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Sample records for anal para rastreamento

  1. Utilidade da citologia anal no rastreamento dos homens heterossexuais portadores do HPV genital Anal cytology for screening heterosexual men harboring genital HPV infection

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    Raphael Marianelli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Os papilomavírus humanos (HPV de alto risco estão fortemente relacionados à etiologia do carcinoma espinocelular (CEC anogenital e suas lesões precursoras. O HPV-16 é o tipo mais freqüente, estando presente em até 87% dos CEC do canal anal HPV-positivo. Apesar de ser relativamente raro, vem sendo cada vez mais diagnosticado, nas últimas décadas, sobretudo em indivíduos do sexo masculino. A incidência é ainda mais elevada nos grupos considerados de risco, particularmente, os homens e as mulheres HIV-positivo e os homens que fazem sexo com homens (HSH. Grande parte das pesquisas direcionadas à infecção anal pelo HPV e sua relação com neoplasia intraepitelial-anal (NIA e com o carcinoma esteve focada nos grupos de risco. Pouco interesse vem sendo destinado à investigação dos homens heterossexuais. Estudos epidemiológicos da prevalência da infecção pelo HPV em homens, mostraram que os heterossexuais masculinos apresentavam infecção anal pelo HPV em até 12%. As Sociedades médicas e os especialistas recomendam o rastreamento dos portadores de imunodepressão e dos HSH com citologia do raspado do canal anal. Entretanto, até o momento, não há recomendação de rastreamento para homens que fazem sexo com mulheres.The oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV are straightly associated with anogenital cancer and dysplasia. The HPV-16 is the most common type, isolated in 87% of the HPV-positive anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Despite being a rare tumor, the incidence of SCC has increased in the last decades, especially in males. Incidence is particularly high amongst men who have sex with men (MSM and among HIV infected men and women. For decades anogenital HPV researches have largely focused risk groups. Poor interest was intended to men who have sex with women (MSW. Prevalence studies of HPV infection in MSW have demonstrated that anal infection was identified in as far as 12%. Medical societies and specialists recommend anal

  2. Rastreamento e seguimento dos portadores das lesões anais induzidas pelo papilomavírus humano como prevenção do carcinoma anal Screening and follow-up of patients with anal HPV induced lesions for anal carcinoma prevention

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    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O Papilomavírus humano (HPV é o agente sexualmente transmissível mais comum na região perianal. O vírus provoca lesões clínicas e subclínicas que podem evoluir para carcinoma anal. É descrito o aumento da incidência desse tipo de tumor naqueles que praticam sexo anal; nos portadores, de ambos os sexos, de lesões genitais HPV induzidas; nas pessoas com neoplasias intraepiteliais anais de alto grau, o precursor do carcinoma, com maior incidência nos infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV, e com outras causas de supressão imunológica. Outra característica das lesões HPV induzidas é a elevada incidência de recidivas. Daí, a importância do seguimento por longo prazo e da pesquisa de meios terapêuticos para reduzir essa ocorrência. A possibilidade da detecção das lesões precursoras indica que programas padronizados de rastreamento para a prevenção do câncer anal deveriam ser instituídos. Os esfregaços anais para citologia vêm sendo realizados, com eficácia semelhante a das coletas cervicais e a colposcopia anal tem sido indicada para biópsias dirigidas quando a citologia mostrou-se alterada, embora muitos recomendam-na, também, como método de rastreamento. Nesse artigo, descrevemos a padronização da coleta de material para citologia anal e o método de realização da colposcopia anal, bem como a periodicidade com que devem ser repetidos.The human papillomavirus is the most frequent sexually transmitted agent in anorectal area. This virus provokes clinical and sub-clinical lesions that can evolve to anal carcinoma. Its incidence is increasing among those who practice anal receptive sex; in both gender patients with genital HPV induced lesions; in those with high grade anal intra-epithelial neoplasia, anal carcinoma precursor, mainly among HIV infected persons or with other causes of immunodeficiency. Another HPV induced lesions characteristic is their elevated incidence of recurrences. Therefore

  3. Rastreamento de lesões precursoras do carcinoma espino-celular anal em indivíduos portadores do HIV Tracking precursor lesions of anal squamous cell carcinoma in individuals with HIV

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    Caio Sergio Rizkallah Nahas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O carcinoma espino-celular do canal anal é doença que atinge os adultos de meia idade e corresponde a 4% dos cânceres do trato gastrointestinal baixo. Na população geral a incidência é de 1 em 100.000 habitantes, e entre os homens que fazem sexo com homens essa incidência atinge 35 por 100.000 habitantes, sendo que os portadores de HIV têm esse risco duplicado (70 por 100.000 habitantes. MÉTODO: Foi realizada revisão da literatura com consulta nos periódicos das bases Medline/Pubmed, Scielo e Lilacs cruzando os descritores Rastreamento, Lesões pré-cancerosas, Neoplasias do ânus e HIV. Além da revisão bibliográfica, foi adicionada a este trabalho a experiência pessoal dos autores, e a obtida no Departamento de Gastroenterologia - Divisão Cirúrgica, no ICESP - Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo Octávio Frias de Oliveira, no Departamento de Moléstias Infeciosas - Casa da AIDS e no Serviço de Coloproctologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. CONCLUSÕES: HIV+ é um grande fator de risco no desenvolvimento de carcinoma espino-celular anal em indivíduos infectados por HPV. A avaliação desses pacientes não deve se restringir à erradicação de condilomas, mas principalmente incluir o rastreamento de lesões displásicas subclínicas potencialmente neoplásicas. Apesar dos métodos de rastreamento ainda não serem ideais, o grande benefício do rastreamento baseia-se no fato de oferecer acompanhamento rigoroso, tornando possível à prevenção ou detecção cada vez mais precoce do carcinoma espino-celular anal.INTRODUCTION: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal is a disease that affects the middle-aged adults and accounts for 4% of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract below. In the general population the incidence is 1 in 100,000, and among men who have sex with men the incidence is 35 per 100,000 inhabitants, those with HIV have doubled this risk (70 per 100

  4. Análise econômica de programa para rastreamento do diabetes mellitus no Brasil Economic analysis of a screening program for diabetes mellitus in Brazil

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    Alvaro E Georg

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Diabetes mellitus é um problema de saúde pública com elevado ônus social e econômico, cujo diagnóstico é desconhecido em metade dos indivíduos portadores. Em 2001, o Ministério da Saúde realizou a Campanha Nacional para a Detecção do Diabetes Mellitus. Assim, o objetivo do estudo foi estimar o impacto econômico e o rendimento desse rastreamento populacional. MÉTODOS: Baseado no número de rastreados com resultados positivos (glicemia capilar em jejum >100 mg/dl ou fora do jejum >140 mg/dl, foram estimados os prováveis casos novos de diabetes mellitus e construído modelo de decisão analítico. Dados primários e secundários foram utilizados para estimar os custos (em Reais e o rendimento (casos novos de diabetes mellitus detectados do rastreamento com o pressuposto de pagador único. Análises de sensibilidade foram conduzidas para avaliar o efeito de alguns parâmetros nessas estimativas. RESULTADOS: Considerando-se a prevalência de diabetes mellitus não diagnosticado na população-alvo de 4,8%, o número provável de novos casos de diabetes mellitus diagnosticados foi de 518.579. Isso, pressupondo que um terço dos participantes com teste positivo procurou a confirmação (23 casos por 1.000 rastreados. O custo por novo caso de diabetes mellitus diagnosticado a partir desses pressupostos seria de R$89. Em análises de sensibilidade, os resultados foram sensíveis ao percentual dos testes confirmatórios. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar dos expressivos custos com a campanha de rastreamento no Brasil, o rendimento foi comparável a outras ações preventivas e, em termos absolutos, o custo por novo caso de diabetes mellitus detectado foi inferior ao relatado por outros países.OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus is a common disease and costly public health concern and an expressive number of affected individuals have undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. In 2001, the Brazilian Ministry of Health conducted a national diabetes screening

  5. Escalas psicométricas como instrumentos de rastreamento para depressão em estudantes do ensino médio

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    Emilio Salle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A depressão é uma importante causa de suicídio em adolescentes. Portanto, são necessários instrumentos adequados para o rastreamento da depressão nessa população. OBJETIVO: Avaliar escalas de depressão como instrumentos de rastreamento para depressão em estudantes brasileiros do ensino médio. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal. Três escalas (BDI, CES-D, e CRS e um teste para avaliar sintomas psiquiátricos gerais (SRQ foram aplicados individualmente a 503 estudantes do ensino médio com idades entre 15 e 17 anos. Os resultados foram comparados aos obtidos com os critérios de depressão maior do manual diagnóstico e estatístico de transtornos mentais (DSM-IV. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de depressão maior utilizando-se os critérios do DSM-IV foi de 10,9%. Adolescentes com depressão maior apresentaram escores significativamente mais altos (p = 0,001 no SRQ e nas três escalas avaliadas em comparação ao grupo sem depressão. A sensibilidade e a especificidade para identificar depressão pelo BDI, CES-D e CRS foram, respectivamente, 0,77 e 0,70, 0,75 e 0,73 e 0,82 e 0,71 (curva ROC. Os melhores pontos de corte foram 9 para o BDI, 10 para a CRS e 14 para a CES-D. A frequência de sintomas depressivos foi maior em meninas (aproximadamente 2:1. CONCLUSÃO: Esses achados indicam o uso do BDI, da CES-D e da CRS apenas para o rastreamento, ou como uma avaliação sintomática adicional, da depressão em estudantes do ensino médio. A diferença entre meninos e meninas com relação aos escores nas escalas alerta contra o uso dos mesmos valores de corte para ambos os sexos.

  6. MAMOGRAFIA DE RASTREAMENTO PARA CÂNCER DE MAMA PELO SUS NA REGIÃO METROPOLITANA DO VALE DO PARAÍBA E LITORAL NORTE: TENDÊNCIA E CARACTERISTICAS SOCIAIS DE MULHERES SUBMETIDAS AO EXAME, ENTRE 2010 E 2014

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    Patricia Almeida Silva; Paula Vilhena Carnevale Vianna; Paulo Roxo Barja

    2017-01-01

    Análises da vulnerabilidade das mulheres para o câncer de mama revelam que, no Brasil, mulheres negras e menos instruídas têm menor acesso à mamografia de rastreamento, exame que permite a detecção precoce do câncer. Desde 2006, o controle do câncer de mama é política prioritária no SUS. Este estudo analisa a série histórica de exames de mamografia de rastreamento realizados pelo SUS no período de 2010 a 2014, na Região Metropolitana do Vale do Paraíba e Litoral Norte – RMVale, para investiga...

  7. Abordagem processual e ensino de tradução: uma proposta de unidade didática para o par espanhol-português baseada em dados de rastreamento ocular e registro de teclado e mouse

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    Gleiton Malta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma proposta de unidade didática baseada no enfoque por tarefas e em dados empíricos de processo tradutório capturados em tempo real por meio de equipamento de rastreamento ocular e programa de registro de teclado e mouse. Trata-se de uma pesquisa-ação que contempla dois ramos do campo disciplinar dos Estudos da Tradução: o descritivo e o aplicado. Com base nos dados empíricos, elaborou-se uma unidade didática cujo objetivo principal é a prática, docente e discente, da leitura para tradução, acentuando suas especificidades em cada fase do processo tradutório: orientação, redação e revisão (Jakobsen, 2002. Os resultados da experiência de aplicação da unidade proposta apontaram para o desenvolvimento de uma maior autonomia do estudante e maior consciência sobre seu processo. Para o docente/pesquisador, possibilitou o uso de uma ação sistemática, sequenciada e com objetivos e procedimentos específicos para a aula de tradução espanhol-português, além da unificação dos ramos descritivo e aplicado.

  8. Rastreamento sorológico para doenças infecciosas em banco de sangue como indicador de morbidade populacional Serological screening for infectious diseases in blood donors as morbidity indicator

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    Ana Lúcia S. S. de Andrade

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available É discutido o valor do rastreamento sorológico para doença de Chagas, sífilis, hepatite B e AIDS realizado por bancos de sangue como indicador de morbidade populacional. Foram analisados os dados referentes a 62.814 doações de sangue obtidas em dois bancos de sangue públicos e três privados correspondendo ao total das doações no período de outubro de 1985 a outubro de 1987 em Goiânia, Goiás (Brasil. A soroprevalência foi comparada com dados obtidos pela notificação compulsória das doenças e com inquéritos epidemiológicos disponíveis. Foi encontrada soroprevalência para AIDS de 0,0@% para um único exame de ELISA, estimando-se em 1.900 o número de indivíduos supostamente infectados em Goiás, número compatível com o esperado quando se trabalha com dados de notificação. Para a doença de Chagas, hepatite B e sífilis foram observadas soroprevalências de até 3,3%, 1,3% e 4,1%, respectivamente. Foram discutidas as dificuldades encontradas para validação desses resultados pela ausência de notificação compulsória e características particulares dos inquéritos sorológicos.Screening tests of 62,814 blood donations carried out between October 85 and October 87 in all five blood banks of Goiânia, Central Brazil, were analysed. The private institutions (3 blood banks collected 80% of all donations and the remaining were collected by public blood banks. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, Chagas' disease and syphilis were compared with data obtained in the surveillance system and from previous surveys in an attempt to validate this source of health information. A seroprevalence of 0.07% for AIDS (one ELISA test was calculated, which may suggest the presence of 1900 infected individuals, in the population of the State of Goiás as a whole. This figure seems reasonably close to the official data obtained by compulsory notification. For Chagas' disease, hepatitis B and syphilis seroprevalence of 3.3%, 1.3% and 4.1% were

  9. Rastreamento anterior para câncer de colo uterino em mulheres com alterações citológicas ou histológicas Previous screening for cervical cancer among women with cytological and histological abnormalities

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    C Rama

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a história de rastreamento citológico anterior em mulheres que apresentaram alterações citológicas e confirmação histológica para câncer cervical. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 5.485 mulheres (15-65 anos que se submeteram a rastreamento para o câncer cervical entre fevereiro de 2002 a março de 2003, em São Paulo e Campinas, SP. Aplicou-se questionário comportamental e foi feita a coleta da citologia oncológica convencional ou em base líquida. Para as participantes com alterações citológicas indicou-se colposcopia e, nos casos anormais, procedeu-se à biópsia cervical. Para investigar a associação entre as variáveis qualitativas e o resultado da citologia, utilizou-se o teste de qui-quadrado de Pearson com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Dentre os resultados citológicos, 354 (6,4% foram anormais, detectando-se 41 lesões intra-epitelial escamosa de alto grau e três carcinomas; em 92,6% revelaram-se normais. De 289 colposcopias realizadas, 145 (50,2% apresentaram alterações. Dentre as biópsias cervicais foram encontrados 14 casos de neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical grau 3 e quatro carcinomas. Referiram ter realizado exame citológico prévio: 100% das mulheres com citologia compatível com carcinoma, 97,6% das que apresentaram lesões intra-epiteliais de alto grau, 100% daquelas com confirmação histológica de carcinoma cervical, e 92,9% das mulheres com neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical grau 3. A realização de citologia anterior em período inferior a três anos foi referida, respectivamente, por 86,5% e 92,8% dessas participantes com alterações citológicas e histológicas. CONCLUSÕES: Entre as mulheres que apresentaram confirmação histológica de neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical grau 3 ou carcinoma e aquelas que não apresentaram alterações histológicas não houve diferença estatisticamente significante do número de exames citológicos realizados, bem como o tempo

  10. Análise espacial dos indicadores pactuados para o rastreamento do câncer do colo do útero no Brasil

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    Raíla de Souza Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer de cuello de útero, a pesar de ser una enfermedad altamente prevenible y curable, presenta alta tasa de mortalidad en el país. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la distribución espacial de los indicadores acordados para el cáncer del cuello de útero en Brasil entre 2006 y 2009. Estudio ecológico que utilizó datos de Sistema de Información del Cáncer de Cuello de Útero y Sistema de Información sobre la Mortalidad. Se considera que, si bien estructurado y con mejoras en los indicadores, el programa está todavía bajo las metas acordadas en algunos estados, que forman un patrón irregular de los indicadores de resultados en Brasil. Las diferencias regionales mostraron fallas en la detección, la cobertura de la población, la calidad de las muestras citológicas y la estabilidad en la tasa de mortalidad. Los Estados que están bajo las metas acordadas necesitan optimizar recursos y facilitar el acceso a las mujeres que no están incluidas en el programa de rastreamiento.

  11. Sobre a modelagem e dinamica de estruturas flexiveis de rastreamento (pequenas e grandes deflexões)

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    Andre Fenili

    1997-01-01

    Resumo: Neste trabalho desenvolve-se dois modelos para estruturas flexíveis de rastreamento de membro único: um modelo para pequenas deflexões e um modelo para grandes deflexões. Tanto para um modelo quanto para o outro, utilizou-se o Princípio de Hamilton Estendido para se obter as equações dinâmicas do movimento. Estas equações são posteriormente adimensionalizadas de tal forma que um pequeno parâmetro adimensional de perturbação 'PERTENCE' possa ser obtido. Este parâmetro irá multiplicar t...

  12. Associação glicemia de jejum e fatores de risco como teste para rastreamento do diabete gestacional Fasting glycemia associated with risk factors as a screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus

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    Wilson Ayach

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: comparar dois testes de rastreamento do diabete gestacional. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo no qual foram avaliadas 356 gestantes, sem diagnóstico prévio do diabete melito, submetidas, de modo independente, a dois testes de rastreamento: associação glicemia de jejum e fator de risco (GJ+FR e teste oral simplificado de tolerância à glicose (TTG50g. A comparação entre os métodos foi realizada pelos índices de sensibilidade (S, especificidade (E e valores preditivos positivo (VPP e negativo (VPN, resultados falsos, positivos (FP e negativos (FN e pela diferença dos resultados observados e esperados, avaliada pelo teste do Qui-quadrado (pOBJECTIVES: compare two gestational diabetes tests. METHODS: a prospective study in which 356 pregnant women, with no previous diabetes mellitus diagnoses independently submitted to two tests; fasting glycemia and risk factor association (FG+RF and the simplified oral test for glucose tolerance (TTG50g. Methods of comparison were performed by sensitivity (S and (ES specificity indexes, positive predictive values (PPV and negative predictive values (NPV, false results, false positive (FP and false negative (FN and by the difference of the results determined and expected, evaluated through the Chi-Square Test (p<0.05. RESULTS: FG+RF association determined diagnostic confirmation in a larger number of patients (187; 52.5% than TTG50g (49; 13.8%. This difference was significant (p<0.05. The FG+RF association indicated a sensitivity of 83.7% and negative predictive value (NPV of 95.3% as compared to TTG50g. CONCLUSIONS: the high sensitivity rates and NPV from the association of FG+RF as compared to TTG50g and its simplicity, practicality, low cost and easy replication are positive qualities for gestational diabetes testing indication.

  13. Análisis comparativo de algunos modelos analíticos para estrellas de quarks

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    Manuel Malaver de la Fuente

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En la presente investigación se ha encontrado una nueva clase de soluciones que resuelven el sistema de ecuaciones de Maxwell-Einstein que satisface una ecuación lineal de estado para estrellas de quarks. Se propone una nueva forma particular de potencial gravitacional que depende de un parámetro ajustable, se resuelve el sistema de ecuaciones de MaxwellEinstein y se obtiene una ecuación diferencial de primer orden cuya solución es una familia de modelos analíticos singulares y no singulares para estrellas de quarks cargadas. Variables como la densidad de energía, la presión y la intensidad de campo eléctrico se escriben en términos de funciones racionales polinómicas. Una modificación del parámetro ajustable permite obtener una solución no singular propuesta por Komathiraj y Maharaj. A diferencia de otros modelos propuestos, la forma del potencial gravitacional escogido permite resolver la ecuación diferencial para cualquier valor del parámetro y obtener soluciones físicamente aceptables.

  14. Análisis comparativo de algunos modelos analíticos para estrellas de quarks

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    Manuel Malaver de la Fuente

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En la presente investigación se ha encontrado una nueva clase de soluciones que resuelven el sistema de ecuaciones de Maxwell-Einstein que satisface una ecuación lineal de estado para estrellas de quarks. Se propone una nueva forma particular de potencial gravitacional que depende de un parámetro ajustable, se resuelve el sistema de ecuaciones de Maxwell-Einstein y se obtiene una ecuación diferencial de primer orden cuya solución es una familia de modelos analíticos singulares y no singulares para estrellas de quarks cargadas. Variables como la densidad de energía, la presión y la intensidad de campo eléctrico se escriben en términos de funciones racionales polinómicas. Una modificación del parámetro ajustable permite obtener una solución no singular propuesta por Komathiraj y Maharaj. A diferencia de otros modelos propuestos, la forma del potencial gravitacional escogido permite resolver la ecuación diferencial para cualquier valor del parámetro y obtener soluciones físicamente aceptables.

  15. Resultados gestacionais e neonatais em mulheres com rastreamento positivo para diabetes mellitus e teste oral de tolerância à glicose - 100g normal Gestational and neonatal outcomes in women with positive screening for diabetes mellitus and 100g oral glucose challenge test normal

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    Patricia Moretti Rehder

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a frequência de resultados gestacionais e neonatais desfavoráveis em mulheres com rastreamento positivo e diagnóstico negativo para diabetes mellitus gestacional. MÉTODOS: trata-se de um estudo de corte transversal, retrospectivo e descritivo realizado entre 2000 e 2009. Foram incluídas no estudo 409 gestantes com rastreamento positivo para diabetes mellitus. As variáveis estudadas foram: maternas (idade, índice de massa corpórea, antecedente de cesárea, macrossomia ou diabetes mellitus em gestação anterior, antecedente pessoal e familiar de diabetes mellitus e hipertensão arterial crônica e neonatais (poli-hidrâmnio, idade gestacional por ocasião do parto, prematuridade, cesárea, recém-nascido (RN grande para idade gestacional (GIG, macrossomia, índice de Apgar, síndrome do desconforto respiratório, hipoglicemia e hiperbilirrubinemia. Inicialmente foi realizada análise descrita uni e multivariada para a ocorrência de fatores de risco e desfechos neonatais. Foram descritas as prevalências e respectivos intervalos de confiança a 95%. RESULTADOS: em 255 (62,3% das gestantes a via de parto foi cesárea. Quanto aos resultados perinatais, 14,2% dos RN foram classificados como prematuros e 19,3% dos RN como GIG. Os fatores de risco correlacionados com RN GIG foram sobrepeso ou obesidade, idade materna e antecedente de macrossomia em gestação anterior. CONCLUSÕES: na população com fatores de risco positivos ou glicemia de jejum alterada na primeira consulta do pré-natal, mesmo com curva glicêmica normal observa-se taxa de RN GIG elevada assim como índice de cesárea acima dos valores habitualmente presentes nas populações consideradas de baixo risco. As grávidas com tais características constituem um grupo diferenciado.PURPOSE: to determine the prevalence of adverse gestational and neonatal outcomes in women with a positive screening and negative diagnosis for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM

  16. Chaves analíticas para determinação de cultivares de aboboreiras, morangueiras e mogangueiras

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    Rochelle, Luiz Antonio

    1980-01-01

    De sete cultivares de aboboreiras rasteiras, pertencentes à espécie Cucurbita moschata Duch., duas morangueiras e duas mogangueiras, da espécie Cucurbita maxima Duch., uma aboboreira nao rasteira e uma morangueira pertencente a Cucurbita pepo L., elaborou-se chaves analíticas para determina-los, fundamentando-se nos caracteres morfológicos do caule e das folhas. Keys determining cultivars of squashes and pumpkins (Cucurbita mosohata Duch., Cueurbita maxima Duch., and Cucurbita pepo L.) bas...

  17. Proposal to institutionalize criteria and quality standards for cervical cancer screening within a health care system Proposta de regulamentação de critérios e padrões de qualidade para rastreamento de câncer de colo uterino em um sistema de atenção à saúde

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    Jorge Salmerón-Castro

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The uterine cervix is the most common cancer site for females. Approximately 52,000 new cases occur annually in Latin America, thus the need to improve efficiency and effectiveness of Cervical Cancer Screening Programs (CCSP is mandatory to decrease the unnecessary suffering women must bear. This paper is addressing essential issues to revamp the CCSP as proposed by the Mexican official norm. A general framework for institutionaling CCSP is outlined. Furthermore, strategies to strengthen CCSP performance through managerial strategies and quality assurance activities are described. The focus is on the following activities: 1 improving coverage; 2 implementing smear-taking quality control; 3 improving quality in interpretation of Pap test; 4 guaranteeing treatment for women for whom abnormalities are detected; 5 improving follow-up; 6 development of quality control measures and 7 development of monitoring and epidemiological surveillance information systems. Changes within the screening on cervical cancer may be advocated as new technologies present themselves and shortcomings in the existing program appear. It is crucial that these changes should be measured through careful evaluation in order to tally up potential benefits.O colo uterino é a localização tumoral mais importante em mulheres na América Latina, ocorrendo aproximadamente 52 mil novos casos anualmente na região. Assim, a necessidade de melhorar a eficiência e efetividade dos programas de rastreamento de câncer de colo uterino (PRCC é fundamental para que ocorra o decréscimo do sofrimento desnecessário experimentado por essas mulheres. Este trabalho aborda questões essenciais para revitalizar o PRCC, tal como proposto pela regulamentação oficial no México. Um marco teórico para institucionalização do PRCC é delineado, seguindo-se a apresentação de estratégias, visando fortalecer seu desempenho por meio de medidas organizacionais capazes de assegurar a qualidade da

  18. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms Rastreamento de aneurismas da aorta abdominal

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    Telmo Pedro Bonamigo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms may be useful to decrease mortality related to rupture. We conducted a study to assess the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms in southern Brazil and to define risk factors associated with high prevalence of this disorder. The screening was conducted using abdominal ultrasound. Three groups were studied: Group 1 - cardiology clinic patients; Group 2 - individuals with severe ischemic disease and previous coronary surgery, or important lesions on cardiac catheterism; Group 3 - individuals without cardiac disease selected from the general population. All individuals were male and older than 54 years of age. The ultrasonographic diagnosis of aneurysm was based on an anteroposterior abdominal aorta diameter of 3 cm, or on an abdominal aorta diameter 0.5 cm greater than that of the supra-renal aorta. RESULTS: A total of 2.281 people were screened for abdominal aortic aneurysms in all groups: Group 1 - 768 individuals, Group 2 - 501 individuals, and Group 3 - 1012 individuals. The prevalence of aneurysms was 4.3%, 6.8% and 1.7%, respectively. Age and cigarette smoking were significantly associated with increased prevalence of aneurysms, as was the diagnosis of peripheral artery disease. DISCUSSION: We concluded that screening may be an important tool to prevent the mortality associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms surgery. Additionally, the cost of screening can be decreased if only individuals presenting significant risk factors, such as coronary and peripheral artery disease, smokers and relatives of aneurysm patients, are examined.OBJETIVO E MÉTODOS: O rastreamento de aneurisma da aorta abdominal infra-renal é importante pois pode diminuir a mortalidade relacionada à ruptura. Realizamos um estudo para definir a prevalência desses aneurismas em diversos segmentos da população em nossa região do Brasil. O rastreamento foi realizado utilizando-se a ecografia de abdômen. Tr

  19. Aplicação da técnica de REP - PCR no rastreamento de Staphylococcus aureus em sala de ordenha, para o monitoramento da qualidade do leite

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    Lea Chapaval

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A identificação e classificação bacteriana são de suma importância no ambiente, na indústria, na medicina veterinária, na microbiologia e na ecologia microbiana. Um número de diferentes métodos genotípicos e fenotípicos estão sendo empregados para identificação e classificação microbiana. A técnica de REP-PCR é baseada no uso de primers sintetizados a partir de sequências repetidas de DNA, chamadas de palindrômicas extragênicas repetidas (REP, e têm sido descrita como um método o qual gera impressões digitais (fingerprints de DNA que podem diferenciar bactérias entre gêneros e espécies. Neste estudo, o método de fingerprint foi usado para Staphylococcus aureus com o objetivo de avaliar a higiene de ordenha em duas fazendas leiteiras. Foram obtidos vários fingerprints de todos os isolados coletados das diferentes fontes estudadas (mãos de ordenhadores, tetos das vacas, leite e ordenhadeira, e foram obtidos comportamentos muito similares das bandas indicando que os isolados podem ser relatados como clones epidemiológicos. Em nosso estudo, a técnica mostrou ser eficiente para a análise da similaridade entre indivíduos da mesma espécie, no caso, o Staphylococcus aureus, mostrando ser uma ferramenta útil para investigação de falhas no manejo e, em um controle mais eficiente para evitar e/ou diminuir a disseminação de microrganismos causadores de sérias enfermidades em humanos e em animais, que podem ser transmitidas através de produtos como o leite e seus derivados.

  20. Validación del método analítico para tabletas de dicloroisocianurato de sodio para desinfección de agua potable

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    Luis Octavio Martínez Álvarez

    Full Text Available Introducción: en Cuba se han desarrollado las primeras tabletas efervescentes de 3,5 mg dicloroisocianurato de sodio, como ingrediente activo no terapéutico, el cual libera una determinada cantidad de cloro al disolverse en un litro de agua, capaz de inducir a una adecuada desinfección del agua potable y lista para ingerir después de transcurrido 30 min. Objetivo: desarrollar y validar un método analítico yodométrico, aplicable al control de la calidad de las tabletas efervescentes de 3,5 mg de dicloroisocianurato de sodio. Métodos: para la cuantificación del contenido de cloro activo libre en las tabletas efervescentes, se empleó como técnica un método potenciométrico, utilizando electrodos de platino y solución valorada de tiosulfato de sodio 0,1 N. El método desarrollado fue validado según los parámetros exigidos para la categoría I, que incluye las técnicas destinadas a cuantificar principios activos en las formas terminadas. Adicionalmente se realizaron otras pruebas para evaluar la influencia del analista y el día en los resultados analíticos. Resultados: los parámetros evaluados en la validación del método se encontraron dentro de los límites establecidos. El método resultó ser específico, lineal, exacto y preciso en el rango de concentraciones estudiadas. Conclusiones: los resultados permiten que el método pueda emplearse de manera confiable y segura.

  1. Instrument to screen cases of pervasive developmental disorder: a preliminary indication of validity Instrumento para rastreamento dos casos de transtorno invasivo do desenvolvimento: estudo preliminar de validação

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    Fábio Pinato Sato

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To translate into Portuguese, back-translate, culturally adapt and validate a screening instrument for pervasive developmental disorder, the Autism Screening Questionnaire, for use in Brazil. METHOD: A sample of 120 patients was selected based on three groups of 40: patients with a clinical diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder, Down syndrome, or other psychiatric disorders. The self-administered questionnaire was applied to the patients' legal guardians. Psychometric measures of the final version of the translated questionnaire were tested. RESULTS: The score of 15 had sensitivity of 92.5% and specificity of 95.5% as a cut-off point for the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder. Internal validity for a total of 40 questions was 0.895 for alpha and 0.896 for KR-20, ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 for both coefficients. Test and retest reliability values showed strong agreement for most questions. CONCLUSIONS: The final version of this instrument, translated into Portuguese and adapted to the Brazilian culture, had satisfactory measurement properties, suggesting preliminary validation proprieties. It was an easy-to-apply, useful tool for the diagnostic screening of individuals with pervasive developmental disorder.OBJETIVO: Tradução, retro-versão, adaptação cultural e validação do Autism Screening Questionnaire para a língua portuguesa e para o seu uso no Brasil. MÉTODO: Foi selecionada uma amostra inicial de 120 pacientes, encaminhados de duas clínicas privadas e uma pública, divida em três grupos de 40 pacientes distintos: pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de transtornos globais do desenvolvimento ou transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento; de síndrome de Down e de outros transtornos psiquiátricos. O questionário foi aplicado aos responsáveis legais dos pacientes seguindo os padrões de um questionário auto-aplicável. As medidas psicométricas do questionário traduzido, na sua versão final, foram

  2. Custo-efetividade do rastreamento da infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis em mulheres brasileiras

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Tomazzini Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Introdução: A importância da infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis não está relacionada apenas à sua elevada frequência, mas principalmente pelas graves repercussões no aparelho genital feminino. Apenas 30% das pacientes infectadas apresentam sintomas e só 40% terão sinais que possam evidenciar sua presença. Cerca de 70% dos casos de infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis são assintomáticos e acabam não sendo diagnosticados, havendo, portanto a necessidade de programa de rastreamento para di...

  3. Avaliação de um escore clínico para rastreamento de suspeitos de tuberculose pulmonar Evaluación de un escore para rastreo de sospechosos de tuberculosis pulmonar Assessment of a clinical score for screening suspected pulmonary tuberculosis cases

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    Cristiano Bel Alves de Castro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar acurácia de escore clínico (sensibilidade no diagnóstico presuntivo de tuberculose pulmonar em triagem. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo-analítico transversal com 1.365 pacientes atendidos no setor de pneumologia em Unidade Básica de Saúde de nível secundário da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, de 2006 a 2007. Os participantes responderam um questionário padronizado, aplicado por equipe de enfermagem, contendo informações referentes à idade, peso e sintomas clínicos. O resultado presuntivo do diagnóstico de tuberculose pulmonar foi obtido pela soma da pontuação dos dados coletados. Diagnóstico de tuberculose ativa baseou-se nos resultados bacteriológicos e na decisão médica. Foram calculados sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivos e negativos para uma prevalência especificada, e intervalos de 95% de confiança para diversos pontos de corte do escore. O desempenho do escore foi avaliado pela curva receiver operating characteristic (ROC. RESULTADOS: Para o diagnóstico de tuberculose, tosse > 1 semana e > 3 semanas mostrou sensibilidade respectivamente de 88,2% (86,2;90,2 e de 61,1% (57,93;64,3, especificidade de 19,2% (16,6;21,8 e 51,3% (48,1;54,5. O escore clínico com 8 pontos mostrou uma sensibilidade de 83,13% (77,8;87,6, especificidade de 51,8% (48,5;55,1, valor preditivo positivo de 91,6% (90,0;83,2 e negativo 32,9% (30,1;35,7. CONCLUSÕES: Tosse (> 3 sem apresentou baixa sensibilidade e especificidade. Escore clínico com elevada sensibilidade pode ser uma ferramenta alternativa na detecção de tuberculose pulmonar, pois, além de agilizar o atendimento do caso suspeito na unidade, permite padronizar a primeira abordagem pela enfermagem.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la exactitud de escore clínico (sensibilidad en el diagnostico presuntivo de tuberculosis pulmonar en pesquisa. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo-analítico transversal con 1.365 pacientes atendidos en el sector de pneumonologia en Unidad B

  4. Técnica analítica para el estudio de estabilidad del Cromoglicato de Sodio (Cápsulas para inhalación

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    Liana Liz Pérez Suárez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia para la determinación del contenido de cromoglicato de sodio en las cápsulas. La técnica desarrollada resultó ser lineal, precisa, exacta y específica, la cual fue aplicada para realizar el estudio de estabilidad acelerada y el de vida de estante. Se comprobó la estabilidad química del medicamento por un período de 2 años.An analytical method was developed by high pressure liquid chromatography to determine the content of sodium cromoglicate in capsules. The technique developed proved to be linear, precise, accurate and specific and it was used to conduct the study of accelerated stability and that of shelf life. The chemical stability of the drug was verified for a period of 2 years.

  5. Manejo dos portadores das neoplasias intraepiteliais anais Managment of anal intra-epithelial neoplasia patients

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    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Acredita-se que a neoplasia intraepitelial anal (NIA, provocada pelo HPV, seja a lesão precursora do carcinoma anal. Segundo a literatura, são encontradas entre 11% e 52% dos homens infectados pelo HIV, entre 6% a 20% dos homens e 1% a 2,8% das mulheres sem essa infecção. Entre 8,5% e 13% das NIA de alto grau evoluirão para carcinoma invasivo, indicando a necessidade do rastreamento e do seguimento desses doentes para prevenção. Não há tratamento satisfatório com baixos índices de morbidez e a recidiva é comum. Em geral, as formas de tratamento podem de ser divididas em tópicas, entre elas, ácido tricloroacético, podofilina, podofilotoxina, imiquimod, terapia fotodinâmica, e ablativas, ou seja, excisão cirúrgica, ablação pelo LASER, coagulação pelo infravermelho e eletrofulguração. Há, ainda, os que consideram aceitável a conduta expectante. O tratamento tópico se justifica pelo caráter multifocal da lesão e os ablativos têm taxas de complicação e recidiva muito semelhantes. De qualquer forma, doentes com qualquer anormalidade histológica necessitam de seguimento adequado, principalmente com colposcopia e citologia anal.Anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN, provoked by HPV, is considered as an anal cancer precursor. Some articles noticed that it occurred among 11% and 52% of men who have sex with men (MSM infected with HIV and, among seronegatives, from 6% to 20% of men and from 1% to 2.8% of women. From 8.5% to 13% of high grade AIN will evolve to invasive carcinoma, needing follow-up and screening for prevention. There is no satisfactory treatment with low morbidity and recurrence is frequent. There are two main forms of treatment: topics (trichloroacetic acid, podophylin, podophylotoxin, imiquimod, photodynamic therapy and ablatives (chirurgical excision, LASER, infrared, eletrocautery. Others consider acceptable an expectant management. Topical therapy is justified because of multifocal presentation of HPV

  6. Uso da microalbuminúria em amostras urinárias aleatórias para o rastreamento de pré-eclâmpsia em grávidas diabéticas Use of microalbuminuria in random urine samples to screen diabetic pregnant women for preeclampsia

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    Victor Hugo Saucedo Sanchez

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o desempenho da dosagem de microalbuminúria como método para rastreamento de pré-eclampsia MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo longitudinal no qual foram incluídas 45 grávidas diabéticas. Foi quantificada a microalbuminúria em três períodos distintos da gravidez: antes da 18ª semana, entre a 18ª e a 24ª semana e entre a 32ª e a 36ª semana de gravidez. Todas as pacientes freqüentaram o pré-natal entre janeiro de 2000 e dezembro de 2001. O ensaio de microalbuminúria/creatinina é método quantitativo para medir baixas concentrações de albumina, creatinina e a relação albumina/creatinina na urina. Como critério indicativo de dano renal incipiente e risco para pré-eclâmpsia foi empregada a relação albumina/creatinina maior que 16 mg/g. A sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo da relação albumina/creatinina foram calculados para predizer a ocorrência ou ausência de pré-eclâmpsia. RESULTADOS: do total de pacientes, 17% apresentaram pré-eclâmpsia. A sensibilidade da relação albumina/creatinina foi crescente de 12,5% com 18 semanas para 25% entre 18 e 24 semanas e 87% após a 32ª semana. Em contraste, a especificidade teve valor decrescente de 97 para 89 e 83%, respectivamente. O valor preditivo positivo foi relativamente baixo, com valores de 50, 33 e 53% nos três diferentes períodos de avaliação. De outro modo, o valor preditivo negativo foi elevado nas três faixas de idade gestacional, com valores de 83, 84 e 96%. CONCLUSÕES: a quantificação aleatória da microalbuminúria pôde predizer corretamente a não ocorrência de pré-eclâmpsia em grávidas diabéticas, sendo pouco eficiente para a identificação correta das pacientes que evoluíram com pré-eclâmpsia.PURPOSE: the aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of microalbuminuria to predict preeclampsia. METHODS: a prospective study of 45 consecutive diabetic gestations that were

  7. Verificación analítica para las determinaciones de cromo hexavalente en aguas por espectrofotometría

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    Carlos Alberto Severiche Sierra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad la prestación de servicios analíticos de laboratorios, toma de forma ascendente más auge y utilidad. El efecto de un análisis de aguas es forjar resultados correctos y confiables, siendo la verificación de ensayos uno de los aspectos más importantes y factor clave para conseguir este propósito. La determinación de cromo hexavalente en aguas por colorimetría con la difenilcarbazida es la metodología analítica más usada y útil que se conoce en el ámbito científico técnico, principalmente, por su alta selectividad y también debatida por su reacción a las interferencias. En el presente estudio se hizo la valoración analítica del método espectrofotométrico para la determinación de cromo hexavalente en aguas; el objetivo de este trabajo fue confirmar correctamente la aplicación del método para el análisis de aguas. Se trabajaron muestras de diferentes tipos de agua: potable, residual y superficial, siguiéndose estrictamente los protocolos de verificación. Se encontraron resultados satisfactorios en precisión y exactitud con el fin de emitir resultados confiables y reales de la muestra analizada.

  8. Métodos analíticos para el estudio de Legionella

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    Carmen Pelaz Antolín

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Los ensayos para la determinación de Legionella en muestras de agua son uno de los aspectos contemplados en la legislación española sobre prevención de legionelosis. La periodicidad de estos ensayos en función del tipo de instalación, los laboratorios que los realizan, y las acciones correctoras que derivan de ellos en función de los recuentos bacterianos son acciones incluidas en los planes de mantenimiento preventivo de las instalaciones consideradas de riesgo (Real Decreto 865/2003. La comparación de nuestra legislación con otras legislaciones o recomendaciones adoptadas en otros paises (Reino Unido, Francia, Australia, América permite conocer nuestro grado de exigencia en relación a algunos de los parámetros contemplados. El cultivo de la bacteria es el método de referencia para la detección de Legionella en muestras de agua y existen varios ensayos normalizados, como los estándares ISO 11731/98 y 2004 y NF T 90- 431/2003 (AFNOR. Para ayudar a la interpretación de los resultados, los ensayos deben reflejar el estándar en el que se basan y el límite de detección del método, que no debe ser superior a 100 ufc/L. Además, los laboratorios que realizan estos ensayos deben estar acreditados por nuestra entidad de acreditación ENAC. En los últimos años se han desarrollado métodos rápidos de detección de la bacteria basados en la amplificación de ADN cromosómico en muestras de agua mediante reacciones de PCR. El desarrollo científico de estos métodos va por delante del desarrollo reglamentario, y los ensayos de PCR no deben desplazar a los ensayos de cultivo en cumplimiento de las normativas vigentes, sino que deben complementarlo.

  9. Proceso de Explotación de Información para Analítica Académica en FaCENA-UNNE

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    Mariano E.A. Lopez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un proceso de explotación de información adaptado del modelo propuesto por Vanrell, el cual combina las etapas de la metodología CRISP-DM con actividades de la metodología COMPETISOFT, con el objetivo de aplicar un abordaje ingenieril para el desarrollo de una propuesta tecnológica como soporte para la implementación de Analítica Académica en la FaCENA-UNNE.

  10. Rastreamento do câncer de mama: quais as tendências atuais?

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    Andréa Pires Souto Damin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O câncer de mama é a neoplasia maligna mais frequente no mundo. No Brasil, representa a principal causa de morte por câncer em mulheres (1,2. Segundo o INCA (Instituto Nacional do Câncer são esperados 52 casos para 100.000 mulheres em 2012. Porto Alegre tem a maior incidência no país, com estimativa de 125 casos por 100.000 mulheres (2. Nesta edição da Revista do HCPA, um grupo de Minas Gerais avalia o papel da mamografia no rastreamento do câncer de mama. Até o momento, não existe prevenção primária efetiva para o câncer de mama. Como apresenta uma fase subclínica longa, variando entre 2 e 4 anos, a diminuição da mortalidade depende da detecção precoce. A sobrevida da doença em estágios iniciais pode alcançar 98% em 5 anos (1.

  11. Redes socio-técnicas y participación ciudadana : propuestas conceptuales y analíticas para el uso de las TICs

    OpenAIRE

    Kauchakje, Samira; Penna, Manoel Camillo; Frey, Klaus; Duarte, Fábio

    2006-01-01

    La sociedad contemporánea tiene en los flujos de la información una de sus características más destacadas, siendo las nuevas tecnologías de la información y comunicación uno de sus pilares. En este contexto, el paradigma de las redes adquiere fuerza, sea cualitativamente (sociedad en red), o sea como instrumento analítico. Este último es el punto que desarrollaremos en el artículo desde un punto de vista conceptual y metodológico, para acercanos a estudios de caso desarrollados sobre los prin...

  12. Modelos esquemáticos para avaliação da qualidade analítica dos dados nacionais de fibra alimentar

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    CARUSO Lúcia

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O controle de qualidade de uma análise laboratorial é essencial para garantir a confiabilidade da informação. Os resultados analíticos serão considerados restritos se não houver um programa definido de controle de qualidade analítico. O presente trabalho propõe modelos esquemáticos para a avaliação da qualidade dos dados nacionais de fibra alimentar. A fibra alimentar foi escolhida, como um modelo, com o propósito de se aplicar os critérios do USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture empregados na avaliação do selênio, cobre e de carotenóides. Esta escolha foi baseada na escassez de informações desse nutriente e pela importância da fibra alimentar na prevenção de doenças crônico-degenerativas. Para a avaliação da qualidade dos dados foram consideradas cinco categorias: número de amostras, plano de amostragem, tomada de amostra, método analítico e controle de qualidade analítica. Estes modelos foram utilizados na avaliação da qualidade das determinações de fibra alimentar de 180 alimentos. O resultado obtido foi de 29% com código A e B (considerável e razoável confiança e 68% com código C (reduzida confiança. Com a determinação da qualidade dos dados, foi possível estabelecer quais os alimentos que constituem prioridades de análise, que são aqueles nos quais ainda não foi determinada a fração fibra alimentar, e aqueles com código de confiança C.

  13. Indicação da anuscopia de alta resolução e citologia anal na prevenção de HPV e câncer colorretal em pacientes portadores de HIV Indication of high resolution anoscopy and anal cytology for prevention of HPV and colorectal cancer in HIV patients

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    Hugo Leonardo Madeiro Arcanjo Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Rastreamento do papilomavírus humano (HPV assim como sua correlação com a neoplasia anorretal nos pacientes portadores do vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV por meio da anuscopia de alta resolução (AAR e da citologia anal. MÉTODOS: Desenvolvemos um estudo observacional, transversal e duplo-cego em que participaram 31 pacientes portadores do HIV independente de queixas proctológicas. Os pacientes foram submetidos à AAR e citologia anal cujas lâminas foram enviadas ao setor de anatomia patológica para coloração e posterior análise. RESULTADOS: Verificamos 22 pacientes do sexo masculino e 9 do sexo feminino entre 20 e 67 anos. Dos 31 analisados, quatro encontravam-se em estágio de imunodepressão, 23 utilizavam terapia antirretroviral, 16 com passado de sexo anal receptivo e 12 com passado de condiloma acuminado. À AAR 11 pacientes tinham alterações e 7 foram confirmados pela citologia. Verificamos ainda oito pacientes com alterações à citologia os quais possuíam ausência de alterações à AAR. À citologia apresentaram três células escamosas atípicas de significância (Ascus, do inglês atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, cinco com paraceratose e/ou hiperceratose, seis lesões intraepiteliais de baixo grau e uma lesão intraepitelial de alto grau. CONCLUSÃO: Sugerimos a utilização da AAR aliada à citologia anal para rastreamento nos pacientes portadores do HIV, visto que esses exames complementam-se para a detecção de lesões que estejam relacionadas ao câncer anorretal.OBJECTIVE: Screening for HPV as well as its correlation with anorectal cancer in patients carrying the human immuno deficiency virus (HIV through high-resolution anoscopy (HRA and anal cytology. METHODS: We developed an observational study, double-blind attended by 31 patients with HIV independent proctologic complaints. Patients underwent HRA and anal cytology slides were sent to which sector pathology staining and

  14. Anal Itching

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has many possible causes, such as skin problems, hemorrhoids, and washing too much or not enough. If ... dermatitis. Other medical conditions. These include chronic diarrhea, hemorrhoids, anal tumors and diseases that affect the whole ...

  15. Proceso analítico jerárquico para evaluar tres laboratorios virtuales en la educación superior

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    Campo Elías Riaño-Luna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estandarizar un protocolo bajo un proceso analítico jerárquico (AHP, para evaluar el uso y la pertinencia de los laboratorios virtuales o prácticas académicas simuladas en un ambiente virtual de aprendizaje de la educación superior a distancia. Para el efecto se siguió un enfoque cuantitativo, tipo descriptivo, para evaluar y categorizar jerárquicamente tres laboratorios virtuales comerciales de química. En el proceso participaron diez estudiantes y siete profesores expertos en cursos teóricos prácticos, ofertados en aula virtual bajo la plataforma Moodle. Los criterios analizados fueron: funcionalidad (FUN, fiabilidad (FIA, usabilidad (USAB, eficiencia (EFI, mantenibilidad (MAB, portabilidad (POR, aspectos técnicos (ASPT, aspectos psicopedagógicos (ASPS, aspectos comunicacionales (ASPC y los aspectos administrativos (ASPA de los laboratorios virtuales. El análisis y la jerarquización de los criterios y los laboratorios virtuales (LVs con estas variables se realizaron matrices de comparación pareadas. La razón de consistencia entre las decisiones pareadas que realizaron los evaluadores fue de 0.05885, y al ser esta menor a 0.10, se concluye que es una metodología pertinente para analizar y evaluar objetivamente laboratorios virtuales y además los clasifica jerárquicamente, acorde con sus atributos.

  16. Zombi: una arquitectura para el análisis de información que integra procesamiento analítico en línea con minería de datos

    OpenAIRE

    González Rosas, Leopoldo

    2005-01-01

    Cada año se generan grandes volúmenes de datos en diferentes medio magnéticos, convertir esos datos en información para la toma de decisiones es un reto que muchas organizaciones están enfrentando. Se construyen almacenes de datos y se utilizan herramientas de procesamiento analítico en línea ("OLAP") y minería de datos para obtener resultados de valor para los negocios, el trabajo para lograrlo ha tomado años en muchos casos. Una arquitectura que integre esas tecnologías para análisis de ...

  17. Rastreamento do câncer do colo do útero em Teresina, Piauí: estudo avaliativo dos dados do Sistema de Informação do Câncer do Colo do Útero, 2006-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Moura Damacena

    Full Text Available Resumo OBJETIVO: avaliar o rastreamento do câncer do colo do útero em Teresina, Piauí, Brasil. MÉTODOS: estudo avaliativo do Sistema de Informação do Câncer do Colo do Útero (Siscolo de Teresina no período 2006-2013, com base em análises estatísticas descritivas. RESULTADOS: foram registradas no sistema 604.331 citologias de mulheres residentes em Teresina; 1,8% apresentaram alterações citológicas pré-malignas ou malignas (atipias, lesões intraepiteliais e câncer; a positividade dos exames foi maior para as mulheres >64 anos de idade; verificou-se redução de 43,9% no número de exames realizados na faixa etária-alvo do programa de rastreamento; também cresceu o percentual de amostras insatisfatórias, de 0,33 para 0,89%. CONCLUSÃO: em Teresina, o programa de rastreamento de colo uterino apresenta limitações que precisam ser superadas, destacando-se a oferta inadequada de exames, sua baixa proporção de positividade e o crescimento do número de amostras insatisfatórias.

  18. Galerías mineras: la modelización analítica como una ayuda geomecánica para el diseño minero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Correa Arroyave

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Después de una introducción en la que se esbozan los métodos analíticos utilizados en la Geotecnica Aplicada y se analizan las dificultades inherentes a cada método, se cuestiona por qué la Geomecánica no ha llegado a las minas tan rápido como se hubiera querido. En efecto estas obras, sui generis por su actividad, se encuentran en nuestro país más al abrigo de la experiencia adquirida in situ que a las aplicaciones de los desarrollos geomecánicos logrados en otros países. Posiblemente el desconocimiento o quizás la falta de credibilidad en estos logros, es la explicación de la ausencia casi total en la utilización de aquellos métodos en nuestro medio. Siendo la determinación de los datos de entrada el mayor problema práctico para llevar a buen término cualquiera de los métodos analíticos. el texto recomienda una metodología que permite cuantificar aquellos parámetros, y en especial las características geomecánicas de esfuerzo, deformación y resistencia de las masas rocosas.

  19. Protocolo estandarizado para el seguimiento poblacional del pavón, Oreophasis derbianus: propuesta de métodos de campo y analíticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando González-García

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available La estimación robusta del tamaño poblacional de especies de fauna silvestre es un requisito fundamental en estudios ecológicos y en el diseño e implementación de estrategias de conservación. Sin embargo, en varios casos, estas estimaciones carecen de exactitud, precisión, representatividad y comparabilidad. Esto ha ocasionado que la información generada para las poblaciones de una determinada especie sea difícilmente generalizable y que su aplicación sea limitada. Éste es el caso del pavón, Oreophasis derbianus, un ave endémica de Mesoamérica y en peligro de extinción. En este trabajo presentamos una propuesta de protocolo de muestreo en campo y métodos analíticos estandarizados para el estudio poblacional de esta especie. La propuesta está basada en nuestra experiencia en el estudio de la especie y en la aplicación de la teoría del muestreo de distancias. El propósito de este protocolo estandarizado es generar datos de campo de calidad para obtener estimaciones robustas de la abundancia poblacional de O. derbianus. Este protocolo lo desarrollamos y evaluamos principalmente en la Reserva de la Biosfera El Triunfo, en Chia­pas, México, pero también fue replicado en otras tres localidades en México y Guatemala. Su desarrollo y evaluación incluyó muestreos mensuales en campo durante casi diez años y la impartición de talleres de capacitación teórico-prácticos a personal de campo para la adecuada implementación de este protocolo. Como resultado de esta experiencia, definimos una serie de li­neamientos básicos y factibles que proponemos sea un estándar como métodos de muestreo y analíticos de las poblaciones de O. derbianus para asegurar la calidad y comparabilidad de los datos generados en campo. Finalmente, presentamos estimaciones de la densidad poblacional de O. derbianus en las cuatro localidades estudiadas y discutimos el significado de su variación espacial y temporal en el contexto de esta propuesta.

  20. Palacios, Analía (comp.) Claves para incluir: aprender, enseñar y comprender : Noveduc, Buenos Aires, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Gandini, Fiorella

    2016-01-01

    Claves para incluir: aprender, enseñar y comprender es una compilación que presenta las complejidades y desafíos en Educación de la mano de autoras de prestigiosas universidades argentinas y españolas con trayectoria en docencia e investigación en los campos de la Psicología Educacional, Pedagogía Social, Sociología Educativa y Didáctica. Su compiladora, Analía Palacios, es Doctora en Educación (UDESA), actualmente es profesora Adjunta de la cátedra Psicología Educacional de la FaHCE (UNLP) e...

  1. Validación de un método analítico para la determinación del contenido de sodio en los alimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericka Valverde Montero

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Se validó la metodología analítica para la determinación de sodio en alimentos mediante espectroscopía de absorción atómica de llama. Las muestras de 0,5 g se digirieron en un horno de microondas con 5,0 mL de HNO3 al 65 % en masa. El ámbito de linealidad óptimo que se obtuvo fue de 0,043 mg/L a 0,70 mg/L con un coeficiente de correlación de 0,998. Los límites de detección y cuantificación reportados fueron de 0,025 mg/L y 0,043 mg/L, respectivamente; con una sensibilidad de calibración de 0,805 Lmg-1, una sensibilidad analítica de 44 Lmg-1.La precisión se evaluó en condiciones de repetibilidad y se obtuvo un valor para RDSr igual a 2,9%. La veracidad se determinó utilizando tres patrones certificados del NIST®, SRM 1846 Infant Formula con un valor reportado para sodio de (2310 ± 130 mg/kg, SRM 8414 Bovine Muscle Powder con (0,210 ± 0,008 % en masa, y SRM 8415 Whole Egg Powder con (0,377 ± 0,034 % en masa. Se obtuvieron sesgos de entre (-0,010 a 0,009 mg/L. De la lista de alimentos seleccionados para el estudio, se encontró que la leche entera en polvo, el pan blanco de trigo, el queso fresco y el queso mozzarella presentan el contenido más elevado en sodio, con concentraciones que oscilan entre (106 a 452 mg Na/100g

  2. Anal fissure - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anal fissures are tears in the skin overlying the anal sphincter, usually due to increased tone of the anal sphincter muscles, and a failure of these muscle to relax. Anal fissures cause pain during defecation and bleeding from the anus.

  3. Validation of the portuguese version of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns: revised (QEWP-R for the screening of binge eating disorder Validação da versão em português do Questionário sobre Padrões de Alimentação e Peso: revisado (QEWP-R para o rastreamento do transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Ferrari Borges

    2005-12-01

    -Revisado e, posteriormente, foram entrevistadas com o módulo para transtornos alimentares da Entrevista Clínica Estruturada para o DSM-IV (SCID-I/P. As taxas de transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica e de diagnósticos subclínicos obtidas pelo Questionário sobre Padrões de Alimentação e Peso-Revisado foram comparadas às obtidas pela Entrevista Clínica Estruturada para o DSM-IV. RESULTADOS: Na identificação de compulsão alimentar (independente da presença de todos os elementos necessários para o diagnóstico de transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica, a versão em português do Questionário sobre Padrões de Alimentação e Peso-Revisado apresentou sensibilidade de 0,88, especificidade de 0,63 e valor preditivo positivo de 0,825. Já para o diagnóstico de transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica, o questionário apresentou sensibilidade = 0,548, especificidade = 0,8 e valor preditivo positivo de 0,793. CONCLUSÕES: O Questionário sobre Padrões de Alimentação e Peso-Revisado, em sua versão para o português, mostrou ser um instrumento útil na detecção de prováveis casos de compulsão alimentar. Pode ser utilizado como escala de rastreamento ou ainda como primeiro passo na avaliação clínica de pacientes que procuram tratamento para compulsão alimentar e/ou obesidade.

  4. Uma contribuição para a discussão sobre as imagens psíquicas no contexto da Psicologia Analítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afrânio Sant'Anna

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A discussão sobre a natureza das imagens psíquicas ocorre desde os primórdios da Psicologia. Nas últimas décadas, o tema vem ganhando destaque em todas as abordagens, notadamente em modalidades clínicas que se apóiam predominantemente no discurso imagético. Para a Psicologia Analítica, a questão da imagem tem sido tema de diversas discussões, destacando-se três direcionamentos teórico-práticos - clássico, desenvolvimentista e arquetípico -, que vão determinar diferentes perspectivas sobre a questão. Observa-se uma tendência em abordar a imagem a partir de sua própria fenomenologia, em detrimento de sua interpretação e, apesar da importância das imagens para o contexto clínico, o tema está praticamente ausente dos programas de graduação em Psicologia e da própria estruturação das teorias psicológicas. Nesse sentido, algumas propostas são discutidas a título de possibilidades de aprendizado e de teorização no campo da imagem. Como a relação dialética entre teoria e prática é necessária para que a teoria permaneça atualizada e vitalmente ligada à realidade sociocultural contemporânea, por meio de dados obtidos em entrevistas com psicoterapeutas brasileiros, buscou-se identificar contribuições para a discussão sobre as imagens no contexto clínico.

  5. Evaluación de un modelo didáctico analógico para el aprendizaje de energía interna y temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamorano, R.O.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Las dificultades de los estudiantes para conceptualizar correctamente las leyes de la termodinámica han sido estudiadas por diferentes autores, asimismo se han detectado los errores en nociones relativas a las magnitudes involucradas. Esas dificultades parecen residir en la falta de correspondencia entre el modelo macroscópico de las leyes de la termodinámica y el modelo cinético molecular de la materia. Ambos modelos teoréticos, uno macroscópico y otro microscópico se plantean habitualmente en la clase, de modo que esta falta de conexión sería en parte proveniente de la instrucción. Consideramos que existe una continuidad entre los modelos conceptuales de los alumnos y el modelo teorético objeto del aprendizaje. En este trabajo se propone un modelo didáctico analógico para la enseñanza de los conceptos de temperatura y energía interna y se evalúa su eficiencia. Los resultados obtenidos fueron positivos mostrando una mejor utilización del modelo cinético molecular por parte de los alumnos.

  6. Protocolo de validación de métodos analíticos para la cuantificación de fármacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Castillo Aguilar

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un resumen de las consideraciones generales para la confección del protocolo de validación de métodos analíticos utilizados en la determinación cuantitativa de fármacos en forma de materia prima o en formulaciones y en estudios de estabilidad. Se describe detalladamente el proceso de validación que incluye los requisitos exigidos para la utilización de las materias primas, materiales de referencia, equipamiento, personal y determinación de los parámetros de linealidad, precisión, exactitud y selectividad (con el procesamiento estadístico de los resultados experimentales y criterios de aceptación, así como la presentación de los resultados en el informe final de la validación.A summary of the general considerations fot the formulation of a validation protocol of the analytical methods used in drug quantitative determination in a raw material form, or in formulations and firmness studies. The validation process is fully described; it includes the necessary requirements for the usage of raw materials, reference materials, supplying, personnel, and determination of linearity, preciseness, exactness, and selectiveness (with the statistical processing of experimental results, and acceptance criteria, as well as the presentation of outcomes in the validation final report.

  7. A constituição do símbolo e o processo analítico para Winnicott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Fulgencio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo pretende-se mostrar que, para Winnicott, o fundamento do processo de simbolização está na atividade que caracteriza a expansão da área dos fenômenos transicionais. Enquanto para Klein, a relação com objetos que são símbolos de outros objetos ocorre como defesa contra a angústia derivada das relações objetais, para Winnicott, esta relação deriva da atividade do brincar e da criatividade a ela associada. Essa diferença caracteriza a maneira como cada um desses autores concebe a entrada do homem na vida cultural, e como eles concebem os objetivos do método de tratamento psicanalítico.

