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Sample records for analeptics

  1. Microbial Diversity in the Gut of Cashew Stem Girdler, Analeptes trifasciata Fabricius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedokun, A V; Adeniyi, D O

    2016-01-01

    The cashew stem girdler, Analeptes trifasciata, is a major insect pest of cashew in Nigeria causing economic damage in cashew plantations even at low density. In this study, newly emerged adults of A. trifasciata reared from field-infested cashew stems were collected from the rearing cages, sexed, and dissected to reveal the internal structures of the insects. The gut was excised and separated into the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The dissected gut compartments were blotted dry by sandwiching in sterile Whatman No. 1 (150 mm) filter paper for a minute. The inoculated gut parts showed the presence of eight fungi flora, namely, Aspergillus repens, Trichoderma spp., Fusarium verticillioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, yeast, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium spp., and Rhizopus stolonifer. The frequencies of occurrence of bacteria in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata were Enterobacter spp.: 83.33%; Escherichia coli and Streptococcus spp.: 55.56% each; Staphylococcus spp.: 44.44%; Klebsiella pneumonia: 50% and Salmonella shigella: 11.11%, while each of Serratia marceascea, Pseudomonas spp., and Micrococcus lutea had 5.56% occurrence. The occurrence of mycoflora and microbiota species varied in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata, indicating the role of these microorganisms in metabolic and other bioprocesses of A. trifasciata during digestion and synthesis of complex food substances from the cashew stem substrate. This study would provide basic information for enzymatic studies of A. trifasciata with a view to developing an integrated pest management (IPM) protocol for managing the pest in cashew plantations. PMID:27147898

  2. Doxapiam Analeptic Induced-Transient Heart Failure After Operation of Critically sick Neonate%佳苏仑用于危重新生儿术后催醒致一过性心力衰竭1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许民; 胡美媛

    2003-01-01

    1 临床资料。患儿,女,10d,2.8kg。诊断:先天性肛门闭锁,合并舟状窝瘘;右肾积水。查体示:精神可,营养欠佳,轻度脱水貌,心肺未见异常。入院第2d行后矢状入路肛门Ⅰ期成形术。入手术室后设定环境温度28℃。测HR110次/min,Bp48/35mmHg,SpO2 98%,ECG正常。开放静脉通路,羟基丁酸钠250mg诱导,

  3. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF CAFFEINE, PICROTOXIN, AND PENTYLENETETRAZOL ON HIPPOCAMPAL AFTERDISCHARGE ACTIVITY AND WET DOG SHAKES (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present experiment was conducted to identify changes in hippocampal after discharge (AD) parameters following administration of subconvulsant dosages (half of the convulsant dosage) of analeptics with known pharmacological action. Long Evans rats (N=104) with chronic bipolar ...

  4. Drug: D07755 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07755 Drug Crotetamide (INN); Crothethamide C12H22N2O2 226.1681 226.3153 D07755.gi...f Analeptic Component of Micoren (TN) CAS: 6168-76-9 PubChem: 51092047 LigandBox: D07755 NIKKAJI: J8.352F AT

  5. History of neonatal resuscitation. Part 2: oxygen and other drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen was used in neonatal resuscitation from 1780, within 5 years of its detection. It rapidly gained general acceptance and infiltrated delivery rooms and, a century later, neonatal special care units. After 217 years without scientific evidence, the use of oxygen for neonatal resuscitation has recently been questioned. Continuous distending airway pressure for oxygen administration was available at the beginning of the 20th century, but was not widely accepted. Alkali and analeptic drugs gained widespread but short-lived use after the Second World War.

