Analgesia, bloqueio motor, sedação, efeitos cardiovasculares, freqüência respiratória, temperatura retal e de pele foram avaliados antes (basal e depois da administra

  9. Patient Controlled Epidural Analgesia during Labour: Effect of Addition of Background Infusion on Quality of Analgesia & Maternal Satisfaction

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    Uma Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA is a well established technique for pain relief during labor. But the inclusion of continuous background infusion to PCEA is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess whether the use of continuous infusion along with PCEA was beneficial for laboring women with regards to quality of analgesia, maternal satisfaction and neonatal outcome in comparison to PCEA alone. Fifty five parturients received epidural bolus of 10ml solution containing 0.125% bupivacaine +2 ìg.ml-1 of fentanyl. For maintenance of analgesia the patients of Group PCEA self administered 8 ml bolus with lockout interval of 20 minutes of above solution on demand with no basal infusion. While the patients of Group PCEA + CI received continuous epidural infusion at the rate of 10 ml.hr-1 along with self administered boluses of 3 ml with lockout interval of 10 minutes of similar epidural solution. Patients of both groups were given rescue boluses by the anaesthetists for distressing pain. Verbal analogue pain scores, incidence of distressing pain, need of supplementary/rescue boluses, dose of bupivacaine consumed, maternal satisfaction and neonatal Apgar scores were recorded. No significant difference was observed between mean VAS pain scores during labor, maternal satisfaction, mode of delivery or neonatal Apgar scores. But more patients (n=8 required rescue boluses in PCEA group for distressing pain. The total volume consumed of bupivacaine and opioid was slightly more in PCEA + CI group. In both the techniques the highest sensory level, degree of motor block were comparable& prolongation of labor was not seen. It was concluded that both the techniques provided equivalent labor analgesia, maternal satisfaction and neonatal Apgar scores. PCEA along with continuous infusion at the rate of 10 ml/ hr resulted in lesser incidence of distressing pain and need for rescue analgesic. Although this group consumed higher dose of bupivacaine

  10. Predicting early epidurals: association of maternal, labor, and neonatal characteristics with epidural analgesia initiation at a cervical dilation of 3 cm or less

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Albert; Li Pi Shan,William; Hatzakorzian,Roupen

    2013-01-01

    Albert R Moore, William Li Pi Shan, Roupen Hatzakorzian Department of Anaesthesia, McGill University Health Centre, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Background: Retrospective studies have associated early epidural analgesia with cesarean delivery, but prospective studies do not demonstrate a causal relationship. This suggests that there are other variables associated with early epidural analgesia that increase the risk of cesarean delivery. This study was undertaken to deter...

  11. Epidural anesthesia and postoperatory analgesia with alpha-2 adrenergic agonists and lidocaine for ovariohysterectomy in bitches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Virgínia H.; Carregaro, Adriano B.; Lopes, Carlize; Gehrcke, Martielo I.; Muller, Daniel C.M.; Garlet, Clarissa D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the viability and cardiorespiratory effects of the association of epidural alpha-2 adrenergic agonists and lidocaine for ovariohysterectomy (OH) in bitches. Forty-two bitches were spayed under epidural anesthesia with 2.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) of 1% lidocaine with adrenaline (CON) or in association with 0.25 mg/kg BW of xylazine (XYL), 10 μg/kg BW of romifidine (ROM), 30 μg/kg BW of detomidine (DET), 2 μg/kg BW of dexmedetomidine (DEX), or 5 μg/kg BW of clonidine (CLO). Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (fR) and arterial pressures were monitored immediately before and every 10 min after the epidural procedure. Blood gas and pH analysis were done before, and at 30 and 60 min after the epidural procedure. Animals were submitted to isoflurane anesthesia if they presented a slightest sign of discomfort during the procedure. Time of sensory epidural block and postoperative analgesia were evaluated. All animals in CON and DEX, 5 animals in ROM and CLO, 4 animals in XYL, and 3 in DET required supplementary isoflurane. All groups, except CLO, showed a decrease in HR. There was an increase in arterial pressures in all groups. Postoperative analgesia lasted the longest in XYL. None of the protocols were totally efficient to perform the complete procedure of OH; however, xylazine provided longer postoperative analgesia than the others. PMID:23277701

  12. Evaluation of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl as additives to ropivacaine for epidural anesthesia and postoperative analgesia

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    S Kiran

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Epidural anesthesia achieved with 10 μg dexmedetomidine as an additive to 0.5% ropivacaine is more effective with respect to duration and intensity of analgesia when compared to 0.5% ropivacaine alone or addition of 20 μg fentanyl to 0.5% ropivacaine.

  13. Frequency of colonization and isolated bacteria from the tip of epidural catheter implanted for postoperative analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabille, Débora Miranda Diogo; Diogo Filho, Augusto; Mandim, Beatriz Lemos da Silva; de Araújo, Lúcio Borges; Mesquita, Priscila Miranda Diogo; Jorge, Miguel Tanús

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of epidural analgesia with catheter leads to the need to demonstrate the safety of this method and know the incidence of catheter colonization, inserted postoperatively for epidural analgesia, and the bacteria responsible for this colonization. From November 2011 to April 2012, patients electively operated and maintained under epidural catheter for postoperative analgesia were evaluated. The catheter tip was collected for semiquantitative and qualitative microbiological analysis. Of 68 cultured catheters, six tips (8.8%) had positive cultures. No patient had superficial or deep infection. The mean duration of catheter use was 43.45 h (18-118) (p=0.0894). The type of surgery (contaminated or uncontaminated), physical status of patients, and surgical time showed no relation with the colonization of catheters. Microorganisms isolated from the catheter tip were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Sphingomonas paucimobilis. Postoperative epidural catheter analgesia, under these study conditions, was found to be low risk for bacterial colonization in patients at surgical wards. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Postoperative analgesia with continuous epidural sufentanil and bupivacaine : A prospective study in 614 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, AA; Gielen, MJM; Hennis, PJ

    To assess the efficacy and safety of postoperative analgesia with continuous epidural sufentanil and bupivacaine, we performed a prospective study in 614 patients undergoing major surgery. Before surgical incision, all patients received an initial dose of 50 mu g sufentanil in 6-10 mL bupivacaine

  15. Periarticular infiltration for pain relief after total hip arthroplasty: a comparison with epidural and PCA analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandazi, Ageliki; Kanellopoulos, Ilias; Kalimeris, Konstantinos; Batistaki, Chrysanthi; Nikolakopoulos, Nikolaos; Matsota, Paraskevi; Babis, George C; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia

    2013-11-01

    Epidural and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) are established methods for pain relief after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Periarticular infiltration is an alternative method that is gaining ground due to its simplicity and safety. Our study aims to assess the efficacy of periarticular infiltration in pain relief after THA. Sixty-three patients undergoing THA under spinal anaesthesia were randomly assigned to receive postoperative analgesia with continuous epidural infusion with ropivacaine (epidural group), intraoperative periarticular infiltration with ropivacaine, clonidine, morphine, epinephrine and corticosteroids (infiltration group) or PCA with morphine (PCA group). PCA morphine provided rescue analgesia in all groups. We recorded morphine consumption, visual analog scale (VAS) scores at rest and movement, blood loss from wound drainage, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and adverse effects at 1, 6, 12, 24 h postoperatively. Morphine consumption at all time points, VAS scores at rest, 6, 12 and 24 h and at movement, 6 and 12 h postoperatively were lower in infiltration group compared to PCA group (p PCA group (p PCA with morphine after THA, providing better pain relief and lower opioid consumption postoperatively. Infiltration seems to be equally effective to epidural analgesia without having the potential side effects of the latter.

  16. Epidural labor analgesia: A comparison of ropivacaine 0.125% versus 0.2% with fentanyl

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    Yogesh Kumar Chhetty

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that both the concentrations of ropivacaine (0.2% and 0.125% with fentanyl are effective in producing epidural labor analgesia. However, 0.2% concentration was found superior in terms of faster onset, prolonged duration, lesser breakthrough pain requiring lesser top-ups, and hence a lesser consumption of opioids.

  17. [The influence of patient-controlled epidural analgesia on labor progress and neonatal outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepka, Rafał; Zukowski, Maciej; Michalczyk, Michał; Nikodemski, Tomasz; Torbé, Andrzej; Kwiatkowski, Sebastian; Mikołajek-Bedner, Wioletta; Czajka, Ryszard

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the study was to check the influence of patient control epidural analgesia on labor progress and neonatal outcome. 144 parturients were included into the clinical trial. In 73 cases patient control epidural analgesia was used and in 71 cases pethidine (meperidine) solution was given intravenously. Apgar score, umbilical artery pH, pain intensity the time of the first, second and third stage of labor the rate of episiotomy and uterine postpartum abrasions and the rate of caesarean sections and vaginal operative delivery were compared. The time of the second stage of labor was significantly longer in the study group (40.99 vs 26.49 min, p- neonatal outcome was comparable in both groups. There were no differences in the time of the first and the second stage of labor in primiparas and multiparas analyzed separately. Visual Analogue Score was lower in the study group (Ch(2)-12,48, p-0.25), especially in the subgroups of primiparas and multiparas. Patient control epidural analgesia does not affect the time of the first and second stage of labor, oxytocin augmentation of labor may be the reason of that. This method is a more effective way of relieving labor pain. An increase of operative delivery is not observed after patient control epidural analgesia on condition that low doses and concentrations of analgesic drugs are used.

  18. Posterior paramedian subrhomboidal analgesia versus thoracic epidural analgesia for pain control in patients with multiple rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Casey L; Berry, Stepheny; Howard, James; De Ruyter, Martin; Thepthepha, Melissa; Nazir, Niaman; McDonald, Tracy; Dalton, Annemarie; Moncure, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Rib fractures are common in trauma admissions and are associated with an increased risk of pulmonary complications, intensive care unit admissions, and mortality. Providing adequate pain control in patients with multiple rib fractures decreases the risk of adverse events. Thoracic epidural analgesia is currently the preferred method for pain control. This study compared outcomes in patients with multiple acute rib fractures treated with posterior paramedian subrhomboidal (PoPS) analgesia versus thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA). This prospective study included 30 patients with three or more acute rib fractures admitted to a Level I trauma center. Thoracic epidural analgesia or PoPS catheters were placed, and local anesthesia was infused. Data were collected including patients' pain level, adjunct morphine equivalent use, adverse events, length of stay, lung volumes, and discharge disposition. Nonparametric tests were used and two-sided p Pain rating was lower in the PoPS group (2.5 vs. 5; p = 0.03) after initial placement. Overall, there was no other statistically significant difference in pain control or use of oral morphine adjuncts between the groups. Hypotension occurred in eight patients, 75% with TEA and only 25% with PoPS. No difference was found in adverse events, length of stay, lung volumes, or discharge disposition. In patients with rib fractures, PoPS analgesia may provide pain control equivalent to TEA while being less invasive and more readily placed by a variety of hospital staff. This pilot study is limited by its small sample size, and therefore additional studies are needed to prove equivalence of PoPS compared to TEA. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  19. Bacterial infection in deep paraspinal muscles in a parturient following epidural analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Wei; Chen, Wei-Ting; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Lee, She-Chin; Chang, Yi; Wen, Yeong-Ray

    2011-06-01

    We report a case of paraspinal muscle infection shortly after epidural analgesia for labor pain in a nulliparous parturient who was subjected to emergent Cesarean section because of fetal distress. Epidural morphine was administered for 3 days for postoperative pain control. She began to have constant lower back pain on postpartum Day 4. Magnetic resonance image study revealed a broad area of subcutaneous edema with a continuum along the catheter trajectory deep to the paraspinal muscles. An injection-related bacterial infection was suspected; the patient was treated with intravenous antibiotics and was soon cured uncomplicatedly. Epidural analgesia is effective to control labor pain and, in general, it is safe. However, the sequelae of complicated infection may be underestimated. We herein report a case complicated by iatrogenic infection, discuss the causes, and give suggestions for prevention. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Effects of epidural lidocaine analgesia on labor and delivery: A randomized, prospective, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafisi Shahram

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether epidural analgesia for labor prolongs the active-first and second labor stages and increases the risk of vacuum-assisted delivery is a controversial topic. Our study was conducted to answer the question: does lumbar epidural analgesia with lidocaine affect the progress of labor in our obstetric population? Method 395 healthy, nulliparous women, at term, presented in spontaneous labor with a singleton vertex presentation. These patients were randomized to receive analgesia either, epidural with bolus doses of 1% lidocaine or intravenous, with meperidine 25 to 50 mg when their cervix was dilated to 4 centimeters. The duration of the active-first and second stages of labor and the neonatal apgar scores were recorded, in each patient. The total number of vacuum-assisted and cesarean deliveries were also measured. Results 197 women were randomized to the epidural group. 198 women were randomized to the single-dose intravenous meperidine group. There was no statistical difference in rates of vacuum-assisted delivery rate. Cesarean deliveries, as a consequence of fetal bradycardia or dystocia, did not differ significantly between the groups. Differences in the duration of the active-first and the second stages of labor were not statistically significant. The number of newborns with 1-min and 5-min Apgar scores less than 7, did not differ significantly between both analgesia groups. Conclusion Epidural analgesia with 1% lidocaine does not prolong the active-first and second stages of labor and does not increase vacuum-assisted or cesarean delivery rate.

  1. The effects of epidural analgesia on the course and outcome of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, M; Santos, A C

    1998-09-01

    The potential effects of epidural analgesia on the progress and outcome of labour have been the subject of lasting controversy. Retrospective reviews indicate that epidurals are associated with longer labours and/or an increase in the incidence of instrumental or operative delivery. Similar results were obtained in non-randomized prospective studies. None of them established a causal relationship, because without randomization the selection bias cannot be ruled out. Other factors, such as premature rupture of membranes and maternal socioeconomic status, may affect the outcome of labour. It was also reported that introduction of the on-demand epidural service did not increase the primary caesarean section rate. The few prospective randomized studies are contradictory and not very reliable owing to small patient populations and high cross-over rates. There is, however, unanimity among the authors regarding the superiority of pain relief provided by epidural blocks over systemically administered opioids.

  2. Epidural versus intravenous fentanyl for postoperative analgesia following orthopedic surgery: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Soares Privado

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Controversy exists regarding the site of action of fentanyl after epidural injection. The objective of this investigation was to compare the efficacy of epidural and intravenous fentanyl for orthopedic surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING: A randomized double-blind study was performed in Hospital São Paulo. METHODS: During the postoperative period, in the presence of pain, 29 patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 14 received 100 µg of fentanyl epidurally and 2 ml of saline intravenously; group 2 (n = 15 received 5 ml of saline epidurally and 100 µg of fentanyl intravenously. The analgesic supplementation consisted of 40 mg of tenoxicam intravenously and, if necessary, 5 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine epidurally. Pain intensity was evaluated on a numerical scale and plasma concentrations of fentanyl were measured simultaneously. RESULTS: The percentage of patients who required supplementary analgesia with tenoxicam was lower in group 1 (71.4% than in group 2 (100%: 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.001-0.4360 (P = 0.001, Fisher's exact test; relative risk, RR = 0.07. Epidural bupivacaine supplementation was also lower in group 1 (14.3% than in group 2 (53.3%: 95% CI = 0.06-1.05 (P = 0.03, Fisher's exact test; RR = 0.26. There was no difference in pain intensity on the numerical scale. Mean fentanyl plasma concentrations were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSION: Intravenous and epidural fentanyl appear to have similar efficacy for reducing pain according to the numerical scale, but supplementary analgesia was needed less frequently when epidural fentanyl was used. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00635986

  3. Anestesthesiological approach to pediatric patient for lobectomy due to lung abscess: Lung separation and epidural analgesia (lung separation and epidural analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranić Lana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common malignancy in childhood. Main characteristics of the disease are fast proliferation of lymphoblastic cells in bone marrow, destruction of other cells, causing insufficiency in the bone marow and infiltration of the liver, spleen and the lymphatic nodes. Pulmonary abscess and necrotizing pneumonia are rarely found in pediatric population and usually represent a significant problem for treatment. These conditions often require some surgical treatment modalities. The main goal of anesthesiological approach is to provide good and safe perioperative conditions and adequate analgesia. Case report: During treatment of acute leukemia in a 15-year-old boy, complication inform absenting pneumonia left side lung was developed. After four months antibiotic and antifungal therapy wide broad,(nije jasno decision of consilium was to perform left inferior lobectomy. Antibiotic prophylaxis with Ceftazidime 50 mg/kg BM. We performed a combination of general anesthesia and thoracic epidural anesthesia. Intubation with Robertshaw double lume tube. Ultrasound guided central venous catheter in left jugular veine and arterial line in right radial arteria. Anesthesia depth was controlled with entropy method. Epidural catheter was intoduded on level Thl0-Th 11. Conclusion: One ventilation with double lumen tube prevents spillage of infection sputum into the healthy lung. Epidural analgesia in this clinical situation held numerous benefits especially as a way to reduce postoperative respiratory complications caused by acute pain.

  4. Neonatal neurobehavioral organization after exposure to maternal epidural analgesia in labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Aleeca F; White-Traut, Rosemary; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    To explore relationships between maternal epidural analgesia and two measures of neurobehavioral organization in infants at the initial feeding 1 hour after birth. Prospective comparative design. Inner-city community hospital, Chicago, Illinois. Convenience sample of 52 low-risk, mainly Black and Latino, mother/infant dyads. Mothers self-selected to labor with epidural or no labor pain medication. Neonatal neurobehavioral organization was measured in term infants at the initial feeding 1 hour after birth. A nutritive sucking apparatus generated data on total number of sucks and sucking pressure. Video recordings of infants (before and after the initial feeding) were coded for behavioral states, with analysis on frequency of alertness. Total number of sucks and sucking pressure were not related to epidural exposure, although an epidural drug dosage effect on total number of sucks was evident when gender was a factor. Unmedicated girls demonstrated more sucks than girls in the high-dosage epidural group (p=.027). Overall, girls exhibited stronger sucking pressure than boys (p=.042). Frequency of alertness was not related to epidural exposure, although longer labor was related to greater alertness (p=.003), and Latino infants were more alert than Black infants (p=.002). Results suggest attenuated neonatal nutritive sucking organization in girls after exposure to high maternal epidural dosages. In comparison to boys, girls may have enhanced neurobehavioral organization at birth. Race/ethnicity and alertness may have spurious associations in which hidden factors drive the relationship.

  5. Comparison of ropivacaine (0.2%) with or without clonidine 1 μg/kg for epidural labor analgesia: A randomized controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Indira Kumari; Kapil Sharma; Vikram Bedi; Madhan Mohan; Hemraj Tungaria; Manish Kumar Modi

    2018-01-01

    Background and Aims: The aim is to determine the effect of addition of clonidine to ropivacaine for epidural labor analgesia with regard to onset of analgesia, duration of analgesia, neonatal outcome, and quality of analgesia. Material and Methods: A total of 60 term parturients of the American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade I and II with uncomplicated pregnancy, vertex presentation, posted for on-demand epidural labor analgesia after informed consent were divided in two groups. Group ...

  6. Dexmedetomidine improves intraoperative conditions and quality of postoperative analgesia when added to epidural in elective cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Elsayed Hanoura

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Adding dexmedetomidine to regular mixture of epidural anesthetics in women undergoing elective cesarean section improved intraoperative conditions and quality of postoperative analgesia without maternal or neonatal significant side effects.

  7. Epidural Labor Analgesia-Fentanyl Dose and Breastfeeding Success: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amy I; McCarthy, Robert J; Toledo, Paloma; Jones, Mary Jane; White, Nancy; Wong, Cynthia A

    2017-10-01

    Breastfeeding is an important public health concern. High cumulative doses of epidural fentanyl administered for labor analgesia have been reported to be associated with early termination of breastfeeding. We tested the hypothesis that breastfeeding success is adversely influenced by the cumulative epidural fentanyl dose administered for labor analgesia. The study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of parous women at greater than 38 weeks gestation who planned to breastfeed, had successfully breastfed a prior infant, and who received neuraxial labor analgesia. Participants were randomized to receive one of three epidural maintenance solutions for labor analgesia (bupivacaine 1 mg/ml, bupivacaine 0.8 mg/ml with fentanyl 1 μg/ml, or bupivacaine 0.625 mg/ml with fentanyl 2 μg/ml). The primary outcome was the proportion of women breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum. Maternal and umbilical venous blood fentanyl and bupivacaine concentration at delivery were measured. A total of 345 women were randomized and 305 had complete data for analysis. The frequency of breastfeeding at 6 weeks was 97, 98, and 94% in the groups receiving epidural fentanyl 0, 1, and 2 μg/ml, respectively (P = 0.34). The cumulative fentanyl dose (difference: 37 μg [95% CI of the difference, -58 to 79 μg], P = 0.28) and maternal and umbilical cord venous fentanyl and bupivacaine concentrations did not differ between women who discontinued breastfeeding and those who were still breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum. Labor epidural solutions containing fentanyl concentrations as high as 2 μg/ml do not appear to influence breastfeeding rates at 6 weeks postpartum.

  8. Specially trained registered nurses can safely manage epidural analgesia infusion in laboring patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Lenore A; Korejwa, Elise; Kent, Donna Curtis; Raniero, Debbie

    2015-06-01

    To discover evidence for defining the registered nurse's (RN's) role in the management of epidural analgesia in the labor and delivery setting. The Labor Epidural Nurse Safety (LENS) study consisted of two parts. The first part was a 10-year retrospective review of the outcomes of 2,568 laboring women for whom epidural catheters had been placed and verified by an anesthesiologist or certified registered nurse anesthetist, then continuous epidural infusion initiated, and basal rate or patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) dose increased, if needed, within specified parameters by specially trained labor and delivery RNs. The second part compared the outcomes of the neonates born to the 2,568 women in the first part of the study with neonates born to mothers who received PCEA with a continuous infusion initiated and managed exclusively by anesthesiologists and/or certified registered nurse anesthetists at two control sites. Maternal outcomes were quantified by incidences of clinically significant hypotension and sentinel events, such as respiratory distress, cardio/respiratory distress, loss of consciousness, and seizures. Evidence of neonatal outcomes was collected by comparing Apgar scores. No sentinel events occurred, and there was no increase in maternal hypotensive events in the RN-managed group. There were no statistically significant differences in Apgar scores between the experimental and control groups. Specially trained RNs can safely initiate continuous infusions and increase the basal rate of epidural analgesia infusions or PCEA doses administered to laboring women, after insertion and confirmation of correct catheter placement by a qualified anesthesia provider, without adversely affecting maternal and fetal/neonatal outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Perioperative epidural analgesia reduces cancer recurrence after gastro-oesophageal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, J G; Hacking, M B; Link, E K; Wessels, K L; Riedel, B J

    2014-03-01

    Recent interest has focused on the role of perioperative epidural analgesia in improving cancer outcomes. The heterogeneity of studies (tumour type, stage and outcome endpoints) has produced inconsistent results. Clinical practice also highlights the variability in epidural effectiveness. We considered the novel hypothesis that effective epidural analgesia improves cancer outcomes following gastro-oesophageal cancer surgery in patients with grouped pathological staging. Following institutional approval, a database analysis identified 140 patients, with 2-year minimum follow-up after gastro-oesophageal cancer surgery. All patients were operated on by a single surgeon (2005-2010). Information pertaining to cancer and survival outcomes was extracted. Univariate analysis demonstrated a 1-year 14% vs. 33% (P = 0.01) and 2-year 27% vs. 40% [hazard ratio (HR)=0.59; 95% CI, 0.32-1.09, P = 0.087] incidence of cancer recurrence in patients with (vs. without) effective (> 36 h duration) epidural analgesia, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated increased time to cancer recurrence (HR = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.17-0.63, P benefit (HR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.21-0.83, P benefit in patients with oesophageal cancer (HR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.16-0.75, P = 0.005) and in patients with tumour lymphovascular space infiltration (LVSI), (HR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.26-0.94, P = 0.03). Effective epidural analgesia improved estimated median time to death (2.9 vs. 1.8 years, P = 0.029) in patients with tumour LVSI. This study found an association between effective post-operative epidural analgesia and medium-term benefit on cancer recurrence and survival following oesophageal surgery. A prospective study that controls for disease type, stage and epidural effectiveness is warranted. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Comparative evaluation of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl for epidural analgesia in lower limb orthopedic surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Opioids as epidural adjunct to local anesthetics (LA have been in use since long and α-2 agonists are being increasingly used for similar purpose. The present study aims at comparing the hemodynamic, sedative, and analgesia potentiating effects of epidurally administered fentanyl and dexmedetomidine when combined with ropivacaine. Methods: A total of one hundred patients of both gender aged 21-56 years, American Society of Anaesthesiologist (ASA physical status I and II who underwent lower limb orthopedic surgery were enrolled into the present study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Ropivacaine + Dexmedetomidine (RD and Ropivacaine + Fentanyl (RF, comprising 50 patie nts each. Inj. Ropivacaine, 15 ml of 0.75%, was administered epidurally in both the groups with addition of 1 μg/kg of dexmedetomidine in RD group and 1 μg/kg of fentanyl in RF group. Besides cardio-respiratory parameters and sedation scores, various block characteristics were also observed which included time to onset of analgesia at T10, maximum sensory analgesic level, time to complete motor blockade, time to two segmental dermatomal regressions, and time to first rescue analgesic. At the end of study, data was compiled systematically and analyzed using ANOVA with post-hoc significance, Chi-square test and Fisher′s exact test. Value of P<0.05 is considered significant and P<0.001 as highly significant. Results: The demographic profile of patients was comparable in both the groups. Onset of sensory analgesia at T10 (7.12±2.44 vs 9.14±2.94 and establishment of complete motor blockade (18.16±4.52 vs 22.98±4.78 was significantly earlier in the RD group. Postoperative analgesia was prolonged significantly in the RD group (366.62±24.42 and consequently low dose consumption of local anaesthetic LA (76.82±14.28 vs 104.35±18.96 during epidural top-ups postoperatively. Sedation scores were much better in the RD group and highly significant on

  11. Continuous versus patient-controlled epidural analgesia for labour analgesia and their effects on maternal motor function and ambulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovach-Chepujnoska, Margarita; Nojkov, Jordan; Joshevska-Jovanovska, Slagjana; Domazetov, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) for delivery compared with continuous epidural analgesia (CEA) have been a point of interest in research obstetric anaesthesia for more than two decades. The aim of this single blind randomized controlled study was to evaluate the incidence of motor block and ability to perform partial knee flexion in women who received CEA or PCEA. Fifty-one healthy nulliparous women were included in this study. After an initial dose and established sensory block at Th 10, parturients were randomized into two groups: group CEA (10 ml/h), and group PCEA (bolus - 5 ml, lockout interval - 15 minutes, basal rate - 0 ml) with bupivacaine 0.08% and fentanyl 2 µg/ml. The motor function of the lower limbs was evaluated by modified Bromage scale at regular hourly intervals until full cervical dilatation. The quality of analgesia was assessed using a visual analogue pain scale (VAPS) and maternal satisfaction. Mode of delivery, the total number of additional rescue boluses, foetal and neonatal outcomes were recorded. Motor block was significantly lower in the third (33.3% vs. 4.35%; p = 0.008), fourth (57.9% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.003) and fifth hour (75.0% vs. 18.2%; p = 0.001) in the PCEA group. Ambulation occurred in 18% in the CEA and 46% in the PCEA group (p = 0.036). VAPS was with borderline significance in the second (p = 0.076) and significantly lower in the fourth hour (p = 0.034). Compared with CEA, PCEA provided less motor block and better first-stage analgesia, which leads to the conclusion that patient-controlled analgesia techniques are the preferred model in obstetric anesthesia.

  12. Epidural Neostigmine versus Fentanyl to Decrease Bupivacaine Use in Patient-controlled Epidural Analgesia during Labor: A Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Jessica L; Ross, Vernon H; Nelson, Kenneth E; Harris, Lynnette; Eisenach, James C; Pan, Peter H

    2017-07-01

    The addition of opioids to epidural local anesthetic reduces local anesthetic consumption by 20% but at the expense of side effects and time spent for regulatory compliance paperwork. Epidural neostigmine also reduces local anesthetic use. The authors hypothesized that epidural bupivacaine with neostigmine would decrease total hourly bupivacaine use compared with epidural bupivacaine with fentanyl for patient-controlled epidural analgesia. A total of 215 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status II, laboring parturients requesting labor epidural analgesia consented to the study and were randomized to receive 0.125% bupivacaine with the addition of either fentanyl (2 μg/ml) or neostigmine (2, 4, or 8 μg/ml). The primary outcome was total hourly local anesthetic consumption, defined as total patient-controlled epidural analgesia use and top-ups (expressed as milliliters of 0.125% bupivacaine) divided by the infusion duration. A priori analysis determined a group size of 35 was needed to have 80% power at α = 0.05 to detect a 20% difference in the primary outcome. Of 215 subjects consented, 151 patients were evaluable. Demographics, maternal and fetal outcomes, and labor characteristics were similar among groups. Total hourly local anesthetic consumption did not differ among groups (P = 0.55). The total median hourly bupivacaine consumption in the fentanyl group was 16.0 ml/h compared with 15.3, 14.6, and 16.2 ml/h in the 2, 4, and 8 μg/ml neostigmine groups, respectively (P = 0.55). The data do not support any difference in bupivacaine requirements for labor patient-controlled epidural analgesia whether patients receive epidural bupivacaine with 2 to 8 μg/ml neostigmine or epidural bupivacaine with 2 μg/ml fentanyl.

  13. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of a Continuous Lumbar Epidural Infusion of Preservative Free Morphine with a Continuous Thoracic Epidural Infusion of 0.0625% Bupivacaine Plus Fentanyl in Providing Post-Thoracotomy Analgesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, James

    1998-01-01

    ... to the thoracic epidural approach using Bupivacaine 0.0625% with Fentanyl. Data were collected on 20 subjects who presented for a thoracotomy and had consented to an epidural for their post-thoracotomy analgesia...

  14. Impact of epidural analgesia on cesarean and operative vaginal delivery rates classified by the Ten Groups Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucovnik, M; Blajic, I; Verdenik, I; Mirkovic, T; Stopar Pintaric, T

    2018-05-01

    The Ten Group Classification System (TGCS) allows critical analysis according to the obstetric characteristics of women in labor: singleton or multiple pregnancy, nulliparous, multiparous, or multiparous with a previous cesarean delivery, cephalic, breech presentation or other malpresentation, spontaneous or induced labor, and term or preterm births. Labor outcomes associated with epidural analgesia may be different among the different labor classification groups. The aim of this study was to explore associations between epidural analgesia and cesarean delivery, and epidural analgesia and assisted vaginal delivery, in women classified using the TGCS. Slovenian National Perinatal Information System data for the period 2007-2014 were analyzed. All women after spontaneous onset or induction of labor were classified according to the TGCS, within which cesarean and vaginal assisted delivery rates were investigated (P cesarean delivery rates. Women in group 1 (nulliparous term women with singleton fetuses in cephalic presentation in spontaneous labor) with epidural analgesia had a higher cesarean delivery rate. In most TGCS groups women with epidural analgesia had higher assisted vaginal delivery rates. Epidural analgesia is associated with different effects on cesarean delivery and assisted vaginal delivery rates in different TGCS groups. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Combined spinal-epidural analgesia in labour: its effects on delivery outcome

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    Suneet Kaur Sra Charanjit Singh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Combined spinal-epidural (CSE has become an increasingly popular alternative to traditional labour epidural due to its rapid onset and reliable analgesia provided. This was a prospective, convenient sampling study to determine the effects of CSE analgesia on labour outcome. METHODS: One hundred and ten healthy primigravida parturients with a singleton pregnancy of ≥37 weeks gestation and in the active phase of labour were studied. They were enrolled to the CSE (n = 55 or Non-CSE (n = 55 group based on whether they consented to CSE analgesia. Non-CSE parturients were offered other methods of labour analgesia. The duration of the first and second stage of labour, rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and emergency cesarean section, and Apgar scores were compared. RESULTS: The mean duration of the first and second stage of labour was not significantly different between both groups. Instrumental delivery rates between the groups were not significantly different (CSE group, 11% versus Non-CSE group, 16%. The slightly higher incidence of cesarean section in the CSE group (16% versus 15% in the Non-CSE group was not statistically significant. Neonatal outcome in terms of Apgar score of less than 7 at 1 and 5 min was similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: There were no significant differences in the duration of labour, rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and emergency cesarean section, and neonatal outcome in parturients who received compared to those who did not receive CSE for labour analgesia.

  16. [Prediction of intra-abdominal hypertension risk in patients with acute colonic obstruction under epidural analgesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakanov, A V; Potseluev, E A; Musaeva, T S

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the study was to identify prediction possibility of direct current potential level for intra-abdominal hypertension risk in patients with acute colonic obstruction under preoperative epidural analgesia. Prospective analysis of the preoperative period was carried out in 140 patients with acute colonic obstruction caused by colon cancer. Relations between preoperative level of permanent capacity and risk of intra-abdominal hypertension was identified Direct current potential level is an independent predictor of intra-abdominal hypertension. Diagnostic significance increases from first to fifth hour of preoperative period according to AUROC data from 0.821 to 0.905 and calibration 6.9 (p > 0.37) and 4.7 (p > 0.54) by Hosmer-Lemeshou criteria. The use of epidural analgesia in the complex intensive preoperative preparation is pathogenically justified. It reduces intra-abdominal hypertension in patients with acute colonic obstruction.

  17. Postoperative pain and gastro-intestinal recovery after colonic resection with epidural analgesia and multimodal rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Basse, L

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate initial postoperative pain intensity and the association with recovery of gastrointestinal function and length of stay (LOS) in a multimodal programme with epidural analgesia, early oral nutrition and mobilisation with a 48 h planned hospital stay. One hundred...... of change in the surgical procedures (2), surgical morbidity (6), medical factors (4) and psychosocial or other factors (5) all independent of pain. Pain data were incomplete in two patients and therefore excluded. In the remaining 91 patients, median time to defaecation and LOS were 24 and 48 h......, respectively. Gastrointestinal recovery and LOS did not differ between patients with high (3-6) versus low (0-2) dynamic pain scores (P > 0.4 and P > 0.1, respectively). It is concluded that a multimodal rehabilitation program including continuous thoracic epidural analgesia leads to early recovery...

  18. Thermal balance during transurethral resection of the prostate. A comparison of general anaesthesia and epidural analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernström, H; Henneberg, S; Eklund, A

    1985-01-01

    of the prostate resulted in a peroperative heat loss which was not influenced by the anaesthetic technique used and averaged 370 kJ during the first hour of surgery. G.A. reduced heat production while this was uninfluenced by E.A. After termination of general anaesthesia, oxygen uptake and plasma catecholamines...... anaesthesia (G.A.) or epidural analgesia (E.A.). Oxygen uptake, catecholamines, peripheral and central temperatures were followed in the per- and postoperative period. Heat production and total body heat were calculated from oxygen uptake and temperature measurements, respectively. Transurethral resection...... increased, while no such changes could be detected using epidural analgesia. The ability to increase mean body temperature by increasing heat production was negatively correlated to age....

  19. Epidural Analgesia with Ropivacaine during Labour in a Patient with a SCN5A Gene Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. M. J. van der Knijff-van Dortmont

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SCN5A gene mutations can lead to ion channel defects which can cause cardiac conduction disturbances. In the presence of specific ECG characteristics, this mutation is called Brugada syndrome. Many drugs are associated with adverse events, making anesthesia in patients with SCN5A gene mutations or Brugada syndrome challenging. In this case report, we describe a pregnant patient with this mutation who received epidural analgesia using low dose ropivacaine and sufentanil during labour.

  20. Continous wound infusion versus epidural postoperative analgesia after liver resection in carcinoma patients

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTEFANČIĆ, LJILJA; BROZOVIĆ, GORDANA; ŠTURM, DEANA; MALDINI, BRANKA; ŠAKIĆ ZDRAVČEVIĆ, KATA

    2013-01-01

    Background: Continuous wound infiltration (CWI) and epidural thoracic analgesia (ETA) are analgesic techniques commonly used in the multimodal management of postoperative pain after open abdominal surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness in pain reduce and postoperative recovery of these techniques in patients scheduled for liver resection. Methods: The retrospective study included 29 patients, with liver resection performed due to metastases of colon carc...

  1. ambulation during labor with combined spinal-epidural analgesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    cations including aphasia, dysphagia, altered level of consciousness, high sensory block, respiratory depression, and respiratory arrest, following induction of CSEA for labor pain. Conclusion. In summary, the CSEA technique for ambulatory analgesia in labor has a good record of efficacy and safety and can be ac-.

  2. Pain Management of Malignant Psoas Syndrome Under Epidural Analgesia During Palliative Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takayo; Makihara, Masaru; Tsukuda, Hiroshi; Kajikawa, Ryuji; Inamori, Masayuki; Miyatake, Nozomi; Tanaka, Noriko; Tokunaga, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Tada, Takuhito; Fukuoka, Masahiro

    2017-06-01

    Malignant psoas syndrome is a rare malignant condition presenting as lumbosacral plexopathy and painful fixed flexion of the hip. Metastasis to the psoas muscle is observed, which damages the nerve bundles in the lumbosacral plexuses. The syndrome presents as refractory lower back pain with several other neurological symptoms. The pain is difficult to control because it is a mixture of nociceptive and neuropathic pain, which indicates that treatment requires a versatile approach. The authors report a case of severe back pain caused by metastasis to the psoas muscle of advanced gastric cancer in a patient who underwent palliative radiotherapy under epidural analgesia. Despite conventional analgesics and subcutaneous oxycodone, he had difficulties in maintaining supine position because of the back pain and had a problem to receive radiotherapy, which required him to stay still in the same position during the treatment. By epidural analgesia, he could remain in supine position and complete radiotherapy without increasing opioid administration. His back pain was improved after the radiotherapy. Epidural analgesia is an effective treatment choice for a patient who is unable to keep the position during palliative radiotherapy.

  3. The association between incentive spirometry performance and pain in postoperative thoracic epidural analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David J; Hilliard, Paul E; Jewell, Elizabeth S; Brummett, Chad M

    2015-01-01

    Effective use of postoperative incentive spirometry improves patient outcomes but is limited by pain after thoracic and upper abdominal surgery. Thoracic epidurals are frequently used to provide analgesia and attenuate postoperative pulmonary dysfunction. We hypothesized that, in patients with thoracic epidurals for thoracic and abdominal surgery, high pain scores would be associated with poorer incentive spirometry performance, even when accounting for other variables. Retrospective study of 468 patients who underwent upper abdominal or thoracic surgery using postoperative thoracic epidural analgesia between June 1, 2009, and August 31, 2013, at a single tertiary academic center. The association between incentive spirometry performance and pain was assessed as the primary outcome. Other independent predictors of incentive spirometry performance were also identified. Postoperative incentive spirometry performance was found to be inversely proportional to pain score, which correlated significantly stronger with deep breathing pain compared with pain at rest (-0.33 vs -0.14 on postoperative day 1; -0.23 vs -0.12 on postoperative day 2). Pain with deep breathing was independently associated with poorer incentive spirometry performance in the multivariable linear regression model (P spirometry performance could be used as another indicator of thoracic epidural efficacy. This may be particularly useful in patients reporting high pain scores postoperatively.

  4. Epidural analgesia during labor: impact on delivery outcome, neonatal well-being, and early breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Di Gangi, Stefania; Saccardi, Carlo; Patrelli, Tito Silvio; Paccagnella, Gianluca; Sansone, Laura; Barbara, Favaron; D'Antona, Donato; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista

    2012-08-01

    The effect of epidural analgesia on labor and effective breastfeeding is still being debated. The aim of this study is to define its impact on the trend of labor, the newborns' well-being, and early breastfeeding. We considered first-term physiologic pregnant women who delivered by the vaginal route. We divided them into two groups: group A received epidural analgesia during labor, whereas group B received no analgesia. We recorded maternal age, gestational age, modality of delivery, length of labor, and length of active labor. All newborns received skin-to-skin contact; early breastfeeding was encouraged. We recorded data on birth weight and length, Apgar score at minutes 1 and 5, type of crying, neonatal reactivity, and time between birth and exposure to the breast. Statistical significance was considered for panalgesia, and 245 patients agreed to participate in our study. Only 128 patients met inclusion criteria. We randomized them in 64 women in group A and 64 women in group B. Data on maternal age, gestational age, type of delivery, neonatal birth weight and length, and Apgar score showed no significant differences. Total length of labor was 363.58±62.20 minutes in Group A versus 292.30±64.75 minutes in group B (pneonatal parameters we found a statistically significant difference only for length of first breastfeeding, with a mean duration of analgesia has little effect on trend of labor and duration of first breastfeed and none on neonatal outcome. A new protocol of epidural analgesia may solve these side effects.

  5. Comparison of efficacy of bupivacaine and fentanyl with bupivacaine and sufentanil for epidural labor analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalra Sumit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A study to compare the efficacy between fentanyl and sufentanil combined with low concentration (0.0625% of bupivacaine for epidural labor analgesia in laboring women. Materials and Methods: Fifty full term parturients received an initial bolus dose of a 10 ml solution containing 0.125% bupivacaine. The patients were randomly divided into two: group F received 0.0625% bupivacaine with 2.5 mcg/ml fentanyl and group S received 0.0625% bupivacaine with 0.25 mcg/ml sufentanil. Verbal analogue pain scores, need of supplementary/rescue boluses dose of bupivacaine consumed, mode of delivery, maternal satisfaction, and neonatal Apgar scores were recorded. No significant difference was observed between both groups. Results: Both the groups provided equivalent labor analgesia and maternal satisfaction. The chances of cesarean delivery were also not increased in any group. No difference in the cephalad extent of sensory analgesia, motor block or neonatal Apgar score were observed. Although mean pain scores throughout the labor and delivery were similar in both groups, more patients in fentanyl group required supplementary boluses though not statistically significant. Conclusion: We conclude that both 0.0625% bupivacaine-fentanyl (2.5 μg/ml and 0.0625% bupivacaine-sufentanil (0.25 μg/ml were equally effective by continuous epidural infusion in providing labor analgesia with hemodynamic stability achieving equivalent maternal satisfaction without serious maternal or fetal side effects. We found that sufentanil was 10 times more potent than fentanyl as an analgesic for continuous epidural labor analgesia.

  6. Epidural Analgesia Versus Patient-Controlled Analgesia for Pain Relief in Uterine Artery Embolization for Uterine Fibroids: A Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, Sanne M. van der; Moolenaar, Lobke M.; Ankum, Willem M.; Reekers, Jim A.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Hehenkamp, Wouter J. K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to compare the costs and effects of epidural analgesia (EDA) to those of patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCA) for postintervention pain relief in women having uterine artery embolization (UAE) for systematic uterine fibroids. Methods: Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) based on data from the literature by constructing a decision tree to model the clinical pathways for estimating the effects and costs of treatment with EDA and PCA. Literature on EDA for pain-relief after UAE was missing, and therefore, data on EDA for abdominal surgery were used. Outcome measures were compared costs to reduce one point in visual analogue score (VAS) or numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain 6 and 24 h after UAE and risk for complications. Results: Six hours after the intervention, the VAS was 3.56 when using PCA and 2.0 when using EDA. The costs for pain relief in women undergoing UAE with PCA and EDA were €191 and €355, respectively. The costs for EDA to reduce the VAS score 6 h after the intervention with one point compared with PCA were €105 and €179 after 24 h. The risk of having a complication was 2.45 times higher when using EDA. Conclusions: The results of this indirect comparison of EDA for abdominal surgery with PCA for UAE show that EDA would provide superior analgesia for post UAE pain at 6 and 24 h but with higher costs and an increased risk of complications

  7. Thoracic epidural analgesia reduces myocardial injury in ischemic patients undergoing major abdominal cancer surgery

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    Mohamad MF

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohamad Farouk Mohamad,1 Montaser A Mohammad,1 Diab F Hetta,1 Eman Hasan Ahmed,2 Ahmed A Obiedallah,3 Alaa Ali M Elzohry1 1Department of Anesthesia, ICU and Pain Relief, 2Department of Clinical Pathology, South Egypt Cancer Institute, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Arab Republic of Egypt Background and objectives: Major abdominal cancer surgeries are associated with significant perioperative mortality and morbidity due to myocardial ischemia and infarction. This study examined the effect of perioperative patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA on occurrence of ischemic cardiac injury in ischemic patients undergoing major abdominal cancer surgery.Patients and methods: One hundred and twenty patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists grade II and III of either sex were scheduled for elective upper gastrointestinal cancer surgeries. Patients were allocated randomly into two groups (60 patients each to receive, besides general anesthesia: continuous intra and postoperative intravenous (IV infusion with fentanyl for 72 h postoperatively (patient controlled intravenous analgesia [PCIA] group or continuous intra and postoperative epidural infusion with bupivacaine 0.125% and fentanyl (PCEA group for 72 h postoperatively. Perioperative hemodynamics were recorded. Postoperative pain was assessed over 72 h using visual analog scale (VAS. All patients were screened for occurrence of myocardial injury (MI by electrocardiography, echocardiography, and cardiac troponin I serum level. Other postoperative complications as arrhythmia, deep venous thrombosis (DVT, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, and death were recorded.Results: There was a significant reduction in overall adverse cardiac events (myocardial injury, arrhythmias, angina, heart failure and nonfatal cardiac arrest in PCEA group in comparison to PCIA group. Also, there was a significant reduction in dynamic VAS pain score in group PCEA in comparison

  8. Are there any strategies to improve neonatal outcomes associated with epidural analgesia in labor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armani, Marta; Gaggiano, Carla; Dallaglio, Sara; Romanini, Enzo; Sospiri, Carmen; Magnani, Cinzia

    2013-09-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between epidural analgesia and perinatal outcomes and at verifying the advisability of procedural changes in assistance to labor. From January to December 2012, we conducted a retrospective case-control study on 1,963 laboring pregnant women admitted to the Parma University Hospital. We considered two groups: Group 1 received epidural analgesia and Group 2 received no analgesia. Women with elective cesarean sections, multiple pregnancies or deliveries at <34 weeks were excluded. We recorded maternal data (age, type of delivery, obstetric procedures, premature rupture of membranes, screenings for Group-B Streptococcus) and neonatal data (birth weight, gestational age, 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, diagnosis at discharge). Of the 1,963 laboring women, 287 requested analgesia and 1,676 did not. We found no significant differences between the two groups in the rates of cesarean section, clavicle fracture, and 1-minute Apgar score between 4 and 7. By contrast, we observed a higher rate of instrumental deliveries (p<0.01), fetal occiput posterior position (p<0.05), neonatal cephalohematoma (p=0.01) in Group 1 than in Group 2 . In Group 1 we also found a higher number of newborns with 1-minute Apgar score of 3 or less (p=0.016). In addition, a significantly higher number of women in Group 1 had fever during labor (p=0.003, odds ratio 5.01). Our results suggest that strategies should be activated to overcome or limit the side-effects of analgesia in labor through prospective and multidisciplinary studies. 

  9. Central neuraxial opioid analgesia after caesarean section: comparison of epidural diamorphine and intrathecal morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caranza, R; Jeyapalan, I; Buggy, D J

    1999-04-01

    In a prospective, randomized, double-blind study in 55 women undergoing elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia, we compared epidural diamorphine 3 mg (2 distinct boluses, group ED) with single-dose intrathecal morphine 0.2 mg (group SM), in terms of analgesic efficacy, patient satisfaction and side-effects at 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24 and 28 h postoperatively. There were no significant differences between groups in pain (assessed by 100 mm visual analogue scale), incidence of pruritus, sedation or respiratory depression measured by continuous pulse oximetry. However, time to first request for supplementary oral analgesia was longer in SM than in ED (mean +/- SD: 22.3+/-12.0 h vs. 13.8+/-6.5 h, P=0.04). The incidence of nausea or vomiting was significantly higher in SM than ED (73% vs. 41%, P=0.01). In ED, the mean +/- SD time to requirement of the second bolus was 6.7+/-3.2 h. There was a high level of satisfaction in both groups. We conclude that two boluses of epidural diamorphine 3 mg and single-dose intrathecal morphine 0.2 mg provide satisfactory analgesia after caesarean section, but spinal morphine was associated with both delayed requirement for supplementary analgesia and a higher incidence of nausea and vomiting.

  10. Audit of a ward-based patient-controlled epidural analgesia service in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, T

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Ward-based patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) for postoperative pain control was introduced at our institution in 2006. We audited the efficacy and safety of ward-based PCEA from January 2006 to December 2008. METHOD: Data were collected from 928 patients who received PCEA in general surgical wards for postoperative analgesia using bupivacaine 0.125% with fentanyl 2 mug\\/mL. RESULTS: On the first postoperative day, the median visual analogue pain score was 2 at rest and 4 on activity. Hypotension occurred in 21 (2.2%) patients, excessive motor blockade in 16 (1.7%), high block in 5 (0.5%), nausea in 5 (0.5%) and pruritus in only 1 patient. Excessive sedation occurred in two (0.2%) patients but no intervention was required. There were no serious complications such as epidural abscess, infection or haematoma. CONCLUSION: Effective and safe postoperative analgesia can be provided with PCEA in a general surgical ward without recourse to high-dependency supervision.

  11. Requests and usage of epidural analgesia in grand-grand multiparous and similar-aged women with lesser parity: prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioscovich, Alexander; Fadeev, Angelika; Rivilis, Alina; Elstein, Deborah

    2011-11-01

    Epidural analgesia in older and multiparous women has been associated with risks. The aim of this study was to compare epidural analgesia use for labor/delivery in grand-grand multiparous women (GGMP; ≥10 births) relative to that in similar-aged women with lesser parity. This was a prospective observational study of advanced age gravida. All laboring women in a six-month period admitted to a tertiary Israeli center were included if they were advanced age (≥36 years old) with one to two previous births (Low parity; n=128) or four to five previous births (Medium parity; n=181), and all GGMP (any age; n=187). Primary outcome was comparison of requests for and use of epidural analgesia for labor/delivery. There were no significant differences across parity groups in percent of gravida requesting or receiving epidural analgesia (46.5-59.4%). Time from admission to epidural administration (range mean times: 168-187 min) and from advent of epidural to delivery (range mean times: 155-160 min) were comparable across parity groups. Use of other analgesia (5.8-8%) was not significantly different. Requests for and use of epidural analgesia was comparable in older gravida and was not correlated with parity. Mean times from presentation to epidural administration, mean cervical dilatation at epidural initiation, and mean time from performing of epidural to delivery were comparable across groups.

  12. Red herring: Acute back pain after combined spinal epidural for labor analgesia

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    Yoong Chuan Tay

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Symphysis pubis diastases complicate 1:300 to 1:30,000 pregnancies. Peripartum pain in chronological sequence with labor epidural analgesia often attracts instinctive causation and distress. Predisposing risk factors include macrosomia, short second stage of labor, forceps use, multiparity, small pelvis, intense uterine contractions, previous pelvic ring pathology and trauma. A gestational diabetic primigravid parturient presents with acute post-partum back pain after an uneventful analgesic labor epidural. Her pain distributed over the right paravertebral L5-S1 region without radiculopathy, worsened with positional change and accompanied by urinary incontinence, precluding child care. Spine imaging incidentally revealed a 38 mm symphysis pubis diastasis. A pelvic binder by orthopaedics aided physiotherapy and ambulation. Pubic diastases are usually conservatively managed, unless separation exceeds 5 cm when early surgery may improve functional outcomes. Although symptoms may recur in subsequent pregnancies, it does not preclude vaginal delivery. Early recognition and prompt management aim to reduce parturient morbidity and promote resumption of activity. Keywords: Symphysis pubis diasthesis, Pubic symphysis diasthesis, Post-epidural pain, Labor epidural pain, Post-partum pain

  13. Can oxytocin augmentation modify the risk of epidural analgesia by maternal age in cesarean sections?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossen, Janne; Klungsøyr, Kari; Albrechtsen, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    was used compared with when it was not used. In Norway, this applied to all maternal age groups but in Denmark only for women ≥30 years. Among women without epidural, oxytocin augmentation was associated with an increased odds ratio for cesarean section in Denmark, whereas no difference was observed....... MATERIAL AND METHODS: In all, 416 386 nulliparous women with spontaneous onset of labor, ≥37 weeks of gestation and singleton infants with a cephalic presentation during 2000-2011 from Norway and Denmark were included [Ten-group classification system (Robson) group 1]. In this case-control study the main...... exposure was maternal age; epidural analgesia, oxytocin augmentation, birthweight and time period were explanatory variables. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to estimate associations and interactions. RESULTS: The cesarean section rate increased consistently with advancing maternal age...

  14. Timing of administration of epidural analgesia and risk of operative delivery in nulliparous women: A case–control randomised study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipsita Chattopadhyay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available >Background and Aim: Epidural analgesia (EA offers an effective form of labour analgesia. The time of administration of EA and its relationship with the mode of delivery is controversial. Our study tried to assess whether early initiation of epidural analgesia influences the obstetric outcome in nulliparous women.Materials and Methods: This was a case control, randomised study which included 60 parturients in spontaneous labour divided into two equal groups, the cases and controls. Cases received EA with 10 mL of 0.125% injection bupivacaine, whereas the control group received a systemic opioid (injection pethidine 100 mg intramuscularly for pain relief. Cases were further divided into parturients receiving EA at a cervical dilatation of 3 cm or less classified as the early epidural group and those receiving EA at 4 cm or more classified as the late epidural group. The modes of delivery for the study population were recorded. Data analysis was done using Wilcoxon two-sample test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: The rate of instrumental vaginal delivery between the early epidural group [95% confidence interval (CI 0.358–10.821; P = 0.43] and late epidural group (95% CI 0.150–6.055; P = 0.96 was not significantly different. The cesarean-delivery rate was also not significantly different between those receiving early EA (P = 0.95 and late EA (P = 0.58 when compared with control group.Conclusion: This study showed no significant difference in the incidence of caesarean or instrumental delivery for women receiving early epidural analgesia when compared with late epidurals or no EA.

  15. Maternal and neonatal effects of adding morphine to low-dose bupivacaine for epidural labor analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostbil, A; Celik, M; Alici, H A; Erdem, A F; Aksoy, M; Ahiskalioglu, A

    2014-01-01

    Labor is one of the most painful experiences a woman may face during her lifetime. One of the most effective methods used for eliminating this pain is epidural analgesia. The aim of this study to determine the impact of adding morphine to low-dose bupivacaine epidural anesthesia on labor and neonatal outcomes, and maternal side effects. This is a prospective randomized double-blind study comparing two regimens of anesthetic agents used for epidural anesthesia in labor. A total of 120 pregnant women were randomized into two groups with 60 subjects in each study arm. A catheter was inserted, and 0.1% bupivacaine + 2 μg/mL fentanyl in 15 mL saline were given to Group bupivacaine-fentanyl (Group BF), while 0.0625% bupivacaine + 2 μg/ml fentanyl + 2 mg morphine in 15 mL saline were given to Group bupivacaine-fentanyl-morphine (Group BFM) with no test dosing from the needle. No morphine was added to the subsequent epidural injections in Group BFM. The total dose of bupivacaine was significantly lower in Group BFM relative to Group BF (P = 0.0001). The visual analogu scalescores at 15, 30, and 45 min were significantly lower in Group BF compared to thosein Group BFM (P = 0.0001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.006, respectively). The second stage of labor was significantly shorter in Group BFM relative to Group BF (P = 0.027 and P = 0.003, respectively). The satisfaction with analgesia following the first dose was higher in the nonmorphine group (P = 0.0001). However, maternal postpartum satisfaction was similar in both groups. Either nausea or vomiting was recorded in eight patients in Group BFM. We believe that epidural analgesia comprised of a low-dose local anaesthetic and 2 mg morphine provides a painless labor that significantly reducesthe use of local anesthetic without changing the efficiency of the analgesic, ensuring the mother's satisfaction without leading to an adverse effect on the mother or foetus, while mildly (but significantly) shortening the second stage of

  16. Costos de la analgesia epidural de parto. Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal. Enero 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Lazarte, Silvia E.; Montes Ruiz, Celina H.; Arias Lazarte, Gladys C.

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar el costo unitario y el costo operacional, para identificar los elementos y más importantes variables. Material y método: Diseño: retrospectivo, descriptivo y transversal. Los pacientes fueron 53 mujeres en trabajo de parto. Ellas reciberon analgesia epidural en enero de 2006 en el Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal INMP. El instrumento utilizado fue una encuesta para analizar los costos. Los tipos de costos fueron calculados por la metodología del sistema de"información...