  8. Los costes de olvidarse de ciertas categorías analíticas para entender nuestras realidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicenç Navarro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El artículo hace una crítica de las tesis liberales que sostienen que la desregulación de capitales y la expansión de los mercados a nivel mundial ha reducido las desigualdades sociales y la pobreza así como de las tesis de los autores marxistas Michael Hart y Antoni Negri (presentadas en su libro Empire que asumen que no existe un poder central en el orden mundial, que definen como Imperio, asumiendo que el poder de los Estado está siendo substituido por el poder de los mercados (tesis esta última también sostenida por autores como Susan George y Eric Hobsbawm. El autor presenta evidencia que muestra el error de estas tesis, señalando el gran poder que los Estado continúan teniendo (y dentro de ellos el Estado de EEUU en configurar el orden internacional. El artículo critica el abandono de categorías analíticas como clase, poder de clase y Estado no sólo por parte de teóricos liberales sino también teóricos del movimiento antiglobalizador, indicando que no se puede entender la realidad presente (desde el crecimiento de las desigualdades sociales y la pobreza hasta las guerras de Afganistán e Irak sin recuperar tales categorías en dichos análisis, indicando que el conflicto mayor existente hoy en el mundo no es entre los países ricos del Norte y los países pobres del Sur sino entre la alianza de las clases dominantes del Norte y del Sur frente y en contra de las clases dominadas del Norte y del Sur cuya influencia sobre sus Estado es mucho menor.

  9. Solución analítica del problema directo de la tomografía de capacitancia eléctrica para un fluido bifásico con una inclusión circular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Reyes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se expone un modelo matemático al problema de la Tomografía de Capacitancia Eléctrica (TCE, para el caso de un fluido bifásico dieléctrico con una inclusión circular. Se resuelve el problema directo, que consiste en obtener una expresión analítica para las capacitancias mutuas. La solución del problema directo servirá para validar cualquier método de solución al problema inverso, para calibrar los equipos de medición actualmente existentes y además para construir un método de discretización adaptiva para resolver el problema inverso de la TCE.

  10. Uma revisão sobre instrumentos de rastreamento de violência doméstica contra o idoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Montes Paixão Jr.

    Full Text Available Os dados sobre violência contra o idoso são escassos no Brasil. Para estudos adequados sobre a magnitude, fatores de risco e cuidados às vítimas, é necessária documentação sistemática e acurada. Este artigo revisou os instrumentos de rastreamento e avaliação de violência no idoso visando examinar o progresso no contexto internacional e brasileiro. Utilizando as bases de dados MEDLINE, PsycINFO, LILACS, CANE, OVIDs citations e livros de referência, realizou-se uma revisão sistemática da literatura para a seleção dos instrumentos. Fez-se, também, um escrutínio dos estudos de psicometria e utilização dos instrumentos, aplicando-se critérios para avaliar a qualidade dos estudos. Dos dezessete instrumentos encontrados, somente a Conflicts Tactics Scale foi adaptada para o Brasil, ainda que para uso em um grupo etário mais jovem. Alguns outros com boas características psicométricas também foram encontrados, como o Caregiver Abuse Screen, Elder Abuse Assessment Tool, Hwalek Sengstok Abuse Screening Test, Indicators of Abuse Screen, Qualcare scale e Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale. Ainda assim, de forma geral, há lacunas importantes nos processos de concepção, validação e adaptação desses instrumentos no Brasil e no exterior.

  11. Desarrollo y validación de los métodos analíticos para el control de calidad del micocilén polvo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yania Suárez Pérez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El micocilén es un medicamento que se presenta en forma de polvo. Contiene 2 ingredientes farmacéuticos activos: el ácido undecilénico y el undecilinato de zinc. Por su acción fungistática, se ha convertido en un producto de alta demanda en Cuba, ya que las micosis se favorecen en climas cálidos y húmedos. Se realizó el desarrollo y la validación de 2 métodos analíticos para el control de calidad sobre la base de la cuantificación de cada analito presente en la formulación. Se seleccionaron técnicas volumétricas por neutralización acuosa y complejometría. Los resultados fueron satisfactorios, ya que en ambos casos se obtuvo adecuada especificidad, linealidad, exactitud, precisión y robustez. Los métodos propuestos se compararon con los aplicados anteriormente y se obtuvieron resultados mucho más confiables, según resultados del análisis estadístico aplicado, sin diferencias significativas entre las réplicas de un mismo lote.

  12. Entorno educativo para el aprendizaje de fundamentos de electrónica analógica, digital y de potencia

    OpenAIRE

    Áriz Muñoz, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente proyecto es el desarrollo de un cuaderno de prácticas adaptado a la formación que se desea ofrecer en la asignatura “Fundamentos de Electrónica”. Concretamente el proyecto pretende abordar la definición de prácticas de laboratorio que trabajen la capacidad de análisis teórico de circuitos electrónicos y las habilidades necesarias para su montaje y monitorización (manejo de instrumentación de medida, detección de fallos etc. Puesto que se trata del prime...

  13. Un marco analítico de la discriminación laboral. Teorias, modalidades y estudios para Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Baquero, Jairo; Guataquí, Juan; Sarmiento, Lina

    2000-01-01

    Este documento presenta un resumen de las principales corrientes teóricas que han tratado de dar una explicación a la discriminación laboral, asi como una exposición pedagógica de las principales modalidades mediante las cuales dicha discriminación se manifiesta. Se realiza un particular análisis de las consecuencias que dicha discriminación tiene, en particular para el caso de los jóvenes de América Latina, y finalmente se realiza una revisión de los estudios que sobre el tema se han realiza...

  14. Analítica da ambiguidade: estratégia metódica para a pesquisa fenomenológica em saúde Analítica de ambiguedad: estrategia metodica para la investigación fenomenológica en salud Analytic of ambiguity: metodic strategy to the phenomenological research in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edite Lago da Silva Sena

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A estratégia aqui apresentada, denominada Analítica da ambiguidade, vincula-se à necessidade de compreensão dos achados em pesquisas fundamentadas na fenomenologia merleau-pontyana. Ela articulou-se a partir de estudo das descrições vivenciais de dez familiares, integrantes de um Grupo de Ajuda Mútua para cuidadores de portadores de doença de Alzheimer, realizado em uma universidade de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina. Tais descrições se mostraram por meio de entrevista baseada na experiência intercorporal, durante a construção de uma tese de doutorado em Enfermagem. A aplicação da analítica da ambiguidade ao referido estudo coaduna-se com outros estudos de natureza semelhante e abre possibilidades para a compreensão dos achados em pesquisas fenomenológicas, mais especificamente naquelas fundamentadas na ontologia da experiência de Merleau-Ponty, por reconhecer a consciência como algo inapreensível e a percepção, sempre, como um processo ambíguo.La estrategia presentada aquí, llamada Analítica de la ambigüedad, está vinculada a la necesidad de comprensión de los hallazgos en investigaciones basadas en la fenomenología Merleau-pontyana. Ella se articuló a partir del estudio de las descripciones vivenciales de diez familiares, componentes de un Grupo de Ayuda Mutua para cuidadores de pacientes con enfermedad de Alzheimer, realizado en una universidad en Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Estas descripciones se han mostrado a través de entrevistas basadas en la experiencia intercorporal, durante la construcción de una Tesis de Doctorado en Enfermería. La aplicación de la analítica de la ambigüedad al estudio citado es consistente con otros estudios similares y abre posibilidades para la comprensión de los hallazgos en investigaciones fenomenológicas, en particular las basados en la experiencia de la ontología de Merleau-Ponty, por reconocer la conciencia como algo inaprensible y la percepción, siempre

  15. Métodos analíticos necesarios para el desarrollo de tabletas de metformina 500 mg Analytical methods needed for Metformin 500mg tablets development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad M. García Peña

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El clorhidrato de metformina es un derivado de la biguanida usado en la diabetes mellitus no insulina dependiente, reduce la concentración de glucosa sanguínea sin incrementar la secreción de insulina, se considera un agente antihiperglucemiante y no un fármaco hipoglucemiante. El desarrollo tecnológico requiere de métodos analíticos confiables que permitan la cuantificación del fármaco en diferentes etapas de la investigación. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la validación del método analítico, reportado en la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos (USP 31, 2008, por espectrofotometría ultravioleta y la adaptación del método analítico, reportado en la misma farmacopea, para el análisis de los compuestos relacionados en la determinación del principio activo en el producto terminado, por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, validados para el control de la calidad y estudio de estabilidad de las tabletas de metformina 500 mg. A las técnicas validadas, por métodos cromatográficos y espectrofotométricos se le determinaron los parámetros de desempeño, especificidad, linealidad, exactitud y precisión. Las curvas de calibración para cada método, se realizaron en el intervalo de 60 al 140 %, donde fueron lineales con coeficientes de correlación igual a 0,9994 y 0,99903, respectivamente; la prueba estadística para el intercepto y la pendiente se consideró no significativa. Se obtuvieron recobrados de 100,01 y 99,1 %, respectivamente, en el intervalo de concentraciones estudiados y las pruebas de Cochran´(G y Student´s (t resultaron no significativas. Los coeficientes de variación en los estudios de la repetibilidad fueron iguales a 1,4 y 0,8 %, respectivamente, para las 6 réplicas ensayadas, mientras que en los análisis de la precisión intermedia las pruebas de Fischer y Student fueron no significativas. Los resultados permiten concluir que ambos métodos cumplen con los requisitos establecidos como aceptables para

  16. Conhecimento sobre o diagnóstico e rastreamento do câncer de mama entre os ginecologistas do estado de Goiás (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas Júnior Ruffo de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o nível de conhecimento sobre o rastreamento e diagnóstico do câncer de mama entre os ginecologistas do Estado de Goiás, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foi enviado um questionário contendo perguntas sobre a formação profissional e sobre o diagnóstico do câncer de mama, para os 427 sócios da Sociedade Goiana de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia, entre maio e julho de 1999. RESULTADOS: Dos 427 questionários enviados, 26 (6% foram devolvidos por endereçamento incorreto. Dos 401 médicos que receberam o questionário, 85 (21% responderam e retornaram. Destes, 28% eram do sexo feminino, a média do tempo de profissão foi de 17 anos e 70% possuía a residência médica como maior titularidade. A média de idade foi de 44 anos. As taxas de respostas corretas foram: 94% sabiam o sinal mais freqüente do câncer de mama, 75% o melhor método para rastreamento, 88% o período de quando iniciar a mamografia, 93% a periodicidade da mamografia após os 50 anos e 83% sobre a indicação da ultra-sonografia complementar. O fato de o profissional ter cursado um programa de Residência Médica foi o único fator que influenciou na taxa de respostas corretas, se comparado àqueles que não cursaram. O sexo do profissional, portadores de Título de Especialista em ginecologia e obstetrícia (TEGO e a cidade de atuação não influenciaram nas taxas de respostas corretas. CONCLUSÕES: Os ginecologistas do Estado de Goiás que responderam ao questionário têm um bom conhecimento sobre o rastreamento e diagnóstico do câncer de mama, sendo que apenas a Residência Médica influenciou na taxa de respostas corretas.

  17. Técnica analítica para el control de calidad de las tabletas de Ribofen 80 mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Artau Flaifel

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló una técnica para el control de calidad de las tabletas de ribofen, con el empleo de la espectrofotometría UV y la cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, que incluye la identificación, disolución, uniformidad de dosis y valoración. Las tabletas cumplen con los índices de calidad establecidos en la técnica. Se estudió la especificidad, linealidad, precisión, exactitud, y se corroboró la validez de estos parámetros en ambos métodos.A technique for the quality control of ribofen tablets was developed by using UV spectrophotometry and high pressure liquid chromatography, including identification, dissolution, dose uniformity and valuation. Specificity, lineality, precision and accuracy were studied and the validity of these parameters was corroborated in both methods.

  18. Anal acoustic reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J

    2011-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....

  19. Equivalência semântica da versão em português da Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian Version (PCL-C para rastreamento do transtorno de estresse pós-traumático Equivalencia semántica de la versión en portugués de la Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian Version (PCL-C para el rastreo del trastorno de estrés pos-traumático Semantic equivalence of the Portuguese version of the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian Version (PCL-C for the screening of post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Berger

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O transtorno do estresse pós-traumático (TEPT é bastante prevalente, atingindo de 2 a 5% da população em alguns países. Seus portadores apresentam pior qualidade de vida, maior número de detenções e problemas legais, e utilizam os serviços de saúde com maior freqüência quando comparados a indivíduos não acometidos. Apesar do crescimento da violência urbana no Brasil, ainda não dispomos de nenhum instrumento adaptado para nossa língua que seja capaz de rastrear o TEPT. Este artigo pretende traduzir, adaptar e avaliar a aplicabilidade da versão em português da Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian Version (PCL-C, uma escala auto-aplicável amplamente utilizada em todo o mundo para rastreamento do transtorno do estresse pós-traumático. MÉTODOS: A comprovação da equivalência semântica da versão em português da PCL-C foi feita através de quatro etapas: tradução; retradução; apreciação formal de equivalência e adaptação; e interlocução com a população-alvo. RESULTADOS: Foi criada uma versão em português da PCL-C que manteve o significado semântico da versão original e mostrou-se de fácil compreensão e aplicabilidade. DISCUSSÃO: A PCL-C foi escolhida para este estudo por ser um instrumento amplamente utilizado em países de língua inglesa e por possuir outras utilidades além do rastreamento do TEPT. A interlocução com a população-alvo, feita com um número relativamente pequeno de indivíduos (n = 21, mostrou que alguns participantes entenderam o termo "estresse" como uma rotina de vida cansativa. CONCLUSÃO: Uma vez obtida a equivalência semântica da versão em português da PCL-C, estudos posteriores deverão determinar suas características psicométricas para a população brasileira.INTRODUCCÍON: El trastorno de estrés postraumático (TEPT es bastante común, afectando del 2 al 5% de la población en algunos países. Quienes lo padecen presentan una inferior

  20. Construcción y caracterización de un nuevo nebulizador múltiple para técnicas analíticas basadas en plasma (ICP-OES, ICP-MS y MP-AES).

    OpenAIRE

    Lúñez Fernández, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    En la siguiente memoria, se presenta la metodología para la construcción de un nuevo nebulizador múltiple, resultado de una serie de nebulizadores anteriores, los cuales se han ido mejorando para optimizar las características del aerosol generado y con ello los parámetros analíticos de calidad en la espectrometría de emisión atómica con plasma de microondas (MP-AES) y espectrometría de emisión óptica con plasma de acoplamiento inductivo (ICP-OES). Este nuevo nebulizador multiconducto presenta...

  1. Nuevas estrategias analíticas para el control de aldehídos como subproductos de desinfección de aguas por cromatrografía de líquidos y electroforesis capilar

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Molina, José María

    2015-01-01

    El desarrollo de metodologías analíticas para la identificación y determinación de compuestos químicos que se originan tras la desinfección del agua (subproductos de desinfección, DBPs) es el principal objetivo de nuestro Grupo de Investigación [1,2,3]. En esta Tesis Doctoral se aborda, dentro de estos DBPs, el estudio de compuestos carbonílicos, fundamentalmente aldehídos aromáticos derivados del benzaldehído, dado que constituyen un grupo de contaminantes emergentes no regulados para los cu...

  2. Modelos analíticos para avaliação de sistemas flexíveis de manufatura Analytical models to evaluation of flexible manufacturing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto dos Santos Passos

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, a indústria de manufatura tem sido marcada profundamente pela introdução de novas tecnologias, as quais têm modificado os conceitos de produção. Aumento dos índices de produtividade, acompanhado por alta qualidade, são fatores que mostram a importância destas tecnologias na indústria atual. Os sistemas flexíveis da manufatura - FMS - são exemplos destas novas tecnologias. A complexidade destes sistemas cria a necessidade de se ter ferramentas que permitam a avaliação do seu desempenho. Neste artigo são discutidos aspectos relacionados a medidas de desempenho de sistemas FMS, para ajudar a tomada de decisão. Atenção especial é dada à utilização de modelos analíticos, na forma de redes de filas fechadas. Aspectos da implementação de um modelo simples de um FMS, usando modelos de redes de fila, são apresentados e os resultados das medidas de avaliação são discutidos.In the last decades, the manufacturing industry has been a deep transformation due the introduction of new technologies into the production system. Better improvement in the productivity and quality aspect show the importance of these technologies in modern industry. The FMS is a good example of this. The complexity of these systems creates the necessity for tools that permit to evaluate their performance. In this paper, aspects concerned to performance of the FMS systems to help a decision-maker are discussed. Special attention is given to queuing network model to evaluate design and operation of FMS. Aspects concerned to implementation of a simple model of FMS system are discussed and some results of the evaluation performance of the system using a queuing network are presented.

  3. Gobernanza en salud: un aporte conceptual y analítico para la investigación Governance in health: a conceptual and analytical approach to research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Hufty

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Existe una notoria ausencia de coherencia conceptual en el uso de los términos gobernabilidad y gobernanza (considerado sinónimo de "gobernancia" en América Latina, tanto en ciencias sociales y políticas, como en el dominio de la salud. Esto se expresa con mayor fuerza en una diferente comprensión del término gobernanza por parte de los investigadores, un uso heterogéneo en ámbitos académicos, su desconocimiento por parte de los tomadores de decisión, y una gran confusión y ambigüedad de significados en su uso por parte de unos y de otros. En contraposición al uso predominante de carácter normativo, promocionado por parte de la mayoría de las agencias internacionales, se propone aquí el desarrollo y aplicación de un marco conceptual-analítico de gobernanza para la investigación en sistemas y servicios de salud. Los avances en el diseño del marco metodológico fueron aplicados en una investigación de evaluación del Seguro Público de Salud de Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Ello permitió valorar su utilidad como herramienta para sistematizar la complejidad social, política e institucional de los procesos de formulación e implementación de las políticas de salud.In the Latin American region there is a notable absence of conceptual coherency in the use of the terms governability and governance. This is true for their application to both the social and political sciences and health. Researchers' understanding of governance varies, and the concept is used heterogeneously within academic circles, with ignorance of the term on the part of decision-makers and great confusion and ambiguity in the meanings used by researchers and decision-makers in the health sector. Instead of the prevailing normative use, promoted by most international agencies, a conceptual and analytical framework for governance is proposed here for health systems and services research. Advances in the design of this framework were used to evaluate the

  4. Validación del método analítico para el control de la calidad y estudio de estabilidad de ketotifeno colirio 0,025 %

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenilen Troche Concepción

    Full Text Available El colirio de ketotifeno se indica para aliviar los signos y síntomas de las conjuntivitis alérgicas, por ser este un potente antihistamínico H1 que muestra cierta capacidad para inhibir la liberación de histamina y otros mediadores en mastocitos. En este trabajo se desarrolló y validó un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, para el control de la calidad y los estudios de estabilidad del ketotifeno colirio 0,025 %. El método se basó en la separación del principio activo a través una columna cromatográfica Lichrosorb RP-18 (5 µm (250 x 4 mm, con detección ultravioleta a 296 nm, para lo cual se empleó una fase móvil compuesta por una mezcla desgasificada de metanol:buffer fosfato (75:25; pH 8,5 y se le añadió 1 mL de isopropanol por cada 1 000 mL de la mezcla anterior, con una velocidad de flujo de 1,2 mL/min. El método analítico resultó lineal, preciso, específico y exacto en el intervalo de concentraciones estudiadas.

  5. Rastreamento e contagem de peixes utilizando filtro preditivo

    OpenAIRE

    Erikson Freitas de Morais

    2005-01-01

    Este trabalho aborda o problema de se estimar o número de peixes que nadam através de mecanismos de transposição, também conhecidos como escadas de peixes. Este mecanismos são construídos com o objetivo de auxiliar os peixes em seus processos migratórios para desova, fenômeno este conhecido no Brasil como Piracema. O sistema de contagem de peixes proposto neste trabalho juntamente com um módulo complementar para classificação das espécies de peixes, compõe um sistema mais amplo cujo objetivo ...

  6. Dificultades para incorporar la telemedicina en las organizaciones sanitarias: perspectivas analíticas Difficulties of incorporating telemedicine in health organizations: analytical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Roig

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Las transformaciones socioeconómicas que caracterizan el final del siglo XX y los inicios del XXI plantean importantes retos a los sistemas de salud, especialmente en las sociedades occidentales, con sistemas altamente tecnificados y una población cuya esperanza de vida aumenta de forma progresiva en un escenario de permanente esfuerzo de contención del gasto sanitario. La incorporación de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en la sanidad, la «e-Salud», ha generado enormes expectativas como instrumento para hacer frente a esos retos. La telemedicina ha sido una de las experiencias pioneras, pero a pesar de su temprano inicio y de los esfuerzos invertidos, su extensión definitiva sigue siendo difícil y cuestionada. La mayoría de los proyectos no van más allá de la fase inicial de viabilidad y luego quedan abandonados. El modelo tradicional de evaluación de las tecnologías médicas explica este hecho a partir de la dificultad de obtener la evidencia necesaria para avalar una adopción generalizada de la telemedicina, como consecuencia de los problemas que supone la aplicación de la metodología habitual de los estudios de eficacia clínica y coste-efectividad. En los últimos años ha surgido una aproximación analítica diferente, que mantiene que la consolidación o no de los proyectos de telemedicina será el resultado de la interacción de la tecnología y el entorno en que se aplica, y no sólo de sus resultados clínicos, lo que apunta la necesidad de profundizar en el conocimiento empírico de esos procesos de interacción para poder avanzar en la extensión de la telemedicina.Socioeconomic transformations at the end of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twentyfirst century pose major challenges to health systems, particularly to western societies with high technological systems and an aging population, in a political context of health expense reduction. The incorporation of information and

  7. Rastreamento do câncer de mama: aspectos relacionados ao médico Breast cancer screening: physicians related issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodrigues Godinho

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Reconhecer as características dos médicos do Estado de Goiás, suas condutas, crenças, opiniões e conhecimentos sobre câncer de mama. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram enviados 592 questionários aos ginecologistas, mastologistas e geriatras de Goiás. Os principais aspectos pesquisados foram: 1 - características sócio-demográficas (sexo, idade, ano de formatura, atuação em serviços públicos ou particulares; 2 - capacidade de reconhecimento dos fatores de risco para câncer de mama; 3 - atividades educativas desenvolvidas pelos médicos; 4 - percepção de elementos limitadores ao rastreamento; 5 - perguntas genéricas. RESULTADOS: Os questionários respondidos totalizaram 105 (21,2%; 70,5% dos médicos eram do sexo masculino; idade média de 43,9 anos (26 a 70 anos; 73,5% tinham menos de 20 anos de formado; 88,6% ginecologistas, 4,8% ginecologistas/mastologistas, 3,8% mastologistas, 2,8% geriatras; 62,5% atuavam na rede pública e particular simultaneamente. Apenas 13,3% identificaram os cinco fatores de risco apresentados. Cerca de 95% responderam ter participado de cursos de atualização nos dois anos que antecederam a pesquisa. Outros resultados serão apresentados. CONCLUSÕES: As recomendações sobre rastreamento do câncer de mama pareceram pouco claras aos médicos. As respostas sobre atividades educativas mostraram-se algumas vezes conflitantes. As crenças e opiniões sobre rastreamento foram bastante positivas. Escassez de equipamentos e custo do exame foram identificados como obstáculos ao rastreamento do câncer de mama.OBJECTIVE: To identify the characteristics of physicians in the State of Goiás, Brazil, regarding patient management, beliefs, opinions and knowledge about breast cancer. MATERIALS END METHODS: A total of 592 questionnaires were mailed to gynecologists, mastologists and geriatricians. The survey covered the following main aspects: 1 - socio-demographic characteristics (sex, age, year of graduation

  8. La introducción de la actividad dirigida en la enseñanza de la electrónica analógica para estudiantes del grado de Electrónica Industrial y Automática

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez García, Herminio; Domingo Peña, Joan; Grau Saldes, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    A pesar del indiscutible avance y desarrollo de la electrónica y los sistemas digitales, es bien cierto que la electrónica analógica, y especial aquélla que incide directamente en el amplificador operacional realimentado en tensión y sus aplicaciones, es uno de los pilares fundamentales sobre los que se asientan los modernos planes de estudio para estudiantes de electrónica en diferentes ámbitos de la ingeniería (industrial, telecomunicaciones, etc.). Dentro de la oferta de ...

  9. Formulação analítica de um elemento de barra para o cálculo elastoplástico de estruturas de aço porticadas planas

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, A. M.; Muzeau, J. P.

    2007-01-01

    O presente trabalho apresenta as bases do desenvolvimento de um modelo analítico para o cálculo dos deslocamentos (rotação, flecha e deslocamento axial) numa secção transversal qualquer de uma viga de aço submetida a uma força axial constante e a um momento flector em cada uma das suas extremidades. Entre outras aplicações, este modelo permite efectuar o cálculo directo dos deslocamentos nodais no referencial local de um elemento de viga inserido numa estrutura, em regime elástico ou elastopl...

  10. Por que a prevalência de resultados citopatológicos do rastreamento do câncer do colo do útero pode variar significativamente entre duas regiões do Brasil?

    OpenAIRE

    Discacciati,Michelle Garcia; Barboza,Bárbara Maria Santos; Zeferino,Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar a prevalência dos resultados citopatológicos empregados para o rastreamento do câncer do colo do útero em relação à faixa etária da mulher e ao tempo de realização do último exame, no Rio de Janeiro e Maceió, pelo Sistema Único de Saúde.MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas as informações do Sistema de Informação do Câncer do Colo do Útero referentes aos resultados dos exames citopatológicos realizados em 2011, que totalizaram 206.550 para Rio de Janeiro e 45.243 para Maceió.RESULTADOS...

  11. Movimento analítico-hermenêutico heideggeriano: possibilidade metodológica para a pesquisa em enfermagem Movimiento analítico-hermenéutico heideggeriano: posibilidad metodológica para la investigación en enfermería Analytical movement - Heideggerian hermeneutics: methodological possibility for nursing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Cardoso de Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se descrever o movimento analítico-hermenêutico aplicado em investigações com a criança que tem a Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida por transmissão vertical e que está em transição da infância para a adolescência, sustentada no referencial teórico-filosófico-metodológico heideggeriano. Os modos de condução da etapa de análise são descritos, desde o questionamento de pesquisa até a análise interpretativa dos significados, culminando na proposição das possibilidades assistenciais no cuidado à população do estudo. Este referencial mostra-se coerente com os princípios humanísticos da Enfermagem e com seu objeto de estudo e contribui para aproximação entre a teoria e a prática do cuidado, por meio da compreensão dos fenômenos que permeiam o vivido de saúde das pessoas, das famílias e da sociedade.Este estudio tuvo como objetivos describir el movimiento analítico-hermenéutico aplicado en investigaciones con un niño que tiene el Síndrome de la Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida por transmisión vertical y que está en transición de la infancia hacia la adolescencia, sustentada en el referencial teórico-filosófico-metodológico heideggeriano. Los modos de conducción de la etapa de análisis son descritos, desde el cuestionamiento de investigación hasta el análisis interpretativo de los significados, culminando en la proposición de las posibilidades asistenciales en el cuidado a la población del estudio. Este referencial se mostró coherente con los principios humanísticos de la Enfermería y con su objeto de estudio y contribuye para la aproximación entre la teoría y la práctica del cuidado, por medio de la comprensión de los fenómenos que permean lo vivido de salud de las personas, las familias y la sociedad.The objective was to describe the analytic-hermeneutic movement applied in investigations with the child who had Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome by vertical transmission, and who is

  12. Validación de un método analítico alternativo para la cuantificación de hidralazina en un inyectable de 20 mg/mL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Martínez Miranda

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un método analítico por espectrofotometría ultravioleta para la cuantificación de hidralazina en un inyectable de 20 mg/mL. En la validación se evaluaron los parámetros de especificidad para estos fines, linealidad del sistema, exactitud y precisión expresada en sus 2 formas, repetibilidad y reproducibilidad. El método analítico resultó ser sencillo y rápido, además de específico, lineal, preciso, exacto en el rango de concentraciones estudiadas.An analytical method was developed by ultraviolet spectrophotometry to quantify hydralazine in an injection of 20 mg/mL. In the validation, the parameters of specificity to these ends, lineality of the system, accuracy and precision expressed in its 2 forms, repeatablity and reproducibility, were evaluated. The analytical method proved to be simple, fast, linear, accurate and exact in the range of the studied concentrations.

  13. Validação de método analítico para doseamento de flavonoides totais em cápsulas contendo extrato seco de Passiflora incarnata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ziliotto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver e validar metodologia analítica por espectrofotometria no UV para a quantificação de flavonóides totais, expressos em vitexina, em cápsulas contendo extrato seco de Passiflora incarnata L. O método foi desenvolvido a partir da metodologia de doseamento de flavonóides totais descrita na monografia do extrato seco de P. incarnata L, disponível na Farmacopeia Britânica (2010. A validação da metodologia analítica de doseamento foi realizada de acordo com a Anvisa RE N° 899/2003 e diretrizes da International Conference on Harmonization. O método mostrou-se seletivo, pois não houve interferência dos adjuvantes na leitura das absorbâncias nas soluções analisadas. Apresentou coeficiente de correlação linear (r de 0,9999, confirmando a linearidade do método. Os valores de desvio padrão relativo, obtidos tanto para precisão, nos níveis de repetibilidade e precisão intermediária, quanto para exatidão não excederam o máximo de 15% determinado nos critérios de aceitação para métodos bioanalíticos, considerando a complexidade da matéria-prima vegetal.

  14. Identificação de ponto de corte no nível sérico da alanina aminotransferase para rastreamento da hepatite C em pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica em hemodiálise Identification of the cutoff value for serum alanine aminotransferase in hepatitis C screening of patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericson Cavalcanti Gouveia

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica em hemodiálise apresentam níveis séricos mais baixos de alanina aminotransferase. Para estabelecer melhor ponto de corte nos níveis de ALT, no diagnóstico da hepatite C, avaliaram-se mensalmente, durante 6 meses os níveis desta enzima em 235 pacientes em hemodiálise, sendo excluídos aqueles que apresentassem média acima do limite superior da normalidade. O ponto de corte foi identificado através da construção de curva ROC. Entre 202 pacientes, 15 (7,4% apresentavam anti-VHC positivo e 187 (92,6% negativo, com média de ALT de 0,7 e de 0,5 do limite superior (p The patients with chronic renal failure in hemodialysis present low levels of serum alanine aminotransferases. In order to establish a better cutoff value for ALT in hepatitis C screening of hemodialysis patients, the ALT levels were measured monthly in 235 patients, being excluded those that presented average above the upper limit of normality. The cutoff value was identified by construction of a ROC curve (receiver operating characteristic. Among 202 patients, 15 (7.4% presented antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV and 187 (92.6% were anti-HCV negative , with an ALT average of 0.7 and of 0.5 from ULN (p <0.0001, respectively. The better cutoff value for ALT was at 0.6 from ULN, with sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 75% in anti-HCV screening. These results suggest that ULN of ALT could be reduced for 60% from conventional limit, when we are evaluating patients with CRF in hemodialysis.

  15. Validación del método analítico para la determinación de 3 vitaminas hidrosolubles en un suplemento vitamínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iverlis Díaz Polanco

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la validación de un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, para la determinación de tiamina mononitrato, piridoxina clorhidrato y nicotinamida en el suplemento nutricional neovitamin II, el cual se diseñó para separar las vitaminas entre sí, con la utilización de una columna RP-18 de 25 cm y un detector UV-Visible. Dicho método se empleó para el control de la calidad y la estabilidad de este producto. El método fue validado siguiendo una metodología de trabajo elaborada previamente en un Protocolo de Validación, donde se analizaron diferentes parámetros como son: linealidad, exactitud, precisión, selectividad, límites de detección y cuantificación, adecuación del sistema y estabilidad de las soluciones. Se obtuvieron resultados satisfactorios y se comprobó de esta forma la validez del método analítico.The results obtained in the validation of an anlytical method by high resolution liquid chromatography for the determination of thiamine mononitrate, pyridoxine hydrochloride and nicotinamide in the Neovitamin dietary supplement are presented. It was designed to separate vitamins among themselves, using a RP-18 column of 25 cm and a UV Visible detector. This method was used for controlling the quality and stability of the product. This method was validated according to a working methodology that was previously prepared in a Validation Protocol where paramaters such as lineality, accuracy, precision, selectivity, limits of detection and quantitation, system adequacy and the solution stability were analyzed. The results were satisfactory and the validity of the analytical method was proved.

  16. Comparação entre dois testes de rastreamento do diabetes gestacional e o resultado perinatal Comparison between two gestational diabetes screening tests and the perinatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Ayach

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar dois testes de rastreamento para diabetes e seus resultados com o resultado da gestação. MÉTODOS: no total, 279 pacientes foram submetidas a dois testes de rastreamento do diabetes gestacional - associação glicemia de jejum e fatores de risco (GJ + FR e o teste de tolerância à glicose simplificado (TTG50g. O rastreamento pela associação GJ + FR caracterizou-se pela dosagem da glicemia de jejum e anamnese para identificação dos fatores de risco na primeira consulta de pré-natal. O TTG50g foi realizado entre a 24ª e a 28ª semana de gestação e caracterizou-se pela dosagem das glicemias plasmáticas em jejum e uma hora após a sobrecarga oral com 50 g de glicose. Os resultados, positivo e negativo, foram relacionados ao resultado da gestação. Foram consideradas variáveis dependentes: via de parto, idade gestacional, peso e índice ponderal ao nascimento, índices de Apgar PURPOSE: to compare two screening tests for diabetes and their results to pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: in total, 279 pregnant women were submitted to two screening tests for gestational diabetes - fasting glycemia plus risk factors (FG + RF and to the simplified glucose tolerance test (GTT50g. Screening by FG + RF consisted of the determination of fasting glycemia and anamnesis for the identification of risk factors on the occasion of the first prenatal visit. The GTT50g was performed between the 24th and the 28th week of pregnancy and consisted of the determination of plasma glycemia under fasting conditions and one hour after an oral overload with 50 g glucose. Positive and negative results were compared to pregnancy outcome. The dependent variables were: type of delivery, gestational age, weight and ponderal index at birth, Apgar indexes <7 in the 1st and 5th minutes, need for admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU, duration of hospitalization, and neonatal death. Data were analyzed statistically through the Students t-test, and the level

  17. Rastreamento de resultados adversos nas internações do Sistema Único de Saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Aguilar Estevam Dias

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a frequência de rastreadores de potenciais resultados adversos em internações no Sistema Único de Saúde. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, incluindo as internações de adultos na clínica médica (n = 3.565.811 e clínica cirúrgica (n = 2.614.048 no Brasil em 2007. O Sistema de Informações Hospitalares foi utilizado como fonte de informação. A mensuração dos resultados adversos baseou-se no rastreamento de 11 condições clínicas, definidas em estudos internacionais anteriores, registradas no campo diagnóstico secundário. Foram realizadas análises bivariada e multivariada, no intuito de associar resultado adverso, óbito (variável dependente e outras variáveis como idade, utilização de unidade de terapia intensiva e realização de cirurgia. RESULTADOS: A frequência obtida foi 3,6 potenciais resultados adversos por 1.000 internações para ambas as clínicas, superior na clínica médica (5,3 por 1.000 em relação à clínica cirúrgica (1,3 por 1.000. Houve diferenças no perfil das internações: na clínica médica predominaram idosos, maior tempo médio de permanência, maior taxa de mortalidade e menor custo total de internação. O rastreador de resultado adverso mais frequente foi pneumonia hospitalar. Choque/parada cardíaca apresentou maior risco de óbito (OR = 5,76 em relação aos demais resultados adversos. Os maiores gastos com internações estiveram relacionados à sepse hospitalar. Os rastreadores de potencial resultado adverso apresentaram altas chances de óbito, mesmo com a introdução de variáveis como uso de terapia intensiva e realização de cirurgia. CONCLUSÕES: A alta frequência de resultados adversos em internações indica a necessidade de desenvolver estratégias de monitoramento e melhorias dirigidas para a segurança do paciente.

  18. Uma contribuição para a construção de instrumentos analítico-sintéticos de representação do conhecimento

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    Lígia Café

    Full Text Available Foram investigados critérios lingüísticos adotados em modelos de representação do conhecimento para a recuperação da informação. Para isso, a validação do modelo de predicação sintático-semântico proposto por Café (1999 foi testada, para a construção de sistemas analítico-sintéticos de representação do conhecimento. Aplicou-se, de forma experimental, esse modelo de predicação na construção de esquemas de representação do conhecimento, usando-se, para isso, do corpus recolhido da terminologia específica da Biotecnologia de Plantas, com o intuito de identificar as relações conceituais nele existentes e a determinação de suas facetas. Observou-se, na pesquisa, que algumas regras se firmaram como constantes no decorrer das análises, revelando a constituição de padrões científicos precisos de classificação. Além disso, percebeu-se tanto a ocorrência de resultados qualitativos, quanto a de resultados quantitativos a respeito da interpretação referente ao corpus. Tratou-se dos mesmos aspectos em ambos, proporcionando, assim, uma análise densa dos dados. Dessa forma, pela adoção do modelo é possível identificar as relações conceituais, e determinar as categorias fundamentais, as facetas e os seus indicadores, indispensáveis na construção de classificações analítico-sintéticas. Concluiu-se que a interpretação do corpus analisado resulta na validação da proposta de Café (1999 como um modelo de predicação para a aplicação em instrumentos de representação do conhecimento voltados para a recuperação da informação.

  19. Método analítico para la determinación de protirelina por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro S Padrón Yaquis

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un método analítico para el control de la calidad y estudio de estabilidad de protirelina inyectable. Se realizó el análisis por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, con la utilización de un sistema isocrático de buffer fosfato-metanol (85:15 como fase móvil y una columna Lichrosorb RP-18 de 250 x 4 mm de 5 mm y detección ultravioleta, a una longitud de onda de 210 nm. El método analítico resultó ser lineal, preciso, exacto y específico en el rango de concentraciones estudiadas.An analytical for the quality control and stability study of injectable protirelin was developed. The analysis was made by high pressure liquid chromatography with the utilization of an isocratic system of phosphate-methanol buffer (85:15 as a mobile phase and a Lichrosorb RP-18 column of 250 x 4 mm of 5 mm and ultraviolet detection at a wave length of 210 nm. The analytical method proved to be lineal, precise, accurate and specific in the range of studied concentrations.

  20. Desarrollo de metodología analítica para la determinación de contaminantes basada en el cálculo por deconvolución de perfiles isotópicos

    OpenAIRE

    Fabregat Cabello, Neus

    2015-01-01

    El análisis por dilución isotópica y espectrometría de masas (IDMS) es reconocido como una de las técnicas más potentes para obtener resultados altamente fiables y de gran calidad metrológica en el campo de la química analítica. IDMS destaca como la forma de cuantificación más adecuada ante determinaciones realizadas en matrices de alta complejidad, siendo por ello ampliamente utilizado durante el acoplamiento de las técnicas de cromatografía a la espectrometría de masas. Además IDMS también ...

  1. Litiasis renal oxalocálcica. Avances en la comprensión de su etiología y mejoras en la metodología analítica para su estudio

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Martínez, José Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX A la portada: Unitat de Química Analítica, Centre Grup de Tècniques de Separació en Química Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada La urolitiasis es una enfermedad común, que afectará al 12% de la población de la Unión Europea a lo largo de su vida, caracterizada por una alta prevalencia e incidencia, alta morbilidad y altas tasas de recurrencia. Hoy en día, se acepta un origen multifactorial para el proceso litógeno: el fenómeno central corresponde a la s...

  2. Marcha Analítica o Sistemática para la Determinación de Cationes y Aniones. Examen Analítico de los Aniones en una Solución.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durán A. Antonio

    1941-06-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la investigación de los ácidos o aniones no es tan sistematizado como el de los metales o cationes: sin embargo, suelen tener reacciones características, por las cuales, aun cuando unos estén en presencia de otros, no es difícil descubrirlos. Con todo, se pueden presentar algunos casos particulares: por ejemplo, la mezcla de ácidos derivados del mismo metaloide, como los derivados del azufre, que todos dan la reacción del hépar; o de algunos, que presentan reacciones muy parecidas, como los de la familia de los hidrácidos halogenados, que ofrecen alguna dificultad, cuando se quieren caracterizar, sin separarlos. En estos casos bastan pequeñas marchas sistemáticas parciales, para poderlos determinar.

  3. Anal Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anal cancer cases have been increasing over several decades. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major risk factor for anal cancer. Start here to find information on anal cancer treatment, causes and prevention, research, and statistics.

  4. O rastreamento ambiental nas micro e pequenas empresas(MPE’s: uma análise exploratória à luz do modelo de organizações como sistemasinterpretativos de Daft e Weick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Blanco Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalhoinvestiga como MPE’s realizam o rastreamento ambiental, tendo como referência omodelo de Daft e Weick (1984, 2007. Trata-se de uma pesquisa exploratória apoiadano paradigma interpretativista. A coleta de dados deu-se por meio deentrevistas semiestruturadas. Os entrevistados veem o ambiente de formaambígua, tendendo para hostil; os clientes são a principal fonte de informaçãosobre o ambiente, emergindo outras fontes não previstas: associações e internet.Com tendência a uma visão de ambiente não analisável e intrusão ativa, as MPE’sestudadas tendem à modalidade criação (enacting, mas muitas vezes,apresentam-se também na modalidade visão não dirigida.

  5. Estratégia analítica para determinação de nitrito e amônia empregando spot test e análise de imagem digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. O. Santos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é proposta uma estratégia simples para determinação simultânea de nitrito e amônia empregando spot test e imagem digital. O método é baseado na reação do nitrito com a sulfanilamida, formando um cátion de diazônio que posteriormente é acoplado ao dicloreto de N-(1-nafitil etilenodiamina formando uma diazo composto de coloração rósea. A determinação da amônia foi realizada empregando a reação de berthelot modificada, onde o íon amônio em presença de salicilato, nitroprussiato e hipoclorito reage formando um composto de coloração verde. Os sinais analíticos foram obtidos a partir das intensidades de coloração por imagem digital no spot test do produto da reação. Após otimizações do sistema de análise e detecção, as seguintes figuras de mérito foram obtidas: concentração linear entre 0,2 a 10,0 mg L-1 para nitrito e 1,0 a 10,0 mg L-1 para a amônia. Os limites de detecção para o nitrito e amônia foram 0,05 mg L-1 e 0,27 mg L-1, respectivamente. A estratégia proposta foi aplicada com sucesso na determinação de nitrito e amônia em amostras de água subterrânea da zona urbana da cidade de Barreiras-Ba.

  6. Modelo analítico rizomático para el estudio de los efectos de las políticas educativas regionales en la experiencia escolar cotidiana: las perspectivas de Rockwell, Bourdieu y Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Lorena Lagoria

    Full Text Available Resumen: La escuela cotidiana se comprende en parte por un particular trasfondo que tiñe toda la experiencia que allí se desarrolla. Ese trasfondo lo constituye la cultura escolar. En su construcción intervienen tanto prácticas internas como externas a la escuela, entre ellas, las políticas educativas. La influencia de las políticas educativas regionales sobre la conformación de la cultura institucional en el devenir del cotidiano escolar se plantea como un interesante y complejo objeto a desentrañar. Para emprender ese camino es importante construir una base teórica consistente a partir de la conjunción de diferentes fuentes. En términos de Tello (2015, esto implica concebir un sustento teórico rizomático como base para analizar la cultura escolar en el marco de la “escuela cotidiana” (Rockwell, 2000. En definitiva, lo que planteamos aquí es la necesidad de construir un eje epistemológico potente para hacer inteligibles los efectos de las políticas educativas en el cotidiano escolar. En ese sentido, el presente trabajo se propone interrelacionar un conjunto de perspectivas teóricas a modo de red, para comprender un aspecto intrínseco de la escuela: los efectos de las políticas educativas en la cultura institucional. En primer lugar, definimos qué entendemos por cultura y cultura institucional. A continuación proponemos nuestro modelo analítico rizomático, integrando los aportes teóricos de Rockwell, Bourdieu y Ball. Finalmente, en las conclusiones, realizamos una breve integración de las ideas expuestas en el cuerpo de este trabajo.

  7. Comportamiento de aceites poliinsaturados en la preparación de patatas fritas para consumo inmediato: Formación de nuevos compuestos y comparación de métodos analíticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masson, L.

    1997-10-01

    de hidrólisis cuya presencia es difícil de explicar. A partir de las correlaciones existentes entre métodos analíticos se puede deducir que, en este sector, la acidez libre y el porcentaje de dienos conjugados (o viscosidad, son útiles para predecir las cantidades de los principales grupos de nuevos compuestos presentes en los aceites de fritura poliinsaturados.

  8. Variables pre-analíticas que afectan las concentraciones de homocisteína: Aplicación para Biobancos con fines de investigación

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    Norma Serrano Díaz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El presente estudio evaluó el impacto de las variables pre-analíticas sobre las concentraciones séricas de la Homocisteína, y su posible aplicación en biobancos con fines de investigación. Metodología: En diez adultos voluntarios auto declarados sanos, se tomaron muestras de sangre periférica bajo diferentes condiciones de ayuno, posición de toma de la muestra (supino versus sentada y diferentes intervalos de tiempo entre la toma y la separación definitiva de componentes. Todas las alícuotas fueron almacenadas a -800C en el biobanco hasta el momento de ser procesadas. La medición de homocisteína se hizo por duplicado en Immulite® 2000. Se realizó análisis de concordancia por medio de coeficiente de Lin (σ y MANOVA. Resultados: La medición de homocisteína es altamente reproducible (σ=0.908, IC95% 0.861 a 0.955, sin que el ayuno o el tiempo de centrifugación de la muestra afecte su concentración. Sin embrago, la posición al momento de la toma de muestra, implica una reducción media de 14.2% (IC95% 8.4% a 20.0% en la concentración de Homocisteína en poción decúbito supino versus la toma en posición sentado. Conclusión: La homocisteína es un biomarcador estable, sin que su valor se vea alterado por variables pre-analíticas como los tiempos entre toma de muestra, centrifugación y separación de componentes (almacenamiento temporal a 4°C. Sin embargo la postura del participante al momento de la toma de muestra produce una variabilidad significativa. Estos hallazgos reiteran el papel de un biobanco en la estandarización de los procesos de toma, manipulación, almacenamiento y gestión con criterios de excelencia.

  9. Organization of cervical cancer screening in Campinas and surrounding region, São Paulo State, Brazil Organização do rastreamento do câncer do colo uterino em Campinas e região, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Zeferino

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer screening remains a challenge in developing countries due to a complex array of problems. This paper aimed to describe the experience with organization of cervical cancer screening in three districts of Campinas and the surrounding region in São Paulo State, Brazil, and to report the resulting data. The program was organized in a pyramid format, and the health care hierarchy was defined according to the complexity and total number of medical procedures. Screening has been extended currently to 88 municipalities, of which 51 are equipped with colposcopy and eight have facilities for treating advanced cervical cancer. The standardized incidence rate for cervical cancer in Campinas was 14.2/100,000 women per year in 1993-1995, and the standardized mortality rate per district ranged from 2.7 to 3.0 per 100,000 women in 1997-1998. This project has clearly shown that hierarchical and decentralized organization of health procedures is a necessary condition for achieving the goals of an effective cervical cancer screening program.O programa de rastreamento do câncer do colo uterino ainda é um desafio para os países em desenvolvimento devido a uma série complexa de problemas. Este estudo objetivou descrever a experiência adquirida com a organização e mostrar alguns dados sobre o rastreamento deste câncer em três distritos de Campinas e região, São Paulo, Brasil. A hierarquia das ações de saúde foi estabelecida de acordo com a complexidade dos procedimentos e do total destes procedimentos que precisavam ser realizados. Atualmente, o rastreamento se estende a 88 municípios, dos quais 51 realizam colposcopia e oito têm serviços para tratar câncer avançado do colo uterino. A taxa de incidência ajustada em Campinas foi de 14,2/100 mil mulheres por ano em 1993-1995, e a taxa de mortalidade ajustada por distrito variou entre 2,7 e 3,0 por 100 mil mulheres em 1997-1998. De acordo com a experiência adquirida, a organiza

  10. Validación del método analítico para la cuantificación de bacitracina Validation of the analytical method to quantify the bacitracine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Velandia-Castellanos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló y validó un método analítico para la determinación cuantitativa de bacitracina zinc al 15 % y bacitracina metilen disalicilato al 11 %, por el método de cilindro en placa (difusión en agar, con el fin de ser usado en el control de calidad de las materias primas y productos farmacéuticos. Se evaluaron los parámetros de especificidad, selectividad, linealidad del sistema, y del método, exactitud, límite de cuantificación y precisión. Mediante el diseño experimental y la evaluación estadística de los resultados, se demostró que el método analítico es específico, selectivo, lineal, preciso (CVAn analytical method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of 15 % zinc bacitracine and 11 % disalicylate methylene-bacitracine by the plate-cylinder method (agar diffusion to be used in quality control of raw products and pharmaceutical products. Specificity, selectivity, system and method linearity, accuracy, quantification and precision parameters were assessed. By the experimental design and the statistic evaluation of results, it was demonstrated that the analytical method is specific, selective, linear, precise (CV< 5 % and exact (bias < 3 %, Gexp< Gtab< t exp< t tab during the study concentrations. The quantification and detection limit was of 0.02 and 0.005 Ul/mL, respectively. The analytical performance characteristics fulfill the requirement for the proposal analytical implementation.

  11. [Acute anal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Olivier; Demartines, Nicolas; Hahnloser, Dieter

    2013-07-01

    Acute anal pain is a common proctological problem. A detailed history together with the clinical examination are crucial for the diagnosis. An acute perianal vein thrombosis can be successfully excised within the first 72 hours. Acute anal fissures are best treated conservatively using stool regulation and topical medications reducing the sphincter spasm. A chronic anal fissure needs surgery. Perianal abscesses can very often be incised and drained in local anesthesia. Proctalgia fugax and the levator ani syndrome are exclusion diagnoses and are treated symptomatically.

  12. Metodologías analíticas para la determinación de metales tóxicos en muestras de interés ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Contreras, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    La determinación de metales pesados en muestras ambientales resulta de interés para la sociedad actual, debido al peligro potencial de intoxicación que estos representan. Dicha determinación, requiere de instrumentos costosos, que hacen que los controles no sean tan frecuentes, ni fáciles como debieran ser. En este trabajo, se presentan alternativas para determinar Cd, Hg y Pb usando técnicas más accesibles. El estudio exploró, en la primera parte, la voltamperometría de redisolución anódica ...

  13. Optimización de metodologías analíticas para la determinación de contaminantes emergentes en aguas de abastecimiento y residuales

    OpenAIRE

    Becerril Bravo, José Elías

    2012-01-01

    Los cuerpos de agua se han utilizado para abastecer a las poblaciones, así como para eliminar sus propios desechos, lo que ha provocado que con el paso del tiempo la cantidad y tipo de residuos que se liberan en los cursos de agua se hayan incrementado y diversificado, con el consecuente deterioro de la calidad original del recurso hídrico. Actualmente, existe un interés creciente por los “contaminantes emergentes” entre los que se encuentran fármacos, productos de cuidado personal, surfactan...

  14. Correlação entre digestibilidade in vitro da parede celular e três métodos analíticos para a avaliação quantitativa da lignina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukushima Romualdo Shigueo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Três métodos analíticos para a estimativa do conteúdo de lignina na parede celular, em diferentes frações vegetais, de sete espécies forrageiras, foram comparados. Os métodos empregados foram: lignina em detergente ácido (LDA, lignina permanganato de potássio e lignina solúvel em brometo de acetila (LSBA. Para o método espectrofotométrico (LSBA, foi utilizado como padrão de referência a lignina extraída da planta através do próprio reagente brometo de acetila. Não houve concordância entre os três métodos, sendo que, no geral, o método da LSBA mostrou valores mais elevados que os outros dois métodos e o método da LDA, menores valores. Na maioria das amostras, a concentração de lignina foi superior para a parede celular oriunda de planta madura em relação àquela proveniente de planta jovem, assim como o teor de lignina foi maior para a fração colmo em relação à fração folha. As leguminosas tenderam a apresentar teores mais elevados de lignina pelos métodos gravimétricos que as gramíneas, independentemente do estádio de maturidade. Entretanto, essa tendência não foi observada para o método LSBA, particularmente no estádio maduro. Preparações de parede celular foram fermentadas in vitro e os dados correlacionados com os teores de lignina obtidos por intermédio dos três métodos. O método LSBA exibiu os menores coeficientes de correlação, para a maioria das amostras, sugerindo que este método deve ser melhor avaliado.

  15. O papel da translucência nucal no rastreamento de cardiopatias congênitas The role of nuchal translucency in the screening for congenital heart defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Frederico Bruns

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a acurácia da medida da translucência nucal (TN entre onze e treze semanas e seis dias como marcador ultra-sonográfico para rastreamento de cardiopatias congênitas (CC. MÉTODOS: Estudo multicêntrico retrospectivo, no qual foram analisadas gestações únicas de fetos euplóides. A medida da TN foi realizada no exame de primeiro trimestre quando os fetos tinham entre 45 e 84 mm de comprimento cabeça-nádega (CCN, segundo os critérios estabelecidos pela Fetal Medicine Foundation. Os casos foram seguidos até um mês após o parto para avaliar a presença de CC. RESULTADOS: Foram analisadas 3.664 gestações, das quais vinte recém-nascidos apresentaram alguma cardiopatia congênita até o primeiro mês de vida (prevalência de 0,55%. A mediana da TN nos fetos com CC foi de 1,70 mm e nos fetos sem CC foi de 1,60 mm; entretanto, não houve diferença significativa entre as duas medianas (Teste de Mann-Whitney, p>0,05. A sensibilidade da TN na detecção de CC variou de 15% a 20%, com probabilidade de falso-positivos de 86,4% a 97,9%, dependendo do ponto de corte utilizado. A razão de chance para CC foi alta, quando comparada com as indicações clássicas de ecocardiografia fetal, variando de 4,7 a 33,7, de acordo com o ponto de corte utilizado. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar da baixa sensibilidade do teste, a TN aumentada é um importante fator de risco para CC, devendo ser incluída na estratégia do seu rastreamento pré-natal.OBJECTIVE: Assess the accuracy of the nuchal translucency (NT measurement between 11 and 13 weeks and 6 days of gestation as a sonographic marker to screen for congenital heart defects (CHD. METHODS: Multicentric retrospective study, analyzing single pregnancies from euploid fetuses. NT measurement was performed in the first trimester, when fetuses had from 45 to 84 mm of crown-rump length (CRL, according to the criteria established by the Fetal Medicine Foundation. Cases were followed until 1 month after

  16. HIV-associated anal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Newsom-Davis, T; Bower, M

    2010-01-01

    HIV-associated anal carcinoma, a non-AIDS-defining cancer, is a human papillomavirus-associated malignancy with a spectrum of preinvasive changes. The standardized incidence ratio for anal cancer in patients with HIV/AIDS is 20-50. Algorithms for anal cancer screening include anal cytology followed by high-resolution anoscopy for those with abnormal findings. Outpatient topical treatments for anal intraepithelial neoplasia include infrared coagulation therapy, trichloroacetic acid, and imiqui...

  17. Valor do interrogatório no rastreamento de infecção chagásica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Gomes Pereira

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho apresenta análise sobre a associação entre interrogatório de picada do barbeiro e resultados da reação de fixação de complemento. O propósito foi estimar, nas condições usuais de funcionamento de um serviço de saúde, o valor diagnóstico do interrogatório sobre picada do barbeiro em infecção chagásica. Só foram incluídos aqueles indivíduos cujos exames laboratoriais estavam confirmados, positivos ou negativos. Foram retirados da análise 259 pessoas com reações divergentes. Na anamnese, ao mesmo tempo que a pergunta sobre antecedentes de picada de inseto era feita, eram mostrados 5 insetos adultos. Os resultados foram os seguintes em 2.154 pessoas: prevalência da infecção pelo exame laboratorial (14,5% e de história positiva de contato com o barbeiro (11,5%. A coincidência de exame e história positivos ocorreu em 2,5% e de ambos negativos em 76,5%, perfazendo um total de concordância de 79% (eficiência do interrogatório. A sensibilidade do interrogatório foi baixa (17,3% e a especificidade alta (89,5%. O valor preditivo de uma história positiva de picada de barbeiro foi de apenas 21,5% e a de história negativa, 86,5%. Esses dados apontam para a pouca utilidade de interrogatórios em rastreamento de infecção chagásica, epoderiam mesmo não serem realizados em bancos de sangue, ao menos que esforços sejam feitos para que a sua precisão seja aumentada.The association between responses to an inquiry about contact with triatomid bugs and the confirmation of infection by complement fixation test is examined in a group of 2.154 cases from a hospital blood bank. The laboratory examination revealed a prevalence of infection of 14,5% and the inquiry a positive contact history of 11,5%. However, positive findings for both methods coincided in only 2,5%, while negative findings coincidedin 76,5%. The total concordance of findings, or the efficacy of the inquiry to correctly indicate the State of infection

  18. Desarrollo de metodologías analíticas para el estudio del metabolismo del azufre utilizando isótopos estables enriquecidos

    OpenAIRE

    Giner Martínez-Sierra, Justo

    2013-01-01

    La alteración intencionada de la composición isotópica de un elemento dado en un organismo vivo permite obtener información metabólica del elemento. La composición isotópica del azufre varía en la naturaleza por lo que para seguir la pista del azufre en un ser vivo utilizando un trazador marcado isotópicamente, la cantidad de trazador metabólico utilizada debe ser lo suficientemente elevada como para alterar la composición isotópica del azufre por encima de los límites de variabilidad natural...

  19. Método analítico para la determinación de etilentiourea (etu subproducto del Mancozeb en un Andisol del Oriente Antioqueño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Domínguez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El Mancozeb (etilenbisditiocarbamato de cinc y manganeso es uno de los fungicidas de mayor uso en Colombia, y esta clasificado en la categoría toxicológica IV. La etilentiourea (ETU es el principal producto de degradación del Mancozeb, estando clasificada en la categoría toxicológica I debido a que es carcinogénico y mutagénico, lo que lo convierte en un compuesto de alto riesgo para la salud de las personas. En el presente trabajo se validó un método de análisis de la ETU utilizando la cromatografía de líquidos (CL con detector de arreglo de diodos (DAD, el cual se usó para la cuantificación de la ETU en suelos del municipio de Marinilla (Oriente de Antioquia. El suelo usado en el análisis de la ETU se determinó como un Acrudoxic Fulvudand medial arcilloso mezclado, isomésico; estos suelos son los más utilizados para la agricultura en el Departamento de Antioquia y en Colombia. El límite de detección del análisis fue 0,00046 mg/L, el límite de cuantificación fue 0,0015 mg/L y el porcentaje de recuperación en el suelo fue 93%.

  20. Dispositivo analítico para compreensão da leitura de diferentes tipos textuais: exemplos referentes à Física Analytical device for reading comprehension of different kinds of texts: examples about Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José P. M. de Almeida

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, articulamos noções que possibilitam a organização de um dispositivo analítico para compreensão de leituras de diferentes tipos de produção. Tecemos considerações sobre essas noções, apoiadas teoricamente na vertente da análise do discurso iniciada por Michel Pêcheux, utilizando, principalmente, publicações realizadas no Brasil por Eni Orlandi. Com o intuito de evidenciar que não se lê da mesma maneira um livro didático, um texto de divulgação científica ou um original de cientista, apresentamos exemplos referentes à Ciência, especificamente à Física. Argumentamos que essas leituras mobilizam diferentes interdiscursos, mesmo que sejam realizadas por um mesmo indivíduo, pois supõem diferentes imaginários.In this paper, we articulate notions that enable the organization of an analytical device for reading comprehension of different types of productions. Our considerations about these notions are based on discourse analysis from Michael Pêcheux through Eni P. Orlandi publications in Brazil. We present examples about Science, particularly Physics, in order to show that coursebooks, scientific popularization or scientists' original publications are not read in the same way. Even if the readings are performed by the same individual, we argue that these readings mobilize different interdiscourses asthey assume different imaginary.

