1 临床资料。患儿，女，10d，2．8kg。诊断：先天性肛门闭锁，合并舟状窝瘘；右肾积水。查体示：精神可，营养欠佳，轻度脱水貌，心肺未见异常。入院第2d行后矢状入路肛门Ⅰ期成形术。入手术室后设定环境温度28℃。测HR110次／min，Bp48／35mmHg，SpO2 98％，ECG正常。开放静脉通路，羟基丁酸钠250mg诱导，
Full Text Available holinergic synapse hsa05033(1137+1139+1141+8973) Nicotine addiction Target-based ...D08138 Drug Lobeline sulfate; Smokeless (TN) (C22H27NO2)2. H2SO4 772.3757 772.989 D08138.gif Analeptic; Nico...tine withdrawal agent nicotinic cholinergic receptor partial agonist [HSA:1134 1135
practicing regularly. In recent years, several commercial drugs like Provigil/Nuvigil or Ritalin have found alternative markets with the healthy...attentiveness and concentration can be kept up over 24 hours and extended towards 48 hours. Ritalin , an analeptic drug too, is indicated in the
Oxygen was used in neonatal resuscitation from 1780, within 5 years of its detection. It rapidly gained general acceptance and infiltrated delivery rooms and, a century later, neonatal special care units. After 217 years without scientific evidence, the use of oxygen for neonatal resuscitation has recently been questioned. Continuous distending airway pressure for oxygen administration was available at the beginning of the 20th century, but was not widely accepted. Alkali and analeptic drugs gained widespread but short-lived use after the Second World War.
So far, CO/sub 2/ received only peripheral interest in the search for relevant factors and trace elements that are detrimental to comfort in living rooms and offices. Medically speaking, CO/sub 2/ is an analeptic substance, i.e. a substance that, given in small doses, stimulates like coffein; in larger doses, it has an alcohol-like effect, and overdoses are lethal as they arrest breathing. The author assumes that a rise in CO/sub 2/ in closed rooms will be accompanied by a rise in other trace elements, possibly with synergetic effects on the human organism. In the last few years, portable, light-weight sensors have become available. The use of CO/sub 2/ sensors is particularly important in air-conditioned rooms, where the fresh air supply exceeds the actual requirements, i.e. where an energy-saving effect could be achieved by combining the sensors with the air conditioning unit. (BWI).
A. S. Gotsulia
Full Text Available Aim. To analyze the carbonyl derivatives of 7-((3-thio-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylmethyltheophylline their mother substance was synthesized and its interaction with α-haloketones series was carried out. Methods and results. The physical-chemical properties of the obtained compounds have been studied and their structures have been confirmed by elemental analysis, infrared spectrometry, 1H NMR spectrometry, UV spectrophotometry and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Preliminary computer study of acute toxicity and biological activity has been also carried out. It has been determined that the obtained compounds may exhibit diuretic and analeptic activity and 1,2,4-triazole fragment can theoretically increase it. Conclusion. Preliminary prediction of acute toxicity has showed that the compounds are low-toxic.
Quock, R.M.; Panek, R.W.; Kouchich, F.J.; Rosenthal, M.A.
Exposure of rats to high levels of nitrous oxide (N2O) in oxygen reduced body temperature in a concentration-related manner. The hypothermia was partly reversed by pretreatment with naloxone but not naltrexone. But in rats rendered tolerant to morphine by pellet implantation, exposure to 75% N2O/25% O2 evoked a marked hypothermia similar to that observed in morphine-naive animals. In another experiment, the hypothermic effect of chloral hydrate was also sensitive to antagonism by pretreatment with naloxone but not naltrexone. These observations lead the authors to suspect that N2O-induced hypothermia in rats is possibly not mediated by opiate receptors. The thermotropic activity of N2O may result from some non-opioid action of N2O. Its selective antagonism by naloxone (but not naltrexone) may be due to a unique non-opioid analeptic action of naloxone. 32 references, 4 figures.
Aguirre Galvis Luis Enrique
Full Text Available Spectral evidence by Protonic Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (400
MAHz and 90 MHz of the analeptic sesquiterpene lactone coriamyrtin, isolated from the colombian plant Coriaria microphyUn, Poir., is discussed, and analogies are made with the spectra of authentic samples of picrotin and picrotoxinin.Se discute la evidencia espectroscópica de Resonancia Magnética
Nuclear Protónica (400MHz y 90 MHz para coriamirtina, una lactona sesquiterpénica de carácter analéptico, aislada de la planta colombiana Coriasia microphyUn, Poir., mediante analogías con espectros de muestras autenticadas de picrotina y picrotoxinina.