  17. Epidural analgesia for traumatic rib fractures is associated with worse outcomes: a matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendy, Katherine M; Lee, Lawrence F; Boulva, Kerianne; Deckelbaum, Dan L; Mulder, David S; Razek, Tarek S; Grushka, Jeremy R

    2017-06-15

    The optimal method of pain control for patients with traumatic rib fractures is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of epidural analgesia on respiratory complications and in-hospital mortality in patients with rib fractures. Adult patients at a level I trauma center with ≥1 rib fracture from blunt trauma were included (2004-2013). Those with a blunt-penetrating mechanism, traumatic brain injury, or underwent a laparotomy or thoracotomy were excluded. Patients who were treated with epidural analgesia (EPI) were compared with those were not treated with epidural analgesia (NEPI) using coarsened exact matching. Primary outcomes were respiratory complications (pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolus, and respiratory failure) and 30-d in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were total hospital and intensive care unit length of stay, and duration of ventilator support. About 1360 patients (EPI: 329 and NEPI: 1031) met inclusion criteria (mean age: 54.2 y; standard deviation [SD]: 19.7; 68% male). The mean number of rib fractures was 4.8 (SD: 3.3; 21% bilateral) with a high total burden of injury (mean Injury Severity Score: 19.9 [SD: 8.9]). The overall incidence of respiratory complications was 13% and mortality was 4%. After matching, 204 EPI patients were compared with 204 NEPI patients, with no differences in baseline characteristics. EPI patients experienced more respiratory complications (19% versus 10%, P = 0.009), but no differences in 30-d mortality (5% versus 2%, P = 0.159), duration of mechanical ventilation (EPI: 148 h [SD: 167] versus NEPI: 117 h [SD: 187], P = 0.434), or duration of intensive care unit length of stay (6.5 d [SD: 7.6] versus 5.8 d [SD: 9.1], P = 0.626). Hospital stay was higher in the EPI group (16.6 d [SD: 19.6] vs 12.7 d [SD: 15.2], P = 0.026). Epidural analgesia is associated with increased respiratory complications without providing mortality benefit after traumatic rib fractures

  18. The effect of pre-emptive intravenous Dexketoprofen + thoracal epidural analgesia on the chronic post-thoracotomy pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comez, Mehmet; Celik, Mine; Dostbil, Aysenur; Aksoy, Mehmet; Ahiskalioglu, Ali; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Aydin, Yener; İnce, İlker

    2015-01-01

    Post thoracotomy chronic pain is a severe problem that affects the majority of patients and decreases the quality of life. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the long-term effects of thoracal epidural levobupivacaine and intravenous dexketoprofen analgesia formed pre-emptively on the wound site pain after major thoracotomy operations. This randomised, prospective and double-blind study was performed with 60 patients undergoing thoracic surgery. Patients were divided into three groups; Control Group (Group C), Pre-emptive Epidural Group (Group PE) and Pre-emptive Dexketoprofen + Epidural Group (Group PED). Patients in the Group C did not receive epidural analgesics and i.v. dexketoprofen before and during the operation. 10-15 ml 0.125% levobupivacaine was given to cases in Group PE pre-emptively through epidural catheter before the anesthesia induction. The cases in Group PED were given 10-15 ml 0.125% epidural levobupivacaine and 50 mg dexketoprofen with i.v. infusion pre-emptively. The VAS score was found to be lower in Group PED during postoperative 24 and 48 hours and before the discharge (P0.05). A statistically significant decrease was determined in the VAS score in Group PED during the sixth month, compared to the other groups (Pdexketoprofen and thoracal epidural analgesia reduce the chronic post-thoracotomy pain.

  19. Epidural Analgesia Versus Patient-Controlled Analgesia for Pain Relief in Uterine Artery Embolization for Uterine Fibroids: A Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooij, Sanne M. van der, E-mail: s.m.vanderkooij@amc.uva.nl; Moolenaar, Lobke M.; Ankum, Willem M. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Gynaecology (Netherlands); Reekers, Jim A. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Mol, Ben Willem J. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Gynaecology (Netherlands); Hehenkamp, Wouter J. K. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Gynaecology (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to compare the costs and effects of epidural analgesia (EDA) to those of patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCA) for postintervention pain relief in women having uterine artery embolization (UAE) for systematic uterine fibroids. Methods: Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) based on data from the literature by constructing a decision tree to model the clinical pathways for estimating the effects and costs of treatment with EDA and PCA. Literature on EDA for pain-relief after UAE was missing, and therefore, data on EDA for abdominal surgery were used. Outcome measures were compared costs to reduce one point in visual analogue score (VAS) or numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain 6 and 24 h after UAE and risk for complications. Results: Six hours after the intervention, the VAS was 3.56 when using PCA and 2.0 when using EDA. The costs for pain relief in women undergoing UAE with PCA and EDA were Euro-Sign 191 and Euro-Sign 355, respectively. The costs for EDA to reduce the VAS score 6 h after the intervention with one point compared with PCA were Euro-Sign 105 and Euro-Sign 179 after 24 h. The risk of having a complication was 2.45 times higher when using EDA. Conclusions: The results of this indirect comparison of EDA for abdominal surgery with PCA for UAE show that EDA would provide superior analgesia for post UAE pain at 6 and 24 h but with higher costs and an increased risk of complications.

  20. Comparison of Epidural Analgesia with Transversus Abdominis Plane Analgesia for Postoperative Pain Relief in Patients Undergoing Lower Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Sadasivan Shankar; Bavishi, Harshit; Mohan, Chadalavada Venkataram; Kaur, Navdeep

    2017-01-01

    Anesthesiologists play an important role in postoperative pain management. For analgesia after lower abdominal surgery, epidural analgesia and ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block are suitable options. The study aims to compare the analgesic efficacy of both techniques. Seventy-two patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery under spinal anesthesia were randomized to postoperatively receive lumbar epidural catheter (Group E) or ultrasound-guided TAP block (Group T) through intravenous cannulas placed bilaterally. Group E received 10 ml 0.125% bupivacaine stat and 10 ml 8 th hourly for 48 h. Group T received 20 ml 0.125% bupivacaine bilaterally stat and 20 ml bilaterally 8 th hourly for 48 h. Pain at rest and on coughing, total paracetamol and tramadol consumption were recorded. Analgesia at rest was comparable between the groups in the first 16 h. At 24 and 48 h, Group E had significantly better analgesia at rest ( P = 0.001 and 0.004 respectively). Patients in Group E had significantly higher number of patients with nil or mild pain on coughing at all times. Paracetamol consumption was comparable in both groups, but tramadol consumption was significantly higher in Group T at the end of 48 h ( P = 0.001). For lower abdominal surgeries, analgesia provided by intermittent boluses of 0.125% is comparable for first 16 h between epidural and TAP catheters. However, the quality of analgesia provided by the epidural catheter is superior to that provided by TAP catheters beyond that both at rest and on coughing with reduced opioid consumption.

  1. Frequency of instrumental vaginal delivery in patients with and without receiving epidural analgesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phool, B.

    2013-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Frequency of instrumental vaginal delivery in women receiving epidural analgesia and those who are not receiving.Study Design: It was a cohort study. Duration: 6th month. Results: Majority of the patients were found between 20 - 25 years of age in both A and B groups, in Group - A 46.11% (n = 83) and in Group - B 52.22% (n = 94), mean and standard deviation was calculated 26.21 +- 3.56 in Group - A and 27.34 +- 3.78 in Group - B, comparison of instrumental vaginal delivery reveals 10.55% (n = 19) in Group - A were with instrumental delivery while in Group - B only 2.78% (n = 5) cases were found delivered with instruments.Conclusion: Epidural analgesia is considered to be an effective method of pain relief during labor but due to the higher risk of increased duration of 2nd stage of labour it increases the possibility of instrumental delivery. (author)

  2. A 6-month audit of epidural analgesia in a teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Siddiqui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Major laparotomies generally herald high pain scores postoperatively and have high intraoperative hemodynamic shifts. Traditional analgesic regimens with intravenous opioids were supplanted with the superior epidural analgesia (EA in the mid-1980s. This was based on the perception that EA provided highly effective postoperative analgesia for patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. However, recent literature points to a high failure rate. We aimed to retrospectively audit our EA performance in terms of success and complications and take an in-depth look at factors associated with failure. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed charts and our EA forms over 6 months. Results: Our results show a low rate of mortality and neurological morbidity. However we have a high rate of failure of 37% as judged by high pain scores, use of adjuvant analgesics and also an unacceptably high rate of hypotension from epidural infusions, requiring fluid boluses, inotropes and Intensive Care Unit admission. Registrar level and senior insertion did not show any difference in failure rate. Conclusion: Level of training per se does not equate to experiential skip and prior level of experience with administration of this type of anesthesia. We can conclude that EA in our setting is safe but not effective and requires further and frequent scrutiny in terms of procedures, technical skill, education and perhaps looking at its cost-effectiveness and need for standardization.

  3. Thoracic epidural analgesia for breast oncological procedures: A better alternative to general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parli Raghavan Ravi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the outcomes of the incidence of nausea/vomiting and other complications along with the time taken for discharged in patients undergoing Thoracic Epidural Analgesia (TEA and General Anaesthesia (GA for breast oncological surgeries. Background: GA with or without TEA or other postoperative pain-relieving strategies remains the traditional anesthetic technique used for breast oncological procedures. We initiated the use of high segmental TEA for patients undergoing these procedures in our hospital. Methods: Eighty patients undergoing breast oncological procedures performed by one surgical team were randomly allocated into two groups receiving TEA and GA. The Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used for categorical parameters, paired t-test and Student's t-test was used for continuous measurements. Results: In comparison with GA, TEA was associated with lesser incidence of complications of nausea/vomiting. In lumpectomy with axillary node dissection, 1 out of 18 patients (5.55% in the TEA group had nausea/vomiting, while 11 out of 19 (57.8% of the GA group had similar symptoms (P < 0.001. The discharge rate for the thoracic epidural group was 12 out of 18 by day 3 (66.6% while all patients in the GA group required more than 3 days of hospitalization (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Thoracic epidural anesthesia is a safe technique and its use in breast oncological procedures could improve patients' recovery and facilitate their early discharge to home.

  4. Evaluation of the effect of gabapentin on postoperative analgesia with epidural morphine after abdominal hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diptesh Aryal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Gabapentin has been used successfully as a non-opioid analgesic adjuvant for postoperative pain management. We hypothesized that the preoperative use of gabapentin prolonged the analgesic effect of epidural morphine without an increase in adverse effects of morphine. Materials & Methods: In a randomized, double blind study sixty ASA PS I and II patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy were assigned to receive either placebo or gabapentin 1200mg 1 hour before surgery. Postoperatively, 0.125% bupivacaine with morphine 50 µg per kg body weight was used for epidural analgesia. Vital parameters, time to the first request for analgesic, visual analogue scale scoring for pain at rest and during movement, 24-hour morphine consumption, and side effects were studied.Results: The patients were comparable with respect to age, weight, ASA PS, baseline hemodynamic parameters and duration of surgery. Gabapentin significantly decreased the duration of analgesia compared to placebo (1078.26 min Vs. 303.5 min; P value <0.0001. The VAS scores at rest and during movement at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24h were significantly lower in gabapentin group. The total amount of morphine consumption in 24 h postoperatively was significantly lower in gabapentin group (1.93mg Vs. 6.30mg; P value <0.0001. The incidence of nausea and pruritus was significantly lower with gabapentin. Conclusion: Oral gabapentin 1200 mg as a premedication decreases the dose requirement of epidural morphine and postoperative pain after total abdominal hysterectomy. It also decreases the pain scores at rest and during movement significantly. 

  5. Risk factors for failed conversion of labor epidural analgesia to cesarean delivery anesthesia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, M E; Kountanis, J A; Tsen, L C; Greenfield, M L; Mhyre, J M

    2012-10-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates evidence for seven risk factors associated with failed conversion of labor epidural analgesia to cesarean delivery anesthesia. Online scientific literature databases were searched using a strategy which identified observational trials, published between January 1979 and May 2011, which evaluated risk factors for failed conversion of epidural analgesia to anesthesia or documented a failure rate resulting in general anesthesia. 1450 trials were screened, and 13 trials were included for review (n=8628). Three factors increase the risk for failed conversion: an increasing number of clinician-administered boluses during labor (OR=3.2, 95% CI 1.8-5.5), greater urgency for cesarean delivery (OR=40.4, 95% CI 8.8-186), and a non-obstetric anesthesiologist providing care (OR=4.6, 95% CI 1.8-11.5). Insufficient evidence is available to support combined spinal-epidural versus standard epidural techniques, duration of epidural analgesia, cervical dilation at the time of epidural placement, and body mass index or weight as risk factors for failed epidural conversion. The risk of failed conversion of labor epidural analgesia to anesthesia is increased with an increasing number of boluses administered during labor, an enhanced urgency for cesarean delivery, and care being provided by a non-obstetric anesthesiologist. Further high-quality studies are needed to evaluate the many potential risk factors associated with failed conversion of labor epidural analgesia to anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Obstetric and psychological characteristics of women choosing epidural analgesia during labour: A cohort study.

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    Sitras, Vasilis; Šaltytė Benth, Jūratė; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the obstetric and psychological characteristics of women who opt to use epidural analgesia (EDA) during labour and the impact of participating in labour preparation courses on women's decisions to use EDA. Longitudinal cohort study. Akershus University Hospital, Norway. 2596 women with singleton pregnancies and intended vaginal delivery. Data were collected using two self-completed questionnaires at pregnancy weeks 17 and 32. Fear of childbirth was assessed by the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire (W-DEQ). Symptoms of anxiety were measured by the Hopkins Symptom Check List (SCL-25) and depression by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Obstetric and socio-demographic information was retrieved from birth records at the maternity ward. Preference for EDA was indicated by the questionnaire item "I would prefer an epidural regardless" on a 4-point scale (1 = highly agree, 4 = highly disagree) at pregnancy week 32. Twenty-one percent of the women (540/2596) answered that they would choose EDA as the only alternative method of analgesia during labour. Counselling for fear of childbirth [OR 3.23 (95%CI 2.12; 4.92)] and W-DEQ sum score ≥ 85 [OR 2.95 (95%CI 2.06; 4.23)] were significantly (plabour preparation courses was significantly (p = 0.008) associated with a reduction of intended use of EDA during labour [OR 0.67 (95%CI 0.49; 0.90)]. Fear of childbirth is significantly associated with women's choice of EDA during labour. On the other hand, women that participate in labour preparation courses would rather consider other methods of analgesia during labour.

  7. [Frequency of colonization and isolated bacteria from the tip of the epidural catheter implanted for postoperative analgesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabille, Débora Miranda Diogo; Filho, Augusto Diogo; Mandim, Beatriz Lemos da Silva; Araújo, Lúcio Borges de; Mesquita, Priscila Miranda Diogo; Jorge, Miguel Tanús

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of epidural analgesia with catheter leads to the need to demonstrate the safety of this method and know the incidence of catheter colonization, inserted postoperatively for epidural analgesia, and the bacteria responsible for this colonization. From November 2011 to April 2012, patients electively operated and maintained under epidural catheter for postoperative analgesia were evaluated. The catheter tip was collected for semiquantitative and qualitative microbiological analysis. Of 68 cultured catheters, six tips (8.8%) had positive cultures. No patient had superficial or deep infection. The mean duration of catheter use was 43.45hours (18-118) (p=0.0894). The type of surgery (contaminated or uncontaminated), physical status of patients, and surgical time showed no relation with the colonization of catheters. Microorganisms isolated from the catheter tip were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Sphingomonas paucimobilis. Postoperative epidural catheter analgesia, under this study conditions, was found to be low risk for bacterial colonization in patients at surgical wards. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. The degree of labor pain at the time of epidural analgesia in nulliparous women influences the obstetric outcome.

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    Woo, Jae Hee; Kim, Jong Hak; Lee, Guie Yong; Baik, Hee Jung; Kim, Youn Jin; Chung, Rack Kyung; Yun, Du Gyun; Lim, Chae Hwang

    2015-06-01

    The increased pain at the latent phase can be associated with dysfunctional labor as well as increases in cesarean delivery frequency. We aimed to research the effect of the degree of pain at the time of epidural analgesia on the entire labor process including the mode of delivery. We performed epidural analgesia to 102 nulliparous women on patients' request. We divided the group into three based on NRS (numeric rating scale) at the moment of epidural analgesia; mild pain, NRS 1-4; moderate pain, NRS 5-7; severe pain, NRS 8-10. The primary outcome was the mode of delivery (normal labor or cesarean delivery). There were significant differences in the mode of delivery among groups. Patients with severe labor pain had a significantly higher cesarean delivery compared to patients with moderate labor pain (P = 0.006). The duration of the first and second stage of labor, fetal heart rate, use of oxytocin and premature rupture of membranes had no differences in the three groups. Our research showed that the degree of pain at the time of epidural analgesia request might influence the rate of cesarean delivery. Further research would be necessary for clarifying the mechanism that the augmentation of pain affects the mode of delivery.

  9. The effect of addition of dexamethasone to levobupivacaine in parturients receiving combined spinal-epidural for analgesia for vaginal delivery

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    Amr Samir Wahdan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Regional analgesia is commonly used for the relief of labour pain, Prolongation of analgesia can be achieved by adjuvant medications. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to evaluate the efficacy of intrathecal levobupivacaine with dexamethasone for labour analgesia. Methods: A total of 80 females were included in this study, all were primigravidas undergoing vaginal delivery with cervical dilatation ≥4 cm and 50% or more effacement. Forty females were included randomly in either Group L (received intrathecal levobupivacaine 0.25% in 2 mL or Group LD (received intrathecal levobupivacaine 0.25% combined with dexamethasone 4 mg in 2 mL. The primary outcome was the duration of spinal analgesia. Secondary outcomes included the total dose of epidural local anaesthetic given, time to delivery, neonatal outcome and adverse effects. Results: The duration of spinal analgesia was significantly longer in the LD group compared with L group (80.5 ± 12.4 min vs. 57.1 ± 11.5 min, respectively; P< 0.001. In Group LD compared with Group L, time from spinal analgesia to delivery was significantly lower (317.4 ± 98.9 min vs. 372.4 ± 118.8 min, respectively; P = 0.027, and total epidural levobupivacaine consumption was significantly lower (102.4 ± 34.8 mg vs. 120.1 ± 41.9 mg, respectively; P = 0.027. The two groups were comparable with respect to characteristics of sensory and motor block, haemodynamic parameters, pain scores, neonatal outcome and frequency of adverse effects. Conclusion: Intrathecal dexamethasone plus levobupivacaine prolongs the duration of spinal analgesia during combined spinal-epidural CSE for labour analgesia.

  10. Role of Epidural Analgesia within an ERAS Program after Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Studies

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    Giuseppe Borzellino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Epidural analgesia has been a cornerstone of any ERAS program for open colorectal surgery. With the improvements in anesthetic and analgesic techniques as well as the introduction of the laparoscopy for colorectal resection, the role of epidural analgesia has been questioned. The aim of the review was to assess through a meta-analysis the impact of epidural analgesia compared to other analgesic techniques for colorectal laparoscopic surgery within an ERAS program. Methods. Literature research was performed on PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. All randomised clinical trials that reported data on hospital stay, postoperative complications, and readmissions rates within an ERAS program with and without an epidural analgesia after a colorectal laparoscopic resection were included. Results. Five randomised clinical trials were selected and a total of 168 patients submitted to epidural analgesia were compared to 163 patients treated by an alternative analgesic technique. Pooled data show a longer hospital stay in the epidural group with a mean difference of 1.07 (95% CI 0.06–2.08 without any significant differences in postoperative complications and readmissions rates. Conclusion. Epidural analgesia does not seem to offer any additional clinical benefits to patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery within an ERAS program.

  11. Epidural analgesia during labour, routinely or on request: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

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    Bonouvrié, Kimberley; van den Bosch, Anouk; Roumen, Frans J M E; van Kuijk, Sander M; Nijhuis, Jan G; Evers, Silvia M A A; Wassen, Martine M L H

    2016-12-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of routine labour epidural analgesia (EA), from a societal perspective, as compared with labour analgesia on request. Women delivering of a singleton in cephalic presentation beyond 36+0 weeks' gestation were randomly allocated to routine labour EA or analgesia on request in one university and one non-university teaching hospital in the Netherlands. Costs included all medical, non-medical and indirect costs from randomisation to 6 weeks postpartum. Effectiveness was defined as a non-operative, spontaneous vaginal delivery without EA-related maternal adverse effects. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was defined as the ratio of the difference in costs and the difference in effectiveness between both groups. Data were analysed according to intention to treat and divided into a base case analysis and a sensitivity analysis. Total delivery costs in the routine EA group (n=233) were higher than in the labour on request group (n=255) (difference -€ 322, 95% CI -€ 60 to € 355) due to more medication costs (including EA), a longer stay in the labour ward, and more operations including caesarean sections. Total postpartum hospital costs in the routine EA group were lower (difference -€ 344, 95% CI -€ 1338 to € 621) mainly due to less neonatal admissions (difference -€ 472, 95% CI -€ 1297 to € 331), whereas total postpartum home and others costs were comparable (difference -€ 20, 95% CI -€ 267 to € 248, and -€ 1, 95% CI -€ 67 to € 284, respectively). As a result, the overall mean costs per woman were comparable between the routine EA group and the analgesia on request group (€ 8.708 and € 8.710, respectively, mean difference -€ 2, 95% CI -€ 1.012 to € 916). Routine labour EA resulted in more deliveries with maternal adverse effects, nevertheless the ICER remained low (€ 8; bootstrap 95% CI -€ 6.120 to € 8.659). The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve indicated a low probability that

  12. Síndrome de Horner y bloqueo del plexo braquial ipsilateral en un caso de analgesia epidural para el trabajo del parto Horner´s sydrome and ipsilateral brachial plexus block during an epidural analgesia labour procedure

    OpenAIRE

    J. Avellanosa; J. Vera; P. Morillas; E. Gredilla; F. Gilsanz

    2006-01-01

    El Síndrome de Horner es una complicación de la anestesia epidural que aparece más frecuentemente en pacientes obstétricas debido a los cambios fisiológicos y anatómicos propios del embarazo; sin embargo, su incidencia es baja, y sólo se han descrito dos casos previos asociando un bloqueo del plexo braquial. Presentamos el caso de una gestante de 23 años que precisó analgesia epidural para el trabajo de parto. Tras comprobar la correcta colocación del catéter se administró una dosis inicial e...

  13. [Comparison of clinical effectiveness of thoracic epidural and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for the treatment of rib fractures pain in intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Ismet; Ekici, Zeynep; Sakarya, Melek

    2007-07-01

    The results of thoracic epidural and systemic patient controlled analgesia practice were evaluated retrospectively in patients with thoracic trauma. Patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit between 1997 and 2003, with a diagnosis of multiple rib fractures related to thoracic trauma were evaluated retrospectively. Data were recorded from 49 patients who met the following criteria; three or more rib fractures, initiation of PCA with I.V. phentanyl or thoracic epidural analgesia with phentanyl and bupivacaine. There were no significant differences between the groups concerning injury severity score. APACHE II score (8.1+/-1.6 and 9.2+/-1.7) and the number of rib fractures (4+/-1.1 and 6.8+/-2.7) were higher in thoracic epidural analgesia group (pPain scores of patients who received thoracic epidural analgesia were significantly lower as from 6th hour during whole therapy (prib fractures who require intensive care.

  14. A comparative study of low concentration of levobupivacaine versus ropivacaine with fentanyl for patient-controlled epidural labour analgesia

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    Priyanka Chuttani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available >Background and Aims: Lumbar epidural analgesia is considered the modality of choice for labour analgesia. Despite its super analgesia and improved safety profile, it has been associated with maternal adverse effects like higher incidence of instrumental assisted vaginal delivery (AVD and motor block leading to decreased ambulation. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of low concentrations of local anaesthetics (0.1% ropivacaine and 0.1% levobupivacaine with 2 μg/ml fentanyl as a patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA technique on the incidence of instrumental AVD along with evaluation of obstetric, maternal, and foetal outcomes.Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 60 labouring parturients were randomly allocated into two equal groups to receive either 0.1% ropivacaine with 2 μg/ml fentanyl or 0.1% levobupivacaine with 2 μg/ml fentanyl as epidural solutions via PCEA pump infusions (4 ml/h after 15 ml loading dose of the respective solutions. The incidence of instrumental AVD was noted as the primary outcome along with demographic data, maternal and foetal vital parameters, maternal VAS scores, degree of motor blockade and total epidural drug consumption.Results: The incidence of instrumental AVD was found to be 43.3% in the levobupivacaine group and 30% in the ropivacaine group. This difference was not statistically significant. Both the groups were comparable in terms of demographic data, maternal VAS scores, total epidural drug consumption and foetal APGAR scores.Conclusion: The use of newer local anaesthetics (levobupivacaine and ropivacaine in low concentrations with opioids (fentanyl as a PCEA technique may offer high maternal satisfaction in terms of quality of pain relief with fewer adverse events like instrumental AVD and adverse foetal outcomes.

  15. Comparison of analgesic efficacy of subcostal transversus abdominis plane blocks with epidural analgesia following upper abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraj, G; Kelkar, A; Jeyapalan, I; Graff-Baker, P; Williams, O; Darbar, A; Maheshwaran, A; Powell, R

    2011-06-01

    Subcostal transversus abdominis plane (TAP) catheters have been reported to be an effective method of providing analgesia after upper abdominal surgery. We compared their analgesic efficacy with that of epidural analgesia after major upper abdominal surgery in a randomised controlled trial. Adult patients undergoing elective open hepatobiliary or renal surgery were randomly allocated to receive subcostal TAP catheters (n=29) or epidural analgesia (n=33), in addition to a standard postoperative analgesic regimen comprising of regular paracetamol and tramadol as required. The TAP group patients received bilateral subcostal TAP catheters and 1 mg.kg(-1) bupivacaine 0.375% bilaterally every 8 h. The epidural group patients received an infusion of bupivacaine 0.125% with fentanyl 2 μg.ml(-1) . The primary outcome measure was visual analogue pain scores during coughing at 8, 24, 48 and 72 h after surgery. We found no significant differences in median (IQR [range]) visual analogue scores during coughing at 8 h between the TAP group (4.0 (2.3-6.0 [0-7.5])) and epidural group (4.0 (2.5-5.3) [0-8.5])) and at 72 h (2.0 (0.8-4.0 [0-5]) and 2.5 (1.0-5.0 [0-6]), respectively). Tramadol consumption was significantly greater in the TAP group (p=0.002). Subcostal TAP catheter boluses may be an effective alternative to epidural infusions for providing postoperative analgesia after upper abdominal surgery. © 2011 The Authors. Anaesthesia © 2011 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. Thoracic epidural analgesia in a child with multiple traumatic rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keech, Brian M

    2015-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality associated with blunt thoracic trauma are significant and can be multisystem in nature. Of these, pulmonary complications, including ventilatory impairment secondary to pain, have been recognized to be the most consequential. Although several analgesic strategies have emerged, thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) has arguably demonstrated superior efficacy and is used frequently in adults. Unfortunately, TEA is rarely used in children after blunt thoracic trauma, but may be of considerable benefit. This low rate of use likely reflects one or more of several factors potentially encountered when considering the use of TEA in pediatric chest wall trauma. Among them are (1) uncertainty regarding safety and efficacy; (2) the technical challenges of pediatric thoracic epidural placement, including technique and equipment concerns; and (3) drug selection, dosing, and toxicity. The following case review describes the successful application of TEA in a 4-year-old boy after multiple traumatic rib fractures and associated pneumothorax and pulmonary contusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. STUDY OF ULTRASOUND-GUIDED CONTINUOUS FEMORAL NERVE BLOCKADE WITH EPIDURAL ANALGESIA FOR PAIN RELIEF AFTER TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT

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    Srinivas Rapolu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Total knee replacement causes moderate-to-severe pain requiring effective analgesia. With use of ultrasound guidance, we may prove a more suitable approach compared with the epidural technique. Aim of this study is the comparison between Continuous Epidural Analgesia (CEA and Continuous Femoral Block (CFB techniques in Total Knee Replacement surgeries. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted on 60 adult male and female patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery for a period of 2 years. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group - 1: Continuous epidural analgesia patients, Group - 2: Continuous femoral blockage patients. All patients were assessed clinically preoperatively and investigated to rule out any systemic disease. RESULTS The mean age of patient in Group - 1 was 66.54 ± 4.98 and in Group - 2 was 66.98 ± 5.02 years. P value was > 0.05, which was not significant. No significant differences in gender is observed between the groups. VAS scores were significantly high (P < 0.05 in the femoral group at 6 h, after which there was a declining trend and scores were essentially similar from 24 h. The use of rescue analgesic was also higher in the femoral group. Analysis of side-effects showed that all the five common sideeffects were twice as common in the epidural group than in the femoral study group. Only one patient in the femoral group had urinary retention when compared with four in the epidural group. The differences were not statistically significant. Muscle power at 48 h, time getting out of the bed and time stay in hospital (days are significant in comparison in 2 groups, range of movement is insignificant in groups. Patient satisfaction score was measured on a scale of 1 - 10. Patients in the Femoral group were slightly more satisfied with a mean ± SD score of 8.1 ± 1.2 when compared with the epidural group 7.3 ± 1.01. CONCLUSION Continuous femoral blockade using US guidance provides equivalent analgesia

  18. Placental intervillous blood flow measured by inhaled 133Xe clearance in relation to induction of epidural analgesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husemeyer, R.P.; Crawley, J.C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method of determining placental intervillous blood flow (IBF) using an inhaled 133 Xe technique is described. The method was used to investigate the effect on IBF of epidural analgesia with an initial dose of 37.5 mg bupivacaine. There was no statistically significant reduction in IBF following the initial dose of bupivacaine in spite of a small but statistically significant reduction in mean blood pressure. There was no significant correlation between the change in mean blood pressure and the percentage change in IBF following epidural block although the single largest percentage reduction in IBF was associated with the largest fall in mean blood pressure. (author)

  19. Associação entre a analgesia epidural e o trauma perineal no parto vaginal Asociación entre la analgesia epidural y el trauma perineal en el parto vaginal Association between epidural analgesia and perineal laceration in vaginal delivery

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    Juliana Cristina dos Santos Monteiro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a associação entre a analgesia epidural e a laceração perineal em mulheres submetidas ao parto vaginal. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo e transversal, para o qual foram pesquisados 109 prontuários de mulheres assistidas durante o processo de parturição, em uma maternidade em Ribeirão Preto. Os dados foram coletados nos meses de março e abril de 2003. Para analisar a correlação entre as variáveis foi aplicado o teste qui-quadrado. Foi realizado parto normal em 91,7% (100 das parturientes e fórceps em 8,2% (9. Na análise dos dados, 74,3% da amostra receberam analgesia epidural; destas, 26,5% tiveram algum grau de laceração perineal e 9,1%, períneo íntegro, não sendo possível verificar a associação entre as variáveis mencionadas. Não foi verificada, neste estudo, significância estatística para afirmar que as condições do períneo após o parto vaginal e a utilização da analgesia epidural estão associadas (valor x²4GL= 3,1.El objetivo de esto estudio fue analizar la asociación entre la analgesia epidural y la laceración perineal en mujeres sometidas al parto vaginal. Fue realizado un estudio descriptivo y transversal, para lo cual fueron investigados 109 prontuarios de mujeres asistidas durante el proceso de parturición en una maternidad en Ribeirão Preto. Los datos fueron colectados en marzo y abril de 2003. Para analizar la correlación entre las variables fue aplicado el Teste Chi-Cuadrado. Fue realizado parto normal en 91,7% (100 de las parturientes y en 8,2% (09 parto fórceps. En el análisis de los datos, 74,3% de la muestra recibieron analgesia epidural, y de estas 26,5% tuvieron algún nivel de laceración perineal y 9,1% perineo íntegro. No fue posible verificar la asociación entre las variables aludidas. No fue verificado en esto estudio, significancia estadística para afirmar que las condiciones del perineo después del parto vaginal y el uso de analgesia

  20. Comparison of Dexmedetomidine and Fentanyl as an Adjuvant to Ropivacaine for Postoperative Epidural Analgesia in Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Jun; Shin, Seokyung; Kim, Shin Hyung; Kim, Hyun Woo; Kim, Seung Hyun; Do, Hae Yoon; Choi, Yong Seon

    2017-05-01

    Opioids are commonly used as an epidural adjuvant to local anesthetics, but are associated with potentially serious side effects, such as respiratory depression. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine with that of fentanyl as an adjuvant to epidural ropivacaine in pediatric orthopedic surgery. This study enrolled 60 children (3-12 years old) scheduled for orthopedic surgery of the lower extremities and lumbar epidural patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Children received either dexmedetomidine (1 μg/kg) or fentanyl (1 μg/kg) along with 0.2% ropivacaine (0.2 mL/kg) via an epidural catheter at 30 minutes before the end of surgery. Postoperatively, the children were observed for ropivacaine consumption via epidural PCA, postoperative pain intensity, need for rescue analgesics, emergence agitation, and other adverse effects. The mean dose of bolus epidural ropivacaine was significantly lower within the first 6 h after surgery in the dexmedetomidine group, compared with the fentanyl group (0.029±0.030 mg/kg/h vs. 0.053±0.039 mg/kg/h, p=0.012). The median pain score at postoperative 6 h was also lower in the dexmedetomidine group, compared to the fentanyl group [0 (0-1.0) vs. 1.0 (0-3.0), p=0.039]. However, there was no difference in the need for rescue analgesia throughout the study period between groups. The use of dexmedetomidine as an epidural adjuvant had a significantly greater analgesic and local anesthetic-sparing effect, compared to fentanyl, in the early postoperative period in children undergoing major orthopedic lower extremity surgery. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017

  1. Perioperative epidural or intravenous ketamine does not improve the effectiveness of thoracic epidural analgesia for acute and chronic pain after thoracotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, Beatriz; Gomar, Carmen; Rios, Jose

    2014-06-01

    Persistent postsurgical pain (PPP) after thoracotomy effect 50% to 80%. Nerve damage and central sensitization involving NDMDAr activation may play an important role. This study evaluates the efficacy of adding intravenous (IV) or epidural ketamine to thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) after thoracotomy. Double-blind randomized study on patients undergoing thoracotomy allocated to one of the following: group Kiv (IV racemic ketamine 0.5 mg/kg preincisional +0.25 mg/kg/h for 48 h), group Kep (epidural racemic ketamine 0.5 mg/kg preincisional +0.25 mg/kg/h for 48 h), or group S (saline). Postoperative analgesia was ensured by TEA with ropivacaine and fentanyl. Pain visual analog scales (VAS), Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory, Catastrophizing Scale, and Quantitative Sensory Testing, measuring both the peri-incisional and distant hyperalgesia area, were conducted preoperatively and postoperatively until 6 months. Plasma ketamine levels and stability of the analgesic solutions were analyzed. A total of 104 patients were included. PPP incidence was 20% at 6 months. Pain scores on coughing were significantly lower in Kiv and Kep than in S at 24 and 72 hours, but there were no differences afterwards. There were no significant differences in pain at rest, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory, and Catastrophizing Scale, or in the area of mechanical allodynia at any time. Adverse effects were mild. Plasma ketamine levels did not differ significantly between groups. Analgesic solutions were stable. Adding epidural or IV racemic ketamine to TEA after thoracotomy did not lead to any reduction in PPP or allodynia. Epidural administration produced similar plasma ketamine levels to the IV route.

  2. Patient and provider perceptions of decision making about use of epidural analgesia during childbirth: a thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Holly Bianca; Shorten, Allison

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the nature of differences in perceptions of decision making between patients and providers about use of epidural analgesia during labor. Thematic analysis was used to identify patterns in written survey responses from 14 patients, 13 labor nurses, and 7 obstetrician-gynecologists. Results revealed patients attempted to place themselves in an informed role in decision making and sought respect for their decisions. Some providers demonstrated paternalism and a tendency to steer patients in the direction of their own preferences. Nurses observed various pressures on decision making, reinforcing the importance of patients being supported to make an informed choice. Differences in perceptions suggest need for improvement in communication and shared decision-making practices related to epidural analgesia use in labor.

  3. A comparison of intrathecal dexmedetomidine verses intrathecal fentanyl with epidural bupivacaine for combined spinal epidural labor analgesia

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    P K Dilesh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: 10 μg dexmedetomidine intrathecally provides a longer duration of analgesia with lesser incidence of pruritus compared to 20 μg fentanyl intrathecally for CSE labor analgesia with comparable neonatal side-effects.

  4. Investigation of the Effects of Continuous Low-Dose Epidural Analgesia on the Autonomic Nervous System Using Hilbert Huang Transform

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    Wei-Ren Chuang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of continuous low-dose epidural bupivacaine (0.05-0.1% infusion on the Doppler velocimetry for labor analgesia have been well documented. The aim of this study was to monitor the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS for women in labor based on Hilbert Huang transform (HHT, which performs signal processing for nonlinear systems, such as human cardiac systems. Thirteen pregnant women were included in the experimental group for labor analgesia. They received continuous epidural bupivacaine 0.075% infusion. The normal-to-normal intervals (NN-interval were downloaded from an ECG holter. Another 20 pregnant women in non-anesthesia labor (average gestation age was 38.6 weeks were included in the comparison group. In this study, HHT was used to decompose components of ECG signals, which reflect three different frequency bands of a person's heart rate spectrum (viz. high frequency (HF, low frequency (LF and very low frequency (VLF. It was found that the change of energy in subjects without anesthesia was more active than that with continuous epidural bupivacaine 0.075% infusion. The energy values of the experimental group (i.e., labor analgesia of HF and LF of ANS activities were significantly lower (P < 0.05 than the values of the comparison group (viz. labor without analgesia, but the trend of energy ratio of LF/HF was opposite. In conclusion, the sympathetic and parasympathetic components of ANS are all suppressed by continuous low-dose epidural bupivacaine 0.075% infusion, but parasympathetic power is suppressed more than sympathetic power.

  5. Effects of labor analgesia on maternal and neonatal outcome by epidural low concentration of bupivacaine combined with anisodamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of labor analgesia on maternal and neonatal outcome by epidural application of 0.125% bupivacaine combined with anisodamine on the labor stage, and modes of delivery and neonatal Apgar's score. Methods A total of 220 primiparaes with full-term pregnancy, monocyesis and fetal head presentation without any obstetrical or systematic complications were chosen and divided into analgesic group and control group (110 in each group). The mixture of bupivacaine and anisodamine was in...

  6. Comparison of bupivacaine, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine with sufentanil for patient-controlled epidural analgesia during labor: a randomized clinical trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-zhong; CHANG Xiang-yang; LIU Xia; HU Xiao-xia; TANG Bei-lei

    2010-01-01

    Background Ropivacaine and levobupivacaine have been introduced into obstetric analgesic practice with the proposed advantages of causing less motor block and toxicity compared with bupivacaine. However, it is still controversial whether both anesthetics are associated with any clinical benefit relative to bupivacaine for labor analgesia. This study aimed to compare the analgesic efficacy, motor block and side effects of bupivacaine, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine at lower concentrations for patient-controlled epidural labor analgesia. Methods Four hundred and fifty nulliparous parturients were enrolled in this randomized clinical trial. A concentration of 0.05%, 0.075%, 0.1%, 0.125% or 0.15% of either bupivacaine (Group B), ropivacaine (Group R) or levobupivacaine (Group L) with sufentanil 0.5 μg/ml was epidurally administered by patient-controlled analgesia mode. Effective analgesia was defined as a visual analogue scale score was ≤30 mm. The relative median potency for each local anesthetic was calculated using a probit regression model. Parturients demographics, sensory and motor blockade, obstetric data, maternal side effects, hourly volumes of local anesthetic used, and others were also noted. Results There were no significant differences among groups in the numbers of effective analgesia, pain scores, hourly local anesthetic amount used, sensory and motor blockade, labor duration and mode of delivery, side effects and maternal satisfaction (P >0.05). The relative median potency was bupivacaine/ropivacaine: 0.828 (0.602-1.091), bupivacaine/levobupivacaine: 0.845 (0.617-1.12), ropivacaine/levobupivacaine: 1.021 (0.774-1.354), respectively. However, a significantly less number of effective analgesia and higher hourly local anesthetic use were observed in the concentration of 0.05% than those of ≥0.1% within each group (P<0.05). Conclusions Using patient-controlled epidural analgesia, lower concentrations of bupivacaine, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine

  7. Analysis and evaluation of the effectiveness of epidural analgesia and its relationship with eutocic or dystocic delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Migallón, V; Sánchez, E; Raynard, M; Miranda, A; Borràs, R M

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the difference in the verbal rating scale with regard to obstructed labour and induced labour, so that obstructed labour and foetal macrosomia have been related to a greater sensation of pain during labour, particularly in the first stage. Even the epidural analgesia is linked to the need for instrumented or caesarean section due to foetal obstruction. The goal of the study is to analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of epidural analgesia in normal versus obstructed labour. One hundred and eighty pregnant women were included in an observational, analytical, longitudinal and prospective study, that was performed in the Obstetrics Department of the Hospital Universitario Dexeus. All the nulliparous or multiparous over 36 weeks of pregnancy, after 3cm of cervical dilatation in spontaneous or induced labor were included. All the patients were given epidural analgesia according to protocol. The basic descriptive methods were used for the univariate statistical analysis of the sample and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for the comparison of means between both groups. The correlations between variables were studied by means of the Spearman coefficient of correlation. The differences regarded as statistically significant are those whose P.05). Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical evaluation of postoperative analgesia provided by ketoprofen associated with intravenous or epidural morphine in bitches undergoing ovariosalpingohysterectomy

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    Gabriela Carvalho Aquilino Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal analgesia refers to the practice of combining multiple analgesic drug classes or techniques to target different points along the pain pathway. The objective of this work was to evaluate clinically if ketoprofen associated or not with intravenous or epidural morphine provided adequate postoperative analgesia in bitches undergoing ovariosalpingohysterectomy (OSH. Forty healthy female dogs, weighing 10.7±6.0 kg, sedated with acepromazine (0.05mg kg –1.iv, induced with propofol (5 mg.kg-1. iv and maintained with isoflurane anesthesia, were distributed into four groups of 10 animals each. After stabilization of inhalation anesthesia, the bitches in Miv and CMiv groups received 0.2 mg.kg-1 of morphine intravenously diluted in 10ml of saline; whereas Mep and CMep groups received 0.1mg.kg-1 of epidural morphine. Thirty minutes after premedication, 2.0mg.kg-1.im of ketoprofen was administered in groups CMiv and CMep. Heart and respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, and rectal temperature were measured. The degree of analgesia was assessed by a blind study in the following 6 hours after surgery, using a descriptive scale and a scale composed by physiologic and behavioral parameters. An statistical analysis was performed using the Tukey-Kramer test and nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test, with statistical significance of 5%. There was no important difference between the four groups regarding postoperative analgesia, heart and respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure and rectal temperature. According to the results it can be concluded that the use of ketoprofen associated with intravenous or epidural morphine provided adequate and safe analgesia in the first six hours of postoperative in bitches undergoing ovariohysterectomy, suggesting that there was no analgesic potentiation when both agents were combined.

  9. Analgesia peridural para o trabalho de parto e para o parto: efeitos da adição de um opióide Effects of the association of an opioid with epidural analgesia for labor and delivery

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    José Guilherme Cecatti

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia e segurança da associação bupivacaína com sufentanil para a analgesia no trabalho de parto e do parto por meio de um bloqueio peridural contínuo. Realizou-se um ensaio clínico duplo-cego, prospectivo e aleatório, incluindo sessenta mulheres nulíparas da Maternidade do CAISM/UNICAMP. No momento da analgesia, as mulheres foram aleatoriamente alocadas em dois grupos: BS, recebendo 12,5 mg de bupivacaína com adrenalina mais 30 µg de sufentanil e BP, recebendo 12,5 mg de bupivacaína com adrenalina mais placebo. Foram avaliados os parâmetros relativos à qualidade e duração da analgesia, duração do trabalho de parto e também possíveis efeitos sobre o recém-nascido. Os resultados mostraram a superioridade da adição do sufentanil sobre o grau de analgesia durante o tempo de ação da primeira dose de anestésico local. Não houve aumento na duração do trabalho de parto depois do início da analgesia quando se compararam ambos os grupos, nem qualquer diferença quanto à via de parto. Não houve também diferenças entre os grupos com relação à avaliação dos recém-nascidos. Conclui-se que a associação de 30 µg de sufentanil à primeira dose de bupivacaína é segura e eficaz, melhorando a qualidade da analgesia, sua duração e não afetando a progressão do trabalho de parto e o resultado neonatal.The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the association bupivacaine with sufentanil for labor and delivery analgesia through a continuous epidural blockade, for both mother and the neonate. A randomized double blind prospective clinical trial was performed including sixty nulliparous women at the Maternity of CAISM/UNICAMP. When requesting analgesia, the women were randomly allocated to two groups: BS, receiving 12.5 mg of bupivacaine with adrenaline plus 30 µg of sufentanil and BP, receiving 12.5 mg of bupivacaine with adrenaline plus placebo

  10. The roles of acute and chronic pain in regression of sensory analgesia during continuous epidural bupivacaine infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Scott, N B; Lund, Claus

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether regression of sensory analgesia during constant epidural bupivacaine infusion was different in postoperative patients with acute pain than in patients with chronic nonsurgical pain. Sensory levels of analgesia (to pinprick) and pain (on a five......-point scale) were assessed hourly for 16 hours during continuous epidural infusion of 0.5% plain bupivacaine (8 ml/hr) in 12 patients with chronic nonsurgical pain and in 30 patients after major abdominal surgery performed under combined bupivacaine and halothane--N2O general anesthesia. No opiates were given....... If sensory analgesia decreased more than five segments from the initial level or if the pain score reached 2 (moderate pain), the patient was removed from the study. Initial levels of sensory analgesia after loading doses of 21.8 +/- 0.5 and 19.3 +/- 0.8 ml bupivacaine 0.5% were similar (T3.8 +/- 0.3 and T3...

  11. RANDOMISED CONTROLLED STUDY COMPARING A 0.75% ROPIVACAINE TO A CONVENTIONAL DOSE OF HYPERBARIC BUPIVACAINE FOR CESARIAN SECTION BY EPIDURAL ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porika

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Central neuraxial blocked is one of the safest and efficacious methods of anaesthesia and analgesia. It has the added advantage of prolonged pain relief into the postoperative period. Epidural analgesia has increased steadily in popularity when compared to spinal anaesthes ia due to its neurological consequences and improved post - operative analgesia with epidural Opioids and as a consequence decreased side effects and prolonged the duration of analgesia. Present study is undertaken to compare hemodynamic and analgesic charac teristics using a 0.75% ropivacaine to a conventional dose of 0.5% bupivacaine for cesarean section under epidural anaesthesia. This study was conducted in ASA Grade I 50 singleton parturient to compare hemodynamics, APGAR scores and analgesic characterist ics of ropivacaine and bupivacaine. We have observed that the onset of sensory blockade was slower with ropivacaine and the duration of sensory blockade was also less. Whereas there was no significant change in haemodynamics and APGAR scores with both the drugs.

  12. Applicable study of patient-controlled epidural analgesia in peri-interventional uterine arterial embolization for uterine myomata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Miao; She Shouzhang; Chen Chunlin; Xu Xuebing; Xie Xiaoqing

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the effectiveness and safety of epidural patient-controlled analgesia (PCEA) for post-operative pain relief and adverse reactions after uterine arterial embolization (UAE). Methods: 100 patients (ASA I-II grade) undergoing transcatheter UAE of uterine myomata were randomly divided into five groups. All patients except group V used PCEA; including group I ( n=20) for epidural infusion with 0.2% ropivacaine plus 0.004% morphine, group II (n=20) with epidural infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine and 0.004% morphine plus 0.005% droperidol, group III (n=20) with epidural infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine and 0.004% morphine plus 0.01% droperidol, group IV (n=20) of epidural infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine plus 0.01% morphine, group V (n=20) served as the control with either traditional oral drugs of micronized nimesulide, or intramuscular injection (plus analgesic of rotundin or pethidine hydrochloride), or both. Results The quality of pain relief in the group I, group II, group III and group IV was obviously superior to that of group V. The PCEA application group recovered faster than that of group V after the procedure (P<0.01). Conclusions: During or after UEA, PCEA could effectively relieve pain by providing less side effects, faster recovery and high safety to the patient. The best analgetic methods of PCEA are coincident with the use of 0.2% ropivacaine plus 0.01% morphine. (authors)

  13. Fast Track Liver Resection: The Effect of a Comprehensive Care Package and Analgesia with Single Dose Intrathecal Morphine with Gabapentin or Continuous Epidural Analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B. Koea

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A comprehensive care package for patients undergoing hepatectomy was developed with the aim of minimal physiological disturbance in the peri-operative period. Peri-operative analgesia with few gastrointestinal effects and reduced requirement for intravenous (IV fluid therapy was central to this plan. Methods. Data on 100 consecutive patients managed with continuous epidural infusion (n = 50; bupivicaine 0.125% and fentanyl 2 g/mL at 0.1 mL/kg/hr or intrathecal morphine (n = 50; 300 g in combination with oral gabapentin 1200 mg preoperatively and 400 mg bd postoperatively was compared. Results. The epidural and intrathecal morphine groups were equivalent in terms of patient demographics, procedures and complications. Patients receiving intrathecal morphine received less intra-operative IV fluids (median 1500 mL versus 2200 mL, =.06, less postoperative IV fluids (median 1200 mL versus 4300 mL, =.03 than patients receiving epidural infusion. Patients managed with intrathecal morphine established a normal dietary intake sooner (16 hours versus 20 hours, =.05 and had shorter hospital stays than those managed with epidural infusions (4.7 ± 0.9 days versus 6.8 ± 1.2 days, =.02. Conclusions. Single dose intrathecal morphine is a safe and effective means of providing peri-operative analgesia. Patients managed with intrathecal morphine have reduced peri-operative physiological disturbance and return home within a few days of hepatic resection.

  14. Audit of the influence of body mass index on the performance of epidural analgesia in labour and the subsequent mode of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresner, M; Brocklesby, J; Bamber, J

    2006-10-01

    To assess the influence of body mass index (BMI) on the performance of epidural analgesia in labour and the subsequent mode of delivery. A retrospective audit of prospectively collected quality assurance data. The delivery suite of Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, UK. This is a 4500-delivery teaching hospital unit. All women receiving epidural analgesia during labour in our unit between April 1997 and December 2005. Epidural recipients were divided into BMI groups according to World Health Organization (WHO) categories and compared for indices of epidural performance and mode of delivery. Midwife and patient satisfaction scores with epidural analgesia, epidural resite rates, and mode of delivery. Data from 13 299 epidural recipients were analysed. Using WHO definitions, 22.8% were of normal body mass, 41.9% were overweight, 31.9% obese, and 3.4% morbidly obese. Epidurals were more likely to fail as BMI increased, as judged by midwife satisfaction scores (P < 0.001) and epidural resite rates (P < 0.01). This trend was not seen for maternal satisfaction scores using the WHO BMI categories. However, if women with BMI below 30 kg/m2 were grouped together, a significant trend was found (P < 0.01). BMI had no influence on vaginal instrumental deliveries, but caesarean section rates rose from 11.5% in women of normal BMI to 29.2% in the morbidly obese women (P < 0.001). Obesity increases the incidence of analgesic failure and the need for resite of epidurals. The caesarean section rate among epidural recipients increases dramatically as BMI rises.

  15. Continuous chloroprocaine infusion for thoracic and caudal epidurals as a postoperative analgesia modality in neonates, infants, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, Giorgio; Iliev, Peter; Tripi, Jennifer; Martin, David; Aldrink, Jennifer; Bhalla, Tarun; Tobias, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Neonates and infants have decreased metabolic capacity for amide local anesthetics and increased risk of local anesthetic toxicity compared to the general population. Chloroprocaine is an ester local anesthetic that has an extremely short plasma half-life in infants as well as adults. Existing reports support the safety and efficacy of continuous chloroprocaine epidural infusions in neonates and young infants during the intraoperative period. Despite this, continuous chloroprocaine epidural infusion may be an under-utilized method of postoperative analgesia for this patient population. In particular, it may improve pain control in neonates and infants with incisions stretching many dermatomes or those with hepatic impairment. We retrospectively reviewed our experience over 4 years with continuous chloroprocaine epidural infusions in neonates, infants, and children with a focus on the postoperative management of pain. Twenty-one pediatric patients received continuous 2-chloroprocaine epidural infusions for postoperative pain management from January 2010 to April 2014 for thoracic, abdominal, and limb procedures. The epidural infusion consisted of 1.5% chloroprocaine or 1.5% chloroprocaine with fentanyl. Tabulating the morphine and hydromorphone used for rescue analgesia, the median (interquartile range) opioid consumption (mg·kg(-1) ·day(-1) of intravenous morphine equivalents) for the first, second, and third 24-h postoperative periods were 0.02 (0-0.48), 0.30 (0-0.44), and 0.14 (0-0.29), respectively. Examining the total fentanyl usage, the median (interquartile range) fentanyl consumption (μg·kg(-1) ·day(-1)) for first, second, and third 24-h postoperative periods were 3.89 (0.41-7.24), 0 (0.00-4.06), and 0 (0.00-0.51), respectively. The median N-PASS score assessed every 6 h from 0 to 72 h postoperatively was 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, and 0, respectively. The median FLACC score assessed every 6 h from 0 to 72 h postoperatively was 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 0

  16. Clonidine versus sufentanil as an adjuvant to ropivacaine in patient-controlled epidural labour analgesia: A randomised double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelants, Fabienne; Lavand'homme, Patricia

    2015-11-01

    Adjuvants to local anaesthetics for epidural labour analgesia are useful if they reduce side-effects or personnel requirements. Epidural clonidine improves analgesia and provides a significant local anaesthetic-sparing effect. To compare the number of rescue doses administered by the anaesthesiologist when clonidine or sufentanil is added to epidural ropivacaine. A randomised double-blind trial. Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium, from June 2009 to June 2010. One hundred and ninety-five women in labour. Epidural analgesia initiated with 10 ml ropivacaine 0.1%, women randomised to receive patient-controlled epidural analgesia (5 ml demand bolus, 15 min lockout) with ropivacaine 0.1% and sufentanil 0.25 μg ml⁻¹ (RS group; n = 65), or ropivacaine 0.1% and clonidine 1.5 μg ml⁻¹ (RC1.5 group; n = 65) or ropivacaine 0.1% and clonidine 3 μg ml⁻¹ (RC3 group; n = 65). Rescue analgesia was available as needed – 10 ml ropivacaine 0.1% (numerical rating scale neonatal outcomes were similar among the groups. Compared with sufentanil 0.25 μg ml⁻¹, addition of clonidine (1.5 to 3 μg ml⁻¹) to patient-controlled epidural analgesia with ropivacaine 0.1% provided similar labour analgesia and a similar need for anaesthesiologist-administered rescue doses. Clonidine 3 μg ml⁻¹ did not offer any advantage over clonidine 1.5 μg ml⁻¹. The instrumentation rate was higher in both the clonidine groups.

  17. Urinary retention in unilateral total knee arthroplasty: comparison between continuous epidural analgesia and single-shot femoral nerve block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Khan, R.I.