  6. Drug: D06367 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06367 Drug Zimeldine hydrochloride (USAN); Zimeldine hydrochloride hydrate C16H17B...rN2. 2HCl. H2O 406.0214 408.1607 D06367.gif Antidepressant ATC code: N06AB02 selective serotonin reuptake in...ANALEPTICS N06A ANTIDEPRESSANTS N06AB Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors N06AB02 Zimeldine D06367... Zimeldine hydrochloride (USAN) CAS: 61129-30-4 PubChem: 47208024 LigandBox: D06367 ATO

  7. Drug: D07754 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07754 Drug Cropropamide (BAN) C13H24N2O2 240.1838 240.3419 D07754.gif Analeptic Co...mponent of Micoren (TN) CAS: 633-47-6 PubChem: 51092046 LigandBox: D07754 NIKKAJI: J6.903E ATOM 17 1 C1b C 1...0 9 C5a C 16.9821 -17.1596 10 C1b C 18.1775 -19.2498 11 C1b C 16.9819 -19.9402 12 C1a C 15.7948 -19.2547 13

  8. The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, D; Obón, C

    1995-05-01

    The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands is extremely interesting because of the cultural and biogeographic features of this region, which make it a centre of medicinal plant diversity (richness of endemic flora, geographical isolation in the Atlantic sea, crosscultural influences, and past abundance of local healers). The medicinal flora of Madeira is composed of 259 species. Some noteworthy medicinal taxa, endemic or locally relevant, are: Acanthus mollis, Aeonium glandulosum, Aeonium glutinosum, Bidens pilosa, Borago officinalis, Chamaemelum nobile var. discoideum, Culcita macrocarpa, Echium nervosum, Euphorbia platiphylla, Helichrysum melaleucum, Helichrysum obconicum, Hypericum glandulosum, Hypericum humifussum, Kleinia repens, Laurus azorica, Monizia edulis, Ocotea foetens, Psoralea bituminosa, Rubus bollei, Rumex maderensis, Sambucus lanceolata, Scilla maderensis, Sedum brissemoretii, Sedum farinosum, Sedum nudum, Sibthorpia peregrina, Teucrium betonicum, Thymus caespititius, Trifolium squamosum and Vaccinium padifolium. Among the medicinal cryptogams, one can underline the parasitic fungus Laurobasidium lauri, which grows on the stems of Laurus azorica and is used as an antirheumatic, haemostatic, emmenagogue, insecticide and analeptic. PMID:7650952

  9. Nitrous oxide-induced hypothermia in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quock, R.M.; Panek, R.W.; Kouchich, F.J.; Rosenthal, M.A.

    1987-08-10

    Exposure of rats to high levels of nitrous oxide (N2O) in oxygen reduced body temperature in a concentration-related manner. The hypothermia was partly reversed by pretreatment with naloxone but not naltrexone. But in rats rendered tolerant to morphine by pellet implantation, exposure to 75% N2O/25% O2 evoked a marked hypothermia similar to that observed in morphine-naive animals. In another experiment, the hypothermic effect of chloral hydrate was also sensitive to antagonism by pretreatment with naloxone but not naltrexone. These observations lead the authors to suspect that N2O-induced hypothermia in rats is possibly not mediated by opiate receptors. The thermotropic activity of N2O may result from some non-opioid action of N2O. Its selective antagonism by naloxone (but not naltrexone) may be due to a unique non-opioid analeptic action of naloxone. 32 references, 4 figures.

  10. PHARMACOTHERAPY ANALYSIS OF ACUTE ST-ELEVATION MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN HOSPITALS OF VARIOUS TYPES

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    R. M. Magdeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate pharmacotherapy of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI in cardiology departments of Saratov hospitals of various types. Material and methods. The retrospective pharmacoepidemiological study was carried out with involved of 424 hospital charts of STEMI patients, discharged during the year from the cardiology department of Saratov municipal hospital (MH; n=216 and emergency cardiology department of Saratov clinical hospital (CH; n=208. Results. The real practice in the audited hospitals are not fully consistent with current guidelines for the STEMI patients management. The relationship between guidelines compliance and hospital type is clearly seen. Doctors in MH in comparison with them in CH more often prescribed respiratory analeptics (13.4% vs 5.3% , respectively, metabolic drugs (63.4% vs 37.5%, respectively and rarer used beta-blockers (50% vs 88.9%, respectively and thrombolytic therapy (3.7% vs 51%, respectively. In MH dipyridamole was used in 9.6% of patients as an alternative to the acetylsalicylic acid, and clopidogrel was not prescribed. At the same hospital clotting time was determined for monitoring of heparin therapy. Statins were rare used in both hospitals (26% in MH vs 40% in CH. Conclusion. The real clinical practice of STEMI patients management in Saratov hospitals are not completely consistent with current clinical guidelines. There are differences in STEMI patients therapy depending on hospital type.