  1. Método analítico para a determinação de meloxicam em plasma humano por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE Determination of meloxicam in human plasma by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Porta

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se e validou-se método analítico simples, rápido e específico para quantificação de meloxicam (inibidor da COX-2 em plasma humano através da cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, para aplicação em estudos de bioequivalência. Piroxicam foi utilizado como padrão interno. Empregou-se cromatografia em fase reversa com coluna modelo Synergi RP-MAX (150 x 4,6 mm, à temperatura de 30 ºC e fase móvel constituída por mistura de acetonitrila e tampão fosfato 0,025 mol/L pH 4,5 (40:60, v/v, a um fluxo de 1,0 mL/min. Os analitos foram detectados por UV a 364 nm. As amostras de plasma foram acidificadas com ácido clorídrico 1 mol/L, extraídas utilizando-se éter terc-butil metílico e, após filtração e secagem, o resíduo foi reconstituído em 250 mL de fase móvel para injeção em CLAE. Os tempos de retenção para meloxicam (padrão e piroxicam (padrão interno foram 3,35 e 4,19 minutos, respectivamente. Este método apresentou linearidade na faixa de concentração entre 50-4000 ng/mL (R² = 0,9995, com limite de quantificação inferior de 50 ng/mL e exatidão de 114%. O método analítico desenvolvido neste trabalho demonstrou especificidade, linearidade, precisão e exatidão adequadas, permitindo sua aplicação em ensaios de bioequivalência.A simple, rapid and specific high-performance liquid cromatographic (HPLC method was developed and validated to estimate meloxicam (COX-2 inhibitor levels in human plasma. Piroxicam was used as internal standard. Reversed phase chromatography was conducted using a Synergi RP-MAX (150 x 4.6 mm column at 30 ºC and a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.025 mol/L pH 4,5 phosphate buffer (40:60, v/v, at a flow rate of 1mL/min. Analytes were detected at 364 nm. Plasma samples were acidified with 1 mol/L hydrochloric acid and extracted with tert-butyl methyl ether, evaporated to dryness, reconstituted in 250 mL of mobile phase and injected in the column. The retention time of

  2. Uma abordagem analítica para detecção de pontos limites e de bifurcação

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    William Taylor Matias Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Neste trabalho descreve-se analiticamente de maneira detalhada a detecção e a classificação de pontos críticos na trajetória primária de equilíbrio de sistemas estruturais. Utiliza-se a Formulação Lagrangiana Total para descrever a cinemática de um elemento de barra biarticulado 2D. Através desta formulação obtém-se o vetor de forças internas e a matriz de rigidez tangente que levam em conta os efeitos da não linearidade geométrica. Assume-se um modelo constitutivo linear elástico para o estado uniaxial de tensão-deformação, usando a deformação de Green-Lagrange e a tensão axial do segundo tensor de Piola-Kirchhoff que são energeticamente conjugados. Como estudo de caso apresenta-se uma treliça plana hiperestática composta com 3 elementos biarticulados 2D e com dois graus de liberdade. Por fim, determinam-se as condições geométricas e físicas para a coalescência entre os pontos limites e de bifurcação. A principal contribuição deste trabalho é demonstrar a necessidade de compreender melhor os fenômenos não lineares para projetar sistemas estruturais mais seguros. ABSTRACT: Using an analytical this paper describes in detail the detection and classification of critical points in the primary equilibrium path of structural systems. The Total Lagrangian formulation is employed to describe the kinematics of a 2D bar element. With this formulation, the internal force vector and the tangent stiffness matrix including the geometric nonlinearity effects are obtained. An elastic linear constitutive model is assumed for the uniaxial stress-strain state. Such model uses the Green-Lagrange strain tensor and the second Piola-Kirchhoff axial stress tensor which are energetically conjugate tensors. As a study case, the article presents a statically inderminate plane truss discretized with three 2D bar elements. Finally, the geometrical and physical conditions for the coalescence between limit and bifurcation points

  3. Validación de los métodos analíticos para la identificación y cuantificación del dextrometorfano jarabe

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Fernández Serret; Yeni Aguilera Cabrera; Iván Morales Lacarrere; Esther Alonso Jiménez

    2002-01-01

    Para realizar el control de la calidad del dextrometorfano jarabe, se aplicó la técnica descrita en la USP 23, y se comprobó la fiabilidad de esta mediante la evaluación de la precisión, exactitud, linealidad y especificidad. Se incluyen además, la determinación de las características organolépticas, pH y contenido por frasco como ensayos propios de medicamentos líquidos de administración oral o de uso externo.The technique described in the USP 23 was applied to carry out the quality control ...

  4. Novas metodologias analíticas para avaliação da eficácia fotoprotetora (in vitro – revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA VALéRIA ROBLES VELASCO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, são utilizadas técnicas in vitro e in vivo para a avaliação do Fator de Proteção Solar (FPS e do Fator de Proteção de UVA (FPA. O presente trabalho propõe a revisão das técnicas para as avaliações desses fatores in vitro preconizadas por FDA (Food and Drug Administration Agency e COLIPA (European Cosmetic, Toiletry and Perfumery Association. O enfoque maior foi direcionado à análise espectrofotométrica de soluções diluídas e à espectrofotometria de reflectância com esfera integrada. Palavras-chave: Espectrofotometria. Fotoproteção. UVA. UVB. Revisão. ABSTRACT New analytical methods for photoprotection effectiveness testing (in vitro – a review Currently, both in vitro and in vivo techniques are used to measure Sun Protection Factor (SPF and UVA Protection Factor (APF. This paper reviews the in vitro techniques to test these factors, recommended by the FDA (USA Food and Drug Administration and COLIPA (European Cosmetic, Toiletry and Perfumery Association. The main focus is on the spectrophotometric analysis of dilute solutions and the use of reflectance spectrophotometry with an integrating sphere. Keywords: Spectrophotometry. Photoprotection. UVA. UVB. Review.

  5. Rastreamento do câncer do colo do útero no Estado do Maranhão, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Diego Salvador Muniz da; Silva, Ana Maria Nogueira; Brito, Luciane Maria Oliveira; Gomes, Sinara Regina Lisboa; Nascimento, Maria do Desterro Soares Brandão; Chein, Maria Bethânia da Costa

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo do estudo foi analisar o rastreamento do câncer do colo do útero no Maranhão, através dos dados do Sistema de Informação do Câncer do Colo do Útero (Siscolo). Foi realizado um estudo descritivo retrospectivo, com dados secundários dos 139.505 exames citopatológicos registrados no Siscolo do Maranhão, no ano de 2011. As variáveis: idade, escolaridade, adequabilidade do material, epitélios representados, microbiologia e alterações celulares detectadas ao exame citopatológico foram se...

  6. Validación de los métodos analíticos para la identificación y cuantificación del dextrometorfano jarabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Fernández Serret

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Para realizar el control de la calidad del dextrometorfano jarabe, se aplicó la técnica descrita en la USP 23, y se comprobó la fiabilidad de esta mediante la evaluación de la precisión, exactitud, linealidad y especificidad. Se incluyen además, la determinación de las características organolépticas, pH y contenido por frasco como ensayos propios de medicamentos líquidos de administración oral o de uso externo.The technique described in the USP 23 was applied to carry out the quality control of the dextrometorphan syrup . The reliability of this method was proved by evaluating the accuracy, exactitude, lineality and specificity. The determination of the organoleptic characteristics, pH and content per bottle were also included as own trials of liquid drugs for oral adminstration or for external use.

  7. Modelo de inteligencia de negocios y analítica en la nube para pymes del sector retail en Perú

    OpenAIRE

    López Inga, Milton Elvis; Guerrero Huaranga, Ricardo Martín

    2018-01-01

    Introducción: Este artículo es producto de la investigación realizada en el año 2016 como proyecto de grado de la facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC) en Lima, Perú. Problemática: Las investigaciones revisadas determinan que las PYMES retail peruanas tienen un índice alto de necesidad de información para la toma de decisiones en materia de planificación y gestión de inventarios. Objetivo: Diseñar un modelo tecnológico que permita la implementación de un...

  8. Aplicação da técnica de Estrutura Analítica de projeto para o sub-projeto do Catálogo de Sites da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde: Enfermagem Aplicación de la técnica de Estructura Analítica de proyecto para el subproyecto de lo Catalogo de Sitios de la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud: Enfermería Application of the technique of Analytical Structure of project for the sub-project of Websites Catalog of the Virtual Health Library: Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Augusto dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procura, de forma didática, explicar os benefícios de uso de uma técnica de gerenciamento de projetos, chamada de Estrutura Analítica do Projeto - uma ferramenta gráfica para identificar os resultados principais a serem desenvolvidos por um projeto. Os exemplos são reais, aplicados a um sub-projeto da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde em Enfermagem (BVS-Enfermagem para o desenvolvimento de Catálogo de Sites. Destacam-se os benefícios de visualização gráfica para um maior entendimento entre profissionais de diferentes áreas.Este artículo presenta, de una forma didáctica, algunas explicaciones sobre los beneficios de lo uso de la técnica de gestión de proyectos, llamada de Estructura Analítica del Proyecto una herramienta grafica para la identificación de los principales resultados que han de ser desarrollados en un proyecto. Los ejemplos son reales, aplicados a un subproyecto de la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud Enfermería (BVS-Enfermagem para el desarrollo del catalogo de sitios. Son destacados los beneficios de visualización grafica para un mejor entendimiento entre profesionales de diferentes áreas.This work search of didactic form to explain the benefits of use of one technique of management project, called Work Breakdown Structure: a graphical tool to identify the main results to be developed for a project. The real examples are applied to a sub-project of the Virtual Library in Health in Nursing (BVSEnfermagem to development of the Sites Catalogs. It is distinguished the benefits of graphical visualization for a major agreement between professionals of different expertise

  9. Activos y estructuras de oportunidades de movilidad: Una propuesta analítica para el estudio de la accesibilidad por transporte público, el bienestar y la equidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Hernández

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los desafíos actuales para los estudios sobre movilidad y transporte en América Latina es adoptar un enfoque multidimensional de la movilidad que trascienda la noción más estrecha de desplazamiento o viaje y que, a la vez, permita integrar este tema a la discusión más general acerca del efecto de la movilidad sobre la pobreza y la exclusión social. Este artículo aborda el desafío y propone un marco analítico que recoja la -aún incipiente en nuestra región- experiencia teórico-empírica sobre estos fenómenos. Luego de revisar la literatura y argumentar a favor de la adopción de diversos postulados, se propone el enfoque de activos y estructuras de oportunidades para el estudio de la accesibilidad. Esta es concebida como el grado de ajuste entre las estructuras de oportunidades de movilidad, y los recursos y activos con que cuentan los hogares para aprovecharlas. El esquema propuesto permite maximizar la comprensión del efecto de la movilidad sobre el bienestar y el rol del transporte público.One of the major current challenges for mobility and transport studies in Latin America is the adoption of a multidimensional approach that goes beyond the narrower notion of trip and that does not neglect a broader discussion about mobility's effect on po verty and social exclusion. This article seeks to tackle this challenge and posits an analyticalframework that takes into account the theoretical and empirical regional background on these phenomena. After reviewing existing literature and affiliating to some necessary assumptions, it proposes the assets and opportunities structures approach as a useful device to study accessibility. This concept is defined as the level of adjustment between the structures of opportunity for mobility and household's resource and assets to take advantagefrom them. I argue that thisframework is adequate in order to maximize understanding of mobility's effect on welfare and the role of public transport.

  10. Desamparo aprendido e incontrolabilidade: relevância para uma abordagem analítico-comportamental da depressão

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    Darlene Cardoso Ferreira

    Full Text Available Este artigo oferece uma análise dos diferentes usos do conceito de incontrolabilidade vinculados ao modelo do desamparo aprendido, apontado como um modelo animal de depressão, indicando como a mesma topografia verbal é emitida sob controle de eventos distintos. Discute-se a generalidade do conceito de desamparo aprendido a partir de dados obtidos com humanos, abordando-se também aspectos relativos à participação de contingências verbais na ocorrência do efeito. Variáveis relevantes para a generalidade do desamparo aprendido - enquanto modelo experimental e equivalente animal da depressão na análise do comportamento - são discutidas, justificando-se a necessidade de maior investigação da correspondência entre o conceito de incontrolabilidade e a condição experimentalmente estabelecida em laboratório e da produção de desamparo aprendido em humanos com participação de processos verbais.

  11. Encopresis and anal masturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruffo, R N; Ibarra, S; Strupp, K R

    2000-01-01

    Current pediatric and psychiatric studies on encopresis and its treatment are heavily influenced by mechanical, physiological, and behavioral considerations. Although psychodynamic treatment has generally been considered to be of little benefit, and its findings suspect, the authors suggest that a psychodynamic approach adds substantially to the understanding of some cases of encopresis; that the anal sensations and anal erotic feelings reported by a number of encopretic children are intense, and that the encopretic symptom, soiling, in these children is the result of a conscious form of anal masturbation in which the fecal mass is used for stimulation; and that any study of encopresis is incomplete that does not include what encopretic children, engaged in a sound therapeutic relationship, know and say about their soiling. The authors further suggest that physical treatments of those children whose encopresis is psychologically driven may be contraindicated. The presence of a large stool does not in itself substantiate a physical illness. Further research is needed to elucidate the prevalence of anal masturbation in encopretic children.

  12. Competitividad Sistémica. Niveles analíticos para el fortalecimiento de sectores de actividad económica

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    Juliana Ferrer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Un desarrollo industrial exitoso no se logra meramente considerando la función de producción en el nivel microeconómico, o las condiciones macroeconómicas estables; sino también por la existencia de medidas específicas del gobierno y de organizaciones privadas de desarrollo, orientadas a fortalecer la competitividad de los sectores de actividad económica. Además, la capacidad de vincular las iniciativas, está en función de un conjunto de estructuras político- económicas y de factores socioculturales y patrones básicos de organización, que caracterizan el proceso sistémico de competitividad de cada país. Se concluye que existe una marcada desarticulación entre los niveles de competitividad sistémica; reflejada por una incoherencia entre las políticas de Estado, los requerimientos de sectores de actividad y el reflejo de la necesidad real de las comunidades cada vez más desprovistas de recursos. Se recomienda la necesidad de superar la ardua fase que representa establecer una economía de mercado dirigida a mejorar la condición de vida de la población; por lo que será importante facilitar procesos autónomos de búsqueda y aprendizaje significativos, para el desarrollo de la competitividad de los sectores de actividad económica latinoamericanos.

  13. Desarrollo y validación de los métodos analíticos para el control de calidad del micocilén polvo Development and validation of analytical methods for quality control of Micocilen powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yania Suárez Pérez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El micocilén es un medicamento que se presenta en forma de polvo. Contiene 2 ingredientes farmacéuticos activos: el ácido undecilénico y el undecilinato de zinc. Por su acción fungistática, se ha convertido en un producto de alta demanda en Cuba, ya que las micosis se favorecen en climas cálidos y húmedos. Se realizó el desarrollo y la validación de 2 métodos analíticos para el control de calidad sobre la base de la cuantificación de cada analito presente en la formulación. Se seleccionaron técnicas volumétricas por neutralización acuosa y complejometría. Los resultados fueron satisfactorios, ya que en ambos casos se obtuvo adecuada especificidad, linealidad, exactitud, precisión y robustez. Los métodos propuestos se compararon con los aplicados anteriormente y se obtuvieron resultados mucho más confiables, según resultados del análisis estadístico aplicado, sin diferencias significativas entre las réplicas de un mismo lote.The undecylenic acid (Micocilen is a drug in powder presentation containing two active pharmaceutical ingredients: undecylenic acid and zinc undecylenate. By its fungistatic action becames a first line product in Cuba because of mycoses are typical of wet and warm climates. Development and validation of two analytical methods for the quality control on the base of the quantification of each symbol present in the formula. Volumetric techniques were selected by aqueous neutralization and complexometric. Results were satisfactory since in both cases an appropriate specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness were obtained. Methods proposed were compared to those previously applied obtaining more reliable results, according to results of analytical analysis applied, without significant differences among replica of a same batch.

  14. Otimização e validação do método analítico volumétrico para quantificação do carbonato de cálcio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K.M. Santana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A osteoporose é definida pela Organização Mundial de Saúde como uma doença metabólica óssea sistêmica, caracterizada por diminuição da massa óssea e deterioração da microarquitetura do tecido ósseo, com conseqüente aumento da fragilidade do osso e da suscetibilidade a fraturas. A suplementação de cálcio pode ser realizada utilizando-se diferentes sais de cálcio. O mais recomendado é o carbonato de cálcio, que apresenta a maior quantidade de cálcio elementar (40%. Atualmente, quando todos os caminhos levam à busca da qualidade total, torna-se indispensável conhecer perfeitamente cada fase de um processo produtivo. Neste caso, a validação é uma ferramenta da qualidade adequada para garantir a confiabilidade e reprodutibilidade de um método analítico, pois é um ato documentado que atesta que o mesmo conduz a resultados esperados. A escolha de uma metodologia é de fundamental importância para o procedimento do controle de qualidade da substância ativa ou da forma farmacêutica. Desta forma, o presente estudo teve por objetivo desenvolver e validar o método de doseamento da matéria-prima carbonato de cálcio por titulometria. As características de desempenho investigadas no processo de validação foram: exatidão, precisão, limite de detecção, limite de quantificação, linearidade e robustez. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o método é robusto, exato e preciso, apresentando resultados reprodutíveis e confiáveis. Palavras-chave: validação; titulometria; carbonato de cálcio.

  15. Uso do grau de preferência alimentar para a caracterização da alimentação de peixes na APA de São Pedro e Analândia - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1337 The use of feeding preference degree to characterize feeding habits of fishes at APA in São Pedro and Analândia - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1337

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Muller Gomiero

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho caracterizou a alimentação de quatro espécies de peixes em duas bacias da Área de Proteção Ambiental de São Pedro e Analândia, área central do Estado de São Paulo. O Grau de Preferência Alimentar (GPA foi utilizado para mostrar a importância de cada item alimentar para as espécies de peixes em cada bacia. A alimentação das duas espécies de lambaris foi muito variada, sendo que os itens insetos alóctones, autóctones e material vegetal foram muito importantes, caracterizando-a como onivoria. O bagre (Rhamdia quelen alimentou-se principalmente de insetos na bacia do Jacaré-pepira e também de peixes na bacia do Corumbataí. O cascudo, Hypostomus strigaticeps, ingeriu material vegetal autóctone e sedimentos em ambas baciasWe studied feeding habits of four fish species in two watershed at APA - Área de Proteção Ambiental (Area of Environmental Protection in São Pedro and Analândia, State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Feeding Preference Degree (FPD was used to demonstrate the importance of each food item for the species of both basins. Feeding habits of both species of “lambari” was variable. The allochtonous items such as insects, autochtonous items, and vegetal material were very important, characterizing omnivory. The “bagre” (Rhamdia quelen fed mainly on insects at the Jacaré-pepira Basin and also on fishes at the Corumbataí basin. The “cascudo” Hypostomus strigaticeps ingested autochtonous vegetal material and sediments at both basins

  16. Metodología de la investigación: El enfoque meta-analítico para la síntesis cuantitativa para la literatura en las ciencias del movimiento humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncada Jiménez, José

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este artículo se presenta una descripción de diferentes tipos de tamaños de efecto utilizados para resumir de manera cuantitativa el cuerpo de investigación proveniente de diversas áreas de las ciencias del movimiento humano. En total se revisaron 108 meta análisis publicados entre 1983 y 2005. En el documento se describen dos grupos o familias principales de tamaños de efecto, la familia d y la familia r. Los indicadores de la familia d se utilizan para describir el efecto de un tratamiento sobre la variable dependiente en estudios de tipo comparativos; mientras que los indicadores de la familia r se utilizan para explicar la magnitud de las relaciones entre las variables en los estudios correlacionales. Las revisiones sistemáticas cuantitativas se han convertido en una herramienta objetiva muy importante para la toma de decisiones con respecto a la continuación o no de una línea determinada de investigación, lo cual permite maximizar el tiempo y los recursos destinados para la investigación. Abstract: This article describes different effect sizes used to quantitatively summarize the body of knowledge from the different areas of the human movement sciences. A total of 108 meta-analyses dating from 1983 to 2005 were reviewed. In this document are described two effect size families, the d and the r. The d-family indicators are used to describe the effect of a treatment over the dependent variable in comparative studies; whereas the r-family indicators are used to explain the magnitude of the relationship between variables in correlational research. Systematic-quantitative reviews of literature have evolved into an useful decision making tool regarding whether a follow-up on specific research areas should be done or not. This decision might allow scholars to maximize their resources and time allowed to perform their research.

  17. Solución analítica de un filtro de Kalman estacionario para la observación de deriva en modelos de emisiones de NOx en motores diesel de automoción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Guardiola

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En los algoritmos de control y diagnóstico de los motores diesel la precisión en la estimación de las variables resulta crítica. En el caso de las emisiones de óxidos de nitrógeno (NOx recientemente se han desarrollado sensores con una buena precisión de medida estacionaria pero que, debido a su lentitud y a la existencia de un retraso significativo, presentan unas características dinámicas insuficientes para el control. Por otro lado, existen diferentes tipos de modelos capaces de reproducir con mayor o menor precisión la respuesta dinámica de los NOx; sin embargo, ninguno de ellos está exento de deriva asociada al envejecimiento del motor y de los diferentes sensores que suministran las entradas al modelo. La combinación de un modelo de emisiones con un sensor de NOx permite proporcionar una estimación que combina las características dinámicas del modelo con la precisión del sensor. En este trabajo se combina la información a través de un modelo en espacio de estados que permite la observación y corrección de la deriva del modelo de NOx. El vector de estado que describe la salida objetivo se aumenta con un estado extra que define la deriva o error estacionario entre el modelo derivado y la referencia de medida del sensor. El vector de estado es observado mediante un filtro de Kalman. Dicho modelo es lineal invariante en el tiempo y las covarianzas de los ruidos que afectan a los estados son consideradas como constantes. Bajo estas hipótesis, el filtro es estacionario, es decir, la ecuación de Riccati que estima la ganancia del filtro converge tras un número determinado de iteraciones. El presente artículo resuelve la ecuación iterativa de Riccati para dichas condiciones y deriva la solución analítica del filtro. Asimismo, dicho algoritmo es usado para la estimación de NOx en un motor diesel y en el nuevo ciclo Europeo de conducción (NEDC. Abstract: An augmented state-space model for drift correction is

  18. Evaluación de dos técnicas analíticas para la especiación de arsénico en aguas superficiales del sur del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Chávez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El arsénico es altamente tóxico, la exposición crónica a este elemento causa diversos daños en la salud de las personas, en el Perú se han reportado niveles elevados, sobre todo en ríos de la costa sur. Objetivo. Evaluar dos técnicas analíticas de especiación de las dos formas de arsénico inorgánico en agua fluvial de Tacna, en el sur del Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se desarrolló un estudio comparativo entre la técnica de separación por resina de intercambio aniónico y la cromatografía iónica para la especiación del arsénico (V y arsénico (III en muestras de agua de cuatro ríos de la vertiente del Pacífico en dos distritos de la región Tacna. La cantidad de arsénico total se determinó con el sistema de inyección de flujo asistido con absorción atómica. Resultados. Se obtuvo un buen grado de separación en ambos procedimientos, sin embargo, la técnica de resinas de intercambio aniónico tiene un límite de detección inferior que la cromatografía iónica, 2,0 μg/L y 32 μg/L, respectivamente. En cuatro de las seis muestras se obtuvieron valores superiores a los recomendados por la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de los Estados Unidos, y en ellas se logró determinar las cantidades de arsénico (III y arsénico (V. Conclusiones. La técnica de separación por resina de intercambio aniónico tiene mayor sensibilidad de detección de arsénico que la cromatografía iónica y permite un alto grado de especiación del arsénico inórganico en muestras de agua fluvial.

  19. Comparação entre três métodos analíticos para determinação de soro em leite cru refrigerado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Souza

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste experimento foi comparar três métodos analíticos para determinação de soro em leite cru refrigerado: cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, ninidrina ácida e colorimétrico adaptado. Foram coletadas 100 amostras de leite cru refrigerado de tanques de expansão. Estas, quando submetidas à análise pelo método da ninidrina ácida, apresentaram 10 (14,7% amostras negativas e 58 (85,3% positivas. O teor médio de ácido siálico encontrado na técnica da ninidrina foi de 5,58(g/mL, com valor mais frequente de 2,70(g/mL. Das 68 amostras negativas pela cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, duas foram positivas (2,94% e 66 (97,06% negativas, quando analisadas pelo método colorimétrico. A frequência relativa de amostras positivas foi de 32%, com a CLAE apresentando a maior média de soro (14,37%, seguida do método colorimétrico (5,28% e o da ninidrina ácida (3,12%. A técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência diferiu dos métodos de ninidrina ácida e colorimétrico, enquanto os métodos da ninidrina e colorimétrico não diferiram entre si, podendo ambos serem utilizados como metodologias de triagem. Entre as três técnicas, a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência foi a metodologia mais sensível na detecção e quantificação do soro em leite cru refrigerado.

  20. Anal incontinence in women with recurrent obstetric anal sphincter rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgeskov, Reneé; Nickelsen, Carsten Nahne Amtoft; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Abstract Objectives: To determine the risk of recurrent anal sphincter rupture (ASR), and compare the risk of anal incontinence (AI) after recurrent ASR, with that seen in women with previous ASR who deliver by caesarean section or vaginally without sustaining a recurrent ASR. METHODS...

  1. Amputação abdômino-perineal mais colostomia para-vaginal no tratamento do câncer reto-anal Abdomino-perineal amputation plus para-vaginal colostomy in the treatment of reto-anal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcino Lázaro da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O apresenta uma proposta e as tentativas iniciais para evitar a colostomia abdominal quando esta tem que ser definitiva. Na mulher foi possível a sua execução, desde que se aproveitou o tono da musculatura esfincteral vulvovaginal quando ela pode ser preservada na amputação de reto-ânus. O colo, preparado com as válvulas, desce posteriormente à vagina, por dentro do conjunto esfincteral vulvovaginal. As observações iniciais mostram que esta tentativa poderia ser incrementada para melhores estudos de continência.The Author presents a proposal and lhe initial attempties to avoid the abdominal colostomy when it has to be definitive. In the woman was possible its execution, since it took advantage from the vulvovaginal esfincteral muscle nohen it can be preserved ot the anus-rectum amputation. The colon, prepared wit the valves, descend posteriorily from the vagina, inside the vulvo-vaginal esfincteral group. The initial observations shows that this attempt could be better developed for cotinency etudies.

  2. Comentarios sobre dibujo analítico

    OpenAIRE

    Mata Botella, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Cuaderno de apoyo a la docencia del DIBUJO DE ARQUITECTURA que pretende hacer reflexionar al alumno (de primero o segundo de carrera) sobre un tipo de dibujo que aquí se ha llamado “dibujo analítico”. Un dibujo que a través de operaciones gráficas y conceptuales como la esquematización y la selección de información, tiende a alejarse de la descripción del objeto arquitectónico para adentrarse en determinados aspectos o dimensiones que subyacen en el proyecto arquitectónico. Unas notas intr...

  3. Value of conventional cytology in the presence of macroscopic lesions of the anal canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lêda Pereira de Barcellos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To verify the value of conventional cytology for the diagnosis of macroscopic le- sions of the anal canal and to describe the limitations of the samples. Method: We evaluated 395 conventional cytology samples obtained by brushing the anal canal of patients (predominantly male, HIV-positive and compared them to the presence of macroscopic lesions of the anal canal observed under anorectal examination. Results: Of the total, 91.6% of samples were classified as adequate. Cellular elements repre- sentative of the anal transformation zone were observed in 63.5% of samples. Sensitivity in the presence or absence of cellularity was 80% and 31%, respectively. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the feasibility of using conventional anal cytology in outpatients. Resumo: Objetivo: verificar o valor da citologia convencional no diagnóstico de lesões macroscópicas do canal anal e descrever as limitações das amostras obtidas. Método: avaliamos 395 exames citológicos convencionais obtidos por escovado do canal anal de pacientes predominantemente do sexo masculino, soropositivos para HIV, e com- paramos com a presença de lesões macroscópicas do canal anal constatadas ao exame proctológico. Resultado: o percentual de amostras adequadas foi de 91,6%, e os elementos celulares re- presentativos da zona de transformação anal foram observados em 63,5% das amostras. Encontramos sensibilidade de 80% e 31% na presença ou ausência desta celularidade, res- pectivamente. Conclusão: O estudo demonstra a possibilidade de utilização da citologia anal convencional no rastreio de lesões macroscópicas do canal anal em pacientes ambulatoriais. Keywords: HPV Prevention of anal neoplasia Conventional cytology, Palavras-chave: HPV Prevenção de neoplasia anal Citologia convencional

  4. Validación de métodos analíticos para los estudios de estabilidad del naproxeno en supositorios para uso infantil y adulto Validation of analytical methods for the stability studies of naproxen suppositories for infant and adult use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaslenis Rodríguez Hernández

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realizaron los estudios analíticos y de validación para su aplicación en los estudios de estabilidad de las futuras formulaciones de supositorios de naproxeno para uso infantil y adulto. Se determinaron los factores que más influyeron en la estabilidad del naproxeno; la mayor degradación ocurrió en el medio ácido, oxidante y por acción de la luz. Se evaluó un método por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, el cual mostró adecuado desempeño para cuantificar naproxeno en supositorios y fue selectivo frente a los productos de degradación. Se obtuvo un límite de cuantificación de 3,480 µg, por lo que fue válido para la realización de dichos estudios. Adicionalmente, se evaluaron los parámetros especificidad para estabilidad, límites de detección y de cuantificación para el método por volumetría ácido-base semiacuosa directa validado anteriormente para control de calidad, lo cual mostró resultados satisfactorios. No obstante, los métodos volumétricos no se consideran indicadores de estabilidad, por lo que este método será utilizado conjuntamente con los métodos cromatográficos de elección para determinar productos de degradación: cromatografía de capa delgada y cromatografía líquida de alta resolución.Analytical and validating studies were performed in this paper, with a view to using them in the stability studies of the future formulations of naproxen suppositories for children and adults. The most influential factors in the naproxen stability were determined, that is, the major degradation occurred in acid medium, oxidative medium and by light action. One high-performance liquid chromatography-based method was evaluated, which proved to be adequate to quantify naproxen in suppositories and was selective against degradation products. The quantification limit was 3,480 µg, so it was valid for these studies. Additionally, the parameters specificity for stability, detection and

  5. Desarrollo de un método analítico para la determinación de plaguicidas organoclorados como modificación de la NOM-021-ZOO-1995 Desarrollo de un método analítico para la determinación de plaguicidas organoclorados como modificación de la NOM-021-ZOO-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sánchez López

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A new method was developed with a GC/PTV/EI/MSMS system designed for the detection and quantification of 21 organochlorine pesticides in bovine fat: α-BHC, γ-BHC (lindane, β-BHC, δ-BHC, Heptachlor, Aldrin, Heptachlor epoxide, γ-chlordane, α-chlordane, Endosulfan I, p,p’- DDE, Dieldrin, Endrin, Endosulfan II, p,p’-DDD, Endrin aldehyde, p,p’-DDT, Endosulfan sulfate, Methoxychlor and Mirex, as a proposal for technological improvement in complying with the Mexican Official Norm NOM-004-ZOO-1994 based on the extraction methodology specified in the Mexican Official Norm NOM-021-ZOO-1995. A Gas Chromatography system was used with an ion trap analyzer and an automatic flow controller in the MS system’s hardware. Increasing the pressure inside the ion trap with high helium flows to optimize the selection of the precursor ion for each pesticide, and amplifying the signals of the product ions, achieved measurements of MSMS with sensitivity values superior to those of electronic capture detectors (ECD, provided correlation coefficient values of ≥0,990, and recovery values in bovine fat of between 60 % and 120 %, thus satisfying the requirements demanded by the Mexican Official Norm. Se desarrolló un nuevo método con un sistema GC/PTV/EI/MSMS, orientado a la detección y cuantificación de 21 plaguicidas organoclorados en grasa de ganado bovino: α-BHC, γ-BHC (lindano, β-BHC, δ-BHC, Heptacloro, Aldrín, Heptacloro epóxido, γ-clordano, α-clordano, Endosulfan I, p,p’-DDE, Diedrín, Endrín, Endosulfan II, p,p’-DDD, Endrín aldehído, p,p’-DDT, Endosulfan sulfato, Metoxicloro y Mirex, como una propuesta de mejora tecnológica, para el cumplimiento de la Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-004-ZOO-1994 basándose en la metodología de extracción según la Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-021-ZOO-1995. Se utilizó un sistema de cromatografía gaseosa con analizador de trampa de iones, con un controlador automático de flujo en el espectrómetro de

  6. [Surgical treatment of anal fistula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiandong; Zhang, Yong

    2014-12-01

    Anal fistula is a common disease. It is also quite difficult to be solved without recurrence or damage to the anal sphincter. Several techniques have been described for the management of anal fistula, but there is no final conclusion of their application in the treatment. This article summarizes the history of anal fistula management, the current techniques available, and describes new technologies. Internet online searches were performed from the CNKI and Wanfang databases to identify articles about anal fistula management including seton, fistulotomy, fistulectomy, LIFT operation, biomaterial treatment and new technology application. Every fistula surgery technique has its own place, so it is reasonable to give comprehensive individualized treatment to different patients, which may lead to reduced recurrence and avoidance of damage to the anal sphincter. New technologies provide promising alternatives to traditional methods of management. Surgeons still need to focus on the invention and improvement of the minimally invasive techniques. Besides, a new therapeutic idea is worth to explore that the focus of surgical treatment should be transferred to prevention of the formation of anal fistula after perianal abscess.

  7. Anal manometric evaluation of children with encopresis

    OpenAIRE

    CESAR, Maria Auxiliadora Prolungatti; MOURA, Brenda C de; SILVA, Fernanda Perez Adorno da; BARBIERI, Dorina; BRUNO, Rodrigo Ciotolla; BERTOLI, Ciro João; ORTIZ, Jorge Alberto

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A constipação crônica é doença comum na infância, ocorrendo em 5 a 10% dos pacientes pediátricos, considerada a segunda maior causa de procura nos consultórios de pediatria, sendo a encoprese decorrente de constipação grave associada à impactação fecal no reto. Dentre os exames diagnósticos, a manometria anal é utilizada para a avaliação de pacientes com distúrbios funcionais, como a constipação intestinal e a incontinência fecal, em alguns serviços para a avaliação de pacientes c...

  8. Uma ferramenta para automação da geração do leiaute de circuitos analógicos sobre uma matriz de transistores MOS pré-difundidos

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Gonçalves Girardi

    2003-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta o LIT, uma ferramenta de auxílio ao projeto de circuitos integrados analógicos que utiliza a técnica da associação trapezoidal de transistores (TAT) sobre uma matriz digital pré-difundida. A principal característica é a conversão de cada transistor simples de um circuito analógico em uma associação TAT equivalente, seguido da síntese automática do leiaute da associação séria-paralela de transistores. A ferramenta é baseada na matriz SOT (sea-of-transistors), cuja arqui...

  9. Anal Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anal cancer is a rare malignancy and accounts for a small percentage of cancers of the lower alimentary tract. The most common type of anal cancer is squamous cell carcinoma in the anal canal. Find evidence-based information on anal cancer treatment, causes and prevention, research, and statistics.

  10. Saúde pública e ética na era da medicina genômica: rastreamentos genéticos Public health and ethics in the age of genomic medicine: genetic screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Miranda Gomes de Constantino Bandeira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo contextualizar o campo da saúde pública diante dos grandes avanços da biotecnologia e genética aplicada, destacando elementos para a problematização do tema tais como benefícios e questões éticas relacionados aos rastreamentos genéticos. O Projeto Genoma Humano gerou várias expectativas, dentre elas, a possibilidade de rastrear genes associados a doenças e comportamentos, e mais ainda, de intervir geneticamente no ser humano, levantando preocupações relativas ao renascimento da eugenia, ao aconselhamento genético, e ao uso da informação genética como critério de acesso aos planos de saúde e postos de trabalho. Uma discussão de todos esses tópicos é essencial para que a saúde pública seja beneficiada com as informações obtidas através da análise genômica das populações.This article has the objective to bring the field of public health into context in the face of the great advances of biotechnology and applied genetics, focusing on issues related to the theme such as benefits and ethics concerning genetic screening. The Human Genome Project has generated many expectations among which the possibility of screening genes associated to diseases and behaviors, moreover, the possibility of genetic interventions on humans, creating concerns related to the resurgence of Eugenia, of genetic counseling and the use of genetic information as a standard for access to healthcare clinics and jobs. The discussion of all these issues is essential to benefit public health with information obtained through population genomic analysis.

  11. The importance of ultrasound findings in the study of anal pain Importancia de los hallazgos ecográficos en el dolor anal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Vieira

    2010-05-01

    15 de junio de 2008, en todos los pacientes referenciados para hacerse la ecografía endoanal, debido a dolor anal con exploración física normal o sin alteraciones que justifiquen el dolor anal. Resultados: analizamos 90 pacientes con edad media de 50,5 años, 58% mujeres. Veintitrés pacientes presentaban criterios de dolor anal funcional. La ecografía endoanal reveló alteraciones en el 49% de los casos. Las alteraciones más frecuentes fueron las alteraciones esfinterianas, en 14 pacientes, seguido de sepsis anal, en 12 pacientes, de fisura anal, en 10 pacientes, de las lesiones perirrectales, en 6 pacientes y de úlcera del canal anal, en 2 pacientes. De los pacientes con alteraciones esfinterianas, 5 pacientes tenían criterios de dolor crónico. En este grupo de pacientes, no se encuentran diferencias en los hallazgos manométricos y defecográficos entre las diferentes alteraciones ecográficas. Conclusiones: la ecografía endoanal detectó lesiones estructurales no sospechadas en el examen físico en la mitad de los enfermos con dolor anal. Se han encontrado alteraciones ecográficas en el 22% de los pacientes con dolor anal funcional. Sin embargo, no se encontró correlación entre los hallazgos ecográficos y los estudios fisiológicos, así que no fue posible encontrar factores etiológicos o patogénicos del dolor anal funcional.

  12. Rastreamento de sinais e sintomas de transtornos do espectro do autismo em irmãos Screening for signs and symptoms of autism spectrum disorders in siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pontrelli Mecca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os transtornos globais do desenvolvimento (TGD são caracterizados por anormalidades qualitativas e abrangentes em três domínios do desenvolvimento: interação social recíproca, comunicação e presença de um repertório comportamental de interesses restritos, repetitivo e estereotipado. Estudos genéticos têm identificado a recorrência de TGD numa mesma família. O presente estudo teve por objetivo rastrear a ocorrência de sinais e sintomas de TGD em irmãos de indivíduos com esse diagnóstico. Participaram do estudo 25 sujeitos provenientes de 19 famílias. A coleta de dados foi realizada mediante a utilização da versão brasileira do Autism Screening Questionnaire (ASQ, ou Questionário de Comportamento e Comunicação Social. Foram confirmados dois casos de irmãos com TGD (10,52% dos casos, sendo um irmão gêmeo monozigótico e um irmão de um probando com diagnóstico de síndrome de Asperger. Os dados apontam para taxas mais elevadas do que aquelas descritas na literatura (2-6% e se aproximam dos achados que relatam 10% de recorrência familiar em gêmeos dizigóticos. Esse resultado fornece evidências de possíveis fatores neurogenéticos para explicar a ocorrência de TGD nos familiares dos probandos estudados e salienta a necessidade de efetuar o rastreamento desse transtorno não só na criança avaliada, mas também em seus irmãos.Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD are characterized by comprehensive and qualitative abnormalities affecting three areas of development: reciprocal social interaction, communication, and a repetitive, stereotyped behavioral repertoire, of limited interests. Genetic studies have identified the recurrence of PDD in the same family. The present study aimed to trace the occurrence of signs and symptoms of PDD in the siblings of patients with this diagnosis. The study included 25 subjects from 19 families. Data collection was performed using the Brazilian version of the Autism Screening

  13. De mundejarismo de los Anales Toledanos Segundos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe MAÍLLO SALGADO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Como es sabido los Anales Toledanos (Primeros, Segundos y Terceros, compuestos en su mayor parte durante el siglo XIII en distintos momentos y por diferentes manos, son piezas importantes de la historiografía medieval hispánica, tanto por recoger gran cantidad de noticias —por más que éstas sean escuetas— cuanto por estar todas ellas rigurosamente fechadas; de ahí que sean de gran utilidad para el historiador.De estos tres anales, los Segundos (A.T.II tienen unas peculiaridades que los distinguen fuertemente de los otros; sin embargo, en una primera hojeada el lector poco avisado vería que, por su aspecto formal, nada difieren de otros escritos del mismo género, un género éste cuya condición esencial radica en la consignación del evento fechado, esto es, se presenta en párrafos que comienzan o terminan —como es aquí el caso— con una fecha determinada. Nuestro imaginario lector, por otra parte, se encontraría con las peladas noticias típicas del género analístico, a saber: una serie de referencias que dan cuenta de fenómenos naturales (como son las sequías prolongadas o las excesivas lluvias, las heladas intempestivas, los terremotos, los eclipses..., que informan de las épocas de hambre o carestía, de los precios de los artículos, de prodigios, de acontecimientos locales, etc.; el todo amalgamado con noticias de carácter político-militar.

  14. Prevalência de alterações de fala em crianças por meio de Teste de Rastreamento Prevalence of speech disorders in children through Screening Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Jesini Meira Caldeira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: conhecer a prevalência de alterações de fala em crianças que frequentam o 1º ano do ensino fundamental em escolas públicas de Montes Claros - MG no ano de 2010, por meio de teste de rastreamento, verificar os resultados da triagem com a variável sexo e conhecer os principais processos fonológicos presentes nas crianças pesquisadas. MÉTODO: utilizou-se o Teste de Rastreamento de Distúrbios Articulatórios de Fala - TERDAF adaptado, um instrumento validado para este fim. Os alunos foram selecionados aleatoriamente para a aplicação do teste. RESULTADOS: foram avaliadas 404 crianças com média de idade de seis anos e cinco meses, 52,0% eram do sexo feminino. A prevalência de alterações de fala foi de 33,7%. Pode-se observar presença de ceceio em 8,4% das crianças. Dos 137 alunos com alguma alteração nos processos fonológicos, os mais utilizados foram: substituição de /λ/ por /i/ ou /y/, /l/ por /r/, /z/ por /s/ e omissão do /l/ e /r/. A chance de alterações de fala em crianças do sexo masculino foi 2,53 vezes àquela do sexo feminino. A média do tempo gasto durante o teste foi de um minuto e dezoito segundos. Conclusão: a prevalência de crianças com alterações de fala está em acordo com outros estudos. Ações do profissional fonoaudiólogo em pareceria com educadores contribuem para facilitar a aprendizagem como medida preventiva.PURPOSE: to determine the prevalence of speech disorders in children attending the first grade of primary education in public schools in Montes Claros - MG in 2010, through a screening test, in order to check the screening results with the sex variable and on the main phonological processes exhibited by the surveyed children. METHOD: we used an adopted validated instrument for this purpose (Screening Test for Speech Articulation Disorders. RESULTS: a total of 404 children with a mean age of six years and five months and 52,0% were female. The prevalence of phonological

  15. Metodologia analítica para a determinação de sulfato em vinhoto When sulfate is present in high concentrations, it acts as an inhibitor in the production of methane (biogas formation in anaerobic biodigestion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Miranda Prada

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In this way it is very important to know the sulfate concentration in vinasse samples before to make the biodigestor design. A previous developed and indirect method (Anal. Chim. Acta. 1996, 329, 197, was used to determine sulfate in samples of vinasse, after previous treatments, done in order to eliminate organic matter with hydrogen peroxide 30% and concentrated nitric acid mixture (3:1, under heating. Interferent cationic ions were isolated by using ion exchange columns. The results obtained for some samples from Araraquara and Penápolis are here presented. The phosphate concentration was also determined.

  16. Internal anal sphincter: Clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lalit; Emmanuel, Anton

    2017-08-01

    To summarise current knowledge of Internal anal sphincter. The internal anal sphincter (IAS) is the involuntary ring of smooth muscle in the anal canal and is the major contributor to the resting pressure in the anus. Structural injury or functional weakness of the muscle results in passive incontinence of faeces and flatus. With advent of new assessment and treatment modalities IAS has become an important topic for surgeons. This review was undertaken to summarise our current knowledge of internal anal sphincter and highlight the areas that need further research. The PubMed database was used to identify relevant studies relating to internal anal sphincter. The available evidence has been summarised and advantages and limitations highlighted for the different diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. Our understanding of the physiology and pharmacology of IAS has increased greatly in the last three decades. Additionally, there has been a rise in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques specifically targeting the IAS. Although these are promising, future research is required before these can be incorporated into the management algorithm. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Uma revisão sobre instrumentos de rastreamento de violência doméstica contra o idoso A review of screening tools to assess domestic violence against the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Montes Paixão Jr.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Os dados sobre violência contra o idoso são escassos no Brasil. Para estudos adequados sobre a magnitude, fatores de risco e cuidados às vítimas, é necessária documentação sistemática e acurada. Este artigo revisou os instrumentos de rastreamento e avaliação de violência no idoso visando examinar o progresso no contexto internacional e brasileiro. Utilizando as bases de dados MEDLINE, PsycINFO, LILACS, CANE, OVIDs citations e livros de referência, realizou-se uma revisão sistemática da literatura para a seleção dos instrumentos. Fez-se, também, um escrutínio dos estudos de psicometria e utilização dos instrumentos, aplicando-se critérios para avaliar a qualidade dos estudos. Dos dezessete instrumentos encontrados, somente a Conflicts Tactics Scale foi adaptada para o Brasil, ainda que para uso em um grupo etário mais jovem. Alguns outros com boas características psicométricas também foram encontrados, como o Caregiver Abuse Screen, Elder Abuse Assessment Tool, Hwalek Sengstok Abuse Screening Test, Indicators of Abuse Screen, Qualcare scale e Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale. Ainda assim, de forma geral, há lacunas importantes nos processos de concepção, validação e adaptação desses instrumentos no Brasil e no exterior.Data on elder abuse in Brazil are scarce. Systematic and thorough documentation can facilitate studies on magnitude, risk factors, and care of victims. This article reviews the existing screening tools on violence against elders in order to examine recent progress in the field, both in Brazil and abroad. A systematic review through MEDLINE, PsycINFO, LILACS, CANE, and OVID and reference books was performed using specific inclusion criteria. Studies on psychometric background and utilization of selected instruments were systematically examined, applying a set of quality assessment criteria. The Conflicts Tactics Scale was the only one of 17 identified scales that had been adapted to the

  18. Validación del método analítico para el control de la calidad y estudio de estabilidad de propiltiouracilo 50 mg Analytical method validation for quality control and the study of the 50 mg Propylthiouracil stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Olga Valdés Bendoyro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló y validó un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, para el control de la calidad y los estudios de estabilidad del propiltiouracilo 50 mg, tabletas. El método se basó en la separación del principio activo a través una columna cromatográfica Lichrospher 100 RP-18 RP-18 (5 µm (250 x 4 mm, con detección ultravioleta a 272 nm, para lo cual se empleó una fase móvil compuesta por una mezcla desgasificada de solución amortiguadora fosfato de potasio monobásico 0,025 M a pH= 4,6, y acetonitrilo en una proporción de 80:20, con una velocidad de flujo de 0,5 mL/min. El método analítico resultó lineal, preciso, específico y exacto en el intervalo de concentraciones estudiadas.A high-performance liquid chromatography analytical method was developed and validated for the quality control and stability studies of 50 mg Propylthiouracil tablets. Method is based in active principle separation through a 100 RP-18 RP-18 (5 µm (250 x 4 mm Lichrospher chromatography with UV detection to 272 nm, using a mobile phase composed by a ungaseous mixture of a 0.025 M buffer solution-monobasic potassium phosphate to pH= 4,6 ad acetonitrile in a 80:20 ratio with a flux speed of 0,5 mL/min. Analytical method was linear, precise, specific and exact in the study concentrations interval.

  19. Optimización de un método analítico para la determinación de mercurio en muestras ambientales por espectrometría UV-Visible

    OpenAIRE

    Piña, Xiomara; Marcó Parra, Lue Merú; Poleo, Germán; Rojas, Jesús; Torres, Gosmyr

    2013-01-01

    El método colorimétrico de la ditizona fue modificado y cuasi miniaturizado para la determinación de mercurio en agua y en tejido de Lemna minor y Piaractus brachypomus. El límite de detección (4-22μg.L-1) fue satisfactorio para estudios ambientales. Para la evaluación de la exactitud en agua se analizaron patrones SPEX CERTIPREP sin diferencias significativas y para la biota digerida se obtuvieron porcentajes de recuperación en el rango de 85-120%. La precisión fue menor al 10% de desviación...

  20. Caracterização analítica e geométrica da metodologia geral de determinação de distribuições de Weibull para o regime eólico e suas aplicações Analytical and geometric characterization of general methodology of determination of Weibull distribution for wind regime and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís R. A Gabriel Filho

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O regime eólico de uma região pode ser descrito por distribuição de frequências que fornecem informações e características extremamente necessárias para uma possível implantação de sistemas eólicos de captação de energia na região e consequentes aplicações no meio rural em regiões afastadas. Estas características, tais como a velocidade média anual, a variância das velocidades registradas e a densidade da potência eólica média horária, podem ser obtidas pela frequência de ocorrências de determinada velocidade, que por sua vez deve ser estudada através de expressões analíticas. A função analítica mais adequada para distribuições eólicas é a função de densidade de Weibull, que pode ser determinada por métodos numéricos e regressões lineares. O objetivo deste trabalho é caracterizar analítica e geometricamente todos os procedimentos metodológicos necessários para a realização de uma caracterização completa do regime eólico de uma região e suas aplicações na região de Botucatu - SP, visando a determinar o potencial energético para implementação de turbinas eólicas. Assim, foi possível estabelecer teoremas relacionados com a forma de caracterização do regime eólico, estabelecendo a metodologia concisa analiticamente para a definição dos parâmetros eólicos de qualquer região a ser estudada. Para o desenvolvimento desta pesquisa, utilizou-se um anemômetro da CAMPBELL.The wind regime of a region can be described by frequency distributions that provide information and features extremely necessary for a possible deployment of wind systems of energy capturing in the region and the resulting applications in rural areas in remote regions. These features, such as the annual average speed, variance of speed and hourly average of wind power density, can be obtained by the frequency of occurrences of certain speed, which in turn should be studied through analytical expressions. The analytic

  1. Validación del método analítico para el control de la calidad y estudio de estabilidad de ketotifeno colirio 0,025 % Validation of analytical method to quality control and the stability study of 0.025 % eyedrops Ketotiphen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenilen Troche Concepción

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El colirio de ketotifeno se indica para aliviar los signos y síntomas de las conjuntivitis alérgicas, por ser este un potente antihistamínico H1 que muestra cierta capacidad para inhibir la liberación de histamina y otros mediadores en mastocitos. En este trabajo se desarrolló y validó un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, para el control de la calidad y los estudios de estabilidad del ketotifeno colirio 0,025 %. El método se basó en la separación del principio activo a través una columna cromatográfica Lichrosorb RP-18 (5 µm (250 x 4 mm, con detección ultravioleta a 296 nm, para lo cual se empleó una fase móvil compuesta por una mezcla desgasificada de metanol:buffer fosfato (75:25; pH 8,5 y se le añadió 1 mL de isopropanol por cada 1 000 mL de la mezcla anterior, con una velocidad de flujo de 1,2 mL/min. El método analítico resultó lineal, preciso, específico y exacto en el intervalo de concentraciones estudiadas.The Ketotiphen eyedrop is prescribed to relief the signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis due to its potent H1 antihistaminic effect showing some ability to inhibit the histamine release and other mediators in cases of mastocytosis. The aim of present paper was to develop and validate an analytical method for the high-performance liquid chromatography, to quality control and the stability studies of 0.025 % eyedrop Ketotiphen. Method was based on active principle separation by means of a Lichrosorb RP-18 (5 µm (250 x 4 mm, with UV detection to 296 nm using a mobile phase including a non-gasified mixture of methanol:buffer-phosphate (75:25; pH 8.5 adding 1 mL of Isopropanol by each 1 000 mL of the previous mixture at a 1.2 mL/min flow velocity. The analytical method was linear, accurate, specific and exact during the study concentrations.

  2. Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV+ MSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegenbeek van Heukelom, M.L.

    2018-01-01

    In this thesis we report on several aspects of high-grade anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM). It is estimated that 10% of HIV+ MSM with anal HSIL will develop anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) over 30 years time. Screening programs similar to

  3. La Contabilidad Analítica en los Hospitales Públicos

    OpenAIRE

    Ma Silvia Fresneda Fuentes

    1998-01-01

    La confección de presupuestos públicos austeros para la consecución de los criterios de convergencia impuestos por el Tratado de Maastricht ha originado una preocupación en todo el Sector Público en general, y en el hospitalario en particular, por la contención de los costes. Esta situación ha puesto de manifiesto la necesidad de introducir sistemas de Contabilidad para la Gestión interna de las organizaciones hospitalarias públicas. Así, la Contabilidad Analítica o de Costes se constituye co...

  4. Restitución analítica, estereocorrelación y Lídar para la generación de modelos digitales de terreno en marismas mareales

    OpenAIRE

    Ojeda Zújar, José; Márquez Pérez, Joaquín; Gómez Molina, Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    Las marismas mareales constituyen uno de los espacios donde la generación de modelos digitales de terreno (MDT) plantean una gran dificultad debido a sus características morfométricas (áreas de escasa variabilidad altimétrica junto a microtopografías de detalle, presencia de vegetación...). Por otra parte, la generación de MDTs constituye un elemento esencial para su caracterización geomorfológica, para los estudios de su vegetación halófila y para la evaluación de riesgos de inundación ligad...

  5. Diagnóstico de HPV anal em mulheres com NIC: prevenção de câncer do ânus? Anal HPV diagnosis in women with NIC: anal cancer prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Capobiango

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a frequência de HPV anal em pacientes com neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC, verificar a concordância entre os subtipos encontrados nos dois locais e investigar os fatores que influenciaram a ocorrência de HPV anal em mulheres com NIC sem evidências clínicas de imunodepressão. Foram avaliadas 52 mulheres com idades entre 16 e 72 anos e diagnóstico de neoplasia intraepitelial cervical graus I, II e III. A identificação do DNA (ácido desoxirribonucleico do HPV e de sete subtipos dos vírus foi realizada por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR em material colhido no ânus e colo uterino. Foram pesquisados fatores que poderiam contribuir para a infecção anal, como paridade, número de parceiros, tabagismo, manipulação e coito anal e o tipo de doença ginecológica. Das 52 mulheres, foi diagnosticado HPV na região anal em 25 (48%, das quais 23 (44% também apresentavam HPV no colo uterino - resultado significativo para existência do HPV em portadoras de NIC. Em 16 (31% o HPV foi diagnosticado somente no colo uterino e em 11 (21% não foi identificado em colo ou ânus. Houve associação significativa nas variáveis paridade (p=0,02 e número de parceiros (p=0,04. Concluiu-se que: as mulheres com HPV genital têm mais probabilidade de serem acometidas por HPV anal; não há concordância unânime entre os subtipos do HPV do colo do útero e do ânus e a paridade e o número de parceiros contribuem para aumentar a incidência de HPV anal nas mulheres sem imunodeficiência e com HPV cervical.This study aims were to assess the frequency of HPV anal infection in patients with cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN, to find out the relation between the found subtypes, when present in both regions, and investigate factors that influenced the occurrence of anal HPV in women with CIN. Fifty two women with age between 16 and 72 years and cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN diagnosis

  6. Validación de método analítico para el control de la calidad de vitamina B12 10 000 inyección Validation of analytical method for quality control of B12 Vitamin-10 000 injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Botet García

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se validó el método analítico reportado en la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos, para el control de la calidad de vitamina B12 10 000 U (cianocobalamina inyectable, por espectrofotometría ultravioleta, por ser este un método más sencillo, económico y que permite controlar la calidad del producto terminado. La curva de calibración se realizó en el intervalo de 60 al 140 %, donde fue lineal con un coeficiente de correlación igual a 0,9999; la prueba estadística para el intercepto y la pendiente se consideró no significativa. Se obtuvo un recobrado del 99,97 % en el intervalo de concentraciones estudiado, y las pruebas de Cochran (G y Student (t resultaron no significativas. El coeficiente de variación en el estudio de la repetibilidad fue igual a 0,59 % para las 6 réplicas ensayadas, mientras que en los análisis de la precisión intermedia las pruebas de Fischer y Student no significativas. El método analítico resultó lineal, preciso, específico y exacto en el intervalo de concentraciones estudiadas.Analytical method reported by USA Pharmacopeia was validated for quality control of injectable B12 Vitamin (10 000 U by UV spectrophotometry because this is a simpler and low-cost method allowing quality control of finished product. Calibration curve was graphed at 60 to 140 % interval, where it was linear with a correlation coefficient similar to 0, 9999; statistical test for interception and slope was considered non-significant. There was a recovery of 99.7 % in study concentrations interval where the Cochran (G and Student(t test were not significant too. Variation coefficient in repetition study was similar to 0.59 % for the 6 assayed replies, whereas in intermediate precision analysis, the Fisher and Student tests were not significant. Analytical method was linear, precise, specific and exact in study concentrations interval.

  7. Comparação entre dois métodos analíticos para determinação da lignina de algumas gramíneas forrageiras Comparison between two analytical methods for determining lignin concentration of some grass forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo Shigueo Fukushima

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram comparados dois métodos analíticos para a determinação da lignina (lignina em detergente ácido - LDA e lignina permanganato de potássio - LPer bem como para averiguar a possível relação dos teores desse componente com a digestibilidade da fibra dos seguintes fenos: andropogon (Andropogon gayanus; aveia (Avena sativa; e dois tipos de coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon, um bem fenado e outro de baixa qualidade. Os valores de LDA e LPer foram diferentes (p This work was carried out aiming to compare lignin concentration of some grass forages through two analytical methods (acid detergent lignin - ADL and permanganate lignin - PerL as well to verify a possible relationship of lignin concentration with fiber digestion of the following grass hays: andropogon (Andropogon gayanus; oats (Avena sativa; a good quality and another of poor quality coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon. Acid detergent and permanganate lignin values were different (p <= 0.05 among the hays, however PerL concentrations were consistently lower than ADL values. There were differences (p <= 0.05 among the digestibility of neutral and acid detergent fiber fractions, however a clear relationship between these values with lignin concentration could not be assessed. The data suggested that lignin concentration, taken individually, is not the only factor to explain a given value of digestibility.

  8. Cálculo numérico y analítico de las ecuaciones de Karman-Prandtl para la estimación de coeficiente de fricción

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar Zamora, Iván

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este PFC es el desarollo, adaptación y aplicación de diferentes métodos numéricos para la resolución de las ecuaciones de Karman-Prandtl. Se realizará un estudio de los diferentes métodos numéricos para la resolución de ecuaciones y sistemas de ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias, así como para la resolución de sistemas de ecuaciones no lineales. Se aplicarán dentro del campo de la Ingeniería Naval, en particular se buscará aproximar las ecuaciones de Karman-P...

  9. [Caesarean section and anal incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalis, V; Stipán, J; Chaloupka, P; Karbanová, J; Rokyta, Z

    2008-04-01

    Summary of the impact of Caesarean section on anal incontinence. Review. Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Charles University and University Hospital Plzen. Review of the current international literature. Currently, Caesarean section is not considered to reduce symptoms of anal incontinence. If there is any reduction of symptoms, that remains only for a short term (40% in 3 months after the delivery in the largest trial). In a long term, virtually in no trial has been observed any difference, and others, non-obstetrical factors (particularly aging) prevail. Current knowledge does not allow to assess sufficiently pros and cons of Caesarean compared to vaginal delivery. High risk groups, that would profit from elective Ceasarean, have not been clearly identified yet.

  10. Validación de la metodología analítica para la cuantificación de hierro por espectroscopia de absorción atómica de llama en alimentos de la canasta básica costarricense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Silva Trejos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se validó la metodología analítica para la determinación de hierro en alimentos de la canasta básica del costarricense por espectroscopia de absorción atómica con llama. La digestión de las muestras se realizó en recipientes cerrados, con horno de microondas con HNO3 al 65% m/m, para muestras de 0,5 g, dependiendo del tipo de alimento; las cantidades óptimas de ácido nítrico variaron de 6 a 10 mL, obteniéndose porcentajes de recuperación que variaron de 90,0±0,5% a 106,0±0,5%. El ámbito de linealidad óptimo que se obtuvo fue de 0,05 m/L a 6,0 mg/L, con un coeficiente de correlación de 0,9991. Los límites de detección y cuantificación reportados fueron de 0,006 mg/L y 0,009 mg/L, respectivamente. La veracidad se determinó utilizando un patrón certificado de la NIST, SRM 1846 Infant Formula, con un valor reportado para hierro de 63,1±4,0 mg/kg, el valor obtenido fue de 63,8 mg/L, con un porcentaje de error de 1,1%.

  11. Validación del método analítico para el control de la calidad y estudio de estabilidad de fenilefrina 10 % colirio Validation of an analytical method for quality control and stability study of 10 % Phenylephrine eyedrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiza Monteagudo Licea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La fenilefrina se emplea como midriático en exámenes de ojos y otros procedimientos oftálmicos. Se utiliza como vasoconstrictor con anestésicos locales. En este trabajo se validó un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución para el control de la calidad y los estudios de estabilidad de la fenilefrina 10 % colirio. El método se basó en la separación del principio activo a través una columna cromatográfica Lichrosorb RP-18 (5 µm (250 x 4 mm, con detección ultravioleta a 280 nm, para lo cual se empleó una fase móvil compuesta por una mezcla desgasificada de metanol:agua destilada (1:1, con 1,1 g de 1-octanosulfonato de sodio por litro ajustado a pH 3,0 con ácido fosfórico, con una velocidad de flujo de 1,0 mL/min. El método analítico resultó lineal, preciso, específico y exacto en el intervalo de concentraciones estudiadas.Phenylephrine is used like mydiatric in eye examinations and other ophthalmic procedures. It is used as vasoconstrictor with local anesthetic agents. In present paper a high ressolution liquid chromatography analytical method was validated to quality control and stability studies of 10 % Phenylephrine (eyedrops. Mathod was based in separation of active principle through a Lichrosorb RO-18 (5 µm (250 x 4 mm chromatography column with UV detection at 280 nm using a mobile phase composed by a non-gasified mixture of methanol distilled water (1:1 with 1.1 g of 1-sodium octane-sulphonate by liter adjusted to pH 3,0 with phosphoric acid at a flow speed of 1.0 mL/min. Analytical method was linear, accuracy, specific and exact in the interval of study concentrations.

