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Sample records for analeptics

  1. Microbial Diversity in the Gut of Cashew Stem Girdler, Analeptes trifasciata Fabricius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedokun, A.V.; Adeniyi, D.O.

    2016-01-01

    The cashew stem girdler, Analeptes trifasciata, is a major insect pest of cashew in Nigeria causing economic damage in cashew plantations even at low density. In this study, newly emerged adults of A. trifasciata reared from field-infested cashew stems were collected from the rearing cages, sexed, and dissected to reveal the internal structures of the insects. The gut was excised and separated into the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The dissected gut compartments were blotted dry by sandwiching in sterile Whatman No. 1 (150 mm) filter paper for a minute. The inoculated gut parts showed the presence of eight fungi flora, namely, Aspergillus repens, Trichoderma spp., Fusarium verticillioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, yeast, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium spp., and Rhizopus stolonifer. The frequencies of occurrence of bacteria in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata were Enterobacter spp.: 83.33%; Escherichia coli and Streptococcus spp.: 55.56% each; Staphylococcus spp.: 44.44%; Klebsiella pneumonia: 50% and Salmonella shigella: 11.11%, while each of Serratia marceascea, Pseudomonas spp., and Micrococcus lutea had 5.56% occurrence. The occurrence of mycoflora and microbiota species varied in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata, indicating the role of these microorganisms in metabolic and other bioprocesses of A. trifasciata during digestion and synthesis of complex food substances from the cashew stem substrate. This study would provide basic information for enzymatic studies of A. trifasciata with a view to developing an integrated pest management (IPM) protocol for managing the pest in cashew plantations. PMID:27147898

  2. Microbial Diversity in the Gut of Cashew Stem Girdler, Analeptes trifasciata Fabricius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedokun, A V; Adeniyi, D O

    2016-01-01

    The cashew stem girdler, Analeptes trifasciata, is a major insect pest of cashew in Nigeria causing economic damage in cashew plantations even at low density. In this study, newly emerged adults of A. trifasciata reared from field-infested cashew stems were collected from the rearing cages, sexed, and dissected to reveal the internal structures of the insects. The gut was excised and separated into the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The dissected gut compartments were blotted dry by sandwiching in sterile Whatman No. 1 (150 mm) filter paper for a minute. The inoculated gut parts showed the presence of eight fungi flora, namely, Aspergillus repens, Trichoderma spp., Fusarium verticillioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, yeast, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium spp., and Rhizopus stolonifer. The frequencies of occurrence of bacteria in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata were Enterobacter spp.: 83.33%; Escherichia coli and Streptococcus spp.: 55.56% each; Staphylococcus spp.: 44.44%; Klebsiella pneumonia: 50% and Salmonella shigella: 11.11%, while each of Serratia marceascea, Pseudomonas spp., and Micrococcus lutea had 5.56% occurrence. The occurrence of mycoflora and microbiota species varied in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata, indicating the role of these microorganisms in metabolic and other bioprocesses of A. trifasciata during digestion and synthesis of complex food substances from the cashew stem substrate. This study would provide basic information for enzymatic studies of A. trifasciata with a view to developing an integrated pest management (IPM) protocol for managing the pest in cashew plantations. PMID:27147898

  3. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF CAFFEINE, PICROTOXIN, AND PENTYLENETETRAZOL ON HIPPOCAMPAL AFTERDISCHARGE ACTIVITY AND WET DOG SHAKES (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present experiment was conducted to identify changes in hippocampal after discharge (AD) parameters following administration of subconvulsant dosages (half of the convulsant dosage) of analeptics with known pharmacological action. Long Evans rats (N=104) with chronic bipolar ...

  4. Albornoz Plata, Alberto

    OpenAIRE

    Albornoz Plata, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    1. In the practice of gastroenterology the most frequent type of disease is functional. In organic diseases the existence of emotional problems characterized by depression and/or anxiety are common. Therefore in the therapy of these diseases the use of nontoxic well tolerated psycho-analeptic drugs is justified. 2. A clinical experience using the psycho-analeptic drug niamid, pfizer, on 40 patients reported: 32 functional, 14 irritated colon and 18 digestive neurosis, and 8 organic, 1 ...

  5. 21 CFR 522.1452 - Nalorphine hydrochloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subcutaneously. (2) Indications for use. Respiratory and circulatory depression in dogs resulting from overdosage of, or unusual sensitivity to, morphine and certain other narcotics. Not for depression due to any other cause. (3) Limitations. Successive doses of the drug gradually lose their analeptic effect...