  11. Effect of yohimbine, naloxone and their combination on analepsia from ketamine-induced anesthesia in mice%育亨宾、纳洛酮及两药合用对氯胺酮麻醉模型小鼠的催醒试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琳; 张彩丽; 鞠艳敏; 周振雷

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Yohimbine and naloxone are widely used as narcotic antagonists in clinic, especially against ketamine-induced anesthesia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the analeptic effects of yohimbine, naloxone and their combination on ketamine-induced anesthesia in mice. METHODS: Forty Kunming mice were randomly assigned to four groups, and all mice were intraperitoneally administered with ketamine. One minute after loss of righting reflex, different groups were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline, yohimbine, naloxone, yohimbine+naloxone, respectively. The duration of loss righting reflex (sleeping time) was recorded. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the normal saline group, the sleeping time in the yohimbine, naloxone and yohimbine+naloxone groups was obviously decreased. In addition, significant difference was also observed between the single treated and combined groups. Yohimbine, naloxone and their combination can efficaciously play an antagonistic role in the narcotism of ketamine.%背景:育亨宾、纳洛酮作为临床常用麻醉拮抗剂,尤其是在拮抗氯胺酮麻醉方面运用广泛.目的:观察育亨宾、纳洛酮及二者合用对氯胺酮麻醉小鼠的催醒作用.方法:昆明种小鼠40只随机分成4组,所有小鼠均腹腔注射氯胺酮制作麻醉模型,待翻正反射消失1 min后,不同实验组分别采用腹腔注射生理盐水、育亨宾、纳洛酮、育亨宾+纳洛酮处理,观察翻正反射消失的持续时间(恢复时间).结果与结论:与生理盐水处理组相比,育亨宾组、纳洛酮组、育亨宾+纳洛酮组小鼠的睡眠时间均明显缩短,两药合用组比单独用药组睡眠缩短时间明显.提示育亨宾与纳洛酮及二者合用能有效拮抗氯胺酮的麻醉效应.

  12. 氟马西尼用于脑瘫患儿全麻催醒的临床研究%CLINICAL STUDY ON FLUMAZENIL USING FOR ANALEPSIA OF CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY AFTER GENERAL ANESTHESIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张科; 叶章文; 余学英; 齐磊

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨氟马西尼用于脑瘫患儿全麻术后催醒的有效性和安全性.方法 40例行脑瘫手术的患儿,随机分为氟马西尼组(I组)和生理盐水组(II组).前者在手术结束后经留置针注射氟马西尼0.006mg/kg,60s内清醒程度未达到要求再追加半量.II组注射相同剂量的生理盐水.观察记录注射药物后5min患儿清醒率、注射药物时和注射药物后5min患儿的脑电双频指数(bispectral index,BIS)值以及清醒后30min内躁动和恶心、呕吐发生率.结果 氟马西尼组注射药物后5min清醒率及BIS值均高于生理盐水组(P<0.05),2组患儿的躁动和恶心、呕吐发生率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 氟马西尼可以安全有效的用于脑瘫患儿的全麻术后催醒.%Objective To determine the analeptic effectiveness and safety of flumazenil in child patients with cerebral palsy for recovery from general anesthesia. Methods Forty operated child patients with cerebral palsy were randomly divided into two groups ( n = 20 each ) . The patients in group I received flumazenil (0. 006mg/kg, intravenous injection) after surgery, and patients in group II received normal saline. When patients could not be awakened in 60 seconds, they were given a half of the first dose once more. The alertness score and the bispectral index (BIS) value in 5min before and after the injection were assessed, and adverse reactions such as nausea ,vomiting and psychomotor agitation of all patients were also recorded. Results The alertness rate and BIS value were significantly higher in group I than those in group II. However, there were no significant difference in nausea, vomiting and psychomotor agitation found between two groups. Conclusion Flumazenil can be effectively and safely used for analepsia of children with cerebral palsy after general anesthesia.