    2018-01-01

    To compare the frequency of urinary retention and requirement of bladder catheterization in patients undergoing toatal knee arthroplasty while receiving either continuous epidural analgesia or single-shot femoral nerve block. Study Design: Randomized controlled study. Place and Duration of Study:Operating Rooms of Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2014 to January 2015. Methodology:Patients were randomized in two groups of 30 each, i.e. epidural group (group E) or femoral nerve block group (group F). Baseline parameters were recorded. Postoperatively, patients were followed for upto 24 hours to collect the data regarding urinary retention. Final outcome was taken at 24 hours postoperatively. Data was analyzed to compare the frequency of urinary retention between the two groups. Results:The average age of the patients was 59.58 +-5.85 years. There were 28 (46.7%) male and 32 (53.3%) female patients. Frequency of urinary retention was significantly high in Group E than Group F (46.7% vs. 6.7%; p=0.0005). Conclusion: Single-shot femoral nerve block offers a more favorable profile in terms of postoperative urinary retention when compared to continuous epidural analgesia. (author)

  18. The Relationship Between Women's Intention to Request a Labor Epidural Analgesia, Actually Delivering With Labor Epidural Analgesia, and Postpartum Depression at 6 Weeks: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbach-Zinger, Sharon; Landau, Ruth; Harousch, Avi Ben; Ovad, Oren; Caspi, Liron; Kornilov, Evgeniya; Ioscovich, Alexander; Bracco, Danielle; Davis, Atara; Fireman, Shlomo; Hoshen, Moshe; Eidelman, Leonid A

    2018-05-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is associated with pain during and after delivery, with studies showing reduced rates among women delivering with labor epidural analgesia (LEA). We hypothesized that women who intend to deliver with LEA but do not receive it are at higher risk for PPD at 6 weeks due to the combined experience of untreated labor pain and unmatched expectations during labor, and evaluated the interaction between labor plans related to LEA, satisfaction with pain control when actually delivering with LEA, and PPD at 6 weeks after delivery. A total of 1497 women with a vaginal delivery were enrolled into this prospective longitudinal study. Women's initial intention to deliver with or without LEA, how they subsequently delivered, and satisfaction with pain relief were recorded on postpartum day 1. Primary aim was selected as PPD at 6 weeks among women intending to deliver with but subsequently delivering without LEA compared with the rest of the cohort. Primary outcome was PPD at 6 weeks using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; PPD was defined with a score ≥10 (scale from 0 to 30). Demographic and obstetric data were recorded. Fisher exact test was used for comparisons between groups. The interaction between intention and actual delivery with regard to LEA and PPD was tested. Overall, 87 of 1326 women completing the study at 6 weeks had PPD (6.6%). For the primary aim, 439 (29.3%) delivered without LEA, of which 193 (12.9%) had intended to deliver with LEA; the PPD rate among these women was 8.1%, which was not statistically different from the rest of the cohort (6.3%; odds ratio [OR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-2.38; P = .41). A total of 1058 women (70.7%) delivered with LEA and 439 (29.3%) delivered without; therefore, 1169 (78.1%) delivered as intended and 328 (21.9%) did not (unmatched expectations). Evaluating the interaction between effects, there was a strong negative additive interaction between intending to deliver without

  19. The Efficacy of Programmed Intermittent Epidural Bolus for Postoperative Analgesia after Open Gynecological Surgery: A Randomized Double-Blinded Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiho Satomi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that the programmed intermittent epidural bolus (PIEB technique effectively provides epidural anesthesia in labor. This randomized double-blind trial compared the postoperative analgesic efficacy of PIEB with that of continuous epidural infusion (CEI in patients undergoing gynecological surgery under combined general-epidural anesthesia. Methods. Patients undergoing open gynecological surgery under combined general-epidural anesthesia were randomized at a 1 : 1 ratio to receive PIEB or CEI. In the PIEB group, the pump delivered 4 mL ropivacaine 0.2% plus fentanyl 2 μg/mL every hour. In the CEI group, the pump delivered the same solution at a rate of 4 mL/h. In both groups, additional 4 mL boluses of ropivacaine 0.2% plus fentanyl 2 μg/mL were provided, when necessary, by patient-controlled epidural analgesia after surgery. The primary outcome was the total ropivacaine dose 40 hours after surgery. The secondary outcomes were the number of PCEA boluses and postoperative pain (evaluated on an 11-point numerical rating scale 3, 24, and 48 hours after surgery. Results. In total, 57 patients were randomized (n=28 and 29 in the PIEB and CEI groups, resp.. The two groups differ significantly in terms of the total ropivacaine dose 40 hours after surgery (mean (standard deviation: 155.38 (4.55 versus 159.73 (7.87 mL, P=0.016. Compared to the CEI group, the PIEB group had significantly lower numerical rating scale scores 3 hours (median [lower–upper quartiles]: 0 [0–0.5] versus 3 [0–5.5], P=0.002, 24 hours (1 [0–2] versus 3 [1–4], P=0.003, and 48 hours (1 [0–2] versus 2 [2–3.5], P=0.002 after surgery. Conclusion. PIEB was better than CEI in terms of providing postoperative analgesia after open gynecological surgery under combined general-epidural anesthesia.

  20. Pharmacological strategies to reduce pruritus during postoperative epidural analgesia after lumbar fusion surgery - a prospective randomized trial in 150 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Yohan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidural analgesia with bupivacain, epinephrine and fentanyl provides excellent pain control after lumbar fusion surgery, but pruritus and motor block are frequent side effects. Theoretically epidural ropivacain combined with oral oxycodone could decrease the incidence of these side effects. The two regimens were compared in a prospective randomized trial. Patients and methods 150 patients (87 women treated with posterior instrumented lumbar fusion were included. The mean age was 51 +/- 11 years. 76 were randomized to bupivacain, epinephrine and fentanyl (group B and 74 to ropivacain and oxycodone (group R. Pruritus, motor block and pain were measured 6 hours after surgery, thereafter 6 times per day for 5 days. Any pain breakthrough episode was registered whenever it occurred. Results The epidural treatment could be performed in 143 patients (72 in group B and 71 in group R. Disturbing pruritus occurred in 53 patients in group B compared to 12 in group R (p Conclusions Pruritus could be reduced with a combination of epidural ropivacain and oral oxycodone, at the price of a slightly higher pain level. Ropivacaine was not found to be superior to bupivacaine with regard to motor blocks.

  1. Comparison of analgesic efficacy of four-quadrant transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block and continuous posterior TAP analgesia with epidural analgesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery: an open-label, randomised, non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraj, G; Kelkar, A; Hart, E; Horst, C; Malik, D; Yeow, C; Singh, B; Chaudhri, S

    2014-04-01

    Posterior transversus abdominis plane blocks have been reported to be an effective method of providing analgesia after lower abdominal surgery. We compared the efficacy of a novel technique of providing continuous transversus abdominis plane analgesia with epidural analgesia in patients on an enhanced recovery programme following laparoscopic colorectal surgery. A non-inferiority comparison was used. Adult patients undergoing elective laparoscopic colorectal surgery were randomly assigned to receive continuous transversus abdominis plane analgesia (n = 35) vs epidural analgesia (n = 35), in addition to a postoperative analgesic regimen comprising regular paracetamol, regular diclofenac and tramadol as required. Sixty-one patients completed the study. The transversus group received four-quadrant transversus abdominis plane blocks and bilateral posterior transversus abdominis plane catheters that were infused with levobupivacaine 0.25% for 48 h. The epidural group received an infusion of bupivacaine and fentanyl. The primary outcome measure was visual analogue scale pain score on coughing at 24 h after surgery. We found no significant difference in median (IQR [range]) visual analogue scores during coughing at 24 h between the transversus group 2.5 (1.0-3.0 [0-5.5]) and the epidural group 2.5 (1.0-5.0 [0-6.0]). The one-sided 97.5% CI was a 0.0 (∞-1.0) difference in means, establishing non-inferiority. There were no significant differences between the groups for tramadol consumption. Success rate was 28/30 (93%) in the transversus group vs 27/31 (87%) in the epidural group. Continuous transversus abdominis plane infusion was non-inferior to epidural infusion in providing analgesia after laparoscopic colorectal surgery. © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  2. Measuring and improving the quality of postoperative epidural analgesia for major abdominal surgery using statistical process control charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Fiona; Haigh, Carol

    2013-10-01

    To explore and improve the quality of continuous epidural analgesia for pain relief using Statistical Process Control tools. Measuring the quality of pain management interventions is complex. Intermittent audits do not accurately capture the results of quality improvement initiatives. The failure rate for one intervention, epidural analgesia, is approximately 30% in everyday practice, so it is an important area for improvement. Continuous measurement and analysis are required to understand the multiple factors involved in providing effective pain relief. Process control and quality improvement Routine prospectively acquired data collection started in 2006. Patients were asked about their pain and side effects of treatment. Statistical Process Control methods were applied for continuous data analysis. A multidisciplinary group worked together to identify reasons for variation in the data and instigated ideas for improvement. The key measure for improvement was a reduction in the percentage of patients with an epidural in severe pain. The baseline control charts illustrated the recorded variation in the rate of several processes and outcomes for 293 surgical patients. The mean visual analogue pain score (VNRS) was four. There was no special cause variation when data were stratified by surgeons, clinical area or patients who had experienced pain before surgery. Fifty-seven per cent of patients were hypotensive on the first day after surgery. We were able to demonstrate a significant improvement in the failure rate of epidurals as the project continued with quality improvement interventions. Statistical Process Control is a useful tool for measuring and improving the quality of pain management. The applications of Statistical Process Control methods offer the potential to learn more about the process of change and outcomes in an Acute Pain Service both locally and nationally. We have been able to develop measures for improvement and benchmarking in routine care that

  3. Analgesic Choice in Management of Rib Fractures: Paravertebral Block or Epidural Analgesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, Mahdi; Hashmi, Ammar; Dove, James; Torres, Denise; Wild, Jeffrey

    2017-06-01

    Rib fractures are commonly encountered in the setting of trauma. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the clinical outcome of rib fracture and epidural analgesia (EA) versus paravertebral block (PVB) using the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). Using the 2011 and 2012 versions of the NTDB, we retrieved completed records for all patients above 18 years of age who were admitted with rib fractures. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ICU LOS, mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation, development of pneumonia, and development of any other complication. Clinical outcomes were first compared between propensity score-matched EA and PVB patients. Then, EA and PVB patients were combined into the procedure group and the outcomes were compared with propensity score-matched patients that received neither intervention (no-procedure group). A total of 194,766 patients were included in the study with 1073 patients having EA, 1110 patients having PVB, and 192,583 patients having neither procedure. After propensity score matching, comparison of primary and secondary outcomes between EA and PVB patients showed no difference. Comparison of propensity score-matched procedure and no-procedure patients showed prolonged LOS and more frequent ICU admissions in patients receiving a procedure (both P rib fractures. There was an association between use of a block and improved outcome, but this could be explained by selection of healthier patients to receive a block. Prospective study of this association is recommended.

  4. Outcomes of labor epidural analgesia among women aged over 40: A single-institution retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Atsuko; Fukushima, Risa; Nagashima, Sayuri; Mazda, Yusuke; Tamura, Kazumi; Terui, Katsuo; Tanaka, Motoshi

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of labor epidural analgesia (LEA) on maternal and neonatal outcomes among parturients aged 40 years or older. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all laboring, singleton and cephalic deliveries at ≥36 weeks' gestation at the Saitama Medical Center from April 2003 to September 2012. Women aged ≥40 years who received LEA (≥40 with LEA group) were compared with women aged ≥40 years who delivered without LEA (≥40 without LEA group) and women <40 years who received LEA (<40 with LEA group). Extracted outcomes included mode of delivery, oxytocin augmentation, duration of labor, amount of estimated blood loss, umbilical artery pH, Apgar scores, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. This study included 4441 women. There were 74 women in the ≥40 with LEA group, 369 in the ≥40 without LEA group, and 601 in the <40 with LEA group. The maternal outcomes of emergency cesarean delivery rate (9.5%, 12.5%, 9.0%), instrumental delivery rate (33.8%, 10.3%, 28.3%), duration of labor (521 min, 321 min, 565 min), and estimated blood loss (524 g, 351 g, 412 g) were reported for the ≥40 with LEA, ≥40 without LEA, and <40 with LEA groups, respectively. Neonatal outcomes were not different between these groups. LEA use was not associated with emergency cesarean delivery in the multivariable analysis. Our study showed that parturients aged ≥40 with LEA can expect similar LEA-associated labor outcomes to younger parturients with LEA. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Low Apgar score, neonatal encephalopathy and epidural analgesia during labour: a Swedish registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnell, S; Ekéus, C; Hultin, M; Håkansson, S; Thunberg, J; Högberg, U

    2015-04-01

    Maternal intrapartum fever (MF) is associated with neonatal sequelae, and women in labour who receive epidural analgesia (EA) are more likely to develop hyperthermia. The aims of this study were to investigate if EA and/or a diagnosis of MF were associated to adverse neonatal outcomes at a population level. Population-based register study with data from the Swedish Birth Register and the Swedish National Patient Register, including all nulliparae (n=294,329) with singleton pregnancies who gave birth at term in Sweden 1999-2008. Neonatal outcomes analysed were Apgar score (AS)neonatal encephalopathy (e.g. convulsions or neonatal cerebral ischaemia). Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). EA was used in 44% of the deliveries. Low AS or encephalopathy was found in 1.26% and 0.39% of the children in the EA group compared with 0.80% and 0.29% in the control group. In multivariate analysis, EA was associated with increased risk with low AS, AOR 1.27 (95% CI 1.16-1.39), but not with diagnosis of encephalopathy, 1.11 (0.96-1.29). A diagnosis of MF was associated with increased risk for both low AS, 2.27 (1.71-3.02), and of neonatal encephalopathy, 1.97 (1.19-3.26). Diagnosis of MF was associated with low AS and neonatal encephalopathy, whereas EA was only associated with low AS and not with neonatal encephalopathy. The found associations might be a result of confounding by indication, which is difficult to assess in a registry-based population study. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Analgesia de parto: estudo comparativo entre anestesia combinada raquiperidural versus anestesia peridural contínua Analgesia de parto: estudio comparativo entre anestesia combinada raqui-peridural versus anestesia peridural continua Labor analgesia: a comparative study between combined spinal-epidural anesthesia versus continuous epidural anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto de Figueiredo Côrtes

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O alívio da dor no trabalho de parto tem recebido atenção constante visando ao bem-estar materno, diminuindo o estresse causado pela dor e reduzindo as conseqüências deste sobre o concepto. Inúmeras técnicas podem ser utilizadas para analgesia de parto. Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar a técnica peridural contínua com a combinada, ambas com o uso de bupivacaína a 0,25% em excesso enantiomérico 50% e fentanil como agentes. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 40 parturientes em trabalho de parto com dilatação cervical entre 4 e 5 cm que foram distribuídas em dois grupos iguais de forma aleatória. O Grupo I recebeu anestesia peridural contínua. O Grupo II recebeu anestesia combinada. Foram avaliados: medidas antropométricas, idade gestacional, dilatação cervical, tempo entre o bloqueio e a ausência de dor por meio da escala analógica visual, possibilidade de deambulação, tempo entre o início da analgesia e a dilatação cervical completa, duração do período expulsivo, parâmetros hemodinâmicos maternos e vitalidade do recém-nascido. Possíveis complicações, como depressão respiratória, hipotensão arterial materna, prurido, náuseas e vômitos, também foram observadas. Para a comparação das médias utilizou-se o teste t de Student e para a paridade e tipo de parto utilizou-se o teste do Qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os dois grupos em relação ao tempo entre o início da analgesia e a dilatação cervical completa, bem como em relação ao tempo da duração do período expulsivo, incidência de cesariana relacionada com a analgesia, parâmetros hemodinâmicos maternos e vitalidade do recém-nascido. CONCLUSÕES: Ambas as técnicas se mostraram eficazes e seguras para a analgesia do trabalho de parto, embora a técnica combinada tenha proporcionado um rápido e imediato alívio da dor. Estudos clínicos com maior número de casos s

  7. Intra-operative Patient-Controlled Sedation (PCS:Propofol versus Midazolam Supplementation During Epidural Analgesia (Clinical and Hormonal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan S Al-khayat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was done on sixty adult males scheduled to have an epidural analgesia for elective inguinal hernia repair. The study was designed to compare propofol and midazolam with regard to their suitability for the patient-controlled sedation (PCS technique during epidural analgesia. Patients were divided into three equal groups and premedicated with 0.2mg.kg -1 oral midazolam. Group I (G1 served as control. Using PCS technique, the pump was programmed to deliver on demand a bolus dose of 0.5 mg.kg- 1 of propofol in Group II (G2 or 0.1mg.kg -1 midazolam in Group III(G3. Patient′s sedation status was assessed by sedation score, comfort scale and by psychometric testing. The total delivered dose of each tested drug was calculated. Serum concentrations of propfol and midazolam, plasma cortisol and free fatty acids were measured. Propofol and midazolam PCS technique produced excellent and easily controllable sedation. The dose needed to produce steady state sedation was 2.8±1.42 and 0.11±0.6 mg.kg -1 .h- 1 for propofol and midazolam respectively. Propofol was more suitable than midazolam for PCS because of its rapid onset, favorable recovery profile and low side effects. PCS proved to be a stress-free and acceptable technique.

  8. Labour epidural analgesia audit in a tertiary state hospital in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    complications of this study, relied on the number of epidural records containing ... and not the epidurals that were performed exclusively for. Caesarean ... Primigravida (Obstetrician request). 21. 14 ... (anaesthesiologists and nursing staff) are available, the ASA ... blockade, bupivacaine was cheaper and these advantages.

  9. Single bolus dose of epidural magnesium prolongs the duration of analgesia in cardiac patients undergoing vascular surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarja Sachin Nagre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Magnesium, a physiological antagonist of calcium and N-methyl-d-aspartate, has a role in the prevention of pain in patients undergoing surgery for peripheral vascular diseases with cardiac comorbidities such as ischaemic heart disease and coronary artery disease. The objective of our study was assessment of effects of epidural magnesium in cardiac patients undergoing vascular surgery. Methods: Sixty patients of either sex American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status III undergoing surgeries for peripheral vascular diseases were enrolled. The control group had 30 patients who received levobupivacaine 0.25% 10 ml with fentanyl 50 μg while 30 patients in study group received levobupivacaine 0.25% 10 ml with fentanyl 50 μg and magnesium 100 mg. The primary outcome was duration of analgesia. Sedation score, pain assessment using visual analogue scale (VAS, systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (RR and fentanyl consumption were also recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using Minitab 15 statistical software. Results: Both groups were similar demographically and with respect to baseline HR, SBP, DBP and RR. In the study group, compared to the control group, duration of analgesia was 4.17 ± 1.07 h versus 1.55 ± 0.47 h (P < 0.01, sedation score were\\ better (P = 0.003 and the VAS scores was lower (P < 0.01. sConclusion: Epidural magnesium, added to levobupivacaine and fentanyl as a single bolus dose effectively prolongs the duration of analgesia in high-risk cardiac patients undergoing peripheral vascular surgery.

  10. Postoperative analgesia with intramuscular morphine at fixed rate versus epidural morphine or sufentanil and bupivacaine in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, AA; Veen, A; Fidler, [No Value; Gielen, MJM; Hennis, PJ

    1998-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy and side effects of postoperative analgesia with three different pain regimens in 90 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. The patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups: epidural morphine (EM) or sufentanil (ES), both combined with bupivacaine, or IM

  11. Serum levels of bupivacaine after pre-peritoneal bolus vs. epidural bolus injection for analgesia in abdominal surgery: A safety study within a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mungroop, Timothy H.; van Samkar, Ganapathy; Geerts, Bart F.; van Dieren, Susan; Besselink, Marc G.; Veelo, Denise P.; Lirk, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Continuous wound infiltration (CWI) has become increasingly popular in recent years as an alternative to epidural analgesia. As catheters are not placed until the end of surgery, more intraoperative opioid analgesics might be needed. We, therefore, added a single pre-peritoneal bolus of bupivacaine

  12. Effects of intrapartum epidural analgesia at high altitudes: maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes. A randomized controlled trial of two formulations of analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokry, Mahmoud; Manaa, Essam M; Shoukry, Randa Ali; Shokeir, Mohamed Hossam; Elsedfy, Ghada O; Abd El-Aziz, Abd El-Salam

    2010-07-01

    To investigate whether intrapartum epidural analgesics (bupivacaine or ropivacaine) have an influence (safety and efficacy) on mothers, fetuses, or newborns at high altitudes (2,200 m above the sea level). Prospective randomized trial. A tertiary referral hospital in Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Eighty parturient women with normal full term pregnancy (37-40 weeks) were randomly allocated to a group receiving epidural bupivacaine 0.125% and the other receiving ropivacaine 0.2%, with fentanyl 100 microg given to both groups. Intra- and postpartum clinical management of the pregnant women and newborns and fetal Doppler assessments were performed. Severity of pain, onset and duration of analgesia, and occurrence of motor blockade were primary outcomes. Progress of labor, need for oxytocin augmentation, mode of delivery, and neonatal condition were secondary outcomes. Demographic, labor characteristics, and neonatal outcomes of the two groups were comparable. The onset of analgesia was relatively more rapid for ropivacaine group (p = 0.067). Duration of analgesia after the first bolus dose was longer and the need for supplemental epidural analgesic doses was lesser in the bupivacaine group (p = 0.041 and 0.045, respectively). In both groups, the fetal umbilical and middle cerebral artery pulsatility indices showed significant change when compared to the baseline of the same group. At high altitudes, no major advantage was found for epidural ropivacaine over bupivacaine in addition to fentanyl for labor analgesia and no harmful effects of the medications were found on mothers, fetuses, or newborns.

  13. A state-wide assessment of the association between epidural analgesia, maternal fever and neonatal antibiotics in Colorado, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Alice; Olson, Daniel; Messacar, Kevin

    2017-03-01

    To determine if an association exists between epidural analgesia, maternal fever and neonatal antibiotic exposure in a state-wide birth cohort. We performed a retrospective cohort study of the population-based Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment birth certificate database. Data included all reported births in the state of Colorado between 2007 and 2012. Live, non-preterm, vaginal, singleton, in-hospital births were included in analysis. Maternal epidural analgesia and maternal fever. Neonatal antibiotic treatment for suspected sepsis. A stratified analysis was conducted to evaluate whether epidural use was an effect modifier of the association between maternal fever and neonatal antibiotic treatment. The final cohort included 261 457 births. 2.2% of women who received an epidural had a fever, as compared with 0.4% of women who did not receive an epidural (OR: 5.4; 95% CI 4.9 to 6.0), and neonates born to women who received an epidural had 1.26 times increased odds of antibiotic treatment (95% CI 1.1 to 1.4). Stratification by epidural use did not alter the association between maternal fever and neonatal antibiotic treatment. Colorado providers treat neonates born to mothers with maternal fever without respect to whether the mother had an epidural. Further research into improved criteria for neonatal sepsis evaluation that accounts for the contribution of maternal epidural fever should be developed to decrease unnecessary neonatal antibiotic exposure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Low-dose spinal anaesthesia provides effective labour analgesia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intrathecal analgesia did not severely limit ambulation in any of the patients. ... access to epidural analgesia during labour is limited in low- resource ... world.5,6 With limited resources for epidural analgesia, spinal analgesia ... women.19,20.

  15. Epidural anaesthesia and analgesia - effects on surgical stress responses and implications for postoperative nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2002-01-01

    for improved mobilization and oral nutrition, and preservation of body composition and muscle function. Studies integrating continuous epidural local anaesthetics with enforced early nutrition and mobilization uniformly suggest an improved recovery, decreased hospital stay and convalescence. CONCLUSIONS......: Epidural local anaesthetics should be included in a multi-modal rehabilitation programme after major surgical procedures in order to facilitate oral nutrition, improve recovery and reduce morbidity....

  16. Epidural analgesia during labor: a retrospective cohort study on its effects on labour, delivery and neonatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincz, Piotr; Podciechowskil, Lech; Grzesiak, Mariusz; Horzelski, Wojciech; Wilczyflski, Jan

    2014-12-01

    to evaluate the impact of epidural analgesia (EA) on labor delivery and neonatal status. retrospective, observational, cohort study comprising 5593 pregnant women who met the inclusion criteria (singleton pregnancy cephalic presentation, 37-42 weeks of gestation). Out of them, 2496 had EA and 3097 constituted the control group. incidence of labor complications and operativd deliveries in women who received EA, neonatal status assessed by Apgar score in 1- and 5-minute, and cord pH values. Labor complications were more frequently observed in the epidural group, with an almost 1.5-fold higher incidence in nulliparous (16.32% vs. 11.29%) and 1.4-fold in multiparous women (9.86% vs. 7.08%). Stepwise logistic regression confirmed that EA is a significant risk factor for labor complications in nulliparous women (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.03-1.58) and for forceps delivery in multiparous women (5.20, 95% CI 3.31-8.177). Also, EA is an important risk factor for both, low cord arterial pH women, but has no effect on the incidence of cesarean sections, either in nulliparous or multiparous women. EA also increases the risk of labor complications, low 1-minute Apgar score and low umbilical cord pH, but is not associated with low 5-minute Apgar score.

  17. Effects of labor analgesia on maternal and neonatal outcome by epidural low concentration of bupivacaine combined with anisodamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiaoli; Zhou Chunqin; Li Xiaogang; Shen Xiaodong; Zou Yuliang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of labor analgesia on maternal and neonatal outcome by epidural application of 0.125% bupivacaine combined with anisodamine on the labor stage, and modes of delivery and neonatal Apgar's score. Methods A total of 220 primiparaes with full-term pregnancy, monocyesis and fetal head presentation without any obstetrical or systematic complications were chosen and divided into analgesic group and control group (110 in each group). The mixture of bupivaeaine and anisodamine was injected into the epidural space of the parturients in the analgesic group while those patients in the control group did not receive any analgesics. Results The analgesic effect was satisfactory (91.8 %), and no side effects occurred in the second stage of labor. The instrument delivery rate was lower in the analgesic group, and there was no significant difference between the two groups in neonatal Apgar's score. Conclusion The method is feasible in clinic for labor pain relief without increasing the rate of dystocla and complications of delivery.

  18. Comparative analgesic and sedative effects of tramadol, tramadol-lidocaine and lidocaine for caudal epidural analgesia in donkeys (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzok, Mohamed A; El-khodery, Sabry A

    2015-03-01

    To compare anti-nociceptive and sedative effects of tramadol, a combination of tramadol-lidocaine, and lidocaine alone for perineal analgesia in donkeys. Experimental 'blinded' randomized cross-over study. Six healthy adult donkeys. Treatments were tramadol (TR) (1.0 mg kg(-1) ), tramadol-lidocaine (TRLD) (0.5 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) respectively) and lidocaine (LD) (0.4 mg kg(-1) ) given into the epidural space. The volume of all treatments was 0.02 mL kg(-1) . Nociception was tested at the perineal region by pin prick, followed, if no reaction, by pressure from a haemostat clamp. Times to onset, degree and duration of anti-nociception of the perineal region were recorded. Response was tested immediately after drug administration and at: 2, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes post-administration and then at 30 minute intervals thereafter until a response re-occurred. Physiologic data and degree of sedation and ataxia were recorded pre-administration and at intervals for 240 minutes post-administration. Results were analyzed using anova, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and Wilks' Lambda test as relevant. Significance was taken as p donkeys. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  19. Comparing the Effect of Adding Ketamine and Neostigmine to Bupivacaine 0.25 % for Epidural Analgesia among Patients Candidated for Elective Femoral Fracture Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Kamali

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a complex medical problem that its inadequate postoperative control has adverse effects on patients’ physiological, metabolic and mental status. Adding new supplements will lead to an increased duration of analgesia. The purpose of this study was to compare the addition of neostigmine and ketamine to bupivacaine 0.25% for epidural analgesia increasing duration of postoperative analgesia. In this double blind clinical trial, 90 patients over 50 years candidated for elective hip surgery with ASA class I, II were randomly divided to three groups: neostigmine, ketamine and control groups. All patients received epidural with bupivacaine 0.25% by 2cc/segment. Furthermore, 60 micrograms neostigmine was added in first group and 40 mg ketamine was used for group II. Level of postoperative pain based on VAS and duration of analgesia and amount of analgesic was determined and compared across the three groups. The mean of pain score at 6 and 12 hours after surgery was significantly lower in the ketamine group than the other groups and in neostigmine group was less than placebo (P ≤ 0.01. The mean of duration of postoperative analgesia in the ketamine group was significantly higher than the other groups and in neostigmine group was more than placebo (P ≤ 0.01. The mean dose of analgesic (pethedin was the least in the ketamine group (P ≤ 0.001. Neostigmine and ketamine with bupivacaine 0.25% for epidural anesthesia increased the duration of analgesia during the postoperative period and reduced analgesic consumption that about ketamine was more than neostigmine.

  20. Combined Spinal-Epidural Analgesia for Laboring Parturient with Arnold-Chiari Type I Malformation: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark K. Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetic management of laboring parturients with Arnold-Chiari type I malformation poses a difficult challenge for the anesthesiologist. The increase in intracranial pressure during uterine contractions, coughing, valsalva maneuvers, and expulsion of the fetus can be detrimental to the mother during the process of labor and delivery. No concrete evidence has implicated high cerebral spinal fluid pressure on maternal and fetal complications. The literature on the use of neuraxial techniques for managing parturients with Arnold-Chiari is extremely scarce. While most anesthesiologists advocate epidural analgesia for management of labor pain and spinal anesthesia for cesarean section, we are the first to report the use of combined spinal-epidural analgesia for managing labor pain in a pregnant woman with Arnold-Chiari type I malformation. Also, we have reviewed the literature and presented information from case reports and case series to support the safe usage of neuraxial techniques in these patients.

  1. Serum levels of bupivacaine after pre-peritoneal bolus vs. epidural bolus injection for analgesia in abdominal surgery: A safety study within a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungroop, Timothy H; van Samkar, Ganapathy; Geerts, Bart F; van Dieren, Susan; Besselink, Marc G; Veelo, Denise P; Lirk, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Continuous wound infiltration (CWI) has become increasingly popular in recent years as an alternative to epidural analgesia. As catheters are not placed until the end of surgery, more intraoperative opioid analgesics might be needed. We, therefore, added a single pre-peritoneal bolus of bupivacaine at the start of laparotomy, similar to the bolus given with epidural analgesia. This was a comparative study within a randomized controlled trial (NTR4948). Patients undergoing hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery received either a pre-peritoneal bolus of 30ml bupivacaine 0.25%, or an epidural bolus of 10ml bupivacaine 0.25% at the start of laparotomy. In a subgroup of patients, we sampled blood and determined bupivacaine serum levels 20, 40, 60 and 80 minutes after bolus injection. We assumed toxicity of bupivacaine to be >1000 ng/ml. A total of 20 patients participated in this sub-study. All plasma levels measured as well as the upper limit of the predicted 99% confidence intervals per time point were well below the toxicity limit. In a mixed linear-effect model both groups did not differ statistically significant (p = 0.131). The intra-operative use of opioids was higher with CWI as compared to epidural (86 (SD 73) μg sufentanil vs. 50 (SD 32). In this exploratory study, the pre-peritoneal bolus using bupivacaine resulted in serum bupivacaine concentrations well below the commonly accepted toxic threshold. With CWI more additional analgesics are needed intraoperatively as compared to epidural analgesia, although this is compensated by a reduction in use of vasopressors with CWI. Netherlands Trial Register NTR4948.

  2. A Comparison of Intrathecal and Epidural Analgesia and Its Effect on Length of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-10

    differences were found between agents, lidocaine with epinephrine or bupivacaine with epinephrine, in depression of uterine activity (Willdeck-Lund et al...effects. Also, all parturients except for three reported pain relief lasting throughout labor. Local infiltration of lidocaine was performed for...are not reached. In response to the relative ineffectiveness of epidural morphine and the high incidence of side effects with morphine injected

  3. COMPARISON OF EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM SULPHATE AND PRESERVATIVE-FREE KETAMINE AS AN ADJUNCT TO EPIDURAL BUPIVACAINE FOR POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA IN ABDOMINAL HYSTERECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Korumbil Raghavan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Neuraxial blocks are the most common method of anaesthesia in abdominal hysterectomies and epidural technique has been used widely to provide both anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia. It has become a common practice to use polypharmacy approach for treatment of intra and postoperative pain, because no drug has yet been identified that specifically inhibit nociception without side effects. The aim of the study is to compare the effects of magnesium sulphate versus preservative-free ketamine as an adjunct to epidural bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia in abdominal hysterectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS After obtaining informed consent, the patients were divided into 3 groups of 40 each to receive 20 mL 0.5% bupivacaine (group B, 19 mL 0.5% bupivacaine + 50 mg magnesium sulphate (group BM, 19 mL 0.5% bupivacaine + 50 mg preservative-free ketamine (group BK. Epidural catheter was inserted at L1-L2 space using standard technique. Correct placement was confirmed by a test dose of 2% lignocaine + adrenaline 1 in 2 lakhs. Postoperative analgesia were assessed by VAS score and 0.125% bupivacaine infusion and 1 g paracetamol IV infusion was given as rescue analgesics when VAS ≥4. Onset duration, motor block and side effects were also monitored. RESULTS Mean time of duration of onset in group B, BM, BK were 20, 14, 18 minutes, respectively. Mean time for rescue analgesia were 180, 240 and 480 minutes in group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. These differences were statistically significant. The side effects noticed in each group were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION The onset of effect is faster when magnesium sulphate were added as an adjunct to bupivacaine as compared to preservativefree ketamine. The postoperative analgesia is found to be more with preservative-free ketamine as compared to magnesium sulphate without any significant side effects.

  4. Evaluation and comparison of epidural analgesia in labour related information on French and English-speaking websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitalier, Fabien; De Lamer, Sabine; Barbaz, Mathilde; Laffon, Marc; Remérand, Francis

    2018-01-31

    The medical information on the Internet is better in English than in other languages. The information about Epidural Analgesia In Labour (EAIL) available on French-speaking websites is of poor quality. The quality of the information about EAIL should be better in English, but there is no comparison available. This study has assessed and compared the quality of the information about EAIL available on French and English-speaking websites. Keywords "epidural", "épidurale" and/or "péridurale" were used in the French, Canadian and American Google ® and Yahoo ® search engines. Two independent assessors assessed the 20 first websites for each engine search. They used an evaluation form created from French, Canadian and American recommendations. This form assessed the structure quality (Structure Score/25) and the medical information quality (Medical Information Score/30) of the websites. The addition of both scores gives the Global Score (/55). Seventy-one websites were assessed, 39 French-speaking and 32 English-speaking websites. Structure, Medical Information and Global Scores (expressed as mean (SD)) were respectively 11 (4), 13 (5), 24 (8) for the French-speaking websites and 11 (4), 12 (4), 23 (7) for the English-speaking websites. There was no statistical significant difference between both languages. Information about EAIL available on French and English-speaking websites is of poor quality and there is no difference in the information quality, whatever the language. A consideration on Internet medical information improvement is needed. A high quality dedicated website should be created and broadcasted. Copyright © 2018 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Short and Long-Term Outcomes of Epidural or Intravenous Analgesia after Esophagectomy: A Propensity-Matched Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available As a well-established technique for postoperative pain relief, the benefits of epidural analgesia (EDA have been under debate recently. This study aimed to determine whether EDA could improve perioperative outcomes and survival in patients undergoing esophagectomy.From January 2010 to December 2012, 587 consecutive cases undergoing McKeown-type esohpageactomy were retrospectively identified from a prospectively maintained database.After propensity-matching, incorporating baseline characteristics, 178 cases were included in each group, and patients characteristics distributions were well-balanced between two groups. Compared with intravenous analgesia, the use of EDA significantly decreased the incidence of pneumonia from 32% to 19.7% (P = 0.008, and anastomotic leakage from 23.0% to 14.0% (P = 0.029. The change in CRP level of EDA group was significantly decreased (preoperative, 6.2 vs. 6.2; POD 1, 108.1 vs. 121.3; POD 3, 131.5 vs. 137.8; POD 7, 69.3 vs. 82.1 mg/L; P = 0.044. EDA patients had a significantly longer duration of indwelling urinary catheter (P<0.001, and lower levels in both systolic (P = 0.001 and diastolic blood pressure (P<0.001. There weren't significant differences in overall survival (log-rank P = 0.47 and recurrence (Gray-test P = 0.46 between two groups.These findings revealed that EDA could attenuate inflammatory response and reduce the incidence of pneumonia and anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy, at the price of delayed urinary catheter removal and lower blood pressure. EDA remains an important component of multimodal perioperative management after esophagectomy.

  6. Local Infiltration Analgesia Compared With Epidural and Intravenous PCA After Surgical Hip Dislocation for the Treatment of Femoroacetabular Impingement in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Eduardo N; Kestel, Lauryn; Carry, Patrick M; Sink, Ernest; Strupp, Kim

    2018-01-01

    Open treatment of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) through a surgical hip dislocation (SHD) approach has been reported to allow for improvement in pain and function. However, the approach require a trochanteric osteotomy and may be associated with high level of pain after surgery. Currently, there is no systematic approach for pain management after SHD for treatment of FAI. A retrospective chart review was used to collect data from 121 subjects (12 to 21 y and below) who received periarticular local infiltration analgesia (LIA, n=20), epidural analgesia (n=72), or intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA, n=29) after SHD from January 2003 to June 2014. Verbal pain scores, opioid consumption, incidence of side effects/complications, and length of hospital stay (LOS) were recorded. All nonopioid medications with analgesic potential were included in the statistical models as potential confounding variables RESULTS:: Twelve hours after surgery, the odds of moderate/severe pain were higher in the PCA group (odds ratio, 20.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7-243.8; P=0.0166] and epidural group (odds ratio, 5.2; 95% CI, 0.7-92.0; P=0.3218) compared with the LIA group. There was no difference in pain scores across all groups 1 hour (P=0.0675) or 24 hours (P=0.3473) postoperatively. Total opioid consumption in the LIA group was 59.8% (95% CI, 15.0%-81.0%; P=0.0175) lower than the total opioid consumption in the epidural group and 60.7% (95% CI, 17.3-81.3; P=0.0144) lower than the total opioid consumption in the PCA group. LOS was increased in the epidural (mean difference, 22.1; 95% CI, 6.8-37.4 h; P=0.0051) and PCA (mean difference, 16 h; 95% CI, 1-31.5 h; P=0.0367) groups relative to the LIA group. There was 0 (0%) complication in the LIA group compared with 11 (15.3%) in the epidural group. LIA was more effective at controlling pain 12 hours after surgery in comparison with PCA with similar pain control to epidural. LIA was associated with significantly lower

  7. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of combined spinal-epidural analgesia on the success of external cephalic version for breech presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, J T; Grobman, W A; Bauchat, J R; Scavone, B M; Grouper, S; McCarthy, R J; Wong, C A

    2009-10-01

    Improving the success of external cephalic version (ECV) for breech presentation may help avoid some cesarean deliveries. The results of randomized trials comparing the success of ECV with neuraxial analgesia compared to control are inconsistent. We hypothesized that combined spinal-epidural (CSE) analgesia would increase the success of ECV when compared with systemic opioid analgesia. Parturients with singleton breech presentation (n=96) were randomized to receive CSE analgesia with bupivacaine 2.5mg and fentanyl 15 microg (CSE group) or intravenous fentanyl 50 microg (SYS group) before ECV attempt. The primary outcome was ECV success. The success rate of ECV was 47% with CSE and 31% in the SYS group (P=0.14). Subsequent vaginal delivery was 36% for CSE and 25% for SYS (P=0.27). Median [IQR] visual analog pain scores (0-100mm scale) were lower with CSE (3 [0-12]) compared to SYS analgesia (36 [16 to 54]) (P<0.005) and patient satisfaction (0-10 scale) was higher (CSE 10 [9 to 10] versus SYS 7 [4 to 9]) (P<0.005). There were no differences in fetal heart rate patterns, but median time to return to fetal heart rate reactivity after analgesia was shorter with CSE (13 [IQR 9-21] min) compared to the SYS group (39 [IQR 23-51] min) (P=0.02). There was no difference in the rate of successful ECV or vaginal delivery with CSE compared to intravenous fentanyl analgesia. Pain scores were lower and satisfaction higher with CSE analgesia, and median time to fetal heart rate reactivity was shorter in the CSE group.

  8. The comparison of different medication project of continuous epidural analgesia for the patient after lumbar vertebra operation%腰椎手术病人连续硬膜外镇痛的不同用药方案比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成才; 袁红兵; 王新华

    2002-01-01

    Objective Comparing different medication project of continuous epidural analgesia for the patient after lumbar vertebra operation, to decrease the complications and promote analgesia effects. Methods 150 cases with ASAⅠ~Ⅱ grade, lumbar intervertebral disc extirpation and /or vertebral canal decompression, were divided into 5 groups. A group: 0.0625% bupivacaine; B group: 0.125% bupivacaine; C group: 0.0625% bupivacaine and 1 mg morphine; D group: 0.125% bupivacaine and 1 mg morphine; E group: no analgesia. Record the occurrence of RR,MAP,HR,VAS score and side effects. Results The analgesia effects of all groups were satisfying, but the occurrence of urine retention increased in B,C,D group, and the occurrence of nausea and vomit increased obviously in C,D group. Conclusions The continuous epidural analgesia with simple 0.0625% for patients after lumbar vertebral operation is best.

  9. COMBINED SPINAL EPIDURAL ANALGESIA IN LABOUR: COMPARISON OF BUPIVACAINE 1.25 MG WITH FENTANYL AND ROPIVACAINE 2.5 MG WITH FENTANYL INTRATHECAL

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    Prakash T. S. N

    2016-10-01

    , 105 and 120 mins., i.e. (every 5 mins. for 15 mins. and then every 15 mins. for 2 hrs. until the next request for analgesia. After positioning the patient in supine position, onset of analgesia and dermatome level were checked by loss of sensation to pinprick, time of onset and degree of motor blockade was checked by Bromage classification. VAS pain scores for all patients immediately before and after 15 mins. of the procedure at the next request for analgesia. Vitals were recorded and study was terminated. Continuation of epidural analgesia was done with 0.125% bupivacaine + 2 µg fentanyl in 10 mL. Monitoring - mother’s vital parameters, progress of labour, efficacy of analgesia and foetal welfare were watched in coordination with attending obstetrician. Pulse, NIBP, SpO2, respiratory rate were recorded before and after the start of procedure and every 5 mins. for first 15 mins. and then every 15 mins. for 2 hrs. If bradycardia occurred at any time (<60 bts./mins., Inj. Glycopyrrolate 0.2 mg was given. If hypotension occurred, then it was treated appropriately with IV fluids and vasopressor. If pruritus occurred, it was treated with pheniramine. Sensory blockade assessed by pinprick and motor blockade was assessed by Bromage scale. Statistical Analysis- In the present study, results are given as mean±standard deviation and range values for continuous data. Students test was used to compare the two groups, categorical data are expressed as number and percentages and difference between the groups was compared by chi-square test. A p value of 0.05 or less was set for statistical significance.RESULTS Maternal hypotension of 15% was noted in both groups, which was statistically significant. Onset of sensory analgesia in seconds showed a standard deviation of 38.12 with a mean difference of 47 seconds between the two groups was found to be statistically highly significant with a p value of <0.001. Maximal dermatomal level of sensory block achieved also showed

  10. Colonic resection with early discharge after combined subarachnoid-epidural analgesia, preoperative glucocorticoids, and early postoperative mobilization and feeding in a pulmonary high-risk patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Dahl, J B; Rosenberg, J

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES. A pulmonary high-risk patient undergoing right hemicolectomy for cancer was treated with a combination of intense afferent neural block with subarachnoid-epidural local anesthetics followed by continuous epidural analgesia, preoperative high-dose glucocorticoids......) with unchanged pulmonary function. Nocturnal episodic oxygen desaturation, hyperthermia, and postoperative fatigue were prevented. Defecation occurred on the first postoperative day and oral caloric intake was normal after 24 hours with no postoperative weight loss. Self care was normalized on the third...... postoperative day and the patient discharged from the hospital 80 hours after surgery. CONCLUSIONS. The technique of combined neural and humoral mediator block should be evaluated in other high-risk patients undergoing major surgical procedures, where minimal invasive techniques are not possible....

  11. Comparison of extended-release epidural morphine with femoral nerve block to patient-controlled epidural analgesia for postoperative pain control of total knee arthroplasty: a case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, Scott L; Hutson, Larry R; Shannon, Patrick; Thomas, Leslie C; Nossaman, Bobby D

    2011-01-01

    Because newer anticoagulation strategies for total knee replacement present potentially increased risk of neuraxial analgesia, there is movement away from using patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) for pain control. This concern opens the door for other regional modalities in postoperative analgesia, including the use of extended-release epidural morphine (EREM) combined with a femoral nerve block (FNB). This study was a prospective observational chart review with the use of recent historical controls in patients undergoing unilateral total knee replacement. Outcomes of interest were 0-, 24-, and 48-hour postoperative pain scores using the visual analog scale (VAS); incidence of side effects; and time spent in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Postoperative pain scores at 24 and 48 hours in the EREM and FNB group (n  =  14; 2.6 ± 0.6 and 5.0 ± 0.9, respectively) were comparable to the PCEA group (n  =  14; 3.8 ± 0.6 and 4.2 ± 0.9). The PACU time was shorter in the EREM and FNB group (2.4 ± 0.3 hours) compared with PCEA (3.6 ± 0.3 hours, P  =  .02). No statistically significant difference was found in the incidence of side effects between the 2 groups. The VAS scores at 24 and 48 hours indicate that EREM and FNB provide comparable analgesia to PCEA. The trend toward shorter PACU times represents an opportunity for cost-identification analysis. The study data are limited by their observational nature and the small number of patients involved; nevertheless, this study demonstrates a therapeutic equivalence to PCEA that may be more cost effective.

  12. The Effect of Epidural Analgesia Alone and in Association With Other Variables on the Risk of Cesarean Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Gómez, Antonio; Luna-Bertos, Elvira De; Ramos-Torrecillas, Javier; Ocaña-Peinado, Francisco Manuel; García-Martínez, Olga; Ruiz, Concepción

    2017-07-01

    Epidural analgesia (EA) is the most widespread pharmacologic method of labor pain relief. There remains disagreement, however, regarding its adverse effects. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of EA administration on the risk of cesarean delivery and its causes (e.g., stalled labor, risk of loss of fetal well-being, among others) and the degree to which this effect may be modulated by mother-, newborn-, and labor-related variables. A retrospective cohort observational study was conducted including all deliveries in a Spanish public hospital between March 2010 and March 2013 ( N = 2,450; EA = 562, non-EA = 1,888). Risk of a cesarean section was significantly increased by EA administration (odds ratio [ OR] = 2.673; p cesarean deliveries due to the risk of loss of fetal well-being was significantly higher in the EA (47.8%) versus non-EA group (27.5%; OR = 1.739; p = 0.0012,). The EA-associated risk of cesarean section was not significantly modified as a function of maternal age or parity, fetal position, newborn weight, weeks of gestation, or sedation administration alone. However, these variables in combination may increase the risk. We present multivariate models for each group that account for these variables, allowing for estimation of the risk of a cesarean delivery if EA is administered. EA is associated with an increased risk of cesarean delivery. Other variables in combination (maternal age or parity, fetal position, newborn weight, weeks of gestation, or sedation administration) may increase this risk.

  13. The effects of epidural/spinal opioids in labour analgesia on neonatal outcomes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Cao, Liang; Deng, Qian; Sun, Li-Qiang; Gu, Tian-Yu; Song, Jie; Qi, Dun-Yi

    2014-08-01

    Epidural/spinal opioids are increasingly used to relieve parturients' pain in labour. Some studies indicate that opioids can induce side effects in neonates, such as respiratory depression and neurobehavioural changes. This meta-analysis aimed to clarify the effects of opioids in labour analgesia on neonates. PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and EMBASE™ were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The neonatal data of Apgar scores, Neurological and Adaptive Capacity Scores (NACS), and umbilical cord pH values were extracted. Statistical analyses were carried out using Review Manager 5.2 and Stata(®) 10. Twenty-one trials with 2,859 participants were included in our meta-analysis. No difference in the incidence of Apgar scores analgesia are safe for neonates up to 24 hr after delivery. In future studies, more attention should be paid to the long-term side effects in neonates.

  14. Postoperative pain and patient-controlled epidural analgesia-related adverse effects in young and elderly patients: a retrospective analysis of 2,435 patients

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    Koh JC

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Jae Chul Koh, Young Song, So Yeon Kim, Sooyeun Park, Seo Hee Ko, Dong Woo Han Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Anesthesia and Pain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: In this retrospective study, data of 2,435 patients who received fentanyl and ropivacaine-based patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA for pain relief after elective surgery under general or spinal anesthesia were reviewed. Differences in postoperative pain, incidence of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA-related adverse effects, and risk factors for the need for rescue analgesics for 48 hours postsurgery in young (age 20–39 years and elderly (age ≥70 years patients were evaluated. Although there were no significant differences in postoperative pain intensity between the two groups until 6 hours postsurgery, younger patients experienced greater postoperative pain intensity compared with older patients 6–48 hours postsurgery. While younger patients exhibited greater incidence of numbness, motor weakness, and discontinuation of PCA postsurgery, elderly patients exhibited greater incidence of hypotension, nausea/vomiting, rescue analgesia, and antiemetic administration. Upon multivariate analysis, low fentanyl dosage and history of smoking were found to be associated with an increased need for rescue analgesia among younger patients, while physical status classification III/IV and thoracic surgery were associated with a decreased need for rescue analgesia among the elderly. Discontinuation of PCA was more frequent among younger patients than the elderly (18.5% vs 13.5%, P=0.001. Reasons for discontinuation of PCA among young and elderly patients, respectively, were nausea and vomiting (6.8% vs 26.6%, numbness or motor weakness (67.8% vs 11.5%, urinary retention (7.4% vs 8.7%, dizziness (2.2% vs 5.2%, and hypotension (3.1% vs 20.3%. In conclusion, PCEA was more frequently associated with numbness, motor

  15. Combined spinal epidural analgesia for labor using sufentanil epidurally versus intrathecally: a retrospective study on the influence on fetal heart trace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaert, Nele; Coppens, Marc; Vlerick, Peter; Braems, Geert; Wouters, Patrick; de Hert, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We retrospectively compared a protocol using sufentanil and ropivacaine intrathecally with a protocol in which only ropivacaine was administered intrathecally and sufentanil was used epidurally to evaluate whether banning sufentanil from the intrathecal space results in a decreased

  16. The effect of inflatable obstetric belts in nulliparous pregnant women receiving patient-controlled epidural analgesia during the second stage of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Woon; Kim, Yoon Ha; Cho, Hye Yon; Shin, Hee-Young; Shin, Jong Chul; Choi, Sea Kyung; Lee, Keun-Young; Song, Ji-Eun; Lee, Pil-Ryang

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of inflatable obstetric belts on uterine fundal pressure in the management of the second stage of labor. Between July 2009 and December 2010, 188 nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy at term were enrolled and only one dropped. The participants were randomized to receive either standard care (control group, n = 91) or uterine fundal pressure by the Labor Assister (Baidy M-520/Curexo, Inc., Seoul, Korea; active group, n = 97) during the second stage of labor in addition to standard care. The Labor Assister is an inflatable obstetric belt that is synchronized to apply constant fundal pressure during a uterine contraction. The primary endpoint was duration of the second stage of labor in women who delivered vaginally (control, n = 80 versus active, n = 93). It was not analyzed in women who delivered by cesarean section (n = 14) and delivered precipitously (n = 1). The secondary outcomes are perinatal outcomes and perineal laceration. Participants received patient-controlled epidural analgesia. The 93 women in the active group spent less time in the second stage of labor when compared to the 80 women in the control group (46.51 ± 28.01 min versus 75.02 ± 37.48 min, p labor without complications in nulliparous women who receive patient-controlled epidural analgesia.

  17. Incidence and Risk Factors of Coagulation Profile Derangement After Liver Surgery: Implications for the Use of Epidural Analgesia-A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquenod, Pierre; Wallon, Grégoire; Gazon, Mathieu; Darnis, Benjamin; Pradat, Pierre; Virlogeux, Victor; Farges, Olivier; Aubrun, Frédéric

    2018-04-01

    Hepatic surgery is a major abdominal surgery. Epidural analgesia may decrease the incidence of postoperative morbidities. Hemostatic disorders frequently occur after hepatic resection. Insertion or withdrawal (whether accidental or not) of an epidural catheter during coagulopathic state may cause an epidural hematoma. The aim of the study is to determine the incidence of coagulopathy after hepatectomy, interfering with epidural catheter removal, and to identify the risk factors related to coagulopathy. We performed a retrospective review of a prospective, multicenter, observational database including patients over 18 years old with a history of liver resection. Main collected data were the following: age, preexisting cirrhosis, Child-Pugh class, preoperative and postoperative coagulation profiles, extent of liver resection, blood loss, blood products transfused during surgery. International normalized ratio (INR) ≥1.5 and/or platelet count <80,000/mm defined coagulopathy according to the neuraxial anesthesia guidelines. A logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between selected factors and a coagulopathic state after hepatic resection. One thousand three hundred seventy-one patients were assessed. Seven hundred fifty-nine patients had data available about postoperative coagulopathy, which was observed in 53.5% [95% confidence interval, 50.0-57.1]. Maximum derangement in INR occurred on the first postoperative day, and platelet count reached a trough peak on postoperative days 2 and 3. In the multivariable analysis, preexisting hepatic cirrhosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.49 [1.38-4.51]; P = .003), preoperative INR ≥1.3 (OR = 2.39 [1.10-5.17]; P = .027), preoperative platelet count <150 G/L (OR = 3.03 [1.77-5.20]; P = .004), major hepatectomy (OR = 2.96 [2.07-4.23]; P < .001), and estimated intraoperative blood loss ≥1000 mL (OR = 1.85 [1.08-3.18]; P = .025) were associated with postoperative coagulopathy. Coagulopathy is frequent (53

  18. Thoracic epidural analgesia in obese patients with body mass index of more than 30 kg/m 2 for off pump coronary artery bypass surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Munish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perioperative Thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA is an important part of a multimodal approach to improve analgesia and patient outcome after cardiac and thoracic surgery. This is particularly important for obese patients undergoing off pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB. We conducted a randomized clinical trial at tertiary care cardiac institute to compare the effect of TEA and conventional opioid based analgesia on perioperative lung functions and pain scores in obese patients undergoing OPCAB. Sixty obese patients with body mass index> 30 kg/m 2 for elective OPCAB were randomized into two groups (n=30 each. Patients in both the groups received general anesthesia but in group 1, TEA was also administered. We performed spirometry as preoperative assessment and at six hours, 24 hours, second, third, fourth and fifth day after extubation, along with arterial blood gases analysis. Visual analogue scale at rest and on coughing was recorded to assess the degree of analgesia. The other parameters observed were: time to endotracheal extubation, oxygen withdrawal time and intensive care unit length of stay. On statistical analysis there was a significant difference in Vital Capacity at six hours, 24 hours, second and third day postextubation. Forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second followed the same pattern for first four postoperative days and peak expiratory flow rate remained statistically high till second postoperative day. ABG values and PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio were statistically higher in the study group up to five days. Visual analogue scale at rest and on coughing was significantly lower till fourth and third postoperative day respectively. Tracheal extubation time, oxygen withdrawal time and ICU stay were significantly less in group 1. The use of TEA resulted in better analgesia, early tracheal extubation and shorter ICU stay and should be considered for obese patients undergoing OPCAB.