  12. Migração de β-caprolactama de embalagens contendo poliamida 6 para simulante ácido acético 3% e validação do método analítico β-Caprolactam migration from polyamide 6 packaging into 3% acetic acid food simulant and validation of the analytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silva Félix

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver e validar método analítico para determinar ε-caprolactama no simulante de alimentos solução de ácido acético 3% e estudar sua migração de embalagens contendo poliamida 6 para o simulante em contato. Foi empregada a cromatografia gasosa usando ε-caprolactama como padrão analítico e 2-azociclononanona como padrão interno. A linearidade esteve entre 1,60 e 640,00 µg de ε-caprolactama.mL-1 de simulante, com coeficiente de correlação 0,9999. Os limites de detecção e de quantificação do método foram 0,24 e 1,60 ng, respectivamente. A precisão do método revelou valores de coeficiente de variação menores que 4,3% e a avaliação da exatidão mostrou recuperação de 100 a 106%. O método demonstrou ser eficaz para quantificar ε-caprolactama no simulante, apresentando ampla linearidade, boa precisão e exatidão. No ensaio de migração, embalagens contendo poliamida 6 foram colocadas em tubos de vidro com 10 mL do simulante, que foram hermeticamente fechados e acondicionados a 40 ± 1 °C durante 10 dias. O ensaio de migração foi realizado por imersão total. A quantidade de ε-caprolactama migrada variou de 7,8 a 10,5 e de 6,9 a 7,6 mg.kg-1 de simulante para as embalagens destinadas aos produtos cárneos e queijos, respectivamente. Todas as embalagens atenderam às exigências da Legislação Brasileira para migração de ε-caprolactama.The aim of this work was to develop and validate an analytical method to determine ε-caprolactam in 3% acetic acid solution and to study its migration from polyamide 6 into food simulant. Gas chromatography was used with ε-caprolactam as an analytical standard and 2-azacyclononanone as an internal standard. The linearity was obtained by the concentration range of 1.60 to 640.00 µg.mL-1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999. Detection and quantification limits of the method were 0.24 ng and 1.60 ng, respectively. Relative standard

  13. HIV/AIDS, HPV and Anal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-ching J.; Sparano, Joseph; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Anal cancer is an increasingly common non-AIDS-defining cancer among HIV-infected individuals. It is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted infectious agent. The 14 oncogenic types of HPV are causally associated with 5–10% of all cancers, notably anogenital cancers. HPV16 is the most common genotype detected in about 70% of anal cancers. The HPV types detected in anal cancer are included in the 9-valent vaccine. HPV vaccines have demonstrated efficacy in reducing anal precancerous lesions in HIV-infected individuals. The standard treatment for anal cancer has been fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin (or cisplatin) as chemotherapy agents plus radiation, which can also be effectively used for the HIV-infected patients. Continued studies will be needed to test new treatment strategies in HIV-infected patients with anal cancer to determine which treatment protocols provide the best therapeutic index. PMID:27889034

  14. Clinicopathological aspects and prevalence of human papillomavirus in anal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tayla Mesquita Aguiar

    2014-04-01

    desenvolvimento do câncer anal, incluindo idade maior que 50 anos, dieta pobre em fibras, fístulas anais crônicas, tabagismo, múltiplos parceiros, prática de intercurso anal, infecção pelo HIV e imunossupressão. Entretanto, a presença do Papilomavírus Humano (HPV representa o principal fator de risco para o desenvolvimento do câncer anal. O objetivo deste estudo consistiu em avaliar os aspectos clínico-patológicos de uma série de pacientes com carcinomas anais diagnosticados no Hospital Araújo Jorge, Goiânia/GO, bem como a prevalência do genoma do HPV nesses tumores. Dados clínico-patológicos e sóciodemográficos foram colhidos a partir dos respectivos prontuários e blocos de parafina contendo espécimes de carcinomas anais foram usados para extração de DNA e detecção de HPV, por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase, usando oligonucleotídeos iniciadores SPF. Quarenta e três casos foram selecionados e tiveram os dados clinico-patológicos analisados, enquanto 38 casos foram testados para a detecção do genoma do HPV. Dentre os pacientes avaliados, 62,8% eram mulheres; 53,4% dos tumores eram carcinomas de células escamosas e 46,5% dos pacientes estavam na faixa etária entre os 60 e 75 anos. Fatores de risco, como tabagismo (39,5% e etilismo (20,9% foram registrados no grupo estudado. Metástases linfonodais foram detectadas em 30,2% dos casos e 7,0% apresentaram metástase à distância. A detecção de HPV foi positiva em 76,0% dos casos analisados e este significativamente associado aos carcinomas de células escamosas. O comportamento agressivo e o estágio avançado dos carcinomas anais descritos no presente estudo destacam a necessidade de medidas de prevenção que contemplem esses tumores, incluindo a vacinação contra o HPV. Keywords: Anal cancer, Characteristics, Human papillomavirus, HPV, HPV16, HPV18, Palavras-chave: Câncer anal, Características, Papilomavirus humano, HPV, HPV16, HPV18

  15. Método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución para el estudio de estabilidad del jarabe de loratadina 0,1 %

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Torres Amaro

    Full Text Available Se validó un método de cromatografía líquida de alta resolución para el estudio de estabilidad del jarabe de loratadina 0,1 %. La curva de calibración en el rango de 13,6 a 3,36 µg/mL fue lineal, con un coeficiente de correlación igual a 0,99975; la prueba estadística para el intercepto y la pendiente, no significativa. El recobrado obtenido resultó de 100,2 % en el rango de concentración estudiado, y las pruebas de Cochran y Student (t, no significativas. El coeficiente de variación en el estudio de repetibilidad fue igual a 0,41 % para 10 réplicas ensayadas, mientras que en la reproducibilidad las pruebas de Fischer y Student, no significativas. El método resultó específico, lineal, preciso y exacto.

  16. IMPORTANCE OF THE ANAL MANOMETRY IN THE JUDICIALMEDICAL EXPERTISE OF THE ANAL PENETRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelica Miljkovic

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The forceful anal penetration can leave as a consequence a lasting damage ofthe anal sphincter function. The anal manometry is one of the methods that, in anindirect way, by measuring the pressure in the anal channel, may determine theexistence of the anus-closing muscles' function damage. The importance of the analmanometry application as an objective indicator of a possible damage of the analsphincter function is presented in the cases of the judicial-medical expertise of theanal penetration. Three cases of criminal acts of sexual abuse and rape in which thejudicial-medical expertise by the anal manometry method was applied are analyzed.The anal manometry method is reliable in determining the functional stote of theexternal and the internal anal sphincter and it should be accepted as obligatory indiagnostics and verification of the anal penetration.

  17. Early discharge after external anal sphincter repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe an accelerated-stay program for repair of the external anal sphincter. METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients undergoing overlapping repair of the external anal sphincter were included in the study. Effect parameters were length of hospitalization....... CONCLUSION: We have described a safe accelerated-stay program (24 to 48 hours) for overlapping repair of external anal sphincter....

  18. Anal Sphincter Augmentation Using Biological Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nasra N; Narang, Sunil K; Köckerling, Ferdinand; Daniels, Ian R; Smart, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the use of biological materials in the augmentation of the anal sphincter either as part of an overlapping sphincter repair (OSR) or anal bulking procedure. A systematic search of PubMed was conducted using the search terms "anal bulking agents," "anal sphincter repair," or "overlapping sphincter repair." Five studies using biological material as part of an overlapping sphincter repair (OSR) or as an anal bulking agent were identified. 122 patients underwent anal bulking with a biological material. Anorectal physiology was conducted in 27 patients and demonstrated deterioration in maximum resting pressure, and no significant change in maximum squeeze increment. Quality of life scores (QoLs) demonstrated improvements at 6 weeks and 6 months, but this had deteriorated at 12 months of follow up. Biological material was used in 23 patients to carry out an anal encirclement procedure. Improvements in QoLs were observed in patients undergoing OSR as well as anal encirclement using biological material. Incontinence episodes decreased to an average of one per week from 8 to 10 preoperatively. Sphincter encirclement with biological material has demonstrated improvements in continence and QoLs in the short term compared to traditional repair alone. Long-term studies are necessary to determine if this effect is sustained. As an anal bulking agent the benefits are short-term.

  19. Incertidumbre en métodos analíticos de rutina.

    OpenAIRE

    Maroto Sánchez, Maria Alicia

    2002-01-01

    Para que los laboratorios de análisis puedan acreditarse según la norma ISO 17025, es necesario que los resultados analíticos vayan acompañados de dos parámetros de calidadbásicos: su trazabilidad y su incertidumbre. Esto ha hecho que, hoy en día, la verificaciónde la trazabilidad y el cálculo de la incertidumbre de los resultados analíticos sea cada vezmás importante. En esta tesis doctoral hemos propuesto diversas metodologías para calcularla incertidumbre en métodos analíticos que se utili...

  20. Recomendaciones para la aplicación de algunos métodos analíticos incluidos en el reglamento CEE 2568/91 relativo a las características de los aceites de oliva y de orujo de oliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Camacho, M.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the analytical methods officially adopted by the European Union to be applied to olive oils and olive pomace oils, some troubles have been found in the application of the procedures for the determination of sterols, trilinolein, trans isomers of fatty acids and waxes. The study of such difficulties suggests several modifications and recommendations facilitating the performance of methods and improving the reliability of results.

    Entre los métodos analíticos aceptados oficialmente por la Unión Europea para su aplicación a los aceites de oliva y los aceites de orujo de oliva, las determinaciones de esteroles, trilinoleína, isómeros trans de los ácidos grasos y ceras han mostrado algunas dificultades en su aplicación.
    El estudio de dichos problemas ha permitido establecer diversas modificaciones y recomendaciones que facilitan la práctica de los métodos y mejoran la fiabilidad de los resultados.

  1. Screening for group B Streptococcus in pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis Rastreo de Streptococcus del grupo B en gestantes: revisión sistemática y metanálisis Rastreamento de Streptococcus do grupo B em gestantes: revisão sistemática e metanálise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Taminato

    2011-12-01

    para la reducción de la incidencia de sepsis neonatal. Las evidencias obtenidas en el estudio sugieren que la estrategia de screening universal para las gestantes asociado al uso de antibióticos profilácticos es segura y efectiva.A infecção por Streptococcus do grupo B (GBS é considerada importante problema de saúde pública. Está associada à sepse neonatal, meningite, pneumonia, óbito neonatal, aborto séptico, coriomnionite, endometrite e outras infecções perinatais. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a melhor estratégia de rastreamento de GBS em gestantes. Como método usou-se a revisão sistemática com metanálise. A pesquisa foi realizada no Departamento de Enfermagem/Universidade Federal de São Paulo/Centro Cochrane do Brasil. Para a busca usaram-se as fontes Embase, LILACS, MEDLINE, lista de referências bibliográficas, comunicação pessoal e Cochrane Library. Usaram-se, como critério de seleção, os estudos que analisaram algum tipo de rastreamento para GBS em gestantes. Independente do comparador, os resultados apontam que todas as análises foram favoráveis ao programa de screening universal para a redução da incidência de sepse neonatal. Pode-se concluir que evidências obtidas no estudo são sugestivas de que a estratégia de screening universal para as gestantes, associada ao uso de antibiótico profilático, é segura e efetiva.

  2. Desenvolvimento de método analítico de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiencia (CLAE para quantificação de lupeol em nanocápsulas poliméricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Nasser Naves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Um método de cromatografia líquida de alta performance simples, exato e preciso foi desenvolvido para a determinação do lupeol em nanocápsulas poliméricas. A separação cromatográfica foi realizada numa coluna Varian C8 (250 mm x 4,6 mm x 5 mm, mantida a 35°C, fase móvel constituída por acetonitrila e metanol acidificado com ácido acético a 0,1% (95:5 v/v, e taxa de fluxo de 1,2 mL/min, com um volume injeção de amostra de 20 µl e detecção UV a 210 nm, com o tempo de eluição de 6,2 min. O método proposto é linear para a faixa de concentração de 10 a 250 μg/ mL com coeficiente de correlação de 0,9996. As análises de exatidão e precisão demonstraram baixos valores de desvio padrão relativo (< 4,2%. A metodologia foi específica, linear, precisa, exata e robusta, se mostrando capaz de ser aplicada para quantificação de lupeol em nanocápsulas poliméricas.

  3. Validación de métodos analíticos para el control de calidad de naproxeno supositorios Validation of analytical methods for the quality control of Naproxen suppositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaslenis Rodríguez Hernández

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se desarrollaron por primera vez, los métodos de análisis que serán utilizados para el control de calidad de las futuras formulaciones de supositorios de naproxeno, para uso infantil y adulto de producción nacional. Se propuso un método por espectrofotometría ultravioleta directa, el cual resultó específico, lineal, exacto y preciso para su aplicación en el control de calidad del naproxeno en supositorios, teniendo en cuenta la presencia de grupos cromóforos en su estructura. Se modificó el método por volumetría ácido-base semiacuosa directa reportado para control de calidad de la materia prima de naproxeno y se adaptó al control de calidad en los supositorios. A partir del proceso de validación realizado, se demostró la adecuada especificidad frente a los componentes de la formulación, así como su linealidad, exactitud y precisión en el rango de 1 a 3 mg/mL. Se compararon los resultados obtenidos por ambos métodos sin detectar diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las réplicas analizadas por cada dosis, por lo que cualquiera de ellos pueden aplicarse al control de calidad de los supositorios.The analysis methods that will be used for the quality control of the future Cuban-made Naproxen suppositories for adults and children were developed for the first time in this paper. One method based on direct ultraviolet spectrophotometry was put forward, which proved to be specific, linear, accurate and precise for the quality control of Naproxen suppositories, taking into account the presence of chromophore groups in their structure. Likewise, the direct semi-aqueous acid-base volumetry method aimed at the quality control of the Naproxen raw material was changed and adapted to the quality control of suppositories. On the basis of the validation process, there was demonstrated the adequate specificity of this method with respect to the formulation components, as well as its linearity, accuracy and

  4. Prevalência de acidente vascular cerebral em idosos no Município de Vassouras, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, através do rastreamento de dados do Programa Saúde da Família Stroke prevalence among the elderly in Vassouras, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, according to data from the Family Health Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Calmon Nogueira da Gama Pereira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo estimou a prevalência de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC em idosos em Vassouras, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, pelo rastreamento de dados do Programa Saúde da Família (PSF. A população idosa foi escolhida por seu aumento no Brasil e pelo risco do AVC aumentar com a idade. Foram rastreados todos os idosos de Vassouras cadastrados no PSF, identificando os acometidos por AVC e analisando o seu perfil sócio-demográfico. Foram utilizados os dados do Sistema de Informação e Atenção Básica, do censo populacional do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística e a ficha de atendimento padronizada pelo PSF, do Ministério da Saúde. Avaliou-se a qualidade dos diagnósticos de AVC do PSF. No rastreamento, foram encontrados 122 idosos com diagnóstico de AVC, com prevalência de 2,9%, e aumento progressivo com o avançar da idade, sendo a prevalência nos homens (3,2% maior do que nas mulheres (2,7%. A taxa de prevalência foi igual tanto na zona rural quanto na zona urbana (2,9%. O conhecimento da magnitude da prevalência do AVC na população idosa é fundamental para melhor planejamento de saúde.This study estimated the prevalence of stroke among the elderly in Vassouras, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, based on data from the Family Health Program (FHP. The elderly population was chosen since it is growing as a proportion of the general population, and since stroke risk increases with age. Data were screened for all the elderly registered in the FHP in Vassouras, identifying those with a history of stroke and analyzing their socio-demographic profile. The study used data from the Information System on Primary Care, the population census conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE, and the Ministry of Health's standardized FHP patient form. Quality of stroke diagnoses in the FHP was analyzed. Data screening detected 122 elderly with a history of stroke diagnosis (prevalence = 2.9%; 3.2% in men, 2.7% in women

  5. Electrocautery Superior to Topical Treatments for Precancerous Anal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Anal Cancer Treatment Anal Cancer Prevention Research Electrocautery Superior to Topical Treatments for Precancerous Anal Lesions ... randomized clinical trial conducted in Amsterdam suggest that electrocautery is better than topical imiquimod or fluorouracil at ...

  6. Nocturnal faecal soiling and anal masturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A F; Tayler, P J; Bhate, S R

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of late onset faecal soiling as a result of anal masturbation in children who were neither mentally handicapped nor psychotic were studied. The role of soiling in aiding the young person and his family to avoid separating and maturing is highlighted. We suggest that the association of anal masturbation and resistant nocturnal soiling may be unrecognised. PMID:2270946

  7. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV+ men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richel, O.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated several aspects of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) in HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM). This condition has gained clinical interest because of the impressive increase of the anal cancer incidence in HIV+ MSM since the introduction of combination antiretroviral

  8. Neuronal hyperplasia in the anal canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, C; Schrøder, H D

    1990-01-01

    In a consecutive series of minor surgical specimens from the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was found in nine of 56 haemorrhoidectomy specimens and in four of 23 fibrous polyps. In an additional series of 14 resections of the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was present in six cases, of which f...

  9. KRAS and BRAF mutations in anal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup-Hansen, Eva; Linnemann, Dorte; Høgdall, Estrid

    2015-01-01

    the frequency and the prognostic value of KRAS and BRAF mutations in a large cohort of patients with anal cancer. One hundred and ninety-three patients with T1-4N0-3M0-1 anal carcinoma were included in the study. Patients were treated with curative (92%) or palliative intent (8%) between January 2000...

  10. Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos rápidos e de baixo custo utilizando ciclodextrinas para o controle de qualidade de fármacos

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves Cadena, Pabyton

    2009-01-01

    O ácido desoxicólico (DCA) e o ácido ursodesoxicólico (UDCA) são ácidos biliares com inúmeras aplicações farmacêuticas, no entanto, as metodologias empregadas para determinação de suas concentrações são demoradas e onerosas. Neste trabalho foram usadas as ciclodextrinas, oligossacarídeos cíclicos, que têm a capacidade de formar complexos de inclusão no desenvolvimento de uma metodologia colorimétrica, rápida e de baixo custo. Este método é baseado numa reação de complexação com...

  11. Desenvolvimento de metodologia analítica para a investigação de metilenodioxi derivados em amostras de humor vítreo em vítimas fatais de acidentes de trânsito

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Akemi Ishikawa

    2011-01-01

    Os metilenodioxi derivados estão entre as drogas sintéticas de uso ilícito mais consumidas no ocidente, são substâncias que causam alterações motoras e psíquicas e tem causado grande ameaça a segurança no trânsito, pois estes efeitos afetam o desempenho dos condutores, podendo causar acidentes de trânsito. O humor vítreo é uma matriz biológica disponível apenas nas análises postmortem, e é de grande relevância para toxicologia forense. Constitui uma matriz simples, de fácil coleta e manuseio...

  12. Desenvolvimento e validação de metodologias analíticas para quantificação de β-escina em extratos de Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Castanha da Índia)

    OpenAIRE

    Dutra, Lidiane Silva

    2012-01-01

    Todos os povos do mundo fazem uso de plantas medicinais ou de seus derivados, para o tratamento de doenças. Os fitoterápicos são medicamentos obtidos empregando-se, como princípio ativo, exclusivamente matérias-primas vegetais e são caracterizados pelo conhecimento da eficácia e dos riscos de seu uso. No Brasil estes produtos são regulamentados pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) e devem apresentar qualidade, segurança e eficácia. A β-escina é o principal princípio ativo da...

  13. Protofenómeno urbano. Rudimentos analíticos para una aproximación fenoménica al estudio de la percepción de personas en el espacio urbano

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Araneda

    2011-01-01

    Goethe- padre la protofenomenologia, eslabón perdido de la fenomenología y genio tutelar de esta investigaciónafirmaba que "las hipótesis no son sino canciones de cuna con las cuales el profesor envía a sus alumnos a dormir." (Del Solar, 1993). En efecto, para Goethe lo gravitante en ciencia fue siempre, por sobre todo, el establecimiento de un lazo reverente y contemplativo con un objeto de estudio claramente diferenciado. Por esta vía- que al tiempo que erradica toda especulación, hace de l...

  14. Los modelos de niveles múltiples: una estrategia analítica para el estudio de los problemas de salud de la población Multilevel models: an analysis strategy for the study of health problems in society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Luppi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una discusión teórico metodológica sobre la aplicabilidad de modelos de niveles múltiples para el estudio de los procesos de salud/enfermedad, sus determinantes y condicionantes, en función de la estratificación de la sociedad y de las condiciones de vida de sus habitantes. Se recupera una noción de población según la perspectiva de la teoría de los sistemas complejos jerárquicos que busca no reducir la realidad, sino una construcción del problema procurando identificar distintos niveles de abstracción para su abordaje. Estos modelos constituyen una opción que supera las experiencias previas, con la aplicación de técnicas estadísticas convencionales, dado que permiten analizar simultáneamente distintos niveles de agregación conservando su estructura jerárquica. Se consideran la influencia de las variables teniendo en cuenta su pertenencia a unidades mayores y la asociación potencialmente existente entre las unidades de un mismo nivel, es decir, la correlación intraclase entre variables relativas a individuos, familias, grupos, próximos entre sí, que comparten condiciones semejantes. Se evita de este modo sobredimensionar el efecto de las variables de macro nivel. Los modelos de niveles múltiples resultan particularmente adecuados para valorar desigualdades en el proceso salud/enfermedad/atención de los grupos poblacionales y analizar cómo los contextos sociales afectan los resultados y los riesgos de salud individuales. Se destaca la necesidad de desarrollar estrategias de producción de información y de análisis que posibiliten reconocer niveles de explicación y de intervención, para proveer insumos y desencadenar acciones adecuadas a las especificidades locales, a nivel de las micro-áreas, con miras a lograr una mayor equidad en salud.This paper presents the theoretical-methodological discussion about the applicability of multiple level models in the study of the health/sickness process, its

  15. Rastreamento Pré-natal de Anormalidades Cardíacas: Papel da Ultra–sonografia Obstétrica de Rotina renatal Screening of Cardiac Abnormalities: The Role of Routine Obstetrical Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzvi Bacaltchuk

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar o papel da ultra-sonografia obstétrica de rotina no rastreamento pré-natal de cardiopatias congênitas ou arritmias graves e os fatores envolvidos na sua acurácia. Métodos: a amostra foi constituída de 77 neonatos ou lactentes internados no Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul no período de maio a outubro de 2000, com diagnóstico pós-natal confirmado de cardiopatia estrutural ou arritmia grave, que tinham sido submetidos, durante a vida fetal, a pelo menos uma ultra-sonografia obstétrica após a 18ª semana de gestação. Após consentimento informado, um questionário padronizado foi aplicado. As variáveis categóricas (tipo de cardiopatia e a acessibilidade ecográfica para o diagnóstico, alteração do ritmo cardíaco, número de gestações, paridade, abortamentos prévios, estado civil das gestantes, tipo de parto, área de internação hospitalar, sexo, tipo de serviço onde foi realizado o pré-natal, indicação da ultra-sonografia obstétrica, número de ultra-sonografias realizadas, tipo de serviço onde foi realizada a ultra-sonografia obstétrica, local onde foi realizada a ultra-sonografia obstétrica, renda familiar, escolaridade materna e escolaridade paterna foram comparadas pelo teste do chi² ou pelo teste exato de Fisher e um modelo de regressão logística foi utilizado para determinar variáveis independentes eventualmente envolvidas na suspeita pré-natal de cardiopatia. Resultados: em 19 pacientes (24,7%, a ultra-sonografia obstétrica foi capaz de levantar suspeita de anormalidades estruturais ou de arritmias. Ao serem consideradas apenas as cardiopatias congênitas, esta taxa foi de 19,2% (14/73. Em 73,7% dos pacientes com suspeita de anormalidades cardíacas durante a ultra-sonografia obstétrica, as cardiopatias suspeitadas eram acessíveis ao corte de 4 câmaras isolado. Observou-se que 26,3% das crianças com suspeita pré-natal de cardiopatia apresentaram arritmias durante o

  16. Protofenómeno urbano. Rudimentos analíticos para una aproximación fenoménica al estudio de la percepción de personas en el espacio urbano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Araneda

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Goethe- padre la protofenomenologia, eslabón perdido de la fenomenología y genio tutelar de esta investigaciónafirmaba que "las hipótesis no son sino canciones de cuna con las cuales el profesor envía a sus alumnos a dormir." (Del Solar, 1993. En efecto, para Goethe lo gravitante en ciencia fue siempre, por sobre todo, el establecimiento de un lazo reverente y contemplativo con un objeto de estudio claramente diferenciado. Por esta vía- que al tiempo que erradica toda especulación, hace de la hipótesis un instrumento de investigación relativamente redundante- Goethe inauguró la ciencia de los fenómenos primordiales o de los protofenómenos, logro cuyas profundas consecuencias recién comienzan a ser cabal y objetivamente evaluadas por el establishment científico moderno.

  17. Diseño, fabricación y aplicaciones analíticas de nanocelulosa y sus híbridos

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Palomero, Celia

    2017-01-01

    El gran avance nanotecnológico que ha experimentado la Química Analítica en los últimos años ha sido un indicador del grado de bienestar de la sociedad. La multidisciplinaridad de la Nanociencia y Nanotecnología ha sido esencial para el avance de los métodos y herramientas analíticas, así como para llevar a cabo la automatización, simplificación y miniaturización de los procesos analíticos integrados en los laboratorios [1]. En este campo, son muchos los nanomateriales explorados por sus ...

  18. Instalação e resultados preliminares de programa de rastreamento populacional de câncer colorretal em município brasileiro Screening of colorectal cancer in a Brazilian town - preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Oliva Perez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O câncer colorretal é causa de morte de cerca de 500.000 pessoas-ano em todo o mundo, sendo a terceira principal causa de óbito por neoplasia. A mortalidade destes pacientes está diretamente relacionada com o estádio em que é feito o diagnóstico. O rastreamento leva ao diagnóstico precoce, sendo uma forma eficaz de diminuir a mortalidade. OBJETIVO: Estimar qual o efeito de uma campanha de prevenção do câncer colorretal em um município brasileiro, estimar a incidência da doença e antever redução da incidência de CCR a longo prazo. MÉTODOS: O rastreamento consistiu de em realizar o teste de sangue oculto do tipo imunológico (Hemosure®, em toda população acima de 40 anos que estivesse assintomática e que nunca tivesse sido rastreada para câncer colorretal. As pessoas que apresentassem resultado negativo eram cadastradas para exame de controle anual. Já os com positivo eram encaminhados à colonoscopia para avaliar a presença de lesões neoplásicas ou pré-neoplásicas e se presentes seguiam para tratamento. Todos os pacientes deveriam ser seguidos por período de pelo menos 10 anos. Durante quatro dias esteve exposto no Ginásio Desportivo Municipal, o "Intestino Gigante" - réplica do cólon humano criado pela ABRAPRECI - informando de forma clara e expositiva à população quais as principais partes e doenças deste órgão, através de alto-falantes embutidos na sua estrutura. O Hemosure® foi o teste de sangue oculto empregado. Pacientes que apresentaram resultados com necessidade de intervenção cirúrgica ou outro tipo de tratamento eram referenciados para centros especializados próximos RESULTADOS: No período de agosto de 2006 a março de 2007 foram entregues 4.567 Hemosure® para pessoas que atendiam os critérios de inclusão. Esse número correspondeu a 54,8% da população acima de 40 anos do município. Do total, 905 (19,8% não foram devolvidos e 22 (0,5% não puderam ser analisados. Desta forma

  19. A Mouse Model for Human Anal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Marie K.; Pitot, Henry C.; Liem, Amy; Schweizer, Johannes; Mahoney, Charles; Lambert, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    Human anal cancers are associated with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that cause other anogenital cancers and head and neck cancers. As with other cancers, HPV16 is the most common high-risk HPV in anal cancers. We describe the generation and characterization of a mouse model for human anal cancer. This model makes use of K14E6 and K14E7 transgenic mice in which the HPV16 E6 and E7 genes are directed in their expression to stratified squamous epithelia. HPV16 E6 and E7 possess oncogenic properties including but not limited to their capacity to inactivate the cellular tumor suppressors p53 and pRb, respectively. Both E6 and E7 were found to be functionally expressed in the anal epithelia of K14E6/K14E7 transgenic mice. To assess the susceptibility of these mice to anal cancer, mice were treated topically with dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a chemical carcinogen that is known to induce squamous cell carcinomas in other sites. Nearly 50% of DMBA-treated HPV16 E6/E7 transgenic mice showed overt signs of tumors; whereas, none of the like treated non-transgenic mice showed tumors. Histopathological analyses confirmed that the HPV16 transgenic mice were increased in their susceptibility to anal cancers and precancerous lesions. Biomarker analyses demonstrated that these mouse anal cancers exhibit properties that are similar to those observed in HPV-positive precursors to human anal cancer. This is the first mouse model for investigating the contributions of viral and cellular factors in anal carcinogenesis, and should provide a platform for assessing new therapeutic modalities for treating and/or preventing this type of cancer. PMID:20947489

  20. Assertividade e autocontrole: interpretação analítico-comportamental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Marchezini-Cunha

    Full Text Available Questões relacionadas à assertividade têm recebido atenção por parte de terapeutas comportamentais há mais de três décadas. É mais recente, porém, o esforço de terapeutas analítico-comportamentais para examinar problemas dessa ordem com os mesmos recursos conceituais e metodológicos empregados por seus pares da pesquisa básica e conceitual. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo oferecer uma interpretação analítico-comportamental para padrões de comportamento assertivos, agressivos e passivos. Recuperamos algumas definições de assertividade/agressividade/passividade e examinamos os fenômenos correspondentes enquanto relações comportamentais; discutimos alguns aspectos da abordagem analítico-comportamental para o autocontrole; e sugerimos que as relações comportamentais definidas como assertividade/agressividade/passividade podem ser interpretadas enquanto instâncias de autocontrole ou impulsividade. A abordagem pode abrir novas perspectivas de investigação clínica de habilidades sociais sob um enfoque analítico-comportamental.

  1. Validación del método analítico para el control de la calidad y el estudio de estabilidad del neolimpilen Validation of the analytical method for the quality control and the stability study of neolimpilem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad M García Peña

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Se validó el método analítico desarrollado para el control de la calidad y el estudio de estabilidad en la cuantificación de hidroxipropilmetilcelulosa y laurilsulfato de sodio por espectrofotometría con detección ultravioleta a 635 y 650 nm respectivamente. Además, se presentan los resultados analíticos del estudio de estabilidad realizado a la solución para la limpieza y conservación de lentes de contacto rígidos (neolimpilen, con el empleo de 3 lotes envasados en 2 frascos diferentes realizando el estudio por estabilidad acelerada y vida de estante; se comprueba la estabilidad física y química de la solución por espacio de 24 meses a temperatura ambiente. En la validación de la hidroxipropilmetilcelulosa, la curva de calibración en el rango de 0,06 a 0,18 mg/mL se comportó de forma lineal con un coeficiente de correlación igual a 0,99581; la prueba estadística para el intercepto y la pendiente resultó no significativa. Se obtuvo un recobrado del 99,8 % en el rango de concentración estudiado y las pruebas de Cochran´(G y Student´s (t resultaron no significativas. El coeficiente de variación en la repetibilidad se comportó igual a 0,9 % para 10 réplicas ensayadas, mientras que en la reproducibilidad las pruebas de Fischer y Student fueron no significativas. El método resultó específico, lineal, preciso y exacto. Mientras que en la validación del laurilsulfato de sodio la curva de calibración en el rango de 1,44 a 3,0 mg/mL se comportó de forma lineal con un coeficiente de correlación igual a 0,99036; la prueba estadística para el intercepto y la pendiente fue no significativa. Se obtuvo un recobrado del 99,9 % en el rango de concentración estudiado y las pruebas de Cochran´(G y Student´s (t resultaron no significativas. El coeficiente de variación en la repetibilidad se comportó igual a 0,8 % para 8 réplicas ensayadas, mientras que en la reproducibilidad las pruebas de Fischer y Student fueron no

  2. Desenvolvimento e validação de método analítico para nistatina creme vaginal por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência Development and validation of an analytical method for Nystatin vaginal cream by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zênia Maria Maciel Lavra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A nistatina é um antibiótico poliênico, com características fungistáticas e fungicidas, que age desestruturando a membrana celular de fungos e leveduras. O creme vaginal de nistatina é usado para o tratamento da candidíase vaginal. Até recentemente, os compêndios oficiais preconizavam o ensaio microbiológico para doseamento deste antibiótico, método este considerado inviável na rotina de centros de controle de qualidade, devido ao tempo excessivo para liberação dos resultados. Visando obter um método alternativo para o doseamento do creme vaginal de nistatina, procurou-se desenvolver e validar um método cromatográfico (CLAE. O método desenvolvido utilizou como fase estacionária uma coluna de fase reversa, C18, 3,9 x 150 mm, 4 mm, à temperatura de 30 ºC. A fase móvel foi constituída por tampão fosfato de sódio 0,25 mM e EDTA 0,025 mM, pH 6,00, metanol e acetonitrila (40:30:30, vazão de 1,0 mL/minuto e comprimento de onda 305 nm. O método validado revelou-se exato, preciso, robusto, linear e específico, além de rápido e prático, podendo ser utilizado para o doseamento analítico de creme vaginal de nistatina.Nystatin is a polyenic antibiotic with fungistatic and fungicide characteristics that acts by de-structuring the cellular membrane of fungi and yeast. The nystatin vaginal cream is used for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis. Until recently, the official compendia professed the microbiological trial for dosing this antibiotic, method considered as non-feasible in the routine of quality control centers due to the excessive time for release of results. Aiming at obtaining an alternative method for dosing nystatin vaginal cream, a chromatographic method (HPLC was developed and validated. The method developed used a reversible phase column of C18, 3.9 x 150 mm, 4 mm, at 30 ºC. The mobile phase was made up of a 0.25 mM sodium phosphate buffer and 0.025 mM EDTA, pH 6.00, methanol and acetonitrile (40:30:30, rate of

  3. O terapêutico e o analítico em Freud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Anciães Darriba

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo investigar, na obra de Freud, a demarcação que se institui entre o terapêutico e o analítico. Tal investigação enfoca, primeiramente, a passagem da hipnose à associação livre e o direcionamento do autor à questão da causa, o que estabelece uma visada para a cura analítica em confluência com o que se desdobra da exploração do campo do inconsciente e da consideração de um domínio pulsional. Delimitados por esta via os objetivos terapêuticos e analíticos, interroga-se, em seguida, como a dimensão do terapêutico se veria reintroduzida nos termos da nova direção de cura proposta por Freud.

  4. Proposta de um instrumento para avaliar eventos adversos em odontologia

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    Claudia Dolores Trierweiler Sampaio de Oliveira Corrêa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O objetivo deste estudo foi propor um conjunto de rastreadores para a pesquisa de eventos adversos em odontologia ambulatorial no Brasil. O instrumento foi elaborado em duas etapas: (i para construir um conjunto preliminar de rastreadores foi realizada uma revisão da literatura, a fim de identificar a composição das ferramentas de rastreamento utilizadas nas demais áreas da saúde e os principais eventos adversos encontrados em odontologia; (ii para validar os rastreadores preliminarmente construídos foi organizado um painel de especialistas empregando o método Delphi modificado. Foram elaborados quatorze rastreadores para compor um instrumento com critérios explícitos para identificar potenciais eventos adversos no cuidado odontológico, essenciais para os estudos de revisão retrospectiva de prontuários. Pesquisas relacionadas à segurança do paciente em odontologia ainda são bastante incipientes em relação às demais áreas da saúde. Este trabalho pretendeu contribuir para a investigação nesse campo. O aporte da literatura e a ajuda da expertise do painel de especialistas permitiram a elaboração de um conjunto de rastreadores para a detecção de eventos adversos odontológicos, no entanto, são necessários estudos adicionais para testar a validade do instrumento.

  5. Keratosis reduces sensitivity of anal cytology in detecting anal intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElNaggar, Adam C; Santoso, Joseph T; Xie, Huiwen Bill

    2012-02-01

    To identify factors that may contribute to poor sensitivity of anal cytology in contrast to the sensitivity of anoscopy in heterosexual women. We analyzed 324 patients with biopsy confirmed diagnosis of genital intraepithelial neoplasia (either vulva, vaginal, or cervical) from 2006 to 2011 who underwent both anal cytology and anoscopy. Cytology, anoscopy, and biopsy results were recorded. Biopsy specimens underwent independent analysis for quality of specimen. Also, biopsy specimens were analyzed for characteristics that may contribute to correlation, or lack thereof, between anal cytology and anoscopic directed biopsy. 133 (41%) patients had abnormal anoscopy and underwent directed biopsy. 120 patients with normal anal cytology had anoscopy directed biopsies, resulting in 58 cases of AIN (sensitivity 9.4%; 0.039-0.199). This cohort was noted to have extensive keratosis covering the entire dysplastic anal lesion. 18 patients yielded abnormal anal cytology. Of these patients, 13 had anoscopic directed biopsies revealing 6 with AIN and absent keratosis (specificity 88.6%; 0.78-0.95). The κ statistic for anal cytology and anoscopy was -0.0213 (95% CI=-0.128-0.086). Keratosis reduces the sensitivity of anal cytology. Furthermore, anal cytology poorly correlates with anoscopy in the detection of AIN (κ statistic=-0.0213). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Implantação de rotinas de rastreamento do uso de risco de álcool e de uma intervenção breve na atenção primária à saúde: dificuldades a serem superadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronzani Telmo Mota

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista os diversos problemas associados ao assim chamado uso de risco de álcool, ele é considerado uma relevante questão de saúde pública. Uma das estratégias de prevenção secundária recomendadas é a utilização de instrumentos de rastreamento associados a intervenções breves em serviços de atenção primária à saúde. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o processo de implantação desta estratégia na rotina de atenção primária à saúde da cidade de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foi utilizada uma abordagem qualitativa, incluindo a aplicação de entrevistas semi-estruturadas a gestores e/ou profissionais da assistência do Sistema Municipal de Saúde, associadas à análise de conteúdo e observação participante. Os resultados indicam que há dificuldades para a implantação efetiva destas rotinas, tanto em relação aos gestores quanto aos profissionais envolvidos diretamente na sua execução. Quanto aos profissionais destacam-se a restrição da abordagem a dependentes de álcool e a falta de motivação dos profissionais para trabalhos preventivos. Quanto aos gestores, foram detectadas dificuldades práticas no processo de organização e gerenciamento, a despeito de um afirmado interesse no projeto.

  7. Desenvolvimento e validação de método analítico em CLAE-UV para a quantificação de ácido retinóico em microcápsulas de alginato e quitosana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Toledo Velloso

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O ácido retinóico (AR tem sido utilizado para o tratamento de acne severa, rugas, estrias e celulite, no entanto, provoca irritação na pele e sofre rápida degradação quando exposto à luz e ao calor. Métodos analíticos rápidos para quantificação do AR são, portanto, necessários para ensaios de cinética de liberação in vitro. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e validar um método rápido e sensível para o doseamento do AR em microcápsulas de alginato/quitosana contendo óleo de babaçu dispersas em gel natrosol® por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência associada à espectroscopia UV e aplicá-lo na avaliação do perfil de liberação in vitro dessas formulações. As análises foram realizadas em modo isocrático utilizando coluna C18 de fase reversa 150 x 4,6 mm (5 μm com detecção a 350 nm. A fase móvel foi constituída de metanol e ácido acético 1% (85:15 v/v com vazão de 1,8 mL/minuto. A faixa de linearidade do método foi de 0,5 a 60 μg/mL (r² = 0,999. O método validado mostrou-se sensível, específico, exato, preciso, de baixo custo e o tempo de retenção do AR foi de 5,8 ± 0,4 minutos sendo, desta forma, mais rápido do que os relatados na literatura.Retinoic acid (RA has been used in the treatment of severe acne, wrinkles and cellulite. However, it induces skin irritation and rapidly suffers degradation under light and high temperate exposure. Rapid analytical methods to quantify retinoic acid are therefore mandatory for in vitro drug release studies. In this framework, the aim of this study was to develop and validate a rapid and responsive method to quantify the RA in microcapsules of chitosan and alginate containing babassu oil dispersed in natrosol® hydrogel using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Furthermore this method was used to quantify in vitro release kinetics of RA from microcapsules. The analyses have been carried through an isocratic HPLC-UV method

  8. Método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución para la determinación de carbamazepina en plasma humano Analytical method by high resolution liquid chromatography for the determination of carbamazepine in human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narda M. Jiménez Alemán

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre los requisitos para desarrollar los estudios de biodisponibilidad y bioequivalencia se encuentra contar con metodologías analíticas validadas para el trabajo con muestras en fluidos biológicos. Se desarrolló un método por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución para la determinación de carbamazepina en plasma humano, se utilizó como fase móvil una mezcla de hidrógeno fosfato de sodio: acetonitrilo (65:35 ajustada a pH= 3,3 con ácido fosfórico, flujo de 1,2 mL/min y detección ultravioleta a 210 nm. Se empleó propilparabeno como estándar interno. Conforme con las regulaciones establecidas para la validación de métodos en fluidos biológicos se estudiaron los parámetros siguientes: estabilidad de las muestras, linealidad, especificidad, precisión, exactitud y límite de detección y cuantificación. El método resultó específico y sensible con un límite de detección y cuantificación de 0,9 y 1,0 ng, respectivamente. El método fue lineal, preciso y exacto en el rango de concentraciones de 1,07 a 12,67 µg/mL. La recuperación media no fue estadísticamente diferente del 100,0 %. El analito en la matriz biológica propuesta permaneció en el periodo estudiado. La metodología descrita en este trabajo se aplica en nuestro caso al estudio que evalúa la biodisponibilidad y bioequivalencia de una formulación cubana de carbamazepina en voluntarios sanos.One of the requirements to develop the studies of bioavailability and bioequivalence is to have analytic methodologies validated for the work with samples in biological fluids. A method was developed by high resolution liquid chromatography for the determination of carbamazepine in human plasma. A mixture of hydrogen phosphate of sodium: acetonitrile (65:35 adjusted to pH= 3.3 with phosphoric acid, flow of 1.2 mL/min and ultraviolet detection at 210 nm, was used as mobile phase. Propylparabene was used as an internal standard. According to the established regulations for

  9. Rastreamento e diagnóstico ecocardiográfico das arritmias e cardiopatias congênitas fetais Screening and echocardiographic diagnosis of arrhythmias and congenital heart diseases in the fetus

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    Sandra Regina Marques Carvalho

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar os resultados obtidos em programa de rastreamento e diagnóstico de arritmias e cardiopatias congênitas centrado em uma unidade terciária e determinar a importância do diagnóstico precoce na evolução fetal e neonatal. MÉTODOS: foram analisados os resultados da avaliação cardíaca fetal efetuada em 1159 gestantes em dois níveis diferentes. Nível I: uso da ultra-sonografia morfológica com o objetivo de rastrear a presença de alteração cardíaca, sem estabelecer um diagnóstico diferencial. Nível II: por ecocardiograma fetal com o objetivo de diagnosticar as cardiopatias fetais existentes. Os resultados da detecção de arritmias bem como da avaliação das alterações estruturais foram comparados, sendo estabelecidas a sensibilidade e a especificidade para ambos os níveis no pré-natal, ao exame pós-natal ou à necropsia. A concordância entre ambos os níveis foi calculada pelo índice kappa. RESULTADOS: as arritmias detectadas no nível I foram confirmadas em todos os casos e não houve falso-negativos, sendo que em cinco pacientes houve necessidade de tratamento intra-útero. A detecção das alterações estruturais obtidas no nível I teve sensibilidade de 72% e especificidade de 98%, com 28% de falso-positivos. No nível II estes parâmetros foram, respectivamente, de 100 e 99%. De acordo com o coeficiente kappa de 57%, um grau de concordância de categoria moderada foi observado entre ambos os níveis. Das cardiopatias congênitas da nossa série 51% necessitaram intervenção farmacológica ou invasiva no período neonatal. CONCLUSÃO: o estudo ultra-sonográfico obstétrico é fundamental no rastreamento das alterações cardíacas fetais. O ecocardiograma fetal apresentou alto índice de sensibilidade e especificidade no diagnóstico das arritmias e cardiopatias congênitas, possibilitando o tratamento precoce das alterações graves.PURPOSE: to analyze the results of a screening and diagnostic

  10. ANAL SPHINCTER INJURIES (OASIS AT DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Jakopič

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anal incontinence severely impairs quality of life. It affects 4 to 19 % of women and is statistically related to number of vaginal deliveries. It is grossly underreported and most patients that do seek help are referred to gastroenterologists or colorectal surgeons. Incidence of recognized sphincter injuries at time of delivery is 1 to 2 %. However studies with anal ultrasound showed incidence of anal sphincter injuries at 28 to 41 %. Depending on the degree of injury symptoms range from partial to complete inability to control passing of winds, liquid or solid stools. About three thirds of patients are asymp- tomatic in puerperium, however half of them are at risk of developing anal incontinence in later life. Hypoestrogenisem, additional perineal trauma during consequent deliveries and sphincter atrophy can unmask anal sphincter damage years later. Timely recognition and treatment are vital for good long term results and quality of life, if possible immediately after delivery. Good knowledge of perineal anatomy, recognition of risk factors, intense search and appropriate treatment and follow-up are essential to management of anal sphincter injuries. All secondary sphincter repair is less effective. Content: Updated overview of current opinion and guidelines on anal sphincter injuries are pre- sented. Anal sphincter is composed of external anal sphincter (EAS and internal anal sphincter (IAS. Striated EAS is divided into three parts – subcutaneous, superficial, deep, and con- nected to puborectalis muscle posteriorly. Smooth-muscled IAS is a continuation of a cir- cular smooth-muscle layer of rectum. In between there is a thin longitudinal muscle layer. IAS constitutes 70 % of resting tone and is under constant contraction. EAS contributes to 30 % of resting tone and almost all pressure during active contraction. EAS injury leads to insufficient contraction after rectal sampling and filling which causes urgency – patient can

  11. Anal incontinence after two vaginal deliveries without obstetric anal sphincter rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Lisa K G; Sakse, Abelone; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate prevalence and risk factors for long-term anal incontinence in women with two prior vaginal deliveries without obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) and to assess the impact of anal incontinence-related symptoms on quality of life. METHODS: This is a nation-wide cross......-sectional survey study. One thousand women who had a first vaginal delivery and a subsequent delivery, both without OASIS, between 1997 and 2008 in Denmark were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Women with more than two deliveries in total till 2012 were excluded at this stage. Of the 1000 women...... affected their quality of life. No maternal or obstetric factors including episiotomy and vacuum extraction were consistently associated with altered risk of anal incontinence in the multivariable analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Anal incontinence and fecal urgency is reported by one fifth of women with two vaginal...

  12. Desenvolvimento e validação de método analítico para quantificação de diclofenaco de dietilamônio em pele humana por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSé ALEXSANDRO SILVA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido e validado neste estudo um método analítico para quantificação de diclofenaco de dietilamônio em pele humana por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, segundo a Resolução 899/2003 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA. Empregou-se cromatografia em fase reversa com coluna C18 150 x 4,6 mm, 5 µm Shimpack®, à temperatura de 40 ºC e fase móvel, constituída por mistura de acetonitrila e tampão fosfato de sódio 20 mM pH 3,0 (70:30, v/v com fluxo de 1,2 mL min-1. Os analitos foram detectados por UV a 280 nm e o método foi especifico, preciso, exato, robusto e linear no intervalo de 0,05 a 20 µg mL-1 (R2 = 0,998, mostrando que pode ser utilizado em estudos de penetração cutânea in vitro tendo como modelo de membrana a pele humana. Palavras-chave: Diclofenaco dietilamônio. Retenção cutânea. Validação. ABSTRACT Development and validation of an analytical method for quantitation of diclofenac diethylamine in human skin by high performance liquid chromatography An analytical method has been developed and validated for the quantitation of diclofenac diethylamine (DDA in human skin by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, in accordance with Regulation 899/2003 of the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency (ANVISA. The HPLC column was a reversed-phase Shimpack® C18, with a 5 µm particle bed, measuring 150 x 4.6 mm i.d., eluted isocratically at 40C with 20 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 3.0:acetonitrile (30:70, v/v, the mobile phase flowing at 1.2 mL min-1. Analytes were measured by a UV detector set at 280 nm. The results revealed that the method was specific, precise, accurate, robust and linear (R2=0.998 in the range from 0.05 to 20 µg mL-1. Therefore, it can safely be used to assess DDA in vitro penetration of human skin in kinetic studies. Keywords: Diclofenac diethylamine. Human skin retention. Validation.

  13. Análise e visualização de dados de rastreamento para caracterização da logística urbana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Faias Laranjeiro de Andrade

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to apply GPS (Global Positioning System data analysis and visualization techniques in order to understand the urban logistics' behavior in some cities of Brazil, through logistical indicators such as distribution of delivery points, volume of distribu­tion of trucks over time (day and time of day, etc. For that, two distinct databases of vehicle tracking were used: the first provided by two large retailers that already had such data for risk management and monitoring of drivers' behavior; and the second one belongs to a map services provider whose data is derived from several companies, mostly vehicle tracking companies. To process this amount of data, it was necessary to use geospatial big data analysis tools. In both databases, it was possible to analyze, for the period 06-10 of October 2014 (Monday to Friday, the volume distribution pattern per day, and the results point to a smaller volume of vehicles circulating on Monday in comparison to other working days (Tuesday to Friday.

  14. Os Tipos Psicológicos Na Psicologia Analítica De Carl Gustav Jung E O Inventário De Personalidade “myers-briggs Type Indicator (mbti)”: Contribuições Para A Psicologia Educacional, Organizacional E Clínicathe Psychological Types In Analytical Psychology O

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Marcelo Alves Ramos

    2008-01-01

    O texto apresenta os princípios da Teoria dos Tipos Psicológicos, a mais conhecida face da Psicologia Analítica do psicólogo e psiquiatra suíço Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), bem como os fundamentos do Inventário de Personalidade “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)”, constituído a partir da tipologia junguiana, e que vem sendo cada vez mais utilizado nos campos da Psicologia Educacional, Organizacional e Clínica. Palavras-chave Psicologia analítica; Teorias da personalidade; Tipos psicol...

  15. HPV infection, anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN and anal cancer: current issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Margaret A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV is well known as the major etiological agent for ano-genital cancer. In contrast to cervical cancer, anal cancer is uncommon, but is increasing steadily in the community over the last few decades. However, it has undergone an exponential rise in the men who have sex with men (MSM and HIV + groups. HIV + MSM in particular, have anal cancer incidences about three times that of the highest worldwide reported cervical cancer incidences. Discussion There has therefore traditionally been a lack of data from studies focused on heterosexual men and non-HIV + women. There is also less evidence reporting on the putative precursor lesion to anal cancer (AIN – anal intraepithelial neoplasia, when compared to cervical cancer and CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. This review summarises the available biological and epidemiological evidence for HPV in the anal site and the pathogenesis of AIN and anal cancer amongst traditionally non-high risk groups. Summary There is strong evidence to conclude that high-grade AIN is a precursor to anal cancer, and some data on the progression of AIN to invasive cancer.

  16. Endosonographic and manometric assessment of the anal sphincters after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudol-Szopinska, I.; Jakubowski, W.; Ciesielski, A.; Bielecki, K.; Baczuk, L.; Tarnowski, W.

    2003-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to compare endosonography and manometry of the anal sphincters in patients after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). Patients and methods. Ten patients aged between 23 and 50 years with IPAA performed for ulcerative colitis were examined with anal endosonography (AES) and manometry. Results. AES visualised abnormal image of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) in 9 patients (90%). Defects of the external anal sphincter (EAS) and puborectalis muscle (PR) were shown in 4 patients (40%). In 5 patients (50%) correlation between endosonographic and manometric assessment for the all analysed muscles: IAS, EAS and PR was found. In 4 cases (40%) both methods correlated with the evaluation of the EAS only and in 1 patient (10%) no correlation was found. Correlation between both methods for the IAS was found in half of the patients (50%) while in the evaluation of the EAS and PR dynamic activity, it was found in 9 cases (90%). Conclusions. Anal endosonography and manometry allow us to assess the morphology as well as the function of the anal sphincters in patients with IPAA. The methods mentioned above show high correlation in the assessment of the EAS function (9 cases; 90%) whereas in the case of IAS, manometry frequently (5 patients; 50%) does not confirm endosonografically detected defects. (author)

  17. Chronic anal fissure: morphometric analysis of the anal canal at 3.0 Tesla MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, Ayşe; Peker, Elif; Gençtürk, Zeynep Bıyıklı

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTıVE: To compare the morphometric data relating to the muscular structures of the anal canal, in patients with chronic anal fissure and in control group, examined at a 3.0 Tesla MR system. Forty-seven consecutive patients with chronic anal fissure and randomly selected 40 patients who had no claims for perianal disease during their life time were included in the study. T2-weighted sagittal, high-resolution (HR) T2-weighted, and contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted oblique axial and oblique coronal images were retrospectively analyzed by two observers in consensus. Thickness of sphincteric muscles, anal canal length, anorectal angle, thickness of anococcygeal ligament, depth of Minor triangle, width between subcutaneous sphincters, vascularity of posterior commissure, visibility of posterosuperior projection of external sphincter, and angle between the distal anal canal and posterosuperior projection of external sphincter (H angle) in patients and in controls were compared and analyzed using t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Spearman correlation. The patients with chronic anal fissure had longer anal canal (51.50 mm ± 0.91 vs. 44.11 mm ± 0.71; p = 0.000), thicker internal anal sphincter muscle at mid-anal level (4.18 ± 0.15 vs. 3.39 ± 0.07; p = 0.007), and wider space between subcutaneous external sphincters (11.39 ± 0.50 vs. 6.89 ± 0.22; p = 0.000). In patients, there was a positive correlation between H angle and external sphincter thickness at proximal (r = 0.347; p = 0.021), middle (r = 0427; p = 0.000), and distal (r = 0.518; p = 0.000)) levels of the anal canal. CONCLUSıON: 3.0 Tesla MR imaging provides detailed information about the morphometric changes in the anal sphincter muscles in patients with chronic anal fissure.

  18. Anal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anal cancer is uncommon, but often curable with treatment. Treatments include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery. Get detailed information about anal cancer including risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment in this expert-reviewed summary.

  19. Seoseid loov kunstiteose analüüs / Anneli Porri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Porri, Anneli, 1980-

    2013-01-01

    Kunstiteose analüüsi seosest riikliku õppekavaga, ülevaade kunstiteose analüüsimeetoditest kunstiteaduses ning metoodilistest tähelepanekutest kunsti ja visuaalkultuuri kujutiste vaatamise kohta gümnaasiumi kunstitunnis

  20. Candidíase vulvovaginal: sintomatologia, fatores de risco e colonização anal concomitante Vulvovaginal candidiasis: symptomatology, risk factors and concomitant anal colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Arildo Reginaldo de Holanda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal quanto a sintomatologia, fatores de risco e resultados da cultura anal, identificar a freqüência de Candida albicans e não C. albicans e correlacionar as colonizações anal e vaginal. MÉTODOS: foram incluídas 99 pacientes com suspeita clínica de candidiase vulvovaginal, procedentes de Natal, RN, atendidas entre maio de 2003 e maio de 2005, perfazendo-se o total de 294 coletas. O material clínico, colhido por zaragatoas, foi semeado em CHROMagar Candida®. As leveduras foram identificadas pelo método clássico, além da prova de crescimento a 42 e 45ºC e da prova do caldo Sabouraud hipertônico. A sintomatologia, fatores de risco e colonização anal foram analisados de acordo com a positividade ou negatividade para Candida spp. As culturas positivas para C. albicans nos dois sítios foram comparadas com outros resultados encontrados. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o teste do chi2, com correção de Yates e o teste exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: a espécie mais frequente foi C. albicans em 69% dos casos. Uso de roupas íntimas justas e/ou sintéticas, presença de doenças alérgicas, ocorrência de prurido, leucorréia e hiperemia apresentaram associação com a positividade vaginal para Candida spp. A chance de uma paciente com colonização anal positiva de apresentar positividade vaginal concomitante foi 2,8 e 4,9 vezes maior, respectivamente, para Candida spp e C. albicans. A chance de uma paciente com cultura anal positiva para C. albicans de apresentar resultado vaginal positivo foi 3,7 vezes maior quando comparada a espécies não C. albicans. CONCLUSÕES: C. albicans foi a espécie mais comum, tendo sido observada associação da positividade vaginal para Candida spp com uso de roupas justas e/ou sintéticas, doenças alérgicas, prurido, leucorréia e eritema (pPURPOSE: to analyze patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis with respect to risk factors, symptomatology

  1. Avaliação manométrica anal de crianças com encoprese Anal manometric evaluation of children with encopresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Prolungatti Cesar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A constipação crônica é doença comum na infância, ocorrendo em 5 a 10% dos pacientes pediátricos, considerada a segunda maior causa de procura nos consultórios de pediatria, sendo a encoprese decorrente de constipação grave associada à impactação fecal no reto. Dentre os exames diagnósticos, a manometria anal é utilizada para a avaliação de pacientes com distúrbios funcionais, como a constipação intestinal e a incontinência fecal, em alguns serviços para a avaliação de pacientes com encoprese, pois pode trazer informações sobre o mecanismo evacuatório e possíveis lesões esfincterianas anais. OBJETIVO: Verificar alterações manométricas em pacientes com encoprese. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo de 40 manometrias anais de crianças constipadas com encoprese (G1 e 12 crianças constipados sem encoprese (G2. Foram obtidos os seguintes dados: pressões de repouso, contração e evacuação do canal anal e ampola retal, ponto de maior pressão, reflexo inibitório anal e sensibilidade retal. As manometrias foram realizadas com o aparelho Alacer de perfusão com 8 canais. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças nas pressões de repouso, contração e evacuação do canal anal entre os grupos. Chamou-nos a atenção a ausência de necessidade de maior volume retal para desencadear o reflexo inibitório anal. Não houve diferença da incidência de anismus entre os dois grupos, demonstrando que não se trata de fator importante na manutenção da encoprese, mas sim da constipação. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve necessidade de maior volume para desencadear o reflexo inibitório anal. O anismus não foi diferente entre os dois grupos, não sendo importante na manutenção da encoprese.INTRODUCTION: Chronic constipation is a common childhood disorder that affects 5 to 10% of pediatric patients, being the second most common cause for seeking medical help, with the encopresis arising out of severe constipation

  2. Comparación de métodos analíticos para la determinación de materia orgánica en suelos de la región Andino-Patagónica: efectos de la vegetación y el tipo de suelo Comparison of analytical methods for determining soil organic matter in Patagonian Andean Region: effects of vegetation and soil types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila La Manna

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La determinación de la materia orgánica (MO resulta fundamental para el conocimiento de la productividad agrícola y forestal de los suelos. En este estudio se evaluó la relación entre los contenidos de materia orgánica (MO determinados por pérdida por ignición (MO PI y combustión húmeda de Walkley-Black (MO CH en suelos de la Región Andino Patagónica. La relación se evaluó para suelos volcánicos con y sin aluminosilicatos amorfos y con distintos tipos de vegetación: plantaciones de Pinus ponderosa, bosques de Austrocedrus chilensis, arbustales, estepa arbustiva y estepa herbácea. Se seleccionaron 100 sitios de muestreo, donde se tomaron muestras compuestas del horizonte A para la determinación de MO CH y MO PI. Los datos fueron analizados mediante análisis de varianza y regresiones simples. MO CH fue siempre inferior a MO PI. Esto es esperable dado que MO PI incluye la MO total, mientras que MO CH discrimina las formas de carbono fuertemente condensadas. Si bien no se detectaron diferencias en la relación entre los métodos analíticos para suelos con y sin aluminosilicatos amorfos, sí existió una fuerte relación entre la presencia de estos y los contenidos absolutos de MO. La relación entre los métodos analíticos varió según el tipo de vegetación. Los suelos que sustentan vegetación de estepa herbácea y plantación de pino ponderosa presentaron las mayores diferencias entre los dos métodos analíticos. MO CH fue, en promedio, un 37% inferior a MO PI para estos tipos de vegetación, siendo significativamente superior a lo hallado en arbustales (26%. Los suelos con bosque denso de Austrocedrus chilensis y estepa arbustiva presentaron valores intermedios (30 y 35%, respectivamente. Las plantaciones de pino ponderosa (primera rotación, edad promedio 21 años fueron realizadas en áreas de estepa herbácea. Las similitudes encontradas entre ambos suelos podrían estar asociadas a características de la MO propias del

  3. Rastreamento e diagnóstico das neoplasias de ovário: papel dos marcadores tumorais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Candido dos Reis

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O câncer de ovário é a neoplasia ginecológica mais letal e a sobrevida global é inferior a 40% em cinco anos. Isto ocorre principalmente porque a maioria das pacientes apresenta estadios avançados no momento do diagnóstico. Nestes casos as opções terapêuticas - citorredução e quimioterapia - são apenas parcialmente efetivas. Quando diagnosticado precocemente, por outro lado, a sobrevida em cinco anos é superior a 90% e a cirurgia geralmente é o único tratamento necessário. No entanto, em função da baixa prevalência do câncer de ovário na população, mesmo testes muito específicos produzem altas taxas de resultados falso-positivos e aumento de intervenções cirúrgicas para abordar massas anexiais assintomáticas. Com base nestes fatos, é essencial a busca de métodos e estratégias para se detectar estes tumores em estádios iniciais e ao mesmo tempo evitar intervenções desnecessárias. Neste artigo são revisadas as bases e as possíveis conseqüências de estratégias para a detecção precoce dos tumores ovarianos. São discutidos os principais métodos disponíveis e os resultados de alguns estudos com este objetivo.Ovarian cancer is the most letal gynecologic tumor, the 5-year survival is less than 40%. The main reason is the advanced stage at the moment of the diagnosis. In these cases the therapeutic options, citorreductive surgery and chemotherapy, are not completely effective. On the other hand, 5-year survival for early stage ovarian cancer is higher than 90%, and most of the times the surgery is the only treatment needed. However, because of the low prevalence of ovarian cancer in the general population, even tests with high specificity present many false positive results and eventually an increase in surgical procedures to investigate asymptomatic adnexal masses. Based on these facts the search for methods and strategies to diagnose early stage ovarian cancer and at the same time to avoid unnecessary

  4. AVALIAÇÃO DO DESEMPENHO DO SISTEMA DE RASTREAMENTO POR RÁDIO FREQUÊNCIA INSTALADO EM CÂMARA DE PREFERÊNCIA / EVALUATION OF TRACKING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE BY RADIO FREQUENCY INSTALLED IN PREFERENCE CHAMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Maia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de rastreamento de toda a cadeia produtiva de animais estão cada vez mais presentes. Assim, todas as etapas do processo produtivo podem ser monitoradas por meio de sistemas inteligentes que auxiliam com precisão na tomada de decisão, maximizando todo o sistema. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho do sistema de identificação eletrônica por radio frequência (RFID do tipo tag passivo instalado em uma câmara de preferência ambiental (CPA quanto à detecção dos movimentos de frangos de corte, e foi realizado em duas partes: 1 Detecção do alcance das antenas utilizando um robô; 2 Rastreamento do movimento de frangos de corte entre os compartimentos da CPA. Observou-se que o sinal de RFID emitido pela etiqueta pode ser lido a aproximadamente 10 cm de distância da antena, identificando uma zona de não detecção. Portanto, o sistema RFID instalado na CPA não apresentou o desempenho esperado, e esta tecnologia deve ser replanejada ou substituída.