Valle, L B; Oliveira-Filho, R M; Armonia, P L; Saraceni, G; Nassif, M; De Lucia, R
In rats anestetized with urethane and under ganglionic blockade by hexamethonium (20 mg/kg, i.v.), the i.v. injection of serotonin (60 mug/kg) determined apnea, ECG alterations and a brief hypotensive response which is similar to that as elicited when 5-HT is given to intact rats. During the hypertension which follows that initial response, apnea is still present along with more severe ECG changes. After that, blood pressure falls into a prolonged hypotension, which is invariably accompanied by death. Neither norepinephrine, nor respiratory analeptics (CoramineR, RemeflinF) were able to prevent the fatal outcome. Only artificial respiration was found to be useful in some instances. It was concluded that the association serotonin plus lidocaine becomes lethal when given to ganglion-blocked rate, and this toxic effect can be ascribed mainly to the respiratory depressor activity of the drugs.
Kim, Young-Soo; Hong, Chan Sik; Lee, Sang Weon; Nam, Joo Hyun; Kim, Byung Joo
Ginger extract is used as an analeptic in herbal medicine and has been reported to exert antioxidant effects. Transient receptor potential (TRP) canonical 5 (TRPC5), TRP cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7; melastatin 7), and TRP cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1; ankyrin 1) are non-selective cation channels that are modulated by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and subsequently control various cellular processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ginger and its pungent constituents modulate these channels and exert antioxidant effects. It was found that TRPC5 and TRPA1 currents were modulated by ginger extract and by its pungent constituents, -gingerol, zingerone and -shogaol. In particular, -shogaol markedly and dose-dependently inhibited TRPC5 currents with an IC50 of value of ~18.3 µM. Furthermore, the strong dose-dependent activation of TRPA1 currents by -shogaol was abolished by A‑967079 (a selective TRPA1 inhibitor). However, ginger extract and its pungent constituents had no effect on TRPM7 currents. These results suggest the antioxidant effects of ginger extract and its pungent constituents are mediated through TRPC5 and TRPA1, and that -shogaol is predominantly responsible for the regulation of TRPC5 and TRPA1 currents by ginger extract.
Mucke, Hermann A M
Among the psychedelic drugs that enjoyed a period of popularity in psychiatric research during the 1950s and 1960s, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the most prominent one. Psychiatrists of that time had seen LSD not only as a tool for psychotherapy but also as a potential therapeutic for anxiety, depression, alcohol abuse, autism, and even schizophrenia. When it became a quasi-religious epitome of the Hippie counterculture in the mid 1960s, and cases of what we now call hallucinogen persisting perception disorder and acute psychotic "flashbacks" mounted, authorities moved to make LSD illegal. Although research was never actually forbidden, the field almost completely dried out until the early 2010s. Using today's tools of molecular pharmacology, functional imaging, and neuronal network theory, neuropsychiatry is now resurrecting LSD research-with implications that leave us with many medical and ethical questions. Few people are aware that this is a repurposed compound, originally developed in an effort to synthesize a new analeptic. On top of all potential LSD might have in psychiatry, it also serves as a reminder of the unexpected potential that discarded early-stage compounds can have.
R. M. Magdeev
Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate pharmacotherapy of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI in cardiology departments of Saratov hospitals of various types. Material and methods. The retrospective pharmacoepidemiological study was carried out with involved of 424 hospital charts of STEMI patients, discharged during the year from the cardiology department of Saratov municipal hospital (MH; n=216 and emergency cardiology department of Saratov clinical hospital (CH; n=208. Results. The real practice in the audited hospitals are not fully consistent with current guidelines for the STEMI patients management. The relationship between guidelines compliance and hospital type is clearly seen. Doctors in MH in comparison with them in CH more often prescribed respiratory analeptics (13.4% vs 5.3% , respectively, metabolic drugs (63.4% vs 37.5%, respectively and rarer used beta-blockers (50% vs 88.9%, respectively and thrombolytic therapy (3.7% vs 51%, respectively. In MH dipyridamole was used in 9.6% of patients as an alternative to the acetylsalicylic acid, and clopidogrel was not prescribed. At the same hospital clotting time was determined for monitoring of heparin therapy. Statins were rare used in both hospitals (26% in MH vs 40% in CH. Conclusion. The real clinical practice of STEMI patients management in Saratov hospitals are not completely consistent with current clinical guidelines. There are differences in STEMI patients therapy depending on hospital type.