  19. Analgesia peridural contínua: análise da eficácia, efeitos adversos e fatores de risco para ocorrência de complicações Analgesia peridural continua: análisis de la eficacia, efectos adversos y factores de riesgo para ocurrencia de complicaciones Continuous epidural analgesia: analysis of efficacy, side effects and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Teixeira Domingues Duarte

    2004-06-01

    ,1%, 92,8% y 93,3% de la población estudiada. CONCLUSIONES: La analgesia peridural continua es efectiva y segura. Las complicaciones ocurridas no fueron consideradas graves. Todavía, no se puede dispensar rigurosa vigilancia a fin de obtenerse analgesia satisfactoria y diminuir las complicaciones.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Epidural analgesia with local anesthetics and opioids has a reputation of high efficacy with low incidence of side effects. This study aimed at determining incidence, type and severity of postoperative complications related to epidural analgesia and catheter insertion. METHODS: Participated in this retrospective study 469 patients submitted to postoperative epidural analgesia in the period 10/18/99 to 10/18/01. Epidural analgesia was induced with 0.1% bupivacaine and fentanyl (1 to 5 µg.mL-1, at a 3 mL.h-1 rate. Infusion rate was adjusted according to patients' pain complaint. The following variables were evaluated: epidural infusion duration; incidence of side-effects and complications related to demographics, type of surgery and epidural catheter position; and quality of analgesia by means of a pain visual analog scale and a patients' satisfaction index. RESULTS: Epidural catheters remained in place 2.2 days in average, varying from 6 to 10 days. Global rate of technique-related complications was 46.3%, most of them minor complications without clinical repercussion. From these, 13.9% were directly related to the epidural catheter (disconnection, externalization, low back pain, inflammation and local infection. Other common complications were vomiting and urinary retention. Postoperative analgesia was effective in 97.2% of the patients which referred satisfaction with the technique. Patients without pain or slight pain during the first, second and third postoperative day represented 80.1%, 92.8% and 93.3%, respectively, of the studied population. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous epidural analgesia is effective and safe. Complications were not severe. However

  20. A STUDY COMPARING DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF ROPIVACAINE 0.125% VS. 0.2%, WHEN GIVEN WITH FENTANYL 2 MCG/ML FOR EPIDURAL LABOUR ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vindhya K

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Epidural administration of local anaesthetics, with or without opioids, is commonly used for the relief of pain in labor. Lower concentration of local anesthetics is used for providing labor epidural analgesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS After approval of the Institutional Ethical Committee, this study was conducted at a teaching hospital in GGH, Kakinada on 50 term parturients. 50 parturients of ASA I & II, primi or multi gravida with singleton pregnancy having vertex presentation were taken up for the study. They were randomly divided into 2 groups–Group R1 and Group R2 each comprising of 25 parturients. Study patients (n=50 were randomly assigned to one of two groups of 25 each. They received aliquots of epidural injection using either, 10 ml of ropivacaine 0.125 % with 2 μg/ml fentanyl (group R1 or 10 ml of ropivacaine 0.2% with 2 μg/ml fentanyl (group R2. RESULTS Demographic data, obstetric data, and injection delivery interval were comparable in both groups. Effective labor analgesia with no motor blockade was observed in both groups. Duration of analgesia after initial bolus dose was also significantly longer in group R2 (126.45 ± 12.34 min than in group R1 (73.05±27.4min. Ropivacaine at both concentrations (0.2% vs. 0.125% along with fentanyl 2μg / ml decreased visual analog scale (VAS scores to <3 in all parturients uniformly. Mean VAS scores were significantly less in group R2 than in group R1 at 5,60, and 90 min. Requirement of top-up doses was significantly less in group R2 as compared to group R1. Consumption of ropivacaine was comparable in both the groups (58.23 ± 5.48 mg in group R1 and 65.88 ± 6.29 mg in group R2, but consumption of fentanyl was significantly more in group R1 (94.31 ± 4.93 mg as compared to group R2 (31.58 ± 2.38 mg. There were no significant changes in haemodynamics, nor adverse effects related to neonatal or maternal outcomes in both groups. CONCLUSION We conclude that both the concentrations

  1. Administration of epidural labor analgesia is not associated with a decreased risk of postpartum depression in an urban Canadian population of mothers: a secondary analysis of prospective cohort data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahirney M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Marissa Nahirney,1 Amy Metcalfe,2 Katie H Chaput3 1O’Brien Centre, 2Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute and Pediatrics, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Background: Postpartum depression (PPD is a common complication of pregnancy, affecting approximately 13% of mothers internationally. Previous research has examined whether epidural analgesia used for pain control during labor and birth is associated with a lower risk of PPD, but reports conflicting results and may have suffered from methodological shortcomings. Our study aimed to prospectively assess whether epidural analgesia is associated with a lower risk of PPD (at either 6 weeks or 6 months postpartum after attempting to adequately adjust for selection bias and confounding variables. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort of urban Canadian mothers who were recruited at birth in Calgary, Canada, in 2010, for a primary study on predictors of PPD. Mothers with full-term, singleton infants who did not require neonatal intensive care unit admission of >24 hours were included, and filled out questionnaires at birth, 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum including demographics, birth data, maternal and infant physical health, lifestyle, breastfeeding and maternal mental health. Descriptive statistics were calculated for participant characteristics and to identify potential confounder variables. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess whether epidural analgesia is associated with PPD after controlling for available confounding variables. Results: Our study included 206 mothers who had vaginal deliveries and were free of depression at delivery. We found an incidence of PPD of 13.3% (n=27 and no statistically significant association between epidural use and PPD, regardless of adjustment for potential confounding variables (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.86, 95

  2. When to stop pushing: effects of duration of second-stage expulsion efforts on maternal and neonatal outcomes in nulliparous women with epidural analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ray, Camille; Audibert, François; Goffinet, François; Fraser, William

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of the duration of active second-stage labor on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Secondary analysis of the Pushing Early Or Pushing Late with Epidural trial that included 1862 nulliparous women with epidural analgesia who were in the second stage of labor. According to duration of active second-stage labor, we estimated the proportion of spontaneous vaginal deliveries (SVD) with a newborn infant without signs of asphyxia (5-minute Apgar score > or =7 and arterial pH >7.10). We also analyzed maternal and neonatal outcomes according to the duration of expulsive efforts. Relative to the first hour of expulsive efforts, the chances of a SVD of a newborn infant without signs of asphyxia decreased significantly every hour (1- to 2-hour adjusted odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3-0.6; 2- to 3-hour adjusted odds ratio, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.09-0.2; >3-hour adjusted odds ratio, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.02-0.05). The risk of postpartum hemorrhage and intrapartum fever increased significantly after 2 hours of pushing. Faced with a decreasing probability of SVD and increased maternal risk of morbidity after 2 hours, we raise the question as to whether expulsive efforts should be continued after this time.

  3. Adjunct High Frequency Transcutaneous Electric Stimulation (TENS) for Postoperative Pain Management during Weaning from Epidural Analgesia Following Colon Surgery: Results from a Controlled Pilot Study.

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    Bjerså, Kristofer; Jildenstaal, Pether; Jakobsson, Jan; Egardt, Madelene; Fagevik Olsén, Monika

    2015-12-01

    The potential benefit of nonpharmacological adjunctive therapy is not well-studied following major abdominal surgery. The aim of the present study was to investigate transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) as a complementary nonpharmacological analgesia intervention during weaning from epidural analgesia (EDA) after open lower abdominal surgery. Patients were randomized to TENS and sham TENS during weaning from EDA. The effects on pain at rest, following short walk, and after deep breath were assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) grading. Number of patients assessed was lower than calculated because of change in clinical routine. Pain scores overall were low. A trend of lower pain scores was observed in the active TENS group of patients; a statistical significance between the groups was found for the pain lying prone in bed (p TENS use in postoperative pain management during weaning from EDA after open colon surgery. Further studies are warranted in order to verify the potential beneficial effects from TENS during weaning from EDA after open, lower abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Epidural analgesia during open radical prostatectomy does not improve long-term cancer-related outcome: a retrospective study in patients with advanced prostate cancer.

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    Patrick Y Wuethrich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A beneficial effect of regional anesthesia on cancer related outcome in various solid tumors has been proposed. The data on prostate cancer is conflicting and reports on long-term cancer specific survival are lacking. METHODS: In a retrospective, single-center study, outcomes of 148 consecutive patients with locally advanced prostate cancer pT3/4 who underwent retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP with general anesthesia combined with intra- and postoperative epidural analgesia (n=67 or with postoperative ketorolac-morphine analgesia (n=81 were reviewed. The median observation time was 14.00 years (range 10.87-17.75 yrs. Biochemical recurrence (BCR-free, local and distant recurrence-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier technique. Multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to analyze clinicopathologic variables associated with disease progression and death. RESULTS: The survival estimates for BCR-free, local and distant recurrence-free, cancer-specific survival and overall survival did not differ between the two groups (P=0.64, P=0.75, P=0.18, P=0.32 and P=0.07. For both groups, higher preoperative PSA (hazard ratio (HR 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.01-1.02, P<0.0001, increased specimen Gleason score (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.06-1.46, P=0.007 and positive nodal status (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.03-2.67, P=0.04 were associated with higher risk of BCR. Increased specimen Gleason score predicted death from prostate cancer (HR 2.46, 95% CI 1.65-3.68, P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: General anaesthesia combined with epidural analgesia did not reduce the risk of cancer progression or improve survival after RRP for prostate cancer in this group of patients at high risk for disease progression with a median observation time of 14.00 yrs.

  5. Considerações sobre analgesia controlada pelo paciente em hospital universitário Consideraciones sobre analgesia controlada por el paciente en hospital universitario Patient controlled analgesia in a university hospital

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    Guilherme Antônio Moreira de Barros

    2003-02-01

    ás utilizado (54,2%, siendo la vía peridural la que tiene preferencia (49,5%. La escala numérica verbal media fue de 0,8 (0-10. Los efectos colaterales ocurrieron en 22,4% de los enfermos tratados. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados fueron considerados excelentes en lo que se refiere a la calidad de la analgesia, no obstante con ocurrencia de efectos colaterales indeseables, siendo que hubo buena aceptación de la técnica de analgesia por las clínicas atendidas.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The rapid development seen in recent years in surgical and anesthetic techniques allowed for an increased indication of invasive procedures. At the same time, with the aging of the population, the postoperative recovery period became the focus of major concern for the healthcare team. For such, new analgesic techniques were developed, among them, Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA. In Brazil, the Acute Pain Service (SEDA of the Anesthesiology Department, Botucatu Medical School - UNESP, has been using PCA for many years. Aiming at verifying the quality of the service provided, this research has evaluated the efficacy and safety of the technique, in addition to identifying and characterizing patients submitted to PCA. METHODS: Participated in this retrospective study 679 patients treated by SEDA with the PCA method only, during a 3-year period. Patients were randomly included in the study with no restrictions concerning age, gender and type of surgery, considering only the possibility of PCA. The following parameters were evaluated: gender, age, type of surgery, pain score, treatment duration, analgesic drugs used, administration route, side effects and complications. RESULTS: The PCA technique was used in 3.96% of patients submitted to surgical procedures and in 1.64% of all hospitalized patients. Thoracic surgeries were the most frequent procedures and accounted for 25% of patients. Morphine was the most commonly used analgesics (54.2% and the epidural route was the most frequent route of

  6. Comparative evaluation of continuous intercostal nerve block or epidural analgesia on the rate of respiratory complications, intensive care unit, and hospital stay following traumatic rib fractures: a retrospective review.

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    Britt, Todd; Sturm, Ryan; Ricardi, Rick; Labond, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic trauma accounts for 10%-15% of all trauma admissions. Rib fractures are the most common injury following blunt thoracic trauma. Epidural analgesia improves patient outcomes but is not without problems. The use of continuous intercostal nerve blockade (CINB) may offer superior pain control with fewer side effects. This study's objective was to compare the rate of pulmonary complications when traumatic rib fractures were treated with CINB vs epidurals. A hospital trauma registry provided retrospective data from 2008 to 2013 for patients with 2 or more traumatic rib fractures. All subjects were admitted and were treated with either an epidural or a subcutaneously placed catheter for continuous intercostal nerve blockade. Our primary outcome was a composite of either pneumonia or respiratory failure. Secondary outcomes included total hospital days, total ICU days, and days on the ventilator. 12.5% (N=8) of the CINB group developed pneumonia or had respiratory failure compared to 16.3% (N=7) in the epidural group. No statistical difference (P=0.58) in the incidence of pneumonia or vent dependent respiratory failure was observed. There was a significant reduction (P=0.05) in hospital days from 9.72 (SD 9.98) in the epidural compared to 6.98 (SD 4.67) in the CINB group. The rest of our secondary outcomes showed no significant difference. This study did not show a difference in the rate of pneumonia or ventilator-dependent respiratory failure in the CINB vs epidural groups. It was not sufficiently powered. Our data supports a reduction in hospital days when CINB is used vs epidural. CINB may have advantages over epidurals such as fewer complications, fewer contraindications, and a shorter time to placement. Further studies are needed to confirm these statements.

  7. Comparative evaluation of continuous intercostal nerve block or epidural analgesia on the rate of respiratory complications, intensive care unit, and hospital stay following traumatic rib fractures: a retrospective review

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    Britt T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Todd Britt, Ryan Sturm, Rick Ricardi, Virginia Labond Department of Emergency Medicine, Genesys Regional Medical Center, Grand Blanc, MI, USA Background: Thoracic trauma accounts for 10%–15% of all trauma admissions. Rib fractures are the most common injury following blunt thoracic trauma. Epidural analgesia improves patient outcomes but is not without problems. The use of continuous intercostal nerve blockade (CINB may offer superior pain control with fewer side effects. This study's objective was to compare the rate of pulmonary complications when traumatic rib fractures were treated with CINB vs epidurals. Methods: A hospital trauma registry provided retrospective data from 2008 to 2013 for patients with 2 or more traumatic rib fractures. All subjects were admitted and were treated with either an epidural or a subcutaneously placed catheter for continuous intercostal nerve blockade. Our primary outcome was a composite of either pneumonia or respiratory failure. Secondary outcomes included total hospital days, total ICU days, and days on the ventilator. Results: 12.5% (N=8 of the CINB group developed pneumonia or had respiratory failure compared to 16.3% (N=7 in the epidural group. No statistical difference (P=0.58 in the incidence of pneumonia or vent dependent respiratory failure was observed. There was a significant reduction (P=0.05 in hospital days from 9.72 (SD 9.98 in the epidural compared to 6.98 (SD 4.67 in the CINB group. The rest of our secondary outcomes showed no significant difference. Conclusion: This study did not show a difference in the rate of pneumonia or ventilator-dependent respiratory failure in the CINB vs epidural groups. It was not sufficiently powered. Our data supports a reduction in hospital days when CINB is used vs epidural. CINB may have advantages over epidurals such as fewer complications, fewer contraindications, and a shorter time to placement. Further studies are needed to confirm these statements

  8. 罗哌卡因与布比卡因硬膜外自控镇痛的比较研究%Comparison of Ropivacaine and Bupivacaine for Postoperative Patient- controlled Epidural Analgesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建設; 陳仲清; 廖志婕

    2002-01-01

    Objective To compare the characteristics of ropivacaine with bupivacaine for postoperative patient-controlled epidural analgesia(PCEA).Method Sixty epidural anesthesia patients (ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ ) scheduled for low abdominalsurgery were divided into two groups randomly to receive 0.125% ropivacaine or0.125% bupivacaine for postoperative patient-controlled epidural analgesia respectively. A bolus doses of 5ml with 30min lockout and a continuous dose of 2ml/h weregiven within 48 hours after surgery. Analgesic efficacy was assessed using 100mm visual analog pain scores (VAS) ,and motorblock was assessed using Bromage score. Volume of the epidural infusion and number of patients requesting supplementaryanalgesics were recorded. Result There were no significant differences between groups in pain scores, volume of the epiduralinfusion and number of patients requesting supplementary analgesics (P > 0.05). But there was higher incidence of zeroBromage score at some time and mobilization recovered more quickly in ropivacaine group. Conclusion Comparing withbupivacaine,0. 125 % ropivacaine may produce equivalent anaglesia, less motor block and early recovery of mobilization forpostoperative (PCEA).

  9. The effect of adding a background infusion to patient-controlled epidural labor analgesia on labor, maternal, and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesen, Michael; Böhmer, Johannes; Klöhr, Sven; Hofmann, Thomas; Rossaint, Rolf; Straube, Sebastian

    2015-07-01

    Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) has gained popularity, but it is still unclear whether adding a background infusion confers any benefit. A systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, LILACS, CENTRAL, Clinicaltrials.gov, and ISI WOS was performed to identify randomized controlled double-blind trials that compare PCEA-only with PCEA combined with a continuous infusion (PCEA + CI) in parturients. The data were subjected to meta-analyses using the random-effects model. Our primary outcome was the incidence of instrumental vaginal delivery. Secondary outcomes were incidences of spontaneous vaginal and cesarean deliveries, duration of labor, analgesic outcomes, maternal outcomes (visual analog scale scores for pain, maternal satisfaction, nausea, pruritus, hypotension), and neonatal outcomes (Apgar score, umbilical artery pH). We identified 7 trials with a low risk of bias, reporting on 891 parturients, for inclusion in our systematic review. The risk of instrumental vaginal delivery was increased in the PCEA + CI group, risk ratio (RR) 1.66 (95% confidence interval 1.08-2.56, P = 0.02; I = 0%); the RR for cesarean delivery was 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.61-1.13, I = 0%). The second stage of labor was prolonged (weighted mean difference 12.3 minutes, 95% confidence interval 5.1-19.5 minutes, P = 0.0008; I = 0%) in the PCEA + CI group. Fewer patients in the PCEA + CI group required physician-administered boluses (RR 0.35 [95% confidence interval 0.25-0.47, P neonatal outcomes (Apgar scores analgesia. Further high-quality studies involving a sufficient number of patients are required.

  10. Comparison of influence of high thoracic epidural anesthesia and central analgesia on hemodynamic during on-bypass coronary artery bypass grafting

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    V. A. Sobokar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Despite some advantages, the use of high thoracic epidural anesthesia (HTEA during cardiac operations may be discouraged by fear of adverse hemodynamic effects. Aim. To compare the hemodynamic effects of HTEA and central analgesia (CA during on-bypass CABG. Methods. 132 patients were assigned into two groups – study group (n = 85, where the surgery was carried out under HTEA and control group (n = 47 - where the surgery was carried out under CA. Data of the intraoperative monitoring and trans-oesophageal cardiac ultrasound - cardiac index (CI, stroke index (SI, ejection fraction (EF and index of systemic vascular resistance (ISVR were obtained. Results. After induction and sternotomy patients in the study group had higher EF - 57(53, 65% vs 54 ± 7% (p = 0,013 and 55 ± 8 vs 52 ± 9%, (p = 0,031. After sternotomy CI and SI in the study group were also higher, respectively 2,42 (2,0;3,1 vs 2,23±0,63 l · min-1 · m-2, (p = 0,041 and 43 (34;46 vs 37±10 ml · m-2 (p = 0.014. Conclusion. We concluded that HTEA has advantages over CA by its influence on hemodynamics.

  11. Estimation of infant dose and exposure to pethidine and norpethidine via breast milk following patient-controlled epidural pethidine for analgesia post caesarean delivery.

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    Al-Tamimi, Y; Ilett, K F; Paech, M J; O'Halloran, S J; Hartmann, P E

    2011-04-01

    There is no information about the distribution of pethidine into breast milk and/or exposure of the breastfed infant during pethidine patient-controlled epidural analgesia after caesarean delivery. We conducted an observational study among 20 women. The mean (95% confidence interval) pethidine dose administered was 670 (346-818) mg over 41 (35-46) h. Maternal plasma and milk and neonatal plasma were collected near the time of pethidine cessation and 6h later. Absolute and relative infant doses via milk and infant exposure were calculated. Infant behaviour was assessed using the Neurologic and Adaptive Capacity Score. At first and second sampling times, mean absolute infant doses for pethidine were 20 (14-27) μg/kg/day and 10 (7-13) μg/kg/day, while mean relative infant doses were 0.7 (0.1-1.4)% and 0.3 (0.1-0.5)% respectively. Similar values for norpethidine (expressed as pethidine equivalents) were 21 (16-26) μg/kg/day and 22 (12-32) μg/kg/day; and 0.7 (0.3-1)% and 0.6 (0.2-1)% respectively. Mean pethidine and norpethidine concentrations in neonatal plasma were 3 (0-6.1) μg/L and 0.6 (0.2-1) μg/L. Compared with a time-matched maternal sample, the infant's exposure was 1.4 (0.2-2.8)% for pethidine and 0.4 (0.2-0.6)% for norpethidine. The mean (95% confidence interval) neurologic and adaptive capacity score was 33.6 (32.2-34.9). The combined absolute infant dose of pethidine and norpethidine received via milk was 1.8% of the neonatal therapeutic dose and the combined relative infant dose was below the 10% recommended safety level. Breastfed infants are at low risk of drug exposure when mothers self-administer epidural pethidine after caesarean delivery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preemptive Epidural Analgesia for Postoperative Pain Relief Revisited: Comparison of Combination of Buprenorphine and Neostigmine with Combination of Buprenorphine and Ketamine in Lower Abdominal Surgeries, A Double-blind Randomized Trial.

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    Choubey, Sanjay; Singh, Raj Bahadur

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative pain relief provides subjective comfort to patient in addition to blunting of autonomic and somatic reflex responses to pain, subsequently enhancing restoration of function by allowing the patient to breathe, cough, and move easily. The aim is to evaluate and compare the effects of neostigmine + buprenorphine and ketamine + buprenorphine for preemptive epidural analgesia for postoperative pain relief in patients undergoing abdominal surgeries under general anesthesia (GA). A double-blind randomized trial. A total of 60 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Classes I and II patients undergoing abdominal surgeries under GA were taken up for the study. They were randomly allocated into two groups, Group A and Group B of thirty patients each. Preemptive epidural analgesia for postoperative pain relief was provided by a combination of neostigmine 1 μg/kg + buprenorphine 2 μg/kg in Group A patients and ketamine 1 mg/kg + buprenorphine 2 μg/kg in Group B patients after induction of GA but before surgical incision. Postoperatively, vital parameters, pain score, requirement of top up doses, and side effects in the two groups were observed and recorded at 2, 4, 6, 10, 18, and 22 h. Mean values within each of the Group A and Group B were compared using one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA). Mean values between Group A and Group B were compared using double analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA). Group A patients had a significant analgesia (visual analog scale [VAS] pain scores reduced significantly from 54.6 ± 6.3 at 2 h to 8.1 ± 8.9 at 22 h postoperatively). Group B patients had significant analgesia too (VAS pain scores reduced significantly from 36 ± 12.5 at 2 h to 5.3 ± 10.9 at 22 h postoperatively). There was however no significant difference between the two groups with respect to the degree of postoperative analgesia on comparison of VAS scores, effect on vital parameters, and incidence of side effects. Either of the two

  13. Clonidina e dexmedetomidina por via peridural para analgesia e sedação pós-operatória de colecistectomia Clonidina y dexmedetomidina por vía peridural para analgesia y sedación pós-operatoria de colecistectomía Epidural clonidine or dexmedetomidine for post-cholecystectomy analgesia and sedation

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    Antônio Mauro Vieira

    2004-08-01

    local anesthetic effects when epidurally administered. The goal of this study was to evaluate the analgesia and sedation promoted by clonidine or dexmedetomidine associated to epidural ropivacaine, in the postoperative period of subcostal cholecystectomy. METHODS: Forty patients of both gender participated in this randomized double-blind study , aged 18 to 50 years, weighing 50 to 100 kg, physical status ASA I or II, submitted to subcostal cholecystectomy. The subjects were distributed in two groups: Clonidine (CG, receiving clonidine (1 mL = 150 µg associated to 0.75% epidural ropivacaine (20 mL; Dexmedetomidine (DG, receiving dexmedetomidine (2 µg.kg-1 associated to 0.75% epidural ropivacaine (20 mL. Analgesia and sedation were evaluated 2, 6 and 24 hours anesthetic recovery. RESULTS: Both groups present some grade of sedation in the moments 2 and 6 hours , with statistically significant difference between the two moments for the dexmedetomidine group. There has been analgesia in both groups, especially at 2 and 6 hours. There have been statistically significant difference among periods of 2, 6 and 24 hours in the dexmedetomidine group; in the clonidine group, this statistically significant difference was observed between the periods of 2 and 6 hours and between 2 and 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Our results allowed to conclude that the association of clonidine or dexmedetomidine to 0.75% ropivacaine induces analgesia and sedation in 2 and 6 hours after anesthetic recovery in patients submitted to subcostal cholecystectomy and that clonidine promotes more prolonged analgesia.

  14. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PREEMPTIVE USE OF 0.2% ROPIVACAINE AND 0.125% BUPIVACAINE ALONG WITH FENTANYL AND FENTANYL INCREMENTS TO PROVIDE POSTOPERATIVE EPIDURAL ANALGESIA UP TO 24 HOURS

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    Chiranji Lal Khedia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The present study was carried out to compare duration of analgesia, haemodynamic changes (Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure, Pulse Rate, Respiratory Rate, total incremental doses of epidural fentanyl required to maintain VAS 3 up to 24 hours in each group and total required incremental fentanyl doses were compared between both the groups. Once the data were collected from all the patients, they were compared using, chi-square test, two sample t-test. The p-value was calculated and P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS The duration of analgesia was more with Group BF (245+17.58 min. than Group RF (217.6+22.41 min., thus it is concluded that difference in duration of analgesia was statistically significant between the groups (P<0.05. In this study, it was noticed that patients of Group RF required much more incremental doses of epidural fentanyl (218+31.88 μg to maintain VAS<3 up to 24 hours than group BF (170+32.27 μg, and difference was statistically significant (P<0.05. Haemodynamic parameters like SBP, DBP, HR and RR were comparable in both the groups. Hypotension and bradycardia were noted in two patients of group BF. CONCLUSION Duration of analgesia was longer and comparatively better in group BF and less incremental doses were required to maintain VAS <3 up to 24 hours as compared to group RF, but haemodynamic stability was more in group RF as compared to group BF.

  15. Effect of Epidural Analgesia with Morphine and Bupivacaine in Patients after Receiving Prostatectomy%吗啡布比卡因对前列腺术后镇痛的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙家庆 孙家庆; 赵荣莉; 陈家存; 晁亮; 张忠信

    2001-01-01

    To observe the analgesic effects of morphine and bupivacaine for the patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) after prostatectomy. Methods: 21 patients after receiving prostatectomy were treated with PCEA including morphine and bupivacaine, and 24 patients were treated with routine analgesia as control. The effects of analgesia with visual analogue scale (VAS) were evaluated indirectly, and episodes of bl adder spasm were recoreded. Results: The effects of PCEA on postoperative analgesia and controlling bladder spasm were much better than that of routine analgesia. Conclusion: Effects of morphine and bupivacaine used in PCEA for post-prostatectomy analgesia are confirmed adm inistration is slimple. Because of their dosage is smalller and side effects are fewer, this treating protocol is beneficial for the recovery of the patients re ceiving prostatectomy.%目的:观察吗啡、布比卡因用于硬膜外自控镇痛(PCEA)在前列腺术后的镇痛效果。方法:21例前列腺切除患者术后以吗啡、布比卡因进行 PCEA治疗,取一般情况与 PCEA组类似的 24例前列腺患者术后行常规镇痛,术后以疼痛视觉模拟评分 (VAS) 间接评估镇痛,记录膀胱痉挛发生情况。结果:PCEA组术后 VAS 评分及控制膀胱痉挛的发生明显优于常规镇痛组。结论:吗啡、布比卡因通过 PCEA技术用于前列腺术后镇痛,效果确切、简单方便、用药量小、副作用少,有利于术后恢复。

  16. COMPARISON BETWEEN FENTANYL 2 μG/mL VERSUS DEXMEDETOMIDINE 1.5 μG/mL AS ADJUVANTS WITH ISOBARIC BUPIVACAINE 0.0625% IN EPIDURAL LABOUR ANALGESIA

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    Karuna Harsoor

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Low-dose bupivacaine with opioids like fentanyl have been used traditionally as an adjunct for epidural labour analgesia, but has side effects like pruritus, urinary retention, nausea, vomiting, etc. Dexmedetomidine, an α-2 adrenergic agonist with a high placental retention, decreased sympathetic outflow and norepinephrine release thereby causing sedation, anxiolysis, analgesia, sympatholysis and maternal haemodynamic stability. Hence, this study was carried out to compare dexmedetomidine and fentanyl as adjuvants in epidural labour analgesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective randomised, double-blind study was conducted in 60 term parturients in active labour of ASA I and II physical status. They were randomised into 2 groups with 30 parturients in each and received 15 mL of 0.0625% Inj. Bupivacaine plus either 1.5 μg/mL Inj. Dexmedetomidine (BD group or 2 μg/mL Inj. Fentanyl (BF group. VAS, sedation scores, modified four grade Bromage scale, haemodynamics, peripheral oxygen saturation were recorded at baseline and regular intervals. When VAS was ≥4, subsequent doses of 5 mL of the respective group drug was administered. Parturients were ambulated when Bromage scale was 0 with no postural hypotension. Duration of analgesia, labour outcome, neonatal Apgar scores and side effects were noted. RESULTS Demography and haemodynamic stability were similar and comparable. Duration of analgesia was significantly longer in BD group (131.83±45.760 than BF group (85.33±22.512 (p<0.0001. More no. of top-ups was needed in BF group (1.80±1.518 than BD group (0.17±0.461 (p<0.0001. Significantly reduced VAS scores was observed in BD group than BF group. Mean sedation scores (p<0.05 and maximum Bromage scores (p=0.004 were significantly higher in BD group than BF group. Ambulation was less in BD group (3 parturients than BF group (26 parturients. Side effects were significantly more in BF group than BD group (p=0.007. The labour outcomes

  17. Fosaprepitant versus ondansetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients who undergo gynecologic abdominal surgery with patient-controlled epidural analgesia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Tomohiro; Kume, Katsuyoshi; Kakuta, Nami; Hamaguchi, Eisuke; Tsutsumi, Rie; Kawanishi, Ryosuke; Fukuta, Kohei; Tanaka, Katsuya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M

    2015-10-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is the most common postoperative complication. The postoperative use of opioids is known to increase the incidence. We compared fosaprepitant, a neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist, and ondansetron for their preventive effects on PONV in patients who underwent gynecologic abdominal surgery with patient-controlled epidural analgesia. This prospective, double-blind, randomized study comprised 44 patients who underwent gynecologic abdominal surgery. They were randomly allocated to receive 150 mg intravenous fosaprepitant (n = 24; NKI group) or 4 mg ondansetron (n = 20; ONS group) before anesthesia, which was maintained with volatile anesthetics, remifentanil, fentanyl, and rocuronium. All patients received postoperative fentanyl by patient-controlled epidural anesthesia. The incidence of nausea and vomiting, complete response rate (i.e., no vomiting and no rescue antiemetic use), rescue antiemetic use, nausea score (0-3), and visual analog scale score (VAS 0-10) for pain were recorded at 2, 24, 48, and 72 h after surgery. No (0 %) patient in the NKI group experienced vomiting after surgery; however, 4-6 (20-30 %) of 20 patients in the ONS group experienced vomiting. This difference was significant at 0-24, 0-48, and 0-72 h. During the study period, no significant differences existed between the NK1 and ONS groups in the incidence of PONV, complete response rate, rescue antiemetic use, nausea score, and VAS score for pain. Compared to ondansetron, fosaprepitant more effectively decreased the incidence of vomiting in patients who underwent gynecologic abdominal surgery with patient-controlled epidural analgesia.

  18. Labour analgesia: Recent advances

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    Pandya, Sunil T

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the field of labour analgesia have tread a long journey from the days of ether and chloroform in 1847 to the present day practice of comprehensive programme of labour pain management using evidence-based medicine. Newer advances include introduction of newer techniques like combined spinal epidurals, low-dose epidurals facilitating ambulation, pharmacological advances like introduction of remifentanil for patient-controlled intravenous analgesia, introduction of newer local anaesthetics and adjuvants like ropivacaine, levobupivacaine, sufentanil, clonidine and neostigmine, use of inhalational agents like sevoflourane for patient-controlled inhalational analgesia using special vaporizers, all have revolutionized the practice of pain management in labouring parturients. Technological advances like use of ultrasound to localize epidural space in difficult cases minimizes failed epidurals and introduction of novel drug delivery modalities like patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) pumps and computer-integrated drug delivery pumps have improved the overall maternal satisfaction rate and have enabled us to customize a suitable analgesic regimen for each parturient. Recent randomized controlled trials and Cochrane studies have concluded that the association of epidurals with increased caesarean section and long-term backache remains only a myth. Studies have also shown that the newer, low-dose regimes do not have a statistically significant impact on the duration of labour and breast feeding and also that these reduce the instrumental delivery rates thus improving maternal and foetal safety. Advances in medical technology like use of ultrasound for localizing epidural space have helped the clinicians to minimize the failure rates, and many novel drug delivery modalities like PCEA and computer-integrated PCEA have contributed to the overall maternal satisfaction and safety. PMID:21189877

  19. Analgesia preemptiva com S(+cetamina e bupivacaína peridural em histerectomia abdominal Analgesia preemptiva con S(+cetamina y bupivacaína peridural en histerectomía abdominal Preemptive analgesia with epidural bupivacaine and S(+ketamine in abdominal hysterectomy

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    Ferdinand Edson de Castro

    2005-02-01

    fue posible demostrar efecto preemptivo con la utilización peridural de S(+cetamina y bupivacaína en las dosis utilizadas en histerectomía abdominal.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the ability of epidural S(+ketamine, NMDA receptor antagonist, plus local anesthetic (bupivacaine injection to promote preemptive analgesia in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy, when this solution is administered before surgical incision. METHODS: Participated in this prospective double-blind study 30 patients were randomly assigned in two equal groups. Epidural injection and catheter insertion were performed at L1-L2 interspace. Group 1 (G1 patients received 17 mL bupivacaine 0.25% plus 3 mL S(+ketamine (30 mg, 30 min before surgical incision, followed by 20 mL saline 30 min after incision. Group 2 (G2 patients received 20 mL saline 30 min before surgical incision, followed by 17 mL bupivacaine 0.25% plus 3 mL S(+ketamine (30 mg 30 min after incision. General anesthesia was induced with propofol, pancuronium, O2 and isoflurane. Postoperative analgesia consisted of epidural fentanyl plus bupivacaine bolus with 4h minimal interval. If necessary, IV dipyrone supplementation was administered. Patients were evaluated for analgesia by a verbal and numeric scale (at recovery and every six hours until 24 postoperative hours. Time to first analgesic request and total analgesic requirements were recorded. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups in time to first analgesic request, total analgesic consumption and numeric or verbal scale pain scores. CONCLUSIONS: This study failed to demonstrate a preemptive effect of epidural administration of bupivacaine and S(+ketamine in the doses tested for abdominal hysterectomy.

  20. Levobupivacaine for epidural anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia in hip surgery: a multi-center efficacy and safety equivalence study with bupivacaine and ropivacaine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, T.; Fichtner, A.; Schwemmer, U.; Standl, T.; Volk, T.; Engelhard, K.; Stevens, M. F.; Putzke, C.; Scholz, J.; Zenz, M.; Motsch, J.; Hempel, V.; Heinrichs, A.; Zwissler, B.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this randomized, single blind phase IIIb study was to evaluate the efficacy of 0.5% levobupivacaine versus 0.5% bupivacaine and 0.75% ropivacaine administered as epidural anesthesia and 0.125% levobupivacaine versus 0.125% bupivacaine and 0.2% ropivacaine for

  1. Transplacental transfer and neonatal influences of sonophoretically administered sufentanil versus epidural sufentanil in labor peridural analgesia: A randomized prospective double-blind contemplate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riham Hussein Saleh

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Sufentanil transplacental transport and fetal exposure appeared greater in epidural than in sonophoretic sufentanil. The former group women were facing more difficulty at starting breast-feeding on postpartum day 1 and were more apt to have stopped breast-feeding 6 weeks postpartum than the latter group women.

  2. Effect of epidural butorphanol-bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia after abdominal hysterectomy%硬膜外布托啡诺联合布比卡因用于子宫切除术术后镇痛的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊峰; 顾国华

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价布托啡诺联合布比卡因用于妇科子宫切除术术后硬膜外镇痛的效应.方法 60例连续硬膜外麻醉下行子宫切除手术患者,依术后硬膜外镇痛用药不同,随机分为3组,每组20例.A组:布托啡诺2 mg用生理盐水稀释至10 ml;B组:布托啡诺2 mg复合0.125%布比卡因10 ml;C组:布托啡诺2 mg复合0.25%布比卡因10 ml.记录上述各组术后2、6、24 h的视觉模拟评分(VAS)、镇痛起效时间、持续时间及不良反应发生情况.结果 B、C两组术后镇痛起效时间明显短于A组(P<0.05),镇痛持续时间明显长于A组(P<0.05),术后6、24 h VAS评分,B、C两组明显低于A组(P<0.05),三组呼吸抑制及恶心、呕吐的发生情况比较差异无统计学意义.结论 布托啡诺2 mg联合0.125%布比卡因用于妇科子宫切除手术术后硬膜外镇痛,较单独使用布托啡诺起效快、镇痛持续时间长.%Objective To evalatue the efficacy of epidural butorphanol with and without bupivacaine in postoperative analgesia following abdominal hysterectomy. Methods Sixty patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy were randomly divided into three groups during the postoperative period to receive one of three epidural regimens:2 mg of butorphanol in 10 ml of normal saline (group A), 2 mg of butorphanol in 10 ml of 0.125% bupivacaine (group B), or 2 mg of butorphanol in 10 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine (group C).The visual analog scales(VAS),onset and duration of analgesia, frequency and severity of respiratory depression,nausea and vomiting for 24 hours were recorded. Results The addition of butorphanol to bupivacaine resulted in significantly (P<0.05) faster onset of pain relief. The duration of analgesia was prolonged in patients receiving butorphanol with bupivacaine combination as compared with butorphanol alone (P<0.05). The differences between group B and group C were not significant. Conclusions Addition of 2 mg of butorphanol to 0.125% of epidural bupivacaine

  3. Labor analgesia in parturients of fetal growth restriction having raised umbilical Doppler vascular indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhen Samanta

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Continuous epidural ropivacaine causes improved fetoplacental circulation in parturients with growth-restricted fetuses having raised Doppler indices during labor analgesia. We also found better neonatal outcome with continuous infusion of epidural ropivacaine as compared to IM tramadol.

  4. Epidural block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000484.htm Epidural block - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An epidural block is a numbing medicine given by injection (shot) ...

  5. Analgesia pós-operatória em correção cirúrgica de pé torto congênito: comparação entre bloqueio nervoso periférico e bloqueio peridural caudal Analgesia postoperatoria en corrección quirúrgica de pie jorobado congénito: comparación entre bloqueo nervioso periférico y bloqueo epidural caudal Postoperative analgesia for the surgical correction of congenital clubfoot: comparison between peripheral nerve block and caudal epidural block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Rossi Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    con dolor postoperatorio intenso. La técnica más utilizada en niños es la epidural caudal asociada a la anestesia general. Posee la limitante de una corta duración de la analgesia postoperatoria. Los bloqueos de nervios periféricos han sido indicados como procedimientos con una baja incidencia de complicaciones y un tiempo prolongado de analgesia. El objetivo del estudio actual, fue comparar el tiempo de analgesia de los bloqueos nerviosos periféricos y del bloqueo caudal y el consumo de morfina, en las primeras 24 horas después de la corrección de PJC en niños. MÉTODO: Estudio randómico doble ciego, en niños sometidos a la intervención quirúrgica para liberación posteromedial de PJC, ubicadas en cuatro grupos conforme a la técnica anestésica: caudal (ACa; bloqueos isquiático y femoral (IF; bloqueos isquiático y safeno (IS; bloqueo isquiático y anestesia local (IL, asociados a la anestesia general. En las primeras 24 horas, los pacientes recibieron dipirona y paracetamol vía oral y fueron evaluados por un anestesiólogo que no conocía la técnica usada. Conforme a las puntuaciones de la escala CHIPPS (Children's and infants postoperative pain scale, se administraba morfina vía oral (0,19 mg.kg-1 por día. RESULTADOS: Fueron estudiados 118 niños distribuidos en los grupos ACa (30, IF (32, IS (28 IL (28. El tiempo promedio entre el bloqueo y la primera dosis de morfina fue de 6,16 horas en el grupo ACa, 7,05 horas en el IF, 7,58 horas en el IS y 8,18 horas en el IL. El consumo de morfina fue de 0,3 mg.kg-1 por día en los cuatro grupos. No hubo diferencia significativa entre los grupos. CONCLUSIONES: Los bloqueos nerviosos periféricos no promovieron un tiempo más elevado de analgesia, ni tampoco una reducción en el consumo de morfina en las primeras 24 horas, en niños sometidos a la corrección de PJC cuando se les comparó con el bloqueo epidural caudal.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Correction of congenital clubfoot (CCF is associated with

  6. Immediate and prolonged effects of pre- versus postoperative epidural analgesia with bupivacaine and morphine on pain at rest and during mobilisation after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Daugaard, J J; Rasmussen, B

    1994-01-01

    with bupivacaine 7.5 mg.ml-1, 2 ml. General anaesthesia was induced with thiopentone, pancuronium or atracurium, and fentanyl 0.1-0.3 mg, and maintained with N2O/O2 and enflurane. The epidural regimen consisted of a bolus of 16 ml of bupivacaine 7.5 mg.ml-1 plus morphine 2 mg, and continuous infusion...... of bupivacaine 1.25 mg.ml-1 plus morphine 0.05 mg.ml-1, 4 ml.h-1 for the first 24 h, and bupivacaine 0.625 mg.ml-1 plus morphine 0.05 mg.ml-1, 4 ml.h-1, for the next 24 h after operation. Additional morphine 2.5-5 mg was administered i.v. or i.m. for the first 24 h postoperatively, and ketobemidone or morphine 5...

  7. Analgesia obstétrica farmacológica: um estudo sobre os desfechos obstétricos e neonatais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruanna Lorna Vieira Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the association between pharmacological obstetric analgesia and obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Methods: it was a retrospective case-control study conducted with 393 pregnant women comprising 131 cases of pharmacological obstetric analgesia and 262 controls that did not perform this procedure. The sociodemographic and obstetric profile, the circumstances of parturient admission, obstetrical decisions, and obstetric and neonatal outcomes were investigated. Results: pregnant women submitted to pharmacological analgesia during labor presented an increased risk for the use of exogenous oxytocin (p<0.001, episiotomy (p=0.001, Kristeller maneuver (p=0.036, and forceps (p=0.004. Conclusion: pharmacological analgesia does not increase the risk of spontaneous perineal tear, abdominal delivery, and hospitalization in neonatal unit. Nevertheless, it influences the increased risk of synthetic oxytocin use, Kristeller maneuver, episiotomy, forceps, and the occurrence of lower first-minute Apgar scores.

  8. Effects of patient controlled epidural analgesia on gastrointestinal function recovery after operation%自控硬膜外镇痛对术后胃肠功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦再生; 张福明; 唐建军; 王玉珍

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) with morphine and bupivacaine on gastrointestinal function recovery after operation. Methods Two-hundred and forty patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery were divided into 5 groups, and patients in groupsⅠto Ⅲ received PCEA with bupivacaine and morphine postoperatively, while patients in groups Ⅳ and Ⅴ received no analgesia after operation. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) 24 h after the operation was adopted and the time of first flatus noted. Results For upper abdominal surgery, the effects of PCEA with bupivacaine combined with morphine were better than that with bupivacaine alone, while for lower abdominal surgery, bupivacaine alone was enough. PCEA with bupivacaine and morphine did not delay the time of first flatus after surgery. Conclusion PCEA with bupivacaine and morphine do not delay the time for gastrointestinal function recovery in patients.%目的 观察术后病人应用自控硬膜外镇痛(PCEA)的镇痛效应及其对胃肠功能的影响。方法 将240例腹部手术病人随机分为5组,Ⅰ~Ⅲ组病人术后应用不同药物配方和剂量的PCEA,Ⅳ、Ⅴ组病人术后无镇痛,记录其术后24 h视觉模拟评分(Visual analogue scale,VAS)及首次肛门排气时间。结果 对于上腹部手术,术后 PCEA联合用吗啡和布比卡因效果较好;对于下腹部手术,术后单用布比卡因PCEA即可。全部病人术后首次肛门排气时间无显著延长。结论 对于60岁以下的病人,术后适量吗啡、布比卡因PCEA效果好,不延长术后胃肠功能恢复的时间。

  9. SEGMENTAL EPIDURAL ANAESTHESIA FOR INGUINAL HERNIA REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachidanand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidural anaesthesia is suitable as a sole agent for lower abdominal surgery and surgery on lower limbs. It has some definite advantages over spinal anaesthesia like avoidance of post spinal headache, minimal chances of meningitis, and minimal chances of nausea and vomiting in postoperative period. But administration of conventional dosage of local epidural anaesthetics (15ml and above for surgical anaesthesia frequently results in multiple hemodynamic changes, including decreases in chronotropism, inotro pism, dromotropism, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, and myocardial oxygen consumption. The segmental epidural block denotes the use of a small volume enough to block only the segments involved in the field of surgery. AIM: To study the effect iveness of segmental epidural anaesthesia for inguinal hernia repair. DESIGN: R andomized control study. METHODS: 100 pts belonging to ASA PS I & II posted for inguinal hernia repair given 5ml of 0.5% bupivacaine through epidural route at L1 - L2 level and a fter conforming the adequacy and level of analgesia, the surgery was commenced. If the patient complained of pain during needle prick, then injected local anaesthetic (0.5% Bupivacaine with an incremental dosage of 1ml at a time, till the complete onset o f analgesia Pulse Rate and Blood Pressure were recorded at an interval of 1 minute for first 5 minutes and then every 5 minutes till the end of the surgery. Oxygen saturation and ECG monitoring was done continuously. Onset of analgesia, level of analgesia ( P re & post operatively, duration of analgesia, total dosage of local anaesthetic used were recorded. Complications like bradycardia, hypotension, respiratory depression, shivering, nausea and vomiting, sweating and inadvertent dural puncture were recorde d. RESULTS: 53% of patients had excellent quality of analgesia and relaxation. 34% patients had good quality analgesia and relaxation, mild discomfort while handling sac

  10. Penggunaan Anestesi Lokal dan Adjuvan pada Analgesi Epidural di Wilayah Jawa Barat Tahun 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Fitri Yadi

    2017-08-01

    Local Anesthetic and Adjuvan Used for Epidural Analgesia in West Java in 2015 Optimal analgesia epidural technique should promote effective pain relief with minor adverse event and major pastient satisfactory. Up till now, there was no data about local anesthetic and adjuvan agent used for epidural analgesia by anesthesiologist in Indonesia, especially in West Java. The purpose of this study to find data regarding local anesthetic and adjuvan agent used for epidural analgesia by anesthesiologist in Indonesia, especially in West Java in 2015. This research was conducted from August to September 2016 in the Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Therapy Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital in Bandung. This is a descriptive study with cross sectional approach using questionairre. Questionairre was sent to 120 anesthesiologist through mail and 30 questionairre was given to anesthesiologists worked at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Response was obtained 47.3%. This study shows that there were 73.2% anesthesiologist performed epidural analgesia in 2015. The most  local anesthetic used in epidural blockade was bupivacaine, amounted 94.23% and the most concentration is 0.125%, amounted 82%. The most used adjuvant was fentanyl, 96.9%. In Conclusion, most of the anesthesiologist used epidural as an analgesia so bupivacaine and fentanyl used most frequent Key words: Epidural analgesia, local anesthetic, adjuvan

  11. Comparative Analysis of Different Types of Analgesia in Patients after Surgical Correction of Scoliotic Spinal Deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Georgiyants

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of epidural analgesia and anesthesia using opiates after surgical interventions for spinal scoliosis in children has beem carried out. Patients were divided into 2 groups. In the first one postoperative analgesia was carried out by intramuscular injection of promedol, in second one epidural analgesia was used with the constant introduction of ropivacaine. The authors studied the effect of these techniques on hemodynamics, the analysis of the subjective perception of pain by patients.

  12. EPIDURAL ANAESTHESIA FOR SURGERY IN ADVANCED CANCER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olaleye

    adverse effects of either agent, e.g. hypotension and respiratory depression, which could have been easily precipitated during the course of surgery. Postoperative analgesia with epidural block is usually provided in the ICU or a high dependency unit (HDU), especially in developing countries with limited facilities. This is to ...

  13. Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S W; Hole, P; Haas, Inge Madsen De

    1993-01-01

    Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief is in general use, and has proved to be very efficient in adults. The epidural technique and the use of epidural morphine are much less frequent in children. For 2 years we have prospectively followed 76 children who had epidural morphine...... for postoperative pain relief after major abdominal surgery. The age distribution was from newborn to 13 years, with a median age of 12 months. It was estimated that 94% of the patients had good analgesia for the first 24 postoperative hours and no other opioids were given. The side effects were few, but one case...... the investigation. We observed a change in the sleeping pattern with an increased number of sleep-induced myoclonia during the administration of epidural morphine. In conclusion, the use of epidural morphine in children for postoperative pain relief is very efficient. The minimal effective dose has not been...

  14. Pleural puncture with thoracic epidural: A rare complication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Wadhwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Freedom from pain has almost developed to be a fundamental human right. Providing pain relief via epidural catheters in thoracic and upper abdominal surgeries is widely accepted. Pain relief through this technique not only provides continuous analgesia but also reduces post-operative pulmonary complications and also hastens recovery. But being a blind procedure it is accompanied by certain complications. Hypotension, dura puncture, high epidural, total spinal, epidural haematoma, spinal cord injury and infection are some of the documented side effects of epidural block. There are case reports eliciting neurological complications, catheter site infections, paresthesias, radicular symptoms and worsening of previous neurological conditions. Few technical problems related to breakage of epidural catheter are also mentioned in the literature. The patient had no sequelae on long term follow up even when a portion of catheter was retained. We present a case report where epidural catheter punctured pleura in a patient undergoing thoracotomy for carcinoma oesophagus.

  15. 0.0625%与0.1%布比卡因在硬膜外分娩镇痛中的效果比较%Epidural analgesia with 0.1% versus 0.062 5% bupivacaine for early labor;a comparison of analgesia effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫宇; 余大松

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the analgesic effects of 0. 062 5% and 0.1% bupivacaine on labor pain, so as to evaluate whether 0. 062 5% bupivacaine is suitable for early labor. Methods Totally 60 parturients in early active labor were recruited and randomized into two groups. All subjects received analgesic drugs via a lumbar epidural catheter. Group A: 0.1% bupivacaine plus 0. 000 2 % fentanyl; Group B: 0. 062 5 % bupivacaine plus 0.000 2% fentanyl. The analgesic requirement, visual analogue scale (VAS), motor block and obstetric outcome were compared between the two groups. Results No significant differences were found between the two groups in the total bupivecaine consumption and the percentages of subjects with anesthesia plane over T10 at 15 min (both P>0.05). More patients in group B needed additional supplements (P<0.05). Two groups achieved the same analgesic effect ( P>0.05), but more patients in group B had second stage maternal lower limb numbness compared with group A (P<0.05). Conclusion It is indicated that 0. 062 5% bupivacaine with fentanyl can be used for early labor epidural analgesia.%目的:将0.062 5%布比卡因应用于分娩镇痛,且与0.1%布比卡因的镇痛效果进行比较,进而评估在产程早期0.062 5%布比卡因是否适用.方法将60例产妇随机分为A组((0.1%布比卡因+0.0002%芬太尼)和B组((0.062 5%布比卡因+0.000 2%芬太尼),观察局部麻醉药用量、患者生命体征、疼痛缓解情况、分娩结局和不良反应等.结果:两组15 min时麻醉平面超过T10的产妇比例以及布比卡因总量的差异均无统计学意义(P值均>0.05),但B组需补充布比卡因的比例显著高于A组(P<0.05),B组有双下肢麻木感的产妇比例显著低于A组(P<0.05).结论:0.062 5%布比卡因复合芬太尼适用于产程早期的分娩镇痛.

  16. The comparative study of epidural levobupivacaine and bupivacaine in major abdominal surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Uzuner

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that same concentration of epidural levobupivacaine and bupivacaine with fentanyl provide stable postoperative analgesia and both were found safe for the patients undergoing major abdominal surgery.

  17. Audit of epidural anaesthesia services at a district hospital in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Epidural anaesthesia and analgesia is considered the 'gold standard' analgesic technique for major surgery. However, its practice is limited in most hospitals in Nigeria. The objective of this review was to determine the rate of administration of epidural anaesthesia and to review the challenges affecting its ...

  18. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  19. Epidural anesthesia: Views and outcomes of women in labor in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I-II consecutive multiparous women in labor requesting pain relief were ... epidural analgesia group were satisfied with the experience of labor than those who did not receive this form of analgesia ... although lack of patient education and awareness.

  20. Reinforcement of spinal anesthesia by epidural injection of saline: a comparison of hyperbaric and isobaric tetracaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Y; Mimura, M; Hazama, K; Namiki, A

    2000-04-25

    An epidural injection of saline was reported to extend spinal anesthesia because of a volume effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the baricity of spinal local anesthetics upon the extension of spinal anesthesia by epidural injection of saline. Forty patients undergoing elective lower-limb surgery were randomly allocated to four groups of 10 patients each. Group A received no epidural injection after the spinal administration of hyperbaric tetracaine (dissolved in 10% glucose). Group B received an epidural injection of 8 ml of physiological saline 20 min after spinal hyperbaric tetracaine. Group C received no epidural injection after spinal isobaric tetracaine (dissolved in physiological saline). Group D received an epidural injection of 8 ml of saline 20 min after spinal isobaric tetracaine. The level of analgesia was examined by the pinprick method at 5-min intervals. The levels of analgesia 20 min after spinal anesthesia were significantly higher in hyperbaric groups than in isobaric groups [T5 (T2-L2) vs. T7 (T3-12)]. After epidural injection of saline, the levels of analgesia in groups B and D were significantly higher than in groups A and C. The segmental increases after epidural saline injection were 2 (0-3) in group B and 2 (1-7) in group D. Sensation in the sacral area remained 20 min after spinal block in one patient in group D; however, it disappeared after epidural saline injection. In this study, 8 ml of epidural saline extended spinal analgesia. However, there was no difference between the augmenting effect in isobaric and hyperbaric spinal anesthesia. We conclude that the reinforcement of spinal anesthesia by epidural injection of saline is not affected by the baricity of the spinal anesthetic solution used.

  1. Reliability of pressure waveform analysis to determine correct epidural needle placement in labouring women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aamri, I; Derzi, S H; Moore, A; Elgueta, M F; Moustafa, M; Schricker, T; Tran, D Q

    2017-07-01

    Pressure waveform analysis provides a reliable confirmatory adjunct to the loss-of-resistance technique to identify the epidural space during thoracic epidural anaesthesia, but its role remains controversial in lumbar epidural analgesia during labour. We performed an observational study in 100 labouring women of the sensitivity and specificity of waveform analysis to determine the correct location of the epidural needle. After obtaining loss-of-resistance, the anaesthetist injected 5 ml saline through the epidural needle (accounting for the volume already used in the loss-of-resistance). Sterile extension tubing, connected to a pressure transducer, was attached to the needle. An investigator determined the presence or absence of a pulsatile waveform, synchronised with the heart rate, on a monitor screen that was not in the view of the anaesthetist or the parturient. A bolus of 4 ml lidocaine 2% with adrenaline 5 μg.ml -1 was administered, and the epidural block was assessed after 15 min. Three women displayed no sensory block at 15 min. The results showed: epidural block present, epidural waveform present 93; epidural block absent, epidural waveform absent 2; epidural block present, epidural waveform absent 4; epidural block absent, epidural waveform present 1. Compared with the use of a local anaesthetic bolus to ascertain the epidural space, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of waveform analysis were 95.9%, 66.7%, 98.9% and 33.3%, respectively. Epidural waveform analysis provides a simple adjunct to loss-of-resistance for confirming needle placement during performance of obstetric epidurals, however, further studies are required before its routine implementation in clinical practice. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  2. Pain relief and clinical outcome: from opioids to balanced analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1996-01-01

    If it is generally accepted that adequate postoperative pain relief will improve outcome from surgery, several controlled trials demonstrated this only for lower body surgical procedures with epidural and spinal anesthetics. Important effects on outcome were not shown when postoperative opioids...... were administered with patient controlled (PCA) or epidural techniques. However, the most optimal pain relief seems to be best achieved with balanced analgesia techniques using combinations of epidural opioids and local anesthetics and systemic non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Future efforts...... should aim at including physical rehabilitation programs in the pain treatment regimen....

  3. Analgesia and anaesthesia in childbirth: obscurantism and obfuscation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, R

    1998-07-01

    The terms 'analgesia' and 'anaesthesia' have been defined by emphasizing differing aspects of their effects. The distinction between these interventions has not been clarified by their definitions. The historical remedies for pain were similarly unclear. This lack of clarity is apparent in the introduction of chloroform in childbirth, which has much in common with the introduction and effects of epidural analgesia. The reasons for and benefits of this lack of clarity are examined.

  4. A randomised controlled trial using the Epidrum for labour epidurals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Deighan, M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of our study was to determine if using the Epidrum to site epidurals improves success and reduces morbidity. Three hundred parturients requesting epidural analgesia for labour were enrolled. 150 subjects had their epidural sited using Epidrum and 150 using standard technique. We recorded subject demographics, operator experience, number of attempts, Accidental Dural Puncture rate, rate of failure to site epidural catheter, rate of failure of analgesia, Post Dural Puncture Headache and Epidural Blood Patch rates. Failure rate in Epidrum group was 9\\/150 (6%) vs 0 (0%) in the Control group (P = 0.003). There were four (2.66%) accidental dural punctures in the Epidrum group and none in the Control group (P = 0.060), and 2 epidurals out of 150 (1.33%) in Epidrum group were re-sited, versus 3\\/150 (2%) in the control group (P = 1.000). The results of our study do not suggest that using Epidrum improves success or reduces morbidity.

  5. Epidural catheterization in cardiac surgery: The 2012 risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M Hemmerling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The risk assessment of epidural hematoma due to catheter placement in patients undergoing cardiac surgery is essential since its benefits have to be weighed against risks, such as the risk of paraplegia. We determined the risk of the catheter-related epidural hematoma in cardiac surgery based on the cases reported in the literature up to September 2012. Materials and Methods: We included all reported cases of epidural catheter placement for cardiac surgery in web and in literature from 1966 to September 2012. Risks of other medical and non-medical activities were retrieved from recent reviews or national statistical reports. Results: Based on our analysis the risk of catheter-related epidural hematoma is 1 in 5493 with a 95% confidence interval (CI of 1/970-1/31114. The risk of catheter-related epidural hematoma in cardiac surgery is similar to the risk in the general surgery population at 1 in 6,628 (95% CI 1/1,170-1/37,552. Conclusions: The present risk calculation does not justify not offering epidural analgesia as part of a multimodal analgesia protocol in cardiac surgery.