  5. Contribuição para a padronização química de Hancornia speciosa Gomes: desenvolvimento e validação de métodos analíticos para a quantificação de marcadores químicos

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Barbara Dias Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Hancornia speciosa Gomes, popularmente conhecida como mangaba, tem uso etnomédico para o tratamento de hipertensão e diabetes, entre outros. A potencial atividade anti-hipertensiva da espécie foi relatada em trabalhos anteriores de nosso grupo em modelos in vitro, ex vivo e in vivo, sendo rutina, L-(+)-bornesitol e ácido quínico identificados como constituintes bioativos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo uantificar os principais constituintes químicos em extratos de folhas da espécie, v...

  6. Psicoterapia Analítica Funcional feminista: possibilidades de um encontro

    OpenAIRE

    fideles, marcela nayara duarte; Vandenberghe, Luc

    2015-01-01

    O presente estudo reflete sobre o encontro dos posicionamentos da Terapia Feminista (TF) e da Psicoterapia Analítica Funcional (Functional Analytic Psychotherapy – FAP) na clínica. Um estudo de literatura foi feito para comparar seus estilos clínicos. Sua compatibilidade destacou-se quanto ao manejo da relação terapêutica, à inclusão de elementos sociais e culturais, à ênfase sobre a aquisição de habilidades para modificar o ambiente, ao fato de o terapeuta e o cliente assumirem seus valores ...

  7. Rastreamento da depressão pós-parto em mulheres atendidas pelo Programa de Saúde da Família Post-partum depression screening among women attended by the Family Health Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Bezerra da Silva Cruz

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: estimar a prevalência de depressão puerperal (DP sua associação com transtorno mental comum (TMC nas mulheres atendidas por duas unidades do Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF da cidade de São Paulo e identificar os fatores de risco associados à DP. MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal com 70 puérperas atendidas nas Unidades do PSF, Fazenda da Juta II e Jardim Sinhá, entre outubro de 2003 e fevereiro de 2004. Como instrumentos utilizaram-se: questionário com informações sociodemográficas econômicas e dados obstétricos e perinatais; Self-Report Questionnaire 20 (SRQ-20, para rastreamento de TMC e a Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale (EPDS, para avaliação de DP. Para testar as associações entre variáveis explicativas (fatores de risco e a presença de DP foram utilizados os testes t de Student, chi2 e chi2 de tendência linear, quando indicados. Para avaliar a concordância entre a EPDS e o SRQ foi utilizado o coeficiente de concordância kappa (kapa. RESULTADOS: a prevalência de TMC e de DP foi de 37,1%. As escalas apresentaram boa concordância (kapa = 0,75. As variáveis explicativas idade materna, cor, escolaridade, ocupação e estado civil, além de idade, ocupação e instrução do companheiro, renda familiar, número de gestações, paridade, abortamentos, filhos vivos, partos prematuros, idade gestacional, tipo do parto, planejamento da gestação, Apgar de 1º e 5º minuto, sexo e peso do recém-nascido e aleitamento materno não apresentaram significância estatística. Quanto maior a percepção de suporte social do marido, menor a prevalência de DP (p=0,03. CONCLUSÃO: devido à alta prevalência e impacto negativo sobre a mãe e seu filho, é valioso sensibilizar o profissional de saúde para a importância da DP.PURPOSE: to estimate the prevalence of Family Health Program postpartum depression (PPD and its association with minor mental disorders (MMD among women attended in two (FHP PSF units

  8. Complex anal fistulas: plug or flap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlmann, Mark D; Hayes, Julian L; Merrie, Arend E H; Parry, Bryan R; Bissett, Ian P

    2011-10-01

    Rectal mucosal advancement flaps (RMAF) and fistula plugs (FP) are techniques used to manage complex anal fistulas. The purpose of this study was to review and compare the results of these methods of repair. A retrospective review of all complex anal fistulas treated by either a RMAF or a FP at Auckland City Hospital from 2004 to 2008. Comparisons were made in terms of successful healing rates, time to failure and the use of magnetic resonance imaging. Overall, 70 operations were performed on 55 patients (55.7% male). The mean age was 44.9 years. Twenty-one patients (30%) had had at least one previous unsuccessful repair. Indications for repair included 57 high cryptoglandular anal (81%), 4 Crohn's anal (6%), 7 rectovaginal (10%), 1 rectourethral (1%) and 1 pouch-vaginal fistula (1%). All patients were followed up with a mean of 4.5 months. Forty-eight RMAFs (69% of total) were performed with 16 successful repairs (33%). Twenty-two FPs (31% of total) were performed with 7 successful repairs (32%, P = 0.9). In failed repairs, there was no difference in terms of mean time to failure (RMAF 4.8 months versus FP 4.1 months, P = 0.62). Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 21 patients (37%) before the repair. The success rate in these patients was 20%. The results of treatment of complex anal fistulas are disappointing. The choice of operation of either a RMAF or a FP did not alter the poor healing rates of about one third of patients in each group.

  9. Nanopartículas como herramientas analíticas y estudios toxicológicos asociados

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero-Díaz, E.

    2014-01-01

    Las nanopartículas (NPs) exhiben unas magníficas propiedades fisicoquímicas que las hacen ser excelentes candidatas para su uso en numerosos campos de aplicación incluyendo el ámbito de la Química Analítica. Con este fin, las NPs pueden emplearse como materiales sorbentes en los métodos de tratamiento de muestra que constituyen la primera etapa de la mayoría de los procedimientos analíticos [1]. La enorme habilidad de adsorción superficial que muestran hacia numerosos compuestos tanto orgánic...

  10. Estudio de la fisiología del esfínter anal interno porcino y de la rata, y de la fisiopatología de las alteraciones de la motilidad del esfínter anal interno en pacientes con fisura anal

    OpenAIRE

    Opazo Valdés, Álvaro Javier

    2011-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: el 01 setembre 2012 Las patologías anorectales benignas (fisura anal, incontinencia fecal, hemorroides) presentan una elevada prevalencia. De forma general, se desconoce la fisiopatología de estas enfermedades en las que se producen diversas alteraciones del esfínter anal interno (EAI). Los objetivos para esta tesis fueron: 1º Caracterizar los mecanismos y neurotransmisores implicados en el control del tono, la relajación y la contracción del EAI en dos modelos anima...

  11. Dysregulation of Autophagy Contributes to Anal Carcinogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evie H Carchman

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process that removes and recycles unnecessary/dysfunctional cellular components, contributing to cellular health and survival. Autophagy is a highly regulated cellular process that responds to several intracellular signals, many of which are deregulated by human papillomavirus (HPV infection through the expression of HPV-encoded oncoproteins. This adaptive inhibitory response helps prevent viral clearance. A strong correlation remains between HPV infection and the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the anus, particularly in HIV positive and other immunosuppressed patients. We hypothesize that autophagy is inhibited by HPV-encoded oncoproteins thereby promoting anal carcinogenesis (Fig 1.HPV16 transgenic mice (K14E6/E7 and non-transgenic mice (FVB/N, both of which do not spontaneously develop anal tumors, were treated topically with the chemical carcinogen, 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, to induce anal cancer. The anuses at different time points of treatment (5, 10, 15 and 20 weeks were analyzed using immunofluorescence (IF for two key autophagy marker proteins (LC3β and p62 in addition to histological grading. The anuses from the K14E6/E7 mice were also analyzed for visual evidence of autophagic activity by electron microscopy (EM. To see if there was a correlation to humans, archival anal specimens were assessed histologically for grade of dysplasia and then analyzed for LC3β and p62 protein content. To more directly examine the effect of autophagic inhibition on anal carcinogenesis, nontransgenic mice that do not develop anal cancer with DMBA treatment were treated with a known pharmacologic inhibitor of autophagy, chloroquine, and examined for tumor development and analyzed by IF for autophagic proteins.Histologically, we observed the progression of normal anoderm to invasive SCC with DMBA treatment in K14E6/E7 mice but not in nontransgenic, syngeneic FVB/N background control mice

  12. Carcinoma epidermoide del margen anal contra calidad de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Reyes Argudín

    Full Text Available La calidad de vida de los pacientes debe tenerse en cuenta. Esta representa el resultado final de la actuación médica desde la perspectiva del paciente. En ocasiones solo nos basamos en este criterio para tomar decisiones terapéuticas ante determinadas enfermedades, como el carcinoma epidermoide de margen anal en estadío terminal. El tratamiento y conducta con fines paliativos tiene como objetivo mejorar la calidad de vida de estas personas. Presentamos el caso de paciente varón de 48 años de edad que acude a consulta por presentar lesión en el ano que no le permitía sentarse y después de realizársele todo el estudio necesario para determinar su diagnóstico definitivo (carcinoma epidermoide de ano evaluarlo y determinar el tratamiento requerido para el grado de la enfermedad, nos percatamos que el tratamiento radical no cambiaba la evolución de su estado y se decide tratamiento paliativo para mejorar la calidad de vida. En ocasiones acuden a consulta pacientes que al culminar su estudio, obtienen el diagnóstico de una enfermedad avanzada y es, a partir de este momento, que nuestro pensamiento médico debe cambiar y encaminar nuestros esfuerzos a mejorar la calidad de vida y no llevarlos a un final tormentoso con el objetivo de revertir la evolución de una enfermedad que no tiene regresión.

  13. La Contabilidad Analítica en los Hospitales Públicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Silvia Fresneda Fuentes

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available La confección de presupuestos públicos austeros para la consecución de los criterios de convergencia impuestos por el Tratado de Maastricht ha originado una preocupación en todo el Sector Público en general, y en el hospitalario en particular, por la contención de los costes. Esta situación ha puesto de manifiesto la necesidad de introducir sistemas de Contabilidad para la Gestión interna de las organizaciones hospitalarias públicas. Así, la Contabilidad Analítica o de Costes se constituye como un componente más de dichos sistemas y está llamada a alcanzar dos objetivos muy claros, por un lado, la determinación del coste del producto hospitalario para en base a él realizar una presupuestación prospectiva, y por otro, suministrar información interna que permita llevar a cabo un verdadero Control de Gestión. Con este trabajo se pretenden describir los modelos de costes alternativos propuestos por la literatura especializada, señalando su idoneidad en base a la consecución de los objetivos que la Contabilidad Analítica debe satisfacer. Se pondrá de manifiesto la tendencia actual a establecer modelos basados en la nueva definición de producto hospitalario, los cuales tienen como finalidad la determinación de los costes totales de dicho producto, dejando a un lado el objetivo del control de la eficacia y eficiencia de la gestión.The development of strict Public Budgets in order to reach the goals settled by Maastricht agreements have caused a deep concern in the Public Sector and mostly in hospitals in order to brake the growth of costs. Such a situation has stated clearly the necessity of implementing Management Accounting Systems in Public Hospitals organizations. Therefore, costs accounting cames to be a part of such systems, which is to reach two very clear objetives. In one hand, the definition of the hospital product cost using it as the base to develop the hospital budget. On the other hand, to supply internal

  14. Anal sphincter responses after perianal electrical stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ejnar; Klemar, B; Schrøder, H D

    1982-01-01

    By perianal electrical stimulation and EMG recording from the external anal sphincter three responses were found with latencies of 2-8, 13-18 and 30-60 ms, respectively. The two first responses were recorded in most cases. They were characterised by constant latency and uniform pattern, were...... not fatigued by repeated stimulation, were most dependent on placement of stimulating and recording electrodes, and always had a higher threshold than the third response. The third response was constantly present in normal subjects. It had the longest EMG response and the latency decreased with increasing...... stimulation to a minimum of 30-60 ms. This response represented the clinical observable spinal reflex, "the classical anal reflex". The latencies of the two first responses were so short that they probably do not represent spinal reflexes. This was further supported by the effect of epidural anaesthesia which...

  15. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, F T

    2012-01-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

  16. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, J; Rosthøj, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Jangö H, Langhoff-Roos J, Rosthøj S, Sakse A. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures: a population-based cohort study. BJOG 2012;00:000-000 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03486.x. Objective  To determine the incidence and risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter...... were used to determine risk factors of recurrent ASR. Main outcome measures  The incidence of recurrent ASR and odds ratios for possible risk factors of recurrent ASR: age, body mass index, grade of ASR, birthweight, head circumference, gestational age, presentation, induction of labour, oxytocin...... augmentation, epidural, episiotomy, vacuum extraction, forceps, shoulder dystocia, delivery interval and year of second delivery. Results  Out of 159 446 women, 7336 (4.6%) experienced an ASR at first delivery, and 521 (7.1%) had a recurrent ASR (OR 5.91). The risk factors of recurrent ASR in the multivariate...

  17. A presença de retocele interfere nos resultados de exames de fisiologia anal? Rectocele influences results of anal physiological examinations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Prolungatti Cesar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A retocele é causa comum de constipação por defecação obstruída. Freqüentemente está relacionada com outras causas de defecação obstruída, e os exames de fisiologia anal são importantes para o diagnóstico preciso da causa de constipação intestinal. OBJETIVO: observar a influência da retocele nos exames de fisiologia anal, e a necessidade da realização desses após o diagnóstico da retocele. MÉTODO: Para este trabalho foram estudados 40 pacientes com diagnóstico de defecação obstruída. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos aos exames de manometria, sensibilidade retal, eletromiografia, latência do nervo pudendo e proctografia, e foram separados em 2 grupos: portadores e não portadores de retocele . Foram encontrados 18 pacientes com retocele, e o diagnóstico mais freqüentemente associado foi o anismus . Em relação aos exames foi encontrada diferença significante apenas na proctografia no ângulo ano retal, demonstrando que a presença de retocele não interferiu nos resultados de exames de fisiologia anal quando comparados com outros constipados, mas esteve associada a outras causas de constipação, como anismus que necessita de outro tipo de tratamento. CONCLUSÃO: A retocele não interferiu nos valores dos exames de fisiologia anal, mas esteve associada a outros diagnósticos, sendo importante a realização dos mesmos.INTRODUCTION: Rectocele is a common cause of constipation for obstructed defecation. It often is related with other causes of outlet obstruction and the examinations of anal physiology tests are important for necessary diagnosis of the constipation cause. OBJECTIVE: To observe the influence of rectocele in the anal physiology tests and the necessity of its accomplishment to the diagnosis of rectocele. METHOD: In this study, 40 patients with diagnosis of outlet obstruction had been analyzed. All the patients had been submitted to manometry, rectal sensitivity, electromyography, pudendal

  18. Aplicaciones analíticas de métodos basados en luminiscencia molecular en combinación con metodologías dinámicas

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Girón, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis es establecer nuevos métodos de determinación analítica, utilizando como técnica de detección la luminiscencia molecular (flourescencia y quimoluminiscencia), en combinación con metodologías dinámicas. Para ello, se utilizará el tiempo como parámetro analítico, con objeto de aprovechar el comportamiento cinético, para proporcionar información relevante adicional de la especie de interés. Se pretende explorar la utilización de quimioluminiscencia resuelta en el tiempo...

  19. El pensamiento crítico-analítico en estudiantes del área de Biología de la Universidad de Guayaquil, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    López Silva, Byron Orlando; García Rodríguez, Idalmys Yelivi; Hernández Navarro, Marlene Isabel; López Córdova, Byron Alfredo; López Córdova, Marcel Orlando; Barbies Rubiera, Amarilis

    2016-01-01

    Fundamento: el pensamiento crítico-analítico es un proceso intelectual necesario en los estudiantes universitarios para su desarrollo profesional. Objetivo: indagar sobre las necesidades sentidas de estudiantes y profesores para desarrollar el pensamiento crítico-analítico en el primer año de la carrera de Medicina en el área de Biología en la Universidad de Guayaquil. Métodos: se desarrolló un estudio descriptivo en el período comprendido entre mayo y diciembre de 2015 en la Facultad de Medi...

  20. Anal canal plasmacytoma - An uncommon presentation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, M. I.; Bujor, L.; Grillo, I. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMP) are rare plasma cell tumors that arise outside the bone marrow. They are most often located in the head and neck region, but may also occur in the other locations. The lower gastrointestinal EMP represents less than 5% of all cases, and location in the anal canal is exceedingly rare. Aim: We present an exceedingly rare case of anal canal plasmacytoma, aiming to achieve a better understanding of this rare entity. Methods: We report a case of a 61-year-old man with a bulky mass in the anal canal. The lesion measured about 6 cm and invaded in all layers of the anal canal wall. The biopsy was performed and revealed a round and plasmocitoid cell population with a solid growth pattern and necrosis. The tumoral cells have express CD79a and CD138 with lambda chains. There was no evidence of disease in other locations and these features were consistent with the diagnosis of an extra-osseous plasmacytoma. The patient was submitted to conformal radiotherapy 50.4 Gy total dose, 1.8 Gy per fraction. After 24 months, the patient is asymptomatic and the lesion has completely disappeared. Conclusions: EMP accounts for approximately 3% of plasma cell malignancies. The median age is about 60 years, and the majority of patients are male. The treatment of choice for extramedullary plasmacytoma is radiation therapy in a dosage of about 50 Gy. Patients should be followed-up for life with repeated bone marrow aspiration and protein studies to detect the development of multiple myeloma. (authors)

  1. Anal intraepitelial neoplasia: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garazi Elorza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anal intraepitelial neoplasia (AIN constitutes a major health problem in certain risk groups, such as patients with immunosuppression of varied origin, males who have sexual relations with other males, and females with a previous history of vaginal or cervical abnormalities in cytology. Its relationship with the human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been well documented; however, many of the factors involved in the progression and regression of the viral infection to dysplasia and anal carcinoma are unknown. AIN can be diagnosed through cytology of the anal canal or biopsy guided by high-resolution anoscopy. However, the need for these techniques in high-risk groups remains controversial. Treatment depends on the risk factors and given the high morbidity and high recurrence rates the utility of the different local treatments is still a subject of debate. Surgical biopsy is justified only in the case of progression suggesting lesions. The role of the vaccination in high-risk patients as primary prevention has been debated by different groups. However, there is no general consensus on its use or on the need for screening this population.

  2. Development of a pulse height analizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a Pulse Height Analizer is described. This equipment is essential to analize data coming from detectors producing information codified in pulse amplitudes. The system developed consist of a Signal Input Module connected to a Controller Module based on a 8085A microprocessor capable to memorize pulses up to 1 uS in 256 channels with a resolution better than 20 mV. A Communication Module with a serial interface is used for data transfer to a host computer using RS232c protocol. The Monitoring and Operation Module consist of a hexadecimal Keybord, a 6 digit 7-segment display and a XY analog output enabling real time visualization of data on a XY monitor. The hardware and the software designed for this low cost system were optimized to obtain a typical dead time of approximately 100 uS. As application, this device was used to adquire curves at the Small Angle X-ray Scattering Laboratory in this Department. The apparatus performance was tested by comparing its data with a Northern Pulse Height Analizer model NS633 output, with favorable results. (Author) [pt

  3. Should anorectal ultrasonography be included as a diagnostic tool for chronic anal pain? ¿Se debe incluir la ecografía rectoanal como prueba diagnóstica del dolor anal crónico?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. García-Montes

    2010-01-01

    excluyeron del estudio pacientes con fisura anal y con hemorroides internas de cualquier grado, enfermedad supurativa perianal y cirugía pélvica. Se utilizó un ecógrafo ALOKA ProSound SSD-4000 al que se conectó un transductor radial multifrecuencia ASU-67 (7,5 y 10 MHz. Resultados: un paciente no toleró la exploración. En 8 pacientes (20% de los casos estudiados se detectaron alteraciones en el estudio ecográfico: en 4 pacientes, 10% de los casos (1 hombre y 3 mujeres, hipertrofia del esfínter anal interno (EAI y en 5 pacientes (4 mujeres y 1 hombre rotura del complejo esfinteriano. En una mujer se observó rotura de EAI en canal alto e hipertrofia del mismo en el canal medio. Conclusiones: la ecografía rectoanal es una prueba sencilla, económica y útil para el estudio de la patología rectoanal. Si bien, en la mayoría de los casos estudiados no se han detectado lesiones en el canal anal ni en la pared rectal, en un porcentaje no desdeñable de pacientes hemos observado engrosamiento del EAI, que podría considerarse posible causa del dolor anal. Por tanto, consideramos que la ecografía rectoanal debe ser incluida en el estudio del dolor anal crónico idiopático.

  4. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E; Berry, Michael J; Pokomandy, Alexandra de; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening

  5. Carcinoma of the anal canal: radiation or radiation plus chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    An editorial is presented which discusses the treatment of carcinoma of the anal canal. Following the initial report of the successful preoperative use of combined chemotherapy and radiation by Nigro in 1974, several centers have confirmed the effectiveness of such combinations either as preoperative or as definitive treatment of anal carcinomas, and many patients are now being referred for radiation therapy. The article by Cantril in this issue describe the successful treatment of anal carcinomas by radiation alone, and raises the important issue of whether radiation plus chemotherapy is more effective treatment than radiation alone for squamous or cloacogenic carcinomas arising in the anal canal or perianal area. Several studies are cited

  6. Desarrollo de las nuevas metodologías analíticas que incorporan la nanotecnología en procesos (Bio)Químicos de medida.

    OpenAIRE

    Bouri, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    El desarrollo de la Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (N&N) ha provocado un nuevo marco dentro de la ciencia y la tecnología. La Química Analítica ha experimentado, al igual que otras áreas de la ciencia, un gran cambio gracias a las necesidades y oportunidades que proporciona la Nanociencia y Nanotecnología Analíticas. La Nanotecnología se está demostrando cada vez más como un aliado poderoso de la Química Analítica para que alcance sus objetivos, así como para la simplificación de los procesos a...

  7. As possibilidades analíticas da noção de campo social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrânio Mendes Catani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O texto procura, num primeiro momento, discutir a noção de campo social, desenvolvida pelo sociólogo francês Pierre Bourdieu (1930-2002 para, em seguida, pensar o campo universitário em suas especificidades, esboçando possibilidades analíticas para o caso brasileiro a partir de seu clássico livro La noblesse d´État. Grandes Écoles et esprit de corps (1989. Embora desenvolvido por Bourdieu com a finalidade de estudar mecanismos de dominação vigentes na sociedade francesa, pretende-se indicar como esse aparato epistêmico prático pode, através do estabelecimento de relações de homologia, ser trabalhado para o estudo do campo universitário brasileiro.

  8. Modelo analítico de resistência ao rolamento de pneus de carga

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Rodolfo Gali

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: Em 2012, Rhyne & Cron desenvolveram um modelo analítico para estimar a mínima Resistência ao Rolamento (RR) para pneus destinados aos veículos de passageiro. Os parâmetros estudados pelos autores foram a área de contato, a espessura e a largura da rodagem, o raio da cintura metálica, o módulo elástico do composto da banda de rodagem, a carga vertical imposta, a pressão de inflação do pneu e a área efetiva de contato do pneu com o solo. Para o fator área de contato, os autores simplifi...

  9. Mode of delivery after obstetric anal sphincter injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmarkar, Roopali; Bhide, Alka; Digesu, Alex; Khullar, Vik; Fernando, Ruwan

    2015-11-01

    To assess the effect of vaginal delivery and caesarean section on faecal symptoms and structure and function of anal sphincter in women who sustained obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) in their previous pregnancy and were advised about the mode of delivery based on faecal incontinence symptoms, anal manometry and endoanal ultrasound. It is a descriptive study on a cohort of women who had OASIS from 2006 to 2013. They were assessed after OASIS and during subsequent pregnancy with a questionnaire, endoanal ultrasound and anal manometry. Vaginal delivery was recommended to asymptomatic women with normal investigations. Elective caesarean section was recommended to women with faecal symptoms, anal sphincter defects of more than 30° or low resting or incremental anal pressures. All women were reassessed after subsequent delivery. Fifty women who had pregnancies after OASIS, were seen after OASIS, during subsequent pregnancy and after the second delivery. 15 women had faecal symptoms after OASIS. The external, internal and combined anal sphincter defects were seen in 13, 11 and 9 women respectively. Low resting and incremental pressure were seen in 15 and 11 women respectively. Caesarean section was done in 22 women and 28 women delivered vaginally. Worsening of faecal symptoms and reduction in anal pressures were not observed in planned vaginal delivery or elective caesarean section groups. Faecal symptoms were worse with reduced anal pressures in three women from the planned caesarean section group. One of the women had a vaginal delivery and two women had emergency caesarean section at 7cm and 10cm dilatation. There were no new sphincter defects or recurrent OASIS in any of the women in the study group. Decision about the mode of delivery of pregnancy after OASIS based on symptoms, anal manometry and endoanal ultrasound helps in preserving the anal sphincter function and avoiding unnecessary caesarean sections. Further follow-up of these patients is essential

  10. La neuromodulación en el tratamiento de la incontinencia anal

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega López, Mario

    2016-01-01

    El manejo terapéutico de la incontinencia anal es uno de los problemas más complejos de la coloproctología y siempre debe ser individualizado en función de las peculiaridades de cada paciente. La variedad de los factores implicados exige un análisis meticuloso. A diferencia de lo que ocurre en otras patologías, el objetivo no siempre es la curación, sino mejorar la calidad de vida lo máximo posible. La esfinteroplastia hasta hace poco era la opción quirúrgica principal para pacientes con lesi...

  11. Conservative management of anal and rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, J.P.; Romestaing, P.; Montbarbon, X.

    1989-01-01

    The role of irradiation in the management of anal and rectal cancer has changed during the past ten years. In small epidermoid carcinomas of the anal canal (T1 T2) irradiation is in most departments considered the primary treatment, giving a 5-year survival rate of between 60 and 80% with good sphincter preservation. Even in larger tumors, irradiation can still offer some chance of cure without colostomy. Surgery remains the basic treatment of rectal cancer but irradiation is used in association with surgery in many cases. Radiotherapy is of value in the conservative management of cancer of the rectum in three situations: In small polypoid cancers contact X-ray therapy can give local control in about 90%. In cancers of the middle rectum, preoperative external irradiation may increase the chances of restorative surgery and reduce the risk of local relapse. In inoperable patients, external radiotherapy and/or intracavitary irradiation may cure some patients with infiltrating tumors (T2 T3) without colostomy. (orig.)

  12. Um sistema de processamento escalável de consultas analíticas sobre data warehouses criptografados e armazenados na nuvem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudivan Cruz Lopes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sistemas de processamento de consultas para bancos de dados criptografados têm sido propostos como uma solução para proteger a confidencialidade de dados armazenados em servidores não confiáveis, tais como provedores de computação em nuvem, e para reduzir o impacto da criptografia no desempenho de consultas sobre dados criptografados. Pouca atenção, no entanto, tem sido dedicada em determinar como a escalabilidade provida pela computação em nuvem pode ser usada para melhorar o desempenho de consultas analíticas sobre Data Warehouses (DW criptografados. Nesse sentido, este artigo descreve um sistema de processamento escalável de consultas analíticas sobre DW criptografados armazenados na nuvem, em que são especificados os componentes arquiteturais que dão suporte a esta escalabilidade.

  13. Sotsiaalvõrgustike analüüs / Innar Liiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liiv, Innar, 1982-

    2005-01-01

    Sotsiaalvõrgustike analüüs (social network analys - SNA) on tehnikate, meetodite ning vahendite kogum, mis aitab avastada mustreid sotsiaalsetes struktuurides. Analüüsi kasutamisest energeetikaettevõtte Enron ja kohalike ettevõtete võrgustike näitel. Skeemid

  14. Fiber types in the striated urethral and anal sphincters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Reske-Nielsen, E

    1983-01-01

    Seven normal human striated urethral and anal sphincters obtained by autopsy were examined using histochemical techniques. In both the urethral sphincter and the subcutaneous (s.c.) and superficial part of the anal sphincter a characteristic pattern with two populations of muscle fibers, abundant...

  15. Anal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anal cancer is often curable with treatment. Major prognostic factors are site, size, and nodal status. Treatments include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery. Get detailed information for anal cancer risk factors, classification, staging, prognosis, and treatment in this summary for clinicians.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging anatomy of the anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, P.; Bates, N.

    2004-01-01

    The anatomy of the anal canal is complex but well demonstrated by MRI. Understanding the anatomy is a prerequisite for determining the true site and the extent of pathology, especially for surgical workup. In this article, the MRI anatomy of the anal canal has been displayed using highlighted MRI images and line diagrams. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  17. Leiomyoma of the anal canal: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witz, M; Bernheim, J; Griffel, B; Dinbar, A

    1986-10-01

    Leiomyoma of the rectum and anal canal is an unusual clinical entity. Generally, it does not produce any clinical signs and in most cases it is discovered incidentally in the course of routine rectal examination. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and surgical treatment are described in two presented cases of anal canal leiomyoma.

  18. The Danish anal sphincter rupture questionnaire: Validity and reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Ulla; Ottesen, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To revise, validate and test for reliability an anal sphincter rupture questionnaire in relation to construct, content and face validity. Setting and background. Since 1996 women with anal sphincter rupture (ASR) at one of the public university hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark have bee...

  19. Anal sphincter complex: endoanal MR imaging of normal anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussain, S. M.; Stoker, J.; Laméris, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the normal anatomy of the anal sphincter complex on magnetic resonance (MR) images. Ten healthy volunteers (four men, six women; age range, 21-26 years) underwent MR imaging with an endoanal coil. The lower part of the anal canal contained the internal sphincter, the longitudinal muscle

  20. Estudo da atitude e do conhecimento dos médicos não oncologistas em relação às medidas de prevenção e rastreamento do câncer Evaluation of non-oncologist physician's knowledge and attitude towards cancer screening and preventive actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Tomanik Cardozo de Mello Tucunduva

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o nível de informação e as atitudes preventivas em uso corrente pelos médicos ligados à FMABC. MÉTODOS: Foram entregues questionários para 120 médicos não oncologistas que lidam diretamente com pacientes adultos. RESULTADOS: A taxa de resposta foi de 58,3%. A idade média dos médicos foi de 33,9 anos, sendo 57,1% mulheres e 10% tabagistas. As práticas preventivas para os cânceres mais comuns (mama, colo de útero, próstata, colorretal e pele não-melanoma foram analisadas e comparadas com as recomendadas pelos consensos adotados (INCA, Sociedade Americana de Cancerologia e Força-Tarefa Canadense. Observou-se que a maioria das práticas (45,72% a 100% não se adequou a nenhum deles. Sobre possíveis barreiras para o adequado exercício da prevenção do câncer, 82,86% considerou falta de agentes educadores em saúde para a população, 77,14% poucos conhecimento ou treinamento e 70,15% falta de verba para custear exames. Houve uma tendência ao excesso de pedidos de exames de rastreamento. CONCLUSÕES: As práticas preventivas utilizadas pelos médicos entrevistados são heterogêneas e, em sua maioria, não preconizadas pelos consensos de condutas preventivas consultados, o que pode ser relacionado tanto à sua falta de conhecimento em relação a estes consensos como às divergências entre eles. Dessa forma, faz-se necessário um esforço educativo enfatizando a importância da prevenção do câncer no aprendizado e na prática médica.BACKGOUND: New cancer cases are most often diagnosed by non-oncologist physicians. It is therefore essential for all physicians to be aware of cancer preventive practices and use them appropriately with their patients. METHODS: Questionnaires were administered to 120 non-oncologist physicians of various specialties attending the "Faculdade de Medicina do ABC" who deal directly with adult patients. Replies were collected and classified as appropriate or not according to one of

  1. Anal metastasis originating from colorectal cancer: Report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Min; Lim, Joon Seok; Choi, Jin Young; Park, Mi Suk; Kim, Myeong Jin [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Taek; Kim, Ho Guen [Dept. of Pathology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Anal metastasis from colorectal cancer rarely occurs, but it severely impairs the patient's quality of life, often requiring wide resection including the anal sphincter with permanent colostomy. This lesion can be misdiagnosed as a perianal fistula or an abscess, and it can be overlooked at the time of surgery because it is not included in the routine surgical extent of low anterior resection. We report two rare cases of anal metastasis from colorectal cancer. In both cases, perianal nodules with an internal solid portion were detected on preoperative rectal magnetic resonance imaging and additional local excisions of the anal lesions were performed during the process of treatment. Anal metastasis was pathologically confirmed by histology and immunohistochemical staining.

  2. Hallazgos ecográficos en la proctalgia espontánea y postoperatoria Ultrasound findings in spontaneous and postoperative anal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pascual

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: valorar la utilidad de la ecografía endoanal como prueba de imagen para identificar la causa del dolor anal en los pacientes que presentan proctalgia idiopática o dolor postoperatorio y analizar cuáles son sus causas más frecuentes. Métodos: se realiza un estudio descriptivo de los hallazgos encontrados en las ecografías endoanales de pacientes con dolor anal en los últimos seis años. Todas las ecografías se llevaron a cabo con un ecógrafo B&K (Cheetah 2003, B&K Medical, Gentofte, Denmark con sonda endoanal de 7 MHz. Resultados: se estudiaron noventa y cinco casos de proctalgia mediante ecografía endoanal. Sesenta y siete correspondieron a pacientes con una cirugía previa perineal o pélvica tras la cual comenzó el dolor anal: 48 habían sido intervenidos de fisura anal, 12 de hemorroidectomía, 4 de episiotomía, 2 de fístula y 1 de prostatectomía. El hallazgo más frecuente tras la cirugía de fisura anal fue la presencia de una esfinterotomía incompleta. Entre los veintiocho pacientes sin cirugía previa, el 57,14% presentaba hipertrofia del esfínter anal interno como única alteración ecográfica. Conclusiones: los pacientes con proctalgia espontánea y postoperatoria pueden ser estudiados mediante ecografía endoanal ya que el uso de la sonda no impide completar la exploración. Con esta prueba se encontró una causa del dolor en el 81,93% de los casos. La hipertrofia del esfínter anal interno aislada es el hallazgo ecográfico más frecuente asociado a proctalgia espontánea.Objective: to assess the use of endoanal ultrasounds to identify anal pain etiology in patients with either spontaneous or postoperative pain, and to review the most frequent causes. Methods: a descriptive study of ultrasound findings in patients with anal pain during the last six years was performed. All ultrasound scans were performed using a B&K Diagnostic Ultrasound System (Cheetah 2003, B&K Medical, Gentofte, Denmark with a 7-MHz

  3. Desenvolvimento e validação de metodologia analítica para a determinação do teor de ácido glicólico na matéria-prima e em formulações dermocosméticas Development and validation of an analytical methodology for determination of glycolic acid acid in raw material and dermocosmetic formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Gonzalez Henriques

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O ácido glicólico é amplamente utilizado na terapêutica para se obter um peeling suave, levando ao afinamento do estrato córneo útil na renovação da epiderme e na redução das linhas faciais. Porém, em concentrações elevadas pode estar associado a um alto potencial de irritação da pele. O peeling químico tem diversas aplicações clínicas dentre elas o tratamento da pele facial lesada por problemas como acne, ictiose, melasma, verrugas e outros problemas. O presente trabalho objetivou estabelecer e validar a metodologia analítica para a determinação do teor de ácido glicólico na matéria-prima e em formulações dermocosméticas, tendo empregado o método titulométrico de neutralização ácido-base, determinando-se o ponto de equivalência com indicador e/ou indicação potenciométrica. A análise do teor de ácido glicólico na matéria-prima e, particularmente, no produto acabado, é importante para o controle de qualidade, principalmente, para a segurança dos consumidores. Portanto, a matéria-prima e os produtos, contendo ácido glicólico, foram analisados em dois dias, quanto ao teor de ácido glicólico livre e total utilizando soluções de hidróxido de sódio 0,1 N e o ácido clorídrico 0,1 N. A metodologia desenvolvida baseou-se na reação com a substância ativa e com as características próprias destas formulações, demonstrando ser prática e eficaz na quantificação do ácido glicólico.Glycolic acid is widely used in therapeutical care as a soft peeling, leading to the thickness of the horny layer, which is useful in the renewal of the epidermis and the reduction of the face lines. However, in high concentrations it can be associated to a potential of irritation of the skin. A chemical peeling has diverse clinical applications, among them the treatment of injured skin face like: acne, ichthyose, melasma, warts and other else. The present work had the goal to establish and to validate an analytical

  4. Validación de la metodología analítica para cuantificar el calcio mediante la espectroscopía de absorción atómica de llama y su cuantificación en alimentos de la canasta básica costarricense

    OpenAIRE

    Silva-Trejos, Paulina; Valverde-Montero, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    Se validó la metodología analítica parala determinación de calcio en alimentosmediante la espectroscopía de absorciónatómica de llama. Las muestras de0,5 g se digirieron en horno de microondascon 5,0 mL de HNO3 al 65% en masa. Seobtuvo un ámbito de linealidad óptimode 0,030 mg/L a 0,87 mg/L, con uncoeficiente de correlación de 0,9995.Los límites de detección y cuantificaciónreportados fueron de 0,029 mg/L y 0,057mg/L, respectivamente. La sensibilidadde calibración fue de 0,267 A.Lmg-1 y lasen...

  5. The impact of anaemia on treatment outcome in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal and anal margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oblak Irena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiochemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Anaemia is reported to have adverse effect on survival in cancer patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of anaemia on radiochemotherapy treatment outcome in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

  6. A psicologia analítica de Carl Gustav Jung: apontamentos de aulaThe analytical psychology of Carl Gustav Jung: notes of lesson

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Luís Marcelo Alves

    2008-01-01

    O texto traz o conteúdo de uma aula sobre Teorias da Personalidade com foco nos fundamentos da Psicologia Analítica do psicólogo e psiquiatra suíço Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), cuja obra vem apresentando significativas contribuições para a Psicologia Educacional, Organizacional e Clínica. Palavras-chave Psicologia analítica; Teorias da personalidade Abstract The text brings the content of a lesson on Theories of Personality focused in the fundamentals of the Analytical Psychology of...

  7. Anal endosonography and manometry: comparison in patients with defecation problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, R; Heyer, T; Gantke, B; Schäfer, A; Frieling, T; Häussinger, D; Enck, P

    1997-03-01

    Correlations between anal sphincter function as assessed by anorectal manometry and anal sphincter anatomy measured by endoluminal ultrasound have been reported in the literature both for patients and for healthy individuals but have not been confirmed by other authors. For a larger series of patients (152 consecutive patients, mean age 54.1 +/- 15.5 years; female:male ratio, 111:41) with anorectal dysfunctions such as incontinence (n = 92), constipation (n = 37), and other symptoms (n = 23), diagnostic work-up included conventional multilumen anorectal manometry to evaluate internal sphincter pressure at rest, maximum external sphincter squeeze pressure during contraction, and endoanal sonography to determine anal sphincter integrity and to measure dorsal, left lateral, and right lateral diameter of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) and external anal sphincter (EAS) muscles. Maximum squeeze pressure was significantly correlated to muscle thickness of the EAS (P = 0.001). No association was found between resting pressure and IAS diameter. Women had significantly lower resting and squeeze pressures than men (P = 0.008 and P = 0.003, respectively), but age-related changes of function were only found for resting pressure. Endosonographic values of IAS and EAS did not differ between genders but were significantly correlated with age (P = 0.008 and P = 0.02, respectively). Because all correlations were rather weak, they only can explain a small portion of data variance. Anal manometry and anal ultrasound, therefore, are of complementary value and are both indicated in adequate clinical problems.

  8. Alcance y disyuntivas de la ética analógica de M. Beuchot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Seguró

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se discute críticamente el alcance axiológico de la "hermenéutica analógica" de Mauricio Beuchot. Para ello se expone en primer lugar el fundamento ontológico sobre el que se sustenta su propuesta hermenéutica, para luego proceder a una clarificación de su traslación al campo axiológico y de sus problemas. Una vez ponderado y discutido críticamente su planteamiento, en un tercer momento se deducen los principios aporéticos que se vislumbran en los intentos de resolución analógica de los dilemas éticos. El telón de fondo de toda la problemática no es otro que el de la insoslayable finitud primera que constituye la realidad ontológica humana y su capital influencia en el planteamiento fundamental de la cuestión ética.

  9. Estudo pré-analítico e de validação para determinação de malondialdeído em plasma humano por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, após derivatização com 2,4-dinitrofenilhidrazina Preanalytical and validation studies for the determination of malondialdehyde in human plasma through high performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Venzon Antunes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O malondialdeído (MDA é um importante biomarcador utilizado na avaliação do estresse oxidativo. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver uma metodologia para a quantificação plasmática de MDA, através de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detecção por arranjo de diodos (CLAE-DAD, após processo de derivatização com 2,4-dinitrofenilhidrazina (DNPH, avaliando as principais variáveis pré-analíticas. A curva de calibração em plasma (0 a 40 µM apresentou elevada linearidade (r²=0,998. Os principais parâmetros de validação foram: recuperação absoluta: 78%; limite de detecção: 0,11 µM e limite de quantificação: 0,38 µM. Os valores de MDA determinados em indivíduos adultos saudáveis (n=38 foram 3,31 ± 0,38 µM (média ± DP. Estudos de estabilidade do padrão de MDA, reagente derivatizante e MDA plasmáticos, indicaram que a solução padrão pode ser armazenada a -20 e 4 ºC.Malondialdehyde (MDA is an important biomarker for the evaluation of oxidative stress status. The aim of this study was to develop a method for plasma MDA quantification by high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD, following derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH, evaluating the main preanalytical variables. The calibration curve in plasma (0 to 40 µM presented high linearity (r² = 0.998. Main validation parameters were: recovery: 78%; LOD: 0.11 µM and LOQ: 0.38 µM. The MDA values obtained in healthy volunteers (n=38 were 3.31 ± 0.38 µM (mean ± SD. Stability studies of MDA standard solution and derivatizing reagent and plasma MDA indicated that the standard solution can be stored at -20 and 4 ºC, remaining stable for at least 30 days.

  10. Avaliação de unidade de beneficiamento de milho (Zea mays L.) e diretrizes para implantação de sistema de gestão da qualidade

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Paula Domene

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: As indústrias de sementes e alimentícias têm sofrido pressões do mercado para produção de matéria-prima segura em relação às contaminações físicas, químicas e biológicas. Um caminho inverso começa a ser percorrido, no qual se tira o foco apenas do controle da qualidade do produto final, iniciando-se o rastreamento de toda a cadeia produtiva, para que os processos possam ser controlados e medidas preventivas possam ser tomadas para melhoria da qualidade e diminuição dos prejuízos. Este...

  11. Validación de la metodología analítica para cuantificar el calcio mediante la espectroscopía de absorción atómica de llama y su cuantificación en alimentos de la canasta básica costarricense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Silva Trejos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se validó la metodología analítica parala determinación de calcio en alimentosmediante la espectroscopía de absorciónatómica de llama. Las muestras de0,5 g se digirieron en horno de microondascon 5,0 mL de HNO3 al 65% en masa. Seobtuvo un ámbito de linealidad óptimode 0,030 mg/L a 0,87 mg/L, con uncoeficiente de correlación de 0,9995.Los límites de detección y cuantificaciónreportados fueron de 0,029 mg/L y 0,057mg/L, respectivamente. La sensibilidadde calibración fue de 0,267 A.Lmg-1 y lasensibilidad analítica fue de 81 Lmg -1.La precisión se evaluó en condicionesde repetibilidad y se obtuvo un valorpara RDSr igual a 1,7%.La veracidadse determinó al utilizar tres patronescertificados de la NIST®: SRM 1846 InfantFormula, con un valor reportado de calciode (3670±200 mg/kg; SRM 1846 BovineMuscle Powder con un valor reportado decalcio de (145±20 mg/kg; y SRM 8415Whole Egg Powder con un valor reportadode calcio de (0,248±0,019% en masa.En los tres casos se obtuvieron sesgos de-0,005 mg/L en promedio.Por otro lado, se analizó una muestra de46 alimentos seleccionados de la canastabásica alimentaria del costarricense,cocinados de la manera en que se consumensin agregarles aditivos. Los alimentoscon contenido de calcio cuantificablefueron: productos lácteos (leche enteraen polvo, leche fluida, queso crema,queso mozzarella, queso fresco, yogurtlíquido, tanto semidescremado comoentero, vegetales (zanahoria, camote,cebolla, brócoli, granos (frijoles, lentejas,garbanzos, pan y tortillas.

  12. Ettevõtte konkurentsieelis inimeste analüüsi abil / Mait Raava

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raava, Mait

    2015-01-01

    Ettevõtte töötajate analüüsimisest, analüütika tulemuste rakendamisest juhtivates ettevõttes. Viiest sambast, millel põhineb inimeste analüüsi edukas rakendamine, analüütika rakendamise etapid

  13. [Proctalgia fugax. Differential diagnosis and therapy of fleeting anal cramp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staude, G

    1992-05-30

    Proctalgia fugax--short-lived anal spasm--is a common, extremely unpleasant, painful condition that occurs completely unexpectedly, often waking the victim at night. Scientific assessment is difficult on account of the functional nature of the condition and its multifactorial genesis. Before the patient is labeled "anal neurotic", however, he/she should be investigated by a specialist. The results of treating the rarely absent pathological organic findings give rise to optimism.

  14. Rare case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the anal canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. GIST of anal canal is very rare representing only 3% of all anorectal mesenchymal tumors. We report an extremely rare case of GIST of the anal canal in 60-years-old man with history of irregular bowel habits with dark colored stool mixed with blood and constipation from 6 month. Diagnosis was made on the basis of histomorphological and immunohistochemical examination.

  15. [Effectiveness of human papillomavirus genotyping for detection of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia compared to anal cytology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-España, Laura; Repiso-Jiménez, Juan Bosco; Fernández-Sánchez, Fernando; Pereda, Teresa; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Fernández-Morano, Teresa; de la Torre-Lima, Javier; Palma, Fermín; Redondo, Maximino; de Troya-Martín, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN) -with an aetiological based on high-risk types of human papillomavirus- is increasing in some high-risk groups. Screening for HGAIN includes routine anal cytology and, more recently, HPV genotyping. The main objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of anal cytology and HPV genotyping for the detection of HGAIN. This is a study to determine the correlation of cytological and microbiological findings with anal biopsy findings in a cohort of patients at high risk of developing AIN referred to the department of sexually transmitted infections of the Hospital Costa del Sol, Spain, between January 2008 and December 2014. Of the 151 patients subjected to screening, a total of 92 patients, all of them with the result of three screening test (anal cytology, genotyping and biopsy) were included in the study. Just under two-thirds (62%) of them were HIV-positive. The sensitivity and specificity of anal cytology to detect HGAIN were 52.8 and 85.7%, respectively (k: 0.328), and 78 and 62.8% to detect two or more HPV oncogenic genotypes (k: 0.417). The detection of oncogenic HPV genotypes allowed the identification of 23 new cases of HGAIN that had been underdiagnosed with anal cytology, with 14 cases containing at least three high-risk genotypes. Anal cytology did not show enough sensitivity in HGAIN screening. HPV genotyping has shown to be a useful tool to detect HGAIN cases, although it could lead to an over-diagnosis as a solitary screening procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  16. Actualización, adaptación y evolución del sistema de automedidas de receptores analógicos de TV

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez González, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Actualización, adaptación y evolución de un sistema automático de medidas para receptores analógicos de TV. Aumentando la calidad de las medidas, así como reduciendo el tiempo de medida y el coste de diseño. El proyecto consiste en la elaboración de un programa en entorno LabView para realizar medidas automáticas de sintonizadores de TV para la empresa Sony. Partimos de un programa básico de medidas semi-automáticas con la idea de desarrollar los siguientes objetivos: Control remoto de la ...

  17. Trends in incidence of anal cancer and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in Denmark, 1978-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the incidences of anal cancer and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN2/3) over time in Danish women and men. Describing the burden of anal cancer and AIN may be valuable in future evaluations of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. We included all...... anal cancers in the Danish Cancer Register in the period 1978-2008 and all cases of AIN2/3 in the Danish Registry of Pathology. Overall and age-, period- and histology-specific incidence rates were estimated. During the 30-year period, 2187 anal cancers were identified, two thirds of which were...... in women. Between 1978-1982 and 2003-2008, the age-standardized incidence rate of anal cancer increased from 0.68 to 1.48 per 100 000 person-years in women and from 0.45 to 0.80 per 100 000 person-years in men. Although there is no systematic screening for AIN in Denmark, we nevertheless identified 608...

  18. Barriers related to screening examinations for prostate cancer Barreras en relación a los exámenes de rastreo del cáncer de próstata Barreiras em relação aos exames de rastreamento do câncer de próstata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenir Pereira de Paiva

    2011-02-01

    ón a la detección precoz.Com o objetivo de descrever barreiras sobre rastreamento do câncer de próstata, realizou-se inquérito domiciliar, abrangendo 160 homens, de uma área da Estratégia de Saúde da Família (ESF. Pouco mais da metade já havia realizado o exame. Em relação às crenças sobre a doença, 95% deles acreditam na cura se detectado precocemente, 29,4% referiram possibilidade de vida normal embora doente, 56,3% acreditam que pode ser assintomático, 36,1% concordam/discordam que o tratamento é pior que a doença e 34,4% concordam que o exame afeta a masculinidade e, se estiver bem, não é necessário fazê-lo. Quanto às barreiras, 15% informaram que o médico nunca solicitou, 10,9% não acham importante e 16,9% têm medo de fazer o exame. Embora não seja o único determinante, disseminar conhecimentos adequados sobre o exame pode se constituir em estratégia fundamental para a formação de atitude positiva em relação à detecção precoce.

  19. Clinical and manometric evaluation of women with chronic anal fissure before and after internal subcutaneous lateral sphincterotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Marques e Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical and manometric parameters of chronic anal fissure females undergoing lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS. METHODS: A total of eight women with chronic anal fissure who underwent LIS were included in this study. The preoperative assessment was performed one week before surgery and included general and anorectal examination, anorectal manometry, and Jorge Wexner questionnaire. The post operative follow up was made every 15 days until complete healing. Jorge Wexner questionnaires and anorectal manometry were repeated at 1 month and 3 months after the surgery. Time to healing, manometric changes and complications were assessed. RESULTS: All patients had preoperative increased anal resting pressure. The resting pressures and anal canal length were significantly decreased 3 months after surgery. Patients' complaints of itching and bleeding were also reduced. Fissures healed in 7 patients and median healing time was 45 days. No complications were observed due to the procedure. One patient had transient incontinence to flatus. CONCLUSION: Lateral internal sphincterotomy provided clinical improvement and reduced resting pressure of the internal anal sphincter in women with chronic anal fissure.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução clínica e manométrica de mulheres com fissura anal crônica submetidas à esfincterotomia lateral interna subcutânea. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo com oito pacientes. A avaliação inicial foi realizada por meio de questionários, exame físico e manometria anorretal na semana anterior ao procedimento cirúrgico. Durante o período pós-operatório, as pacientes foram avaliadas clinicamente a cada 15 dias, até a cicatrização completa. Os questionários e a manometria anorretal foram repetidos 1 mês e 3 meses após a operação. Foi avaliado o tempo para cicatrização da fissura, as alterações manométricas e as complicações decorrentes do procedimento. RESULTADOS: Todas as pacientes

  20. Validación de un método analítico para la determinación cuantitativa de parabenos en el gel de hidróxido de aluminio Validation of an analytical method for the quantitative determination of parabens in aluminum hydroxide gel

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Benítez Hechavarría; Ciro Labrada Estrada; Enriqueta Martínez Martínez; Odalis Tamayo Fuentes; Esther Díaz Pérez

    2006-01-01

    Se realizó la valoración prospectiva de un método desarrollado para la cuantificación de metil y de propil parabeno en el gel de hidróxido de aluminio mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución en fase reversa, con columna RP18 (25* 0,4 cm) y detector UV-Visible a 254 nm. Se evaluaron los parámetros especificidad, linealidad, precisión, exactitud, y adecuación cromatográfica. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que el método cumple con las especificaciones establecidas para cada parámet...

  1. Differences in the pressures of canal anal and rectal sensitivity in patients with fecal incontinence, chronic constipation and healthy subjects Diferencias en las presiones del canal anal y la sensibilidad rectal en pacientes con incontinencia anal, estreñimiento crónico y sujetos sanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ciriza de los Ríos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There exist a great variability in the manometric findings between patients with anal incontinence (AI and healthy subjects. The correlation between the pressures of the anal canal and the AI is not exact by the wide rank of normal values. Objectives: Prospective study to evaluate differences in the pressures of the anal canal and in rectal sensitivity in patients with AI, chronic constipation (CC and healthy subjects. Material and methods: Ninety four patients with AI, 36 patients with CC and 15 healthy subjects were included. The following data were obtained: age, sex, resting pressure, anal canal length (ACL, squeeze maximum pressure (SMP, squeeze pressure duration (SPD, first sensation, urge and maximum tolerated volume (MTV. Statistical study: test of Kruskal-Wallis, test of Mann-Whitney, and multinomial logistic regression test. Results: There were significant differences in the resting pressure (p Introducción: Existe gran variabilidad en los hallazgos manométricos entre pacientes con incontinencia anal (IA y sujetos sanos. La correlación entre las presiones del canal anal y la IA no es exacta por el amplio rango de valores normales. Objetivos: Estudio prospectivo para evaluar diferencias en las presiones del canal anal y en la sensibilidad rectal en pacientes con IA, estreñimiento crónico (EC y sujetos sanos. Material y métodos: Noventa y cuatro pacientes con IA, 36 pacientes con EC y 15 sujetos sanos. Se obtuvieron: edad, sexo, presión de reposo, longitud del canal anal (LCA, presión de máxima contracción voluntaria (PMCV, duración de la contracción voluntaria, primera sensación, sensación de urgencia y máximo volumen tolerado (MVT. Estudio estadístico: test de Kruskal-Wallis, test de Mann-Whitney, regresión logística multinomial. Resultados: Se encontraron diferencias significativas en la edad (p < 0,001, la presión de reposo (p < 0,001, la LCA (p < 0,001 y la PMCV (p < 0,01 en el grupo de IA con

  2. Validación de un método analítico para la determinación cuantitativa de parabenos en el gel de hidróxido de aluminio Validation of an analytical method for the quantitative determination of parabens in aluminum hydroxide gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Benítez Hechavarría

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la valoración prospectiva de un método desarrollado para la cuantificación de metil y de propil parabeno en el gel de hidróxido de aluminio mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución en fase reversa, con columna RP18 (25* 0,4 cm y detector UV-Visible a 254 nm. Se evaluaron los parámetros especificidad, linealidad, precisión, exactitud, y adecuación cromatográfica. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que el método cumple con las especificaciones establecidas para cada parámetro evaluado, lo cual indicó que es un método rápido, seguro y confiable para la determinación cuantitativa de los parabenos en este gelThe prospective assessment of a method developed for the quantification of methyl/propyl paraben in aluminum hydroxide gel by reverse-stage high resolution liquid chromatography on RP18 column (25*0.4 cm, and with UV detector visible at 254 nm, was made. The specificity, lineality, accuracy, exactness and chromatographic adequacy were evaluated The results obtained showed that the method meets the specifications established for each evaluated parameter, which indicates that it is a rapid, safe and reliable method for the quantitative determination of the parabens in this gel

  3. Resultados do tratamento do carcinoma espinocelular anal e do seu precursor em doentes HIV-positivos Outcome of treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A incidência de carcinomas espinocelulares anais vem aumentando nos doentes HIV-positivos. O tratamento consiste de radio e/ou quimioterapia, eventualmente seguidos pela ressecção do tumor. O objetivo é avaliar o seguimento desses doentes para verificar as recidivas e a evolução do NIAA para câncer. Apresentação da casuística da Equipe Técnica de Proctologia do Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas, de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Acompanhamos 45 doentes HIV-positivos portadores de carcinoma espinocelular anal e seu precursor no período de 1996 a 2006. Eram 30 neoplasias intra-epiteliais anais de alto grau (NIAA, tratadas com ressecção local e 15 carcinomas invasores do canal anal. Nove das 15 lesões invasivas foram submetidas ao esquema de Nigro isolado ou associado à ressecção local, amputação abdominoperineal ou colostomia para derivação. RESULTADOS: No seguimento ambulatorial das NIAA tivemos recidiva em 16,7% e não observamos evolução para carcinoma, num período mínimo de três anos. Entre os nove tumores submetidos ao esquema de Nigro, com ou sem operação complementar, cinco estão livres de tumor. Nenhum tratamento foi feito em cinco doentes. Em três, devido às péssimas condições clínicas, e em dois, pois recusaram tratamento. Outro teve diagnóstico na vigência de oclusão intestinal sendo submetido à colostomia de derivação. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que a NIAA pode reincidir após excisão local em doentes HIV-positivos, mas não evolui para carcinoma invasor e que os doentes de câncer anal invasor podem ser tratados da mesma maneira que a população soronegativa para o HIV desde que as condições clínicas o permitam.OBJECTIVE: Incidence of anal squamous cell carcinoma is increasing mainly among HIV-positive patients. Treatment consists of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, sometimes followed by tumor resection. The objective was to evaluate the follow-up of such patients to verify recurrences

  4. Analítica o evocadora: el debate olvidado de la autoetnografía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Montagud Mayor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Existe la necesidad de una estrategia metodológica eficaz para sostener la investigación sobre la práctica profesional de los servicios sociales. La oposición entre el trabajo autoetnográfico de Carolyn ELLIS y Arthur BOCHNER (2000, 2006 y la propuesta analítica de Leon ANDERSON sirven como una lente a través de la cual explorar los aspectos clave de esta discusión. Mientras ELLIS y BOCHNER rechazan cualquier intento de abstracción o sistematización teórica, ANDERSON pretende tender puentes entre la tradición etnográfica y las formas emergentes de narrativa personal. Después de revisar la literatura autoetnográfica, concluyo que si bien la autoetnografía evocadora parece gozar del apoyo mayoritario en este campo, podría ser enriquecida por el enfoque analítico. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1603124

  5. Dominant Role of HPV16 E7 in Anal Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Marie K.; Pitot, Henry C.; Liem, Amy; Lambert, Paul F.