目的：观察肝性脑病患者血浆β-内啡肽(β-EP)浓度变化及纳络酮治疗肝性脑病的疗效。方法：采用放射免疫分析法测定53例肝性脑病患者血浆β-EP含量。纳络酮治疗Ⅱ级以上肝性脑病20例，并与对照组20例比较，观察清醒时间、清醒率、病死率等。结果：肝性脑病患者血浆β-EP含量(76.53±24.13pg／ml)显著高于对照组(24.31±15.24pg／ml)(t=2.41，P0.05)。用纳络酮治疗后，治疗组清醒时间平均(15.56±13.84)h，对照组(32.27±19.31)h(t=2.7，P0.05). After patients with HE were treated with maloxone,the average time patients needed to come to was (15.56 + 13.84)hours,while in control group it was (32.27 + 19.31) hours, the defference was significant between them( t =2.79, P 0.25). Conclusion:The serum levels of β-EP in patients with HE were significant higher than that in patients without HE or healthy people. They increased following the injured degree of brain function. That indicate β-EP performed an important affect in occurrence and development of HE, Maloxone peformed analeptic affect. So it has clinical value in treating patients with HE.
郝复; 袁惠芬; 陈文英; 汤卫平; 徐金龙; 康健; 肖菡
In order to reduce the required dosage of intravenous anesthetics and favour early extubation,caudal block was adopted with supplementary intravenous anesthesia in 17 infants and young children for abdominothoracic surgery(Group Ⅰ).Anather group of randomly selected 27 similar cases who received total intravenous anesthesia without caudal block(Group Ⅱ),was taken for comparison.In both groups,the same induction method was used.Infusion of SCC mixed with 1 % Procaine at the same rate followed endotracheal intubation.In some cases,intermittent increments of ketamine and or fentanyl were then given intravenously for maintenance of a smooth anesthesia.As a result,fentanyl was given in 3 cases of Group Ⅰ(17.64%)and in 23 cases in Group Ⅱ(85.18%),while ketamine was given in 4 cases of Group Ⅰ(23.5%)and in 15 of Group Ⅱ(55.6%).These showed that the need of supplementary drugs was significantly lower in Group Ⅰ than in Group Ⅱ,(P<0.05).No analeptics was administered in Group Ⅰ and the average time of extubation was only 10.35±15.49 min after the end of operation.While the average time of extubation in Group Ⅱ was 36.74±44.19min after operation.The difference between the two groups was noticible(P<0.05).It is concluded that caudal block with supplementary intravenous procaine anesthesia is preferable for infants and young children who have to undergo thoracic and abdominal operations.%应用骶管阻滞加静脉复合麻醉,可减少静脉麻醉剂的用量,便于早期拔管.本文17例婴幼儿应用此法完成了胸腹部手术,并与随机选择的27例应用全静脉麻醉的相似病例进行比较.研究结果表明,骶管阻滞加静脉复合麻醉用于婴幼儿胸腹部手术是一种较好的麻醉方法.