  6. Epidural lipomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quint, D.J.; Boulos, R.S.; Sanders, W.P.; Patel, S.C.; Mehta, B.A.; Tiel, R.L.; Washington, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Central deposition of fat is a well-known clinical feature of long-term elevated corticosteroid levels. Rarely described is increased extadural fat within the spinal canal causing compression of the spinal cord and neurologic deficits. Together with 12 previously reported cases, the authors present six additional cases of epidural lipomatosis, review presenting signs and symptoms, and demonstrate the myelographic, CT, and MR findings in this condition. Previously undescribed examples of (1) normal myelography with diagnostic postmyelogram CT, (2) MR imaging of this condition, and (3) cases not associated with exogenous steroid use or morbid obesity are presented. The importance of considering this entity in the appropriate clinical setting is stressed. In particular, if clinical suspicion is high, even in the setting of a normal myelogram, CT or MR imaging should be considered

  7. Comparison thoracic epidural and intercostal block to improve ventilation parameters and reduce pain in patients with multiple rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemzadeh, Shahryar; Hashemzadeh, Khosrov; Hosseinzadeh, Hamzeh; Aligholipour Maleki, Raheleh; Golzari, Samad E J; Golzari, Samad

    2011-01-01

    Chest wall blunt trauma causes multiple rib fractures and will often be associated with significant pain and may compromise ventilator mechanics. Analgesia has great roll in rib fracture therapies, opioid are useful, but when used as sole agent may require such high dose that they produce respiratory depression, especially in elderly .the best analgesia for a severe chest wall injury is a continuous epidural infusion of local anesthetic. This provides complete analgesia allowing inspiration and coughing without of the risk of respiratory depression. sixty adult patients who with multiple rib fractures were enrolled in this study. They were divided into Group A or thoracic epidural with bupivacaine 0.125 % +1mg/5ml morphine and group B or intercostal block with 0.25% bupivacaine. The patients were assessed through ICU and hospital stay length, ventilation function tests. Pain score among the patients was measured with verbal rating scale, before and after administration of the analgesia. We found a significant improvement in ventilatory function tests during the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd days after epidural analgesia compared with the intercostal block (P pain at rest and pain caused by coughing and deep breathing in group A compared group B... ICU and hospital stay markedly reduced in Group A. thoracic epidural analgesia is superior to intercostals block regarding pain relief of rib fractures. Patients who received epidural analgesia had significantly lower pain scores at all studied times.

  8. Impact of Analgesia on the Course of Spontaneous Labor in Women with Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Neimark

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to improve the results of spontaneous labor in female patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. Subjects and methods. The results of physiological labor analgesia were analyzed in 140 patients. The parturients were divided into 3 groups: 1 40 parturients in whom analgesia was performed by the intravenous administration of promedol; 2 40 parturients in whom analgesia was done by the fractional administration of 0.2% ropivacaine hydrochloride into the epidural space; 3 40 parturients in whom analgesia was carried out with intravenous paracetamol 2000—3000 mg. In all the patients, the investigators estimated central hemodynamic parameters by echocardiography, the efficiency of labor analgesia according to the scale described by N. N. Rasstrigina and B. V. Shnaider, as well as blood glucose levels, fetal status by a cardiotocographic technique, and neonatal status by Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes of life. Results. Analgesia quality assessment established that the best analgesic effect was achieved in the patients in Group 2 where 75.0% of the parturients had 8—10 scores. A comparative analysis of carbohydrate metabolic parameters also ascertained that the most steady-state and physiological glycemic level was recorded in Group 2 patients throughout the study. In addition, epidural analgesia versus other analgesic techniques provides the most steady-state hemodynamic parameters during labor, which promotes improved labor and has a beneficial effect on fetal and neonatal states. Conclusion. Glycemic levels during labor and delivery can be optimized in patients with DM only if adequate analgesia is achieved. By ensuring adequate labor analgesia, epidural analgesia normalizes glycemic and central hemodynamic parameters, favors elimination of delivery abnormalities, and has a beneficial effect on fetal and neonatal states. Key words: epidural analgesia, diabetes mellitus, spontaneous labor.

  9. Comparison of epidural butorphanol versus epidural morphine in postoperative pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Geeta P; Veena, Shah R; Vora, Kalpana; Parikh, Beena; Joshi, Anish

    2014-02-01

    Epidural route is preferable for postoperative pain relief in thoraco-abdominal and lower limb surgeries. We aimed to compare epidural butorphanol versus morphine for postoperative analgesia up to 24 hours in open nephrectomy surgery. 80 ASA physical status I and II adult patients were selected for this randomized double blind prospective study. A standard balanced general anesthesia technique was applied for all patients. Epidural catheter was placed in lower thoracic inter-vertebral space before the start of surgery. Injection butorphanol 0.04 mg/kg in group B (n = 40) or morphine 0.06 mg/kg in group M (n = 40) was given in a double blind manner after completion of surgery and before extubation through the epidural catheter. Patients were observed for pain relief by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for the next 24 hours. Dose was repeated when VAS was > 4. The onset and peak effect of pain relief, duration of analgesia of 1st dose, frequency of drug administration and side effects if any were observed. The average onset of analgesia was 26.5 +/- 7.61 minutes with butorphanol and 62.5 +/- 13.4 minutes with morphine group which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The mean peak effect of pain relief following 1st dose was 173 +/- 51.25 minutes with butorphanol and 251 +/- 52.32 minutes with morphine group. The duration of pain relief after 1st dose was statistically significant and was 339.13 +/- 79.57 minutes in group B and 709.75 +/- 72.12 minutes in group M which was gradually increased on repeated dosing in group B while it was almost same in Group M. Number of doses required in 24 hours was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in butorphanol group than morphine group. Somnolence was the main side effect in group B while pruritus was the main side effect with group M. Epidural butorphanol appears to provide safer and faster postoperative analgesia without much untoward effects but its analgesic action is short so more repeated doses are required than morphine via

  10. Rabbit analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of rabbits as household pets, the complexity of diagnostic and surgical procedures performed on rabbits is increasing, along with the frequency of routine surgical procedures. More practitioners are faced with the need to provide adequate analgesia for this species. Preemptive analgesia prior to planned surgical interventions may reduce nervous system changes in response to noxious input, as well as reduce postoperative pain levels and analgesic drug requirements. Concurrent administration of analgesic drugs to anesthetized rabbits undergoing painful procedures is warranted both pre- and intraoperatively as well as postoperatively. This article discusses the neuropharmacologic and pharmacologic aspects of pain in rabbits, and reviews current protocols for the use of analgesic drugs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Comparison Thoracic Epidural and Intercostal Block to Improve Ventilation Parameters and Reduce Pain in Patients with Multiple Rib Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Raheleh Aligholipour Maleki; Hamzeh Hosseinzadeh; Shahryar Hashemzadeh; Khosrov Hashemzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Chest wall blunt trauma causes multiple rib fractures and will often be associated with significant pain and may compromise ventilator mechanics. Analgesia has great roll in rib fracture therapies, opioid are useful, but when used as sole agent may re-quire such high dose that they produce respiratory depression, especially in el-derly .the best analgesia for a severe chest wall injury is a continuous epidural infusion of local anesthetic. This provides complete analgesia allowi...

  12. Cervical Epidural Anaesthesia for Radical Mastectomy and Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome of Upper Limb - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Jadon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47-yrs-female patient presented with carcinoma right breast, swelling and allodynia of right upper limb. radical mastectomy with axillary clearance and skin grafting was done under cervical epidural anaesthesia through 18G epidural catheter placed at C6/C7 level. Postoperative analgesia and rehabilitation of affected right upper limb was managed by continuous epidural infusion of 0.125% bupivacaine and 2.5 µg/ml -1 clonidine solution through epidu-ral catheter for 5 days and physiotherapy. This case report highlights the usefulness of cervical epidural analgesia in managing a complex situation of carcinoma breast with associated periarthitis of shoulder joint and chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS of right upper limb.

  13. A randomized trial of the effects of antibiotic prophylaxis on epidural-related fever in labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shiv K; Rogers, Beverly B; Alexander, James M; McIntire, Donald D; Leveno, Kenneth J

    2014-03-01

    It has been suggested that the development of maternal fever during epidural analgesia could be due to intrapartum infection. We investigated whether antibiotic prophylaxis before epidural placement decreases the rate of epidural-related fever. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 400 healthy nulliparous women requesting epidural analgesia were randomly assigned to receive either cefoxitin 2 g or placebo immediately preceding initiation of epidural labor analgesia. Maternal tympanic temperature was measured hourly, and intrapartum fever was defined as a maternal temperature of ≥38°C. Neonates born to women with fever were evaluated for possible sepsis, and available placentas were evaluated for the presence of neutrophilic inflammation. The primary outcome was maternal fever during epidural analgesia. Thirty-eight percent of women in the cefoxitin group and 40% of women in the placebo group developed fever (P = 0.68). The risk difference (95% confidence interval) for fever ≥38°C during labor (antibiotic versus placebo) was -2.0% (-11.5 to 7.5), and for fever >39°C during labor was -1.5% (-4.7 to 1.7). Approximately half of each study group had placental neutrophilic inflammation, but administration of cefoxitin had no significant effect on any grade of neutrophilic inflammation. Fever developed significantly more often in the women with placental neutrophilic inflammation compared with those without such inflammation (73/158 vs 33/144, P labor epidural analgesia is associated with placental inflammation, but fever and placental inflammation were not reduced with antibiotic prophylaxis. This finding suggests that infection is unlikely to be the cause in its development.

  14. Sonographic evaluation of epidural and intrathecal injections in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Pablo E; Verdier, Natali; Zaccagnini, Andrea S; Fuensalida, Santiago E; Sclocco, Matias; Portela, Diego A; Waxman, Samanta

    2016-11-01

    To describe the ultrasonographic anatomy of the caudal lumbar spine in cats and to detect ultrasound (US) signs associated with epidural or intrathecal injection. Prospective, clinical study. Twenty-six client-owned cats. Transverse (position 1) and parasagittal (position 2) two-dimensional US scanning was performed over the caudal lumbar spine in all cats. Midline distances between the identified structures were measured. Cats assigned to epidural injection (group E, n = 16) were administered a bupivacaine-morphine combination confirmed by electrical stimulation. Cats assigned to intrathecal injection (group I, n = 10) were administered a morphine-iohexol combination injected at the lumbosacral level and confirmed by lateral radiography. The total volume injected (0.3 mL kg -1 ) was divided into two equal aliquots that were injected without needle repositioning, with the US probe in positions 1 and 2, respectively. The presence or absence of a burst of color [color flow Doppler test (CFDT)], dural sac collapse and epidural space enlargement were registered during and after both injections. US scanning allowed measurement of the distances between the highly visible structures inside the spinal canal. CFDT was positive for all animals in group E. In group I, intrathecal injection was confirmed in only two animals, for which the CFDT was negative; seven cats inadvertently and simultaneously were administered an epidural injection and showed a positive CFDT during the second aliquot injection, and the remaining animal was administered epidural anesthesia and was excluded from the CFDT data analysis. Dural sac collapse and epidural space enlargement were present in all animals in which an epidural injection was confirmed. US examination allowed an anatomical description of the caudal lumbar spine and real-time confirmation of epidural injection by observation of a positive CFDT, dural sac collapse and epidural space enlargement. © 2016 Association of Veterinary

  15. Dexmedetomidine and clonidine in epidural anaesthesia: A comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to find a better adjuvant in regional anaesthesia are underway since long. Aims and objectives are to compare the efficacy and clinical profile of two α-2 adrenergic agonists, dexmedetomidine and clonidine, in epidural anaesthesia with special emphasis on their sedative properties and an ability to provide smooth intra-operative and post-operative analgesia. A prospective randomized study was carried out which included 50 adult female patients between the ages of 44 and 65 years of (American Society of Anaesthesiologists ASAI/II grade who underwent vaginal hysterectomies. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups; ropivacaine + dexmedetomidine (RD and ropivacaine + clonidine (RC, comprising of 25 patients each. Group RD was administered 17 ml of 0.75% epidural ropivacaine and 1.5 μg/kg of dexmedetomidine, while group RC received admixture of 17 ml of 0.75% ropivacaine and 2 μg/kg of clonidine. Onset of analgesia, sensory and motor block levels, sedation, duration of analgesia and side effects were observed. The data obtained was subjected to statistical computation with analysis of variance and chi-square test using statistical package for social science (SPSS version 10.0 for windows and value of P 0.05. Dexmedetomidine is a better neuraxial adjuvant compared to clonidine for providing early onset of sensory analgesia, adequate sedation and a prolonged post-operative analgesia.

  16. Pharmacologic effects of epidural versus intramuscular administration of detomidine in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, M E; Streeter, R N; Mandsager, R E; Shawley, R V; Claypool, P L

    1999-10-01

    To determine whether epidural administration of detomidine hydrochloride to cattle induced analgesia of the perineum and to compare analgesic and systemic effects of epidural versus i.m. administration of detomidine at a dose of 40 microg/kg in cattle. 18 healthy adult cows. 6 cows were given detomidine by epidural administration, 6 were given detomidine i.m., and 6 (control group) were not given detomidine. Analgesia was assessed by determining responses to needle pinpricks in the perineum and flank and by applying electrical stimuli to the perineum and flank and determining the voltage that induced an avoidance response. Degree of sedation and ataxia were scored, and mean arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and frequency of ruminal contractions were measured. Epidural and i.m. administration of detomidine induced comparable degrees of analgesia of the perineum and flank, accompanied by moderate sedation and ataxia, hypertension, cardiorespiratory depression, and rumen hypomotility. Epidural and i.m. administration of detomidine at a dose of 40 microg/kg induced similar analgesic and systemic effects in cattle. Epidural administration of detomidine did not appear to be advantageous over i.m. administration.

  17. Epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section in pituitary dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Li, Ruihua; Lang, Bao

    2017-04-01

    We describe the anaesthetic management for caesarean section in a 32-year-old patient with pituitary dwarfism. In addition to supportive treatment, we offered a postoperative epidural analgesia pump. The patient recovered well without any complications. Copyright © 2016 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. [Experience with combined spinal and epidural anesthesia at cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinzon, A S; Taran, O I; Pura, K R; Mishchenko, G S; Mamaeva, N V

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyzes some experience gained in using various modes of regional anesthesia as an anesthetic appliance at cesarean sections and comparatively characterizes various types of central segmental blocks. The results of 213 cases of cesarean section performed under spinal or combined spinal and epidural anesthesia (CSEA) were generalized by the following parameters: block onset, maternal and fetal action, the quality of anesthesia and postoperative analgesia, which leads to the conclusion that CSEA is the method of choice.

  19. Intrapartum Temperature Elevation, Epidural Use, and Adverse Outcome in Term Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyshak, Grace; Ringer, Steven A.; Johnson, Lise C.; Rivkin, Michael J.; Lieberman, Ellice

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of intrapartum temperature elevation with adverse neonatal outcome among low-risk women receiving epidural analgesia and evaluate the association of epidural with adverse neonatal outcome without temperature elevation. METHODS: We studied all low-risk nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies ≥37 weeks delivering at our hospital during 2000, excluding pregnancies where infants had documented sepsis, meningitis, or a major congenital anomaly. Neonatal outcomes were compared between women receiving (n = 1538) and not receiving epidural analgesia (n = 363) in the absence of intrapartum temperature elevation (≤99.5°F) and according to the level of intrapartum temperature elevation within the group receiving epidural (n = 2784). Logistic regression was used to evaluate neonatal outcome while controlling for confounders. RESULTS: Maternal temperature >100.4°F developed during labor in 19.2% (535/2784) of women receiving epidural compared with 2.4% (10/425) not receiving epidural. In the absence of intrapartum temperature elevation (≤99.5°F), no significant differences were observed in adverse neonatal outcomes between women receiving and not receiving epidural. Among women receiving epidural, a significant linear trend was observed between maximum maternal temperature and all neonatal outcomes examined including hypotonia, assisted ventilation, 1- and 5-min Apgar scores 101°F had a two- to sixfold increased risk of all adverse outcomes examined. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of infants experiencing adverse outcomes increased with the degree of epidural-related maternal temperature elevation. Epidural use without temperature elevation was not associated with any of the adverse outcomes we studied. PMID:22291120

  20. Postoperative opioid analgesia: time for a reconsideration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H; Rung, G W; Callesen, T

    1996-01-01

    Postoperative pain relief has improved in recent years with the development of new analgesics, additional routes of administration and the appearance of the hypothesis of preemptive as well as balanced analgesia (Kehlet H; Postoperative pain relief-what is the issue? Br J Anaesth 1994;72:375-8). ......Postoperative pain relief has improved in recent years with the development of new analgesics, additional routes of administration and the appearance of the hypothesis of preemptive as well as balanced analgesia (Kehlet H; Postoperative pain relief-what is the issue? Br J Anaesth 1994......;72:375-8). Many initial improvements simply involved the administration of opioid analgesics in new ways, such as continuous or on demand intravenous (i.v.) or epidural infusion. These methods allow lower total opioid dosages, provide a more stable concentration of opioid at the receptor and correspondingly...

  1. Labour analgesia and the baby: good news is no news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Felicity

    2011-01-01

    When investigating different methods of maternal pain relief in labour, neonatal outcome has not always been at the forefront, or else maternal changes, such as haemodynamics, fever, length of labour, need for oxytocin or type of delivery, are taken as surrogates for neonatal outcome. It is essential to examine the actual baby and to appreciate that labour pain itself has adverse consequences for the baby. For systemic analgesia, pethidine has been most extensively studied and compared with neuraxial analgesia. It depresses fetal muscular activity, aortic blood flow, short-term heart rate variability and oxygen saturation. In the newborn it exacerbates acidosis, depresses Apgar scores, respiration, neurobehavioural score, muscle tone and suckling. Alternatives have few advantages, remifentanil being the most promising. Neuraxial analgesia is associated with better Apgar scores and variable neurobehavioural changes. Neonatal acid-base status is not only better with epidural than with systemic opioid analgesia, it is also better than with no analgesia. The effect on breast feeding has yet to be established, though it is certainly no worse than that of systemic opioid analgesia. Variations in neuraxial technique have little impact on the newborn. Widespread ignorance of the benefit to the newborn of neuraxial labour analgesia in the UK among non-anaesthetists needs to be combated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Epidural 0.5% levobupivacaine with dexmedetomidine versus fentanyl for vaginal hysterectomy: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumkum Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidural adjuvants enhance the quality and duration of surgical anesthesia. The present study was aimed to compare the hemodynamic, sedative, and analgesia potentiating effects of dexmedetomidine versus fentanyl with epidural 0.5% levobupivacaine for vaginal hysterectomy. Patients and Methods: Sixty consented females of ASA physical status I and II aged 35-65 years weighing 55-75 kg, were double blindly randomized into two treatment groups. Patients received epidural 0.5% levobupivacaine 15 ml either with of 25 μg dexmedetomidine (Group LD or 50 μg fentanyl (Group LF and the total volume of study solution was kept 16 ml. Onset of analgesia at T10, sensory and motor block levels and duration of analgesia were observed. Intra-operatively, they were assessed for sedation, hemodynamic changes, respiratory efficiency, and side effects. The data obtained, was compiled systematically and analyzed statistically using Chi-square test and ANOVA. Value of P < 0.05 is considered significant. Result: The demographic profile was comparable between groups. The onset of sensory analgesia at T10 (7.25 ± 2.3 versus 9.27 ± 2.79 min and time to achieve complete motor blockade (19.27 ± 4.7 versus 22.78 ± 5.57 min was significantly earlier in patients of LD Group. The intraoperative hemodynamic changes were comparable between groups. Ramsey Sedation score was better in LD group with statistically significance. Postoperative analgesia was significantly prolonged in LD Group. Incidence of nausea, vomiting, and pruritus was high in LF group. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine was better than fentanyl as an epidural adjuvant for providing early onset of sensory analgesia, adequate sedation with no respiratory depression and prolonged postoperative analgesia.

  3. Epidural anesthesia: Views and outcomes of women in labor in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pain during childbirth is a well known cause of dissatisfaction amongst women in labor. The use of epidural analgesia in labor is becoming widespread due to its benefit in terms of pain relief. Method: After approval of the local Ethics Committee on Research and obtaining informed written consent, 50 American ...

  4. A new technique for long time catheterization of sacral epidural canal in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkin, Yüksel; Aydın, Zeynep; Taşdöğen, Aydın; Karcı, Ayşe

    2013-01-01

    In this study we aimed to develop a simple and practical technique for chronic sacral epidural catheterization of rabbits. We included ten rabbits weighing 2-2.5 kg in the study. After anesthesia and analgesia, we placed an epidural catheter by a 2 cm longitudinal skin incision in the tail above the sacral hiatus region. We confirmed localization by giving 1% lidocaine (leveling sensory loss and motor function loss of the lower extremity). The catheter was carried forward through a subcutaneous tunnel and fixed at the neck. Chronic caudal epidural catheter placement was succesful in all rabbits. The catheters stayed in place effectively for ten days. We encountered no catheter complications during this period. The localization of the catheter was reconfirmed by 1% lidocaine on the last day. After animals killing, we performed a laminectomy and verified localization of the catheter in the epidural space. Various methods for catheterization of the epidural space in animal models exist in the literature. Epidural catheterization of rabbits can be accomplished by atlanto-occipital, lumbar or caudal routes by amputation of the tail. Intrathecal and epidural catheterization techniques defined in the literature necessitate surgical skill and knowledge of surgical procedures like laminectomy and tail amputation. Our technique does not require substantial surgical skill, anatomical integrity is preserved and malposition of the catheter is not encountered. In conclusion, we suggest that our simple and easily applicable new epidural catheterization technique can be used as a model in experimental animal studies.

  5. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  6. Comparison Thoracic Epidural and Intercostal Block to Improve Ventilation Parameters and Reduce Pain in Patients with Multiple Rib Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Aligholipour Maleki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chest wall blunt trauma causes multiple rib fractures and will often be associated with significant pain and may compromise ventilator mechanics. Analgesia has great roll in rib fracture therapies, opioid are useful, but when used as sole agent may re-quire such high dose that they produce respiratory depression, especially in el-derly .the best analgesia for a severe chest wall injury is a continuous epidural infusion of local anesthetic. This provides complete analgesia allowing inspiration and coughing without of the risk of respiratory depression. Methods: sixty adult patients who with multiple rib fractures were enrolled in this study. They were divided into Group A or thoracic epidural with bupivacaine 0.125 % +1mg/5ml morphine and group B or inter-costal block with %0.25 bupivacaine. The patients were assessed through ICU and hos-pital stay length, ventilation function tests. Pain score among the patients was meas-ured with verbal rating scale, before and after administration of the analgesia. Results: We found a significant improvement in ventilatory function tests during the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd days after epidural analgesia compared with the intercostal block (P < 0.004. Changes in the visual Analogue Scale were associated with marked improvement re-garding pain at rest and pain caused by coughing and deep breathing in group A com-pared group B... ICU and hospital stay markedly reduced in Group A. Conclusion: tho-racic epidural analgesia is superior to intercostals block regarding pain relief of rib frac-tures. Patients who received epidural analgesia had significantly lower pain scores at all studied times.

  7. Neuraxial analgesia effects on labor progression: facts, fallacies, uncertainties, and the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Erica N.; Tao, Weike; Craig, Margaret; McIntire, Donald; Leveno, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 60% of women who labor receive some form of neuraxial analgesia, but concerns have been raised regarding whether it negatively impacts the labor and delivery process. In this review, we attempt to clarify what has been established as truths, falsities, and uncertainties regarding the effects of this form of pain relief on labor progression, negative and/or positive. Additionally, although the term “epidural” has become synonymous with neuraxial analgesia, we discuss two other techniques, combined spinal-epidural and continuous spinal analgesia, that are gaining popularity, as well as their effects on labor progression. PMID:25088476

  8. Tensile strength decreases and perfusion pressure of 3-holed polyamide epidural catheters increases in long-term epidural infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pascal; Meyer, Urs; Schüpfer, Guido; Rukwied, Roman; Konrad, Christoph; Gerber, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is an established method for pain management. The failure rate is 8% to 12% due to technical difficulties (catheter dislocation and/or disconnection; partial or total catheter occlusion) and management. The mechanical properties of the catheters, like tensile strength and flow rate, may also be affected by the analgesic solution and/or the tissue environment. We investigated the tensile strength and perfusion pressure of new (n=20), perioperatively (n=30), and postoperatively (n=73) used epidural catheters (20-gauge, polyamide, closed tip, 3 side holes; Perifix [B. Braun]). To prevent dislocation, epidural catheters were taped (n=5) or fixed by suture (n=68) to the skin. After removal, mechanical properties were assessed by a tensile-testing machine (INSTRON 4500), and perfusion pressure was measured at flow rates of 10, 20, and 40 mL/h. All catheters demonstrated a 2-step force transmission. Initially, a minimal increase of length could be observed at 15 N followed by an elongation of several cm at additional forces (7 N). Breakage occurred in the control group at 23.5±1.5 N compared with 22.4±1.6 N in perioperative and 22.4±1.7 N in postoperative catheters (Ptensile strength, whereas perfusion pressure at clinically used flow rates (10 mL/h) increased significantly from 19±1.3 to 44±72 mm Hg during long-term (≥7 days) epidural analgesia (Ptensile strength or perfusion pressure. Epidural catheter use significantly increases the perfusion pressure and decreases the tensile strength. Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

  9. Convalescence and hospital stay after colonic surgery with balanced analgesia, early oral feeding, and enforced mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Bülow, Steffen; Hesselfeldt, Peter

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the combined effects of pain relief by continuous epidural analgesia, early oral feeding and enforced mobilisation on convalescence and hospital stay after colonic resection. DESIGN: Uncontrolled pilot investigation. SETTING: University hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 17...... unselected patients (median age 69 years) undergoing colonic resection. INTERVENTIONS: Patients received combined epidural and general anaesthesia during operations and after operation were given continuous epidural bupivacaine 0.25%, 4 ml hour and morphine 0.2 mg hour, for 96 hours and oral paracetamol 4 g...... weight loss. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that a combined approach of optimal pain relief with balanced analgesia, enforced early mobilisation, and oral feeding, may reduce the length of convalescence and hospital stay after colonic operations....

  10. Effect of pain and analgesia on compensatory reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa-Laborde, Carmen; Fernandez, Jessie Renee D; Muniz, Gary W; Nawn, Corinne D; Burns, Rebecca K; Le, Thuan H; Porter, Kathy B; Hardy, John T; Convertino, Victor A

    2017-07-01

    The measurement of the body's capacity to compensate for reduced blood volume can be assessed with a compensatory reserve measurement (CRM). The CRM, which is calculated from changes in features of the arterial waveform, represents the integration of compensatory mechanisms during states of low tissue perfusion and oxygenation, such as hemorrhage. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that pain which activates compensatory mechanisms and analgesia that result in reduced blood pressure are associated with lower compensatory reserve. This study evaluated CRM in obstetric patients during labor as pain intensity increased from no pain to severe pain and compared CRM before and after epidural anesthesia. CRM was calculated from a finger pulse oximeter placed on the patient's index finger and connected to the DataOx monitor in healthy pregnant women (n = 20) before and during the active labor phase of childbirth. As pain intensity, based on an 11-point scale (0, no pain; 10, worst pain), increased from 0 to 8.4 ± 0.9 (mean ± SD), CRM was not affected (81 ± 10% to 82 ± 13%). Before analgesia, CRM was 84 ± 10%. CRM at 10 minutes, 20 minutes, 30 minutes, 40 minutes, 50 minutes, and 60 minutes after analgesia was 82 ± 11%, 83 ± 14%, 83 ± 15%, 86 ± 12%, 89 ± 9%, and 87 ± 10%, respectively. There was a transient 2% reduction followed by a 5% increase in CRM from before to after epidural anesthesia (p = 0.048). Pain scores before and after analgesia were 7 ± 2 and 1 ± 1, respectively (p < 0.001). These results indicate that pain and analgesia contribute minimally, but independently to the reduction in compensatory reserve associated with trauma and hemorrhage. As such, our findings suggest that analgesia can be safely administered on the battlefield while maintaining the maximal capacity of mechanisms to compensate for blood loss. Diagnostic study, level II.

  11. Hematoma epidural subagudo Subacute epidural hematoma

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    Yvei González Orlandi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente con hematoma epidural subagudo, temporoparietal derecho, secundario a una agresión física. En el cuadro clínico, a las 24 h, predominó la cefalea de intensidad moderada, con somnolencia y agitación psicomotora ligera. Las radiografías simples de cráneo no mostraron alteraciones. Los síntomas se mantuvieron a pesar del tratamiento médico, por lo que se realizó una tomografía axial simple de cráneo que mostró la presencia de un hematoma epidural subagudo temporoparietal derecho, con desplazamiento de estructuras de la línea media. Se realizó una craneotomía temporoparietal derecha para la evacuación del hematoma posterior. El paciente evolucionó satisfactoriamente y se recuperó por completo, tanto clínica como imaginológicamente.This is the case of a patient presenting with right temporoparietal subacute hematoma secondary to a physical act of aggression. In clinical picture at 24 hours there was predominance of headache of moderate intensity with drowsiness and slight psychomotor restlessness. The skull single radiographies didn't show alterations. Symptoms remained despite the medical treatment, thus a single skull axial tomography was carried out showing the presence of a right temporoparietal subacute epidural hematoma with displacement from the middle line structures. A right temporoparietal craniotomy was carried out to evacuation of the posterior hematoma. Patient evolved satisfactorily with a total recovery as much clinical as imaging.

  12. Maternal epidural use and neonatal sepsis evaluation in afebrile mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzl, L; Cohen, A; Frigoletto, F; Ringer, S A; Lang, J M; Lieberman, E

    2001-11-01

    Epidural use has been associated with a higher rate of neonatal sepsis evaluation. Epidural-related fever explains some of the increase but not the excess of neonatal sepsis evaluations in afebrile women We studied 1109 women who had singleton term pregnancies and who presented in spontaneous labor and were afebrile during labor (24 hours or sustained fetal heart rate of >160 beats per minute. Minor criteria included a maternal temperature of 99.6 degrees F to 100.4 degrees F, rupture of membranes for 12 to 24 hours, maternal admission white blood cell count of >15 000 cells/mL(3), or an Apgar score of 24 hours (6.2% vs 3.4%), low-grade fever of 99.6 degrees F to 100.4 degrees F (24.3% vs 5.2%), and rupture of membranes for 12 to 24 hours (21.4% vs 5.2%) than women without epidural. Epidural analgesia is associated with increased rates of major and minor criteria for neonatal sepsis evaluations in afebrile women.

  13. Usefulness of modified intravenous analgesia: initial experience in uterine artery embolization for leiomyomata

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    Yang, Seung Boo; Jung, Young Jin [Soonchunhyang University, Gumi Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Dong Erk; Jang, Yun Woo [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of modified intravenous analgesia for the management of pain during uterine artery embolization for leiomyomata. Between April 2004 and July 2004, 15 patients with symptomatic fibroids underwent uterine artery embolization and pain management. Except the three patients for whom the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score was not obtained, twelve patients were included in this study. For pain management, epidural PCA (Patient Controlled Analgesia) was used in two patients, intravenous PCA was used in two patients and modified intravenous analgesia injection was used in eight patients. For all the patients, we used the 2.8 Fr coaxial microcatheter and 500-710 {mu} m PVA particles for the embolic materials. The protocol of the modified intravenous analgesia injection was as follow, 1) prior to femoral artery puncture, 30 mg of ketorolac tromethamine (Tarasyn)was injected via an intravenous route. 2) At the time that the one side uterine artery embolization was finished, normal saline mixed 150 mg meperidine (Demerol) was administered through the side port of the intravenous line that was used for hydration. 3) Additional ketorolac tromethamine 30 mg was injected after 6 hour. The VAS score and side effects were then checked. After 12 hours, the VAS score was rechecked. If the VAS score was above 4, this was considered as failure of pain management. The VAS scores, complications and side effects for the modified intravenous analgesia injection were compared with that of IV PCA and epidural PCA. The average VAS score of the modified intravenous analgesia injection, intravenous PCA and epidural PCA was 1.4, 1 and 0, respectively; the number of additional intramuscular injections of analgesia was 0.5, 0.5 and 0, respectively. All the patients who underwent epidural PCA had back pain at the puncture site and 1 patient who underwent modified intravenous analgesia injection experienced mild dyspnea, but they easily recovered with such

  14. Usefulness of modified intravenous analgesia: initial experience in uterine artery embolization for leiomyomata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Boo; Jung, Young Jin; Goo, Dong Erk; Jang, Yun Woo

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of modified intravenous analgesia for the management of pain during uterine artery embolization for leiomyomata. Between April 2004 and July 2004, 15 patients with symptomatic fibroids underwent uterine artery embolization and pain management. Except the three patients for whom the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score was not obtained, twelve patients were included in this study. For pain management, epidural PCA (Patient Controlled Analgesia) was used in two patients, intravenous PCA was used in two patients and modified intravenous analgesia injection was used in eight patients. For all the patients, we used the 2.8 Fr coaxial microcatheter and 500-710 μ m PVA particles for the embolic materials. The protocol of the modified intravenous analgesia injection was as follow, 1) prior to femoral artery puncture, 30 mg of ketorolac tromethamine (Tarasyn)was injected via an intravenous route. 2) At the time that the one side uterine artery embolization was finished, normal saline mixed 150 mg meperidine (Demerol) was administered through the side port of the intravenous line that was used for hydration. 3) Additional ketorolac tromethamine 30 mg was injected after 6 hour. The VAS score and side effects were then checked. After 12 hours, the VAS score was rechecked. If the VAS score was above 4, this was considered as failure of pain management. The VAS scores, complications and side effects for the modified intravenous analgesia injection were compared with that of IV PCA and epidural PCA. The average VAS score of the modified intravenous analgesia injection, intravenous PCA and epidural PCA was 1.4, 1 and 0, respectively; the number of additional intramuscular injections of analgesia was 0.5, 0.5 and 0, respectively. All the patients who underwent epidural PCA had back pain at the puncture site and 1 patient who underwent modified intravenous analgesia injection experienced mild dyspnea, but they easily recovered with such

  15. MULTIMODAL ANALGESIA AFTER TOTAL HIP ARTHROPLASTY

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    I. G. Mukutsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - to assess the effect of multimodal analgesia in the early rehabilitation of patients after hip replacement. Materials and methods. A prospective single-centre randomized research, which included 32 patients. Patients of the 1st group received paracetamol, ketorolac and tramadol, the 2nd group of patients - ketorolac intravenously and the 3rd group of patients - etoricoxib and gabapentin. Patients of the 2nd and the 3rd groups underwent epidural analgesia with ropivacaine. Multimodal analgesia was carried out for 48 hours after the surgery. Assessment of pain intensity was performed by the VAS (visual analogue scale, a neuropathic pain component - on the DN4 questionnaire . Time was recorded during the first and second verticalization of patients, using the distance walkers and by fixing the distance covered with in 2 minutes. Results. The intensity of pain for more than 50 mm on VAS at movement at least once every 48 hours after the surgery was occurred among 9% of the 1st group, 22% of patients from the 2nd group and 8% of patients of the 3rd group. Number of patients with neuropathic pain component decreased from 25% to 3% (p ≤ 0.05. The first verticalization was performed 10 ± 8 hours after the surgery, the second - 21 ± 8 hours later. Two-minute walk distance was 5 ± 3 and 8 ± 4 m, respectively. It is noted more frequent adverse events in patients of the 1st group was noted compared to patients of the 2nd and the 3rd groups during first (91%, 33% and 25%, p ≤ 0.05 and the second verticalization (70%, 25% and 17%, p ≤ 0.05. Multimodal analgesia allows to proceed with the successful activation of patients after hip replacement with in the first day after the surgery. The 3rd group patients are noted with a tendency for the optimal combination of efficient and safe of analgetic therapy.

  16. Bupivacaine constant continuous surgical wound infusion versus continuous epidural infusion for post cesarean section pain, randomized placebo-controlled study

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    Hossam A. ELShamaa

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: The current study demonstrated that bupivacaine administered by continuous epidural infusion provided a significantly lower pain scores with mobilization, and hence better analgesia for post cesarean section pain in the first postoperative day compared to continuous bupivacaine wound infusion through fenestrated catheter using the constant flow PainFusor system.

  17. Differential analgesic effects of low-dose epidural morphine and morphine-bupivacaine at rest and during mobilization after major abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Rosenberg, J; Hansen, B L

    1992-01-01

    In a double-blind, randomized study, epidural infusions of low-dose morphine (0.2 mg/h) combined with low-dose bupivacaine (10 mg/h) were compared with epidural infusions of low-dose morphine (0.2 mg/h) alone for postoperative analgesia at rest and during mobilization and cough in 24 patients after...... elective major abdominal surgery. All patients in addition received systemic piroxicam (20 mg daily). No significant differences were observed between the groups at any assessment of pain at rest (P greater than 0.05), whereas pain in the morphine/bupivacaine group was significantly reduced during...... mobilization from the supine into the sitting position 12 and 30 h after surgical incision and during cough 8, 12, and 30 h after surgical incision (P less than 0.05). We conclude, that low-dose epidural bupivacaine potentiates postoperative low-dose epidural morphine analgesia during mobilization and cough...

  18. Comparison of analgesic efficacy of preoperative or postoperative carprofen with or without preincisional mepivacaine epidural anesthesia in canine pelvic or femoral fracture repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Hannes M; Nolte, Ingo; Kramer, Sabine

    2007-10-01

    To compare analgesic efficacy of preoperative versus postoperative administration of carprofen and to determine, if preincisional mepivacaine epidural anesthesia improves postoperative analgesia in dogs treated with carprofen. Blind, randomized clinical study. Dogs with femoral (n=18) or pelvic (27) fractures. Dogs were grouped by restricted randomization into 4 groups: group 1 = carprofen (4 mg/kg subcutaneously) immediately before induction of anesthesia, no epidural anesthesia; group 2 = carprofen immediately after extubation, no epidural anesthesia; group 3 = carprofen immediately before induction, mepivacaine epidural block 15 minutes before surgical incision; and group 4 = mepivacaine epidural block 15 minutes before surgical incision, carprofen after extubation. All dogs were administered carprofen (4 mg/kg, subcutaneously, once daily) for 4 days after surgery. Physiologic variables, nociceptive threshold, lameness score, pain, and sedation (numerical rating scale [NRS], visual analog scale [VAS]), plasma glucose and cortisol concentration, renal function, and hemostatic variables were measured preoperatively and at various times after surgery. Dogs with VAS pain scores >30 were administered rescue analgesia. Group 3 and 4 dogs had significantly lower pain scores and amount of rescue analgesia compared with groups 1 and 2. VAS and NRS pain scores were not significantly different among groups 1 and 2 or among groups 3 and 4. There was no treatment effect on renal function and hemostatic variables. Preoperative carprofen combined with mepivacaine epidural anesthesia had superior postoperative analgesia compared with preoperative carprofen alone. When preoperative epidural anesthesia was performed, preoperative administration of carprofen did not improve postoperative analgesia compared with postoperative administration of carprofen. Preoperative administration of systemic opioid agonists in combination with regional anesthesia and postoperative administration

  19. Labor analgesia with ropivacaine added to clonidine: a randomized clinical trial

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    Giane Nakamura

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have led to speculation that the association between ropivacaine and clonidine might be more effective than ropivacaine alone. We examined the maternal-fetal effects of two pharmacological approaches: a low dose of ropivacaine or a lower dose of ropivacaine plus clonidine for epidural analgesia during labor. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study at Department of Anesthesiology, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista. METHODS: Thirty-two pregnant women in American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II randomly underwent epidural analgesia using 15 ml of ropivacaine 0.125% (R group or 15 ml of ropivacaine 0.0625% plus 75 µg clonidine (RC group. Pain intensity, sensory block level, latency time, motor block intensity, duration of labor analgesia and duration of epidural analgesia were evaluated. The newborns were evaluated using Apgar scores and the Amiel-Tison method (neurological and adaptive capacity score. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups regarding pain score, sensory block level, duration of epidural analgesia or Apgar score. The latency time, duration of labor analgesia and motor block were R group < RC group. The half-hour and two-hour neurological and adaptive capacity scores were higher in the R group. All of the R group newborns and 75% of the RC group newborns were found to be neurologically healthy at the 24-hour examination. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups regarding pain score, sensory block level, duration of epidural analgesia or Apgar score. The latency time, duration of labor analgesia and motor block were R group < RC group. The half-hour and two-hour neurological and adaptive capacity scores were higher in the R group. All of the R group newborns and 75% of the RC group newborns were found to be neurologically healthy at the 24-hour examination

  20. Labour analgesia with intrathecal fentanyl decreases maternal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, M; Pygon, B; Bernett, C; Ramanathan, S

    1997-06-01

    Lumbar epidural analgesia (LEA) decreases maternal stress as measured by maternal circulating plasma catecholamine concentrations. Intrathecal fentanyl (ITF) provides effective labour analgesia but its effect on maternal epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations is not known. This study assesses whether ITF reduces maternal stress in the same manner as conventional LEA. Twenty-four healthy women in active labour received either 25 micrograms ITF (n = 12) or epidural lidocaine 1.5% (n = 12) for analgesia. Venous blood samples were collected before anaesthesia and at five minute intervals for 30 min following anaesthesia for the measurement of plasma Epi and NE by high performance liquid chromatography. Maternal blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), visual analog scores (VAS) to pain and pruritus were recorded at the same time. Both ITF and LEA decreased pain VAS scores, maternal BP, and plasma Epi concentrations with only minimal effects on plasma NE concentrations. Intrathecal fentanyl (ITF) and LEA reduced plasma epi to a similar extent, with ITF reducing the levels slightly faster than LEA. Intrathecal fentanyl(ITF) and LEA reduced plasma Epi concentrations by 52% and 51%, respectively (P value < 0.01). We conclude that ITF is as effective as LEA in producing pain relief in the labouring patient. Intrathecal Fentanyl (ITF) is also capable of reducing maternal plasma epinephrine concentration, thus avoiding the possibly deleterious side effects of excess amounts of this catecholamine during labour.

  1. Spinal cord ischemia following thoracotomy without epidural anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Aeyal; Avramovich, Aharon; Saraf-Lavi, Efrat; Saute, Milton; Eidelman, Leonid A

    2006-06-01

    Paraplegia is an uncommon yet devastating complication following thoracotomy, usually caused by compression or ischemia of the spinal cord. Ischemia without compression may be a result of global ischemia, vascular injury and other causes. Epidural anesthesia has been implicated as a major cause. This report highlights the fact that perioperative cord ischemia and paraplegia may be unrelated to epidural intervention. A 71-yr-old woman was admitted for a left upper lobectomy for resection of a non-small cell carcinoma of the lung. The patient refused epidural catheter placement and underwent a left T5-6 thoracotomy under general anesthesia. During surgery, she was hemodynamically stable and good oxygen saturation was maintained. Several hours following surgery the patient complained of loss of sensation in her legs. Neurological examination disclosed a complete motor and sensory block at the T5-6 level. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed spinal cord ischemia. The patient received iv steroid treatment, but remained paraplegic. Five months following the surgery there was only partial improvement in her motor symptoms. A follow-up MRI study was consistent with a diagnosis of spinal cord ischemia. In this case of paraplegia following thoracic surgery for lung resection, epidural anesthesia/analgesia was not used. The MRI demonstrated evidence of spinal cord ischemia, and no evidence of cord compression. This case highlights that etiologies other than epidural intervention, such as injury to the spinal segmental arteries during thoracotomy, should be considered as potential causes of cord ischemia and resultant paraplegia in this surgical population.

  2. Posterior fossa epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, M.J.; Luken, M.G. III

    1983-01-01

    CT demonstrated posterior fossa epidural hematoma in three patients with head trauma in whom this diagnosis was not clinically apparent. No patient was in stupor or coma and no patient experienced a lucid interval. Only one patient had signs referable to the posterior fossa. Two patients had occipital skull fracture disclosed by plain radiographs. CT revealed a unilateral biconvex hematoma in two cases, and a bilateral hematoma with supratentorial extension in the third. All patients underwent suboccipital craniectomy and recovered. Therapeutic success in these cases was facilitated by early CT and the rapid disclosure of the unsuspected posterior fossa lesions. CT showing contiguous hematoma below and above the tentorium cerebelli after posterior head trauma is highly suggestive of epidural hematoma arising from the posterior fossa. (orig.)

  3. Procedural sedation analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sheta, Saad A

    2010-01-01

    The number of noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures performed outside of the operating room has grown exponentially over the last several decades. Sedation, analgesia, or both may be needed for many of these interventional or diagnostic procedures. Individualized care is important when determining if a patient requires procedural sedation analgesia (PSA). The patient might need an anti-anxiety drug, pain medicine, immobilization, simple reassurance, or a combination of these interve...

  4. High-volume infiltration analgesia in bilateral hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Ø; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl; Husted, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose High-volume infiltration analgesia may be effective in postoperative pain management after hip arthroplasty but methodological problems prevent exact interpretation of previous studies. Methods In a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 12 patients undergoing...... bilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA) in a fast-track setting, saline or high-volume (170 mL) ropivacaine (0.2%) with epinephrine (1:100,000) was administered to the wound intraoperatively along with supplementary postoperative injections via an intraarticular epidural catheter. Oral analgesia...... was instituted preoperatively with a multimodal regimen (gabapentin, celecoxib, and acetaminophen). Pain was assessed repeatedly for 48 hours postoperatively, at rest and with 45° hip flexion. Results Pain scores were low and similar between ropivacaine and saline administration. Median hospital stay was 4...

  5. [Obstetric analgesia and anesthesia in Switzerland in 1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwetsch-Rast, G; Schneider, M C; Siegemund, M

    2002-02-01

    This survey investigated the common practice of obstetric analgesia and anaesthesia in Swiss hospitals and evaluated the influence of the Swiss interest group for obstetric anaesthesia. In March 1999 we submitted 145 questionnaires to all Swiss hospitals providing an obstetric service. The rate of epidural analgesia (EA) was higher in large hospitals (> 1,000 births/year) than in small services. EA was maintained by continuous infusion techniques in 53% of the responding hospitals. For elective caesarean section, spinal anaesthesia (SA) and EA were performed in 77% and 16% of the patients, respectively. General anaesthesia (5%) was only used in small hospitals (interest group for obstetric anaesthesia, as well as the expectations of pregnant women, increased the numbers of regional anaesthesia compared with the first survey in 1992.

  6. The effect of 0.5% ropivacaine on epidural blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Simonsen, L; Mogensen, T

    1990-01-01

    Twenty patients scheduled for elective abdominal surgery received epidural analgesia with 20 ml 0.5% ropivacaine or 0.5% bupivacaine. Epidural blood flow was measured by an epidural 133Xe clearance technique on the day before surgery (no local anaesthetic) and again 1 h before surgery, 30 min after...... injection of the local anaesthetic during continuous infusion (8 ml/h). Median initial blood flow was 5.0 ml/min and 6.0 ml/min per 100 g tissue in patients receiving ropivacaine and bupivacaine, respectively. After epidural bupivacaine, blood flow increased in 8 of 10 patients to 6.9 ml/min per 100 g...... tissue (P less than 0.05) in contrast to a decrease in 9 of 10 patients to 3.3 ml/min per 100 g tissue after ropivacaine (P less than 0.05), (P less than 0.01 between groups). The median level of sensory analgesia was T3.5 and T4.5 in the ropivacaine and bupivacaine group, respectively (P greater than 0...

  7. A comparison of epidural buprenorphine plus detomidine with morphine plus detomidine in horses undergoing bilateral stifle arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Berit L; Ludders, John W; Asakawa, Makoto; Fortier, Lisa A; Fubini, Susan L; Nixon, Alan J; Radcliffe, Rolfe M; Erb, Hollis N

    2009-01-01

    To compare the analgesic efficacy of buprenorphine plus detomidine with that of morphine plus detomidine when administered epidurally in horses undergoing bilateral stifle arthroscopy. Prospective, randomized, blinded clinical trial. Twelve healthy adult horses participating in an orthopedic research study. Group M (n = 6) received morphine (0.2 mg kg(-1)) and detomidine (0.15 mg kg(-1)) epidurally; group B (n = 6) received buprenorphine (0.005 mg kg(-1)) and detomidine (0.15 mg kg(-1)) epidurally. Horses received one of two epidural treatments following induction of general anesthesia for bilateral stifle arthroscopy. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), end-tidal CO(2) (Pe'CO(2)), and end-tidal isoflurane concentrations (E'Iso%) were recorded every 15 minutes following epidural administration. Post-operative assessment was performed at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hours after standing; variables recorded included HR, respiratory rate (f(R)), abdominal borborygmi, defecation, and the presence of undesirable side effects. At the same times post-operatively, each horse was videotaped at a walk and subsequently assigned a lameness score (0-4) by three ACVS diplomates blinded to treatment and who followed previously published guidelines. Nonparametric data were analyzed using Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. Inter- and intra-rater agreement were determined using weighted kappa coefficients. Statistical significance was set at p detomidine injected epidurally produced analgesia similar in intensity and duration to that of morphine plus detomidine injected epidurally.

  8. Pre-emptive analgesia: Recent trends and evidences

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    Amiya K Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Preemptive analgesia, initiated before the surgical procedure to prevent pain in the early postoperative period has the potential to be more effective than a similar analgesic treatment initiated after surgery. This article aims to review all the recent published evidences that assess the efficacy of this enigmatic concept. Materials and Methods: We reviewed original research articles, case-reports, meta-analyses, randomized control trials (RCTs, and reviews based on pain physiology for preemptive analgesia from Medline, Medscape, and PubMed from 1993 to 2013. A broad free-text search in English was undertaken with major keywords "Preemptive analgesia," "postoperative pain," "preoperative," and "preincisional". Results: Review of publications showed that intravenous (IV nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are quite effective when used alone, as well as with low dose iv ketamine, preemptively to provide adequate postoperative analgesia. However, ketamine has a doubtful role as a standalone agent. Preemptive administration of LA at the incision site reduces postoperative pain, but achieves an analgesic effect similar to that of postincisional anesthetic infiltration as does intraperitoneal administration. Preemptive epidural analgesia has proved its efficacy in controlling perioperative immune function and pain in comparison to parenteral opioids. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA analogues like gabapentin and pregabalin have great potential as preemptive analgesic with the added advantage of its anxiolytic effect. Conclusion: Multimodal approaches that address multiple sites along the pain pathway is necessary to treat pain adequately. However, we need to find an answer to the question of how to obtain the maximal clinical benefits with the use of preemptive analgesia.

  9. Four quadrant transversus abdominis plane block and continuous transversus abdominis plane analgesia: a 3-year prospective audit in 124 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraj, G; Kelkar, Aditi; Hart, Elaine; Kaushik, Vipul; Fleet, Danny; Jameson, John

    2015-11-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks have been reported to be an effective method of providing analgesia after abdominal surgery. To perform a prospective audit on the effectiveness of a novel technique of providing continuous transversus abdominis plane (TAP) analgesia in patients undergoing emergency and elective abdominal surgery. Prospective single center audit over a 3-year period. University hospital. One hundred twenty-four American Society of Anesthesiologists I to IV adult patients presenting for elective as well as emergency abdominal surgery in whom epidural analgesia was contraindicated or refused. Four quadrant TAP blocks and continuous TAP analgesia. Numerical rating scale pain scores at rest and on coughing, nausea scores, satisfaction scores, complications, frequency of analgesia failure, therapeutic failure with continuous TAP analgesia and opioid consumption. One hundred twenty-four patients who received continuous TAP analgesia were audited. This included 34 patients for elective open surgery, 36 patients for emergency laparotomy, and 54 patients who underwent elective laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Surgical incision was within the dermatomal limit of the block in 70% of the patients (88/124). Therapeutic failure with the technique was 10%. Frequency of analgesic failure over the 48-hour period was none in 39% and below 5 episodes in 57%. Four quadrant transversus abdominis plane blocks and continuous TAP analgesia is an effective technique for providing postoperative analgesia after abdominal surgery. It has the potential to be used as a sole analgesic technique when the surgical incision is within its dermatomal limit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Patient-controlled analgesia with remifentanil vs. alternative parenteral methods for pain management in labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelting, Y; Weibel, S; Afshari, A

    2017-01-01

    events for mothers and newborns. We assessed risk of bias for each included study and applied the GRADE approach for the quality of evidence. We included total zero event trials, using a constant continuity correction of 0.01 and a random-effect meta-analysis. Twenty studies were included...... opioids (four trials, 216 patients, very low quality evidence) with a standardised mean difference ([SMD] 95%CI) of 2.11 (0.72-3.49), but were less satisfied than women receiving epidural analgesia (seven trials, 2135 patients, very low quality evidence), -0.22 (-0.40 to -0.04). Data on adverse events......, 135 patients, low-quality evidence) no conclusion could be reached as all study arms showed zero events. The relative risk (95%CI) of Apgar scores less than 7 at 5 min after birth compared with epidural analgesia (five trials, 1322 participants, low-quality evidence) was 1.26 (0.62-2.57)....

  11. Subacute epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Orlandi, Ivey; Elizondo Barrier, Luis; Junco Martin, Reinel

    2011-01-01

    This is the case of a patient presenting with right temporoparietal subacute hematoma secondary to a physical act of aggression. In clinical picture at 24 hours there was predominance of headache of moderate intensity with drowsiness and slight psychomotor restlessness. The skull single radiographies didn't show alterations. Symptoms remained despite the medical treatment, thus a single skull axial tomography was carried out showing the presence of a right temporoparietal subacute epidural hematoma with displacement from the middle line structures. A right temporoparietal craniotomy was carried out to evacuation of the posterior hematoma. Patient evolved satisfactorily with a total recovery as much clinical as imaging. (author)

  12. Post-operative analgesia for major abdominal surgery and its effectiveness in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Epidural, PCIA and opioid infusions are used for pain relief after major abdominal surgeries at our hospital. Although there is limited drug availability, regular assessments and appropriate dose adjustments by acute pain management service (APMS and use of multimodal analgesia led to a high level of patient satisfaction. We recommend that feedback to the primary anesthesiologists by APMS is of utmost importance to enable improvement in practice.

  13. Convalescence and hospital stay after colonic surgery with balanced analgesia, early oral feeding, and enforced mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Bülow, Steffen; Hesselfeldt, Peter

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the combined effects of pain relief by continuous epidural analgesia, early oral feeding and enforced mobilisation on convalescence and hospital stay after colonic resection. DESIGN: Uncontrolled pilot investigation. SETTING: University hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 17...... unselected patients (median age 69 years) undergoing colonic resection. INTERVENTIONS: Patients received combined epidural and general anaesthesia during operations and after operation were given continuous epidural bupivacaine 0.25%, 4 ml hour and morphine 0.2 mg hour, for 96 hours and oral paracetamol 4 g....../daily. No patient had a nasogastric tube, and oral feeding with normal food and protein enriched solutions (1000 Kcal (4180 KJ/day) was instituted 24 hours postoperatively together with intensive mobilisation. RESULTS: Median visual analogue pain scores were zero at rest and minimal during coughing and mobilisation...

  14. Effect of epidural 0.25% bupivacaine on somatosensory evoked potentials to dermatomal stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, C; Hansen, O B; Kehlet, H

    1989-01-01

    The effect of lumbar epidural analgesia with similar volumes (about 25 ml) of 0.25% and 0.5% bupivacaine on early (less than 0.5 seconds) somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to electrical stimulation of the S1, L1, and T10 dermatomes was examined in two groups of ten patients. Level of sensory...... analgesia to pinprick was T5.7 +/- 0.8 and T6.4 +/- 0.7 in the 0.25% and 0.5% bupivacaine group, respectively. Motor blockade was more pronounced in the 0.5% bupivacaine group (p less than 0.05). Despite similar analgesia to pinprick, SEPs were more reduced during 0.5% bupivacaine than during 0...

  15. Cardiopulmonary and analgesics effects of epidural morphine, fentanyl or tramadol in female dog undergoing a ovariohysterectomy

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    Odete Duarte de Oliveira Neta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Oliveira Neta O.D., Caires L.P., Clark R.M.O, Ferreira M.L., Said R.A., Munhoz A.D. & Tarazi R. [Cardiopulmonary and analgesics effects of epidural morphine, fentanyl or tramadol in female dog undergoing a ovariohysterectomy.] Efeitos cardiorrespiratórios e analgésicos da morfina, fentanil ou tramadol pela via epidural em cadelas submetidas à ovariosalpingohisterectomia. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:281-288, 2014. Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Rodovia Jorge Amado, Km 16, Salobrinho, Ilhéus, BA 45662-900, Brasil. E-mail: rosanaclark@gmail.com The objective was to evaluate the cardiorespiratory and analgesic effects provided by epidural morphine, tramadol and fentanyl in female dog submitted to ovariohysterectomy. Eighteen healthy female dogs, aged 3.4±2.2 years old, weithing 31.0±8.0Kg, were premedicated with chlorpromazine (0,5mg/kg, with subsequent propofol (5mg/Kg anesthetic induction by intravenous route and maintenance with isoflurane anesthesia. The animals were distributed in three groups and received: 1,25mg/kg of lignocaine 2% diluted in 0,26ml/kg of saline solution with0,1 mg/kg of morphine (GM group, 5μg/kg of fentanyl (GF group or 2mg/kg of tramadol (GT group epidurally.. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate, end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2 , oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2 and body temperature were evaluated before premedication (M0, 15 minutes after premedication (M1, 10 minutes after epidural opioids administration during maintenance and during postoperative period. Postoperative analgesia was evaluated using the by University of Melbourne pain scale (UMPS and a simple descriptive scale every hour during six hours (M3 – M8. In M2 time, the arterial blood pressure was significantly lower for all treatments and ETCO2 was higher in GM e GT when compared to GF. Pain scores were lower in GM with a UMPS. In the last three

  16. Effect of epidural tramadol and lignocaine on physiological and behavioural changes in goats subjected to castration with a high tension band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajadi, R A; Owanikin, A O; Martins, M M; Gazal, O S

    2012-11-01

    To compare the effect of a single epidural injection of either lignocaine or tramadol on behavioural changes, anaesthetic indices, leucocyte parameters, erythrocyte sedimentation rates and concentration of cortisol in plasma in goats subjected to castration by high tension band. Ten male goats weighing 14.4 (SD 0.7) kg were randomly allocated to anaesthesia with epidural injections of tramadol (3 mg/kg), or lignocaine (4 mg/kg). Following anaesthesia, a rubber ring was applied and tensioned to the scrotal neck of each goat. Behavioural changes were noted as they occurred, and the onset of drug action (time between epidural injection and loss of pedal reflex) and duration of antinociception (time interval between disappearance and reappearance of pedal withdrawal reflex) were determined. Hearts rates, respiratory rates and rectal temperatures were determined every 15 minutes for a 90-minute period, while blood was obtained for determination of white cell counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rates and concentrations of cortisol. Anaesthetic indices were compared using Student's t-test, while physiological parameters were compared using an ANOVA for repeated measurements. Goats treated with epidural tramadol were not recumbent and continued rumination while goats treated with epidural lignocaine were recumbent and did not continue rumination. The onset of analgesia was longer (p=0.01) in goats treated with epidural tramadol (5.0 minutes; SD 1.2) than goats treated with epidural lignocaine (3.0 minutes; SD 1.1), while duration of analgesia was shorter (p=0.003) in goats treated with epidural tramadol (47.2 minutes; SD 13.1) than goats treated with epidural lignocaine (89.8 minutes; SD 23.1). There was no significant difference in heart rates, respiratory rates and erythrocyte sedimentation rates, while the concentration of cortisol in plasma differed (pcattle and where the ability of the animal to maintain standing is desired.