  13. The safety of Homnawakod herbal formula containing Aristolochia tagala Cham. in Wistar rats

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    Tripatara Pinpat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A dried root of Aristolochia tagala Cham. (ATC is often used in Thai traditional medicine as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory agent, muscle relaxant, appetite-enhancing agent, and analeptic. Homnawakod, an important herbal recipe, originally contains ATC in its formula, however, some Aristolochia species have been reported to cause nephrotoxicity due to aristolochic acid (AA and its derivatives, resulting in ATC removal from all formulae. Therefore, this study investigates the chemical profiles of ATC, the original (HNK+ATC and the present Homnawakod Ayurved Siriraj Herbal Formulary™ (HNK, and investigates whether they could cause nephrotoxicity or aggravate LPS-induced organ injuries in vivo. Methods HPLC and LC/MS were used for chemical profile study. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups in which the rats were intragastrically administered distilled water (2 groups, ATC (10 or 30 mg/kg, HNK+ATC (540 or 1,620 mg/kg, or HNK (1,590 mg/kg for 21 days. A positive control group was administered with single dose 100 mg/kg standard AA-I intragastrically at day 1. Serum creatinine and urea were measured at baseline and at 7, 14 and 21 days of the treatment. On day 22, a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced endotoxemia was used. One-way and two-way analyses of variance were performed and a P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results The similarity of the HPLC chromatograms of HNK+ATC and HNK could suggest that the qualities of both formulae are nearly the same in terms of chemical profile. The amount of AA-I found in ATC is 0.24%w/w. All experimental groups exhibited similar levels of serum urea at baseline and 7 and 14 days of the treatment. At 21 days, rats received AA exhibited a significant increase in serum urea, whereas the others did not exhibit such toxicity. On day 22, there were no significant changes in LPS-induced renal and liver dysfunction, or LPS-induced mean arterial

  14. Effects of NCS-382 on hypnosis and analgesia of propofol, ketamine and etomidate in mice%NCS-382对丙泊酚、氯胺酮和依托咪酯催眠镇痛作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋苏沛; 王雷; 廖艺聪; 刘晶晶; 张明阳; 周美艳; 周慧轩; 唐然; 戴体俊

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨γ-羟基丁酸受体拮抗剂NCS-382对丙泊酚、氯胺酮和依托咪酯催眠及镇痛作用的影响.方法 ①催醒实验:120只小鼠分别ip给予丙泊酚200 mg·kg、氯胺酮150 mg·kg和依托咪酯40mg·kg制备催眠模型后,再按分组分别icv给予人工脑脊液(aCSF),NCS-382 1,5和25μg·kg,记录睡眠时间.②热板实验:80只小鼠分别ip给予生理盐水10 ml·kg和氯胺酮40mg·kg后,再按分组分别ith给予acsF和Ncs-382 1,5和25μg·kg,记录热板法痛阈.③扭体实验:80只小鼠分别ip给予生理盐水10ml·kg和氯胺酮40 mg·kg后,再按分组分别ith给予aCsF和NCS-382 1,5和25μg·kg,1min后ip给予1.0%冰醋酸溶液10 ml·kg,记录15 min内小鼠扭体次数.结果 ①催醒实验:NS-382 1,5和25μg·kg组小鼠的睡眠时间明显缩短,从丙泊酚组的(81±30)min缩短到44±23,40±21,(40±17)min;从氟胺酮组的(19±4)min缩短到8±4,12±3,(15±4)min;从依托咪酯组的(31±11)min缩短到21±9,22±6,(23±10)min;②热板实验:小鼠在给予氯胺酮麻醉后10~30 min痛阈明显长于基础痛阈(P<0.05),NCS-382对氯胺酮所致痛阈延长无改善作用.单用NCS-382对正常小鼠的痛阈无影响;③扭体实验:单用NCS-382对正常小鼠的扭体次数无明显差异;氯胺酮组小鼠扭体次数明显少于正常对照组(P<0.05),给予NCS-382对此无改善作用.结论 γ-羟基丁酸受体可能介导了静脉麻醉药丙泊酚、氯胺酮和依托咪酯的催眠作用,但可能与氯胺酮镇痛作用关系不大.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of NCS-382 on hypnosis and analgesia of propofol, ketamine and etomidate in mice. METHODS ① Analeptic test: a total of 120 mice were ip given propofol 200 mg·kg -1 , ketamine 150 mg·kg -1 and etomidate 40 mg·kg -1 to establish a hypnosis model, respectively. Then, the mice were icv given aCSF and NCS-382 1, 5 and 25 μg· kg-1, respectively, and sleeping time was recorded. ② Hot-plate test: a total of 80 mice were