    2011-01-01

    Ninety percent of anal cancer is associated with human papilloma viruses (HPVs). Using our previously established HPV transgenic mouse model for anal cancer, we tested the role of the individual oncogenes E6 and E7. K14E6 and K14E7 transgenic mice were treated with dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to the anal canal and compared to matched nontransgenic and doubly transgenic K14E6/E7 mice. K14E7 and K14E6/E7 transgenic mice developed anal tumors (papillomas, atypias and carcinomas combined) at significantly higher rates (88% and 100%, respectively) than either K14E6 or NTG mice (18% and 19%, respectively). Likewise, K14E7 and K14E6/E7 transgenic mice developed frank cancer (carcinomas) at significantly higher rates (85% and 85%, respectively) than either K14E6 or NTG mice (18% and 10%, respectively). These findings indicate that E7 is the more potent oncogene in anal cancer caused by HPVs. PMID:21999991

  6. Vascularized anal autotransplantation model in rats: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, J; Mihara, M; Narushima, M; Iida, T; Sato, T; Koshima, I

    2011-11-01

    Ostomy has served as an effective surgery for various anorectal disfunctions. However, it must also be noted that those patients suffered greatly from stresses caused by their stoma. Many alternative therapies have been developed, but none have solved this critical issue. Meanwhile, due to the improvements in operative methods and immunosuppressive therapy, allotranplantation has gained great popularity in recent years. Therefore, we began development of an anal transplantation model. The operation was performed in six adult Wistar rats that were divided into two groups. Group 1 underwent vascular anastomoses, while group 2 did not Group 1 grafts survived, fully recovering anal function. However, many of the group 2 grafts did not survive; those that did survive showed major defects in their anus, never recovering anal function. We succeeded in establishing the rat anal transplantation model utilizing super-microsurgery. While research in anal transplantation was behind compared to that in other fields, we hope that this model will bring significant possibilities for the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sonographic appearance of anal cushions of hemorrhoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimaiti, Adilijiang; A Ba Bai Ke Re, Ma Mu Ti Jiang; Ibrahim, Irshat; Chen, Hui; Tuerdi, Maimaitituerxun; Mayinuer

    2017-05-28

    venous dilatation were obvious in the anal cushion of hemorhoidal tissues. After pathological results with arteriovenous fistulas were taken as the standard reference, we evaluated the compatibility between the two methods according to the Cohen's kappa co-efficiency calculation. The compatibility (Cohein kappa co-efficiency value) between "mosaic pattern" in the TPUS and arteriovenous fistula in pathology was very good (ĸ = 0.8939). When compared between different groups, TRUS presented the advantage that the mosaic pattern could be confirmed in more patients, especially for group A. There was a statistical difference when comparing group A with group B or C ( P hemorrhoids present with a pathologically abnormal cushion which usually appears as a "mosaic pattern" in sonography, which is in accord with an arteriovenous fistula in pathology. There are clearly different hemorrhoid structures shown by sonography. "Mosaic pattern" may be a parameter for surgical indication of grades III and IV hemorrhoids.

  8. Sonographic assessment of the anal sphincter after obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI) using transperineal ultrasound (TPUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Vered H; Valsky, Dan V; Yagel, Simcha

    2018-03-24

    Obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI) is the most common cause of anal incontinence and ano-rectal symptoms in women 1 . Reported rates of anal incontinence following primary repair of OASI range between 15-61%, with a mean of 39% 2, 3 . Other possible complications of OASI include perineal pain, dyspareunia, and less commonly, abscess formation, wound breakdown, and rectovaginal fistulae. Symptom onset may occur immediately, several years postpartum, or only late in life when aging of tissues adds to the delivery insult. Having sustained an OASI may impact significantly on women's physical and emotional health. Missed OASI, inadequate repair or lack of follow up are potential sources of litigation 4 . The reported incidence of OASI may be as high as 4-6.6% 4 , averaging 2.9% in the UK 3 . The incidence is higher in primiparae (6.1%) than in multiparae (1.7%) 3 . Recent years are seeing an increased awareness and structured training programs, which appear to have resulted in an increase in the detection rate of OASI 3 . The following risk factors have been identified with varying risk rates reported 3 : Asian ethnicity (OR 2.27, 95% CI 2.14-2.41), nulliparity (relative risk [RR] 6.97, 95% CI 5.40-8.99), birth weight greater than 4 kg (OR 2.27, 95% CI 2.18-2.36), shoulder dystocia (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.72-2.08), occipito-posterior position (RR 2.44, 95% CI 2.07-2.89), prolonged second stage of labor (up to RR 2.02, 95% CI 1.62-2.51 after four hours duration). Instrumental deliveries and episiotomy use have been extensively studied resulting in the following evidence: Vacuum delivery without episiotomy (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.74-2.05); vacuum delivery with episiotomy is protective (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.51-0.63); forceps delivery without episiotomy carries the highest potential risk (OR 6.53, 95% CI 5.57-7.64); and forceps delivery with episiotomy (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.21-1.49). Other potential risk factors have been suggested with varying evidence such as advanced maternal age at

  9. Método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución para el estudio de estabilidad del jarabe de loratadina 0,1 % Analytical method by high resolution liquid chromatography for the stability study of loratidine syrup 0.1 %

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Torres Amaro

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Se validó un método de cromatografía líquida de alta resolución para el estudio de estabilidad del jarabe de loratadina 0,1 %. La curva de calibración en el rango de 13,6 a 3,36 µg/mL fue lineal, con un coeficiente de correlación igual a 0,99975; la prueba estadística para el intercepto y la pendiente, no significativa. El recobrado obtenido resultó de 100,2 % en el rango de concentración estudiado, y las pruebas de Cochran y Student (t, no significativas. El coeficiente de variación en el estudio de repetibilidad fue igual a 0,41 % para 10 réplicas ensayadas, mientras que en la reproducibilidad las pruebas de Fischer y Student, no significativas. El método resultó específico, lineal, preciso y exacto.A high resolution liquid chromatography method was validated to study the stability of loratidine syrup 0.1 %. The calibration curve in the range from 13.6 to 3.36 µg/mL was lineal, with a coefficient of correlation equal to 0.99975. The intercept and slope statistical test was not significant. The recovery obtained was 100.2 % in the concentration range studied, and the Cochran and Student (t tests results were not important. The variation coefficient in the repeatability study was equal to 0.41 % for 10 replications assayed, whereas in the reproducibility Fischer and Student tests were not remarkable. The method proved to be specific, lineal, accurate, and exact.

  10. Educación ambiental y Papel de la Universidad en la visión de la Unión Europea y de Brasil : notas de la Comisión de enfoque analítico sobre el Programa de acción comunitario para el Medio Ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiwonghi Bizawu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone analizar el contexto de un nuevo programa comunitario de acción ambiental y el rol de la universidad en la opinión de la Unión Europea en materia de educación ambiental comparándola con la Política Nacional de Educación Ambiental de Brasil. Destacando la adecuación de los países europeos, especialmente España a los reglamentos y directivas de la UE relacionadas con el medio ambiente, cuya protección, conservación y preservación convertido en el deber de todos para asegurar un desarrollo sostenible para las generaciones presentes y futuras. El imperativo de esta preocupación se han convertido en un verdadero reto porque la protección del medio ambiente se abre al ser humano a un mundo los desafíos y oportunidades, con las aspiraciones más profundas y nobles de vivir en un medio ambiente sano y equilibrado, es decir, el medio ambiente que prevalece en la calidad de vida. Para ello, vamos adoptar se el método deductivo abar- cado en la investigación bibliográfica y descriptiva, teniendo en cuenta la situación del problema acerca del rol de las universidades en una Europa del conocimiento en la época de la educación ambiental.

  11. Síntese e avaliação de polímeros molecularmente impressos restritos a interação com macromoléculas para determinação analítica de sulfonamidas em matrizes complexas

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Felipe Rodriguez Cabal

    2014-01-01

    As sulfonamidas são antibióticos amplamente utilizados na medicina humana e animal. Por apresentarem um custo relativamente baixo, além de seu uso medicinal são comumente utilizadas como aditivos nos alimentos para promover o crescimento de animais. O alto consumo das sulfonamidas é preocupante, pois grandes quantidades desses compostos são descartadas no ambiente por meio de excreções humanas, excreções animais e por águas residuárias industriais e hospitalares. A presença de sulfonamidas no...

  12. Desarrollo de un método analítico para la cuantificación de acrilamida en tostadas de tortillas de maíz procedentes de Monterrey (México) y estimación de la exposición dietética

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Lara, Mirna Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    La acrilamida es una molécula muy polar altamente soluble en agua. Es un compuesto neurotóxico, genotóxico y carcinógeno, catalogado como probable carcinógeno para humanos por la Agencia Internacional de Investigación en Cáncer. En el 2002 se reportó presencia de niveles muy altos de acrilamida en alimentos ricos en carbohidratos cuando son sometidos al proceso de cocción por horneado, fritura, tostados o asado por encima de 120 °C. Este hallazgo generó gran preocupación a nivel mundial por e...

  13. Desarrollo de un método analítico para la cuantificación de acrilamida en tostadas de tortillas de maíz procedentes de Monterrey (México) y estimación de la exposición dietética /

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Lara, Mirna Elizabeth,

    2017-01-01

    Departament responsable de la tesi: Departament de Ciència Animal i dels Aliments. La acrilamida es una molécula muy polar altamente soluble en agua. Es un compuesto neurotóxico, genotóxico y carcinógeno, catalogado como probable carcinógeno para humanos por la Agencia Internacional de Investigación en Cáncer. En el 2002 se reportó presencia de niveles muy altos de acrilamida en alimentos ricos en carbohidratos cuando son sometidos al proceso de cocción por horneado, fritura, tostados o as...

  14. Desarrollo de nuevas estrategias analíticas basadas en técnicas separativas acopladas a metodologías de pre-concentración y modelado quimiométrico para el análisis de fármacos y sus metabolitos en muestras complejas

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Candioti, Luciana

    2009-01-01

    En la presente tesis se desarrollaron, optimizaron y validaron métodos basados en electroforesis capilar y cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, para la separación y determinación simultánea de múltiples analitos contenidos en diversas matrices biológicas. El acondicionamiento de muestras y extracción de analitos desde sus matrices, se realizó mediante precipitación de proteínas y centrifugación, combinados con extracciones líquido-líquido y en fase sólida, obteniendo recuperac...

  15. The Danish anal sphincter rupture questionnaire: Validity and reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Ulla; Ottesen, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To revise, validate and test for reliability an anal sphincter rupture questionnaire in relation to construct, content and face validity. Setting and background. Since 1996 women with anal sphincter rupture (ASR) at one of the public university hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark have been...... main questions but one. Two questions needed further explanation. Seven women made minor errors. Conclusion. The validated Danish questionnaire has a good construct, content and face validity. It is a well accepted, reliable, simple and clinically relevant screening tool. It reveals physical problems...... offered pelvic floor muscle examination and instruction by a specialist physiotherapist. In relation to that, a non-validated questionnaire about anal and urinary incontinence was to be answered six months after childbirth. Method. The original questionnaire was revised and a pilot test was performed...

  16. Anal carcinoma and HIV infection: is it time for screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz-Pinto, P; Sendagorta-Cudós, E; Bernardino-de la Serna, J I; Peña-Sánchez de Rivera, J M

    2014-03-01

    A 38-year-old white man had a 10-year history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (A3), with no episodes of opportunistic diseases and in good immunologic recovery (CD4 cell count: 450 and indetectable HIV viral load) while on HAART. He presented with a two-month history of mild anal symptoms, including pruritus and episodic bleeding. He referred past episodes of anal warts, self-treated with several topical compounds, all proven unsuccessful. Perianal examination showed erythema and scratching. A 0.5cm sized tumor, with infiltration at the base was detected on digital exam, located at 15mm from the anal margin. Local biopsy driven by high-resolution anuscopy (AAR) yielded a final diagnosis of infiltrative epidermoid carcinoma. Might that neoplasia have been prevented? Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Psicoterapia cognitivo analítica y trastornos de la personalidad: revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rodríguez Moya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En los años 80 y 90, A. Ryle desarrolló un modelo de tratamiento denominado Psicoterapia Cognitivo Analítica (PCA. Con un enfoque integrador, breve y focal, la PCA se ha aplicado a diversas patologías, siendo su uso más frecuente con pacientes con trastorno de personalidad, sobre todo con trastorno límite. Estos pacientes poseen un número de disfunciones metacognitivas que dificultan el proceso de darse cuenta de sus diferentes estados mentales y de sus componentes. A través del modelo de Múltiples Estados del self, el objetivo es ayudar al paciente a identificar los procesos disfuncionales o restrictivos del self que está experimentando y dotarle de recursos para que pueda sustituirlos por otros más adaptativos.

  18. El método analítico como método natural

    OpenAIRE

    Lopera Echavarría, Juan Diego; Ramírez Gómez, Carlos Arturo; Zuluaga Aristizábal, Marda Ucaris; Ortiz Vanegas, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Retomando la definición de análisis como la descomposición de un todo en sus elementos constitutivos para proceder a su comprensión y rearticulación, el presente artículo expone al método analítico como el método natural de los seres humanos, muestra sus relaciones con el método científico y explicita su vinculación íntima con la ética, en tanto hábito resultante de la incorporación de dicho método. Based on the definition of analysis like the decomposition of a whole in its constituent el...

  19. Estudo da associação entre hipertonia do complexo esfincteriano anal e dispareunia em mulheres adultas

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Samantha Figueiredo Frota

    2012-01-01

    Existem várias associações entre causas orgânicas e dispareunia, no entanto há poucos estudos que examinam sua relação com a hipertonia da musculatura do assoalho pélvico. Portanto, mulheres com hipertonia neste grupo muscular caracterizam uma amostra relevante para investigar a ocorrência de dispareunia. Objetivo: Estudar a possível associação entre hipertonia do complexo esfincteriano anal e dispareunia em mulheres adultas. Método: Participaram do estudo 57 mulheres, com idade de 18 a 51 an...

  20. La contabilidad analítica del sector público en España: Un panorama

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Norverto Laborda; Clara Isabel Muñoz Colomina; Eloy Veuthey Martínez; Javier Zornoza Boy

    1988-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar un panorama del estado de elaboración teórica en que se encuentra en España la contabilidad analítica para el sector público, tanto en lo que se refiere a las propuestas emanadas de la propia Administración (particularmente el Grupo 9 del Plan General de Contabilidad Pública), como en lo relativo a las de los profesionales e investigadores independientes. Dado que el proceso de reforma de la contabilidad pública española se inició hace relativament...

  1. Revisión analítica de los procesos de Internacionalización de las PYMES

    OpenAIRE

    Tabares Arroyave, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    Con la aceleración de la globalización y la interdependencia económica entre países, las empresas se han enfrentado a procesos de internacionalización en el mercado internacional, lo cual ha generado incertidumbre con respecto a las estrategias que deben utilizar estas, especialmente las pequeñas y medianas, para operar en el escenario internacional. Buscando resolver esta inquietud, este artículo realiza una revisión analítica de los principales planteamientos en la internacionalización de p...

  2. The identification of specialized pacemaking cells in the anal sphincters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafik, Ahmed; El Sibai, Olfat; Ahmed, Ismail

    2006-07-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are claimed to generate the electrical activity in the colon and stomach. As the external (EAS) and internal (IAS) anal sphincters exhibit resting electrical activity, we hypothesized the presence of ICC in these sphincters. This hypothesis was investigated in the current study. Specimens from the EAS and IAS were taken from normal areas of the anorectum which had been surgically excised by abdominoperineal operation for rectal cancer of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women, mean age 42.2+/-4.8 years). The specimens were subjected to c-kit immunohistochemistry. Controls for the specificity of the antisera consisted of tissue incubation with normal rabbit serum substituted for the primary antiserum. Fusiform, c-kit positive, ICC-like cells were detected in the anal sphincters; they had dendritic processes. They were clearly distinguishable from the non-branching, c-kit negative smooth and striated muscle cells of the anal sphincters. The specimens contained also c-kit positive mast cells, but they had a rounded body with no dendritic processes. Immunoreactivity was absent in negative controls in which the primary antibody was omitted. We have identified, for the first time, cells in EAS and IAS with morphological and immunological phenotypes similar to ICCs of the gut. These cells appear to be responsible for initiating the slow waves recorded from the anal sphincters and for controlling their activity. A deficiency or absence of these cells may affect the anal motile activity. Studies are needed to explore the role of these cells in anal motility disorders.

  3. Avaliação de diferentes métodos imunoturbidimétricos para determinação de albumina urinária: impacto na classificação dos estágios da nefropatia diabética Evaluation of different immunoturbidimetric methods to measure urinary albumin: impact in the classification of diabetic nephropathy stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Elisabet Wendland

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A nefropatia diabética (ND acomete até 40% dos pacientes diabéticos e o diagnóstico precoce pode evitar a evolução para estágios avançados. O rastreamento deve ser realizado pela medida de albumina urinária (AlbU utilizando-se o método quantitativo sensível. OBJETIVO: Avaliar diferentes métodos imunoturbidimétricos de determinação de AlbU para a classificação dos estágios da ND. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A albumina foi dosada em 167 urinas (65 urinas de 24 h e 102 amostras casuais por dois métodos imunoturbidimétricos: kit Aptec-BioSys, ADVIA® 1650 Bayer (AlbUAdvia e kit MAlb Urin-Pack Bayer®, CobasMira® Roche(AlbUCobas. AlbUCobas foi definido como método comparativo e utilizado para classificar as amostras em normoalbuminúricas (albuminúria 300 mg/24 h ou > 174 mg/l, n = 31. Os coeficientes de variação (CV intra e interensaio, sensibilidade e linearidade dos métodos foram calculados. As concordâncias analítica e diagnóstica foram analisadas por regressão Deming, gráficos de Bland-Altman e por coeficiente kappa. RESULTADOS: Os CVs intra e interensaio foram BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN affects up to 40% of diabetic patients and must be screened by the measurement of urinary albumin with a sensitive quantitative method. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of different immunoturbidimetric methods to measure albuminuria in the classification of DN stages. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Albumin was measured in 167 urine samples (65 24 h samples and 102 casual samples by two immunoturbidimetric methods: Aptec BioSys, ADVIA® 1650 Bayer (AlbUAdvia and Malb Urin-Pack Bayer®, CobasMira® Roche (AlbUCobas. AlbUCobas was definedas the comparative method used to classify the samples in: normoalbuminuric (albuminuria 300 mg/24 h or > 174 mg/l; n = 31. The intra and interassay coefficients of variation (CVs, sensitivity and linearity of each method were calculated and the analytical and diagnostic agreements were

  4. Aprendizaje de los conceptos de masa, peso y gravedad. Investigación de la efectividad de un modelo analógico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia E. Moro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La línea de investigación sobre los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje científico basada en modelos analógicos ha adquirido relevancia, pero notamos que son pocas las aplicaciones en el aula, sobre todo en el nivel medio de enseñanza. Los modelos didácticos analógicos son una herramienta importante para la instrucción pero a condición de que el profesor y los alumnos adquieran una visión en común sobre el análogo y se describan sus limitaciones comparado con el modelo teorético. Se espera del alumno una toma de conciencia sobre sus procesos y eventos cognitivos para que pueda evaluar los progresos y resultados, comprendiendo su propia versión acerca de la naturaleza de su conocimiento y sobre el proceso de aprendizaje, es decir sobre sus esencias epistemológicas. En este trabajo se evalúa la eficiencia de un modelo didáctico analógico para la enseñanza de los conceptos de masa, peso y gravedad mediante un estudio correlacional, cuasiexperimental con posprueba y grupo control.

  5. Validação de um método analítico para a determinação de substâncias ativas em formulações farmacêuticas empregadas em "peelings" químicos Validation of analytical methods for the determination of active substances in pharmaceutical preparations used in chemical peelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Rodrigues Ramos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos "peelings" químicos utilizam-se formulações esfoliantes, empregadas na terapêutica de queratoses actínicas, rugas, discromias pigmentares, acne vulgar e rosácea. Na presente pesquisa, foram empregadas como amostras, a solução de Jessner (SJ composta por resorcinol (RS 14%, ácido salicílico (AS 14% e ácido láctico (AL 14% em solução alcoólica e géis de AS a 20% e RS a 30%. As técnicas utilizadas foram a espectrofotometria derivada no UV de primeira e segunda ordens em etanol absoluto para o AS e RS, respectivamente na SJ, e a espectrofotometria derivada no UV de primeira ordem em ácido sulfúrico 0,1 N para o AS e RS nos géis. Para o AS na SJ, o coeficiente de correlação (r foi de 0,9999, a precisão expressa pela média dos desvios padrão relativos (DPR de 0,68% e a exatidão expressa pela recuperação média de 100,5%. Para o RS na SJ o r foi de 0,9999, a média dos DPR de 0,83% e a recuperação média de 100,3%. No gel de AS, o r foi de 0,9999, a média dos DPR de 0,28 e a recuperação média de 99,3%. No gel de RS, o r foi de 0,9998, a média dos DPR de 0,34 e a recuperação média de 99,9%.Chemical peeling is obtained with exfoliating formulations and is used in the treatment of actinic keratosis, wrinkles, dyschromies, acne vulgaris and rosacea acne. In this research we selected the Jessner Solution (JS, a pharmaceutical preparation composed of resorcinol (RS (14%, salicylic acid (SA (14% and lactic acid (LA (14% in alcoholic solution and two gel samples composed of RS (30% and SA (20%, respectively. First and second derivative UV spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for determination of SA and RS, respectively in JS alcoholic solution, ethanol was used as background. A first derivative UV spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of these active substances in gel samples using 0.1N sulfuric acid as background. For SA in the JS, the correlation coefficient (r was 0.9999, the

  6. Empaatia kogemus kunstiteoses kujutatud subjekti suhtes: fenomenoloogiline analüüs / Marge Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Marge, 1976-

    2015-01-01

    Analüüsitakse vaataja esteetilist kogemust kunstiteose suhtes. Autor tugineb Edith Steini empaatia kogemuse uurimusele ja fenomenoloogilisele uurimismeetodile. Vaataja empaatia kogemuse analüüs Maarit Murka maalisarjas "Hairpower" kujutatud subjekti suhtes

  7. HIV infection connected to rising anal cancer rates in men in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection contributes substantially to the epidemic of anal cancer in men, but not women in the United States, according to new research from NCI. Chart shows overall incidence rates of anal cancers in general population

  8. Presence of skin metastasis related to an epidermoid carcinoma of anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danta Fundora, Debora; Collado Otero, Juan Carlos; Vazquez Gonzalez, Jose Manuel; Paredes Lopez, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Appearance of spreading skin metastases in colorectal cancer and of anal canal is infrequent. The aim of present paper was to show an interesting case of skin metastasis related to an advanced carcinoma of anal canal infiltrating rectum

  9. Factors related to inadequate cervical cancer screening in two Brazilian state capitals Factores asociados al rastreo inadecuado del cáncer cervical en dos capitales brasileras Fatores associados ao rastreamento inadequado do câncer cervical em duas capitais brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Felipe Leite Martins

    2009-04-01

    menos submetidas ao exame de Papanicolaou quando comparadas às demais mulheres, sendo a diferença estatisticamente significativa somente no Rio de Janeiro. CONCLUSÕES: Os achados apontam a necessidade de intervenção principalmente em mulheres de piores condições socioeconômicas e de acesso à saúde, com idade mais avançada e não-casadas. As atividades de educação para o diagnóstico precoce e para o rastreamento em mulheres sintomáticas e assintomáticas devem ser priorizadas com garantia de acesso aos métodos de diagnóstico e tratamento adequados.

  10. Using of thermoradiotherapy on treatment of cancerous growths of anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, Yu.M.; Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter of book authors investigated using of thermoradiotherapy on treatment of cancerous growths of anal canal, methods of using of thermoradiotherapy at morbid with anal cancer, methods of irradiation, the characteristic of clinical observations, using of thermoradiotherapy at treatment of epidermoid cancer of anal zone, using of thermoradiotherapy at treatment of non epithelial cancer of anal zone and using thermoradiotherapy at others types of cancerous growths

  11. Cause-Specific Colostomy Rates After Radiotherapy for Anal Cancer: A Danish Multicentre Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Kåre G; Nørgaard, Mette; Lundby, Lilli

    2011-01-01

    In anal cancer, colostomy-free survival is a measure of anal sphincter preservation after treatment with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Failure to control anal cancer and complications of treatment are alternative indications for colostomy. However, no data exist on cause-specific colostomy...

  12. Relation between anal electrosensitivity and rectal filling sensation and the influence of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, PMA; Penninckx, FM

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of age and sex on the rectal filling sensation and anal electrosensitivity and to explore the relation between anal electrosensitivity and the parameters of the rectal filling sensation. METHODS: Anal mucosal electrosensitivity and anorectal

  13. Diferenciação analítica de vinhos-base para espumantes de duas regiões vitícolas do Rio Grande do Sul Analytical differentiation of the base wines for sparkling from two viticultural regions of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira Poerner

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram caracterizar e diferenciar vinhos-base para espumante (cultivares 'Chardonnay' e 'Pinot Noir' provenientes da Serra do Nordeste e Serra do Sudeste do Rio Grande do Sul por meio de parâmetros físico-químicos e elementos minerais combinados com técnicas de análise multivariada. Foram analisados nove parâmetros físico-químicos (densidade, grau alcoólico, extrato seco total, extrato seco reduzido, acidez total, acidez volátil, acidez fixa, pH e açúcares redutores, por espectrofotometria no infravermelho, e 11 elementos minerais (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na e Sr, por espectrometria de emissão ótica com plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP-OES. Os elementos encontrados em maiores concentrações foram K, Mg e Ca e, em menores concentrações, Ba, Fe, Sr e Al. A Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP mostrou que há uma tendência natural de separação entre os vinhos-base da Serra do Nordeste e Serra do Sudeste. Por meio da Análise Discriminante (AD foram obtidos cinco descritores (Mg, Ca, Mn, pH e grau alcoólico para os vinhos-base da cultivar 'Chardonnay' e seis descritores (B, Mn, Fe, Na, pH e acidez volátil para a cultivar 'Pinot Noir', com capacidade de classificar as amostras de vinhos-base de acordo com a origem geográfica. Os elementos Mn e Mg parecem ser aqueles com maior capacidade de discriminação entre os vinhos-base da Serra do Nordeste e Serra do Sudeste.This research describes the base wines characterization and differentiation (cultivars Chardonnay and Pinot Noir from Serra do Nordeste and Serra do Sudeste of Rio Grande do Sul by physicochemical parameters and mineral elements followed by multivariate statistical analysis. Nine physicochemical parameters (density, alcoholic content, total dry extract, reduced dry extract, total acidity, volatile acidity, fix acidity, pH and reducing sugars were analyzed by infrared spectrofotometry and eleven mineral elements (Al, B, Ba, Ca

  14. The development of an analytical method for two mycotoxins, patulin and verruculogen, and survey of their presence in commercial tomato pulp Desenvolvimento de um método analítico para duas micotoxinas, patulina e verruculogeno, e levantamento da sua incidência em polpa comercial de tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane M. Kawashima

    2002-09-01

    étodo para determinação de patulina e verruculogeno em produtos de tomate foi desenvolvido envolvendo uma extração com acetato de etila, uma limpeza em coluna de sílica gel e determinação e confirmação por cromatografia de alta eficiência com detector de arranjo de diodos. Os limites de quantificação foram de 10 ng/g e 20 ng/g e as recuperações medias foram de 89% e 65% para patulina e verruculogeno, respectivamente. O processamento de duas fábricas de produtos de tomate foi amostrado durante 1996, 1997 e 1998. Oitenta e quatro amostras de polpa de tomate foram analisadas para patulina e verruculogeno. As toxinas não foram detectadas em nenhuma das amostras.

  15. Rectocele and anal sphincter defect – surgical anatomy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carefully directed translabial ultrasound scan of the rectum and anal sphincters. The ultrasound examination was performed by a radi- ologist with specific understanding of the pathology. Conventional two-dimensional ultrasound imaging was performed using a 4 - 8. MHz curved array probe. The patient was in the left ...

  16. Anal endosonographic findings in women after vaginal delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziejczak, Malgorzata [Department of Proctology, Hospital at Solec, Warsaw (Poland); Sudol-Szopinska, Iwona, E-mail: iwsud@ciop.pl [Department of Proctology, Hospital at Solec, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Second Faculty of Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw (Poland); Stefanski, Robert [Department of Proctology, Hospital at Solec, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Second Faculty of Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw (Poland); Panorska, Anna K. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Nevada, Reno (United States); Gardyszewska, Agnieszka [Second Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Warsaw (Poland); Krasnodebski, Ireneusz [Department of General and Gastroenterological Surgery and Nutrition, Medical University, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-04-15

    Objective: To estimate a frequency of obstetric anal sphincters defects in women after vaginal delivery. Methods: The study included 102 women, aged from 16 to 40 years (mean age 28.6 years). 28 women had perineal lacerations of 3rd and 4th degree. 22 women had instrumental delivery. Anal endosonography was performed on all participants using BK Medical scanner Pro focus with a 3D endoprobe during the first week after delivery. Starck's classification was used to score sphincters defects. Results: The endosonographic images were abnormal in 8 out of 102 women (7.8%). Follow-up examinations after 6 weeks confirmed defects in 6 out of 102 women (5.8%). Five women had external anal sphincter torn, and 1 woman had both sphincters, internal and external, defected. Discordance between endosonographic diagnosis of defect and clinical assessment of sphincters continuity was demonstrated in 6 (5.9%) out of 8 initially found, including 2 (1.9%) false endosonographic results and 4 (3.9%) false clinical diagnosis (occult sphincter defects). The endosonography sensitivity and accuracy in sphincter defect diagnostic amounted to 100% and 98%, respectively. Conclusions: (1) Anal sphincters' tears in symptomatic women are not as frequent as it was believed. (2) The defect diagnosis in the first week after delivery should be verified by a follow-up endosonography in 6 weeks, after regression of the edema and hematoma.

  17. Primary radiation therapy in the treatment of anal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantril, S.T. (Children' s Hospital of San Francisco, CA); Green, J.P.; Schall, G.L.; Schaupp, W.C.

    1983-09-01

    From 1966 to 1981, 47 patients with a diagnosis of anal carcinoma were irradiated. This group was composed of 23 males and 24 females, with age ranging from 38 to 84 years (average 64.4 years). Five patients were treated preoperatively and 34 were treated definitively with cancericidal doses of irradiation. Acute radiation reactions requiring a rest-break were noted in 28% of patients, but all were managed as outpatients without untoward chronic sequelae. Chronic complications were noted in 13 patients, including two patients who required colostomy for severe anal stenosis and two who required A-P resection for large painful ulcers. Twenty-eight of 35 patients (80%) treated with irradiation alone have remained locally controlled without further treatment. An additional four have been salvaged by surgery. Only three patients had interstitial implants as part of their treatment course. Actuarial survival at five years for the N/sub 0/ patients and the group as a whole are 95.6 and 79.3%, respectively. It is concluded that external beam irradiation alone, properly fractionated to cancericidal doses, can control anal carcinoma with acceptable morbidity rates and without the use of either chemotherapy or interstitial implants in most cases. There is also a strong correlation suggesting that anal intercourse and male homosexuality play a significant role in the etiology of this disease.

  18. Primary radiation therapy in the treatment of anal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantril, S.T.; Green, J.P.; Schall, G.L.; Schaupp, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    From 1966 to 1981, 47 patients with a diagnosis of anal carcinoma were irradiated. This group was composed of 23 males and 24 females, with age ranging from 38 to 84 years (average 64.4 years). Five patients were treated preoperatively and 34 were treated definitively with cancericidal doses of irradiation. Acute radiation reactions requiring a rest-break were noted in 28% of patients, but all were managed as outpatients without untoward chronic sequelae. Chronic complications were noted in 13 patients, including two patients who required colostomy for severe anal stenosis and two who required A-P resection for large painful ulcers. Twenty-eight of 35 patients (80%) treated with irradiation alone have remained locally controlled without further treatment. An additional four have been salvaged by surgery. Only three patients had interstitial implants as part of their treatment course. Actuarial survival at five years for the N 0 patients and the group as a whole are 95.6 and 79.3%, respectively. It is concluded that external beam irradiation alone, properly fractionated to cancericidal doses, can control anal carcinoma with acceptable morbidity rates and without the use of either chemotherapy or interstitial implants in most cases. There is also a strong correlation suggesting that anal intercourse and male homosexuality play a significant role in the etiology of this disease

  19. The anal verge: localization with multi-slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Tang Guangjian

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine and evaluate the method of localization of anal verge by multislice spiral CT. To provide an imaging reference for operative guidance of low-rectal cancer. Methods Forty eight consecutive adult patients suspected of abnormalities other than rectal disease were evaluated with abdominal and pelvic CT scans since August, 2009. They were divided into two groups based on sex and age. There were 23 men and 25 women. The ages of young group were 28 to 50 years and the average age was 41 years. The ages of elderly group were 52 to 81 years and the average age was 64 years. A small cotton ball dipped with contrast media was put at the anal verge as a marker and CT scans were performed with 64-slice spiral CT scanner. The distances between the cotton balls and the lower margin of the pubis combination (La), the lower margin of the Sth sacral vertebra (Lb), the inferior aperture of minor pelvis (Lc) and the lower margin of the basement of external anal sphincter (Ld) were measured on the mid- sagittal images obtained by MPR. The averages, the standard deviations (s), the 95% and 80% confidence intervals of La, Lb, Lc and Ld were calculated. We took the intervals of ±1.96 s or ±1.28 s 0.05) between two different sex groups [male group, (10.0±1.2) mm], female group, (9.6±1.2) mm and between two age groups [young group, (9.6±1.2) mm, elderly group, (9.9±1.3) mm]. Conclusions: The lower margin of the basement of external anal sphincter was a useful anatomic landmark for localizing the anal verge, and could be definitely identified on the middle sagittal pelvic CT image. The distance between the structure and anal verge is constant enough and can be used in measuring distance from low rectal lesion to the anal verge. (authors)

  20. El efecto del entorno en la emisión de fluorescencia . Modelos teóricos y aplicaciones analíticas

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Camón, Mª Arantzazu

    2012-01-01

    En esta Tesis Doctoral se abordan aspectos teóricos y prácticos de la fluorescencia molecular, en medio líquido y sólido, que pueden resumirse en: 1.- Estudio y utilización del efecto del entorno molecular en la intensidad de fluorescencia, que se refiere a cómo las interacciones no covalentes que sufre un fluoróforo en presencia de un analito y un disolvente afectan a su emisión y a la utilización de esos cambios para obtener información analítica del entorno. Para ello se ha desarrollad...

  1. Desenvolvimento e validação de metodologia analítica, ensaio de dissolução e estudo de estabilidade do carbonato de lodenafila

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Franco Codevilla

    2012-01-01

    O carbonato de lodenafila é um inibidor da fosfodiesterase tipo 5, desenvolvido no Brasil, o qual é um dímero formado por duas moléculas de lodenafila ligadas por uma ponte carbonato. Encontra-se disponível sob a forma de comprimidos. Não existe monografia disponível para este fármaco em nenhum código oficial. Assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi desenvolver métodos analíticos para análise qualitativa e quantitativa do carbonato de lodenafila em comprimidos, avaliação da estabilidade fren...

  2. Papilomavírus Humano (HPV e sua associação entre lesões cervical e anal em mulheresHuman papillomavirus (HPV and its association between cervical and anal injuries in womendoi:10.12662/2317-3076jhbs.v4i3.860.p174-180.2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maria Oliveira Brito

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Entre as doenças virais sexualmente transmissíveis, a infecção pelo Papilomavírus Humano (HPV configura-se como a mais comum, e sua incidência vem aumentando acentuadamente nos últimos trinta anos. A infecção anal por subtipos específicos do HPV predispõe o indivíduo à neoplasia intraepitelial anal, que pode evoluir para o câncer de forma similar ao colo uterino. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a associação tipo-específica entre infecções anais e cervicais, assim como os aspectos citopatológicos das lesões anais pelo vírus HPV em mulheres de São Luís, Maranhão. Métodos: Estudo analítico transversal com 27 mulheres atendidas no Centro de Pesquisa Clínica da UFMA, entre agosto de 2012 e julho de 2015, mediante entrevista e realização de exames complementares. Resultados: As mulheres tinham, em média, 32 anos. Em relação ao resultado do PCR, 77,7% das pacientes apresentaram resultado positivo para HPV anal, sendo o subtipo 16 o mais frequente (47,6%. Na região cervical, 88,8% apresentaram PCR positivo, sendo o mais comum o subtipo 16 (47,8%. A coinfecção anal e cervical pelo HPV foi observada em 74% das mulheres. 93,3% dos resultados de citologia anal não apresentaram alteração, assim como 72,2% das anuscopias realizadas. Conclusões: A infecção cervical por HPV é um fator sugestivo de risco para o desenvolvimento da infecção na região anal.

  3. Early effect of external beam radiation therapy on the anal sphincter: A study using anal manometry and transrectal ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaum, E.H.; Dreznik, Z.; Myerson, R.J.; Lacey, D.L.; Fry, R.D.; Kodner, I.J.; Fleshman, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The early of pelvic irradiation on the anal sphincter has not been previously investigated. This study prospectively evaluated the acute effect of preoperative radiation on anal function. Twenty patients with rectal carcinoma received 4,500 cGy of preoperative external beam radiation. The field of radiation included the sphincter in 10 patients and was delivered above the anorectal ring in 10 patients. Anal manometry and transrectal ultrasound were performed before and four weeks after radiotherapy. No significant difference in mean maximal squeeze or resting pressure was found after radiation therapy. An increase in mean minimal sensory threshold was significant. Histologic examination revealed minimal radiation changes at the distal margin in 8 of 10 patients who underwent low anterior resection and in 1 of 3 patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection. The authors conclude that preoperative radiation therapy has minimal immediate effect on the anal sphincter and is not a major contributing factor to postoperative incontinence in patients after sphincter-saving operations for rectal cancer

  4. Pressões retais e anais em primigestas ao defecar Rectal and anal straining pressures in primigravidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Artur Klug

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar as mudanças nas pressões do reto e ânus de primigestas ao simular defecação. MÉTODOS: Selecionamos 60 mulheres no Ambulatório de Pré-natal e no de Cirurgia da Santa Casa de São Paulo. Estas formaram quatro grupos de 15: a grupo-controle: nuligestas; b primigestas no 1º trimestre; c primigestas no 2º trimestre; d primigestas no 3º trimestre. Em todas realizamos manometria retal e anal e as seguintes medidas: a pressão retal em repouso; b pressão retal ao esforço de defecação; c pressão anal à defecação. RESULTADOS: Observamos que as pressões retais ao esforço de defecar aumentam em grávidas em menor proporção que nas nuligestas; estas pressões caíram de 53,9 ± 17,9 em nuligestas para 36,3± 19,6, 38,1 ± 16,2 e 30,5 ± 17,0 nos três trimestres. As pressões anais de defecação foram maiores nas nuligestas (46,9± 17,6 que nas gestantes, respectivamente 37,5 ± 15,5, 32,1 ± 6,2 e 32,9 ± 8,7. Houve maior queda das pressões anais na gestação mais avançada, que compensa a dificuldade para elevar a pressão intra-retal de esforço. CONCLUSÃO: A gravidez altera as pressões retais e anais ao simular defecação, diminuindo- as, mas de forma a compensarem-se mutuamente.OBJECTIVE: This study intended to evaluate rectal and anal straining pressures in primigravidae, at simulated defecation. METHODS: The present study is based on 60 women from de Antenatal Care of Santa Casa de Misericórdia - São Paulo. Patients were divided into four groups of 15: a Control group: nuligravidae; b 1st trimester primigravidae; c 2nd trimester primigravidae; d 3rd trimester primigravidae. All patients underwent rectal and anal measurements to obtain: a Resting rectal pressure; b Straining rectal pressure; c Minimal straining anal pressure. RESULTS: Data was analyzed using statistical methods and reached, the same results: it was observed that the straining rectal pressure decreased from 53

  5. Botulinum toxin A injection for chronic anal fissures and anal sphincter spasm improves quality of life in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Chaptini, MBBS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a 20-year-old female with generalized, severe, recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa who developed secondary chronic anal fissures. This resulted in anal sphincter spasm and severe, disabling pain. She was treated with five botulinum toxin A injections into the internal anal sphincter over a period of 2 years and gained marked improvement in her symptoms. This case demonstrates the successful use of botulinum toxin A injections to relieve anal sphincter spasm and fissuring, with long-term improvement.

  6. Abnormal anal cytology risk in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Nobre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of abnormal anal cytology in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion. This study evaluated 200 women with and without genital squamous intraepithelial lesion who were recruited for anal Pap smears. Women who had abnormal results on equally or over atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance were classified as having abnormal anal cytology. A multiple logistic regression analysis (stepwise was performed to identify the risk for developing abnormal anal cytology. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 program. The average age was 41.09 (±12.64. Of the total participants, 75.5% did not practice anal sex, 91% did not have HPV-infected partners, 92% did not have any anal pathology, and 68.5% did not have anal bleeding. More than half (57.5% had genital SIL and a significant number developed abnormal anal cytology: 13% in the total sample and 17.4% in women with genital SIL. A significant association was observed between genital squamous intraepithelial lesion and anal squamous intraepithelial lesion (PR = 2.46; p = 0.03. In the logistic regression model, women having genital intraepithelial lesion were more likely to have abnormal anal Pap smear (aPR = 2.81; p = 0.02. This report shows that women with genital squamous intraepithelial lesion must be more closely screened for anal cancer.

  7. Radiation doses in mammography as planning parameters for premature breast cancer tracking programs; Doses de radiacao em mamografias como parametros de planejamento para programas de rastreamento do cancer precoce da mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Ferreira, Rubemar de

    1994-12-31

    Radiation doses are the main parameters applied to the evaluation of mammographic radiological impact. This study, for a sample of 407 women, were analyzed, through the thermoluminescent dosimetry, radiation doses in the surface of skin and glandular absorbed doses for cranio-caudal view. The results show the presence of a large dose range to the same mammographic procedure, which, analyzed enclosed with 585 facilities, suggest be necessary the standardization of the mammographic technique. From that results, with the additive model, the excess of breast cancer (radioinduced) and lifetime loss risk, for age groups between 30 and 70 years were estimated. Is demonstrated that the benefits from dedicated mammography, overcome the relationship among the epidemiological aspects of breast cancer and ionizing radiation as an harmful agent, which may show an important correlation for large exposed populations, point out the importance of the continuous risk and benefit evaluation to the new technologies introduced. (author). 86 refs., 40 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. Use of Anal Acoustic Reflectometry in the Evaluation of Men With Passive Fecal Leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornung, Benjamin R; Telford, Karen J; Carlson, Gordon L

    2017-01-01

    with greater sensitivity and discriminatory ability than conventional anal manometry. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether men with fecal leakage have an abnormality in anal sphincter function that is detectable by anal acoustic reflectometry. DESIGN: This was an age-matched study......BACKGROUND: Men with passive fecal leakage represent a distinct clinical entity in which the pathophysiology remains unclear. Standard anorectal investigations fail to demonstrate consistent abnormalities in this group. Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new test of anal sphincter function...... of continent and incontinent men. SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Male patients with isolated symptoms of fecal leakage were recruited. Anal acoustic reflectometry, followed by conventional anal manometry, was performed. Results were then compared with those from...

  9. Testing for and the role of anal and rectal sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J

    1992-03-01

    The rectum is insensitive to stimuli capable of causing pain and other sensations when applied to a somatic cutaneous surface. It is, however, sensitive to distension by an experimental balloon introduced through the anus, though it is not known whether it is the stretching or reflex contraction of the gut wall, or the distortion of the mesentery and adjacent structures which induces the sensation. No specific sensory receptors are seen on careful histological examination of the rectum in humans. However, myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibres are seen adjacent to the rectal mucosa, but no intraepithelial fibres arise from these. The sensation of rectal distension travels with the parasympathetic system to S2, S3 and S4. The two main methods for quantifying rectal sensation are rectal balloon distension and mucosal electrosensitivity. The balloon is progressively distended until particular sensations are perceived by the patient. The volumes at which these sensations are perceived are recorded. Three sensory thresholds are usually defined: constant sensation of fullness, urge to defecate, and maximum tolerated volume. The modalities of anal sensation can be precisely defined. Touch, pain and temperature sensation exist in normal subjects. There is profuse innervation of the anal canal with a variety of specialized sensory nerve endings: Meissner's corpuscles which record touch sensation, Krause end-bulbs which respond to thermal stimuli, Golgi-Mazzoni bodies and pacinian corpuscles which respond to changes in tension and pressure, and genital corpuscles which respond to friction. In addition, there are large diameter free nerve endings within the epithelium. The nerve pathway for anal canal sensation is via the inferior haemorrhoidal branches of the pudendal nerve to the sacral roots of S2, S3 and S4. Anal sensation may be quantitatively measured in response to electrical stimulation. The technique involves the use of a specialized constant current generator

  10. A trial of radiofrequency ablation for anal intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Robert N; Hasan, Shirin R; Drury, Steven; Darragh, Teresa M; van Zante, Annemieke; Goldstone, Stephen E

    2017-03-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) effectively treats esophageal high-grade dysplasia, but its efficacy in treating anal canal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) is unsubstantiated. This prospective study assessed the safety and efficacy of applying hemi-circumferential RFA to anal canal HSIL. Twenty-one HIV-negative participants with HSIL occupying ≤ half the anal canal circumference were treated with hemi-circumferential anal canal RFA. Participants were assessed every 3 months for 12 months with high-resolution anoscopy; recurrence in the treatment zone was re-treated with focal RFA. Twenty-one participants with a mean of 1.7 lesions (range 1-4) enrolled and completed the trial. Six (29 %) participants had recurrent HSIL within the treated hemi-circumference within 1 year. Four participants (19 %) had persistence of an index lesion at 3 months. One (2.9 %) index HSIL persisted again at 12 months. No participants had more than two RFA treatments. KM curve-predicted HSIL-free survival within the treatment zone at 1 year was 76 % (95 % CI 52-89 %). Comparing the first 7 and last 14 participants, the predicted 1-year HSIL-free survivals are 43 % (95 % CI 10-73 %) and 93 % (95 % CI 59-99 %), respectively (p = 0.008), suggesting a learning curve with the treating physician. Multivariable analysis showed decreased recurrence in the last 14 participants (HR 0.02; 95 % CI 0.001-0.63) while increasing BMI increased recurrence (HR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.01-2.01). No participants had device or procedure-related serious adverse events, anal stricture, or heavy bleeding. Hemi-circumferential RFA yielded a high rate of anal HSIL eradication in HIV-negative patients at 1 year with minimal adverse events. Lesion persistence was probably related to incomplete initial ablation.

  11. Anal sexual experience and HIV risk awareness among female sex workers in Dire Dawa, eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazeingia, Yohannes Teka; Olijjira, Lemessa; Dessie, Yadeta

    2017-01-01

    Female sex workers have been disproportionately affected with HIV and anal sexual experience elevate their vulnerability. Anal intercourse has more risk of HIV transmission than vaginal intercourse for receptors that coupled with low condom and proper lubricant use behavior during anal sex. Besides majority of them did not understand HIV transmission risk of anal intercourse. In Ethiopia, studies on anal sexual experience is almost none existent, so the purpose of this study is to explored anal sexual experience and HIV transmission risk awareness among female sex worker in Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Qualitative study with thematic analysis approach was conducted among 18 female sex workers and recruitment of study participants performed until saturation of information. The principal investigator conducted in-depth interviews using local language (Amharic) and it was recorded on audio recorder. Tape recorded data was transcribed and translated to English and entered into open code version 3.4 for coding and theme identification. Data collection conducted simultaneously with data analysis. Female sex workers practiced anal sex for different themes like financial influence, coercion, intentionally, peer pressure and as a sign of intimacy and love. Coercion, negative attitudes, poor awareness about HIV transmission risks of anal sex and protection capacity of condom and proper lubricants are the identified themes for not using condom and proper lubricants during anal sex by female sex workers. Inaccessibility and unavailability of health services for issues related to anal sex was the core reason for female sex workers' misperception and risk anal sexual experience. Female sex workers practiced anal sex without risk reduction approaches and they did not understand exacerbated risk of anal sex to HIV transmission. Stakeholders including ministry of health need to incorporate potential awareness raising tasks and programs about risk of anal sex and methods of risk

  12. Assessment of fistulectomy combined with sphincteroplasty in the treatment of complicated anal fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrolsadat Anaraki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The ideal method of treating the complex anal fistula is to eradicate the sepsis and preserve the anal sphincter; since there is no definite consensus on the surgical method of treating it. Recent studies show that fistulectomy and immediate sphincteroplasy are a safe and appropriate way to treat the fistula-in-ano. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term outcomes of fistulectmy and sphincteroplasty in the treatment of complex perianal fistula. Methods: In this prospective study, we have analyzed the data of 80 patients who underwent fistulectomy and sphincteroplasty from May 2013 to May 2016. Preoperative information included physical examination, preoperative fecal incontinence evaluation and taking a complete history about underlying diseases and past related surgeries were collected. Results: Of all 80 patients with complex fistula, 57.5% (46 patients were male. 70-Patients were presented with high transsphincteric fistula (87.5% and anterior fistula was diagnosed in 10 of them (12.5%. 9 patients (11.3% suffered from hypertension and 43 patients (53.75% had recurrent fistula after previous surgeries. During the follow-up period, the overall success rate was 98.8% (98.8% and fistulectomy and sphincteroplasty failed in only one patient (failure rate: 1.3%. preoperative and post-operative scoring showed mild fecal incontinence in 8 patients (10%. We have found no significant relation between the age, gender, hypertension, previous surgery and post-operative recurrence. Conclusion: Fistulectomy and sphincteroplasty is a safe surgical procedure in the treatment of anterior anal fistula in females and high transsphincteric fistulas. Resumo: Introdução: o método ideal para tratar a fístula anal complexa consiste em erradicar a sepse e preservar o esfíncter anal, uma vez que não existe consenso definitivo com relação ao método cirúrgico para tratamento desse problema. Estudos recentes demonstram que a

  13. Validação de método analítico espectrofotométrico UV para determinação de ácido úsnico em lipossomas Validation of a UV-spectrophotometric analytical method for the determination of usnic acid in liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marigilson Pontes de Siqueira-Moura

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O ácido úsnico (AU é um composto de origem liquênica e tem demonstrado importantes atividades biológicas, tais como: antitumoral, antimicrobiano, antiviral, antiproliferativo e antiinflamatório. Os lipossomas são vesículas lipídicas contendo espaço aquoso interno e têm sido utilizados como carreadores coloidais de fármacos, principalmente na terapêutica de câncer e infecções bacterianas e fúngicas. O objetivo desse trabalho foi desenvolver e validar um método espectrofotométrico UV para determinação de ácido úsnico em lipossomas. Os parâmetros de validação linearidade, precisão, exatidão, robustez, limites de detecção e quantificação foram determinados segundo diretrizes internacionais de padronização e Farmacopéia Americana. A faixa de linearidade foi de 3 a 15 µg.mL-1, a equação de regressão: absorbância = 0,070 x [AU] (µg.mL-1 + 0,013 e r = 0,9997. A repetibilidade (coeficiente de variação do método foi 1,96% e a precisão intermediária indicou que a diferença entre as médias foi estatisticamente insignificante (P The secondary lichen metabolite usnic acid [2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1,3(2H,9bH-dibenzofuran] has demonstrated pharmacological potential activities such as antitumor, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory. Liposomes are vesicles composed of phospholipid bilayers surrounding aqueous compartments and they have been used as colloidal drug carriers. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a quantitative UV spectrophotometric method for determination of usnic acid in liposomal formulations. The validation parameters were assessed according to The International Conference on Harmonization (ICH and American Pharmacopoeia guidelines. The linearity range was of 3-15 µg.mL-1, regression equation: absorbance = 0.070 x UA concentration (µg.mL-1 + 0.013, and r = 0.9997. The repeatability (relative standard deviation of the method was 1.96% and

  14. Anal high-risk human papillomavirus infection and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia detected in women and heterosexual men infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandra S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sumanth Gandra, Aline Azar, Mireya WessolosskyDivision of Infectious Disease and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USABackground: Although anal high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV infection and anal cytological abnormalities are highly prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM, there are insufficient data on these abnormalities among HIV-infected heterosexual men (HSM and women. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of anal HR-HPV, cytological abnormalities, and performance of these screening tests in detecting high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN2+ among our cohort of HIV-infected MSM and non-MSM (HSM and women.Methods: A single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted with HIV-infected individuals who underwent anal cancer screening with anal cytology and HR-HPV testing from January 2011 to January 31, 2013.Results: Screening of 221 HIV-infected individuals for both HR-HPV and anal cytology showed the presence of HR-HPV in 54% (abnormal anal cytology 48% of MSM, 28% (abnormal anal cytology 28% of HSM, and 27% (abnormal anal cytology 34% of women. Among 117 (53% individuals with abnormal results (HR-HPV-positive and/or cytology was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or above, 67 underwent high resolution anoscopy. Of these 67 individuals, 22 individuals had AIN2+ (17 MSM, four women, and one HSM. HR-HPV correlated better with AIN2+ than with anal cytology on biopsy in both MSM (r=0.29 versus r=0.10; P=0.05 versus P=0.49 and non-MSM (r=0.36 versus r=-0.34; P=0.08 versus P=0.09.Conclusion: Given the presence of AIN2+ in screened HIV-infected HSM and women, routine anal cancer screening in all HIV-infected individuals should be considered. HR-HPV merits further evaluation for anal cancer screening among non-MSM.Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, anal human papillomavirus, heterosexual men, women, anal cancer

  15. Patients with newly diagnosed cervical cancer should be screened for anal human papilloma virus and anal dysplasia: Results of a pilot study using a STELLA computer simulation and economic model

    OpenAIRE

    Eli D. Ehrenpreis; Dylan G. Smith

    2018-01-01

    Background: Women with cervical cancer often have anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and anal dysplasia. However, effectiveness of anal HPV screening is unknown. Methods: A dynamic model was constructed using STELLA. Populations are represented as ''stocks'' that change according to model rates. Initial anal cytology in new cervical cancer patients, dysplasia progression and regression, cost of treating high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and lifetime costs for anal can...

  16. RASTREAMENTO MAMOGRÁFICO: DETECÇÃO DE LESÕES NEOPLÁSICAS MALIGNAS EM MULHERES DE SANTA CATARINA E DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Martins da Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue analizar las tasas de incidencia de lesión neoplásica maligna según tipo de detección y distribución proporcional de mamografías en mujeres de 40 a 69 años del Estado de Santa Catarina y de Brasil. Se trata de un estudio observacional descriptivo fundamentado en datos del Departamento de Tecnología de la Información del Sistema Único de Salud entre 2009 y 2012 y del Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística. En Brasil y en Santa Catarina, la mayor cobertura de la mamografía en mujeres de 45 a 49 años fue de 22,2% y 23,1% respectivamente. La mayor distribución proporcional fue de 89,2% en las brasileñas de 40 a 44 años y de 50 a 54 años en Santa Catarina. Las tasas de incidencia de lesión neoplásica maligna de mama diagnosticada por imagen se elevaron en el Brasil y Santa Catarina. En 2012, en Brasil la mayor detección ocurrió por medio de la palpación y en Santa Catarina a través de imagen en 2012. Se concluye que el cribado mamográfico está por debajo del nivel recomendado. Mayores distribuciones proporcionales de mamografías permitieron mayor número de diagnósticos de lesiones neoplásicas malignas y finalmente, la realización de la mamografía a partir de los 40 años contribuyó para el diagnóstico de cáncer de mama entre la fase etaria de 40 a 49 años.

  17. MRI in children following surgery for anal and rectal atresia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahe, T.; Herold, A.; Doelken, W.; Hoecht, B.; Wuerzburg Univ.

    1989-01-01

    MRI of the pelvis was performed in 17 children following surgical correction of anal and rectal atresias and in five children without ano-rectal malformations. A muscle score was used to characterize the muscles of the pelvic floor and their relationship to the rectum. There was close agreement between the MRI muscle score and clinical continence. MRI provided additional information that should improve continence following conservative and surgical treatment. (orig.) [de

  18. coloproctectomie avec anastomose colo-sus-anale pour tumeur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une coloproctectomie fut réalisée le 30/06/2014 avec anastomose colo-anale, colostomie de protection sous-couvert d'une transfusion sanguine. L'examen histologique du segment colorectal prélevé objectiva une rectocolite granulomateuse autour de nombreux oeufs de schistosomes. En effet, le patient a vécu à Pahou, ...

  19. Pelvic floor ultrasound and anal incontinence in primiparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakse, Abelone Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Afhandlingen havde til formål at undersøge muskulære forandringer på bækkenbundsmuskulaturen i relation til første fødsel, med særligt fokus på anal inkontinens. Forsvaret fandt sted d. 10. september 2010 kl. 14:00 i Auditoriet på Hvidovre Hospital.   ...

  20. Endosonographic appearance of the anal sphincters in patients following colostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudol-Szopinska, I.; Jakubowski, W.; Szczepkowski, M.; Panorska, A.

    2002-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to visualize, by anal ultrasound (AUS), the suspected defects of the anal sphincters in the patients after colostomy and to analyze possible factors that could have led to such defects. Patients and methods. AUS, using a 7.0 MHz endorectal probe, was performed in a group of 25 patients with colostomy. The internal anal sphincter (IAS), external anal sphincter (EAS) and puborectalis muscle (PR) were visualized and the defects within them were qualified and quantified. For statistical analysis, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. Results. The IAS was thin in all but three patients (22 patients; 88 %) with the mean thickness of 1.62 mm. A circular reduction of the thickness along the entire length of the IAS was seen in 20 patients (90.9 %). The echogenicity of the IAS was increased in 15 patients (60 %), and in 10 of them (66.6%), this defect embraced the whole length and circumference of the IAS. The margins of the IAS were not well-defined in 10 patients (40%). A significant correlation was found between the length of the patient's life with the stoma and the IAS echogenicity defect (p-value = 0.0001). No significant correlation was found between the dynamic examination, the IAS thickness and the IAS borders definition. Conclusion. The reduced thickness, increased echogenicity and borders definition defect of the IAS are seen in the patients after colostomy. The only significant correlation was confirmed between the length of the patient's life with the stoma and the IAS echogenicity defect. (author)

  1. The impact of anal sphincter injury on perceived body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, David; Khan, Rabia; Naidoo, Kristina; Kearney, Rohna; Myers, Jenny; Reid, Fiona

    2017-05-01

    Obstetric anal sphincter injury is common but the effect on body image is unreported. The aim of this study was to explore patient perceived changes in body image and other psychological aspects in women attending a perineal follow-up clinic. This retrospective study analysed women's responses to a self-reported questionnaire. Consecutive women with anal sphincter injury who attended a United Kingdom Maternity Hospital perineal follow-up clinic between January 1999 and January 2012 were identified and the records obtained and reviewed. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine variables influencing self-reported change in body image. Questionnaires and operation notes were analysed from 422 women who attended at a median of four months after delivery. 222 (53%) reported a change in body image with 80 (19%) reporting lower self-esteem and 75 (18%) a change in their personality due to the change in body image. 248 (59%) perceived an anatomical change due to the delivery. Factors associated with increased likelihood of reporting a change in body image were reporting a perceived change in anatomy due to the delivery, adjusted OR 6.11 (3.56-10.49), anal incontinence, OR 1.97 (1.16-3.36), and delivery by forceps, OR 2.59 (1.23-5.43). This is the first study to quantify body image changes in women after anal sphincter injury sustained in childbirth. These were found to be very common, affecting up to 50% of women. The study has several limitations but it does highlight the significant psychosocial problems of negative self-esteem and personality changes associated with a perceived change in body image that has not previously been reported. It also outlines the further research questions that need to be addressed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiotherapy for carcinomas of the anal canal Tenon hospital experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touboul, E.; Moureau-Zabotto, L.; Lerouge, D.; Pene, F.; Deniaud-Alexandre, E.; Schlienger, M.; Laugier, A.; Tiret, E.; Parc, R.; Sezeur, A.; Houry, S.; Gallot, D.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1980, curative-intent radiation therapy of epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal is the standard first line treatment. The combined concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy is presently established for locally advanced tumors more than 4 cm in length and/or with nodal involvement. We report the Tenon hospital experience since 1972 concerning the long term results after radiation therapy, the modifications of the radiation technique, and the evolution of treatment strategy. (author)

  3. Fractal dimension and image statistics of anal intraepithelial neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahammer, H.; Kroepfl, J.M.; Hackl, Ch.; Sedivy, R.

    2011-01-01

    Research Highlights: → Human papillomaviruses cause anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). → Digital image processing was carried out to classify the grades of AIN quantitatively. → The fractal dimension as well as grey value statistics was calculated. → Higher grades of AIN yielded higher values of the fractal dimension. → An automatic detection system is feasible. - Abstract: It is well known that human papillomaviruses (HPV) induce a variety of tumorous lesions of the skin. HPV-subtypes also cause premalignant lesions which are termed anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). The clinical classification of AIN is of growing interest in clinical practice, due to increasing HPV infection rates throughout human population. The common classification approach is based on subjective inspections of histological slices of anal tissues with all the drawbacks of depending on the status and individual variances of the trained pathologists. Therefore, a nonlinear quantitative classification method including the calculation of the fractal dimension and first order as well as second order image statistical parameters was developed. The absolute values of these quantitative parameters reflected the distinct grades of AIN very well. The quantitative approach has the potential to decrease classification errors significantly and it could be used as a widely applied screening technique.