  17. Procedural sedation analgesia

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    Sheta Saad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures performed outside of the operating room has grown exponentially over the last several decades. Sedation, analgesia, or both may be needed for many of these interventional or diagnostic procedures. Individualized care is important when determining if a patient requires procedural sedation analgesia (PSA. The patient might need an anti-anxiety drug, pain medicine, immobilization, simple reassurance, or a combination of these interventions. The goals of PSA in four different multidisciplinary practices namely; emergency, dentistry, radiology and gastrointestinal endoscopy are discussed in this review article. Some procedures are painful, others painless. Therefore, goals of PSA vary widely. Sedation management can range from minimal sedation, to the extent of minimal anesthesia. Procedural sedation in emergency department (ED usually requires combinations of multiple agents to reach desired effects of analgesia plus anxiolysis. However, in dental practice, moderate sedation analgesia (known to the dentists as conscious sedation is usually what is required. It is usually most effective with the combined use of local anesthesia. The mainstay of success for painless imaging is absolute immobility. Immobility can be achieved by deep sedation or minimal anesthesia. On the other hand, moderate sedation, deep sedation, minimal anesthesia and conventional general anesthesia can be all utilized for management of gastrointestinal endoscopy.

  18. Efficacy of clonidine as an adjuvant to bupivacaine for caudal analgesia in children undergoing sub-umbilical surgery

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    Aruna Parameswari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Caudal epidural analgesia with bupivacaine is very popular in paediatric anaesthesia for providing intra- and postoperative analgesia. Several adjuvants have been used to prolong the action of bupivacaine. We evaluated the efficacy of clonidine added to bupivacaine in prolonging the analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine in children undergoing sub-umbilical surgery. One hundred children, age one to three years, undergoing sub-umbilical surgery, were prospectively randomized to one of two groups: caudal analgesia with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine in normal saline (Group A or caudal analgesia with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine with 1 μg/kg of clonidine in normal saline (Group B. Post-operative pain was assessed for 24 hours using the FLACC scale. The mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer in Group B (593.4 ± 423.3 min than in Group A (288.7 ± 259.1 min; P < 0.05. The pain score assessed using FLACC scale was compared between the two groups, and children in Group B had lower pain scores, which was statistically significant. The requirement of rescue medicine was lesser in Group B. Clonidine in a dose of 1 μg/kg added to 0.25% bupivacaine for caudal analgesia, during sub-umbilical surgeries, prolongs the duration of analgesia of bupivacaine, without any side effects.

  19. Analgesic and physiological effect of electroacupuncture combined with epidural lidocaine in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lu-Ying; Guo, Ni-Ni; Li, Yu-Lin; Li, Meng; Ding, Ming-Xing

    2017-07-01

    To investigate physiological and antinociceptive effects of electroacupuncture (EA) with lidocaine epidural nerve block in goats. Prospective experimental trial. Forty-eight hybrid male goats weighing 27 ± 2 kg. The goats were randomly assigned to six groups: L2.2, epidural lidocaine (2.2 mg kg -1 ); L4.4, epidural lidocaine (4.4 mg kg -1 ); EA; EA-L1.1, EA with epidural lidocaine (1.1 mg kg -1 ); EA-L2.2, EA with epidural lidocaine (2.2 mg kg -1 ); and EA-L4.4, EA with epidural lidocaine (4.4 mg kg -1 ). EA was administered for 120 minutes. Epidural lidocaine was administered 25 minutes after EA started. Nociceptive thresholds of flank and thigh regions, abdominal muscle tone, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), respiratory frequency (f R ) and rectal temperature were recorded at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 minutes. Lidocaine dose-dependently increased nociceptive thresholds. There were no differences in nociceptive thresholds between L4.4 and EA from 30 to 120 minutes. The threshold in EA-L2.2 was lower than in EA-L4.4 from 30 to 120 minutes, but higher than in EA-L1.1 from 30 to 150 minutes or in L4.4 from 30 to 180 minutes. The abdominal muscle tone in EA-L2.2 was higher at 30 minutes, but lower at 90 and 120 minutes than at 0 minutes. There were no differences in muscle tone between L4.4 and L2.2 or EA-L4.4, and between any two of the three EA-lidocaine groups from 0 to 180 minutes. The f R and HR decreased in L4.4 at 60 and 90 minutes compared with 0 minutes. No differences in f R , HR, MAP and temperature among the groups occurred from 30 to 180 minutes. EA combined with 2.2 mg kg -1 epidural lidocaine provides better antinociceptive effect than 4.4 mg kg -1 epidural lidocaine alone in goats. EA provided antinociception and allowed a decrease in epidural lidocaine dose. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. The study of patient controlled analgesia undergoing interventional therapy for gynecology and obstetrics ailment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She Shouzhang

    2006-01-01

    Uterine artery embolism is widely used for interventional therapy of gynecology and obstetrics ailment, but immediate incidence of pain occurs in 90% to 100% after uterine artery embolism and postoperative incidence of pain takes place from 80% to 90%. Patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) could be adopted to treat pain with obviously outweighed effects over the traditional drug regimen or patient intravenous analgesia during the period of interventional therapy of uterine artery embolization. PCEA possesses good effect of analgesia and less adverse reaction and furthermore could eliminate or lessen the sufferings of patient and thus improve rehabilitation quality. Adding droperidol (0.005%) into the preparation of PCEA could decrease adverse effect incidence of nausea and vomiting; so it deserves recommendation for extending application in clinical interventional therapy. (authors)

  1. Obstetric regional analgesia in the Jesenice General hospital in year 2006

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    Aleksandra Kern

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this retrospective analysis of the obstetric regional analgesia (ORA in Jesenice General Hospital in year 2006 was to evaluate our work and present results. We analysed workload, quality of the analgesia and patients’ satisfaction. We also estimated the OR for vacuum extraction (VE in nulliparous labouring women having ORA. We compared quality of analgesia and total local analgesic consumption in nulliparous women having VE or spontaneous delivery.Methods: We performed retrospective analysis of labours with ORA in year 2006. All women received epiduraly mixture of 0.1 % bupivacaine with 2 µg of fentanyl per ml in intermittent boluses.The labour pain was assessed using visual analogue scale (VAS. We used median and interquartile range to describe distribution of these values and mean with standard deviation to describe distribution of other data (local anaesthetic consumption. We considered patient with pain VAS 3 or less adequately treated, VAS 4 and 5 sufficiently and VAS 6 and more insufficiently treated. We used odds ratio as measurement of risk for VE, t-test for differences in local anaesthetic consumption and Mann-Whitney test to evaluate differences in pain between tested groups.Results: 225 labouring women opted for ORA or 38 % of all labouring women in year 2006. We performed 224 ORA, 59 % during regular work, 41 % during turn of duty. 18 % of ORA were performed between 10 p.m. and 7.00 a.m. In 98 % of cases epidural analgesia was used. Anaesthesiologic work took 16 minutes in average (SD 6.06. Analgesia was started at VAS median 5 (IQR 4–6.5 and at average cervical dilatation 4.1 cm (SD 1.4. Average consumption of bupivacaine was 55 mg (SD 23.7 and fentanyl 91.7 µg (SD 46.5. Most common complications were inadequate analgesia, and misplacement of epidural catheter (10/222, dural tap (6/222, and unilateral analgesia (2/222. 70 labours were ended with VE (13 %; n = 532. There were 27 (8.7 %; n = 309 VE in

  2. Analgesic efficacy and safety of epidural oxycodone in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olczak B

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bogumił Olczak,1 Grzegorz Kowalski,1,2 Wojciech Leppert,2 Agnieszka Bienert,3 Artur Teżyk,4 Michał Adamski,1 Stanisław Rzymski,1 Katarzyna Wieczorowska-Tobis2 1Department of Anaesthesiology, Józef Struś Multiprofile Municipal Hospital, Poznań, 2Department of Palliative Medicine, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Biopharmacy, 4Department of Forensic Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland Background and objectives: Oxycodone is poorly studied as an adjuvant to central blockades. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the efficacy and safety of oxycodone hydrochloride in epidural blockade among patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA.Patients and methods: In 11 patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification system II/III, age range: 59–82 years, THA was conducted with an epidural blockade using 15 mL 0.25% bupivacaine (37.5 mg with 5 mg oxycodone hydrochloride and sedation with propofol infusion at a dose of 3–5 mg/kg/h. After the surgery, patients received ketoprofen at a dose of 100 mg twice daily. In the first 24 hours postoperative period, pain was assessed by numerical rating scale at rest and on movement; adverse effects (AEs were recorded; and plasma concentrations of oxycodone, noroxycodone, and bupivacaine were measured.Results: The administration of epidural oxycodone at a dose of 5 mg in patients undergoing THA provided analgesia for a mean time of 10.3±4.89 h. In one patient, mild pruritus was observed. Oxycodone did not evoke other AEs. Plasma concentrations of oxycodone while preserving analgesia were >2.9 ng/mL. Noroxycodone concentrations in plasma did not guarantee analgesic effect.Conclusion: The administration of epidural oxycodone at a dose of 5 mg prolongs the analgesia period to ~10 hours in patients after THA. Oxycodone may evoke pruritus. A 5 mg dose of oxycodone hydrochloride used in an epidural blockade seems to be a safe drug in patients

  3. Thoracic epidural anesthesia and interscalene block for a pneumonectomized patient posted for modified radical mastectomy

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    Mridul Dua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic epidural anesthesia with ipsilateral brachial plexus block is emerging as an alternative to general anesthesia for oncologic breast surgery.1. A 31 year old, pneumonectomised female with a past history of MDR TB was diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma in left breast 2 months ago and was posted for MRM. She also had moderate Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. Thoracic epidural anesthesia was induced with 12 ml of 0.5% Ropivacaine at T6-T7 level. Interscalene block was given with 10 ml 0.5% Ropivacaine using peripheral nerve locator. Patient was comfortable throughout the procedure and remained vitally stable. Post-operative analgesia was given with 10 ml of 0.2% ropivacaine and patient was discharged the following week. Thoracic epidural anesthesia provides the advantage of superior intra and post-operative analgesia without the adverse effects of general anesthesia like postoperative nausea, vomiting, respiratory depression and sedation.2 Coupled with interscalene block for axillary lymph node dissection, it can be successfully used as an alternative to GA for MRM.

  4. Facial nerve paralysis and partial brachial plexopathy after epidural blood patch: a case report and review of the literature

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    Radi Shahien

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Radi Shahien, Abdalla BowirratDepartment of Neurology, Ziv Medical Center, Zfat, IsraelAbstract: We report a complication related to epidural analgesia for delivery in a 24-year-old woman who was admitted with mild pre-eclampsia and for induction of labor. At the first postpartum day she developed a postdural puncture headache, which was unresponsive to conservative measures. On the fifth day an epidural blood patch was done, and her headache subsided. Sixteen hours later she developed paralysis of the right facial nerve, which was treated with prednisone. Seven days later she complained of pain in the left arm and the posterior region of the shoulder. She was later admitted and diagnosed with partial brachial plexopathy.Keywords: facial nerve paralysis, partial brachial plexopathy, epidural blood patch

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid cutaneous fistula following obstetric epidural analgaesia. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedriani de Matos, J J; Quintero Salvago, A V; Gómez Cortés, M D

    2017-10-01

    Cutaneous fistula of cerebrospinal fluid is a rare complication of neuroaxial blockade. We report the case of a parturient in whom an epidural catheter was placed for labour analgesia and 12h after the catheter was removed, presented an abundant asymptomatic fluid leak from the puncture site, compatible in the cyto-chemical analysis with cerebrospinal fluid. She was treated with acetazolamide, compression of skin orifice of the fluid leakage, antibiotic prophylaxis, hydration and rest, and progressed satisfactorily without requiring blood patch. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Analgesia/anesthesia for external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiniger, Carolyn F

    2013-06-01

    Professional society guidelines recommend that women with breech presentation be delivered surgically due to a higher incidence of fetal risks compared with vaginal delivery. An alternative is attempted external cephalic version, which if successful, enables attempted vaginal delivery. Attitudes towards external cephalic version (ECV) will be considered in this review, along with pain relief methods and their impact on ECV success rates. Articles suggest that ECV is infrequently offered, due to both physician and patient factors. Success of ECV is higher in multiparous women, complete breech, posterior placenta, or smaller fetus. Preterm ECV performance does not increase vaginal delivery rates. Neuraxial techniques (spinal or epidural) significantly increase ECV success rates, as do moxibustion and hypnosis. Four reviews summarized studies considering ECV and neuraxial techniques. These reviews suggest that neuraxial techniques using high (surgical) doses of local anesthetic are efficacious compared with control groups not using anesthesia, whereas techniques using low-doses are not. Low-dose versus high-dose neuraxial analgesia/anesthesia has not been directly compared in a single study. Based on currently available data, the rate of cephalic presentation is not increased using neuraxial techniques, but vaginal delivery rates are higher. ECV appears to be a low-risk procedure. The logistics of routine ECV and provision of optimal neuraxial techniques for successful ECV require additional research. Safety aspects of neuraxial anesthesia for ECV require further investigation.

  7. Epidural hematomas of posterior fossa

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    Radulović Danilo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Posterior fossa epidural hematomas represent 7-14% of all traumatic intracranial epidural hematomas. They are most frequently encountered posttraumatic mass lesions in the posterior fossa. The aim of this study was to identify clinical features that could lead to the early diagnosis of posterior fossa epidural hematoma. Methods. Between 1980 and 2002, 28 patients with epidural hematoma of the posterior fossa were operated on at the Institute for Neurosurgery, Belgrade. Clinical course neuroradiological investigations, and the results of surgical treatment of the patients with posterior fossa epidural hematomas were analyzed retrospectively. Results. Almost two thirds of patients were younger than 16 years of age. In 20 cases injury was caused by a fall, in 6 cases by a traffic accident, and in 2 by the assault. Clinical course was subacute or chronic in two thirds of the patients. On the admission Glasgow Coma Scale was 7 or less in 9 injured, 8-14 in 14 injured, and 15 in 5 injured patients. Linear fracture of the occipital bone was radiographically evident in 19 patients, but was intraoperatively encountered in all the patients except for a 4-year old child. In 25 patients the diagnosis was established by computer assisted tomography (CAT and in 3 by vertebral angiography. All the patients were operated on via suboccipital craniotomy. Four injured patients who were preoperatively comatose were with lethal outcome. Postoperatively, 24 patients were with sufficient neurologic recovery. Conclusion. Posterior fossa epidural hematoma should be suspected in cases of occipital injury, consciousness disturbances, and occipital bone fracture. In such cases urgent CAT-scan is recommended. Early recognition early diagnosis, and prompt treatment are crucial for good neurological recovery after surgery.

  8. Thoracic epidural steroid injection for rib fracture pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchwerger, Jacob J; Candido, Kenneth D; Deer, Timothy R; Frogel, Jonathan K; Iadevaio, Robert; Kirschen, Neil B

    2013-06-01

    Treatment for rib fracture pain can be broadly divided into pharmacologic approaches with oral and/or parenteral medication and interventional approaches utilizing neuraxial analgesia or peripheral nerve blocks to provide pain relief. Both approaches attempt to control nociceptive and neuropathic pain secondary to osseous injury and nerve insult, respectively. Success of treatment is ultimately measured by the ability of the selected modality to decrease pain, chest splinting, and to prevent sequelae of injury, such as pneumonia. Typically, opioids and NSAIDs are the drugs of first choice for acute pain because of ease of administration, immediate onset of action, and rapid titration to effect. In contrast, neuropathic pain medications have a slower onset of action and are more difficult to titrate to therapeutic effect. Interventional approaches include interpleural catheters, intercostal nerve blocks, paravertebral nerve blocks, and thoracic and lumbar epidural catheters. Each intervention has its own inherent advantages, disadvantages, and success rates. Rib fracture pain management practice is founded on the thoracic surgical and anesthesiology literature. Articles addressing rib fracture pain are relatively scarce in the pain medicine literature. As life expectancy increases, and as healthcare system modifications are implemented, pain medicine physicians may be consulted to treat increasing number of patients suffering rib fracture pain and may need to resort to novel therapeutic measures because of financial constraints imposed by those changes. Here we present the first published case series of thoracic epidural steroid injections used for management of rib fracture pain. © 2012 The Authors Pain Practice © 2012 World Institute of Pain.

  9. Epidural extramedullary haemopoiesis in thalassaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyacigil, S.; Ali, A.; Ardic, S.; Yuksel, E.

    2002-01-01

    lntrathoracic extramedullary haematopoiesis is a rare condition. Involvement of the spinal epidural space with haematopoietic tissue is rather unusual. A 31-year-old-man with a known diagnosis of β-thalassaemia was referred with focal back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse bone-marrow changes, thoracic paraspinal masses and lobulated epidural masses, suggesting extramedullary haemopoiesis. The patient was treated with radiotherapy and blood transfusions. Follow-up MRI was performed for evaluation efficacy of the treatment. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  10. [Combined spinal epidural anesthesia during endoprosthetic surgeries for bone tumors in old-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinian, N V; Saltanov, A I

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-five patients (ASA II-III) aged 12 to 17 years, diagnosed as having osteogenic sarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma localizing in the femur and tibia, were examined. Surgery was performed as sectoral resection of the affected bone along with knee joint endoprosthesis. Surgical intervention was made under combined spinal and epidural anesthesia (CSEA) with sedation, by using the methods for exact dosing of propofol (6-4 mg/kg x h). During intervention, a child's respiration remains is kept spontaneous with oxygen insufflation through a nasal catheter. CSEA was performed in two-segmental fashion. The epidural space was first catheterized. After administration of a test dose, 0.5% marcaine spinal was injected into dermatomas below the subarachnoidal space, depending on body weight (3.0-4.0 ml). Sensory blockade developed following 3-5 min and lasted 90-120 min, thereafter a local anesthetic (bupivacaine) or its mixture plus promedole was epidurally administered. ??Anesthesia was effective in all cases, motor blockade. During surgery, there was a moderate arterial hypotension that did not require the use of vasopressors. The acid-alkali balance suggested the adequacy of spontaneous respiration. The only significant complication we observed was atony of the bladder that requires its catheterization till the following day. An epidural catheter makes it possible to effect adequate postoperative analgesia.

  11. Comparison of Morphine and Tramadol in Transforaminal Epidural Injections for Lumbar Radicular Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Transforaminal epidural steroid injections are known to reduce inflammation by inhibiting synthesis of various proinflammatory mediators and have been used increasingly. The anti-inflammatory properties of opioids are not as fully understood but apparently involve antagonism sensory neuron excitability and pro-inflammatory neuropeptide release. To date, no studies have addressed the efficacy of transforaminal epidural morphine in patients with radicular pain, and none have directly compared morphine with a tramadol for this indication. The aim of this study was to compare morphine and tramadol analgesia when administered via epidural injection to patients with lumbar radicular pain. Methods A total of 59 patients were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups and followed for 3 months after procedure. Each patient was subjected to C-arm guided transforaminal epidural injection (TFEI) of an affected nerve root. As assigned, patients received either morphine sulfate (2.5 mg/2.5 ml) or tramadol (25 mg/0.5 ml) in combination with 0.2% ropivacaine (1 ml). Using numeric rating scale was subsequently rates at 2 weeks and 3 months following injection for comparison with baseline. Results Both groups had significantly lower mean pain scores at 2 weeks and at 3 months after treatment, but outcomes did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions TFEI of an opioid plus local anesthetic proved effective in treating radicular pain. Although morphine surpassed tramadol in pain relief scores, the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:23862000

  12. Evaluation of the effect of magnesium sulphate vs. clonidine as adjunct to epidural bupivacaine

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    Tanmoy Ghatak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For treatment of intra and postoperative pain, no drug has yet been identified that specifically inhibits nociception without associated side effects. Magnesium has antinociceptive effects in animal and human models of pain. The current prospective randomised double-blind study was undertaken to establish the effect of addition of magnesium or clonidine, as adjuvant, to epidural bupivacaine in lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries. A total of 90 American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA grade I and II patients undergoing lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries were enrolled to receive either magnesium sulphate (Group B or clonidine (Group C along with epidural bupivacaine for surgical anaesthesia. All patients received 19 ml of epidural bupivacaine 0.5% along with 50 mg magnesium in group B, 150 mcg clonidine in Group C, whereas in control group (Group A, patients received same volume of normal saline. Onset time, heart rate, blood pressure, duration of analgesia, pain assessment by visual analogue score (VAS and adverse effects were recorded. Onset of anaesthesia was rapid in magnesium group (Group B. In group C there was prolongation of duration of anaesthesia and sedation with lower VAS score, but the incidence of shivering was higher. The groups were similar with respect to haemodynamic variables, nausea and vomiting. The current study establishes magnesium sulphate as a predictable and safe adjunct to epidural bupivacaine for rapid onset of anaesthesia and clonidine for prolonged duration of anaesthesia with sedation.

  13. Traumatic posterior fossa epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yukio; Nakazawa, Shozo; Yamakawa, Kazuomi; Kobayashi, Shiro; Tsuji, Yukihide

    1981-01-01

    In this paper three acute cases and two subacute cases are reported. CT findings in acute cases show two different types. ''Type I'' shows crescent or lenticular high density area which is not enhanced after contrast infusion. ''Type II'' shows lenticular low density area with membranous high density region in its medial side after contrast infusion. In subacute cases plain CT scan shows lenticular iso or low density area with membranous high density region in its medial side. Forty five cases of posterior fossa epidural hematoma in the review of literature of this country are discussed. Disturbances of the consciousness are the most predominant symptoms in acute cases, while in subacute cases cerebellar signs, vomiting, headache and choked disc are noted. Angiographical examinations may not always be valuable in collecting the direct information of the existence of the epidural hematoma. Liquor cavity in the posterior fossa which is thought to serve as a buffer action of hematoma is about 20 ml, so we discuss about the volume of hematoma, especially of 20 ml, associated with clinical course and prognosis. Volume of epidural hematoma is one of the most important factors affecting clinical course and prognosis. In summary of these our experiences, we again emphasize the value of CT scan as the rapid, noninvasive, accurate radiological examination in the diagnosis of traumatic posterior fossa epidural hematoma. (author)

  14. Acute epidural hematoma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunose, Mutsuo; Nishijima, Michiharu; Fukuda, Osamu; Saito, Tetsugen; Takaku, Akira; Horie, Yukio.

    1992-01-01

    The clinical features and sequential changes of CT findings in children with acute epidural hematoma were correlated with the patient's age. Of the 373 children admitted for head injury during the past 8 years, 61 had an acute traumatic intra-cranial hematoma, and 38 of these had acute epidural hematoma. None of the patients with acute epidural hematoma was under 2 years of age, 15 were 2-6 years old, and 23 were 7-15 years old. In the pre-school group, the numbers of boys and girls were approximately equal, but in the older group boys outnumbered girls. Epidural hematoma was most often parietal (12 patients). Nine patients had posterior fossa hematomas; 30 (78.9%) had skull fractures, and the incidence was not related to the patient's age. In 28 of the 38 patients, CT scans were examined repeatedly for 24 hours. In 15 of them (53.6%), the size of the hematoma increased. In school-aged children, the hematoma tended to be larger than in pre-school children. In four patients with pneumocephalus, the hematoma increased in size. Eleven of the 13, whose hematomas did not increase in size, had skull fractures. (author)

  15. Hospitalization for partial nephrectomy was not associated with intrathecal opioid analgesia: Retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Toby N; Del Mundo, Serena B; Yeoh, Tze Yeng; Scavonetto, Federica; Leibovich, Bradley C; Sprung, Juraj

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this retrospective study is to test the hypothesis that the use of spinal analgesia shortens the length of hospital stay after partial nephrectomy. We reviewed all patients undergoing partial nephrectomy for malignancy through flank incision between January 1, 2008, and June 30, 2011. We excluded patients who underwent tumor thrombectomy, used sustained-release opioids, or had general anesthesia supplemented by epidural analgesia. Patients were grouped into "spinal" (intrathecal opioid injection for postoperative analgesia) versus "general anesthetic" group, and "early" discharge group (within 3 postoperative days) versus "late" group. Association between demographics, patient physical status, anesthetic techniques, and surgical complexity and hospital stay were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Of 380 patients, 158 (41.6%) were discharged "early" and 151 (39.7%) were "spinal" cases. Both spinal and early discharge groups had better postoperative pain control and used less postoperative systemic opioids. Spinal analgesia was associated with early hospital discharge, odds ratio 1.52, (95% confidence interval 1.00-2.30), P = 0.05, but in adjusted analysis was no longer associated with early discharge, 1.16 (0.73-1.86), P = 0.52. Early discharge was associated with calendar year, with more recent years being associated with early discharge. Spinal analgesia combined with general anesthesia was associated with improved postoperative pain control during the 1(st) postoperative day, but not with shorter hospital stay following partial nephrectomy. Therefore, unaccounted practice changes that occurred during more recent times affected hospital stay.

  16. Lumbar microdiscectomy under epidural anaesthesia with the patient in the sitting position: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicassio, Nicola; Bobicchio, Paolo; Umari, Marzia; Tacconi, Leonello

    2010-12-01

    In a prospective study we compared the surgical outcome, length of hospital stay, complications and patient satisfaction for patients undergoing lumbar microdiscectomy (LM) under spinal anaesthesia (SA) in the sitting position (23 patients) to those of another cohort who underwent LM under general anaesthesia (GA) in the prone or genu-pectoral position during the same time period (238 patients). We aimed to determine: (i) if epidural anaesthesia is safe for lumbar microdiscectomy; and (ii) if placing the patient in a sitting position confers an advantage in performing the operation. For all patients we calculated the time from the end of the operation to the first spontaneous urination and to the first administration of analgesic drugs. Before being discharged, patients were asked to give an opinion on the quality of analgesia obtained by epidural anaesthesia and on the sitting position used. No patient had any complications linked to epidural anaesthesia and only one patient experienced a small dural tear as a surgical complication. Twenty of 23 patients expressed satisfaction with the level of analgesia obtained and only three considered it poor. All patients found the sitting position comfortable. Advantages of the sitting position for surgery include better comfort for the patient, potential to recreate a load condition similar to the one that takes place during orthostasis and a "cleaner" operative field that uses gravity to drain blood. Of greatest concern is the possibility of the patient developing a dural tear and subsequent leaking of cerebrospinal fluid, which could also be a source of surgical complications. Currently, epidural anaesthesia allows a reduction in anaesthetic and surgical times, anaesthetic complications and, consequently, hospitalization period. Further analysis of the sitting position for the patient during surgery is required to fully assess the advantages and disadvantages of this method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE ANALGESIC EFFICACY OF CAUDAL MIDAZOLAM AND CLONIDINE POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalinga Raju A.V.S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Caudal epidural analgesia is one of the most popular regional techniques used in paediatric patients undergoing lower limb, anoperineal and abdominal surgical procedures for postoperative pain relief. The aim of postoperative pain relief is to provide subjective comfort and inhibit trauma-induced nociceptive impulses to blunt autonomic and reflex responses to pain and subsequently to enhance the restoration of function. Caudal epidural analgesia though practiced widely is of short duration even when used with long-acting local anaesthetics. MATERIALS AND METHODS Children of either sex undergoing elective hernia or hydrocele surgery within in the age group of 2-8 years belonging to ASA I and II were included in the study. Informed consent was obtained from the parents before procedure. RESULTS The duration of analgesia in the study group was 10.14 ± 4.69 hrs. and 6.83 ± 0.79 hrs. in the clonidine group and midazolam group. Duration of analgesia in clonidine group was significantly longer when compared to with midazolam group with a p value of <0.05. Sedation Score- There was decrease in heart rate and mean arterial pressure from baseline, but these were under allowable limits of 20%. The patient had pain scores of less than 8 for first 6-8 hrs. The patients were well sedated and were easily arousable. CONCLUSION We conclude that in our study we found that clonidine 8 μg/kg provided good analgesia for a longer duration when compared with midazolam. Clonidine also provided good sedation with minimal haemodynamic variations. This is in agreement with studies conducted to know haemodynamic stability with higher doses of clonidine.

  18. Postoperative analgesia in children when using clonidine in addition to fentanyl with bupivacaine given caudally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarraya, Anouar; Elleuch, Sahar; Zouari, Jawhar; Smaoui, Mohamed; Laabidi, Sofiene; Kolsi, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of clonidine in association with fentanyl as an additive to bupivacaine 0.25% given via single shot caudal epidural in pediatric patients for postoperative pain relief. In the present prospective randomized double blind study, 40 children of ASA-I-II aged 1-5 years scheduled for infraumblical surgical procedures were randomly allocated to two groups to receive either bupivacaine 0.25% (1 ml/kg) with fentanyl 1 μg/kg and clonidine 1μg/kg (group I) or bupivacaine 0.25% (1 ml/kg) with fentanyl 1 μg/kg (group II). Caudal block was performed after the induction of general anesthesia. Postoperatively patients were observed for analgesia, sedation, hemodynamic parameters, and side effects or complications. Both the groups were similar with respect to patient and various block characteristics. Heart rate and blood pressure were not different in 2 groups. Significantly prolonged duration of post-operative analgesia was observed in group I (Pbupivacaine in single shot caudal epidural in children may provide better and longer analgesia after infraumblical surgical procedures.

  19. Pro con debate: the use of regional vs systemic analgesia for neonatal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösenberg, Adrian T; Jöhr, Martin; Wolf, Andrew R

    2011-12-01

    In recent years the inclusion of regional techniques to pediatric anesthesia has transformed practice. Simple procedures such as caudal anesthesia with local anaesthetics can reduce the amounts of general anesthesia required and provide complete analgesia in the postoperative period while avoiding large amounts of opioid analgesia with potential side effects that can impair recovery. However, the application of central blocks (epidural and spinal local anesthesia) via catheters in the younger infant, neonate and even preterm neonate remains more controversial. The potential for such invasive maneuvers themselves to augment risk, can be argued to outweigh the benefits, others would argue that epidural analgesia can reduce the need for postoperative ventilation and that this not only facilitates surgery when intensive care facilities are limited, but also reduces cost in terms of PICU stay and recovery profile. Currently, opinions are divided and strongly held with some major units adopting this approach widely and others maintaining a more conservative stance to anesthesia for major neonatal surgery. In this pro-con debate the evidence base is examined, supplemented with expert opinion to try to provide a balanced overall view. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. High-volume infiltration analgesia in bilateral hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Ø; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl; Husted, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    bilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA) in a fast-track setting, saline or high-volume (170 mL) ropivacaine (0.2%) with epinephrine (1:100,000) was administered to the wound intraoperatively along with supplementary postoperative injections via an intraarticular epidural catheter. Oral analgesia...... was instituted preoperatively with a multimodal regimen (gabapentin, celecoxib, and acetaminophen). Pain was assessed repeatedly for 48 hours postoperatively, at rest and with 45° hip flexion. Results Pain scores were low and similar between ropivacaine and saline administration. Median hospital stay was 4...... (range 2-7) days. Interpretation Intraoperative high-volume infiltration with 0.2% ropivacaine with repeated intraarticular injections postoperatively may not give a clinically relevant analgesic effect in THA when combined with a multimodal oral analgesic regimen with gabapentin, celecoxib...

  1. Current status of patient-controlled analgesia in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, C; Bruera, E

    1997-03-01

    Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a relatively new technique in which patients are able to self-administer small doses of opioid analgesics when needed. Many different devices are available for opioid infusion, including a syringe pump, disposable plastic cylinder, and battery-operated computer-driven pump. These devices allow patients to choose an intermittent (demand) bolus, continuous infusion, or both modes of administration. Parameters, such as route, drug concentration dose, frequency, and maximum daily or hourly dose, are programmed by the physician. The patient decides whether or not to take a dose. Devices can be used to deliver the drug into a running intravenous infusion, the epidural space, or subcutaneously. Controlled trials indicate that PCA is probably superior to regular opioid administration in postoperative pain. Reported advantages include greater patient satisfaction, decreased sedation and anxiety, and reduced nursing time and hospitalization. Preliminary experience suggests that PCA is also useful and safe for cancer pain, but further research is greatly needed.

  2. Radiologic evaluation of spinal epidural mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Kyu; Lee, Moon Kyu; Chang, Kee Hyun

    1987-01-01

    It is often difficult to differentiate each pathologic entity among various spinal epidural masses on the radiologic basis. We retrospectively analysed radiologic findings of 67 cases of pathologically proven spinal epidural mass to find out any specific findings of each epidural mass. The results are as follows : 1. Of 67 cases, metastasis (16 cases), epidural abscess (15 cases), neurogenic tumor (16 cases) and meningioma (8 cases) are most common. The others consist of epidural angioma (3 cases), vertebral hemangioma (2 cases), chondrosarcoma (2 cases), fibrosarcoma (1 case), eosinophilic granuloma (1 case), lymphoma (1 case), lipoma (1 case) and lymphoid hyperplasia (1 case). 2. Destruction of the adjacent bone was commonly associated with the epidural mass in metastasis (75%) and epidural abscess (67%). It was also noted in 2 cases of chondrosarcoma, 1 fibrosarcoma and 1 eosinophilic granuloma. 3. Pressure erosion of adjacent bone was demonstrated in neurogenic tumor (75%) and meningioma (25%). 4. Narrowing of intervertebral space was seen in only 27% of epidural abscess. 5. The paraspinal tumor was associated in 67% of metastasis, 80% of epidural abscess, 75% of neurogenic tumor, 33% of meningioma. It was also seen in 2 cases of chondrosarcoma, 1 fibrosarcoma and 1 eosinophilic granuloma. 6. The intradural tumor was associated in 50% of neurogenic tumor and 67% of meningioma. 7. On axial CT image, most of the epidural mass shows eccentric location with displacing dural sac to the opposite side. The diseases that occasionally show encircling location are metastasis, epidural abscess, vertebral hemangioma, chondrosarcoma, eosinophilic granuloma, and lymphoma. Neurogenic tumor only shows multicentric location. 8. The disease extent more than height of one vertebral body was seen in 80% of epidural abscess, 58% of neurogenic tumor, 100% of epidural angioma. It was also seen in 2 cases of chondrosarcoma, 1 fibrosarcoma, 1 eosinophilic granuloma, 1 lymphoma, 1

  3. Effects of combined general anesthesia and thoracic epidural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-02

    Nov 2, 2015 ... Key words: Bupivacaine, combined-general-epidural anesthesia, inflammatory cytokines, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, ..... spinal-epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section. Left lateral ... laparoscopic segmental colectomy.

  4. Comparison of Efficacy of Epidural Ropivacaine versus Bupivacaine for Postoperative Pain Relief in Total Knee Replacement Surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Sidharth; Dhar, Mridul; Sreevastava, Deepak Kumar; Nair, Rajiv; Chandrakar, Saurabh

    2018-01-01

    Epidural analgesia has become the standard of care for knee replacement surgeries worldwide. Bupivacaine has been used successfully for many years. Epidural ropivacaine is now being used increasingly and seems to have benefits other than just pain relief, in terms of a better safety profile. To compare the efficacy of bupivacaine 0.125% (Group B) versus two concentrations of ropivacaine 0.1% (Group R1) and 0.2% (Group R2), in terms of pain scores, requirement of rescue analgesia, related adverse effects, and duration of postoperative (PO) hospital stay. A retrospective study was conducted from the acute pain service data of patients who underwent joint replacement surgeries in one or both limbs, over a span of 6 months. Patients were allocated to and analyzed under one of the three groups based on the drug concentration used postoperatively by epidural infusion. Data retrieved were demographic data, daily average visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores, rescue analgesia given, adverse effects, and PO hospital stay days for all three groups. Demographic data were comparable between the three groups. Daily average VAS pain scores on days 1 and 2 were significantly higher in Group R1. Groups B and R2 were comparable. There was significantly more requirement of rescue analgesia in Group R1 on day 1. Day 2 showed no significant difference in rescue analgesic requirement in all three groups. Days of PO hospital stay were significantly higher in Group R1. Adverse effects such as hypotension and delayed motor block were higher in Group B. Ropivacaine 0.2% and bupivacaine 0.125% were equally efficacious in terms of VAS pain scores, rescue analgesic requirement, and duration of PO hospital stay, but ropivacaine had a better safety profile in terms of less hypotension and lesser motor block.

  5. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Music Use During Epidural Catheter Placement on Laboring Parturient Anxiety, Pain, and Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzymalski, Dan M; Tsen, Lawrence C; Palanisamy, Arvind; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Kodali, Bhavani S

    2017-02-01

    anxiety and no improvement in pain or satisfaction; however, a stronger desire for music with future epidural catheter placements was observed. Further investigation is needed to determine the effect of music use in parturients requesting and using epidural labor analgesia.

  6. Ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block analgesia after total knee arthroplasty: a multicenter randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Postoperative analgesia is crucial for early functional excise after total knee arthroplasty. To investigate the clinical efficacy of ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block analgesia after total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: 46 patients with ASA grade I-III who underwent total knee arthroplasty received postoperative analgesia from October 2012 to January 2013. In 22 patients, ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block were performed for analgesia (CFNB group; in 24 patients, epidural analgesia was done (PCEA group. The analgesic effects, side effects, articular recovery and complications were compared between two groups. RESULTS: At 6 h and 12 h after surgery, the knee pain score (VAS score during functional tests after active exercise and after passive excise in CFNB were significantly reduced when compared with PCEA group. The amount of parecoxib used in CFNB patients was significantly reduced when compared with PCEA group. At 48 h after surgery, the muscle strength grade in CFNB group was significantly higher, and the time to ambulatory activity was shorter than those in PCEA group. The incidence of nausea and vomiting in CFNB patients was significantly reduced when compared with PCEA group. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block provide better analgesia at 6 h and 12 h, demonstrated by RVAS and PVAS. The amount of parecoxib also reduces, the incidence of nausea and vomiting decreased, the influence on muscle strength is compromised and patients can perform ambulatory activity under this condition.

  7. The effects of intravenous aminoacid infusion on myocardial functions and postoperative analgesia during abdominal aortic surgery

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    Mustafa Turhan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Effects of intravenous aminoacid infusion onmyocardial functions and postoperative analgesia in abdominalaortic surgery were investigated.Materials and methods: Forty patients were randomlydivided into groups of general anaesthesia with or withoutaminoacid infusion (Group 1 and 2, n=10, combinedgeneral+epidural with or without amino acid infusion (Group3 and 4, n=10. Cardiac risk was evaluated using 2007 AHA/ACC and modified Goldman classifications. Intravenousaminoacid solution of 80 g/L was infused at 2.5 ml/kg/h for atotal of 8 hours. General anaesthesia included intravenousremifentanil, rocuronium, sevoflurane. The lumbar epiduralinclude; 10 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine; bolus dose, an infusionof 0.25% bupivacaine; 4 ml/h for 24 hours. Heart rate,arterial blood pressures were collected intraoperative every10 minute, 1, 24 hour postoperatively. Plasma creatinekinase MB fraction, troponin levels, pain assessment withnumeric analog scale were collected preoperatively, 1, 24hour postoperatively. Postoperative 24 hour analgesic usage,complications were recorded.Results: Patients with mild and severe cardiac risk werehigher in 2007 AHA/ACC classification (26/40, 65% thanmodified Goldman risk classification (5/40, 12.5% (p=0.04.In comparison between groups, myocardial enzyme levelsand complications showed no difference (p>0.05. The useof analgesics were lower in group 3 and 4 in comparison togroup 1 and 2 (p=0.002.Conclusion: During abdominal aortic surgery, intravenousinfusion of amino acid did not show significant changes onintraoperative and postoperative hemodynamic parametersand myocardial enzymes. The patients received combinedgeneral plus epidural anaesthesia showed more successfulpostoperative analgesia.Key words: Amino acid, abdominal aorta, vascular surgery,epidural anesthesia, general anesthesia, keratin kinase,troponin, postoperative analgesia

  8. A case of trigeminal hypersensitivity after administration of intrathecal sufentanil and bupivacaine for labor analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Bechara de Souza Hobaika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rostral spread of intrathecal drugs and sensitization of supraspinal sites may provoke several adverse effects. This case describes a patient with right hemifacial paresthesia, trismus and dysphasia on the trigeminal nerve distribution after intrathecal sufentanil administration. Primigravida, 34 years, 39 weeks of pregnancy, with hypothyroidism and pregnancy induced hypertension. Allergic to latex. In the use of puran T4, 50 μg /day. When the patient presented cervical dilatation of 4 cm, she requested analgesia. She was placed in the sitting position and a spinal puncture was performed with a 27G needle pencil point in L4/L5 (1.5 mg of bupivacaine plus 7.5 μg of sufentanil. Next, was performed an epidural puncture in the same space. It was injected bupivacaine 0.065%, 10 ml, to facilitate the passage of the catheter. After 5 min lying down in the lateral upright position, she complained of perioral and right hemifacial paresthesia, mainly maxillary and periorbital, as well as trismus and difficulty to speak. The symptoms lasted for 30 min and resolved spontaneously. After 1 h, patient requested supplementary analgesia (12 ml of bupivacaine 0.125% and a healthy baby girl was born. Temporary mental alterations have been described with the use of fentanyl and sufentanil in combined epidural-spinal analgesia, such as aphasia, difficulty of swallowing, mental confusion and even unconsciousness. In this patient, facial areas with paresthesia indicated by patient appear in clear association with the ophthalmic and maxillary branches of the trigeminal nerve and the occurrence of trismus and dysphagia are in association with the mandibular motor branch. The exact mechanism of rostral spread is not known, but it is speculated that after spinal drug administration, a subsequent epidural dose may reduce the intratecal space and propel the drug into the supraspinal sites.

  9. Analgesia for labour pain – analysis of the trends and associations in the Grampian region of Scotland between 1986 and 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tao

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although intrapartum analgesia has been in use since Victorian times, there have been few attempts to study its usage from routinely collected data. This population based epidemiological study aimed to analyse retrospective data on the distribution of different types of labour analgesia used by women in the Grampian region of Scotland between 1986 and 2001 in order to examine time trends and associations. Methods Data records on all deliveries occurring in the years 1986 to 2001 were extracted from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank. The rates of the use of epidural, opioid and Entonox or no analgesia for pain relief in labour in each year were calculated. Maternal, pregnancy, labour and delivery characteristics were compared among the users of three different analgesics by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results A total of 81,418 deliveries were analysed. Of these, 12,659 (15.5% women had epidural, 33,819 (41.5% had used opioids and 26,974(33.1% received either Entonox or no analgesia at all. The women who received epidural analgesia were younger, shorter and heavier and had larger babies (OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01, 1.08. Three quarters of them were primigravidae and had longer periods of gestation. They were also more likely to have suffered pregnancy related complications (OR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.8, 2.4. Labour was more likely to have been induced (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 2.6, 2.9 and to have lasted longer in this group of women. Women in this group were 5 times more likely to have an instrumental delivery (95% CI 4.9, 5.1 and 7 times more likely to have a Caesarean section (95% CI 5.7, 9.3. Conclusion Non epidural analgesia was found to be the most popular choice for pain relief in labour in the Grampian region between 1986 and 2001, although an increase in the uptake of epidural services is starting to occur. The type of labour analgesia used is associated with the epidemiological characteristics of the women

  10. Effects of combined perioperative epidural bupivacaine and morphine, ibuprofen, and incisional bupivacaine on postoperative pain, pulmonary, and endocrine-metabolic function after minilaparotomy cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Hjortsø, N C; Stage, J G

    1994-01-01

    with bupivacaine and morphine during 38 hours after the operation, or general anesthesia with morphine intramuscular for pain relief every 6-8 hours after the operation. All patients received ibuprofen before the operation until 6 days after the operation, and preoperative infiltration of the surgical field...... with bupivacaine. RESULTS. Both regimens almost abolished pain at rest, whereas, addition of epidural bupivacaine and morphine significantly improved analgesia during cough and mobilization (P .... The postoperative decrease in pulmonary function was only brief and there were no differences between the study groups. No increase in plasma cortisol or glucose was observed from before to 6 hours after the operation, irrespective of the anesthetic regimen. CONCLUSIONS. Epidural analgesia for minilaparatomy...

  11. Vascular lesions of the lumbar epidural space: magnetic resonance imaging features of epidural cavernous hemangioma and epidural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Júnior Roberto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the magnetic resonance imaging diagnostic features in two cases with respectively lumbar epidural hematoma and cavernous hemangioma of the lumbar epidural space. Enhanced MRI T1-weighted scans show a hyperintense signal rim surrounding the vascular lesion. Non-enhanced T2-weighted scans showed hyperintense signal.

  12. Spinal epidural empyema in two dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, C.W.; Kortz, G.D.; Bailey, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    Extensive, diffuse, epidural spinal cord compression was visualized myelographically in two dogs presented for rapid development of nonambulatory tetraparesis and paraplegia, respectively. Purulent fluid containing bacterial organisms was aspirated percutaneously under fluoroscopic guidance from the epidural space of each dog. One dog responded poorly to aggressive medical therapy, which included installation of an epidural lavage and drainage system. Both dogs were euthanized due to the severe nature of their disorder and the poor prognosis. Spinal epidural empyema (i.e., abscess) is a rare condition in humans and has not been reported previously in the veterinary literature. Spinal epidural empyema should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs presenting with painful myelopathies, especially when accompanied by fever

  13. Epidural ropivacaine hydrochloride during labour: protein binding, placental transfer and neonatal outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Porter, J M

    2012-02-03

    This study was undertaken: (i) to quantify the effects of labour and epidural analgesia on plasma alpha1-acid glycoprotein concentration, (ii) to examine the effects of changes in plasma alpha1-acid glycoprotein concentration on plasma protein binding and placental transfer of ropivacaine, and (iii) to examine the association between umbilical venous ropivacaine concentration and neurobehavioural function in the neonate. Multiparous patients undergoing induction of labour received a continuous epidural infusion of 0.1% ropivacaine following an epidural bolus. A significant association was demonstrated between maternal plasma alpha1-acid glycoprotein concentration and 1\\/free fraction of ropivacaine 60 min after starting ropivacaine administration (r(2) = 0.77) but not at delivery. No significant correlation was demonstrable between maternal unbound ropivacaine concentration and either neonatal (cord) ropivacaine concentration or UV\\/MV (a measure of placental transfer). Thirty minutes after delivery, 9\\/10 neonates had neurological and adaptive capacity scores < 35, whereas only three infants had scores < 35 at 2 h. All scores exceeded 35 16 h after delivery. No association between mean (SD) umbilical venous ropivacaine concentration [0.09 (0.08) mg x l(-1)] and neurological and adaptive capacity scores was demonstrated.

  14. Comparison of Postoperative Analgesic Effects of Thoracic Epidural Morphine and Fentanyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönül Sağıroğlu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In our study, we aimed to compare epidural morphine and fentanyl analgesia and the side effects in post-thoracotomy pain management. Material and Methods: Forty patients, planned for elective thoracotomy were included. Bupivacain- morphine was administered through an epidural catheter to the patients in Group-M while bupivacain-fentanyl was given in Group-F. Pain assessment was carried out with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and VAS-I and VAS-II were assessed in 0, 4, 16 and 24th hour in the postoperative unit. Adverse effects were recorded after the 24th hour. Statistical analyses were performed by using Two-sample independent-t test, Mann Whitney-U test, Wilcoxon-signed ranks test and Pearson chi-squared tests. Results: Although, the VAS-I and VAS-II scores were lower in Group-M than Group-F, the difference was not significant statistically (p>0.05. When other hours were compared with initial states, beginning from the 4th hour, in both groups there was a statistically significant drop in VAS-I and VAS-II scores at all times (p<0.001. Comparing the complications between the groups, in Group-M nausea-vomiting (p<0.015 and bradycardia (p<0.012 were found significantly more frequently than in Group-F. Conclusion: We concluded that, in pain management after thoracic surgery, either morphine or fentanyl may be chosen in thoracal epidural analgesia but, especially in the early postoperative hours, close follow-up is necessary due to the risk of bradycardia development.

  15. Accidental epidural injection of Atropine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayan Bakshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal injection of drugs for anesthesia, regional analgesia, and chronic pain management are common practice now. Local anesthetic, adjuvants, and opioids are in common use. Human error in the Operation Theater and the Intensive Care Unit setup is also known and reported, due to stress and overwork. A case of unintentional atropine injection intrathecally, which was closely observed for any untoward effects, is reported here.

  16. Maternal satisfaction as an outcome criterion in research on labor analgesia: data analysis from the recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dualé, Christian; Nicolas-Courbon, Aurélie; Gerbaud, Laurent; Lemery, Didier; Bonnin, Martine; Pereira, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    To investigate whether maternal satisfaction (MS) is taken into consideration as an outcome criterion in clinical research on analgesia for labor. A systematic review of articles reporting analgesia for labor from a panel of 17 influential journals was undertaken. A total of 116 articles were analyzed, including 282 within-study groups. The scope of MS, the type of outcome measure used, and the time of measurement were noted. Each available observation was assigned an ordinal value of MS (ordMS), according to data distribution. The factors influencing ordMS were identified by multivariable analysis. The methods used to assess MS were very variable, even within the different measurement tools reported. The weighted distribution of ordMS was 17.8%, 21.8%, 31.2%, and 29.3% for levels "poor," "fair," "good," and "excellent," respectively. In comparative studies, statistical differences for analgesia were related to statistical differences for MS (Pvalue was high (0.87). Power to detect a difference in MS between treatment groups was low in general, but it influenced reporting of a significant difference for MS (Pinitial cervical dilatation, and the within-study percentage of nulliparous women. The techniques alternative to epidural analgesia negatively influenced ordMS. A standard and validated tool to assess MS in clinical research on analgesia for labor is still to be developed. Power should be improved by acting on sample sizes or sensitivity of the outcome.

  17. Comparative Analysis of the Paravertebral Analgesic Pump Catheter with the Epidural Catheter in Elderly Trauma Patients with Multiple Rib Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Brian S; Wasfie, Tarik; Chadwick, Mathew; Barber, Kimberly R; Yapchai, Raquel

    2017-04-01

    Presently, trauma guidelines recommend epidural analgesia as the optimal modality of pain relief from rib fractures. They are not ideally suited for elderly trauma patients and have disadvantages including bleeding risk. The paravertebral analgesic pump (PVP) eliminates such disadvantages and includes ease of placement in the trauma setting. This study compares pain control in patients treated by EPI versus PVP. This is a retrospective, historical cohort study comparing two methods of pain management in the trauma setting. Before 2010, patients who had epidural catheters (EPI) placed for pain control were compared with patients after 2010 in which the PVP was used. All patients had multiple rib fractures as diagnosed by CT scan. Analysis was adjusted for age, number of fractures, and comorbid conditions. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to compare average reported pain. A total of 110 patients, 31 PVP and 79 epidural catheters, were included in the study. Overall mean age was 65 years. The mean Injury Severity Score was 12.0 (EPI) and 11.1 (PVP). Mean number rib fractures was 4.29 (EPI) and 4.71 (PVP). PVP was associated with a 30 per cent greater decrease in pain than that seen with EPI (6.0-1.9 vs 6.4-3.4). After controlling for age, Injury Severity Score, and number of rib fractures, there were no differences in intensive care unit or total length of stay (P = 0.35) or in pain score (3.76 vs 3.56, P = 0.64). In conclusion, the PVP compares well with epidural analgesia in older trauma patients yet is safe, well tolerated, and easily inserted.

  18. Spinal epidural hemangioma related to pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, G.S.; Millett, P.J. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); DiCarlo, E.F. [Dept. of Pathology, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Mintz, D.N. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Dept. of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, NY (United States); Gamache, F.W. [Department of Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Dept. of Surgery, New York Presbyterian Hospital, NY (United States); Rawlins, B.A. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Weill Medical College of Cornell Univ., New York (United States)

    2001-05-01

    We report the case of a 39-year-old woman with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis presenting with myelopathy secondary to a spinal epidural hemangioma. MRI showed an epidural soft tissue mass within the spinal canal between T5 and T9 with severe spinal cord compression. Symptoms had a temporal relationship to her pregnancy. Surgical removal of the epidural hemangioma rapidly relieved her symptoms and neurologic deficits. Follow-up examination 2 years later demonstrated normal motor and sensory function, without any neurologic sequelae or progression of deformity. (orig.)

  19. Spinal epidural hematomas examined on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejnowski, G.; Poniatowska, R.; Kozlowski, P.

    1995-01-01

    Spinal epidural hematomas are rare pathology, caused by trauma or spontaneous. In clinical examination acute spinal cord compression is observed. MRI designations appear entirely particular. In sagittal projection, biconvex mass in the dorsal, or sometimes ventral part of the spinal canal is clearly visible. This is well delineated by the thecal sac from the cord and cauda equina. MRI investigations in 3 patients revealed corresponding with spinal bone injuries and cord edema epidural hematomas. Differential diagnosis must contain subdural hematoma and epidural neoplasms or abscess. (author)

  20. Espondilodiscitis y absceso epidural candidiásico Candida spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess

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    Gisela Di Stilio

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available La espondilodiscitis candidiásica asociada a absceso epidural es una enfermedad de aparición excepcional. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con linfoma de Hodgkin en tratamiento quimioterápico que desarrolló candidiasis sistémica complicada con espondilodiscitis y absceso epidural por dicho germen.Candida spondylodiscitis associatd with epidural abscess is rarely seen. We present a patient with Hodgkin lymphoma who received chemotherapy and developed systemic Candida infection, which was complicated by Candida spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess.