  15. Observation on therapeutic effect of BiPAP respirator in treatment of cases of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with type Ⅱ respiratory failure.%BiPAP呼吸机治疗AECOPD合并II型呼吸衰竭的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马继扬; 高健; 梁民勇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical efficacy of bilevel positive airway pressure ( BIPAP ) respirator assisted ventilation in treatment of cases of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( AECOPD ) with type Ⅱ respiratory failure.Methods A total of 62 patients of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with type Ⅱ respiratory failure were randomly allocated into two groups: trial group ( 32 cases ) and control group ( 30 cases ).The routine treatment including anti - infectious medication, cleaning airway and continuous inhalation of low concentration oxygen, and pneumatic analeptics was only given to patients of control group, but both BIPAP assisted ventilation and routine treatment were given to patients of trial group.Patients in these two groups were monitored for arterial blood gas parameters and changes of basic vital signs.Results Findings of heart rate, respiration rate, blood pH, PaO2 and PaCO2 in patients of two groups before treatment were compared with those after treatment, these parameters were obviously improved, their difference was significant ( P < 0.05 ).There was significant difference ( P < 0.05 ) in these findings between patients in trial group after treatment in comparison with those of patients in control group after treatment.Conclusion BIPAP assisted ventilation is certainly an effective measure for treatment of patients with AECOPD with type Ⅱ respiratory failure.%目的 探讨双水平气道正压无创通气(BIPAP)呼吸机在慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期(AECOPD)并发Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭的临床应用.方法 62例AECOPD并发Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭患者随机分为治疗组(32例)和对照组(30例),治疗组除常规治疗外加用BiPAP呼吸机辅助通气治疗,对照组则予抗感染、通畅气道、持续低流量吸氧及应用呼吸兴奋剂等治疗,监测两组治疗前后血气参数和生命体征变化.结果 两组与治疗前相比心率、呼吸频率、pH、氧

  16. Vladimir Prelog i Zavod za organsku kemiju

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    Jakopčić, K.

    2007-03-01

    -operation from the small but prosperous pharmaceutical company "Kaštel" in Zagreb. On behalf of the agreement, Prelog and his department obtained funds to fit up the laboratory and to start very prosperous research in the synthesis and studies of pharmaceutically interesting compounds. With his assistants, students and other collaborators, Prelog started research of cinchona bark alkaloids, preferentially oriented to the synthesis of quinine. For example, Prelog's method of double intramolecular alkylation to synthetize the quinuclidine moiety of quinine was patented by "Kaštel". With R. Seiwerth he developed the first useful synthesis of adamantane. Prelog's group started research in the field of sulphonamides and commercial success of "Streptazole" stimulated the development of the research laboratories within "Kaštel". The collaboration in the research continued in fields of other chemotherapeutics, analeptics, spasmolitics, barbiturates etc. Within the period 1935-1941, Prelog published 48 scientific papers and 8 patents. In less than seven years, his results enormously influenced the entire organic chemistry in Zagreb till nowadays. Under the confused and uncertain circumstances caused by the beginning of World War II, Prelog left Zagreb in 1941 and continued his extraordinary scientific career at the ETH in Zürich.During the war (1942-1945 the tuition and the Department were run by Dr. Rativoj Seiwerth, former collaborator and first assistant to V. Prelog. In almost unbelievable conditions, the young assistant, then assistant professor (since January 1943, R. Seiwerth fully succeeded in continuing most activities founded by Professor Prelog. After the war (1945, R. Seiwerth was forced to resign. Nevertheless, soon after R. Seiwerth continued his research work, firstly in the Institute for Industrial Research in Zagreb (1946-1952, and later in the Research Institute of "Pliva" in Zagreb. He retired in 1980.In post-war conditions (1945/46, the activity of the Technical