  6. Drug: D07755 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07755 Drug Crotetamide (INN); Crothethamide C12H22N2O2 226.1681 226.3153 D07755.gi...f Analeptic Component of Micoren (TN) CAS: 6168-76-9 PubChem: 51092047 LigandBox: D07755 NIKKAJI: J8.352F AT

  7. Drug: D07754 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07754 Drug Cropropamide (BAN) C13H24N2O2 240.1838 240.3419 D07754.gif Analeptic Co...mponent of Micoren (TN) CAS: 633-47-6 PubChem: 51092046 LigandBox: D07754 NIKKAJI: J6.903E ATOM 17 1 C1b C 1...0 9 C5a C 16.9821 -17.1596 10 C1b C 18.1775 -19.2498 11 C1b C 16.9819 -19.9402 12 C1a C 15.7948 -19.2547 13

  8. Drug: D06367 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06367 Drug Zimeldine hydrochloride (USAN); Zimeldine hydrochloride hydrate C16H17B...rN2. 2HCl. H2O 406.0214 408.1607 D06367.gif Antidepressant ATC code: N06AB02 selective serotonin reuptake in...ANALEPTICS N06A ANTIDEPRESSANTS N06AB Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors N06AB02 Zimeldine D06367... Zimeldine hydrochloride (USAN) CAS: 61129-30-4 PubChem: 47208024 LigandBox: D06367 ATO

  9. Nitrous oxide-induced hypothermia in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quock, R.M.; Panek, R.W.; Kouchich, F.J.; Rosenthal, M.A.

    1987-08-10

    Exposure of rats to high levels of nitrous oxide (N2O) in oxygen reduced body temperature in a concentration-related manner. The hypothermia was partly reversed by pretreatment with naloxone but not naltrexone. But in rats rendered tolerant to morphine by pellet implantation, exposure to 75% N2O/25% O2 evoked a marked hypothermia similar to that observed in morphine-naive animals. In another experiment, the hypothermic effect of chloral hydrate was also sensitive to antagonism by pretreatment with naloxone but not naltrexone. These observations lead the authors to suspect that N2O-induced hypothermia in rats is possibly not mediated by opiate receptors. The thermotropic activity of N2O may result from some non-opioid action of N2O. Its selective antagonism by naloxone (but not naltrexone) may be due to a unique non-opioid analeptic action of naloxone. 32 references, 4 figures.

  10. Effect of yohimbine, naloxone and their combination on analepsia from ketamine-induced anesthesia in mice%育亨宾、纳洛酮及两药合用对氯胺酮麻醉模型小鼠的催醒试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琳; 张彩丽; 鞠艳敏; 周振雷

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Yohimbine and naloxone are widely used as narcotic antagonists in clinic, especially against ketamine-induced anesthesia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the analeptic effects of yohimbine, naloxone and their combination on ketamine-induced anesthesia in mice. METHODS: Forty Kunming mice were randomly assigned to four groups, and all mice were intraperitoneally administered with ketamine. One minute after loss of righting reflex, different groups were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline, yohimbine, naloxone, yohimbine+naloxone, respectively. The duration of loss righting reflex (sleeping time) was recorded. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the normal saline group, the sleeping time in the yohimbine, naloxone and yohimbine+naloxone groups was obviously decreased. In addition, significant difference was also observed between the single treated and combined groups. Yohimbine, naloxone and their combination can efficaciously play an antagonistic role in the narcotism of ketamine.%背景:育亨宾、纳洛酮作为临床常用麻醉拮抗剂,尤其是在拮抗氯胺酮麻醉方面运用广泛.目的:观察育亨宾、纳洛酮及二者合用对氯胺酮麻醉小鼠的催醒作用.方法:昆明种小鼠40只随机分成4组,所有小鼠均腹腔注射氯胺酮制作麻醉模型,待翻正反射消失1 min后,不同实验组分别采用腹腔注射生理盐水、育亨宾、纳洛酮、育亨宾+纳洛酮处理,观察翻正反射消失的持续时间(恢复时间).结果与结论:与生理盐水处理组相比,育亨宾组、纳洛酮组、育亨宾+纳洛酮组小鼠的睡眠时间均明显缩短,两药合用组比单独用药组睡眠缩短时间明显.提示育亨宾与纳洛酮及二者合用能有效拮抗氯胺酮的麻醉效应.

  11. Theoretical electroencephalogram stationary spectrum for a white-noise-driven cortex: Evidence for a general anesthetic-induced phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn-Ross, Moira L.; Steyn-Ross, D. A.; Sleigh, J. W.; Liley, D. T. J.

    1999-12-01

    We present a model for the dynamics of a cerebral cortex in which inputs to neuronal assemblies are treated as random Gaussian fluctuations about a mean value. We incorporate the effect of general anesthetic agents on the cortex as a modulation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter rate constant. Stochastic differential equations are derived for the state variable he, the average excitatory soma potential, coherent fluctuations of which are believed to be the source of scalp-measured electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Using this stochastic approach we derive a stationary (long-time limit) fluctuation spectrum for he. The model predicts that there will be three distinct stationary (equilibrium) regimes for cortical activity. In region I (``coma''), corresponding to a strong inhibitory anesthetic effect, he is single valued, large, and negative, so that neuronal firing rates are suppressed. In region II for a zero or small anesthetic effect, he can take on three values, two of which are stable; we label the stable solutions as ``active'' (enhanced firing) and ``quiescent'' (suppressed firing). For region III, corresponding to negative anesthetic (i.e., analeptic) effect, he again becomes single valued, but is now small and negative, resulting in strongly elevated firing rates (``seizure''). If we identify region II as associated with the conscious state of the cortex, then the model predicts that there will be a rapid transit between the active-conscious and comatose unconscious states at a critical value of anesthetic concentration, suggesting the existence of phase transitions in the cortex. The low-frequency spectral power in the he signal should increase strongly during the initial stage of anesthesia induction, before collapsing to much lower values after the transition into comatose-unconsciousness. These qualitative predictions are consistent with clinical measurements by Bührer et al. [Anaesthesiology 77, 226 (1992)], MacIver et al. [ibid. 84, 1411 (1996