  4. Anal sphincter electromyography in patients with Anorectal Dysfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinchet Soler, Rafael; Hidalgo Marrero, Yanet; Espichicoque Megret, Arianne; Manzano Suarez, Jianeya; Perez Gonzales, Ruth Maite

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the electromyography value of anal sphincter in patients with anorectal dysfunctions. Anorectal dysfunctions are frequent reason of pediatric consultation in children, especially with anal incontinence. A study of series of cases in patient with anorectal dysfunctions was carried out from January 2002 to January of 2006. 65 patients were studied. Anorectal malformations (ARM) represented the predominant affection with 38 patients (58.5%), prevailing the male sex in 25 patients (65.8%). Encopresis and intestinal agagliosis dicrease was observed. Sphincter was found before surgical treatment through electromyography in patients with anorectal malformations and colostomy; in those with definitive operation and open colostomy, it avoided the operation in a patient that did not have muscular activity of the external sphincter. In children already operated and with closed colostomy several electromyography changes were observed in correspondence with different incontinence grades. In encopresis cases the study was useful to rule out sphincter functional alterations. Electromyography was pathological in all the operated patients of intestinal aganglionosis. This procedure was very useful for anal incontinence study that helped to determine and establish the prognosis. (author)

  5. Hemorrhoids and anal fissures in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ugo, S; Stasi, E; Gaspari, A L; Sileri, P

    2015-12-01

    Perianal disease is a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It includes different conditions from more severe and potentially disabling ones, such as abscesses and fistulas, to more benign conditions such as hemorrhoids, skin tags and fissures. Most literature has been focused on anal sepsis and fistulae, as they carry the majority of disease burden and often alter the natural course of the disease. Hemorrhoids and anal fissures in patients with IBD have been overlooked, although they can represent a challenging problem. The management of hemorrhoids and fissures in IBD patients may be difficult and may significantly differ compared to the non-affected population. Historically surgery was firmly obstructed, and hemorrhoidectomy or sphincterotomy in patients with associated diagnosis of IBD was considered harmful, although literature data is scant and based on small series. Various authors reported an incidence of postoperative complications higher in IBD than in the general populations, with potential severe events. Considering that a spontaneous healing is possible, the first line management should be a medical therapy. In patients non-responding to conservative measures it is possible a judicious choice of surgical options on a highly selective basis; this can lead to acceptable results, but the risk of possible complications needs to be considered. In this review it is analyzed the current literature on the incidence, symptoms and treatment options of hemorrhoids and anal fissures in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

  6. Thermal responses of shape memory alloy artificial anal sphincters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yun; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Matsuzawa, Kenichi

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation of the thermal behavior of an artificial anal sphincter using shape memory alloys (SMAs) proposed by the authors. The SMA artificial anal sphincter has the function of occlusion at body temperature and can be opened with a thermal transformation induced deformation of SMAs to solve the problem of severe fecal incontinence. The investigation of its thermal behavior is of great importance in terms of practical use in living bodies as a prosthesis. In this work, a previously proposed phenomenological model was applied to simulate the thermal responses of SMA plates that had undergone thermally induced transformation. The numerical approach for considering the thermal interaction between the prosthesis and surrounding tissues was discussed based on the classical bio-heat equation. Numerical predictions on both in vitro and in vivo cases were verified by experiments with acceptable agreements. The thermal responses of the SMA artificial anal sphincter were discussed based on the simulation results, with the values of the applied power and the geometric configuration of thermal insulation as parameters. The results obtained in the present work provided a framework for the further design of SMA artificial sphincters to meet demands from the viewpoint of thermal compatibility as prostheses.

  7. Anal squamous carcinoma: a new AIDS-defining cancer? Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Squamous anal cell carcinoma is a rare malignancy that represents the 1.5% to 2% of all the lower digestive tract cancers. However, an increased incidence of invasive anal carcinoma is observed in HIV-seropositive population since the widespread of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Human papillomavirus is strongly associated with the pathogenesis of anal cancer. Anal intercourse and a high number of sexual partners appear to be risk factors to develop anal cancer in both sexes. Anal pain, bleeding and a palpable lesion in the anal canal are the most common clinical features. Endo-anal ultrasound is the best diagnosis method to evaluate the tumor size, the tumor extension and the infiltration of the sphincter muscle complex. Chemoradiotherapy plus antiretroviral therapy are the recommended treatments for all stages of localized squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in HIV-seropositive patients because of its high rate of cure. Here we present an HIV patient who developed a carcinoma of the anal canal after a long time of HIV infection under highly active antiretroviral therapy with a good virological and immunological response.

  8. Nodo sensor para la medida ambiental de CO2, temperatura y humedad

    OpenAIRE

    Jara Burgos, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    En este documento se describe el diseño y la implementación de un nodo sen-sor para la medida ambiental del nivel de CO2, la temperatura y la humedad relativa. El sistema se basa en un interfaz directo sensor a microcontrolador para las medidas de temperatura y humedad relativa, mientras que para el sensor de CO2 se basa en una conversión analógica digital. El sistema utiliza un sensor resistivo para medir la temperatura, un sensor capacitivo para medir la humedad relativa y un sensor...

  9. Os tipos psicológicos na psicologia analítica de Carl Gustav Jung e o inventário de personalidade “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”: contribuições para a psicologia educacional, organizacional e clínica/The psychological types in analytical psychology of Carl Gustav Jung and the inventory of personality “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”: contributions for the educational, organizational and clinical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marcelo Alves Ramos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta os princípios da Teoria dos Tipos Psicológicos, a mais conhecida face da Psicologia Analítica do psicólogo e psiquiatra suíço Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961, bem como os fundamentos do Inventário de Personalidade “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”, constituído a partir da tipologia junguiana, e que vem sendo cada vez mais utilizado nos campos da Psicologia Educacional, Organizacional e Clínica. The text presents the principles of the Theory of Psychological Types, the most known face of the Analytical Psychology of the Swiss psychologist and psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961, as well as the fundamentals of the Inventory of Personality “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”, constituted from the Jungian typology, and which has been more used nowadays by Educational, Organizational and Clinical Psychology.

  10. Análisis de la revista Bibliotecas: Anales de Investigación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Luis González-Valiente

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es describir el impacto académico, la calidad del proceso editorial, y las estrategias editoriales y de visibilidad de la revista científica cubana Bibliotecas. Anales de Investigación (BAI, editada por la Biblioteca Nacional de Cuba “José Martí”. Para determinar el impacto académico se efectúa un análisis de las citas recibidas a partir de la base datos Google Académico, mediante los indicadores bibliométricos: citas por año, citación vs. autocitación, revistas citables vs. documentos no citables, Índice Hirsch y factor de impacto. La calidad del proceso editorial y las estrategias de visibilidad se determinan mediante una autoevaluación efectuada con la metodología de los sistemas de indización SciELO, Scopus, CLASE, Redalyc, Latindex, Dialnet, y ERIH PLUS. Los resultados revelan una línea de crecimiento en la citación, destacándose como fuentes citantes las revistas científicas de las áreas Bibliotecología y Ciencia de la Información, Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, y Educación. Se evidencia que algunos aspectos de formato y contenido inciden negativamente en la calidad del proceso editorial. Se proponen estrategias para mejorar la visibilidad científica a través de la inclusión en bases de datos, directorios, y redes sociales y académicas. En general, este estudio contribuye a la toma de decisiones editoriales para aumentar el impacto y la visibilidad científica de BAI.

  11. Importância da perimetria de dupla freqüência na detecção do glaucoma: rastreamento em funcionários de hospital público numa área urbana de São Paulo The role of frequency doubling perimetry in the diagnosis of glaucoma: screening in employees of a public hospital in an urban area of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Vicente de Almeida

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a prevalência de glaucoma, em funcionários da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo e analisar a validade da inclusão da perimetria de freqüência dupla junto à tonometria de não-contato e à oftalmoscopia direta, na triagem para glaucoma. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 612 funcionários voluntários, 438 mulheres e 174 homens, com idade média de 45,05±7,7 anos. Eram 437 da raça branca, 104 mulatos, 43 da raça negra e 28 da raça amarela. Todos os funcionários tiveram ambos os olhos examinados por especialistas em glaucoma, que realizaram os seguintes exames: perimetria de freqüência dupla (FDT, oftalmoscopia direta (FO, tonometria de não-contato (TNC. RESULTADOS: Dos 612 indivíduos triados, 159 (25,98% apresentaram alguma anormalidade em pelo menos um dos exames: 5 (3,14% apresentaram pressão intra-ocular elevada (TNC+; 13 (8,17% apresentaram oftalmoscopia suspeita (FO+; 110 (69,18% apresentaram perimetria de freqüência dupla alterado (FDT+; 8 (5,03% TNC+ e FO+; 10 (6,28% TNC+ e FDT+; 9 (5,66% FO+ e FDT+; 4 (2,51% TNC+, FO+ e FDT+. Foram detectados 12 (1,96% indivíduos com glaucoma, quatro dos quais (0,65% com glaucoma de pressão normal. CONCLUSÕES: A perimetria de freqüência dupla mostrou-se útil para o rastreamento de glaucoma dentro da amostragem estudada. Do total de 12 indivíduos que tiveram o diagnóstico de glaucoma, 5 (41,6% não teriam sido detectados se não tivessem sido submetidos a perimetria de freqüência dupla.PURPOSE: To study the prevalence of glaucoma in employees of a public hospital in São Paulo and to analyze the role of frequency doubling perimetry along with non-contact tonometry and direct ophthalmoscopy, in the screening for glaucoma. METHODS: 612 employees of the Central Hospital of the "Santa Casa de São Paulo" were evaluated from October 15 to 20, 2000; 438 were women and 174 men, with mean age of 45.05±7.7 years (range, 35 to 81 years; 437 were white, 104 mulatto, 43

  12. HPV infection and intraepithelial lesions from the anal region: how to diagnose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Sérgio de Carvalho

    Full Text Available In the last years, the prevalence of HPV infection in the anal region has increased, especially in some groups like homosexual and HIV-positive people. Since this infection can be associated with the development of squamous anal cancer due to its progression from HPV infection to anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN and finally to cancer, the screening and evaluation of these conditions are important. Anal cytology and high resolution anoscopy are good methods that are available and can be used. Although useful, these methods should be performed correctly and not indiscriminately in all patients. Patients for whom anal cytology screening is recommended are: HIV-infected patients, homosexuals, women who present with high-grade vulvar squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, vulvar cancer or cervical cancer. An abnormal anal cytology should be further evaluated with high resolution anoscopy.

  13. Recent Advances in the Pharmacotherapy of Chronic Anal Fissure: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Medhi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Surgical sphincterotomy reduces anal tone and sphincter spasm and promotes ulcer healing. Because the surgery is associated with the side effect of faecal incontinence, pharmacological agents to treat chronic anal fissure have been explored recently. Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN ointment (0.2% has an efficacy of up to 68% in healing chronic anal fissure, but it is associated with headache as the major and most common side effect. Though botulinum toxin injected into the anal sphincter healed over 80% of chronic anal fis-sures, it is more invasive and expensive than GTN therapy. Diltiazem ointment achieved healing of chronic anal fissure comparable to 0.2% GTN ointment but was associated with fewer side effects. Other drugs that have been tried are lidocaine, the alpha-adrenergic antagonist indoramin, and the potassium channel opener minoxidil.

  14. The impact of anaemia on treatment outcome in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal and anal margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblak, Irena; Cesnjevar, Monika; Anzic, Mitja; Hadzic, Jasna But; Ermenc, Ajra Secerov; Anderluh, Franc; Velenik, Vaneja; Jeromen, Ana; Korosec, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Radiochemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Anaemia is reported to have adverse effect on survival in cancer patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of anaemia on radiochemotherapy treatment outcome in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. One hundred consecutive patients with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal were treated radically with 3-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy followed by brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy boost and with concurrent mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil. The influence on survival of pre-treatment, mean on-treatment and end-of-treatment haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations was studied. The 5-year locoregional control, disease free survival, disease specific survival and overall survival rates for all patients were 72%, 71%, 77% and 62%, respectively. In univariate analysis, patients with pre-treatment and end-of-treatment Hb > 120 g/L survived statistically significantly better compared to patients with Hb ≤ 120 g/L. Patients with mean on-treatment Hb > 120 g/L only had statistically significant better locoregional control and overall survival than patients with Hb ≤ 120 g/L. In multivariate analysis, independent prognostic factors were pre-treatment Hb (> 120 g/L vs. ≤ 120 g/L) for overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.419, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.190-0.927, p = 0.032) and stage (I & II vs. III) for disease specific (HR = 3.523, 95% CI = 1.375-9.026, p = 0.009) and overall survival (HR = 2.230, 95% CI = 1.167-4.264, p = 0.015). The pre-treatment, mean on-treatment and end-of-treatment Hb concentration > 120 g/L carried better prognosis for patients for with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated with radiochemotherapy. The pre-treatment Hb > 120 g/L was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival of patients with anal canal cancer.

  15. The impact of anaemia on treatment outcome in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal and anal margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblak, Irena; Cesnjevar, Monika; Anzic, Mitja; Hadzic, Jasna But; Ermenc, Ajra Secerov; Anderluh, Franc; Velenik, Vaneja; Jeromen, Ana; Korosec, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Radiochemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Anaemia is reported to have adverse effect on survival in cancer patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of anaemia on radiochemotherapy treatment outcome in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. One hundred consecutive patients with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal were treated radically with 3-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy followed by brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy boost and with concurrent mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil. The influence on survival of pre-treatment, mean on-treatment and end-of-treatment haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations was studied. The 5-year locoregional control, disease free survival, disease specific survival and overall survival rates for all patients were 72%, 71%, 77% and 62%, respectively. In univariate analysis, patients with pre-treatment and end-of-treatment Hb > 120 g/L survived statistically significantly better compared to patients with Hb ≤ 120 g/L. Patients with mean on-treatment Hb > 120 g/L only had statistically significant better locoregional control and overall survival than patients with Hb ≤ 120 g/L. In multivariate analysis, independent prognostic factors were pre-treatment Hb (> 120 g/L vs. ≤ 120 g/L) for overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.419, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.190–0.927, p = 0.032) and stage (I & II vs. III) for disease specific (HR = 3.523, 95% CI = 1.375–9.026, p = 0.009) and overall survival (HR = 2.230, 95% CI = 1.167–4.264, p = 0.015). The pre-treatment, mean on-treatment and end-of-treatment Hb concentration > 120 g/L carried better prognosis for patients for with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated with radiochemotherapy. The pre-treatment Hb > 120 g/L was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival of patients with anal canal cancer

  16. Diagnóstico do anismus através dos exames de fisiologia anal Diagnosis of the anismus through the anorectal physiology tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Prolungatti Cesar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as causas de defecação obstruída, a disfunção do pubo-retal ou anismus é a mais frequente e o seu diagnóstico é feito com maior frequência através de eletromiografia , considerado como o melhor exame para o diagnóstico desta afecção. O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar a influência do anismus ou contração paradoxal do pubo-retal nos exames de fisiologia anal. Para este trabalho foram estudados 40 pacientes com diagnóstico de defecação obstruída e separados em dois grupos: com e sem anismus. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos aos exames de manometria, sensibilidade retal, eletromiografia, latência do nervo pudendo e proctografia com a finalidade de observar a influência da presença de anismus nos resultados de exames de fisiologia anal. Não observamos diferenças entre os dois grupos em relação aos exames realizados, exceto na eletromiografia que é considerada padrão ouro e no ângulo ano retal na proctografia em que nos pacientes com anismus foi significantemente menor. CONCLUSÃO: a presença de anismus interferiu nos resultados dos exames de fisiologia anal apenas na eletromiografia, considerado padrão ouro para esse diagnóstico.Amongst the causes of outlet obstruction, the anismus is most frequent and its diagnosis is made more frequently through electromyografy, considered as optimum examination for this diagnosis. The objective of this work is to verify the influence of anismus in the examinations of anal physiology. For this work 40 patients with diagnosis of outlet obstruction were separate in two groups had been studied: with and without anismus. All of the patients were submitted to manometric exams, rectal sensibility, electromyography, pudendal latency and defecography with the purpose of serving which ones exams would be important in the presence or not of the anismus. We didn´t observe differences between the two groups in relation to the carried through examinations, except in the

  17. Does Sacral Nerve Stimulation Improve Continence Through Enhanced Sensitivity of the Anal Canal?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, S; Brock, C; Krogh, K

    2016-01-01

    . DESIGN: This is an explorative study. PATIENTS: Fifteen women with idiopathic fecal incontinence (mean age, 58 ± 12.2 years) were selected. INTERVENTIONS: Cortical evoked potentials were recorded during repeated rapid balloon distension of the rectum and the anal canal both before and during temporary...... the threshold for urge to defecate elicited from the anal canal, whereas supraspinal responses remained unaltered. This may suggest that sacral nerve stimulation, at least in part, acts via somatic afferent fibers enhancing anal sensation....

  18. Modelo analítico del efecto de PRS sobre satélites GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, A.; Brunini, C.; Usandivaras, J. C.

    El sistema GPS (Global Position System) es, hoy en día, la herramienta de navegación y posicionamiento más potente y lo será sin duda en la próxima década. Gran parte de su valiosa utilidad se debe a la alta precisión que permite lograr y ésta, a su vez, depende, entre otras causas, de la precisión con que se conocen las órbitas de los satélites. La presión de radiación solar (PRS) fija el límite de la precisión con que pueden calcularse en la actualidad las efemérides satelitarias. El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer una mejor resolución de este fenómeno. El modelo analítico aquí presentado, se basa en el análisis del comportamiento de los residuos de un ajuste por mínimos cuadrados en el que se utiliza el modelo de PRS propuesto por Beutler. El mismo consiste en un modelo determinista del fenómeno con dos parámetros libres. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto que, aún después de aplicar dichos parámetros, prevalecen en los residuos efectos semidiurnos en las componentes radial,tangencial y normal. Estos resultados obtenidos se comparan con los de un trabajo desarrollado por el Instituto de Berne (Beutler et al., 1994), en el que se utilizaron como pseudo-observaciones las órbitas precisas del IGS (CODE). El intervalo de integración escogido por este centro fueron las semanas 680 y 681. En resumen se tienen arcos de 14 días para todos los satélites, donde las efemérides precisas de los mismos para los 14 días fueron utilizados como pseudo-observaciones. El modelo de fuerza que empleó dicho centro fue básicamente el tradicional en lo que respecta al modelo de las fuerzas gravitacionales, y para la PRS utilizo el modelo standard de Beutler. Los parámetros de este modelo junto con las 6 condiciones iniciales (posición y velocidad) fueron ajustados por el método general de mínimos cuadrados. Los residuos en la componente radial, tangencial y normal, para los satélites con un buen comportamiento, presentan una

  19. Squamous intraepithelial lesions of the anal squamocolumnar junction: Histopathological classification and HPV genotyping

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    Omar Clavero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV-related anal cancer lesions are often found adjacent to the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ. We have assessed the histopathology and associated HPV genotypes in anal SCJ lesions in surgically excised anal warts in HIV-negative and –positive patients. Methods: Histopathology identified 47 squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs adjacent to the SCJ amongst a total of 145 cases of clinically diagnosed anal condylomata. The anal SCJ lesions were further analyzed with p16, CK7 and p63 immunohistochemistry and HPV genotyping. Results: Sixteen (16/47 of the excised anal wart lesions contained HSIL; Three were HSIL and exclusively associated with oncogenic HPVs. A further thirteen (13/47 were mixed lesions. Of these eight were HSILs with LSIL and six were HSILs with papillary immature metaplasia (PIM; Ten of the mixed lesions were associated with one or more oncogenic HPVs, while three cases were exclusively associated with HPV6. Conclusions: Clinically diagnosed anal warts cannot be assumed to be limited to low-grade lesions as anal warts of the SCJ often show heterogeneous lesions, with coexistence of LSIL, PIM, and HSIL. Lesions showing PIM, however, may mimic HSIL, because they are hypercellular, but lack the nuclear atypia and conspicuous mitotic activity of HSIL; and are p16 negative. Keywords: Anal squamocolumnar junction, Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL, Papillary immature metaplasia (PIM, HPV, HIV

  20. Uma proposta para o ensino da Química Analítica Qualitativa

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    Daniela Gonçalves de Abreu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, because of the need for a more flexible curriculum established by the Curriculum Guidelines of the National Brazilian Education (law 9394/96, the pedagogical project of the Chemistry course of FFCLRP/USP has undergone alterations, amongst them the gradual reduction of the hours devoted to the discipline Qualitative Analytical Chemistry. In this context, this discipline has been carefully analyzed and reorganized in order to allow the elimination of redundancies and the introduction of activities considered important for the professional formation of both chemists and chemistry teachers. In this work, we will discuss the main strategies adopted in this reorganization with the objective of making the teaching/learning process more dynamic and efficient.

  1. Ciudadanía: cuatro recortes analíticos para aproximarse al concepto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Meyenberg

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to explore the concept of citizenship taking as its starting point four analytical positions present in contemporary discussions; the assumptions that make up its hard nucleous; the aspects that arise from any consideration of the space and the context that define specific groups of citizenship; the factors that determine thecriteria for the inclusion or exclusion of individuals in the category of citizens; and the transformation that can be observed in discourse and in the political-cultural values that constitute the physionomy of citizenship.

  2. US Intergroup Anal Carcinoma Trial: Tumor Diameter Predicts for Colostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajani, Jaffer A.; Winter, Kathryn A.; Gunderson, Leonard L.; Pedersen, John; Benson, Al B.; Thomas, Charles R.; Mayer, Robert J.; Haddock, Michael G.; Rich, Tyvin A.; Willett, Christopher G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The US Gastrointestinal Intergroup Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 98-11 anal carcinoma trial showed that cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy resulted in a significantly higher rate of colostomy compared with mitomycin-based therapy. Established prognostic variables for patients with anal carcinoma include tumor diameter, clinical nodal status, and sex, but pretreatment variables that would predict the likelihood of colostomy are unknown. Methods A secondary analysis was performed by combining patients in the two treatment arms to evaluate whether new predictive and prognostic variables would emerge. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to correlate overall survival (OS), disease-free survival, and time to colostomy (TTC) with pretreatment and treatment variables. Results Of 682 patients enrolled, 644 patients were assessable and analyzed. In the multivariate analysis, tumor-related prognosticators for poorer OS included node-positive cancer (P ≤ .0001), large (> 5 cm) tumor diameter (P = .01), and male sex (P = .016). In the treatment-related categories, cisplatin-based therapy was statistically significantly associated with a higher rate of colostomy (P = .03) than was mitomycin-based therapy. In the pretreatment variables category, only large tumor diameter independently predicted for TTC (P = .008). Similarly, the cumulative 5-year colostomy rate was statistically significantly higher for large tumor diameter than for small tumor diameter (Gray's test; P = .0074). Clinical nodal status and sex were not predictive of TTC. Conclusion The combined analysis of the two arms of RTOG 98-11, representing the largest prospective database, reveals that tumor diameter (irrespective of the nodal status) is the only independent pretreatment variable that predicts TTC and 5-year colostomy rate in patients with anal carcinoma. PMID:19139424

  3. FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of anal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotter, Shane E.; Grigsby, Perry W.; Siegel, Barry A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical staging and treatment of anal carcinoma has been replaced by noninvasive staging studies and combined modality therapy. In this study, we compare computed tomography (CT) and physical examination to [ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in the staging of carcinoma of the anal canal, with special emphasis on determination of spread to inguinal lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Between July 2003 and July 2005, 41 consecutive patients with biopsy-proved anal carcinoma underwent a complete staging evaluation including physical examination, CT, and 2-FDG-PET/CT. Patients ranged in age from 30 to 89 years. Nine men were HIV-positive. Treatment was with standard Nigro regimen. Results: [ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) detected 91% of nonexcised primary tumors, whereas CT visualized 59%. FDG-PET/CT detected abnormal uptake in pelvic nodes of 5 patients with normal pelvic CT scans. FDG-PET/CT detected abnormal nodes in 20% of groins that were normal by CT, and in 23% without abnormality on physical examination. Furthermore, 17% of groins negative by both CT and physical examination showed abnormal uptake on FDG-PET/CT. HIV-positive patients had an increased frequency of PET-positive lymph nodes. Conclusion: [ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography detects the primary tumor more often than CT. FDG-PET/CT detects substantially more abnormal inguinal lymph nodes than are identified by standard clinical staging with CT and physical examination

  4. Histopathologic observations of anorectal abnormalities in anal atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Ruge, W A; Holschneider, A M

    2000-01-01

    Over the years from 1992 to 1997, 41 anorectal malformations (ARM) with histopathologic alterations were investigated to determine which morphologic abnormalities of the distal rectum accompany ARMs. Three other cases showed normal neuromuscular morphology; 9 further cases could not be evaluated owing to scanty biopsies. All resected specimens were caudocranially coiled and cryostat cut at -20 degrees C into serial sections, which were stained with a lactic dehydrogenase, succinic dehydrogenase, nitroxide synthase, and acetylcholinesterase reaction as well as hemalum and sirius red. Ten low, 15 intermediate, and 10 high forms of anal atresia (AA) were studied. In addition, six cloacal abnormalities were investigated. In 7 cases (17%) (5 intermediate, 2 low AAs), the characteristics of Hirschsprung's disease were observed. Oligoneuronal hypoganglionosis of the myenteric plexus proximal to the anal floor was diagnosed in 7 AAs (12%). In 10 children with high-type AA and resection of 1-5 cm distal rectum and in all cloacal anomalies (n = 6) defects of the muscularis propria were seen in the rectal-atresia sac. These defects were characterized by hypoplasia of the circular-muscle layer and/or the internal anal sphincter (IAS). Intestinal neuronal dysplasia of the submucous plexus was most frequently observed (12%) in high-type AA. A correlation between innervation anomalies or anomalies of the muscularis propria and the type of fistula could not be seen. In conclusion, all cases with high-type AA and cloacal anomalies were characterized by anomalies of the muscularis propria and/or IAS but this was not the case in intermediate and low-type AAs. Anomalies of the enteric nervous system were diagnosed in 60% of AAs.

  5. Time-dose considerations in the treatment of anal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, Eugene C.; Daly, William; Fung, Claire Y.; Willett, Christopher G.; Kaufman, Donald S.; DeLaney, Thomas F.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the impact of patient and treatment parameters in concurrent chemoradiation treatment for anal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of 50 MO anal cancer patients treated from 1984-1994. Most patients received concurrent 5-FU, mitomycin, and radiation. Local control and disease-free/overall survival were determined and analyzed according to patient and treatment parameters. Results: With 43 month median follow-up, projected overall survival is 66% at 5 and 8 years. Disease-free survival is 67% at 5 years and 59% at 8 years. Local control is 70% at 5 and 8 years. Doses of ≥54 Gy are associated with improved 5-year survival (84 vs. 47%, p = 0.02), disease-free survival (74 v. 56%, p = 0.09), and local control (77 vs. 61%, p = 0.04). Although local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival were improved in patients whose overall treatment time was <40 days, this was not statistically significant. Outcome in the four patients with pretreatment hemoglobin (Hgb) <10 appeared worse with 3-year overall survival 50 vs. 68% (p = 0.07), disease-free survival 0 vs. 67% (p = 0.11), and local control 0 vs. 74% (p = 0.05). Projected 5-year overall survival, relapse-free survival, and local control in 4 HIV (+) patients is 0, 75, and 75%. Multivariate analysis reveals that dose (p 0.02) and Hgb (p = 0.05) independently affect local control, dose (p = 0.02) affects disease-free survival, and dose (p = 0.01), Hgb (p = 0.03), T-stage (p = 0.03), and HIV-status (0.07) independently influence overall survival. Conclusion: Radiation doses of ≥54 Gy are associated with significantly improved survival and local control in anal cancer patients treated with chemoradiation. Overall treatment times of less than 40 days are associated with a trend towards improved outcome, but this is not significant. Pretreatment hemoglobin <10 is associated with worse treatment outcome. Survival of HIV (+) patient is poor, but the majority of such patients

  6. Unexpected Anal Squamous Cells Carcinoma after Open Hemorrhoidectomy

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    Navarra Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of unexpected anal squamous cells carcinoma found in hemorrhoidectomy specimen. The patient had a 3-year history of prolapsing hemorrhoids. A prolapsing hemorrhoid was present at eleven o’clock in lithotomy. Milligan-Morgan was performed and gross examination of the specimen was unremarkable. Histopathologic evaluation showed noninvasive squamous cells carcinoma. The present case report evidences the opportunity of routine histopathologic analysis of hemorrhoidal specimens particularly in case of long-standing prolapse. Questions arise in the option of those techniques where no specimens are collected or tissue is excised far from deceased area.

  7. [Anal sphincter injury caused by falling off a trampoline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakarinen, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    A girl of preschool age fell off a trampoline in a sitting position onto an iron bar sticking up from the ground. In addition to a laceration of the terminal portion of the rectum, she was found to have a severe sphincter injury. The sphincters were repaired by a surgeon the next morning. After one month from the surgery the anal canal pressure was found to be symmetrical with good contractile force of the sphincters. No abnormalities were found in a contrast study or in rectoscopy. The protective stoma was closed after three months from the injury and fecal continence was normal after one and a half years.

  8. Determinação analítica da performance da irrigação por sulcos abertos e em declive

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    Aristides Fraga Lima Filho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma solução analítica foi desenvolvida, para avaliar sulcos abertos e em declive, com base na teoria de Balanço de Volume de Walker e Skogerboe (1987. Essa metodologia é capaz de obter, matematicamente, a performance de um sistema, dispensando a construção de gráficos que definem os parâmetros de avaliação. A solução matemática é baseada no ajuste de equações ao modelo potencial, no cálculo das áreas sob as curvas definidas no ajuste e na intercessão de curvas, obtendo-se, assim, a performance de sistemas de irrigação por sulcos abertos e em declive. Para validação da metodologia, foi realizado um experimento de campo, na Fazenda Experimental da Universidade Federal do Ceará, situada no município de Pentecoste, pertencente ao Centro de Ciências Agrárias. Os dados de campo foram submetidos à análise pelas duas metodologias. Os resultados mostraram que a metodologia analítica pode ser usada para avaliar a irrigação por sulcos abertos e em declive.

  9. Comparação do uso de rastreabilidade para suínos em grupo e individual

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    Késia Oliveira da Silva

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o acréscimo da demanda do mercado consumidor nacional e internacional por produtos rastreados, urge o desenvolvimento de conhecimento sobre processos de identificação e rastreamento de informações na produção animal. Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar dois tipos de rastreabilidade em suínos: individual e de grupo, utilizando o sistema de identificação e registro de dados eletronicamente. Os 50 leitões foram identificados ao nascer e as variáveis peso e conversão alimentar serviram de base para comparação entre os dois sistemas. Uma amostra foi considerada a partir do erro admissível, estabelecido pelo produtor. Foi desenvolvida uma função e validada a partir da escolha de uma amostra. Foi constatado que, para maior rapidez na obtenção de dados pode-se utilizar uma amostra de leitões identificados e rastreados, em função do erro desejado e este erro será inversamente proporcional ao tamanho da amostra.

  10. Prevalence of anal cytological abnormalities in women with positive cervical cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calore, Edenilson E; Giaccio, Claudia Maria Serafim; Nadal, Sidney R

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of cytological abnormalities of the anal mucosa in women with positive cervical cytology, but without macroscopic anal lesion. Ultimately we postulated if the anal mucosa may be a reservoir of HPV, which would allow the reinfection of cervix. Forty-nine patients with abnormal cervical cytology were selected for this work. In a period not exceeding one week of collecting cervix cytology, two swab specimens of the anal canal were also collected. Women diagnosed with cervical HSIL by Pap smear were referred for colposcopy with biopsy of the lesions, to confirm the cytologic diagnosis and ablation of the lesion. We demonstrated a high prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in patients with cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (29 of the total of 49 patients = 59.2%). Of the 20 cases of cervical LSIL, 11 (55%) had abnormal anal cytology. Of the 26 cases with cervical HSIL, 16 (61.5%) had abnormal anal cytology. So, there was a discrete higher prevalence of abnormal anal cytology in cases of high-grade cervical squamous lesions (cervical HSIL). These results help to support the hypothesis that the anal mucosa is a reservoir of HPV, which can be a source of re-infection for the cervix. However, there was no significant association between the practice of anal sex and the prevalence of anal cytological abnormalities. These facts are epidemiologically important for future programs for population eradication of cervical lesions related to HPV. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2011;39:323-327. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Los sistemas sexo/género en distintas sociedades: modelos analógicos y digitales

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    Águeda Gómez Suárez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende dar a conocer las diversas "culturas sexuales" en diferentes sociedades, su orden sociosexual y su sistemas sexo/género, con el fin de agruparlas, para su mejor comprensión, en dos grandes grupos: los sistemas digitales (sociedades más rígidas y los sistemas analógicos (sociedades más flexibles. Si es cierto que existen múltiples ideologías sexuales que "naturalizan" diversas formas de entender lo masculino y lo femenino, la homosexualidad y la heterosexualidad, entre otras cosas (Mead, 1972, 2006, se puede concluir que el "dominio masculino", la heteronormatividad y el modelo dual sexo/género, no son realidades universales, sino que son propias de estructuras sexo/género concretas.

  12. Changes in the proportions of types I and III collagen in hemorrhoids: the sliding anal lining theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sardiñas

    2016-07-01

    foram reunidas em 2014. Todos os pacientes passaram por uma hemorroidectomia aberta; para tanto, foi empregada a técnica descrita por Milligan e Morgan, publicada no periódico Lancet em 1937. As amostras de hemorroida foram coradas com hematoxilina-eosina com vistas ao estudo histológico para confirmação do diagnóstico de tecido hemorroidal. Após a análise histológica, o material foi corado com o protocolo de picrosirius red. O método empregado para o processamento das imagens está descrito no texto. As imagens foram importadas pelo software Image Tool for Windows. O mesmo processo foi empregado no tecido embrionário. Os dados resultantes da análise das imagens fora processados com o programa STATISTICA, um software para análise estatística. Resultados: Por comparação, constatamos que os dois tecidos apresentavam valores muito diferentes, e as hemorroidas continham os mais altos valores de colágeno do tipo III. Conclusão: Nossos resultados parecem implicar que hemorroidas possuem um percentual mais elevado de colágeno do tipo III versus tecido fetal. Os resultados também sugerem uma possível deterioração do tecido, relacionada à idade. Keywords: Hemorrhoids, Anal, Canal, Collagen, Type I, Type III, Fetus, Deterioration, Palavras-chave: Hemorroidas, Anal, Canal, Colágeno, Tipo I, Tipo III, Feto, Deterioração

  13. Explicacions basades en raons i sociologia analítica. Una rèplica a Boudon

    OpenAIRE

    Manzo, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    El trabajo discute la teoría de la racionalidad ordinaria de Raymond Boudon, así como su valoración de la denominada «sociología analítica». Respecto a la primera cuestión, el artículo argumenta que, para combinar el realismo de una concepción de la racionalidad sin constreñimientos con el poder predictivo ex-ante facto de la versión estándar de la teoría de la elección racional, debemos comprender mejor la relación entre eventos potencialmente desencadenantes y las «razones» del actor. Heurí...

  14. Analítica del aprendizaje en un entorno virtual mediante un sistema de computación cognitiva: estudio preliminar

    OpenAIRE

    Larry Lugo Urribarrí

    2016-01-01

    En esta investigación se aplicaron métodos de la Analítica del Aprendizaje en el estudio de los datos masivos provenientes de la plataforma virtual de Fruticultura, mediante el sistema de computación cognitiva IBM Watson, basado en inteligencia artificial y aprendizaje automático. Se analizaron los registros de las evaluaciones en línea, así como las interacciones sociales en los foros para determinar su influencia sobre el desempeño estudiantil, durante los períodos lectivos desde el2006 has...

  15. A psicologia analítica de Carl Gustav Jung: apontamentos de aula/The analytical psychology of Carl Gustav Jung: notes of lesson

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    Luís Marcelo Alves Ramos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto traz o conteúdo de uma aula sobre Teorias da Personalidade com foco nos fundamentos da Psicologia Analítica do psicólogo e psiquiatra suíço Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961, cuja obra vem apresentando significativas contribuições para a Psicologia Educacional, Organizacional e Clínica. The text brings the content of a lesson on Theories of Personality focused in the fundamentals of the Analytical Psychology of the Swiss psychologist and psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961, whose work has been presenting significant contributions for Educational, Organizational and Clinical Psychology.

  16. Transtorno do pânico: investigação sobre alterações de relato em terapia analítico-comportamental.

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Graziela

    2006-01-01

    O Transtorno do Pânico é um dos mais freqüentes e incapacitantes problemas dentre os transtornos ansiosos, representando um dos motivos de maior procura dos serviços de saúde no Brasil e no mundo. A Terapia Analítico-Comportamental constitui uma proposta com resultados bastante satisfatórios para seu tratamento, e seu enfoque é o esclarecimento da relação entre os sintomas sentidos e descritos pelo cliente e as contingências em operação, das quais seus comportamentos são função. A completa re...

  17. Relationship between external anal sphincter atrophy at endoanal magnetic resonance imaging and clinical, functional, and anatomic characteristics in patients with fecal incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, Maaike P.; Deutekom, Marije; Beets-Tan, Regina G. H.; Engel, Alexander F.; Janssen, Lucas W. M.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E. E.; Dobben, Annette C.; Baeten, Cor G. M. I.; de Priester, Jacobus A.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Stoker, Jaap

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: External anal sphincter atrophy at endoanal magnetic resonance imaging has been associated with poor outcome of anal sphincter repair. We studied the relationship between external anal sphincter atrophy on endoanal magnetic resonance imaging and clinical, functional, and anatomic

  18. Paroxysmal anal hyperkinesis: a characteristic feature of proctalgia fugax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S S; Hatfield, R A

    1996-10-01

    Proctalgia fugax is a common problem, yet its pathophysiology is poorly understood. The objective was to characterise colorectal disturbances in a paraplegic patient with a 10 year history of proctalgia fugax that began two years after an attack of transverse myelitis. Standard anorectal manometry and prolonged 33 hour ambulatory colonic manometry at six sites in the colon were performed together with myoelectrical recording of the anus. Provocative tests designed to simulate psychological and physical stress and two types of meals were included. Anorectal manometry showed normal internal sphincter tone and normal rectoanal inhibitory reflex but an inability to squeeze or to bear down or to expel a simulated stool. Rectal sensation (up to 360 ml inflation) was absent. Pudendal nerve latency was prolonged (4.5 ms (normal 3.2 mv), high frequency (5-50/min) anal myoelectrical activity, particularly after stress tests, meals, and at night. The myoelectrical disturbance only occurred with proctalgia. Intermittently, 16 bursts of 3 cycles/ min phasic rectal contractions were seen, but only six were associated with proctalgia. Colonic motility was reduced compared with normal subjects. The temporal association between a high amplitude, high frequency myoelectrical activity of the anal sphincter, and the occurrence of proctalgia suggests that paroxysmal hyperkinesis of the anus may cause proctalgia fugax.

  19. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiffert, D.; Moreau-Claeys, M.V.; Tournier-Rangeard, L.; Huger, S.; Marchesi, V.

    2011-01-01

    Anal canal carcinoma are highly curable by irradiation, combined with chemotherapy in locally advanced disease, with preservation of sphincter function. The clinical target volume for the nodes is extended, often including the inguinal nodes, which is not usual for other pelvic tumours. Acute and late effects are correlated with the volume and dose delivered to organs at risk, i. e. small bowel, bladder and increased by concomitant chemotherapy. Intensity modulated irradiation (IMRT) makes it possible to optimize the dose distribution in this 'complex U shaped' volume, while maintaining the dose distribution for the target volumes. The conversion from conformal irradiation to IMRT necessitates good knowledge of the definition and skills to delineate target volumes and organs at risk, including new volumes needed to optimize the dose distribution. Dosimetric and clinical benefits of IMRT are described, based on early descriptions and evidence-based publication. The growing development of IMRT in anal canal radiotherapy must be encouraged, and long-term benefits should be soon published. Radiation oncologists should precisely learn IMRT recommendations before starting the technique, and evaluate its early and late results for adverse effects, but also for long-term tumour control. (authors)

  20. Anal cancer precursor lesions in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients seen at a tertiary health institution in Brazil Lesões precursoras do câncer anal em pacientes HIV-positivos e HIV-negativos atendidos numa instituição de saúde terciária no Brasil

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    Ivan Tramujas da Costa e Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL or anal cancer in patients attended at the Tropical Medicine Foundation of Amazonas. Methods: 344 patients consecutively attended at the institution, in 2007/2008, were distributed in the following strata according to presence/abscense of at risk conditions for anal cancer: Group 1 _ HIV-positive men-who-have-sex-with-men (101; Group 2 _ HIV-positive females (49; Group 3 _ patients without any at risk condition for anal cancer (53; Group 4 _ HIV-positive heterosexual men (38; Group 5 _ HIV-negative patients, without anoreceptive sexual habits, but with other at risk conditions for anal cancer (45; Group 6 _ HIV-negative men-who-have-sex-with-men (26; and Group 7 _ HIV-negative anoreceptive females (32. The histopathological results of biopsies guided by high-resolution anoscopy were analyzed by frequentist and bayesian statistics in order to calculate the point-prevalence of ASIL/cancer and observe any eventual preponderance of one group over the other. Results: The point-prevalence of ASIL for all the patients studied was 93/344 (27%, the difference between HIV-positive and negative patients being statistically significant (38.3% versus 13.5%; p Objetivo: Investigar a prevalência de lesões intraepiteliais escamosas anais (ASIL ou câncer anal em pacientes atendidos na Fundação de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas. Métodos: 344 pacientes consecutivamente atendidos na instituição, em 2007/2008, foram distribuídos nos seguintes estratos conforme a presença/ausência de fatores de risco para o câncer anal: Grupo 1 _ homens-que-fazem-sexo-com-homens HIV-positivos (101; Grupo 2 _ mulheres HIV-positivas (49; Grupo 3 _ pacientes sem condição de risco para o câncer anal (53; Grupo 4 _ homens heterossexuais HIV-positivos (38; Grupo 5 _ pacientes HIV-negativos, sem hábitos sexuais anorreceptivos, mas com outras condições de risco para o câncer anal (45

  1. Diagnostic methods for prevention of anal cancer and characteristics of anal lesions caused by HPV in men with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araiz Cajueiro Carneiro Pereira

    Full Text Available Abnormalities found with anuscopy under colposcopic vision, anal cytology and anal biopsy were evaluated in 21 men with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS at the Federal University of Pernambuco Hospital in Brazil. Mean age was 38.4 ± 6.0 years, and mean time of HIV infection was 8.3 ± 5.1 years; 95.2% of the patients had been on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART for an average of 6.6 ± 4.5 years. Mean CD4+ cell count was 482.2 ± 173.75 cells/mm³, and 80.9% presented a HIV viral load of < 5,000 copies/mL. Reported sexual preference was 52.4% homosexuals, 28.6% bisexuals, and 19.0%heterosexuals; 81% reported having had receptive anal intercourse and 61.9% reported more than 10 sexual partners of the same sex. Results of anuscopy under colposcopic vision revealed 17 (81.0% low-grade lesions and/or condylomata or micropapillae and four (19.0% high-grade lesions with or without condylomata. Among the 21 anal cytology examinations, seven (33.3% revealed low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL; three (14.3% presented atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and 11 (52.4% were normal. Seventeen patients were submitted to anal biopsy with the following findings: three patients (17.6% with normal epithelium, one (5.9% with infection by HPV, three (17.6% with condylomatas, two (11.8% with AIN 1, four (23.6% with AIN 2, three (17.6% with AIN 3, and one (5.9% with PAIN 2. Anuscopy under colposcopic vision was found to be useful for detecting anal lesions and for guiding anal biopsies. Anal cytology was less useful, as it underestimated the frequency of lesions.

  2. Tunni analüüs - mis see on? / Peep Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leppik, Peep

    2001-01-01

    Tunni analüüs, õppe-kasvatustöö eesmärgid. Tunni analüüs on hinnangu andmine protsessidele, mille kutsub esile õpetaja tegevus (või tegevusetus) tunnis. Tunni läbiviimise protsessi mõjutavad õpilaste koosseis klassis, erinevate õppevormide ja õppemeetodite kasutamine, kasutatud õppevõtete otstarbekus, erinevad metoodikad ja õppesüsteemid

  3. Prolonged-Release Oxycodone/Naloxone Improves Anal Sphincter Relaxation Compared to Oxycodone Plus Macrogol 3350

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Brock, Christina; Grønlund, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    /naloxone or PR oxycodone plus macrogol 3350. Resting anal pressure, anal canal distensibility, and relaxation of the internal sphincter to rectal distension were evaluated before treatment (baseline) and on day 5. The Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptom (PAC-SYM) questionnaire, stool frequency, and stool...

  4. Topical 5-fluorouracil treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richel, O.; Wieland, U.; de Vries, H. J. C.; Brockmeyer, N. H.; van Noesel, C.; Potthoff, A.; Prins, J. M.; Kreuter, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV) induced potential precursor lesion of anal cancer, is frequent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). So far, only a few prospective studies have been performed on the topical

  5. High-Resolution Anoscopy: Clinical Features of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia in HIV-positive Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richel, Olivier; Hallensleben, Nora D. L.; Kreuter, Alexander; van Noesel, Carel J. M.; Prins, Jan M.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-resolution anoscopy is increasingly advocated to screen HIV+ men who have sex with men for anal cancer and its precursor lesions, anal intraepithelial neoplasia. A systematic comparison between clinical features and the histopathology of suspect lesions is lacking. OBJECTIVE: This

  6. The increasing incidence of anal cancer: can it be explained by trends in risk groups?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, R. P.; Richel, O.; de Vries, H. J. C.; Prins, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Anal cancer incidence is gradually increasing. The cause of this increase is not exactly known. This systematic literature review aimed to investigate the trend in time of anal cancer incidence and to find an explanation for the supposed increase. The TRIP database and PubMed were searched for

  7. HPV and anal cancer in HIV-infected individuals: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Mooij, Sofie H.; Richel, Oliver; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Prins, Jan M.

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection is one of the strongest risk factors for anal squamous cell cancer (ASCC). Most ASCC are caused by HPV, and most HPV-associated ASCC are caused by HPV-16. Anal HPV infections are very common in men who have sex with men (MSM), and nearly universal among HIV-infected MSM. High-grade

  8. HIV-positive MSM's knowledge of HPV and anal cancer self-sampling: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, M K L; Wong, J P H; Li, A T W; Manuba, M; Bisignano, A; Owino, M; Vahabi, M

    2018-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (hpv) infection is the cause of anal squamous cell cancer (ascc) in 80% of cases. Available research has also shown high prevalence of anal hpv infection among men who have sex with men (msm). However, hpv vaccination is low among msm in Canada. In light of this information, we conducted a scoping review with the aim of exploring (1) the knowledge of hpv and anal cancer among hiv-positive msm and (2) the acceptability of hpv and anal cancer self-sampling in this population. In conducting the review, we searched five electronic databases for peer-reviewed articles and abstracts published in English, between 2007 and 2017. A total of 803 articles were retrieved; after accounting for duplicates ( n= 40) and unmet criteria ( n= 754), a total of 794 articles were excluded. A final total of nine articles were used in this review. Results of this review show that hiv-positive msm have limited knowledge regarding the risks of anal cancer associated with hiv and hpv coinfection. Furthermore, there is limited research on hpv and anal cancer self-sampling in this population. However, the review of available studies suggested that hiv-positive msm were open to anal cancer self-sampling. It also identified potential barriers to self-sampling. In conclusion, we provide suggestions and future directions for policy-makers and educators to develop inclusive and accessible strategies to reach hiv-positive msm regarding anal cancer education and self-screening.

  9. Resisting the "Condom Every Time for Anal Sex" Health Education Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jeffery; Neville, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Ensuring men who have sex with men (MSM) adopt and maintain condom use for anal sex is a challenging health education goal. In order to inform the development of social marketing practices to encourage safe-sex practices, the views of MSM about a key HIV health education message ("using a condom every time for anal sex") were…

  10. Hereditary internal anal sphincter myopathy causing proctalgia fugax and constipation. A newly identified condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, M A; Hoyle, C H; Burleigh, D E; Law, P J; Swash, M; Martin, J E; Nicholls, R J; Northover, J M

    1991-03-01

    A newly identified myopathy of the internal anal sphincter is described. In the affected family, at least one member from each of five generations had severe proctalgia fugax; onset was usually in the third to fifth decades of life. Three members of the family have been studied in detail. Each had severe pain intermittently during the day and hourly during the night. Constipation was an associated symptom, in particular difficulty with rectal evacuation. Clinically the internal anal sphincter was thickened and of decreased compliance. The maximum anal canal pressure was usually increased with marked ultraslow wave activity. Anal endosonography confirmed a grossly thickened internal anal sphincter. Two patients were treated by internal anal sphincter strip myectomy; one showed marked improvement and one was relieved of the constipation but had only slight improvement of the pain. The hypertrophied muscle in two of the patients showed unique myopathic changes, consisting of vacuolar changes with periodic acid-Schiff-positive polyglycosan bodies in the smooth muscle fibers and increased endomysial fibrosis. In vitro organ-bath studies showed insensitivity of the muscle to noradrenaline, isoprenaline, carbachol, dimethylpiperazinium, and electrical-field stimulation. Immunohistochemical studies for substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, galanin, neuropeptide Y, and vasoactive intestinal peptide showed staining in a similar distribution to that in control tissue. A specific autosomal-dominant inherited myopathy of the internal anal sphincter that causes anal pain and constipation has been identified and characterized.

  11. [Usefulness of human papillomavirus testing in anal intraepithelial neoplasia screening in a risk behaviour population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-España, Laura; Repiso-Jiménez, Bosco; Fernández-Sánchez, Fernando; Frieyro-Elicegui, Marta; Fernández-Morano, Teresa; Pereda, Teresa; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Redondo, Maximino; de-Troya Martín, Magdalena

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of intraepithelial anal neoplasia is increasing in certain risk behaviour groups, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is involved in its pathogenesis. The systematic use of anal cytology, and more recently HPV detection by hybrid capture and genotyping, have been introduced into screening programs in recent decades. A retrospective cohort study was carried out on individuals with risk behaviours of developing intraepithelial anal neoplasia and who attended Sexually Transmitted Infections clinics in the Dermatology area of the Hospital Costa del Sol from January 2010 to December 2012. The intraepithelial anal neoplasia screening was performed using anal cytology and HPV genotyping. Half (50%) of the study population were HIV positive. A high frequency of anal dysplasia and presence of HPV in cytology (82.1%) and genotype (79%) was found. A statistically significant association (P<.005) was obtained between the presence of high-risk HPV genotypes and the presence of high-grade dysplasia in the second directed cytology. HPV genotyping enabled 17 cases (22%) of severe dysplasia to be identified that were under-diagnosed in the first cytology. Cases of high-grade dysplasia can be under-diagnosed by a first anal cytology. Detection of HPV can supplement this procedure, leading to the identification of those patients most at risk of developing high-grade anal dysplasia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. De chirurgische betekenis van de inwendige kringspier van het anale kanaal : een klinisch en manometrisch onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.R. Schouten (Ruud)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe high pressure zone within the anal canal is largely due to the activity of the internal anal sphincter and provides an effective barrier against rectal pressure. The continuous contraction of the internal sphincter also has a congesting effect on the vascular cushions, thereby

  13. Diagnostic imaging features of normal anal sacs in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yechan; Jeong, Eunseok; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Jimo; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Namsoo; Lee, Kichang

    2016-09-30

    This study was conducted to provide normal reference features for canine and feline anal sacs using ultrasound, low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph contrast as diagnostic imaging tools. A total of ten clinically normal beagle dogs and eight clinically normally cats were included. General radiography with contrast, ultrasonography and low-field MRI scans were performed. The visualization of anal sacs, which are located at distinct sites in dogs and cats, is possible with a contrast study on radiography. Most surfaces of the anal sacs tissue, occasionally appearing as a hyperechoic thin line, were surrounded by the hypoechoic external sphincter muscle on ultrasonography. The normal anal sac contents of dogs and cats had variable echogenicity. Signals of anal sac contents on low-field MRI varied in cats and dogs, and contrast medium using T1-weighted images enhanced the anal sac walls more obviously than that on ultrasonography. In conclusion, this study provides the normal features of anal sacs from dogs and cats on diagnostic imaging. Further studies including anal sac evaluation are expected to investigate disease conditions.

  14. Evaluación analítica de óvulos de quitina Analytical evaluation of chitin pessaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yania Suárez Pérez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los óvulos de quitina constituyen nuevos productos en fase de investigación. Para la evaluación analítica de estos, se desarrolló un método gravimétrico directo para supositorios vaginales de diferente dosificación. La técnica se basa en la separación de la quitina de los demás componentes de la formulación según sus diferencias de solubilidad, con el empleo de la filtración al vacío. El método se validó para control de calidad, y se obtuvieron resultados satisfactorios en los parámetros evaluados: linealidad, precisión, exactitud y selectividad.Chitin pessaries are new products under research. For their analytical evaluation, a direct gravimetric method for vaginal suppositories of various dosing was designed. This technique was based on separation of chitin from the rest of the formulation components according to their solubility characteristics, by using vacuum filtering. The method was validated for quality control and the results were satisfactory in terms of the evaluated parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy and selectivity.

  15. Teetering near the edge; women's experiences of anal incontinence following obstetric anal sphincter injury: an interpretive phenomenological research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Julie; Clifton, Vicki; Wilson, Anne

    2014-08-01

    Obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) following vaginal delivery increases the risk of anal incontinence (AI). Subsequent vaginal delivery and ageing increase the risk of worsening symptoms. Very little literature describes any in-depth understanding of what it is like to live with AI following a history of known OASIS. To describe and interpret women's experience of AI following OASIS and its impact on quality of life. An interpretive phenomenological study was conducted in a level 2 tertiary hospital in South Australia. Women with a history of OASIS and AI were purposefully recruited. The St Marks Vaizey score was utilised to identify symptom severity. Semi-structured open-ended interviews were conducted, and data were analysed utilising Van Manen thematic analysis. Participants (n = 10) aged 26-56 years. All women were symptomatic of AI following OASIS, and 80% had received a primary OASIS at their first vaginal delivery. The St Marks Vaizey score mean was 9.1 (range within 4-22). Three essential themes grieving for loss, silence, striving for normality with eight subthemes identified a significant sense of loss and psychological impact of AI for this group of women. Health professionals require a greater understanding of the negative impact of OASIS and AI on women's quality of life. This may improve the management, education and clinical care of this condition which may result as a consequence of OASIS. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Regenerative medicine provides alternative strategies for the treatment of anal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, Søren; Tolstrup, Cæcilie Krogsgaard; Lose, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    of culture-expanded skeletal myogenic cells stimulates repair of both acute and 2 - 4-week-old anal sphincter injuries. The results from a small clinical trial with ten patients and a case report support the preclinical findings. Animal studies have also demonstrated that local injections of mesenchymal stem...... cells stimulate repair of sphincter injuries, and a complex bioengineering strategy for creation and implantation of an intrinsically innervated internal anal sphincter construct has been successfully developed in a series of animal studies. CONCLUSION: Cellular therapies with myogenic cells...... and mesenchymal stem cells and the use of bioengineering technology to create an anal sphincter are new potential strategies to treat anal incontinence caused by anal sphincter defects, but the clinical evidence is extremely limited. The use of culture-expanded autologous skeletal myogenic cells has been most...

  17. Cancer of the anal canal: Diagnosis, staging and follow-up with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durot, Carole; Hoeffel, Christine; Dohan, Anthony; Boudiaf, Mourad; Soyer, Philippe; Servois, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Although a rare disease, anal cancer is increasingly being diagnosed in patients with risk factors, mainly anal infection with the human papilloma virus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with external phased-array coils is recommended as the imaging modality of choice to grade anal cancers and to evaluate the response assessment after chemoradiotherapy, with a high contrast and good anatomic resolution of the anal canal. MRI provides a performance evaluation of size, extent and signal characteristics of the anal tumor before and after treatment, as well as lymph node involvement and extension to the adjacent organs. MRI is also particularly helpful in the assessment of complications after treatment, and in the diagnosis for relapse of the diseases

  18. [Detection and analysis of the characteristic expression of microRNAs of anal fistula patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jianming; Yu, Jiping; Yang, Guangen; Xu, Kan; Tao, Yong; Lin, Ali; Wang, Dong

    2016-07-01

    To detect and analyze the characteristic miRNAs profile of anal fistula and explore their possible target genes and potential clinical significance. The anal mucosa close to the hemorrhoids were collected from three patients undergoing fistulectomy and hemorrhoidectomy (fistula group) as well as three patients receiving only hemorroidectomy(hemorrhoids group), matching with fistula group in age, gender and body weight. miRNA microarray was used to compare the expression of 1 285 human miRNAs of the anal mucosa between two groups. Cluster analysis was adopted to analyze the accumulation of the differentially expressed miRNAs(Pcharacteristic miRNAs profile in anal fistula patients, which may play a role in the occurrence and development of anal fistula.

  19. Cancer of the anal canal: Diagnosis, staging and follow-up with MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durot, Carole; Hoeffel, Christine [Dept. of Radiology, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Reims, Reims (France); Dohan, Anthony; Boudiaf, Mourad; Soyer, Philippe [Dept. of Abdominal Imaging, Hopital Lariboisiere-APHP, Paris(France); Servois, Vincent [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institut Curie, Paris (France)

    2017-11-15

    Although a rare disease, anal cancer is increasingly being diagnosed in patients with risk factors, mainly anal infection with the human papilloma virus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with external phased-array coils is recommended as the imaging modality of choice to grade anal cancers and to evaluate the response assessment after chemoradiotherapy, with a high contrast and good anatomic resolution of the anal canal. MRI provides a performance evaluation of size, extent and signal characteristics of the anal tumor before and after treatment, as well as lymph node involvement and extension to the adjacent organs. MRI is also particularly helpful in the assessment of complications after treatment, and in the diagnosis for relapse of the diseases.

  20. Cervical cancer in Iquitos, Peru: local realities to guide prevention planning Câncer cérvico-uterino em Iquitos, Peru: realidade local como guia para planejamento da prevenção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Hunter

    2004-02-01

    fases do câncer cérvico-uterino ou do diagnóstico. São apresentados os achados relativos ao conhecimento e experiência locais quanto ao teste de Papanicolau e câncer cérvico-uterino e sobre a ineficácia de um programa recém-inaugurado para rastreamento do câncer cérvico-uterino. Os achados orientam recomendações para intervenções na região em relação a: (1 mudanças nos programas de educação em saúde; (2 freqüência e idade para rastreamento da doença; (3 locais para rastreamento e tratamento; (4 tipo e disponibilidade de tratamento; (5 formas de pagamento ou reembolso; (6 documentação do atendimento e (7 o potencial terapêutico das ervas medicinais.

  1. Exploring dynamics of anal sex among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Saroj; Krishna, Rama; Prabhakar, Parimi; Panyam, Swarup; Anand, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    The anal sex among heterosexual couples is on the rise as reported in many scientific studies. Considering that unprotected anal sex has higher risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission than the vaginal sex, we undertook a study to understand the anal sex practices among Female Sex Workers (FSW). The study was conducted among FSW attending 11 randomly selected sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Bill and Melinda Gates supported targeted interventions in Andhra Pradesh. A structured questionnaire was administered to the 555 FSW attending these clinics by project clinic counselors. Informed consent was obtained from all the study participants. Engaging in anal sex was self reported by 22% of sex workers, though demand from clients was reported to be much higher (40%). The reasons for anal sex practices included more money (61%), clout/influence of the client (45%), risk of losing client (27%), and forced sex (1.2%). Factors associated with anal sex were higher number of clients, higher duration of sex work, higher income, and older age group. Associated risks perceived by FSW were bleeding and injury to anal canal (98%) while only 28% associated it with higher HIV transmission risk. Reported Condom and lubricant use was about 88% and 39% respectively. The study shows that there is frequent anal sex, inconsistent condom and infrequent lubricant usage, economic and physical coercion, and low awareness of STI/HIV transmission risk among FSW, which have serious implications for HIV prevention programmes. There is a need to focus on anal sex education and use of lubricants along with condoms during anal sex in FSW-targeted interventions in AP.

  2. HAART slows progression to anal cancer in HIV-infected MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Katrina C; Chan, Keith J; Chiu, Connie G; Montaner, Julio S G; Coldman, Andy J; Cescon, Angela; Au-Yeung, Christopher G; Wiseman, Sam M; Hogg, Robert S; Press, Natasha M

    2015-01-28

    Antiretrovirals do not prevent anal intraepithelial neoplasia. However, the influence of antiretrovirals in the natural history of invasive anal cancer is less clear. The objective is to investigate the impact of antiretrovirals in the time to the development of anal cancer in HIV-positive MSM. A retrospective analysis of cases of anal cancer in a cohort of HIV-positive MSM receiving antiretrovirals between 1988 and 2008. Time from first CD4 cell count or HIV RNA viral load test to anal cancer diagnosis was analysed using Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier curves. Anal cancer cases treated in the era prior to HAART (cancer cases (n = 37) were compared with a cohort of 1654 HIV-positive MSM on antiretrovirals. Antiretrovirals were started in the pre-HAART era by 70% of cancer cases, and median CD4 cell count nadir was 70 cells/μl (10-130). Time to development of anal cancer was shorter for cases treated during the pre-HAART era [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 3.04, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.48-6.24, P = 0.002], with a CD4 cell count nadir less than 100 cells/μl (AHR 2.21, 95% CI 1.06-4.62, P = 0.035) and longer duration of CD4 cell count less than 100 cells/μl (AHR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.58, P = 0.002). Results show that severe immunosuppression and starting therapy pre-HAART are associated with an increased risk of anal cancer. HIV-positive MSM initiating antiretrovirals during the HAART era (1996-2008) had a longer time to the development of anal cancer than those treated pre-HAART. Our results suggest that early use of HAART may delay progression to anal cancer.