  1. Fatores relacionados ao uso de analgesia sistêmica em neonatologia Factors related to use of systemic analgesia in neonatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lúcia Guimarães de Aymar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi realizar uma revisão da literatura sobre o histórico e o estágio atual de conhecimento sobre a analgesia sistêmica em neonatologia e os fatores que influenciam a sua utilização. Foi realizada busca de artigos científicos através das bases dados do MEDLINE, SciELO e LILACS com as palavras chave: analgesia, analgésicos sistêmicos, dor, neonatologia, recém-nascido, unidade de terapia intensiva e unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal, além de pesquisa adicional em bancos de dados de dissertações, teses e livros texto. A literatura consultada revela que a analgesia não é uma prática rotineira nas unidades de terapia intensiva neonatal, de uma forma geral, apesar dos inúmeros estudos demonstrando a importância do tema. Apesar de ser o alívio da dor um dos princípios básicos da medicina, de envolver questões éticas e humanitárias, e de estarem disponíveis atualmente vários guias práticos e consensos a respeito do manejo da dor no neonato de risco, os resultados encontrados no presente estudo estão muito aquém das recomendações atuais, tornando-se necessária uma intervenção urgente para reverter a situação observada.The purpose of this paper was to carry out a review of literature on the history and current stage of the knowledge of systemic analgesia in neonatology and the factors influencing its use. A search for scientific articles was made in the MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS databases using the keywords: analgesia, systemic analgesics, pain, neonatology, newborn, intensive care units and neonatal intensive care units. Additional research was made on dissertations and thesis databanks as well as text books. Literature consulted disclosed that, in general, analgesia is not a routine practice in neonatal intensive care units, despite the numerous studies demonstrating its importance. Although pain relief is a basic principle of medicine, involving ethic and humanitarian issues and despite

  2. Comparison of the hanging-drop technique and running-drip method for identifying the epidural space in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Taboada, Fernando; Redondo, José I

    2017-03-01

    To compare the running-drip and hanging-drop techniques for locating the epidural space in dogs. Prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Forty-five healthy dogs requiring epidural anaesthesia. Dogs were randomized into four groups and administered epidural anaesthesia in sternal (S) or lateral (L) recumbency. All blocks were performed by the same person using Tuohy needles with either a fluid-prefilled hub (HDo) or connected to a drip set attached to a fluid bag elevated 60 cm (RDi). The number of attempts, 'pop' sensation, clear drop aspiration or fluid dripping, time to locate the epidural space (TTLES) and presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were recorded. A morphine-bupivacaine combination was injected after positive identification. The success of the block was assessed by experienced observers based on perioperative usage of rescue analgesia. Data were checked for normality. Binomial variables were analysed with the chi-squared or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. Non-parametric data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Normal data were studied with an anova followed by a Tukey's means comparison for groups of the same size. A p-value of Drop aspiration was observed more often in SHDo (nine of 11 dogs) than in LHDo (two of 11 dogs) (p = 0.045). Mean (range) TTLES was longer in LHDo [47 (18-82) seconds] than in SHDo [20 (14-79) seconds] (p = 0.006) and SRDi [(34 (17-53) seconds] (p = 0.038). There were no differences in 'pop' sensation, presence of CSF, rescue analgesia or pain scores between the groups. The running-drip method is a useful and fast alternative technique for identifying the epidural space in dogs. The hanging-drop technique in lateral recumbency was more difficult to perform than the other methods, requiring more time and attempts. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of electrical nerve stimulation for epidural catheter positioning in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pereira, Fernando L; Sanders, Robert; Shih, Andre C; Sonea, Ioana M; Hauptman, Joseph G

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of epidural catheter placement at different levels of the spinal cord guided solely by electrical nerve stimulation and resultant segmental muscle contraction. Prospective, experiment. Six male and two female Beagles, age (1 ± 0.17 years) and weight (12.9 ± 1.1 kg). Animals were anesthetized with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. An insulated epidural needle was used to reach the lumbosacral epidural space. A Tsui epidural catheter was inserted and connected to a nerve stimulator (1.0 mA, 0.1 ms, 2 Hz) to assess positioning of the tip at specific spinal cord segments. The catheter was advanced to three different levels of the spinal cord: lumbar (L2-L5), thoracic (T5-T10) and cervical (C4-C6). Subcutaneous needles were previously placed at these spinal levels and the catheter was advanced to match the needle location, guided only by corresponding muscle contractions. Catheter position was verified by fluoroscopy. If catheter tip and needle were at the same vertebral body a score of zero was assigned. When catheter tip was cranial or caudal to the needle, positive or negative numbers, respectively, corresponding to the number of vertebrae between them, were assigned. The mean and standard deviation of the number of vertebrae between catheter tip and needle were calculated to assess accuracy. Results are given as mean ± SD. The catheter position in relation to the needle was within 0.3 ± 2.0 vertebral bodies. Positive predictive values (PPV) were 57%, 83% and 71% for lumbar, thoracic and cervical regions respectively. Overall PPV was 70%. No significant difference in PPV among regions was found. Placement of an epidural catheter at specific spinal levels using electrical nerve stimulation was feasible without radiographic assistance in dogs. Two vertebral bodies difference from the target site may be clinically acceptable when performing segmental epidural regional anesthesia. © 2013 Association of Veterinary

  4. Postoperative analgesia in children when using clonidine or fentanyl with ropivacaine given caudally

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    Usha Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of clonidine and fentanyl as an additive to ropivacaine given via single shot caudal epidural in pediatric patients for postoperative pain relief. Materials and Methods: In the present double blind study, 90 children of ASA-I-II aged 3-8 years scheduled for infraumblical surgical procedures were randomly allocated to two groups to receive either ropivacaine 0.25% 1 ml/kg+clonidine 2 μg/kg (group I or ropivacaine 0.25% 1 μl/kg+fentanyl 1 μg/kg (group II. Caudal block was performed after the induction of general anesthesia. Postoperatively patients were observed for analgesia, sedation, hemodynamics, and side effects/complications. Results: Both the groups were similar with respect to patient and various block characteristics. The analgesic properties and hemodynamics were also comparable in both groups (P > 0.05. Side effects such as respiratory depression, vomiting bradycardia were significantly less in group I than group II (P < 0.05 ensuing more patient comfort. Conclusions: The analgesic properties of clonidine and fentanyl as additives to ropivacaine in single shot caudal epidural in children are comparable but clonidine offers a more favorable side effect profile. The use of clonidine as additive to ropivacaine in caudal epidural is superior choice to fentanyl because of lack of unwanted side effects and increased patient comfort.

  5. Mastoplastia reductora con analgesia acupuntural A mamaplastic reduction using acupunctural analgesia

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    Javier Cordero Lozano

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un ensayo clínico prospectivo y descriptivo con 40 pacientes portadoras de hipertrofia mamaria que acudieron a consulta de Cirugía Plástica en el Hospital Universitario "Abel Santamaría Cuadrado" de Pinar del Río entre septiembre de 2002 y agosto de 2003 a las que se les realizó mastoplastia reductora con analgesia acupuntural (puntos C1, IG4, VC17, VG20 y un punto especial evaluando la calidad de la analgesia acupuntural transoperatoria, el comportamiento hemodinámico transoperatorio y la ocurrencia de complicaciones postoperatorias. Para la validación estadística se utilizó el paquete Systat Con nivel de ajuste µ= 0.05. Se logró con la acupuntura un nivel analgésico transoperatorio satisfactorio en el 50 % de los casos, incluyendo pacientes de todos los grupos de edad, sobre todo en intervenciones que duraran hasta dos horas, independientemente del grado de hipertrofia mamaria. El comportamiento hemodinámico transoperatorio fue satisfactorio en las pacientes operadas con acupuntura; con esta técnica el registro de complicaciones fue inferior al reportado con anestesia general endotraqueal por otros autores, sin que se reportaran reacciones adversas por el uso de la acupuntura.A prospective descriptive clinical trial was carried out in a sample of 40 patients suffering from breast hypertrophy who attended Cosmetic Surgery Office at Abel Santamaría General Hospital between September 2002 and August 2003. A reductive mastoplasia using acupunctural analgesia was carried out (C1, IG4, VC17, VG20 points and special one assessing the quality of transoperative acupunctural analgesia, transoperative hemodynamic behaviour and the occurrence of postoperative complications. Systat pack was used for statistical validation with a fitted level of a = 0.05. a transoperative analgesic level was achieved successfully in 50 % of cases including patients from every age group particularly in up to two hours surgeries irrespective of the

  6. Epidural venous stasis in spinal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.C.; Capesius, P.; Poos, D.; Gratia, G.; Roilgen, A.; Sandt, G.

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography permits reliable demonstration of the spinal canal and its contents. Measurements of the sagittal diameter of the bony canal do not take into consideration size, shape and state of intraspinal soft tissue structures, i.e. the thecal sac and its own contents, epidural fat and blood circulation pattern. Three particularly illustrative cases were selected in which obvious epidural venous engorgement was visualized in association with spinal stenosis. The authors think that epidural venous stasis occuring in segmental spinal stenosis is a CT sign of clinically significant narrowing of the neural canal. Accurate recognition of the type of lumbar stenosis together with epidural blood flow alterations permits a better understanding of the existing lesions. Thus, a more precise and specific surgical approach is possible. (orig.)

  7. Comparative study of caudal bupivacaine versus bupivacaine with tramadol for postoperative analgesia in paediatric cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Hegazy; Ayman A. Ghoneim

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Caudal epidural analgesia has become very common analgesic technique in paediatric surgery. Add-ing tramadol to bupivacaine for caudal injection prolongs duration of analgesia with minimal side effects. The aim of the study was to investigate the different effects of caudal bupivacaine versus bupivacaine with thamadol for postoperative analgesia in paediatric cancer patients. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted over 40 paediatric cancer pa-tients who were recruited from Children Cancer Hospital of Egypt (57357 Hospital). Patients were randomized into 2 groups: bupivacaine group (group B, 20 patients) to receive single shot caudal block of 1 mL/kg 0.1875% bupivacaine; tramadol group (group T, 20 patients) prepared as group B with the addition of 1 mg/kg caudal tramadol. Results: The mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer among group T than group B [(24 ± 13.7) hours versus (7 ± 3.7) hours respectively with P = 0.001]. Group T showed a significantly lower mean FLACC score than group B (2.2 ± 0.9 versus 3.6 ± 0.6 with P = 0.002). The difference in FLACC score was comparable on arrival, and after 2 and 4 hours. At 8 and 12 hours the group B recorded significantly higher scores (P = 0.002 and 0.0001 respectively). There were no significant differences between the groups as regards sedation score [the median in both groups was 1 (0–1) with P value = o.8]. No one developed facial flush or pruritis. Conclusion: Caudal injection of low dose tramadol 1 mg/kg with bupivacaine 0.1875% is proved to be effective, long standing technique for postoperative analgesia in major paediatric cancer surgery and almost devoid of side effect.

  8. Epidural Catheter Breakage In-Situ

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    Geetanjali S Verma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 45yr old woman diagnosed with dysfunctional uterine bleeding and incisional hernia was planned for total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and mesh repair under combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia. Using VYGON® epidural catheter with its recommended introducer, the catheter was inserted but it snapped off at 11cm mark while positioning the catheter. After radiological confirmation, the neurosurgeon removed the catheter under general anaesthesia, which was followed by the scheduled surgery.

  9. Epidural Hematoma Following Cervical Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Gregory D; Hilibrand, Alan S; Arnold, Paul M; Fish, David E; Wang, Jeffrey C; Gum, Jeffrey L; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Isaacs, Robert E; Kanter, Adam S; Mroz, Thomas E; Nassr, Ahmad; Sasso, Rick C; Fehlings, Michael G; Buser, Zorica; Bydon, Mohamad; Cha, Peter I; Chatterjee, Dhananjay; Gee, Erica L; Lord, Elizabeth L; Mayer, Erik N; McBride, Owen J; Nguyen, Emily C; Roe, Allison K; Tortolani, P Justin; Stroh, D Alex; Yanez, Marisa Y; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    A multicentered retrospective case series. To determine the incidence and circumstances surrounding the development of a symptomatic postoperative epidural hematoma in the cervical spine. Patients who underwent cervical spine surgery between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, at 23 institutions were reviewed, and all patients who developed an epidural hematoma were identified. A total of 16 582 cervical spine surgeries were identified, and 15 patients developed a postoperative epidural hematoma, for a total incidence of 0.090%. Substantial variation between institutions was noted, with 11 sites reporting no epidural hematomas, and 1 site reporting an incidence of 0.76%. All patients initially presented with a neurologic deficit. Nine patients had complete resolution of the neurologic deficit after hematoma evacuation; however 2 of the 3 patients (66%) who had a delay in the diagnosis of the epidural hematoma had residual neurologic deficits compared to only 4 of the 12 patients (33%) who had no delay in the diagnosis or treatment ( P = .53). Additionally, the patients who experienced a postoperative epidural hematoma did not experience any significant improvement in health-related quality-of-life metrics as a result of the index procedure at final follow-up evaluation. This is the largest series to date to analyze the incidence of an epidural hematoma following cervical spine surgery, and this study suggest that an epidural hematoma occurs in approximately 1 out of 1000 cervical spine surgeries. Prompt diagnosis and treatment may improve the chance of making a complete neurologic recovery, but patients who develop this complication do not show improvements in the health-related quality-of-life measurements.

  10. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma during rivaroxaban treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Rego, Felipe Marques Monteiro do; Milano, Jeronimo Buzetti; Jung, Gustavo Simiano; Silva Junior, Luis Fernando; Ramina, Ricardo, E-mail: leonardoruschel@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Neurologia de Curitiba (INC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    According to our research, this is the first case described in the literature of spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma secondary to the use of Xarelto®. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematomas are rarely described in the literature. They are associated with infectious diseases of the skull, coagulation disorders, vascular malformations of the dura mater and metastasis to the skull. Long-term post-marketing monitoring and independent reports will probably detect the full spectrum of hemorrhagic complications of the use of rivaroxaban. (author)

  11. Effects of intravenously administered yohimbine on antinociceptive, cardiorespiratory, and postural changes induced by epidural administration of detomidine hydrochloride solution to healthy mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarda, R T; Muir, W W

    1999-10-01

    To determine effects of i.v. administered yohimbine on perineal analgesia, cardiovascular and respiratory activity, and head and pelvic limb position in healthy mares following epidural administration of detomidine hydrochloride solution. 8 healthy mares. Each mare received detomidine hydrochloride (0.06 mg/kg of body weight), administered in the caudal epidural space, followed 61 minutes later by yohimbine (0.05 mg/kg; test) or sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control), administered i.v., in a randomized, crossover study design with > or = 2 weeks between treatments. Analgesia was determined by lack of sensory perception to electrical stimulation of perineal dermatomes and needle-prick stimulation of coccygeal to 15th thoracic dermatomes. Arterial pH, PaCO2, PaO2, heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature, arterial blood pressure, and cardiac output were determined, and mares were observed for sweating and urination. Mean scores obtained for test and control groups were compared. Intravenously administered yohimbine significantly reduced mean scores of detomidine-induced perineal analgesia, head ptosis, changes in pelvic limb position, and sweating and diuresis; antagonized detomidine-induced decreases in heart rate and cardiac output; but did not affect detomidine-induced decrease in respiratory rate. Most effects of epidurally administered detomidine, except bradypnea, were antagonized by yohimbine, suggesting that detomidine may influence respiratory rate by mechanisms other than stimulation of alpha2-adrenoceptors, or that yohimbine induces respiratory depressant effects. Yohimbine may be an effective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist for all but respiratory depression following epidural administration of detomidine to mares.

  12. Effects of natural childbirth preparation versus standard antenatal education on epidural rates, experience of childbirth and parental stress in mothers and fathers: a randomised controlled multicentre trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, M; Kieler, H; Waldenström, U

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of antenatal education focussing on natural childbirth preparation with psychoprophylactic training versus standard antenatal education on the use of epidural analgesia, experience of childbirth and parental stress in first-time mothers and fathers. Design Randomised controlled multicentre trial. Setting Fifteen antenatal clinics in Sweden between January 2006 and May 2007. Sample A total of 1087 nulliparous women and 1064 of their partners. Methods Natural group: Antenatal education focussing on natural childbirth preparation with training in breathing and relaxation techniques (psychoprophylaxis). Standard care group: Standard antenatal education focussing on both childbirth and parenthood, without psychoprophylactic training. Both groups: Four 2-hour sessions in groups of 12 participants during third trimester of pregnancy and one follow-up after delivery. Main outcome measures Epidural analgesia during labour, experience of childbirth as measured by the Wijma Delivery Experience Questionnaire (B), and parental stress measured by the Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire. Results The epidural rate was 52% in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences in the experience of childbirth or parental stress between the randomised groups, either in women or men. Seventy percent of the women in the Natural group reported having used psychoprophylaxis during labour. A minority in the Standard care group (37%) had also used this method, but subgroup analysis where these women were excluded did not change the principal findings. Conclusion Natural childbirth preparation including training in breathing and relaxation did not decrease the use of epidural analgesia during labour, nor did it improve the birth experience or affect parental stress in early parenthood in nulliparous women and men, compared with a standard form of antenatal education. PMID:19538406

  13. Patient-controlled analgesia with remifentanil versus alternative parenteral methods for pain management in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Stephanie; Jelting, Yvonne; Afshari, Arash; Pace, Nathan Leon; Eberhart, Leopold Hj; Jokinen, Johanna; Artmann, Thorsten; Kranke, Peter

    2017-04-13

    Multiple analgesic strategies for pain relief during labour are available. Recently remifentanil, a short-acting opioid, has recently been used as an alternative analgesic due to its unique pharmacological properties. To systematically assess the effectiveness of remifentanil intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for labour pain, along with any potential harms to the mother and the newborn. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (9 December 2015), ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), handsearched congress abstracts (November 2015), and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-randomised trials comparing remifentanil (PCA) with another opioid (intravenous (IV)/intramuscular (IM)), or with another opioid (PCA), or with epidural analgesia, or with remifentanil (continuous IV), or with remifentanil (PCA, different regimen), or with inhalational analgesia, or with placebo/no treatment in all women in labour including high-risk groups with planned vaginal delivery. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data, and appraised study quality.We contacted study authors for additional information other than incomplete outcome data. We performed random-effects meta-analysis.To reduce the risk of random error in meta-analysis we performed trial sequential analysis. We included total zero event trials and used a constant continuity correction of 0.01 (ccc 0.01) for meta-analysis. We applied the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the quality of evidence. Twenty RCTs with 3569 women were included. Of those, 10 trials (2983 participants) compared remifentanil (PCA) to an epidural, four trials (216 participants) to another opioid (IV/IM), three trials (215 participants) to another opioid (PCA), two trials (135 participants) to remifentanil (continuous IV

  14. Symptomatic Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis After a Single Local Epidural Steroid Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tok, Chung Hong; Kaur, Shaleen; Gangi, Afshin

    2011-01-01

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare disorder that can manifest with progressive neurological deficits. It is characterized by abnormal accumulation of unencapsulated epidural fat commonly associated with the administration of exogenous steroids associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies, and Cushing syndrome (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202–211, 2005). Occasionally, spinal epidural lipomatosis may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or in patients with endocrinopathies, primarily in obese individuals (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202–211, 2005). However, spinal lumbar epidural lipomatosis resulting from local steroid injection has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 45-year-old diabetic man with claudication that was probably due to symptomatic lumbar spinal lipomatosis resulting from a single local epidural steroid injection.

  15. Placebo analgesia: understanding the mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Medoff, Zev M; Colloca, Luana

    2015-01-01

    Expectations of pain relief drive placebo analgesia. Understanding how expectations of improvement trigger distinct biological systems to shape therapeutic analgesic outcomes has been the focus of recent pharmacologic and neuroimaging studies in the field of pain. Recent findings indicate that placebo effects can imitate the actions of real painkillers and promote the endogenous release of opioids and nonopioids in humans. Social support and observational learning also contribute to placebo a...

  16. The epidural expansion in the waist canal - less obvious findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekula, J.; Bucil, J.; Burval, S.

    1998-01-01

    The authors demonstrated 55 less obvious epidural expansion in the waist canal. These expansions are discussed. The detection of the epidural mass at myeloma multiples has a principal significance for the indication of the radiotherapy or surgical intervention

  17. Newborns from deliveries with epidural anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Lidija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The use of epidural anaesthesia in delivery with the purpose to reduce pain and fear in a pregnant woman has the influence on the physiological status of the woman in childbirth and the course of delivery. From the epidural space of the pregnant woman, one part of free anaesthetic comes in the foetal circulation through the mother's circulation and placenta and connects with the foetal proteins. A lower value of albumins and serum proteins in the foetal circulation give bigger free fraction of anaesthetic which is accumulated in the foetal liver, brain and heart full of blood. Objective. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of epidural anaesthesia on the newborn. Methods. Retrospective study of 6,398 documents of newborns was performed in our Clinic of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 'Narodni front' during 2006. The first group was made of 455 newborns from deliveries with epidural anaesthesia and the second was the control group of 5,943 remaining newborns. In both groups we analysed the following: sex, week of gestation, weight, Apgar score, measure of care and resuscitation, perinatal morbidity and then the obtained results were compared. Results. Most of deliveries were vaginal without obstetric intervention (86.6%. The number of deliveries finished with vacuum extractor (4.6% was statistically significantly bigger in the group with epidural anaesthesia than in the control group. Most of the newborns in the first group were born on time (96.5% in 39.0±1.0 week of gestation and with foetal weight 3448±412 grammes. There was no statistical significance in Apgar score between both groups. Epidural anaesthesia does not increase the degree of the newborn's injury. Lower pH of blood was found in the newborns from deliveries with vacuum extractor or operated on (the Ceasarean section. Conclusion. Application of epidural anaesthesia decreases duration of delivery and has no adverse effects on the newborn and hypoxic

  18. Spinal Epidural Haemangioma Associated with Extensive Gastrointestinal Haemangiomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L.T.E.; Lim, W.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Summary A case of spinal epidural cavernous haemangioma associated with gastrointestinal haemangiomas is discussed. The patient was a young Chinese female presenting with chronic lower back pain. She had a history of extensive gastric and small bowel haemangiomas. Lumbar spine MRI showed a heterogeneously enhancing epidural mass infiltrating the paravertebral muscles. Open biopsy confirmed an epidural cavernous haemangioma. To our knowledge, an association between spinal epidural cavernous haemangiomas and gastrointestinal haemangiomas has not been reported. PMID:20584496

  19. Sucrose ingestion causes opioid analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.N. Segato

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The intake of saccharin solutions for relatively long periods of time causes analgesia in rats, as measured in the hot-plate test, an experimental procedure involving supraspinal components. In order to investigate the effects of sweet substance intake on pain modulation using a different model, male albino Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g received either tap water or sucrose solutions (250 g/l for 1 day or 14 days as their only source of liquid. Each rat consumed an average of 15.6 g sucrose/day. Their tail withdrawal latencies in the tail-flick test (probably a spinal reflex were measured immediately before and after this treatment. An analgesia index was calculated from the withdrawal latencies before and after treatment. The indexes (mean ± SEM, N = 12 for the groups receiving tap water for 1 day or 14 days, and sucrose solution for 1 day or 14 days were 0.09 ± 0.04, 0.10 ± 0.05, 0.15 ± 0.08 and 0.49 ± 0.07, respectively. One-way ANOVA indicated a significant difference (F(3,47 = 9.521, P<0.001 and the Tukey multiple comparison test (P<0.05 showed that the analgesia index of the 14-day sucrose-treated animals differed from all other groups. Naloxone-treated rats (N = 7 receiving sucrose exhibited an analgesia index of 0.20 ± 0.10 while rats receiving only sucrose (N = 7 had an index of 0.68 ± 0.11 (t = 0.254, 10 degrees of freedom, P<0.03. This result indicates that the analgesic effect of sucrose depends on the time during which the solution is consumed and extends the analgesic effects of sweet substance intake, such as saccharin, to a model other than the hot-plate test, with similar results. Endogenous opioids may be involved in the central regulation of the sweet substance-produced analgesia.

  20. Ultrasound-guided epidural anesthesia for a parturient with severe malformations of the skeletal system undergoing cesarean delivery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo LL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available LinLi Luo,* Juan Ni,* Lan Wu, Dong Luo Department of Anesthesiology, West China Second Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of China  *These authors contributed equally to this work and should be considered co-first authors Abstract: Anesthetic management of patients with preexisting diseases is challenging and individualized approaches need to be determined based on patients' complications. We report here a case of ultrasound-guided epidural anesthesia in combination with low-dose ketamine during cesarean delivery on a parturient with severe malformations of the skeletal system and airway problems. The ultrasound-guided epidural anesthesia was performed in the L1–L2 space, followed by an intravenous administration of ketamine (0.5 mg/kg for sedation and analgesia. Satisfactory anesthesia was provided to the patient and spontaneous ventilation was maintained during the surgery. The mother and the baby were discharged 5 days after surgery, no complications were reported for either of them. Our work demonstrated that an ultrasound-guided epidural anesthesia combined with low-dose ketamine can be used to successfully maintain spontaneous ventilation and provide effective analgesia during surgery and reduce the risk of postoperative anesthesia-related pulmonary infection. Keywords: anesthesia, regional, cesarean delivery, ketamine, ultrasound-guided

  1. Primary thoracic epidural lymphoma: A rare cause of spinal cord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spinal epidural lymphoma is a rare entity that is not often considered in the differential diagnosis of an epidural mass in a previously healthy individual. Pfatients with Primary Spinal Epidural Lymphomas (PSELs) have negative diagnostic work up for systemic lymphoma and unlike disseminated lymphoma, they achieve ...

  2. Epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Mi Sook

    2006-01-01

    Low back pain combined with radicular pain remains as one of the most challenging musculoskeletal problems for its therapeutic management. This malady results from nerve root impingement and/or inflammation that causes neurologic symptoms in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s) Conservative treatment, percutaneous spine interventions and surgery have all been used as treatment; and the particular treatment that's chosen depends on the severity of the clinical and neurologic presentation. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injections for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Epidural steroid injections are currently used by many medical professionals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Performing 'blind' epidural steroid injection lacks target specificity that often results in incorrect delivery of medication to the lesion. Imaging-guided steroid injections are now becoming more popular despite the controversy regarding their efficacy. Many reports, including a few randomized controlled trials, have documented the clinical utility of epidural steroid injections

  3. Epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Mi Sook [The Catholic University of Korea, Pucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Low back pain combined with radicular pain remains as one of the most challenging musculoskeletal problems for its therapeutic management. This malady results from nerve root impingement and/or inflammation that causes neurologic symptoms in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s) Conservative treatment, percutaneous spine interventions and surgery have all been used as treatment; and the particular treatment that's chosen depends on the severity of the clinical and neurologic presentation. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injections for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Epidural steroid injections are currently used by many medical professionals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Performing 'blind' epidural steroid injection lacks target specificity that often results in incorrect delivery of medication to the lesion. Imaging-guided steroid injections are now becoming more popular despite the controversy regarding their efficacy. Many reports, including a few randomized controlled trials, have documented the clinical utility of epidural steroid injections.

  4. Solitary Spinal Epidural Metastasis from Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisei Sako

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary epidural space metastasis of a malignant tumor is rare. We encountered a 79-year-old male patient with solitary metastatic epidural tumor who developed paraplegia and dysuria. The patient had undergone total gastrectomy for gastric cancer followed by chemotherapy 8 months priorly. The whole body was examined for suspected metastatic spinal tumor, but no metastases of the spine or important organs were observed, and a solitary mass was present in the thoracic spinal epidural space. The mass was excised for diagnosis and treatment and was histopathologically diagnosed as metastasis from gastric cancer. No solitary metastatic epidural tumor from gastric cancer has been reported in English. Among the Japanese, 3 cases have been reported, in which the outcome was poor in all cases and no definite diagnosis could be made before surgery in any case. Our patient developed concomitant pneumonia after surgery and died shortly after the surgery. When a patient has a past medical history of malignant tumor, the possibility of a solitary metastatic tumor in the epidural space should be considered.

  5. Unusual Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis and Lumbosacral Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ruiz Picazo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Epidural lipomatosis is most frequently observed in patients on chronic steroid treatment. Only a few idiopathic epidural lipomatosis cases have been described. Material and Methods. 64-year-old male patient presented with low back pain and left leg pain. Later, the patient experienced neurogenic claudication and radicular pain in the left leg without urinary dysfunction. Plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an abnormal fat tissue overgrowth in the epidural space with compression of the dural sac, degenerative disc disease at L4-L5 level, and instability at L5-S1. Endocrinopathic diseases and chronic steroid therapy were excluded. If conservative treatment failed, surgical treatment can be indicated. Results. After surgery, there was a gradual improvement in symptoms and signs, and six months later the patient returned to daily activities and was neurologically normal. Conclusion. In the absence of common causes of neurogenic claudication, epidural lipomatosis should be considered. The standard test for the diagnosis of epidural lipomatosis is magnetic resonance (MR. At first, conservative treatment must be considered; weight loss and the suspension of prior corticosteroid therapy are indicated. In the presence of neurological impairment, the operative treatment of wide surgical decompression must be performed soon after diagnosis.

  6. Thoracic epidural catheter for postoperative pain control following an ineffective transversus abdominis plane block using liposome bupivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrien BD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brian D Terrien,1 David Espinoza,2 Charles C Stehman,3 Gabriel A Rodriguez,1 Nicholas C Connolly1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Naval Medical Center San Diego, 2Surface Warfare Medical Institute, San Diego, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Robert E. Bush Naval Hospital, Twenty Nine Palms, CA, USA Abstract: A 24-year-old female with a history of ulcerative colitis underwent colectomy. The patient received an ineffective transversus abdominis plane (TAP block with liposome bupivacaine (Exparel intraoperatively and was started on a hydromorphone patient-controlled analgesia 5 hours after the TAP block, which did not relieve her pain. A continuous thoracic epidural (CTE was then placed after blood levels of bupivacaine were drawn, and the patient immediately experienced significant pain relief. The combined use of liposome bupivacaine and bupivacaine CTE infusion in the postoperative management of this patient demonstrated no safety concerns, provided excellent analgesia and plasma concentrations of bupivacaine remained far below toxic levels. Keywords: liposome bupivacaine (bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension, plasma bupivacaine levels, transversus abdominis plane (TAP nerve block, thoracic epidural

  7. Thermal balance during transurethral resection of the prostate. A comparison of general anaesthesia and epidural analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernström, H; Henneberg, S; Eklund, A

    1985-01-01

    Heat loss during anaesthesia and surgery is a common problem. In patients with restricted cardio-pulmonary reserves this may endanger the postoperative outcome. In order to compare thermal balance we studied 25 men undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), using either general...... of the prostate resulted in a peroperative heat loss which was not influenced by the anaesthetic technique used and averaged 370 kJ during the first hour of surgery. G.A. reduced heat production while this was uninfluenced by E.A. After termination of general anaesthesia, oxygen uptake and plasma catecholamines...

  8. Survival analysis of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients receiving patient-controlled epidural analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Yi Lee

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: Survival analysis using Cox regression showed that the average consumption of opioids played an important role in postoperative nausea and vomiting, a result not found by logistic regression. Therefore, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients cannot be reliably determined on the basis of a single visit at one point in time.

  9. Neonatal sepsis is mediated by maternal fever in labour epidural analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassen, M M L H; Winkens, B; Dorssers, E M I; Marcus, M A; Moonen, R M J; Roumen, F J M E

    2014-11-01

    Women delivering with EA (EA group) were matched on parity with 453 women with deliveries without EA (non-EA group). Significantly more neonates born in the EA-group had fever ≥ 38.0°C (11.6% vs 1.8%, p neonatal sepsis, based on clinical symptoms and defined as proven (by a positive blood culture) or suspected (no positive blood culture), was significantly higher in the EA group (6.0% vs 2.2%; p = 0.002), but the incidence of proven neonatal sepsis alone was not (0.4% vs 0%; p = 0.250). EA turned out to be an independent risk factor for neonatal sepsis (adjusted OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.15-5.13; p = 0.020). However, in the EA group as well as the non-EA group, the incidence of neonatal sepsis was significantly higher in mothers with intrapartum fever compared with afebrile mothers (11.0% vs 2.9% in the EA group; p = 0.004; 8.2% vs 1.3% in the non-EA group; p = 0.006). Therefore we conclude, that the positive association between neonatal sepsis and labour EA is possibly mediated by maternal intrapartum fever.

  10. Intrathecal isobaric ropivacaine-fentanyl versus intrathecal isobaric bupivacaine-fentanyl for labor analgesia: A controlled comparative double-blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenoti Pramod Potdar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Neuraxial analgesia and walking epidural is the popular method of practicing labor analgesia. The combination of local anesthetic and opioid is advantageous as it prolongs the duration of labor analgesia. Ropivacaine is the newer local anesthetic agent having lesser motor effects and toxic effects hence would be preferred for labor analgesia. Aims: The primary objective of the study was to assess the duration of analgesia of the intrathecal drug. The secondary objective was the assessment of onset, fixation of analgesia, motor weakness, ambulation, sedation, incidence of side-effects, maternal, and neonatal outcomes. Settings and Design: This is prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded, study of 120 patients consenting for labor analgesia. Subjects and Methods: A total of 120 primiparas with a singleton pregnancy in active labor who were given combined spinal epidural (CSE were included in the study. These patients were randomly allocated to three groups of 40 each and received CSE. Group F-received 25 μcg fentanyl intrathecally. Group BF-received 25 μcg fentanyl with 2.5 mg isobaric bupivacaine intrathecally. Group RF-received 25 μcg fentanyl with 2.5 mg isobaric ropivacaine intrathecally. Statistical Analysis Used: Correlations among different measurements were assessed using Pearson′s correlation coefficients, P <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The three groups show comparable demographic data and obstetric parameters. The duration of spinal analgesia was significantly greater with Group RF 106.63 ± 17.99 min and Group BF 111.75 ± 23.58 min than the control Group F which was 60 ± 10.39 min with P = 0.001, but were comparable for Group BF and RF. The secondary outcome was comparable in all the three groups. Conclusions: The addition of bupivacaine or ropivacaine to fentanyl intrathecally increased duration and quality of analgesia, did not affect ambulation and bearing down. The

  11. Analgesia adjuvante e alternativa Analgesia adyuvante y alternativa Adjuvant and alternative analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Bezerra do Vale

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Embora a dor aguda e a crônica sejam habitualmente controladas com intervenções farmacológicas, 14 métodos complementares de analgesia adjuvante e alternativa (AAA podem reduzir o uso e abuso na prescrição de analgésicos e diminuir os efeitos colaterais que eventualmente comprometem o estado fisiológico do paciente. CONTEÚDO: Todos os mecanismos antiálgicos atuam através da via espinal de controle da comporta de Melzack e Wall e/ou através da transdução do sinal nos sistemas de neurotransmissão e neuromodulação central relacionados com analgesia, relaxamento e humor: peptidérgico, monaminérgico, gabaérgico, colinérgico e canabinóide. A analgesia adjuvante complementar é habitualmente utilizada nos tratamentos fisiátricos, ortopédicos, reumatológicos, obstétricos e com acupuntura. A analgesia alternativa complementar pode potencializar os métodos analgésicos convencionais, a exposição à luz do sol matutino, luz e cores sob luz artificial, o tempo (T - anestésicos gerais mais potentes à noite, opióides de manhã e anestésicos locais à tarde, dieta, bom humor e riso, espiritualidade, religião, meditação, musicoterapia, hipnose e efeito placebo. CONCLUSÕES: Se a dor aguda é um mecanismo de defesa, a dor crônica é um estado patológico desagradável relacionado com a depressão endógena e a uma baixa qualidade de vida. É importante estabelecer relações interdisciplinares entre a Medicina adjuvante e alternativa nas terapias analgésicas e antiinflamatórias clássicas.JUSTIFICACIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: Aunque el dolor agudo y el crónico sean habitualmente controlados con intervenciones farmacológicas, 14 métodos complementarios de analgesia adyuvante y alternativa (AAA pueden reducir el uso y el abuso en la prescripción de analgésicos y disminuir los efectos colaterales que eventualmente comprometen el estado fisiológico del paciente. CONTENIDO: Todos los mecanismos anti

  12. Sciatica caused by lumbar epidural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfquih, Hatim; El Mostarchid, Brahim; Akhaddar, Ali; gazzaz, Miloudi; Boucetta, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Gas production as a part of disc degeneration can occur but rarely causes nerve compression syndromes. The clinical features are similar to those of common sciatica. CT is very useful in the detection of epidural gas accumulation and nerve root compression. We report a case of symptomatic epidural gas accumulation originating from vacuum phenomenon in the intervertebral disc, causing lumbo-sacral radiculopathy. A 45-year-old woman suffered from sciatica for 9 months. The condition worsened in recent days. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated intradiscal vacuum phenomenon, and accumulation of gas in the lumbar epidural space compressing the dural sac and S1 nerve root. After evacuation of the gas, her pain resolved without recurrence.

  13. Delayed epidural hematoma after mild head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Danilo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Traumatic delayed epidural hematoma (DEH can be defined as insignificant or not seen on the initial CT scan performed after a trauma but seen on the subsequent CT scan as a “massive” epidural bleeding. Case report. We presented two cases of traumatic DEH after mild head injury. Both patients were conscious and without neurological deficit on the admission. Initial CT scan did not reveal intracranial hematoma. Repeated CT scan, that was performed after neurological deterioration, revealed epidural hematoma in both cases. The patients were operated with a favorable surgical outcome. Conclusion. Traumatic DEH could occur in the patients with head injuries who were conscious on the admission with a normal initial CT scan finding. Early detection of DEH and an urgent surgical evacuation were essential for a good outcome.

  14. Nocardia brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip; Ammar, Hussam

    2013-04-11

    Nocardia species exist in the environment as a saprophyte; it is found worldwide in soil and decaying plant matter. They often infect patients with underlying immune compromise, pulmonary disease or history of trauma or surgery. The diagnosis of nocardiosis can be easily missed as it mimics many other granulomatous and neoplastic disease. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with chronic back pain and paraparesis. He was found to have Nocardial brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess. Laminectomy and epidural wash out was performed but with no neurological recovery. This is the second reported case of N brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis in the literature.

  15. Rapidly Progressive Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Aycan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal epidural abscess (SEA is a rare disease which is often rapidly progressive. Delayed diagnosis of SEA may lead to serious complications and the clinical findings of SEA are generally nonspecific. Paraspinal abscess should be considered in the presence of local low back tenderness, redness, and pain with fever, particularly in children. In case of delayed diagnosis and treatment, SEA may spread to the epidural space and may cause neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI remains the method of choice in the diagnosis of SEA. Treatment of SEA often consists of both medical and surgical therapy including drainage with percutaneous entry, corpectomy, and instrumentation.

  16. Ketamina en analgesia multimodal postcesarea

    OpenAIRE

    Monzón Rubio, Eva María

    2011-01-01

    Mediante la analgesia multimodal influimos en las diferentes vías del dolor a la vez que minimizamos los potenciales efectos adversos de los diferentes fármacos administrados. En el caso del dolor postcesárea esto adquiere un importante matiz debido a la necesidad de disminuir el uso de opioides que pasan a la leche materna en caso de lactancia natural. El uso de dosis subanestésicas de Ketamina ha demostrado en diferentes estudios la disminución de requerimientos de opioides en las primer...

  17. Analgesia preemptiva nas cirurgias da coluna lombossacra: estudo prospectivo e randomizado Analgesia preventiva en las cirugías de la columna lumbosacra: estudio prospectivo y aleatorio Preemptive analgesia in lumbosacral spine surgeries: prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin Malzac

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a eficácia da analgesia preemptiva pelo método da administração de analgésicos antes e após o início do estímulo doloroso operatório, comparando-as. A melhora do quadro doloroso pós-operatório nas cirurgias da coluna vertebral no segmento lombossacro, por via posterior, não tem sido completamente investigada. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e dois pacientes submetidos à microdiscectomia ou microdescompressão, em um único nível, na coluna lombossacra, foram divididos em três grupos, 20 pacientes no primeiro (A não receberam qualquer substância analgésica (controle. Vinte e dois no segundo (B, os quais foram submetidos à injeção epidural, 20 minutos antes da incisão cirúrgica, contendo 10 mL de marcaína e morfina. No terceiro e no último grupo (C com vinte pacientes, foi injetado, com auxílio de um cateter, no espaço epidural, as mesmas drogas do grupo B, através da incisão antes do fechamento da ferida operatória. Os pacientes foram examinados durante as primeiras 24 horas com auxílio da escala verbal de dor. RESULTADOS: Os três grupos foram comparados quanto à idade, sexo, nível e tempo cirúrgico. Os dados não obedeceram a uma distribuição Gaussiana, o teste não paramétrico de Mann-Whitney foi adotado para análise estatística. Desta maneira, os valores da escala verbal de dor, em todos os intervalos de tempo, foram significativamente baixos (pOBJETIVO: analizar la eficacia y comparar la analgesia preventiva por el método de la administración de analgésicos antes y después del inicio del estímulo doloroso operatorio. La mejoría del cuadro doloroso postoperatorio en las cirugías de la columna vertebral en el segmento lumbosacro, por vía posterior, no ha sido completamente investigada. MÉTODOS: sesenta y dos pacientes sometidos a la microdisección o microdescompresión, en un único nivel, en la columna lumbosacra fueron divididos en tres grupos. Veinte pacientes en el primer grupo (A no

  18. Effects of the addition of subarachnoid clonidine to the anesthetic solution of sufentanil and hyperbaric or hypobaric bupivacaine for labor analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebaldi, Thaís Cristina; Malbouisson, Luíz Marcelo Sá; Kondo, Mario M; Cardoso, Mônica M S C

    2008-01-01

    The addition of subarachnoid clonidine (alpha-agonist) prolongs the analgesia produced by the combination of sufentanil and isobaric bupivacaine in combined labor analgesia(1). The objective of this study was to compare the quality of analgesia and the prevalence of side effects after the addition of subarachnoid clonidine to the anesthetic solution in labor analgesia. After approval by the Ethics Commission, 22 pregnant women in labor were randomly assigned to the subarachnoid administration of either 2.5 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (CLON/HYPER Group; n = 11) or 2.5 mg of 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine (CLON/ISO Group; n = 11) associated with 2.5 microg of sufentanil and 30 microg of clonidine. Pain, evaluated by the Visual Analogue Scale, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure were assessed every 5 minutes during the first 15 minutes, and then every 15 minutes afterwards until delivery. The prevalence of side effects (nausea, vomiting, pruritus, and sedation) was evaluated. The study was terminated whenever the patient needed supplemental epidural analgesia (pain > 3) or upon delivery of the fetus. The Student t test, Chi-square test, Fisher exact test, and two-way ANOVA for repeated measurements were used in the statistical analysis and a p hyperbaric and isobaric solutions showed similar behavior.

  19. Vasovagal Syncope during Epidural Catheterization before ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The risk factors can be patient related (young, athletics, hypertensive, history of syncope, inferior myocardial infarction and others), anaesthesia related (light anaesthesia, spinal, epidural anaesthesia, airway manipulation, hypercapnia, hypoxia and others) and surgical related (strabismus, anal dilatation, abdominal and ...

  20. Spontaneous extracranial decompression of epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neely, John C.; Jones, Blaise V.; Crone, Kerry R.

    2008-01-01

    Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a common sequela of head trauma in children. An increasing number are managed nonsurgically, with close clinical and imaging observation. We report the case of a traumatic EDH that spontaneously decompressed into the subgaleal space, demonstrated on serial CT scans that showed resolution of the EDH and concurrent enlargement of the subgaleal hematoma. (orig.)

  1. Spontaneous extracranial decompression of epidural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, John C. [Marshall University School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Jones, Blaise V. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Crone, Kerry R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Neurosurgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a common sequela of head trauma in children. An increasing number are managed nonsurgically, with close clinical and imaging observation. We report the case of a traumatic EDH that spontaneously decompressed into the subgaleal space, demonstrated on serial CT scans that showed resolution of the EDH and concurrent enlargement of the subgaleal hematoma. (orig.)

  2. MRI features of spinal epidural angiolipomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Su; Hu, Chun Hong; Wang, Xi Ming; Dai, Hui [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Jiangsu (China); Hu, Xiao Yun; Fang, Xiang Ming [Dept. of Radiology, Wuxi People' s Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu (China); Cui, Lei [Dept. of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Jiangsu (China)

    2013-10-15

    To describe the MRI findings in ten patients of spinal epidural angiolipoma for differentiated diagnosis presurgery. Ten surgically proved cases of spinal epidural angiolipomas were retrospectively reviewed, and the lesion was classified according to the MR findings. Ten tumors were located in the superior (n = 4), middle (n = 2), or inferior (n = 4) thoracic level. The mass, with the spindle shape, was located in the posterior epidural space and extended parallel to the long axis of the spine. All lesions contained a fat and vascular element. The vascular content, correlating with the presence of hypointense regions on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and hyperintense signals on T2-weighted imaging, had marked enhancement. However, there were no flow void signs on MR images. All tumors were divided into two types based on the MR features. In type 1 (n = 3), the mass was predominantly composed of lipomatous tissue (> 50%) and contained only a few small angiomatous regions, which had a trabeculated or mottled appear. In type 2 (n = 7), the mass, however, was predominantly composed of vascular components (> 50%), which presented as large foci in the center of the mass. Most spinal epidural angiolipomas exhibit hyperintensity on T1WI while the hypointense region on the noncontrast T1WI indicates to be vascular, which manifests an obvious enhancement with gadolinium administration.

  3. pethidine study Epidural and intramuscular a pharmacokinetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-02-05

    Feb 5, 1983 ... study would indicate to what extent absorption and transport via the blood influenced the actions of epidural pethidine. Department of ... gas chromatograph using a 1,1 metre glass column of 2% Car- bowax 20M + 3% KOH on ...

  4. MRI features of epidural extramedullary hematopoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alorainy, Ibrahim A. E-mail: alorainy@ksu.edu.sa; Al-Asmi, Abdullah R.; Carpio, Raquel del

    2000-07-01

    A case of {beta}-thalassemia intermedia with spinal cord compression due to extramedullary hematopoiesis, which was successfully treated by blood transfusion, is presented. Emphasis was made on the MRI appearance of extramedullary hematopoiesis on different pulse sequences. The theories that aimed to explain the involvement of the epidural space by extramedullary hematopoiesis are discussed.

  5. MRI features of epidural extramedullary hematopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Al-Asmi, Abdullah R.; Carpio, Raquel del

    2000-01-01

    A case of β-thalassemia intermedia with spinal cord compression due to extramedullary hematopoiesis, which was successfully treated by blood transfusion, is presented. Emphasis was made on the MRI appearance of extramedullary hematopoiesis on different pulse sequences. The theories that aimed to explain the involvement of the epidural space by extramedullary hematopoiesis are discussed

  6. Thoracic epidural anaesthesia for major abdominal surgeries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pulse rate, blood pressure and oxygen saturation were monitored throughout the procedure and recorded. Data were obtained from the ... In a previous study, Consani et al.3 documented the feasibility of thoracic epidural ... thoracostomy and mastectomy in high-risk patients.2,6 Since TEA places less demand on drugs, ...

  7. Paediatric analgesia in an Emergency Department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, C

    2012-02-03

    Timely management of pain in paediatric patients in the Emergency Department (ED) is a well-accepted performance indicator. We describe an audit of the provision of analgesia for children in an Irish ED and the introduction of a nurse-initiated analgesia protocol in an effort to improve performance. 95 children aged 1-16 presenting consecutively to the ED were included and time from triage to analgesia, and the rate of analgesia provision, were recorded. The results were circulated and a nurse initiated analgesia protocol was introduced. An audit including 145 patients followed this. 55.6% of patients with major fractures received analgesia after a median time of 54 minutes, which improved to 61.1% (p = 0.735) after 7 minutes (p = 0.004). Pain score documentation was very poor throughout, improving only slightly from 0% to 19.3%. No child had a documented pain score, which slightly improved to 19.3%. We recommend other Irish EDs to audit their provision of analgesia for children.

  8. Maternal and cord plasma concentrations of beta-lipotrophin, beta-endorphin and gamma-lipotrophin at delivery; effect of analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, A J; Butt, W R; Lynch, S S; Shakespear, R A; Crawford, J S

    1983-12-01

    Maternal venous plasma concentrations of beta-LPH, beta-EP and gamma-LPH were compared in (i) patients undergoing vaginal delivery, 11 with an epidural block and 13 with pethidine and nitrous oxide or no analgesics; (ii) patients delivered by caesarean section, 7 under epidural block and 8 under general anaesthesia. Patients delivered by either method under epidural block had significantly lower levels of all three peptides than those receiving no epidural. There were significant negative correlations between umbilical vein beta-LPH, beta-EP and gamma-LPH concentrations and umbilical artery pH and positive correlations between beta-LPH and beta-EP but not gamma-LPH and cord PCO2 in 29 patients. There was no relation between cord levels of any of the three peptides and the method of analgesia or the route of delivery. Although concentrations of all three peptides were closely correlated to one another in either maternal or cord plasma, there was no relationship between maternal and fetal levels.

  9. Efeitos cardiorrespiratórios e analgésicos da cetamina por via epidural, por infusão intravenosa contínua ou pela associação de ambas, em cães submetidos à osteossíntese de fêmur Cardiorespiratory and analgesic effects of ketamine via epidural route, intravenous continuous infusion or association of both, in dogs submitted to femoral osteosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Bonfim Carregaro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A cetamina tem demonstrado efeito analgésico em doses subanestésicas, além da manutenção da estabilidade dos parâmetros fisiológicos. O estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos cardiorrespiratórios e a analgesia pós-operatória da cetamina administrada por via epidural, por infusão intravenosa contínua ou pela associação de ambas, em cães submetidos à osteossíntese de fêmur. Foram utilizadas 25 cadelas, hígidas, distribuídas aleatoriamente em quatro grupos: CEP (2mg kg-1 de cetamina associada à lidocaína 2% via epidural, CIV (lidocaína 2% via epidural e 1mg kg-1 de cetamina IV seguido de infusão contínua IV com 100µg kg min-1 da mesma, CIVEP (2mg kg-1 de cetamina associada à lidocaína 2% via epidural e 1mg kg-1 de cetamina IV, seguido de infusão contínua IV com 100µg kg min-1 e CON (anestesia epidural com lidocaína 2%. Avaliaram-se FC, f, PAS, PAM, PAD, T°C, tempo de bloqueio motor e analgesia pós-operatória por meio de escala analógica visual. Houve elevação da FC no CIV e diminuição desse parâmetro no CEP. As pressões arteriais mantiveram-se dentro dos valores fisiológicos e não foram observadas diferenças na f e T°C. O tempo de duração do bloqueio anestésico foi potencializado nos grupos que receberam cetamina epidural, diferindo significativamente em relação ao controle. O tempo para a analgesia resgate não diferiu entre os grupos. Conclui-se que a administração de cetamina pela via epidural, por infusão contínua intravenosa ou pela associação de ambas promoveu estabilidade cardiorrespiratória no período transcirúrgico, porém não foi capaz de prolongar a duração da analgesia pós-operatória em cães submetidos à osteossíntese de fêmur.Ketamine has demonstrated analgesic effects in subanesthetic doses, besides the maintenance of stability of physiological parameters. The study aimed to evaluate the cardiorespiratory effects and the post operative analgesia of ketamine via epidural

  10. Pediatric procedural sedation and analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith James

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA is an evolving field in pediatric emergency medicine. As new drugs breach the boundaries of anesthesia in the Pediatric Emergency Department, parents, patients, and physicians are finding new and more satisfactory methods of sedation. Short acting, rapid onset agents with little or no lingering effects and improved safety profiles are replacing archaic regimens. This article discusses the warning signs and areas of a patient′s medical history that are particularly pertinent to procedural sedation and the drugs used. The necessary equipment is detailed to provide the groundwork for implementing safe sedation in children. It is important for practitioners to familiarize themselves with a select few of the PSA drugs, rather than the entire list of sedatives. Those agents most relevant to PSA in the pediatric emergency department are presented.

  11. Neuraxial Analgesia In Neonates And Infants: Review of Clinical and Preclinical Strategies for the Development of Safety and Efficacy Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Suellen M.; Yaksh, Tony L.

    2015-01-01

    Neuraxial agents provide robust pain control, have the potential to improve outcomes, and are an important component of the perioperative care of children. Opioids or clonidine improve analgesia when added to perioperative epidural infusions; analgesia is significantly prolonged by addition of clonidine, ketamine, neostigmine or tramadol to single shot caudal injections of local anesthetic; and neonatal intrathecal anesthesia/analgesia is increasing in some centers. However, it is difficult to determine the relative risk-benefit of different techniques and drugs without detailed and sensitive data related to analgesia requirements, side-effects, and follow-up. Current data related to benefits and complications in neonates and infants are summarized, but variability in current neuraxial drug use reflects the relative lack of high quality evidence. Recent preclinical reports of adverse effects of general anesthetics on the developing brain have increased awareness of the potential benefit of neuraxial anesthesia/analgesia to avoid or reduce general anesthetic dose requirements. However, the developing spinal cord is also vulnerable to drug-related toxicity, and although there are well-established preclinical models and criteria for assessing spinal cord toxicity in adult animals, until recently there had been no systematic evaluation during early life. Therefore, the second half of this review presents preclinical data evaluating age-dependent changes in the pharmacodynamic response to different spinal analgesics, and recent studies evaluating spinal toxicity in specific developmental models. Finally, we advocate use of neuraxial agents with the widest demonstrable safety margin and suggest minimum standards for preclinical evaluation prior to adoption of new analgesics or preparations into routine clinical practice. PMID:22798528

  12. Recurrent acute low back pain secondary to lumbar epidural calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziade, M.; Zufferey, P.; So, A.K.L. [Centre Hospitalier Vaudois, Service de Rhumatologie, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    Epidural calcification is a rare cause of back pain, and spontaneous epidural calcification has not been reported previously. We describe a patient with acute low back pain and signs of lumbar nerve root compression due to epidural calcification, as demonstrated by CT-scan and MRI. Radiological signs of spondylodiscitis led to a search for an infectious cause, which was negative, and her symptoms responded rapidly to NSAID treatment alone. Her symptoms recurred 18 months later, and further imaging studies again revealed epidural calcification, but with a changed distribution. Her symptoms were relieved once more by NSAID treatment alone. We propose that epidural calcification secondary to aseptic spondylodiscitis is the main cause of acute back pain in this patient. A possible mechanism may be the pro-inflammatory effects of calcium pyrophosphate or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition within the epidural space. (orig.)

  13. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under epidural anesthesia: a clinical feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Huh, Jin; Kim, Duk Kyung; Gil, Jea Ryoung; Min, Sung Won; Han, Sun Sook

    2010-12-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has traditionally been performed under general anesthesia, however, owing in part to the advancement of surgical and anesthetic techniques, many laparoscopic cholecystectomies have been successfully performed under the spinal anesthetic technique. We hoped to determine the feasibility of segmental epidural anesthesia for LC. Twelve American Society of Anesthesiologists class I or II patients received an epidural block for LC. The level of epidural block and the satisfaction score of patients and the surgeon were checked to evaluate the efficacy of epidural block for LC. LC was performed successfully under epidural block, with the exception of 1 patient who required a conversion to general anesthesia owing to severe referred pain. There were no special postoperative complications, with the exception of one case of urinary retention. Epidural anesthesia might be applicable for LC. However, the incidence of intraoperative referred shoulder pain is high, and so careful patient recruitment and management of shoulder pain should be considered.

  14. Recurrent acute low back pain secondary to lumbar epidural calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziade, M.; Zufferey, P.; So, A.K.L.

    2007-01-01

    Epidural calcification is a rare cause of back pain, and spontaneous epidural calcification has not been reported previously. We describe a patient with acute low back pain and signs of lumbar nerve root compression due to epidural calcification, as demonstrated by CT-scan and MRI. Radiological signs of spondylodiscitis led to a search for an infectious cause, which was negative, and her symptoms responded rapidly to NSAID treatment alone. Her symptoms recurred 18 months later, and further imaging studies again revealed epidural calcification, but with a changed distribution. Her symptoms were relieved once more by NSAID treatment alone. We propose that epidural calcification secondary to aseptic spondylodiscitis is the main cause of acute back pain in this patient. A possible mechanism may be the pro-inflammatory effects of calcium pyrophosphate or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition within the epidural space. (orig.)

  15. Intranasal sufentanil/ketamine analgesia in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bettina Nygaard; Friis, Susanne M; Rømsing, Janne

    2014-01-01

    The management of procedural pain in children ranges from physical restraint to pharmacological interventions. Pediatric formulations that permit accurate dosing, are accepted by children and a have a rapid onset of analgesia are lacking....

  16. Langerhans' cell histiocytosis presenting with an intracranial epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.-W.; McLeary, M.S.; Zuppan, C.W.; Won, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    An 8-year-old boy developed vomiting and severe headache following minor head trauma. A CT scan of the head demonstrated a lytic lesion of the skull and adjacent epidural hematoma. Surgical evacuation and removal of the skull lesion and hematoma were carried out, and pathologic evaluation resulted in a diagnosis of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH). Epidural involvement of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis is very rare, and we report the first case of LCH presenting as an intracranial epidural hematoma. (orig.)