  12. Effects of NCS-382 on hypnosis and analgesia of propofol, ketamine and etomidate in mice%NCS-382对丙泊酚、氯胺酮和依托咪酯催眠镇痛作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋苏沛; 王雷; 廖艺聪; 刘晶晶; 张明阳; 周美艳; 周慧轩; 唐然; 戴体俊

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨γ-羟基丁酸受体拮抗剂NCS-382对丙泊酚、氯胺酮和依托咪酯催眠及镇痛作用的影响.方法 ①催醒实验:120只小鼠分别ip给予丙泊酚200 mg·kg、氯胺酮150 mg·kg和依托咪酯40mg·kg制备催眠模型后,再按分组分别icv给予人工脑脊液(aCSF),NCS-382 1,5和25μg·kg,记录睡眠时间.②热板实验:80只小鼠分别ip给予生理盐水10 ml·kg和氯胺酮40mg·kg后,再按分组分别ith给予acsF和Ncs-382 1,5和25μg·kg,记录热板法痛阈.③扭体实验:80只小鼠分别ip给予生理盐水10ml·kg和氯胺酮40 mg·kg后,再按分组分别ith给予aCsF和NCS-382 1,5和25μg·kg,1min后ip给予1.0%冰醋酸溶液10 ml·kg,记录15 min内小鼠扭体次数.结果 ①催醒实验:NS-382 1,5和25μg·kg组小鼠的睡眠时间明显缩短,从丙泊酚组的(81±30)min缩短到44±23,40±21,(40±17)min;从氟胺酮组的(19±4)min缩短到8±4,12±3,(15±4)min;从依托咪酯组的(31±11)min缩短到21±9,22±6,(23±10)min;②热板实验:小鼠在给予氯胺酮麻醉后10~30 min痛阈明显长于基础痛阈(P<0.05),NCS-382对氯胺酮所致痛阈延长无改善作用.单用NCS-382对正常小鼠的痛阈无影响;③扭体实验:单用NCS-382对正常小鼠的扭体次数无明显差异;氯胺酮组小鼠扭体次数明显少于正常对照组(P<0.05),给予NCS-382对此无改善作用.结论 γ-羟基丁酸受体可能介导了静脉麻醉药丙泊酚、氯胺酮和依托咪酯的催眠作用,但可能与氯胺酮镇痛作用关系不大.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of NCS-382 on hypnosis and analgesia of propofol, ketamine and etomidate in mice. METHODS ① Analeptic test: a total of 120 mice were ip given propofol 200 mg·kg -1 , ketamine 150 mg·kg -1 and etomidate 40 mg·kg -1 to establish a hypnosis model, respectively. Then, the mice were icv given aCSF and NCS-382 1, 5 and 25 μg· kg-1, respectively, and sleeping time was recorded. ② Hot-plate test: a total of 80 mice were

  13. Vladimir Prelog i Zavod za organsku kemiju

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakopčić, K.

    2007-03-01

    -operation from the small but prosperous pharmaceutical company "Kaštel" in Zagreb. On behalf of the agreement, Prelog and his department obtained funds to fit up the laboratory and to start very prosperous research in the synthesis and studies of pharmaceutically interesting compounds. With his assistants, students and other collaborators, Prelog started research of cinchona bark alkaloids, preferentially oriented to the synthesis of quinine. For example, Prelog's method of double intramolecular alkylation to synthetize the quinuclidine moiety of quinine was patented by "Kaštel". With R. Seiwerth he developed the first useful synthesis of adamantane. Prelog's group started research in the field of sulphonamides and commercial success of "Streptazole" stimulated the development of the research laboratories within "Kaštel". The collaboration in the research continued in fields of other chemotherapeutics, analeptics, spasmolitics, barbiturates etc. Within the period 1935-1941, Prelog published 48 scientific papers and 8 patents. In less than seven years, his results enormously influenced the entire organic chemistry in Zagreb till nowadays. Under the confused and uncertain circumstances caused by the beginning of World War II, Prelog left Zagreb in 1941 and continued his extraordinary scientific career at the ETH in Zürich.During the war (1942-1945 the tuition and the Department were run by Dr. Rativoj Seiwerth, former collaborator and first assistant to V. Prelog. In almost unbelievable conditions, the young assistant, then assistant professor (since January 1943, R. Seiwerth fully succeeded in continuing most activities founded by Professor Prelog. After the war (1945, R. Seiwerth was forced to resign. Nevertheless, soon after R. Seiwerth continued his research work, firstly in the Institute for Industrial Research in Zagreb (1946-1952, and later in the Research Institute of "Pliva" in Zagreb. He retired in 1980.In post-war conditions (1945/46, the activity of the Technical