张科; 叶章文; 余学英; 齐磊
目的 探讨氟马西尼用于脑瘫患儿全麻术后催醒的有效性和安全性.方法 40例行脑瘫手术的患儿,随机分为氟马西尼组(I组)和生理盐水组(II组).前者在手术结束后经留置针注射氟马西尼0.006mg/kg,60s内清醒程度未达到要求再追加半量.II组注射相同剂量的生理盐水.观察记录注射药物后5min患儿清醒率、注射药物时和注射药物后5min患儿的脑电双频指数(bispectral index,BIS)值以及清醒后30min内躁动和恶心、呕吐发生率.结果 氟马西尼组注射药物后5min清醒率及BIS值均高于生理盐水组(P＜0.05),2组患儿的躁动和恶心、呕吐发生率差异无统计学意义(P＞0.05).结论 氟马西尼可以安全有效的用于脑瘫患儿的全麻术后催醒.%Objective To determine the analeptic effectiveness and safety of flumazenil in child patients with cerebral palsy for recovery from general anesthesia. Methods Forty operated child patients with cerebral palsy were randomly divided into two groups ( n = 20 each ) . The patients in group I received flumazenil (0. 006mg/kg, intravenous injection) after surgery, and patients in group II received normal saline. When patients could not be awakened in 60 seconds, they were given a half of the first dose once more. The alertness score and the bispectral index (BIS) value in 5min before and after the injection were assessed, and adverse reactions such as nausea ,vomiting and psychomotor agitation of all patients were also recorded. Results The alertness rate and BIS value were significantly higher in group I than those in group II. However, there were no significant difference in nausea, vomiting and psychomotor agitation found between two groups. Conclusion Flumazenil can be effectively and safely used for analepsia of children with cerebral palsy after general anesthesia.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A dried root of Aristolochia tagala Cham. (ATC is often used in Thai traditional medicine as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory agent, muscle relaxant, appetite-enhancing agent, and analeptic. Homnawakod, an important herbal recipe, originally contains ATC in its formula, however, some Aristolochia species have been reported to cause nephrotoxicity due to aristolochic acid (AA and its derivatives, resulting in ATC removal from all formulae. Therefore, this study investigates the chemical profiles of ATC, the original (HNK+ATC and the present Homnawakod Ayurved Siriraj Herbal Formulary™ (HNK, and investigates whether they could cause nephrotoxicity or aggravate LPS-induced organ injuries in vivo. Methods HPLC and LC/MS were used for chemical profile study. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups in which the rats were intragastrically administered distilled water (2 groups, ATC (10 or 30 mg/kg, HNK+ATC (540 or 1,620 mg/kg, or HNK (1,590 mg/kg for 21 days. A positive control group was administered with single dose 100 mg/kg standard AA-I intragastrically at day 1. Serum creatinine and urea were measured at baseline and at 7, 14 and 21 days of the treatment. On day 22, a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced endotoxemia was used. One-way and two-way analyses of variance were performed and a P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results The similarity of the HPLC chromatograms of HNK+ATC and HNK could suggest that the qualities of both formulae are nearly the same in terms of chemical profile. The amount of AA-I found in ATC is 0.24%w/w. All experimental groups exhibited similar levels of serum urea at baseline and 7 and 14 days of the treatment. At 21 days, rats received AA exhibited a significant increase in serum urea, whereas the others did not exhibit such toxicity. On day 22, there were no significant changes in LPS-induced renal and liver dysfunction, or LPS-induced mean arterial
宋苏沛; 王雷; 廖艺聪; 刘晶晶; 张明阳; 周美艳; 周慧轩; 唐然; 戴体俊
目的 探讨γ-羟基丁酸受体拮抗剂NCS-382对丙泊酚、氯胺酮和依托咪酯催眠及镇痛作用的影响.方法 ①催醒实验:120只小鼠分别ip给予丙泊酚200 mg·kg、氯胺酮150 mg·kg和依托咪酯40mg·kg制备催眠模型后,再按分组分别icv给予人工脑脊液(aCSF),NCS-382 1,5和25μg·kg,记录睡眠时间.②热板实验:80只小鼠分别ip给予生理盐水10 ml·kg和氯胺酮40mg·kg后,再按分组分别ith给予acsF和Ncs-382 1,5和25μg·kg,记录热板法痛阈.③扭体实验:80只小鼠分别ip给予生理盐水10ml·kg和氯胺酮40 mg·kg后,再按分组分别ith给予aCsF和NCS-382 1,5和25μg·kg,1min后ip给予1.0%冰醋酸溶液10 ml·kg,记录15 min内小鼠扭体次数.结果 ①催醒实验:NS-382 1,5和25μg·kg组小鼠的睡眠时间明显缩短,从丙泊酚组的(81±30)min缩短到44±23,40±21,(40±17)min;从氟胺酮组的(19±4)min缩短到8±4,12±3,(15±4)min;从依托咪酯组的(31±11)min缩短到21±9,22±6,(23±10)min;②热板实验:小鼠在给予氯胺酮麻醉后10～30 min痛阈明显长于基础痛阈(P<0.05),NCS-382对氯胺酮所致痛阈延长无改善作用.单用NCS-382对正常小鼠的痛阈无影响;③扭体实验:单用NCS-382对正常小鼠的扭体次数无明显差异;氯胺酮组小鼠扭体次数明显少于正常对照组(P<0.05),给予NCS-382对此无改善作用.结论 γ-羟基丁酸受体可能介导了静脉麻醉药丙泊酚、氯胺酮和依托咪酯的催眠作用,但可能与氯胺酮镇痛作用关系不大.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of NCS-382 on hypnosis and analgesia of propofol, ketamine and etomidate in mice. METHODS ① Analeptic test: a total of 120 mice were ip given propofol 200 mg·kg -1 , ketamine 150 mg·kg -1 and etomidate 40 mg·kg -1 to establish a hypnosis model, respectively. Then, the mice were icv given aCSF and NCS-382 1, 5 and 25 μg· kg-1, respectively, and sleeping time was recorded. ② Hot-plate test: a total of 80 mice were