  17. Sympathetic activity of S-(+-ketamine low doses in the epidural space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Mihaljevic

    2014-07-01

    .5% bupivacaine does not deprive sympathetic tonus below the level of epidural block at the moment of most expressed sympathetic block and has no effect on sympathetic tonus above the block level. Resumo: Justificativa e objetivos: cetamina S-(+ é um anestésico intravenoso e simpaticomimético com propriedades de anestésico local. Tem efeito analgésico e de anestésico local quando administrada por via epidural, mas não há dados que relatem se cetamina S-(+ em doses baixas tem efeitos simpaticomiméticos. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se cetamina S-(+ em doses baixas, administrada por via epidural em combinação com anestésico local, tem algum efeito sobre o sistema nervoso simpático, tanto sistêmico quanto abaixo do nível do bloqueio anestésico. Métodos: o estudo foi conduzido com dois grupos de pacientes submetidos à anestesia epidural. Anestesia local (bupivacaína a 0,5 foi administrada a um grupo (controle, enquanto anestesia local em combinação com cetamina S-(+ foi administrada ao outro grupo (teste. Idade, altura, peso, pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica e pressão arterial média foram medidos. O método imunoquímico de inibição enzimática não competitiva (Cat Combi Elisa foi usado para determinar as concentrações de catecolaminas (adrenalina e noradrenalina. O ensaio imunoenzimométrico com substrato luminescente em uma máquina chamada Vitros Eci foi usado para determinar a concentração de cortisol. O tempo de transição do pulso foi medido com fotopletismografia. Para análise estatística, os testes de Wilcoxon, U de Mann–Whitney e Anova de Friedman foram usados. Pressão arterial, pulso e concentrações de adrenalina, noradrenalina e cortisol foram medidos para estimar os efeitos simpáticos sistêmicos. Resultados: receberam bupivacaína a 5% 40 pacientes do grupo controle e 40 do grupo teste receberam bupivacaína a 0,5% com cetamina S-(+. Um valor de p < 0,05 foi aceito como o limite de significância estat

  18. Post-caesarean analgesia: What is new?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhyanti Kerai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate post-operative analgesia after caesarean section (CS is vital as it impacts the distinct surgical recovery requirements of the parturient. Although newer analgesic modalities and drugs for post-caesarean analgesia have been introduced over the recent years, review of the literature suggests suggests that we are far from achieving the goals of optimum post-operative analgesia. We conducted a systematic review of recent advances in modalities for post-caesarean analgesia. After systematic search and quality assessment of studies, we included a total of 51 randomised controlled trials that evaluated the role of opioids, transversus abdominis plane (TAP block, wound infiltration/infusion, ketamine, gabapentin and ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block (II-IH NB for post-caesarean analgesia. Administration of opioids still remains the gold standard for post-operative analgesia, but the associated troublesome side effects have led to the mandatory incorporation of non-opioid analgesics in post-CS analgesia regime. Among the non-opioid techniques, TAP block is the most investigated modality of the last decade. The analgesic efficacy of TAP block as a part of multimodal analgesia is established in post-CS cases where intrathecal morphine is not employed and in CS under general anaesthesia. Among non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, COX-I inhibitors and intravenous paracetamol are found to be useful in post-operative analgesic regimen. The perioperative use of ketamine is found useful only in CS done under spinal anaesthesia; no benefit is seen where general anaesthesia is employed. Wound infiltration with local anaesthetics, systemic gabapentin and II-IH NB need further trials to assess their efficacy.

  19. Bupivacaine versus lidocaine analgesia for neonatal circumcision

    OpenAIRE

    Stolik-Dollberg, Orit C; Dollberg, Shaul

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Analgesia for neonatal circumcision was recently advocated for every male infant, and its use is considered essential by the American Academy of Pediatrics. We compared the post-operative analgesic quality of bupivacaine to that of lidocaine for achieving dorsal penile nerve block (DPNB) when performing neonatal circumcision. Methods Data were obtained from 38 neonates following neonatal circumcision. The infants had received DPNB analgesia with either lidocaine or bupivac...

  20. Preincisional and postoperative epidural morphine, ropivacaine, ketamine, and naloxone treatment for postoperative pain management in upper abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hou-Chuan; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Wong, Chih-Shung; Yeh, Chun-Chang; Wu, Zhi-Fu

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that preincisional epidural morphine, bupivacaine, and ketamine combined with epidural anesthesia (EA) and general anesthesia (GA) provided pre-emptive analgesia for upper abdominal surgery. Recent studies reported that ultralow-dose naloxone enhanced the antinociceptive effect of morphine in rats. This study investigated the benefits of preincisional and postoperative epidural morphine + ropivacaine + ketamine + naloxone (M + R + K + N) treatment for achieving postoperative pain relief in upper abdominal surgery. Eighty American Society of Anesthesiology I-II patients scheduled for major upper abdominal surgery were allocated to four groups in a randomized, single-blinded study. All patients received combined GA and EA with a continuous epidural infusion of 2% lidocaine (6-8 mL/h) 30 minutes after pain regimen. After GA induction, in Group I, an epidural pain control regimen (total 10 mL) was administered using 1% lidocaine (8 mL) + morphine (2 mg) + ropivacaine (20 mg; M + R); in Group II, 1% lidocaine 8 (mL) + morphine (2 mg) + ropivacaine (20 mg) + ketamine (20 mg; M + R + K); in Group III, 1% lidocaine (8 mL) + morphine (2 mg) + ropivacaine (20 mg) + naloxone (2 μg; M + R + N); and in Group IV, 1% lidocaine (8 mL) + morphine (2 mg) + ropivacaine (20 mg) + ketamine (20 mg) + naloxone (2 μg; M + R + K + N), respectively. All patients received patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) with different pain regimens to control subsequent postoperative pain for 3 days following surgery. During the 3-day period following surgery, PCEA consumption (mL), numerical rating scale (NRS) score while cough/moving, and analgesic-related adverse effects were recorded. Total PCEA consumption for the 3-day observation period was 161.5±17.8 mL, 103.2±21.7 mL, 152.4±25.6 mL, and 74.1±16.9 mL for Groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively. (p pain management than preincisional

  1. The epidural needle guidance with an intelligent and automatic identification system for epidural anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Meng-Chun; Ting, Chien-Kun; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2018-02-01

    Incorrect placement of the needle causes medical complications in the epidural block, such as dural puncture or spinal cord injury. This study proposes a system which combines an optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging probe with an automatic identification (AI) system to objectively identify the position of the epidural needle tip. The automatic identification system uses three features as image parameters to distinguish the different tissue by three classifiers. Finally, we found that the support vector machine (SVM) classifier has highest accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity, which reached to 95%, 98%, and 92%, respectively.

  2. Hyperbaric bupivacaine 2.5 mg prolongs analgesia compared with plain bupivacaine when added to intrathecal fentanyl 25 microg in advanced labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Wendy H L; Sia, Alex T H

    2003-09-01

    We investigated the effect of sequential administration of intrathecal (IT) hyperbaric bupivacaine (after the initial administration of IT hypobaric fentanyl) on the duration of spinal analgesia. Thirty-seven nulliparous parturients with a cervical dilation >/= 5 cm were randomized to receive either IT fentanyl 25 micro g and plain bupivacaine 2.5 mg (group P; n = 19) or IT fentanyl 25 micro g and hyperbaric (with 8% glucose) bupivacaine 2.5 mg (group H; n = 18). The two components of the IT injectate were administered sequentially (fentanyl 25 micro g diluted in 2 mL of normal saline, immediately followed by 0.5 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine). Patients were then positioned with their torso elevated at 30 degrees for 30 min. Pain scores using 0-100 visual analog scales were collected before combined spinal/epidural analgesia and at 5, 15, and 30 min after the block. Patients in Group H had a longer median duration of analgesia (122 min; range, 80-210 min) than Group P (95 min; range, 75-125 min) (P hyperbaric bupivacaine conferred an increased duration of IT analgesia compared with plain bupivacaine.

  3. Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S W; Hole, P; Haas, Inge Madsen De

    1993-01-01

    the investigation. We observed a change in the sleeping pattern with an increased number of sleep-induced myoclonia during the administration of epidural morphine. In conclusion, the use of epidural morphine in children for postoperative pain relief is very efficient. The minimal effective dose has not been...

  4. Sciatica caused by a dilated epidural vein: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaerel, P.; Petre, C.; Wilms, G.; Plets, C.

    1999-01-01

    We report the MR imaging findings in a 41-year-old woman presenting with sudden low back pain and sciatica. At surgery a dilated epidural vein was found compressing the nerve root. The MR findings may suggest the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of a dilated epidural vein or varix causing sciatica has not been reported until now. (orig.) (orig.)

  5. Epidural Anesthesia Complicated by Subdural Hygromas and a Subdural Hematoma

    OpenAIRE

    Vien, Christine; Marovic, Paul; Ingram, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Inadvertent dural puncture during epidural anesthesia leads to intracranial hypotension, which if left unnoticed can cause life-threatening subdural hematomas or cerebellar tonsillar herniation. The highly variable presentation of intracranial hypotension hinders timely diagnosis and treatment. We present the case of a young laboring adult female, who developed subdural hygromas and a subdural hematoma following unintentional dural puncture during initiation of epidural anesthesia.

  6. The spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma : a study of the etiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, R J; Ponssen, H

    From the literature 199 cases of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) are analyzed. With these data and the vascular anatomical characteristics of the spinal epidural space, the theories on the etiology of the SSEH are discussed. There seems to be no relationship between the SSEH and arterial

  7. Case Report Thoracic epidural for modified radical mastectomy in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patient, measuring peripheral capillary oxygen saturation and noninvasive BP. ... epidural depth was 5 cm, and 4 cm of the epidural catheter was left in situ in the ... mL/hour, and intravenous paracetamol at 600 mg 8-hourly for 48 hours to ...

  8. Vertex epidural haematoma manifesting with bilateral upper limb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and ...

  9. Epidural versus In postoperatIve intramuscular pain relief pethidine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidural versus. •. •. In postoperatIve ... would be left entirely up to them and they would receive analge- sia whenever they .... Fusion right knee. Epidural. 15 ..... reaches the brain but that its action persists in the spinal cord. The onset of ...

  10. Reducing risk of spinal haematoma from spinal and epidural pain procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Harald; Norum, Hilde; Fenger-Eriksen, Christian; Alahuhta, Seppo; Vigfússon, Gísli; Thomas, Owain; Lagerkranser, Michael

    2018-04-25

    Central neuraxial blocks (CNB: epidural, spinal and their combinations) and other spinal pain procedures can cause serious harm to the spinal cord in patients on antihaemostatic drugs or who have other risk-factors for bleeding in the spinal canal. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide a practise advisory on how to reduce risk of spinal cord injury from spinal haematoma (SH) during CNBs and other spinal pain procedures. Scandinavian guidelines from 2010 are part of the background for this practise advisory. We searched recent guidelines, PubMed (MEDLINE), SCOPUS and EMBASE for new and relevant randomised controlled trials (RCT), case-reports and original articles concerning benefits of neuraxial blocks, risks of SH due to anti-haemostatic drugs, patient-related risk factors, especially renal impairment with delayed excretion of antihaemostatic drugs, and specific risk factors related to the neuraxial pain procedures. Epidural and spinal analgesic techniques, as well as their combination provide superior analgesia and reduce the risk of postoperative and obstetric morbidity and mortality. Spinal pain procedure can be highly effective for cancer patients, less so for chronic non-cancer patients. We did not identify any RCT with SH as outcome. We evaluated risks and recommend precautions for SH when patients are treated with antiplatelet, anticoagulant, or fibrinolytic drugs, when patients' comorbidities may increase risks, and when procedure-specific risk factors are present. Inserting and withdrawing epidural catheters appear to have similar risks for initiating a SH. Invasive neuraxial pain procedures, e.g. spinal cord stimulation, have higher risks of bleeding than traditional neuraxial blocks. We recommend robust monitoring routines and treatment protocol to ensure early diagnosis and effective treatment of SH should this rare but potentially serious complication occur. When neuraxial analgesia is considered for a patient on anti

  11. Free epidural fat-grafting after lumbar laminectomy using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsubo, Yoshimasa; Fujita, Masaaki; Motokawa, Satoru; Nakamura, Satoshi; Narabayashi, Yoko

    1994-01-01

    Free epidural fat-grafting was performed to prevent adhesion between scar tissue of the epidural space and dura and nerve root after lumbar laminectomy. The results were evaluated using MRI. Fifteen cases were operated upon with an average follow-up period of 7.5 months. MRI was recorded and the findings were classified into four types as follow: I, equally high signal case; II, slight fibrosis case; III, severe fibrosis case; IV, high signal disappeared case. The results showed 3 cases of type I, 7 cases of type II, 3 cases of type III, and 2 cases of type IV. According to MRI findings, free epidural fat is supposed to be still viable and alive, although slightly fibroses but the dural side remains a high signal area. Free epidural fat-grafting was useful for preventing adhesion around the epidural space. There was high relationship to age and sex with regard to viability of the free fat graft. (author)

  12. Comparação entre três técnicas regionais de analgesia pós-operatória em crianças com ropivacaína Comparación entre tres técnicas regionales de analgesia postoperatoria en niños con ropivacaina Comparison among three techniques of postoperative regional analgesia with ropivacaine in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Menezes Caetano

    2006-12-01

    ropivacaína para la analgesia postoperatoria en niños. MÉTODO: Se estudiaron 87 niños del sexo masculino, con edad entre 1 y 5 años, sometidos a herniorrafias inguinales electivas unilaterales. Los niños recibieron aleatoriamente la PS, el BIHII o la IFO. Se investigó la necesidad de analgésico en el postoperatorio, el tiempo necesario para su primera dosis, la intensidad de dolor y el grado de bloqueo motor. RESULTADOS: En el grupo de la IFO se observó una mayor necesidad de analgésicos, y una mayor intensidad de dolor en las 1ª y 2ª horas, cuando se comparó con la PS y el BIHII. Apenas niños sometidos a PS presentaron bloqueo motor de grado moderado. El tiempo promedio de la necesidad de la primera dosis de analgésico fue similar entre los grupos. CONCLUSIONES: El BIHII presentó una superioridad sobre la IFO, especialmente en las primeras dos horas del postoperatorio. As tres técnicas anestésicas pueden ser utilizadas con seguridad y eficacia en el control de dolor postoperatorio de herniorrafia inguinal en niños.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Postoperative pain increases cost and generates dissatisfaction among parents regarding to the analgesics prescribed to their children. Ropivacaine has a broad safety margin to be used for regional block in pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to compare caudal epidural block (CE with ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric nerve block (IINB and infiltration of surgical wound (ISW with ropivacaine for postoperative analgesia in children. METHODS: Eighty-seven children, all males, ages 1 to 5, who underwent elective unilateral inguinal herniorrhaphy participated in this study. Children were randomly assigned to receive CE, IINB, or ISW. The need for postoperative analgesia, length of time until the first dose, severity of pain, and degree of the motor blockade were evaluated. RESULTS: The need for analgesia and pain severity in the first two hours were greater for the ISW Group when compared with the CE and IINB Groups

  13. Bupivacaine versus lidocaine analgesia for neonatal circumcision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolik-Dollberg Orit C

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analgesia for neonatal circumcision was recently advocated for every male infant, and its use is considered essential by the American Academy of Pediatrics. We compared the post-operative analgesic quality of bupivacaine to that of lidocaine for achieving dorsal penile nerve block (DPNB when performing neonatal circumcision. Methods Data were obtained from 38 neonates following neonatal circumcision. The infants had received DPNB analgesia with either lidocaine or bupivacaine. The outcome variable was the administration by the parents of acetaminophen during the ensuing 24 hours. Results Seventeen infants received lidocaine and 19 received bupivacaine DPNB. Ten infants in the lidocaine group (59% were given acetaminophen following circumcision compared to only 3 (16% in the bupivacaine group (P 2 = 20.6; P = 0.006. Conclusion DPNB with bupivacaine for neonatal circumcision apparently confers better analgesia than lidocaine as judged by the requirement of acetaminophen over the ensuing 24-hour period.

  14. Raman Spectroscopy Differentiates Each Tissue From the Skin to the Spinal Cord: A Novel Method for Epidural Needle Placement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T. Anthony; Kang, Jeon Woong; Gubin, Tatyana; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; So, Peter T. C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Neuraxial anesthesia and epidural steroid injection techniques require precise anatomical targeting to ensure successful and safe analgesia. Previous studies suggest that only some of the tissues encountered during these procedures can be identified by spectroscopic methods, and no previous study has investigated the use of Raman, diffuse reflectance, and fluorescence spectroscopies. The authors hypothesized that real-time needle-tip spectroscopy may aid epidural needle placement and tested the ability of spectroscopy to distinguish each of the tissues in the path of neuraxial needles. METHODS For comparison of detection methods, the spectra of individual, dissected ex vivo paravertebral and neuraxial porcine tissues were collected using Raman spectroscopy (RS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and fluorescence spectroscopy (FS). Real-time spectral guidance was tested using a 2 mm inner diameter fiber optic probe-in-needle device. Raman spectra were collected during the needle’s passage through intact paravertebral and neuraxial porcine tissue and analyzed afterward. The RS tissue signatures were verified as mapping to individual tissue layers using histochemical staining and widefield microscopy. RESULTS Raman spectroscopy revealed a unique spectrum for all ex vivo paravertebral and neuraxial tissue layers; DRS and FS spectra were not distinct for all tissues. Moreover, when accounting for the expected order of tissues, real-time Raman spectra recorded during needle insertion also permitted identification of each paravertebral and neuraxial porcine tissue. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates Raman spectroscopy can distinguish the tissues encountered during epidural needle insertion. This technology may prove useful during needle placement by providing evidence of its anatomical localization. PMID:27466032

  15. Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematoma; a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Motamedi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSHE is a rare entity can have several reasons. Its prevalence in population is 0.1 per 100,000 with the male to female ratio of 1/4:1. For the first time Jackson in 1869 reported a case of SSHE and after that it was declared as several hundred cases in literatures. Here, a case of SSHE was reported in a 52 year-old male referred to emergency department following severe low back pain.

  16. Collateral pathways in lumbar epidural venography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thijssen, H.O.M.; Ike, B.W.; Chevrot, A.; Bijlsma, R.

    1982-01-01

    Opacification of collateral pathways other than the central channels is very rare in lumbar epidural venography. Two cases of opacification of the inferior mesenteric vein following extravasation of contrast medium at the tip of the lateral sacral vein catheter are reported. One case is presented in which filling of normal parametrial venous plexuses and the left ovarian vein occurred as a consequence of incompetent or absent valves in the internal iliac vein. The literature containing comparable collateral flow patterns in disease is reviewed. The significance of the phlebographic features in our cases is discussed. (orig.)

  17. An epidural catheter removal after recent percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery stenting: Epidural catheter and antiaggregation therapy

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    Joksić Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy in the presence of the epidural catheter is still controversial. It is well known that dual antiplatelet therapy is indicated for 12 months after the placement of drug-eluting stents (DES. Removal of an epidural catheter during that period is related to an increased risk of stent occlusion in case of discontinuation of platelet function inhibitors or, on the other hand, increased risk of epidural hematoma associated with neurological deficit if suppressed platelet function is still present. Case Report: Here we present a case of a 63-year-old man who was admitted to Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases Dedinje for elective aortic surgery. Before the induction, an epidural catheter was inserted at the Th10-Th11 epidural space. Uneventful surgery was performed under the combined epidural and general anesthesia. On the 2nd postoperative day, the patient sustained a ST depression myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention with DES placement, while epidural catheter was still in place. Dual antiplatelet therapy with 600mg of clopidogrel, 100 mg of acetilsalicylic acid (ASA and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH were started during the procedure. The next day, clopidogrel (75 mg and ASA (100 mg were continued as well as LMWH. The decision to remove the epidural catheter was made on the 9th postoperative day, after platelet aggregation assays were performed. Six hours after catheter removal the patient again received clopidogrel, ASA and LMWH. There were no signs of epidural hematoma. Conclusion: This case shows that point-of-care testing with platelet aggregation assays may be useful in increasing the margin of safety for epidural catheter removal during dual antiplatelet therapy.

  18. Acupuntura e analgesia: aplicações clínicas e principais acupontos Acupuncture and analgesia: clinical applications and main acupoints

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    Marilda Onghero Taffarel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A dor é uma resposta protetora do organismo a estímulos nocivos, que resulta em efeitos indesejáveis quando não controlada. A analgesia pode ser promovida mediante a utilização de vários tipos de fármacos. No entanto, estes podem causar efeitos adversos de acordo com a espécie e condição física do paciente. A acupuntura tem se mostrado eficaz como coanalgésico pela capacidade de diminuir a quantidade de fármacos utilizados para o controle da dor e raramente ser contraindicada. Objetivou-se com este trabalho fazer uma breve revisão sobre as aplicações clínicas e os efeitos fisiológicos da acupuntura nos mecanismos da dor, bem como demonstrar os principais pontos de acupuntura utilizados para analgesia em animais. A pesquisa foi realizada em bases de dados eletrônicas por palavra-chave, durante o período de março a dezembro de 2008.Pain is a protective response of the body to harmful stimulus, which results in undesirable effects if not controlled. Analgesia can be achieved with the use of different types of drugs. However, these drugs can cause adverse effects according to species and patient physical condition. Acupuncture has been proved to be an effective analgesic adjuvant, by the capacity to decrease the amount of drug used for pain control, rarely contra-indicated. The aim of this paper was to review the physiological effects of acupuncture on pain mechanisms, and demonstrate the main acupoints used for animal analgesia. The search was done in electronic search database using key words, in 2008.

  19. Caudal epidural anesthesia during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoyama-Shirakawa, Yuko; Abe, Madoka; Nakamura, Katsumasa

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that pain control during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer is insufficient in most hospitals in Japan. Our hospital began using caudal epidural anesthesia during high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy in 2011. The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the effects of caudal epidural anesthesia during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer patients. Caudal epidural anesthesia for 34 cervical cancer patients was performed during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy between October 2011 and August 2013. We used the patients' self-reported Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score at the first session of HDR intracavitary brachytherapy as a subjective evaluation of pain. We compared NRS scores of the patients with anesthesia with those of 30 patients who underwent HDR intracavitary brachytherapy without sacral epidural anesthesia at our hospital between May 2010 and August 2011. Caudal epidural anesthesia succeeded in 33 patients (97%), and the NRS score was recorded in 30 patients. The mean NRS score of the anesthesia group was 5.17 ± 2.97, significantly lower than that of the control group's 6.80 ± 2.59 (P = 0.035). The caudal epidural block resulted in no side-effects. Caudal epidural anesthesia is an effective and safe anesthesia option during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer. (author)

  20. Intracranial epidural hemorrhage during lumbar spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imajo, Yasuaki; Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Hidenori; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Nishida, Norihiro; Goto, Hisaharu; Suzuki, Michiyasu; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    The authors report a case of intracranial epidural hemorrhage (ICEH) during spinal surgery. We could not find ICEH, though we recorded transcranial electrical stimulation motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs). A 35-year-old man was referred for left anterior thigh pain and low back pain that hindered sleep. Sagittal T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural tumor at L3-L4 vertebral level. We performed osteoplastic laminectomy and en bloc tumor resection. TcMEPs were intraoperatively recorded at the bilateral abductor digiti minimi (ADM), quadriceps, tibialis anterior and abductor hallucis. When we closed a surgical incision, we were able to record normal TcMEPs in all muscles. The patient did not fully wake up from the anesthesia. He had right-sided unilateral positive ankle clonus 15 min after surgery in spite of bilateral negative of ankle clonus preoperatively. Emergent brain computed tomography scans revealed left epidural hemorrhage. The hematoma was evacuated immediately via a partial craniotomy. There was no restriction of the patient's daily activities 22 months postoperatively. We should pay attention to clinical signs such as headache and neurological findgings such as DTR and ankle clonus for patients with durotomy and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. Spine surgeons should know that it was difficult to detect ICEH by monitoring with TcMEPs.

  1. Pneumomediastinum Associated with Pneumopericardium and Epidural Pneumatosis

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    Ozlem Bilir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a relatively rare benign condition. It may rarely be associated with one or combination of pneumothorax, epidural pneumatosis, pneumopericardium, or subcutaneous emphysema. We present a unique case with four of the radiological findings in a 9-year-old male child who presented to our emergency department with his parents with complaints of unproductive cough, dyspnea, and swelling on chest wall. Bilateral subcutaneous emphysema was palpated on anterior chest wall from sternum to midaxillary regions. His anteroposterior and lateral chest radiogram revealed subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum. His thorax computed tomography to rule out life-threatening conditions revealed bilateral subcutaneous, mediastinal, pericardial, and epidural emphysema without pneumothorax. He was transferred to pediatric intensive care unit for close monitorization and conservative treatment. He was followed-up by chest radiographs. He was relieved from symptoms and signs around the fifth day and he was discharged at the seventh day. Diagnosis of pneumomediastinum is often made based on physical findings and plain radiographs. It may not be as catastrophic as it is seen. Close cardiopulmonary monitorization is mandatory for complications and accompanying conditions. Most patients with uncomplicated spontaneous pneumomediastinum respond well to oxygen and conservative management without any specific treatment.

  2. Computerized tomography findings of acute traumatic epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shiro; Nakazawa, Shozo; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Yajima, Kouzo; Yano, Masami; Otsuka, Toshibumi

    1984-01-01

    During four year period from April, 1977 to March, 1981, 53 cases with acute traumatic epidural hematoma had been encountered out of 430 acute head injured patients examined by computerized tomography (CT) within 24 hours after incurring the trauma. Besides the initial CT, the authors performed contrast enhanced CT (41 cases) and serial CT scanning (31 cases). There were 49 cases of epidural hematoma existing in the supratentorial region, Two cases infratentorial region and 2 cases in the both regions. Two cases of vertex epidural hematoma had been encountered, one of them required vertical scan technique. In 22 (41%) of the 53 patients, the initial CT showed evidence of other cerebral lesions. The most frequent lesion was pneumocephalus (11 cases), 3 cases of them existed in the epidural hematoma. There were also intracerebral hematoma (6 cases), subdural hematoma (4 cases), cerebral contusion (2 cases), intraventricular hemorrhage (2 cases) and 2 cases of them demonstrated ''diffuse traumatic cerebral injury''. During contrast enhanced CT, 11 cases out of 41 cases indicated several enhancement pattern. There were total enhancement of epidural hematoma (2 cases), partial enhancement of hematoma (2 cases) and enhancement of internal margin of hematoma (2 cases). Serial CT scans was performed in 36 out of the 53 patients. Common findings on the serial CT scans were decreased density collection in the subdural space such as subdural effusions or chronic subdural hematomas (8 cases) and enlargement of small epidural hematomas (3 cases). After evacuation of epidural hematoma, there were some cases showing the so-called ''delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma'' (4 cases), appearance of other epidural hematoma (1 case) and development of small cerebral infarction in the basal ganglia. There was one case indicating appearance of a new epidural hematoma contra lateral to the side of evacuation of subdural hematoma. (J.P.N.)

  3. Nitrous oxide for labor analgesia: Utilization and predictors of conversion to neuraxial analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Caitlin D; Butwick, Alexander J; Riley, Edward T; Carvalho, Brendan

    2017-08-01

    We examined the characteristics of women who choose nitrous oxide for labor analgesia and identified factors that predict conversion from nitrous oxide to labor neuraxial analgesia. Retrospective descriptive study. Labor and Delivery Ward. 146 pregnant women who used nitrous oxide for analgesia during labor and delivery between September 2014 and September 2015. Chart review only. Demographic, obstetric, and intrapartum characteristics of women using nitrous oxide were examined. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with conversion from nitrous oxide to neuraxial analgesia. Data are presented as n (%), median [IQR], adjusted relative risk (aRR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as appropriate. During the study period, 146 women used nitrous oxide for labor analgesia (accounting for 3% of the total deliveries). The majority (71.9%) of women who used nitrous oxide were nulliparous, and over half (51.9%) had expressed an initial preference for "nonmedical birth." The conversion rate to neuraxial blockade was 63.2%, compared to a concurrent institutional rate of 85.1% in women who did not use nitrous oxide. Factors associated with conversion from nitrous oxide to neuraxial blockade were labor induction (aRR=2.0, CI 1.2-3.3) and labor augmentation (aRR=1.7, CI 1.0-2.9). Only a small number of women opted to use nitrous oxide during labor, analgesia was minimal, and most converted to neuraxial analgesia. Women with induced and augmented labors should be counseled about the increased likelihood that they will convert to neuraxial analgesia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Electroacupuncture analgesia in a rabbit ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmen, Valentin

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of electroacupuncture analgesia (EAA) at local and paravertebral acupoints for a rabbit undergoing an ovariohysterectomy. Twelve clinically healthy New Zealand white rabbits were chosen and divided into two groups: the control group (5 rabbits) and the experimental group (7 rabbits). A neuroleptanalgesic (ketamine + xylazine) was administered to the control group (NLA group); the experimental group received EAA treatment (EAA group). The EAA treatment includes one acupuncture formula for local stimulation at the incision site and systemic stimulation. Results of clinical research have shown postoperative analgesia using EAA treatment to be superior to that using NLA. The average postoperative recovery time was 5.2 times longer in the NLA group than in the EAA group. Because consciousness was maintained, EAA presented an advantage in thermoregulation. Animals administered NLA had prolonged thermal homeostasis because of neurovegetative disconnection. For the EAA group, the operative times were characterized as excellent (28%, p = 0.28) or good (72%, p = 0.72). Local stimulation at the incision site provided excellent analgesia of the abdominal wall (100%). In conclusion, EA can provide general analgesia with a considerable analgesic effect for a rabbit undergoing an ovariohysterectomy, resulting in a short postoperative recovery time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Comparison of intraoperative behavioral and hormonal responses to noxious stimuli between mares sedated with caudal epidural detomidine hydrochloride or a continuous intravenous infusion of detomidine hydrochloride for standing laparoscopic ovariectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgin, Joanna; Hendrickson, Dean; Wallis, Ty; Rao, Sangeeta

    2010-08-01

    To compare the presence or absence of pain, pain-related behavioral responses, and hormonal responses to noxious stimuli during standing laparoscopic ovariectomy in mares sedated with continuous intravenous (IV) detomidine infusion and caudal epidural detomidine. A double blind prospective study. Mares (n=12) Mares were divided into 2 treatment groups; 6 were sedated using continuous IV detomidine infusion and 6 were sedated with caudal epidural detomidine. All mares received IV xylazine (0.33 mg/kg) and butorphanol tartrate (5 mg) premedication before detomidine administration. Venous blood samples were taken to assess serum cortisol levels in each mare at 4 time points: a baseline cortisol measurement after the mares' arrival to the clinic, 10 minutes before surgery, at the removal of the 2nd ovary, and 10 minutes postsurgery. Two surgeons performed bilateral ovariectomy and at 8 time points involving surgical manipulations, noted the presence or absence of pain (yes/no) and scored the patient's response on a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain assessment with 0 indicating no pain responses and 10 cm indicating pain so severe that the mare required additional sedation or analgesia to complete the procedure. Each mare was also assigned a VAS score by each surgeon for the overall satisfaction of analgesia during the entire procedure. Serum cortisol levels between the 2 detomidine administration groups differed significantly at the baseline (precortisol) measurement but not at the 3 remaining time points. Seven of the procedures within the surgeries did not differ significantly in VAS scores between the 2 groups. The initial grasp of the left ovary (the 1st ovary) in the continuous infusion group had a significantly higher (P=.05) median VAS score compared with the caudal epidural group. Mares sedated with a continuous IV infusion of detomidine have similar hormonal and behavioral responses to painful stimuli during standing laparoscopic ovariectomy as mares

  6. Fever following an Epidural Blood Patch in a Child

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    Agnes I. Hunyady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that children suffer from the consequences of spontaneous or iatrogenic intracranial hypotension. Pediatric epidural blood patch is gaining popularity because of its ability to alter cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and to alleviate headaches attributed to low cerebrospinal fluid pressure. There is, however, still not enough data to document the safety profile of an epidural blood patch. Here we describe a case of a fever in a child temporally related to the administration of an epidural blood patch. This case depicts the dilemmas in making the diagnosis and instituting treatment for complications of this procedure in the pediatric population.

  7. The RESPITE trial: remifentanil intravenously administered patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) versus pethidine intramuscular injection for pain relief in labour: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Matthew; MacArthur, Christine; Gao Smith, Fang; Homer, Leanne; Handley, Kelly; Daniels, Jane

    2016-12-12

    The commonest opioid used for pain relief in labour is pethidine (meperidine); however, its effectiveness has long been challenged and the drug has known side effects including maternal sedation, nausea and potential transfer across the placenta to the foetus. Over a third of women receiving pethidine require an epidural due to inadequate pain relief. Epidural analgesia increases the risk of an instrumental vaginal delivery and its associated effects. Therefore, there is a clear need for a safe, effective, alternative analgesic to pethidine. Evidence suggests that remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) reduces epidural conversion rates compared to pethidine; however, no trial has yet investigated this as a primary endpoint. We are, therefore, comparing pethidine intramuscular injection to remifentanil PCA in a randomised controlled trial. Women in established labour, requesting systemic opioid pain relief, will be randomised to either intravenously administered remifentanil PCA (intervention) or pethidine intramuscular injection (control) in an unblinded, 1:1 individual randomised trial. Following informed consent, 400 women in established labour, who request systemic opioid pain relief, from NHS Trusts across England will undergo a minimised randomisation by a computer or automated telephone system to either pethidine or remifentanil. In order to balance the groups this minimisation is based on four parameters; parity (nulliparous versus multiparous), maternal age (Asian (Pakistani/Indian/Bangladeshi) versus Other) and induced versus spontaneous labour. The effectiveness of pain relief provided by each technique will be recorded every 30 min after time zero, until epidural placement, delivery or transfer to theatre, quantified by Visual Analogue Scale. Incidence of maternal side effects including sedation, delivery mode, foetal distress requiring delivery, neonatal status at delivery and rate of initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of birth

  8. Measurements of Epidural Space Depth Using Preexisting CT Scans Correlate with Loss of Resistance Depth during Thoracic Epidural Catheter Placement

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    Nathaniel H. Greene

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thoracic epidural catheters provide the best quality postoperative pain relief for major abdominal and thoracic surgical procedures, but placement is one of the most challenging procedures in the repertoire of an anesthesiologist. Most patients presenting for a procedure that would benefit from a thoracic epidural catheter have already had high resolution imaging that may be useful to assist placement of a catheter. Methods. This retrospective study used data from 168 patients to examine the association and predictive power of epidural-skin distance (ESD on computed tomography (CT to determine loss of resistance depth acquired during epidural placement. Additionally, the ability of anesthesiologists to measure this distance was compared to a radiologist, who specializes in spine imaging. Results. There was a strong association between CT measurement and loss of resistance depth (P35 changed this relationship (P=0.007. The ability of anesthesiologists to make CT measurements was similar to a gold standard radiologist (all individual ICCs>0.9. Conclusions. Overall, this study supports the examination of a recent CT scan to aid in the placement of a thoracic epidural catheter. Making use of these scans may lead to faster epidural placements, fewer accidental dural punctures, and better epidural blockade.

  9. Estudo comparativo entre anestesia peridural torácica e anestesia geral em mastectomia oncológica Estudio comparativo entre la anestesia epidural torácica y la anestesia general en mastectomia oncológica Comparative study between thoracic epidural block and general anesthesia for oncologic mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio D. Belzarena

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A anestesia peridural torácica é utilizada com freqüência para procedimentos estéticos da mama e há poucos relatos de seu emprego para mastectomias com exploração axilar. O presente estudo comparou a técnica com anestesia geral em operações oncológicas da mama. MÉTODO: Quarenta pacientes foram divididas em dois grupos. No grupo peridural (n = 20 foi realizada peridural torácica com bupivacaína e fentanil associada à sedação com midazolam. O outro grupo (n = 20 recebeu anestesia geral convencional com propofol, atracúrio e fentanil e manutenção com O2 e isoflurano. Registraram-se no intra-operatório duração da operação, necessidade de complementação da anestesia ou da sedação e variáveis hemodinâmicas. No pós-operatório, foram registrados o tempo para alta da sala de recuperação pós-anestésica e hospitalar, a intensidade da dor e o consumo de analgésicos, os efeitos adversos e a satisfação com a técnica anestésica. RESULTADOS: Os grupos foram semelhantes e não houve diferença na duração da operação. Foi necessário complementar a sedação em 100% das pacientes que receberam anestesia peridural e em 15% foi complementada a analgesia com infiltração de anestésico local na axila. Houve maior incidência de hipertensão arterial no grupo da anestesia geral e de hipotensão entre as que receberam peridural. Ocorreu prurido em 55% das pacientes com anestesia peridural. Náusea (30% e vômito (45% foram mais freqüentes entre as que receberam anestesia geral. A analgesia pós-operatória teve melhor qualidade e o consumo de analgésicos foi menor no grupo da anestesia peridural. O período de internação também foi menor. CONCLUSÕES: A técnica peridural tem algumas vantagens com relação à anestesia geral e pode ser considerada uma opção para anestesia em mastectomias oncológicas com esvaziamento axilar.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La anestesia epidural torácica se

  10. Neuraxial analgesia in neonates and infants: a review of clinical and preclinical strategies for the development of safety and efficacy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Suellen M; Yaksh, Tony L

    2012-09-01

    Neuraxial drugs provide robust pain control, have the potential to improve outcomes, and are an important component of the perioperative care of children. Opioids or clonidine improves analgesia when added to perioperative epidural infusions; analgesia is significantly prolonged by the addition of clonidine, ketamine, neostigmine, or tramadol to single-shot caudal injections of local anesthetic; and neonatal intrathecal anesthesia/analgesia is increasing in some centers. However, it is difficult to determine the relative risk-benefit of different techniques and drugs without detailed and sensitive data related to analgesia requirements, side effects, and follow-up. Current data related to benefits and complications in neonates and infants are summarized, but variability in current neuraxial drug use reflects the relative lack of high-quality evidence. Recent preclinical reports of adverse effects of general anesthetics on the developing brain have increased awareness of the potential benefit of neuraxial anesthesia/analgesia to avoid or reduce general anesthetic dose requirements. However, the developing spinal cord is also vulnerable to drug-related toxicity, and although there are well-established preclinical models and criteria for assessing spinal cord toxicity in adult animals, until recently there had been no systematic evaluation during early life. Therefore, in the second half of this review, we present preclinical data evaluating age-dependent changes in the pharmacodynamic response to different spinal analgesics, and recent studies evaluating spinal toxicity in specific developmental models. Finally, we advocate use of neuraxial drugs with the widest demonstrable safety margin and suggest minimum standards for preclinical evaluation before adoption of new analgesics or preparations into routine clinical practice.

  11. Acute spinal epidural hematoma: MR imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Wenjian; Xu Aide

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathogenesis of acute spinal epidural hematomas (ASEHs), MRI features, and its value on diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Methods: Fifteen patients with ASEHs (8 males, 7 females, mean age 37.8 years) were reviewed. Seven of the patients were secondary to spinal injuries (5 spinal trauma, 1 post-spinal operation, and 1 post-lumbar puncture) and 8 were spontaneous. Eleven patients were confirmed by operation. MRI was performed in all patients in sagittal SE T 1 WI and SE or FSE T 2 WI, 12 in axial FSE T 2 WI, 8 in axial SE T 1 WI, and 4 in contrast-enhanced SE T 1 WI. Results: Fifteen ASEHs involved 18 spinal segments, 6 of the segments (6/18) in cervical spine, 9 segments (9/18) in thoracic spine, and 3 segments (3/18) in lumbar spine. The hematomas located at pre-epidural space in 7 segments (7/18) and at posterolateral epidural space in 11 segments (11/18). The craniocaudal extent of the hematomas varied from 1 to 13 vertebral levels (average 4.87 vertebral level). There were low signal intensity lines between hematomas and spinal cord in all of the cases on T 1 WI. The low signal intensity line between hematoma and subarachnoid space was demonstrated in 8 cases (8/12) and 4 cases (4/15) on axial T 2 WI and sagittal T 2 WI, respectively. The figure of hematomas was biconvex on axial imaging in all of the cases, and long lentiform on sagittal imaging in 13 cases (13/15). The hematomas showed variable signal intensity. On T 1 WI, 5 showed isointensity to cord, 6 with hyperintensity, and 4 with inhomogeneous iso-hyperintensity. On T 2 WI, 5 showed hypointensity, 10 with inhomogeneous hypo-hyperintensity. There was no special MR manifestation after contrast administration. Conclusion: ASEHs is a rare disorder, and MRI features are characteristic for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis

  12. Oxygen delivery and consumption during on-bypass cabg in htea and central analgesia

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    Віталій Олексійович Собокарь

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Despite some advantages, the use of high thoracic epidural anesthesia (HTEA during on-bypass cardiac surgery may be discouraged by fear of adverse hemodynamic effects and associated disturbances of oxygen delivery.Aim. To compare oxygen delivery and consumption during on-bypass coronary artery bypass grafting in settings of HTEA and central analgesia (CA.Methods. 132 patients were assigned into two groups – study group (n=85, where the surgery was performed under HTEA and control group (n=47 - where the surgery was carried out under CA. Using data of transesophageal cardiac ultrasound and blood oximetry blood oxygen delivery (DO2, oxygen consumption (VO2, oxygen extraction coefficient (CEO2 were calculated at four stages of the surgery: after induction, sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and at the end of the surgery.Results. In the initial stages of the surgery DO2 and VO2 were reduced relative to reference values with a tendency to increase in the course of the operation and achievement of the normal or supernormal level (VO2, study group in the final stage. The decrease was due to moderate hypodynamic circulation and hemodilution. After sternotomy DO2 in the study group was higher than that of the control: 356 (279; 458 vs 317±89 ml·min-1·m-2, (р=0,021. After cardiopulmonary bypass oxygen saturation of venous blood (SatvO2, in the study group was 71 ± 9 % compared with 68 ± 10 % in the control group. At the end of the surgery SatvO2 in the study group was 71 (66; 75 vs 59 (53; 70 % in the control (р = 0,005 and oxygen tension of venous blood (РvО2 was correspondingly 39 ± 6 and 33 (30; 38 mm Hg (р = 0,027. Despite the decrease in DO2 and VO2, oxygen extraction indices - CEO2, pvO2, SatvO2, and remained within the reference range, except that of the control group at the end of the surgery. Furthermore, at no stage lactate rise or acid-base deviations was observed in the both groups.Conclusions. In patients operated

  13. Continuous positive airway pressure breathing increases the spread of sensory blockade after low-thoracic epidural injection of lidocaine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, W.A.; Gielen, M.J.M.; Giele, J.L.P.

    2006-01-01

    Factors affecting the distribution of sensory blockade after epidural injection of local anesthetics remain incompletely clarified. To evaluate if increasing intrathoracic pressure affects the spread of thoracic epidural anesthesia, we randomized 20 patients who received an epidural catheter at the

  14. Epidural anesthesia, hypotension, and changes in intravascular volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Foss, Nicolai B; Svensén, Christer

    2004-01-01

    receiving hydroxyethyl starch. RESULTS: Plasma volume did not change per se after thoracic epidural anesthesia despite a decrease in blood pressure. Plasma volume increased with fluid administration but remained unchanged with vasopressors despite that both treatments had similar hemodynamic effects...... constant was 56 ml/min. CONCLUSIONS: Thoracic epidural anesthesia per se does not lead to changes in blood volumes despite a reduction in blood pressure. When fluid is infused, there is a dilution, and the fluid initially seems to be located centrally. Because administration of hydroxyethyl starch......BACKGROUND: The most common side effect of epidural or spinal anesthesia is hypotension with functional hypovolemia prompting fluid infusions or administration of vasopressors. Short-term studies (20 min) in patients undergoing lumbar epidural anesthesia suggest that plasma volume may increase when...

  15. Lower Back Tattoo: OK to Have an Epidural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and delivery, postpartum care Could a lower back tattoo keep me from having an epidural during labor? ... Yvonne Butler Tobah, M.D. A lower back tattoo won't necessarily prevent you from having an ...

  16. Epidural haematoma: pathophysiological significance of extravasation and arteriovenous shunting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habash, A.H.; Sortland, O.; Zwetnow, N.N.

    1982-01-01

    35 patients with epidural bleeding operated on at Rikshospitalet, Oslo, during the period 1965 - 1980 had preoperative angiography with visualization of the external carotid artery. Twenty-one patients had extravasation of contrast medium from meningeal arteries. Seventeen of the 21 had also shunting of contrast medium from meningeal arteries to meningeal or diploic veins, while 20 of the 21 also had bled from a ruptured meningeal artery at operation. It was further found that of 20 patients who deteriorated after trauma 18 had an epidural arteriovenous shunt or extravasation. Conversely, of 15 patients who improved after trauma 12 had no evidence of a shunt. The strong correlation between the clinical course and the occurrence of extravasation supports previous experimental and clinical data, indicating the epidural arteriovenous shunt to be a major factor in the pathophysiology and the outcome of epidural bleeding. (author)

  17. Sciatica caused by a dilated epidural vein: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Petre, C.; Wilms, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Plets, C. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium)

    1999-02-01

    We report the MR imaging findings in a 41-year-old woman presenting with sudden low back pain and sciatica. At surgery a dilated epidural vein was found compressing the nerve root. The MR findings may suggest the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of a dilated epidural vein or varix causing sciatica has not been reported until now. (orig.) (orig.) With 1 fig., 4 refs.

  18. Epidural Anesthesia Complicated by Subdural Hygromas and a Subdural Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Vien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inadvertent dural puncture during epidural anesthesia leads to intracranial hypotension, which if left unnoticed can cause life-threatening subdural hematomas or cerebellar tonsillar herniation. The highly variable presentation of intracranial hypotension hinders timely diagnosis and treatment. We present the case of a young laboring adult female, who developed subdural hygromas and a subdural hematoma following unintentional dural puncture during initiation of epidural anesthesia.

  19. Epidural versus intravenous steroids application following percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Annan; Gu, Xin; Guan, Xiaofei; Fan, Guoxin; He, Shisheng

    2018-05-01

    Retrospectively study.The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intraoperative epidural steroids and single dose intravenous steroids following a percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD).Inflammatory irritation of dorsal root ganglia or sensory nerve roots may cause postoperative pain. Epidural steroids have been applied after a lumbar discectomy for more than 20 years. Epidural steroid application after a PELD is easier to perform and safer because the operations are under observation of the scope.We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation who had undergone transforaminal PELD at our department. There are 60 patients in epidural steroid group, intravenous steroid group, and control group, respectively. Visual analog scores (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were collected. Successful pain control is defined as 50% or more reduction in back and leg pain (VAS scores).VAS scores (back and leg) and ODI showed a significant decrease in all groups when comparing pre- and postoperatively. Epidural steroid group had a significant improvement in successful pain control compared with the control group at 2 weeks of follow-up. VAS scores (leg) in the epidural steroid group showed a significant decrease compared with the intravenous steroids group at 1, 3, and 7 days after the surgery, but this difference had no statistical significance at 1, 6, and 12 months of follow-up. All groups did not show a significant difference in ODI at 1, 6, and 12 months follow-up.Epidural application of steroid has a better effect on controlling the postoperative pain of PELD in the short term. The epidural application of steroid did not show a tendency to cause infection.

  20. Inadvertent injection of succinylcholine as an epidural test dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chryssa Pourzitaki

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: Epidural action of neuromuscular blocking agents could be explained under the light of their physicochemical characteristics and epidural space properties. In the literature there are few cases of accidental neuromuscular agent's epidural administration, manifesting mainly with neuromuscular blockade institution or fasciculations. Case report: We report a case of accidental succinylcholine administration as an epidural test dose, in a female patient undergoing scheduled laparotomy, under combined general and epidural anesthesia. Approximately 2 min after the succinylcholine injection the patient complained for shortness of breath, while mild fasciculations appeared in her trunk and face, managed by immediate general anesthesia institution. With the exception of a relatively longer duration of neuromuscular blockade compared with intravenous administration, no neurological or cardiovascular sequelae or other symptoms of local or systemic toxicity were observed. Conclusions: Oral administration of diazepam seems to lessen the adverse effects from accidental epidural administration of succinylcholine. The meticulous and discriminative labeling of syringes, as well as keeping persistent cautions during all anesthesia procedures remains of crucial importance.

  1. Incidence of persistent postoperative pain after hepatectomies with 2 regimes of perioperative analgesia containing ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masgoret, Paula; Gomar, Carmen; Tena, Beatriz; Taurá, Pilar; Ríos, José; Coca, Miquel

    2017-04-01

    Studies designed to assess persistent postoperative pain (PPP) incidence after hepatectomies are lacking. Our aim was to assess PPP incidence 6 months after hepatectomies with intravenous (IV) or epidural (EPI) analgesia containing ketamine.Prospective observational comparative study between 2 cohorts of patients submitted to hepatectomy. Patients received 1 of 2 analgesic regimes containing ketamine: EPI group or IV group. Visual analog scale (VAS), Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), and quantitative sensorial testing (QST: to determine area of hyperalgesia/allodynia) were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively at 2 h, 24 h, 7 days, 1 month, and 6 months. VAS ≥ 1 at 1 and 6 months was considered indicative of PPP and VAS > 3 was considered as not controlled pain. Side effects and complications were registered.Forty-four patients were included: 23 in EPI group and 21 in IV group. Patients in IV group were older and had more comorbidities. No patient presented VAS > 3 at 1 or 6 months. VAS ≥ 1 at 1 and 6 months was 36.4% and 22.7%, respectively. No differences in VAS, NPSI, or PCS were found between groups. Allodynia/hyperalgesia area did not differ between groups and was infrequent and slight. Pain pressure threshold in the wound vertical component was significantly higher in EPI group after 7 days. IV group showed more cognitive side effects.Incidence of PPP at 6 months after open hepatectomies with EPI or IV analgesia containing ketamine was lower than previously reported for other abdominal surgeries.Ketamine influence on low PPP incidence and hyperalgesia cannot be discarded.

  2. Primary epidural lymphoma without vertebral involvement in a HIV-positive patient; Linfoma epidural primario sin afectacion vertebral en un paciente VIH positivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M. O.; Grive, E.; Quiroga, S.; Rovira, A. [Hospital General Universitari Vall d`Hebron. Barcelona. (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    Epidural involvement is rarely associated with lymphoma, it being more typical of non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma in advanced stages of the disease. The invasion of the epidural space is usually caused by the extension of a paravertebral mass or by the affected vertebrae. However, the epidural space alone can be involved. We present a case of epidural lymphoma in a patient who presented with clinical evidence of spinal cord compression. Magnetic resonance disclosed the existence of an epidural mass compressing and displacing the spinal cord without involving the adjacent vertebra or the associated paravertebral mass. (Author) 9 refs.

  3. Nerve injury caused by mandibular block analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, S; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-four injection injuries in 52 patients were caused by mandibular block analgesia affecting the lingual nerve (n=42) and/or the inferior alveolar nerve (n=12). All patients were examined with a standardized test of neurosensory functions. The perception of the following stimuli was assessed......: feather light touch, pinprick, sharp/dull discrimination, warm, cold, point location, brush stroke direction, 2-point discrimination and pain perception. Gustation was tested for recognition of sweet, salt, sour and bitter. Mandibular block analgesia causes lingual nerve injury more frequently than...... inferior alveolar nerve injury. All grades of loss of neurosensory and gustatory functions were found, and a range of persisting neurogenic malfunctions was reported. Subjective complaints and neurosensory function tests indicate that lingual nerve lesions are more incapacitating than inferior alveolar...

  4. Prehospital Use of Ketamine in Battlefield Analgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    Breathing a. In a casualty with progressive respiratory distress and known or suspected torso trauma , consider a tension pneumothorax and... pneumothorax and decompress the chest on the side of the injury with a 14-gauge, 3.25 inch needle/catheter unit inserted in the second...Military Advanced Regional Anesthesia and Analgesia Handbook, U.S. Special Operations Command Tactical Trauma Protocols (since 2008), Army Ranger Medic

  5. Intrathecal analgesia and palliative care: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen S Salins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal analgesia is an interventional form of pain relief with definite advantages and multiple complications. Administration of intrathecal analgesia needs a good resource setting and expertise. Early complications of intrathecal analgesia can be very distressing and managing these complications will need a high degree of knowledge, technical expertise and level of experience. Pain control alone cannot be the marker of quality in palliative care. A holistic approach may need to be employed that is more person and family oriented.

  6. Operative treatment of spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas : a study of the factors determining postoperative outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, R J; van Alphen, H A

    OBJECTIVE: We clarify the factors affecting postoperative outcomes in patients who have suffered spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas. METHODS: We review 330 cases of spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas from the international literature and three unpublished cases of our own. Attention was

  7. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma diagnosed by CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abumiya, Takeo; Isu, Toyohiko; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Akino, Minoru; Abe, Hiroshi

    1985-01-01

    A case of spinal epidural hematoma diagnosed by CT scan is reported. A 58-year-old man was admitted on June 18, 1984. He had had a sudden onset of severe low-back pain 7 days before admission and had developed paraparesis and numbness of the lower limbs 4 day before admission. Physical examination revealed weakness in the lower limbs, with the reflexes there decreased. The Babinski reflex and the Chaddock reflex were, however, present on both sides. Sensory disturbances were noted below L 2 . Urinary incontinence was present, too. Metrizamide myelography revealed an epidural mass which was located from the power part of T 11 to the upper part of L 2 . A CT scan revealed a biconvex, relatively high-density mass in the posterior spinal canal. On the day of admission, a laminectomy was performed from T 11 to L 1 , and the epidural hematoma was evacuated. The postoperative course was uneventful. Spinal epidural hematoma is uncommon. A CT scan can be used for an early diagnosis of this lesion. According to the review of the CT findings in 15 reported cases, including our case, CT reveals a smoothly marginated biconvex homogeneous density mass. The density of the hematoma decreases with the time. An acute type (within 3 days) is high-density, while a chronic type has a relatively high or isodensity. The acute type is easily differentiated from other epidural masses, such as a herniated disc, an epidural abscess, and an epidural tumor. On the other hand, the diagnosis of the chronic type is not always easy. (author)

  8. Selective REM Sleep Deprivation Improves Expectation-Related Placebo Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchou, Florian; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Rainville, Pierre; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2015-01-01

    The placebo effect is a neurobiological and psychophysiological process known to influence perceived pain relief. Optimization of placebo analgesia may contribute to the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of medication for acute and chronic pain management. We know that the placebo effect operates through two main mechanisms, expectations and learning, which is also influenced by sleep. Moreover, a recent study suggested that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is associated with modulation of expectation-mediated placebo analgesia. We examined placebo analgesia following pharmacological REM sleep deprivation and we tested the hypothesis that relief expectations and placebo analgesia would be improved by experimental REM sleep deprivation in healthy volunteers. Following an adaptive night in a sleep laboratory, 26 healthy volunteers underwent classical experimental placebo analgesic conditioning in the evening combined with pharmacological REM sleep deprivation (clonidine: 13 volunteers or inert control pill: 13 volunteers). Medication was administered in a double-blind manner at bedtime, and placebo analgesia was tested in the morning. Results revealed that 1) placebo analgesia improved with REM sleep deprivation; 2) pain relief expectations did not differ between REM sleep deprivation and control groups; and 3) REM sleep moderated the relationship between pain relief expectations and placebo analgesia. These results support the putative role of REM sleep in modulating placebo analgesia. The mechanisms involved in these improvements in placebo analgesia and pain relief following selective REM sleep deprivation should be further investigated.

  9. Acute cervical epidural hematoma: case report Hematoma epidural cervical agudo: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILHERME BORGES

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A 74 year-old patient with a nocturnal onset of neck and chest pain was brought to an emergency clinic. Physical examination and cardiac assessment were normal. Three hours after the addmittance, a flaccid paralysis of the four limbs supervened. Suspecting of an unusual onset of central nervous system infection, a lumbar puncture was performed, yielding 20 ml of normal cerebrospinal fluid. Thirty oinutes after the puncture, the patient completely regained neurological funcion. He was then referred to a General Hospital where a computed tomography (CT scan was done showing a large cervical epidural bleeding in the posterolateral region of C4/C5 extending to C7/Th1, along with a C6 vertebral body hemangioma. A magnetic resonance imaging revealed the same CT findings. A normal selective angiography of vertebral arteries, carotid arteries and thyreocervical trunk was carried out. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (ASSEH is a rare but dramatic cause of neurological impairment. In this article we report a fortunate case of complete recovery after an unusual spine cord decompression. We also review the current literature concerning diagnosis and treatment of ASSEH.Paciente de 74 anos acordou à noite sentindo fortes dores na região da nuca acompanhadas de ansiedade e desconforto torácico e respiratório. A internação emergencial em clinica cardiológica não demonstrou problemas cardíacos. Com a progressão do quadro neurológico traduzida por quadriplegia severa foi realizada uma punção lombar para afastar hipótese de meningite, sendo retirados cerca de 20 ml de liquor. Trinta minutos imediatamente após a punção lombar foi observada completa remissão do déficit neurológico. Transferido para um hospital geral a tomografia computadorizada demonstrou extenso hematoma epidural espinal em nivel C4/C5 com extensão a C7/Th1, bem como hemangioma do sexto corpo vertebral (C6. A ressonância magnética demonstrou as mesmas lesões. Observando

  10. Spontaneous epidural emphysema and pneumomediastinum during an asthmatic attack in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caramella, D.; Bulleri, A.; Battolla, L.; Bartolozzi, C. [Department of Radiology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, I-56 100 Pisa (Italy); Pifferi, M.; Baldini, G. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    1997-12-01

    CT revealed the presence of epidural emphysema as an incidental finding in a 13-year-old boy in whom mild infrequent coughing during an asthmatic attack resulted in a pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema. Epidural emphysema was not associated with neurological symptoms. The CT images demonstrated the pathway of air leakage from the posterior mediastinum through the intervertebral foramina into the epidural space. Repeat CT showed spontaneous resolution of the epidural emphysema. (orig.) With 2 figs., 9 refs.

  11. Spontaneous epidural emphysema and pneumomediastinum during an asthmatic attack in a child

    International Nuclear Inf