张海兰; 李恒新; 闫永平; 卫晓丽; 郑海潮
Objective To investigate the epidemiology characteristics of HIV infection and status of syphilis infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Xi'an.Methods Five ml blood samples were collected for syphilis test from HIV infected MSM reported during 2010-2012 in CDCD of Xi'an.Epidemiological survey was completed in the meanwhile,including sexual behavior characteristics,history of drugs,blood donation,etc.Resuits There were 240 HIV-positive MSM investigated in this study.They were mainly at the age of 20-40 years (accounting for 71.2 ％).Most of them were unmarried (60.4 ％),well educated (79.2 ％ with degrees of senior/vocational middle school and above),and occupation distribution was varied.The awareness rate of AIDS was 96.7％.Behavioral characteristics were complex:61.3％ of investigated individuals had bisexual behaviors,mean of cumulative sex partners was 5,and the rate of persistent condom use was 20.4％.Among married participants,22.8％ (13/57) did not use condom in sexual intercourse with their spouses after infection.All subjects denied the history of drug use,but 10％ of them had history of analeptic/aphrodisiac use.Twenty-five percent had a history of blood donation and 38.8％ regularly tested HIV antibody before infection.Sexual or emotional orientations showed that 57.9％ of the subjects were homosexual,32.5％ were bisexual,4.2％ were heterosexual,and 5.4％ were uncertain.The positive rate of syphilis in HIV positive MSM was 17.5％ (42cases).Conclusion A contradiction between knowledge and behavior is prevalent in HIV-infected MSM in Xi'an.This population has characteristics of bisexual behavior,multiple sexual partners,low rate of condom use and high rate of syphilis infection,etc.The prevention and control strategies should be strengthened and improved hereafter to suppress the prevalence of AIDS in this population,such as strengthening the publicity,education and behavior intervention,diagnosing and treating syphilis according
-operation from the small but prosperous pharmaceutical company "Kaštel" in Zagreb. On behalf of the agreement, Prelog and his department obtained funds to fit up the laboratory and to start very prosperous research in the synthesis and studies of pharmaceutically interesting compounds. With his assistants, students and other collaborators, Prelog started research of cinchona bark alkaloids, preferentially oriented to the synthesis of quinine. For example, Prelog's method of double intramolecular alkylation to synthetize the quinuclidine moiety of quinine was patented by "Kaštel". With R. Seiwerth he developed the first useful synthesis of adamantane. Prelog's group started research in the field of sulphonamides and commercial success of "Streptazole" stimulated the development of the research laboratories within "Kaštel". The collaboration in the research continued in fields of other chemotherapeutics, analeptics, spasmolitics, barbiturates etc. Within the period 1935-1941, Prelog published 48 scientific papers and 8 patents. In less than seven years, his results enormously influenced the entire organic chemistry in Zagreb till nowadays. Under the confused and uncertain circumstances caused by the beginning of World War II, Prelog left Zagreb in 1941 and continued his extraordinary scientific career at the ETH in Zürich.During the war (1942-1945 the tuition and the Department were run by Dr. Rativoj Seiwerth, former collaborator and first assistant to V. Prelog. In almost unbelievable conditions, the young assistant, then assistant professor (since January 1943, R. Seiwerth fully succeeded in continuing most activities founded by Professor Prelog. After the war (1945, R. Seiwerth was forced to resign. Nevertheless, soon after R. Seiwerth continued his research work, firstly in the Institute for Industrial Research in Zagreb (1946-1952, and later in the Research Institute of "Pliva" in Zagreb. He retired in 1980.In post-war conditions (1945/46, the activity of the Technical