  3. Radiation therapy of recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma in-situ: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noone Robert

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, also referred to as anal squamous carcinoma in-situ, or Bowen's disease of the anus, make up less than 1% of all digestive system cancers in the United States. The treatment of choice is surgical resection with anal mapping. However, this disease often recurs or persists, requiring additional surgery for these patients. This can compromise the anal sphincter leading to leakage. In this case report, we discuss the efficacy of radiation therapy as a modality to treat post-excisional recurrent Bowen's disease, which may prevent sphincter compromise, leading to improved quality of life. Case presentation An 84-year-old Caucasian woman presented with post-excisional persistent/recurrent squamous cell carcinoma in-situ. The initial lesion measured 3 cm in diameter on the right lateral side of the anal margin. A standard surgery consisting of wide local excision with anal mapping was performed. The margins were clear and our patient was followed up. Our patient recurred with a 1.2 × 0.8 cm lesion on the left anal verge extending to the anal canal. A biopsy along with mapping was done, and 2 of the 17 mapping specimens were positive for carcinoma in-situ, one in the anal canal. Due to the location of the positive anal mapping, and in order to prevent sphincter compromise on re-excision, our patient was offered definitive radiation therapy. Two years after radiation therapy, our patient showed no signs of recurrent disease and had good sphincter control. Conclusion Although the main treatment modality for treating persistent/recurrent Bowen's disease is surgery, an alternative approach using external beam radiation for CIS may be enough to provide a cure for some patients with recurrent disease.

  4. Incontinence after primary repair of obstetric anal sphincter tears is related to relative length of reconstructed external sphincter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norderval, S; Røssaak, K.; Markskog, A

    2012-01-01

    To determine if anatomic primary repair with end-to-end reconstruction of the external anal sphincter (EAS) in its full length combined with separate repair of coexisting internal anal sphincter (IAS) tear, when present, results in less incontinence and better anal sphincter integrity compared...

  5. Algoritmo de Compresión de Datos para la Arquitectura MOLAP

    OpenAIRE

    María Trinidad Serna Encinas; Guillermo Gómez Almeida; César Enrique Rose Gómez

    2012-01-01

    La tecnología para el procesamiento analítico en línea (OLAP) se mueve cada vez más hacia el uso de manejadores de bases de datos multidimensionales. Debido a su naturaleza física, la forma en que estos sistemas funcionan y al crecimiento en el volumen de datos, llevan a las empresas a incrementar la capacidad de almacenamiento de sus sistemas, además del poder de procesamiento de éstos. La compresión de los cubos de datos generados por los sistemas de procesamiento analítico multidimensional...

  6. Surgical Treatment of Anal Stenosis with Diamond Flap Anoplasty Performed in a Calibrated Fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülen, Merter; Leventoğlu, Sezai; Ege, Bahadir; Menteş, B Bülent

    2016-03-01

    Regarding anoplasty for anal stenosis, it is not clear to what extent the final anal caliber should be targeted. The aim of this study was to investigate the results of diamond-flap anoplasty performed in a calibrated manner for the treatment of severe anal stenosis due to a previous hemorrhoidectomy. Prospectively prepared standard forms were evaluated retrospectively. Anoplasty with unilateral or bilateral diamond flaps was performed for moderate or severe anal stenosis, targeting a final anal caliber of 25 to 26 mm. The demographic characteristics, causes of anal stenosis, number of previous surgeries, anal stenosis staging (Milsom and Mazier), anal calibers (millimeter), the Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score, and the modified obstructed defecation syndrome Longo score were recorded on pre-prepared standard forms, as well as postoperative complications and the time of return to work. From January 2011 to July 2013, 18 patients (12 males, 67%) with a median age of 39 years (range, 27-70) were treated. All of the patients had a history of previous hemorrhoidectomy. The number of previous corrective interventions was 2.1 ± 1.8 (range, 0-4), and 2 patients had a history of failed anoplasty. Five patients (28%) had moderate anal stenosis and 13 (72%) had severe anal stenosis. Preoperative, intraoperative, and 12-month postoperative anal calibration values were 9 ± 3 mm (range, 5-15), 25 ± 0.75 mm (range, 24-26), and 25 ± 1 mm (range, 23-27) (p < 0.0001, for immediate postoperative and 12-month postoperative anal calibers compared with the intraoperative). Preoperative and 12-month postoperative Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Scores were 0.83 ± 1.15 (range, 0-4) and 0.39 ± 0.70 (range, 0-2) (p = 1.0). The clinical success rate was 88.9%. No severe postoperative complications were observed. This study was limited because it was a single-armed, retrospective analysis of prospectively designed data. Diamond-flap anoplasty performed in a standardized and calibrated

  7. Overdiagnosis and rising rate of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS): time for reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioutis, D; Thakar, R; Sultan, A H

    2017-11-01

    To determine the accuracy of clinical diagnosis of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) using three-dimensional (3D) endoanal ultrasound (EA-US) and to compare symptoms and anal manometry measurements between women with anal sphincters adequately repaired and those with persistent anal sphincter defects. The EA-US images of women with clinically diagnosed and repaired OASIS, defined as third- or fourth-degree perineal tear, who attended the perineal clinic at Croydon University Hospital over a 10-year period (2003-2013) were reanalyzed by a single expert blind to symptoms and the results of clinical examination. St Mark's Incontinence Scores (SMIS) and anal manometry measurements were obtained and compared between women with an intact anal sphincter and those with an anal sphincter scar and between those with an intact anal sphincter and those with a defect. Anal manometry measurements were compared between women with an external anal sphincter (EAS) defect and those with an internal anal sphincter (IAS) defect. The images of 908 women were reanalyzed. No evidence of OASIS was found in 64 (7.0%) women, an EAS scar alone was detected in 520 (57.3%) and an anal sphincter defect in 324 (35.7%). Of the 324 women with a defect, 112 had an EAS defect, 90 had an IAS defect and 122 had a combined IAS and EAS defect. SMIS results were significantly higher in women with an anal sphincter defect compared with those with no evidence of OASIS (P = 0.018), but there was no significant difference in scores between women with an intact sphincter and those with an EAS scar only. Women with a defect had a significantly lower maximum resting pressure (median (range), 44 (8-106) vs 55 (29-86) mmHg; P 40) vs 25 (10-40) mm; P = 0.003). Seven percent of women with a clinical diagnosis of OASIS were wrongly diagnosed. We believe that this rate may differ from that of other units but training methods and competency assessment tools for the diagnosis and repair of OASIS need

  8. Extracción automática de definiciones analíticas y relaciones semánticas de hiponimia-hiperonimia con un sistema basado en patrones lingüísticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Dorantes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se muestra parte de un proyecto en curso centrada en el diseño de un autómata lexicográfico. El objetivo principal de la investigación es la extracción de definiciones analíticas y relaciones semánticas de términos con datos tomados directamente de internet. Presentamos dos de las capacidades del sistema: la extracción de definiciones analíticas y de hiperónimos. La metodología consiste principalmente en la búsqueda automática de esta información con patrones construidos manualmente basados en la estructura léxica de definiciones analíticas en lenguaje natural. Con este desarrollo, ha sido posible mejorar la precisión reportada en el estado del arte. Se ha conseguido una precisión de 92.5% para la tarea de extracción de definiciones analíticas y de las relaciones de hiperonimia.

  9. Successful implantation of physiologically functional bioengineered mouse internal anal sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Shreya; Miyasaka, Eiichi A; Hashish, Mohamed; Somara, Sita; Gilmont, Robert R; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Bitar, Khalil N

    2010-08-01

    We have previously developed bioengineered three-dimensional internal anal sphincter (IAS) rings from circular smooth muscle cells isolated from rabbit and human IAS. We provide proof of concept that bioengineered mouse IAS rings are neovascularized upon implantation into mice of the same strain and maintain concentric smooth muscle alignment, phenotype, and IAS functionality. Rings were bioengineered by using smooth muscle cells from the IAS of C57BL/6J mice. Bioengineered mouse IAS rings were implanted subcutaneously on the dorsum of C57BL/6J mice along with a microosmotic pump delivering fibroblast growth factor-2. The mice remained healthy during the period of implantation, showing no external signs of rejection. Mice were killed 28 days postsurgery and implanted IAS rings were harvested. IAS rings showed muscle attachment, neovascularization, healthy color, and no external signs of infection or inflammation. Assessment of force generation on harvested IAS rings showed the following: 1) spontaneous basal tone was generated in the absence of external stimulation; 2) basal tone was relaxed by vasoactive intestinal peptide, nitric oxide donor, and nifedipine; 3) acetylcholine and phorbol dibutyrate elicited rapid-rising, dose-dependent, sustained contractions repeatedly over 30 min without signs of muscle fatigue; and 4) magnitudes of potassium chloride-induced contractions were 100% of peak maximal agonist-induced contractions. Our preliminary results confirm the proof of concept that bioengineered rings are neovascularized upon implantation. Harvested rings maintain smooth muscle alignment and phenotype. Our physiological studies confirm that implanted rings maintain 1) overall IAS physiology and develop basal tone, 2) integrity of membrane ionic characteristics, and 3) integrity of membrane associated intracellular signaling transduction pathways for contraction and relaxation by responding to cholinergic, nitrergic, and VIP-ergic stimulation. IAS smooth muscle

  10. Anal channel neoplasm: a neoplasm radio chemo curable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Lopez, M.; Avondet, I.; Vazquez, J.; Santini Blasco, A.

    1997-01-01

    Presently work is made an exhaustive revision of the anatomy of the region, the history of the treatments and of the current treatments of channel cancer anal. It makes emphasis in the importance of the conservative treatment with radiochemotherapy (RQT). The present is a prospective study,longitudinal and descriptive. Material and method: between January of 1989 and December of 1994 20 patients attended with cancer of anal channel with an illness metastasis. An average age it was of 62.4 years.The sex, 16 men and 4 women. The performance status 0,1 or 2 of the scale of the ECOQ. In the pathological anatomy: 15 patient epidermic neoplasm, 5 patient basal neoplasm. State I: 2 patients, II: 12 patients, III: 6 patients, IV: 0 patients.Treatment: the radiotherapy one carries out with cobalt 60 and it irradiates the primary tumour and the ganglion structures region, pelvic and inguinal. It surrendered to Gy/dia from Monday to Friday up to 50 Gy. The chemotherapy one carries out with mitomicine C 10 mg/ previous day to the radiotherapy and 5-UGH 1 intravenous g/my in infusion the days from 1 to 4 and from 29 to 32 after the radiotherapy.Results: to) control locorregional patient RC-16 (80%) ,RP 2 patients (10%) , without answer or with progression lesional a patient (5%) .b) State vital: living 15 patients, died 5 patients(continuation 12 to 60 months) .e)Tolerance: there were not deaths for the gastrointestinal treatment and haematological with toxicity moderate.To conclude:1) The radiochemotherapy is the treatment of elect.2)A feasible treatment of being carried out in our environment.3)Required of a good relationship predictable interdisciplinary.4)Toxicity and tolerable.5)Results of conservation of the sphincter in 80%(AU) [es

  11. Postpartum two- and three-dimensional ultrasound evaluation of anal sphincter complex in women with obstetric anal sphincter injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, C; Martínez-Franco, E; Wozniak, M M; Cassado, J; Santoro, G A; Elías, N; López, M; Palacio, M; Wieczorek, A P; Espuña-Pons, M

    2017-04-01

    To compare the sensitivity and specificity of two- (2D) and three- (3D) dimensional transperineal ultrasound (TPUS) and 3D endovaginal ultrasound (EVUS) with the gold standard 3D endoanal ultrasound (EAUS) in detecting residual defects after primary repair of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS). External (EAS) and internal (IAS) anal sphincters were evaluated by the four ultrasound modalities in women with repaired OASIS. 2D-TPUS was evaluated in real-time, whereas 3D-TPUS, 3D-EVUS and 3D-EAUS volumes were evaluated offline by six blinded readers. The presence/absence of any tear in EAS or IAS was recorded and defects were scored according to the Starck system. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated, using 3D-EAUS as reference standard. Inter- and intraobserver analyses were performed for all 3D imaging modalities. Association between patients' symptoms (Wexner score) and ultrasound findings (Starck score) was calculated. Images from 55 patients were analyzed. Compared with findings on 3D-EAUS, the agreement for EAS evaluation was poor for 3D-EVUS (κ = 0.01), fair for 2D-TPUS (κ = 0.30) and good for 3D-TPUS (κ = 0.73). The agreement for IAS evaluation was moderate for both 3D-EVUS (κ = 0.41) and 2D-TPUS (κ = 0.52) and good for 3D-TPUS (κ = 0.66). Good intraobserver (3D-EAUS, κ = 0.73; 3D-TPUS, κ = 0.78) and interobserver (3D-EAUS, κ = 0.68; 3D-TPUS, κ = 0.60) agreement was reported. Significant association between Starck and Wexner scores was found only for 3D-EAUS (Spearman's rho = 0.277, P = 0.04). 2D-TPUS and 3D-EVUS are not accurate modalities for the assessment of anal sphincters after repair of OASIS. 3D-TPUS shows good agreement with the gold standard 3D-EAUS and a high sensitivity in detecting residual defects. It, thus, has potential as a screening tool after primary repair of OASIS. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG

  12. Dose-time considerations in the treatment of anal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, Eugene C.; Daly, William; Fung, Claire Y.; Willett, Christopher G.; De Laney, Thomas F.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Concurrent chemoradiation has become the standard initial treatment of primary anal carcinomas. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact on treatment outcome of a variety of patient and treatment variables including radiation dose and overall treatment time in patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation for anal carcinomas. Materials and Methods: Retrospective chart review on 50 patients with MO anal cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiation during the years 1984-1993. Patients were identified from the hospital tumor registries. The majority of patients received treatment with 5-FU 1000 mg/m 2 days 1-4, 29-33 and Mitomycin 10-15 mg/m 2 days 1 ± 29. Radiation was given at 180-200 cGy daily starting at day 1 to total doses of 23.6-67.2 Gy (median 54 Gy) usually by shrinking field technique. Local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival of the group was determined and then analyzed with respect to a variety of patient characteristics including T and N stage, histology, radiation dose, overall treatment time, hemoglobin at the start of treatment, age, HIV status, and sex. Local control, disease-free and overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Tests for significance were done using the log-rank method. Results: Patient characteristics were: (1) histology-squamous 78 %, cloacogenic/basaloid 20%, and adenosquamous 2%; (2) age- range 30-82 years (median 58.5), (3) sex- female 58%, male 42%; (4) T stage- T1 16%, T2 46%, T3 24%, T4 8%, TX 6%; (5) N stage- NO 69%, N+ 23 %, NX 8%; (6) HIV (+) 8%, HIV(-/?) 92%. Follow-up ranged from 2-132 months (median 43 months). Overall survival was 66% and 44% at 5 and 10 years. Disease-free survival was 67% at 5 years and 59% at 10 years. Local control was 70% at 5 and 10 years. Five year local control by T stage: T stage- T1 87.5 %, T2 63%, T3 83%, T4 67%, TX 50%. Doses of ≥ 54 Gy are associated with improved 5-year survival (84 % vs. 47%, p=0.02), disease-free survival

  13. Should anorectal ultrasonography be included as a diagnostic tool for chronic anal pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. García-Montes

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the efficiency of endorectal ultrasound (ERUS in the study of chronic idiopathic anal pain (CIAP. Material and method: this is a prospective and descriptive study in which 40 patients, 18 men and 22 women with an average of 47 years, were included. They had chronic anal pain of at least 3 months' duration. A complete colonoscopy was performed in all patients, which found no abnormalities to explain clinical symptoms. Patients with anal fissure and internal hemorrhoids of any degree, perianal suppurative processes, and pelvic surgery were excluded from the study. An ALOKA ProSound SSD-4000 ultrasound console attached to a multifrequency radial transductor ASU-67 (7.5 and 10 MHz was used. Results: one patient could not tolerate the examination. In 8 patients (20% of cases alterations were detected during ultrasonography: in 4 patients (10% of the cases; 1 man and 3 women internal anal sphincter (IAS hypertrophy, and in 5 patients (4 women and 1 man a torn sphincter complex. A tear in the upper IAS canal and hypertrophy of the middle anal canal were observed in one patient (1 woman. Conclusions: ERUS is a simple, economic and useful test to study anorectal pathologies. Although in most studied cases no damage to the anal canal or rectal wall was detected, in a considerable number of patients we observed a thickening of the IAS, a probable cause of anal pain. Therefore, we understand that ERUS should be included in the study of CIAP.

  14. Early Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal Resected by Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzuru Tamaru

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The standard treatment approach for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the anal canal includes abdominoperineal resection and chemoradiotherapy. However, there are currently very few reports of early SCC of the anal canal resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD. We report 2 rare cases of SCC of the anal canal resected by ESD. In case 1, a 66-year-old woman underwent a colonoscopy due to blood in her stool, and an elevated lesion, 15 mm in size, was identified from the rectum to the dentate line of the anal canal on internal hemorrhoids. The lesion was diagnosed as an early SCC of the anal canal, and ESD was successfully performed. The histopathological diagnosis was SCC in situ. In case 2, a 71-year-old woman underwent a colonoscopy due to constipation, and an elevated lesion, 25 mm in size, was identified from the dentate line to the anal canal. The lesion was diagnosed as early-stage SCC of the anal canal, and ESD was successfully performed. The histopathological diagnosis was SCC in situ. No complications or recurrence after ESD occurred in either case.

  15. An integrative review of guidelines for anal cancer screening in HIV-infected persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jessica S; Holstad, Marcia M; Thomas, Tami; Bruner, Deborah Watkins

    2014-07-01

    HIV-infected individuals are 28 times more likely than the general population to be diagnosed with anal cancer. An integrative review of recommendations and guidelines for anal cancer screening was performed to provide a succinct guide to inform healthcare clinicians. The review excluded studies that were of non-HIV populations, redundant articles or publications, non-English manuscripts, or nonclinical trials. The review found no formal national or international guidelines exist for routine screening of anal cancer for HIV-infected individuals. To date, no randomized control trial provides strong evidence supporting efficaciousness and effectiveness of an anal cancer screening program. The screening recommendations from seven international-, national-, and state-based reports were reviewed and synthesized in this review. These guidelines suggest anal cancer screening, albeit unproven, may be beneficial at decreasing the incidence of anal cancer. This review highlights the paucity of screening-related research and is an area of need to provide clear direction and to define standard of care for anal cancer screening in HIV-infected persons.

  16. Should anorectal ultrasonography be included as a diagnostic tool for chronic anal pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Montes, M J; Argüelles-Arias, Federico; Jiménez-Contreras, S; Sánchez-Gey, S; Pellicer-Bautista, F; Herrerías-Gutiérrez, J M

    2010-01-01

    To assess the efficiency of endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) in the study of chronic idiopathic anal pain (CIAP). This is a prospective and descriptive study in which 40 patients, 18 men and 22 women with an average of 47 years, were included. They had chronic anal pain of at least 3 months duration. A complete colonoscopy was performed in all patients, which found no abnormalities to explain clinical symptoms. Patients with anal fissure and internal hemorrhoids of any degree, perianal suppurative processes, and pelvic surgery were excluded from the study. An ALOKA ProSound SSD-4000 ultrasound console attached to a multifrequency radial transductor ASU-67 (7.5 and 10 MHz) was used. One patient could not tolerate the examination. In 8 patients (20% of cases) alterations were detected during ultrasonography: in 4 patients (10% of the cases; 1 man and 3 women) internal anal sphincter (IAS) hypertrophy, and in 5 patients (4 women and 1 man) a torn sphincter complex. A tear in the upper IAS canal and hypertrophy of the middle anal canal were observed in one patient (1 woman). ERUS is a simple, economic and useful test to study anorectal pathologies. Although in most studied cases no damage to the anal canal or rectal wall was detected, in a considerable number of patients we observed a thickening of the IAS, a probable cause of anal pain. Therefore, we understand that ERUS should be included in the study of CIAP.

  17. Anal HPV infection in HIV-positive men who have sex with men from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anal HPV infection, which contributes to the development of anal warts and anal cancer, is well known to be common among men who have sex with men (MSM, especially among those HIV positives. However, HIV and anal HPV co-infection among MSM has not been addressed in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Beijing and Tianjin, China. Study participants were recruited using multiple methods with the collaboration of local volunteer organizations. Blood and anal swabs were collected for HIV-1 serological test and HPV genotyping. RESULTS: A total of 602 MSM were recruited and laboratory data were available for 578 of them (96.0%. HIV and anal HPV prevalence were 8.5% and 62.1%, respectively. And 48 MSM (8.3% were found to be co-infected. The HPV genotypes identified most frequently were HPV06 (19.6%, HPV16 (13.0%, HPV52 (8.5% and HPV11 (7.6%. Different modes of HPV genotypes distribution were observed with respect to HIV status. A strong dose-response relationship was found between HIV seropositivity and multiplicity of HPV genotypes (p<0.001, which is consistent with the observation that anal HPV infection was an independent predictor for HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of HIV and anal HPV co-infection was observed in the MSM community in Beijing and Tianjin, China. Anal HPV infection was found to be independently associated with increased HIV seropositivity, which suggests the application of HPV vaccine might be a potential strategy to reduce the acquisition of HIV infection though controlling the prevalence of HPV.

  18. Predição analítica do movimento rotacional de satélites estabilizados por rotação

    OpenAIRE

    Borderes Motta, Gabriel [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Uma abordagem analítica para o movimento rotacional de satélites arti ciais estabilizados por rotação é apresentada, considerando os satélites em órbita elíptica de baixa excentricidade e a in uência conjunta do torque aerodinâmico, o torque de gradiente de gravidade, o torque magnético residual, o torque magnético devido às correntes de Foucault e o torque de pressão de radiação solar. Modelos matemáticos são apresentados para todos os torques e os componentes médios de cada torque são deter...

  19. Conversor analógico digital basado en oscilador controlado por tensión

    OpenAIRE

    Cardes García, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Convencionalmente, los micrófonos dan una salida analógica debida a la variación de presión que produce el sonido, y esta señal se digitaliza por medio de conversores analógico digitales tradicionales. En este proyecto se aborda el diseño de un sistema que obtenga como salida un código digitalizado a partir del sonido recibido por la cápsula microfónica. La principal ventaja de utilizar este sistema es que el circuito analógico que acondiciona la señal se simpli ca considerable...

  20. Anal canal duplication and triplication: a rare entity with different presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazon, P; Julia, V; Saura, L; de Haro, I; Bejarano, M; Rovira, C; Tarrado, X

    2017-05-01

    Anal canal duplication (ACD) is the rarest of gastrointestinal duplications. Few cases have been reported. Most cases present as an opening in the midline, posterior to the normal anus. The aim of our revision is to contribute with eight new cases, some of them with unusual presentations: five presented as the typical form, one with a perianal nodule, and two presented as two separate orifices (anal canal triplication). Complete excision was performed in all patients with no complications. ACD is the most distal and the least frequent digestive duplication. Its treatment should be surgical excision, to avoid complications such as abscess, fistulization, or malignization. Anal canal triplication has never been described before.

  1. Comparación analítica de los métodos ultravioleta selectivo y test spectroquant 1.14773.0001 en la determinación del ión nitrato en aguas tratadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Severiche Sierra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La meta de un análisis químico de aguas es generar resultados correctos y confiables, siendo la comparación de métodos uno de los aspectos más importantes para conseguir este propósito; además, constituye un factor clave para la prestación de servicios analíticos. La determinación de ion nitrato en aguas es una de las metodologías analíticas más discutidas que se conoce en el ámbito científico técnico del análisis de aguas, dado los procedimientos complejos con los que se cuentan, la gran posibilidad de encontrar sustancias interferentes y los rangos de concentración limitados que presentan las diferentes técnicas. En la presente investigación, se hizo el cotejo de dos métodos analíticos, el UV selectivo y el test spectroquant 1.14773.0001, para la determinación del ión nitrato en aguas tratadas. El objetivo fue confirmar correctamente la aplicación de los métodos para el análisis de aguas; las muestras analizadas se tomaron de la red de agua potable de la ciudad de Cartagena de Indias, donde para ambos métodos se encontraron resultados satisfactorios en precisión y exactitud.

  2. Avaliação da adequação do rastreamento e diagnóstico de Diabetes Mellitus Gestacional em puérperas atendidas em unidade hospitalar de dois municípios da região do Vale do São Francisco - Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audimar de Sousa Alves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: avaliar a adequação do rastreamento e do diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus gestacional em puérperas atendidas em unidade hospitalar de dois municípios da região do Vale do São Francisco. Métodos: estudo descritivo, com 1340 puérperas que pariram no Hospital Dom Malan-IMIP-PE e Maternidade Municipal de Juazeiro-BA, de abril de 2011 a janeiro de 2012. Excluídas aquelas com diagnóstico prévio de diabetes mellitus, sem pré-natal sem exames acessíveis. Foram construídas tabelas de distribuição de frequência e medidas de tendência central e dispersão. Resultados: a média de idade gestacional da solicitação da glicemia de jejum foi 14 semanas, adequada em 46%. A idade gestacional média da realização da glicemia foi 16 semanas, realizada até 30 dias após solicitação em 37,9%; recebimento do resultado ocorreu em média na 20ª semana, adequada em 33,4%. A segunda glicemia de jejum foi solicitada e interpretada adequadamente em 28,1% dos casos; 20,8% tiveram resultados glicêmicos da primeira e segunda glicemia de jejum igual ou superior a 85 mg/dL e 11,9% não realizaram ou receberam a glicemia de jejum. Inadequação no rastreamento/diagnóstico detectada em 76,9% (n=1022, e 5,0% (n=67 de quem realizou Teste Oral de Tolerância a Glicose. Alguma inadequação foi observada em 91,9% durante o rastreio. Conclusões: o rastreio/diagnóstico do diabetes gestacional entre as puérperas estudadas foi realizado inadequadamente.

  3. Anal carcinoma in HIV-infected patients in the period 1995-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Helleberg, Marie; Kronborg, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Several studies have demonstrated an increased risk of non-AIDS cancers in HIV patients and, for some cancers, also in relatives of HIV patients. We aimed to estimate (1) the risk of anal carcinoma among HIV patients and their parents, and (2) the mortality after a diagnosis...... 1995-2009, and (2) parents of HIV patients compared with parents of controls for the period 1978-2009. Cancer diagnoses were identified from The Danish Cancer Registry. We further estimated the mortality rate ratios (MRR) of HIV patients compared with controls after the diagnosis of anal carcinoma....... Results: Thirty-six HIV patients versus 8 population controls were diagnosed with anal carcinoma. HIV patients had an increased risk of anal carcinoma (IRR 77.9, 95% CI 36.2-167.7), especially among men who have sex with men (MSM) (IRR 101.4, 95% CI 39.3-261.5). Fathers of HIV patients had an increased...

  4. Riskide analüüs aitab kriisi puhuks varusid planeerida / Janis Toomla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toomla, Janis

    2005-01-01

    Riskide hindamisele järgnevast organisatsiooni jätkusuutlikkuse planeerimise faasist, kus toimub kriisistsenaariumide analüüs, võimalike kahjude suuruse hindamine ja taasteaja määratlemine (Business Impact Analyse)

  5. Chronic anal fissures: Open lateral internal sphincterotomy result; a case series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulwahid M. Salih

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: lateral sphincterotomy for internal anal sphincter, along, is the procedure of choice for management of CAF because it is effective and it can cure the disease in nearly all patients with good patient satisfaction.

  6. Treating High-grade Lesions to Prevent Anal Cancer in HIV-infected People

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study, called the ANCHOR trial, will investigate whether screening and prevention methods similar to those used to prevent cervical cancer can help prevent anal cancer in HIV-infected men and women.

  7. Anal Papilloma: An Exceptional Presentation of Fibrocystic Disease in Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Subashchandrabose

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously ectopic breast tissue was thought to be derived from the caudal remnants of the primitive embryonic milk ridges; anogenital mammary-like glands are presently considered as normal constituents of the anogenital region. We report a case of young female, who presented with an anal papilloma. Histopathological examination revealed extensive fibrocystic changes in anogenital mammary-like glands. To date, a lot of benign changes and a wide range of benign and malignant neoplasms have been reported in these glands. However, extensive fibrocystic change of these glands in anal region is very rare. In addition, fibrocystic disease of anal mammary glands, masquerading clinically as an anal papilloma, has not been reported in literature. Hence, it is essential for clinicians and the pathologists to be aware of such a rare presentation. The features of fibrocystic disease in perianal region are also discussed.

  8. Anal Papilloma: An Exceptional Presentation of Fibrocystic Disease in Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subashchandrabose, Priya; Esakkai, Muthuvel; Venugopal, Palani; Kannaiyan, Ilavarasan; Srinivasan, Chitra; Reddy, Punuru Tejashwini; Ebenezer, Evelyn Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Previously ectopic breast tissue was thought to be derived from the caudal remnants of the primitive embryonic milk ridges; anogenital mammary-like glands are presently considered as normal constituents of the anogenital region. We report a case of young female, who presented with an anal papilloma. Histopathological examination revealed extensive fibrocystic changes in anogenital mammary-like glands. To date, a lot of benign changes and a wide range of benign and malignant neoplasms have been reported in these glands. However, extensive fibrocystic change of these glands in anal region is very rare. In addition, fibrocystic disease of anal mammary glands, masquerading clinically as an anal papilloma, has not been reported in literature. Hence, it is essential for clinicians and the pathologists to be aware of such a rare presentation. The features of fibrocystic disease in perianal region are also discussed.

  9. Endosonographic and manometric evaluation of internal anal sphincter in patients with chronic anal fissure and its correlation with clinical outcome after topical glyceryl trinitrate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Marta; Pera, Miguel; Courtier, Ricard; Gil, Mariá José; Parés, David; Puig, Sonia; Andreu, Montserrat; Grande, Luis

    2007-08-01

    Anorectal pressure studies have demonstrated internal anal sphincter (IAS) hypertonia in patients with chronic anal fissure. It is unknown however, if these changes in IAS function are associated with any abnormality in sphincter morphology. The first aim was to investigate the clinical characteristics and the manometric and endosonographic findings of the IAS in a cohort of patients with chronic anal fissure. The second aim was to investigate the association between these findings and the outcome with topical Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) therapy. All patients who presented with chronic anal fissure from November 1999 to May 2004 were included after failure of conservative therapy. Anorectal manometry and anal endosonography were performed before treatment with 0.2% GTN ointment twice daily was initiated. Patients were evaluated after 8 weeks. One hundred and twenty-four patients (66 women, mean age, 45.2 +/- 14.8 years) were included. Hypertonia of the IAS was found in 84 (68%) patients. The mean maximum IAS thickness was 3.6 +/- 0.76 mm (1.6-5.5). An abnormally thick IAS, adjusted by age, was observed in 113 (91.1%) patients. We found no correlation between resting pressure and IAS thickness (r = 0.074; p = 0.41). At 8 weeks, 52 patients (42%) had healed with complete symptoms resolution. No statistically significant differences were observed when clinical features and manometric and endosonographic findings were compared between healing and no-healing fissures. The majority of patients with chronic anal fissure present an abnormally thick IAS. Clinical, manometric and endosonographic features had no association with outcome after GTN treatment.

  10. Cytological Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Associated with Anal High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Northern Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin Ruanpeng

    Full Text Available Anal cancer, one of human papillomavirus (HPV related malignancies, has increased in recent decades, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM and HIV-infected (HIV+ persons. We aimed to explore the prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL using Papanicolau (Pap screening among MSM in northern Thailand and its associated factors.Two hundreds MSM aged ≥18 years reporting receptive anal intercourse in the prior 6 months were recruited from July 2012 through January 2013. Medical history and behavioral data were collected by staff interview and computer-assisted self interview. Anal Pap smear, HPV genotyping, and HIV testing were performed. Two pathologists blinded to HPV and HIV status reported cytologic results by Bethesda classification.Mean age was 27.2 years (range 18-54. Overall, 86 (43.0% had ASIL: 28 (14.2% with atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 1 (0.5% with atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H, 56 (28.4% with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, and 1 (0.5% with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL. ASIL was associated by univariate analysis (p ≤0.05 with older age, gender identity other than bisexual (i.e., gay men and transgender women, rectal douching, anal symptoms, genital warts, HIV positivity, and high-risk-HPV infection. However, on multiple logistic regression ASIL was associated only with high-risk HPV type (p = 0.002 and HIV infection (p = 0.01.ASIL is quite common in high-risk MSM in northern Thailand and is associated with high-risk HPV types and HIV infection. Routine anal Pap screening should be considered, given the high frequency of ASIL, particularly in the HIV+. High resolution anoscopy (HRA, not done here, should be to confirm PAP smears whose sensitivity and specificity are quite variable. Timely HPV vaccination should be considered for this population.

  11. Cytological Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Associated with Anal High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruanpeng, Darin; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Kaewpoowat, Quanhathai; Supindham, Taweewat; Settakorn, Jongkolnee; Sukpan, Kornkanok; Utaipat, Utaiwan; Miura, Toshiyuki; Kosashunhanan, Natthapol; Saokhieo, Pongpun; Songsupa, Radchanok; Wongthanee, Antika

    2016-01-01

    Anal cancer, one of human papillomavirus (HPV) related malignancies, has increased in recent decades, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-infected (HIV+) persons. We aimed to explore the prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL) using Papanicolau (Pap) screening among MSM in northern Thailand and its associated factors. Two hundreds MSM aged ≥18 years reporting receptive anal intercourse in the prior 6 months were recruited from July 2012 through January 2013. Medical history and behavioral data were collected by staff interview and computer-assisted self interview. Anal Pap smear, HPV genotyping, and HIV testing were performed. Two pathologists blinded to HPV and HIV status reported cytologic results by Bethesda classification. Mean age was 27.2 years (range 18-54). Overall, 86 (43.0%) had ASIL: 28 (14.2%) with atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 1 (0.5%) with atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H), 56 (28.4%) with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), and 1 (0.5%) with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). ASIL was associated by univariate analysis (p ≤0.05) with older age, gender identity other than bisexual (i.e., gay men and transgender women), rectal douching, anal symptoms, genital warts, HIV positivity, and high-risk-HPV infection. However, on multiple logistic regression ASIL was associated only with high-risk HPV type (p = 0.002) and HIV infection (p = 0.01). ASIL is quite common in high-risk MSM in northern Thailand and is associated with high-risk HPV types and HIV infection. Routine anal Pap screening should be considered, given the high frequency of ASIL, particularly in the HIV+. High resolution anoscopy (HRA), not done here, should be to confirm PAP smears whose sensitivity and specificity are quite variable. Timely HPV vaccination should be considered for this population.

  12. Viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function using acoustic reflectometry: a clinically useful technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J; Hosker, Gordon L; Lose, Gunnar; Kiff, Edward S

    2012-02-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis. The aim of this study was to assess whether the parameters measured in anal acoustic reflectometry are clinically valid between continent and fecally incontinent subjects. This was an age- and sex-matched study of continent and incontinent women. The study was conducted at a university teaching hospital. One hundred women (50 with fecal incontinence and 50 with normal bowel control) were included in the study. Subjects were age matched to within 5 years. Parameters measured with anal acoustic reflectometry and manometry were compared between incontinent and continent groups using a paired t test. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by the use of receiver operator characteristic curves. Four of the 5 anal acoustic reflectometry parameters at rest were significantly different between continent and incontinent women (eg, opening pressure in fecally incontinent subjects was 31.6 vs 51.5 cm H2O in continent subjects, p = 0.0001). Both anal acoustic reflectometry parameters of squeeze opening pressure and squeeze opening elastance were significantly reduced in the incontinent women compared with continent women (50 vs 99.1 cm H2O, p = 0.0001 and 1.48 vs 1.83 cm H2O/mm, p = 0.012). In terms of diagnostic accuracy, opening pressure at rest measured by reflectometry was significantly superior in discriminating between continent and incontinent women in comparison with resting pressure measured with manometry (p = 0.009). Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new, clinically valid technique in the assessment of continent and incontinent subjects. This technique, which assesses the response of the anal canal to distension and relaxation, provides a detailed viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. This technique

  13. Correlates of anal sex roles among Malay and Chinese MSM in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangerfield, Derek T; Gravitt, Patti; Rompalo, Anne M; Tai, Raymond; Lim, Sin How

    2016-03-01

    Identifying roles for anal sex is an important issue for populations of MSM. We describe the prevalence of identifying as being 'top', 'bottom', 'versatile', or 'don't know/not applicable' among Malay and Chinese MSM in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and behavioural outcomes according to these labels for sexual role identity. Data analysis was conducted on a survey administered during weekly outreach throughout Kuala Lumpur in 2012. Pearson's Chi square tests were used to compare demographic and behavioural characteristics of MSM who reported roles for anal sex. Binary logistic regression was used to explore the odds of behavioural outcomes among MSM who identified as 'bottom', 'versatile,' and 'don't know' compared to MSM who reported that 'top' was their sexual role. Labels for anal sex roles were significantly associated with condom use for last anal sex. Among MSM who used labels for anal sex roles, MSM who identified as 'bottom' had highest level of not using condoms for last anal sex (24.1%, p = .045). In binary logistic regression model, identifying as 'top' was significantly associated with reporting using a condom during last anal sex and reported consistent condom use for anal sex in the past six months (p = .039 and .017, respectively). With regard to sexual role identity, some MSM may be a part of a special subgroup of at-risk men to be targeted. Future research should evaluate the origins, meanings, and perceptions of these labels, and the developmental process of how these MSM identify with any of these categories. Research should also uncover condom use decision making with regard to these labels for sexual positioning. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Analüütikud soovitavad Eesti Energia börsile viia / Piret Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reiljan, Piret, 1983-

    2008-01-01

    Kohalikud analüütikud soovitavad viia Eesti Energia börsile, kuna see elavdaks aktsiaturgu ja tõmbaks ligi välisinvestoreid. Vt. samas: Raivo Vare: raske aeg töötab Eesti Energia börsiletoomise kasuks; Analüüs ootab pääsu valitsuskabinetti; Juhid ei püsi enam Eesti Energias. Diagrammid: Majandusnäitajad; Varade maht

  15. Regenerative medicine provides alternative strategies for the treatment of anal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräs, Søren; Tolstrup, Cæcilie Krogsgaard; Lose, Gunnar

    2017-03-01

    Anal incontinence is a common disorder but current treatment modalities are not ideal and the development of new treatments is needed. The aim of this review was to identify the existing knowledge of regenerative medicine strategies in the form of cellular therapies or bioengineering as a treatment for anal incontinence caused by anal sphincter defects. PubMed was searched for preclinical and clinical studies in English published from January 2005 to January 2016. Animal studies have demonstrated that cellular therapy in the form of local injections of culture-expanded skeletal myogenic cells stimulates repair of both acute and 2 - 4-week-old anal sphincter injuries. The results from a small clinical trial with ten patients and a case report support the preclinical findings. Animal studies have also demonstrated that local injections of mesenchymal stem cells stimulate repair of sphincter injuries, and a complex bioengineering strategy for creation and implantation of an intrinsically innervated internal anal sphincter construct has been successfully developed in a series of animal studies. Cellular therapies with myogenic cells and mesenchymal stem cells and the use of bioengineering technology to create an anal sphincter are new potential strategies to treat anal incontinence caused by anal sphincter defects, but the clinical evidence is extremely limited. The use of culture-expanded autologous skeletal myogenic cells has been most intensively investigated and several clinical trials were ongoing at the time of this report. The cost-effectiveness of such a therapy is an issue and muscle fragmentation is suggested as a simple alternative.

  16. Analysis and description of disease-specific quality of life in patients with anal fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Márquez, Manuel; Espínola-Cortés, Natalia; Reina-Duarte, Ángel; Granero-Molina, José; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano; Hernández-Padilla, José Manuel

    2018-04-01

    In patients diagnosed with anal fistula, knowing the quality of life specifically related to the disease can help coloproctology specialists to choose the most appropriate therapeutic strategy for each case. The aim of our study is to analyzse and describe the factors related to the specific quality of life in a consecutive series of patients diagnosed with anal fistula. Observational, cross-sectional study carried out from March 2015 to February 2017. All patients were assessed in the colorectal surgery unit of a hospital in southeast of Spain. After performing an initial anamnesis and a physical examination, patients diagnosed with anal fistula completed the Quality of Life in Ppatients with Anal Fistula Questionnaire (QoLAF-Q). This questionnaire specifically measures quality of life in people with anal fistula and its score range is the following: zero impact = 14 points, limited impact = 15 to 28 points, moderate impact = 29 to 42 points, high impact = 43 to 56 points, and very high impact = 57 to 70 points. A total of 80 patients were included. The median score obtained in the questionnaire for the sample studied was 34.00 (range=14-68). Statistically significant differences between patients with "primary anal fistula" (n=65) and "recurrent anal fistula" (n=15) were observed (mean rank=42.96 vs. mean rank=29.83, p=0.048). Furthermore, an inverse proportion (P=.016) between "time with clinical symptoms" and "impact on quality of life" was found (5 years: mean rank = 19.00). There were no statistically significant differences (P=.149) between quality of life amongst patients diagnosed with complex (mean rank = 36.13) and simple fistulae (mean rank = 43.59). Anal fistulae exert moderate-high impact on patients' quality of life. "Shorter time experiencing clinical symptoms" and the "presence of primary fistula" are factors that can be associated with worse quality of life. Copyright © 2018 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of hypothyroidism on primary anal malignant melanoma: a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Siddharth; Verma, Satyajeet; Kala, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Primary melanoma of the anal canal is rare and highly malignant condition, which is 1% of all invasive tumors in this site. This condition is often mistaken for benign conditions as either hemorrhoids or rectal polyp. Thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation causes high proliferation of malignant melanoma. The association of hypothyroidism with primary malignant melanoma of anal canal is very rare. We are reporting such a very rare case.

  18. Hereditary vacuolar internal anal sphincter myopathy causing proctalgia fugax and constipation: a new case contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Portilla, Fernando; Borrero, Juan José; Rafel, Enrique

    2005-03-01

    Hereditary anal sphincter myopathy is rare. We present a family with one affected member with proctalgia fugax, constipation and internal anal sphincter hypertrophy. Ultrastructural findings show vacuolization of smooth muscle cells without the characteristic polyglucosan inclusion. Further relief of symptoms was obtained using an oral calcium antagonist. Based on clinical presentation, endosonography and morphological findings, we consider our case is a histological variant of the vacuolar myopathy originally described.

  19. Impact of hypothyroidism on primary anal malignant melanoma: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary melanoma of the anal canal is rare and highly malignant condition, which is 1% of all invasive tumors in this site. This condition is often mistaken for benign conditions as either hemorrhoids or rectal polyp. Thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation causes high proliferation of malignant melanoma. The association of hypothyroidism with primary malignant melanoma of anal canal is very rare. We are reporting such a very rare case.

  20. Vaccine-preventable anal human papillomavirus in Australian gay and bisexual men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mary Poynten

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: HPV causes ~90% of anal cancer and HPV16 is the type most commonly associated with anal cancer. Gay and bisexual men (GBM are at greatly increased risk. We investigated patterns of vaccine-preventable anal HPV in older GBM. Methods: The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer (SPANC is an ongoing, prospective cohort study of HIV-positive and HIV-negative Australian GBM. Participants completed questionnaires and underwent an anal swab for HPV genotyping using Roche Linear Array. We analysed baseline data from SPANC by HPV type, mean number of types, stratified by age and HIV status. Results: Anal HPV results from 606 (98.2% of 617 participants (median age 49 years, 35.7% HIV-positive showed 525 (86.7% had ≥1 HPV type and 178 (29.4% had HPV16. Over one third of participants (214, 35.3% had no nonavalent vaccine-preventable types detected. Two (0.3% participants had all quadrivalent types and none had all nonavalent vaccine types. HIV-positive participants (p<0.001 and younger participants (p=0.059 were more likely to have more vaccine-preventable HPV types detected. Conclusion: Anal HPV was highly prevalent in this largely community-based GBM cohort. Vaccine-preventable HPV16 was detected in approximately one third of participants. These findings suggest that the potential efficacy of HPV vaccination of older GBM should be explored. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, HPV, Anal, Vaccine, Prevalence, Gay and bisexual men, MSM, HIV

  1. Analüütilised voolud psühholoogias ja nende rakendamine pedagoogikas / Aleksander Elango

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elango, Aleksander, 1902-2004

    2001-01-01

    Analüütise psühholoogia kolm koolkonda - S.Freudì koolkond e. päris-psühhoanalüüs, A.Adlerì koolkond e. individuaalpsühholoogia ja C.G.Jungì psühhoanalüüsi ja individuaalpsühholoogia sünteesi luua püüdev koolkond. Analüütise psühholoogia koolkondade ja pedagoogika suhetest

  2. Análisis de metales en filtros de aire para monitoreo ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Ballena Salvador, Luis Humberto; Ballena Salvador, Luis Humberto

    2012-01-01

    La mayoría de laboratorios de servicios de análisis para medio ambiente, realizan implementación y/o validación de métodos analíticos normalizados y no normalizados para matrices de aguas, suelos y aire. Al no existir métodos normalizados se hace la validación de un método nuevo, se realizan pruebas a nivel de laboratorio de límites de detección e incertidumbre de los analitos; y finalmente se hace una incertidumbre con parámetros de calidad interlaboratorios. Para el estudio de calidad de...

  3. Successful Implantation of Bioengineered, Intrinsically Innervated, Human Internal Anal Sphincter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Shreya; Gilmont, Robert R.; Miyasaka, Eiichi A.; Somara, Sita; Srinivasan, Shanthi; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Bitar, Khalil N.

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims To restore fecal continence, the weakened pressure of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) must be increased. We bioengineered intrinsically innervated human IAS, to emulate sphincteric physiology, in vitro. Methods We co-cultured human IAS circular smooth muscle with immortomouse fetal enteric neurons. We investigated the ability of bioengineered innervated human IAS, implanted in RAG1−/− mice, to undergo neovascularization and preserve the physiology of the constituent myogenic and neuronal components. Results The implanted IAS was neovascularized in vivo; numerous blood vessels were observed with no signs of inflammation or infection. Real-time force acquisition from implanted and pre-implant IAS showed distinct characteristics of IAS physiology. Features included the development of spontaneous myogenic basal tone; relaxation of 100% of basal tone in response to inhibitory neurotransmitter vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and direct electrical field stimulation of the intrinsic innervation; inhibition of nitrergic and VIPergic EFS-induced relaxation (by antagonizing nitric oxide synthesis or receptor interaction); contraction in response to cholinergic stimulation with acetylcholine; and intact electromechanical coupling (evidenced by direct response to potassium chloride). Implanted, intrinsically innervated bioengineered human IAS tissue preserved the integrity and physiology of myogenic and neuronal components. Conclusion Intrinsically innervated human IAS bioengineered tissue can be successfully implanted in mice. This approach might be used to treat patients with fecal incontinence. PMID:21463628

  4. Latvijas importa analīze un prognoze

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiļenko, Oļegs

    2010-01-01

    Viena no nozīmīgākām pazīmēm, kuras raksturo valsts ekonomikas stāvokli un attīstības līmeni, ir ārējās tirdzniecības bilance. Sakarā ar Latvijas ekonomikas situācijas pasliktināšanu, un, ar to saistītu, ārējās tirdzniecības negatīvās bilances strauju pieaugumu, importa analīzes un prognozes jautājuma nozīme vairāk kārt pieauga. Jau ilgāku laiku pieaug bezdarba līmenis Latvijā, līdz ar ko pasliktinās iedzīvotāju pirktspēja, kura, neapšaubāmi, ietekmē valsts ārējo tirdzniecību. ...

  5. Addressing Risk and Reluctance at the Nexus of HIV and Anal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I; Cassel, Kevin; Shiramizu, Bruce; Stotzer, Rebecca L; Robles, Andrew; Kapua, Cathy; Orton, Malulani; Milne, Cris; Sesepasara, Maddalynn

    2016-01-01

    Anal cancer disproportionately burdens persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) regardless of natal sex, sexual orientation, gender expression, and ethnic identity. Culturally competent communications are recommended to address health disparities, with sociocultural relevance ensured through constituent dialogic processes. Results are presented from six provider focus groups conducted to inform the promotion/education component of a Hawai'i-based project on anal cancer screening tools. Krueger's focus group methodology guided discussion queries. Verbatim transcripts of digitally recorded discussions were analyzed using grounded theory and PEN-3 procedures. Adherence to an audit trail ensured analytic rigor. Grounded theory analysis detected the overall theme of risk and reluctance to anal cancer screening, characterized by anal cancer not being "on the radar" of PLHIV, conflicting attributions of the anus and anal sex, fear of sex-shaming/-blaming, and other interrelated conceptual categories. PEN-3 analysis revealed strategies for destigmatizing anal cancer, through "real talk" (proactive, candid, nonjudgmental discussion) nested in a framework of sexual health and overall well-being, with additional tailoring for relevance to Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, transgender persons, and other marginalized groups. Application of strategies for health practice are specific to the Hawai'i context, yet may offer considerations for developing strengths-based, culturally relevant screening promotion/education with diverse PLHIV in other locales. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  6. Addressing Risk and Reluctance at the Nexus of HIV and Anal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka‘opua, Lana Sue I.; Cassel, Kevin; Shiramizu, Bruce; Stotzer, Rebecca L.; Robles, Andrew; Kapua, Cathy; Orton, Malulani; Milne, Cris; Sesepasara, Maddalynn

    2015-01-01

    Anal cancer disproportionately burdens persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) regardless of natal sex, sexual orientation, gender expression, and ethnic identity. Culturally competent communications are recommended to address health disparities, with sociocultural relevance ensured through constituent dialogic processes. Results are presented from six provider focus groups conducted to inform the promotion/education component of a Hawai‘i-based project on anal cancer screening tools. Krueger’s focus group methodology guided discussion queries. Verbatim transcripts of digitally recorded discussions were analyzed using grounded theory and PEN-3 procedures. Adherence to an audit trail ensured analytic rigor. Grounded theory analysis detected the overall theme of risk and reluctance to anal cancer screening, characterized by anal cancer not being “on the radar” of PLHIV, conflicting attributions of the anus and anal sex, fear of sex-shaming/-blaming, and other interrelated conceptual categories. PEN-3 analysis revealed strategies for destigmatizing anal cancer, through “real talk” (proactive, candid, nonjudgmental discussion) nested in a framework of sexual health and overall well-being, with additional tailoring for relevance to Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, transgender persons, and other marginalized groups. Application of strategies for health practice are specific to the Hawai‘i context, yet may offer considerations for developing strengths-based, culturally relevant screening promotion/education with diverse PLHIV in other locales. PMID:26630979

  7. Significance of the thickness of the anal sphincters with age and its relevance in faecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachrysostomou, M; Pye, S D; Wild, S R; Smith, A N

    1994-08-01

    Ultrasonographic studies in healthy volunteers showed that the external anal sphincter (EAS) and internal anal sphincter (IAS) thicknesses were inversely related at rest. The functional importance of the two sphincters in continence control was demonstrated in the relationship between the sum of the thicknesses of the two sphincters and the anal canal resting pressure. The aims of the present study were to assess the morphometric appearance of the anal sphincters by endosonography in faecally incontinent patients and to contrast this with that of older healthy subjects. Twenty-eight female patients with neurogenic faecal incontinence (FI) were studied. An older group of 7 healthy women, aged 41-75 years, and a young group of 11 nulliparous healthy women, aged 20-23 years, served as control groups. Anal endosonography was performed with a radial rotating endoprobe, with the subject in the left lateral position. Conventional anal manometry was performed in all subjects. The EAS in the FI group was thicker than the EAS in the old (p IAS thickness in the FI group did not differ from that in the older group. In both these groups the IAS was thicker than in the young women (p IAS in the FI group does not seem to compensate for function and results in a failure of the sphincter mechanism to maintain continence, whereas in healthy elderly subjects the increased IAS thickness appears to be compensatory and important for continence control.

  8. Evaluación externa de la calidad analítica en hematología: una necesidad en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fink Nilda E.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available La garantía de calidad analítica de un laboratorio clínico se logra mediante un sistema de control de calidad interno complementado por un programa de evaluación externa. Esa garantía es la base que fundamenta la confiabilidad de los resultados obtenidos por los laboratorios y su uso en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las enfermedades. En los países de América Latina hay muchos laboratorios que no cuentan con sistemas apropiados de evaluación y control de la calidad. Dada la importancia de los diagnósticos basados en datos hematológicos, durante el XI Congreso Latinoamericano de Bioquímica Clínica (México, 1993 la Organización Panamericana de la Salud patrocinó un curso de control de la calidad en hematología en el que participaron Argentina, Chile, Cuba, México, Paraguay, República Dominicana y Uruguay. Como parte del curso se produjeron materiales de control: solución estándar secundario de cianmetahemoglobina (HICN, solución concentrada estabilizada de hemoglobina (Hb y sangre entera humana preservada con seudoleucocitos. Estos materiales fueron enviados a laboratorios de los siete países participantes para su uso en procedimientos analíticos, con objeto de llevar a cabo posteriormente una evaluación externa del desempeño individual y de la comparabilidad de los resultados en conjunto. Las tareas asignadas fueron: 1 determinación de hemoglobina, hematocrito, y glóbulos rojos y blancos con los métodos en uso en cada laboratorio; 2 registro de los datos obtenidos en formularios especiales para la notificación de datos y 3 envío de dichos formularios al coordinador de cada país. Los resultados fueron analizados en función de los procedimientos analíticos y de los países participantes. Los valores de referencia se establecieron por consenso general de todos los participantes después de someterse al método estadístico de truncamiento. El análisis comparado de los resultados mostró coeficientes de variaci

  9. The anal canal as a risk organ in cervical cancer patients with hemorrhoids undergoing whole pelvic radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyunsoo; Baek, Jong Geun; Jo, Sunmi

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance of the anal canal tends to be ignored in patients with cervical cancer undergoing whole pelvic radiotherapy. However, patients with hemorrhoids may be troubled with low radiation dose. We tried to analyze the dose-volume statistics of the anal canal in patients undergoing whole pelvic radiotherapy. The records of 31 patients with cervical cancer who received definite or postoperative radiotherapy at one institution were reviewed. Acute anal symptoms, such as anal pain and bleeding, were evaluated from radiotherapy start to 1 month after radiotherapy completion. Various clinical and dosimetric factors were analyzed to characterize relations with acute anal complications. The anal verge was located an average of 1.2 cm (range -0.6~3.9) below the lower border of the ischial tuberosity and an average of 2.7 cm (range -0.6~5.7) behind the sacral promontory level. The presence of hemorrhoids before radiotherapy was found to be significantly associated with acute radiation-induced anal symptoms (p = 0.001), and the mean induction dose for anal symptoms was 36.9 Gy. No patient without hemorrhoids developed an anal symptom during radiotherapy. Dosimetric analyses of V30 and V40 showed marginal correlations with anal symptoms (p = 0.07). The present study suggests a relation between acute anal symptoms following radiotherapy and acute hemorrhoid aggravation. Furthermore, the location of the anal verge was found to be variable, and consequently doses administered to the anal canal also varied substantially. Our results caution careful radiation treatment planning for whole pelvic radiotherapy, and that proper clinical management be afforded patients with hemorrhoids during radiotherapy.

  10. Avaliação da qualidade de vida na incontinência anal: validação do questionário FIQL (Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Evaluation of quality of life in anal incontinence: validation of the questionnaire FIQL (Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ahlaim Ibrahim Yusuf

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A incontinência anal acarreta incapacitação física e psicológica, determinando impacto na qualidade de vida. Para quantificar esse impacto em nosso meio, não existem instrumentos específicos validados. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a qualidade de vida na incontinência anal, através da validação do questionário "Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life" (FIQL, que é composto por 29 questões distribuídas em 4 domínios: estilo de vida, comportamento, depressão e constrangimento, sua escala de pontuação varia de 1 a 4 com exceção das questões 1 e 4 que variam de 1 a 5 e 1 a 6, respectivamente. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Após tradução e adaptação cultural, estudou-se a validação do instrumento através das propriedades de medida de reprodutibilidade e validade. Para a avaliação da reprodutibilidade aplicou-se o questionário em 50 pacientes com incontinência anal por dois examinadores, sendo reaplicado por um dos examinadores após período de 7 a 10 dias. A validade construtiva foi testada através da comparação do FIQL e o SF-36, questionário genérico de qualidade de vida e entre o FIQL e um índice de incontinência anal. O índice de incontinência anal utilizado foi o de Jorge-Wexner, que varia de 0 (continência perfeita a 20 (incontinência total. A validade discriminativa foi avaliada através da aplicação do FIQL em dois grupos controle: indivíduos voluntários hígidos e portadores de constipação intestinal. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que o FIQL apresentou correlação significativa com outros instrumentos (SF-36 e índice de incontinência e que a qualidade de vida no portador de incontinência anal está comprometida em todos os domínios: estilo de vida: 2,4 comportamento: 2,0, depressão: 2,5 e constrangimento: 1,9, quando comparado com os indivíduos voluntários hígidos (3,9, 3,9, 4,1 e 4,0, e pacientes com constipação intestinal (3,7, 3,8, 3,6 e 3,8, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: O FIQL é útil para a

  11. Oral and anal sex practices among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie Amsale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the full range of sexual behaviors of young people is crucial in developing appropriate interventions to prevent and control sexually transmitted infections including HIV. However, such information is meager in developing countries. The objective of this study was to describe oral and anal sex practices and identify associated factors among high school youth. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A multi-stage sampling procedure was followed to select a representative sample of school youth. The total sample size for this study was 3840. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis was guided by the ecological framework. Results The overall proportion of people who reported ever having oral sex was 5.4% (190 and that of anal sex was 4.3% (154. Of these 51.6% (98 had oral sex and 57.1% (87 had anal sex in the past 12 months. Multiple partnerships were reported by 61.2% of the respondents who had oral sex and 51.1% of students practicing anal sex. Consistent condom use was reported by 12.2% of those practicing oral sex and 26.1% of anal sex. Reasons for oral and anal sex included prevention of pregnancy, preserving virginity, and reduction of HIV and STIs transmission. Oral sex practice was strongly and significantly associated with perception of best friends engagement in oral sex (AOR = 5.7; 95% CI 3.6-11.2 and having illiterate mothers (AOR = 11.5; 95%CI 6.4-18.5. Similarly, anal sex practice was strongly and significantly associated with favorable attitude towards anal sex (AOR = 6.2; 95%CI 3.8-12.4, and perceived best friends engagement in anal sex (AOR = 9.7; 95%CI 5.4-17.7. Conclusion Considerable proportion of adolescents had engaged in oral and anal sex practices. Multiple sexual partnerships were common while consistent condom use was low. Sexual health education and behavior change communication strategies need to

  12. Correlates of unprotected anal intercourse: the influence of anal sex position among men who have sex with men in Beijing, china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Lu, Hongyan; Pan, Stephen W; Xia, Dongyan; Zhao, Yuejuan; Xiao, Yan; He, Xiong; Yue, Hai; Sun, Zheya; Xu, Yunan; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming

    2015-02-01

    Understanding barriers to consistent condom use among men who have sex with men (MSM) requires consideration of the context in which risk behaviors occur. Anal sex position is one such context. This pooled cross-sectional study used survey data from 1,230 MSM and their 2,618 reported male sexual partnerships. Overall, nearly half of the participants engaged in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with at least one of upto three partners in the past 6 months. "Insertive" men engaged in less UAI (39 %) than "receptive" (53 %) or "versatile" (51 %) men. Regardless of sexual position, UAI was associated with cohabiting with a male or female partner and perceiving great or moderate risk of HIV from male contact at the individual level, and steady (vs. casual) partnership at the dyad level. However, early MSM anal sex debut, high number of male partners, alcohol use, receiving and buying condoms, HIV testing, and MSM sex-seeking venues were found to be only statistically significantly correlated with UAI among some but not all sexual positions, implying that interventions to increase condom use should take into account how anal sex position may influence willingness and ability to engage in safer sex. Dyad level data appear to provide additional insight into the influence of sexual positions, and should be used to complement individual data for future intervention designs.

  13. Adenocarcinoma in the anal canal after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for familial adenomatous polyposis using a double-stapled technique: report of two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouenraets, Bart C.; van Duijvendijk, Peter; Bemelman, Willem A.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Slors, J. Frederik M.

    2004-01-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is thought to abolish the risk of colorectal adenoma development in patients suffering from familial adenomatous polyposis. Both after mucosectomy with a handsewn anastomosis and after a double-stapled anastomosis, rectal mucosa is

  14. Fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de criancas atendidas em Unidades de Saude da Familia, ao final do primeiro ano de vida: aspectos sociodemograficos e de saude mental materna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Gerardo Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é verificar fatores de risco e proteção para o desenvolvimento de crianças de 1 ano, atendidas em unidades de saúde da família. Estudo transversal com 65 crianças de aproximadamente 1 ano, atendidas em duas Unidades de Saúde da Família, e suas respectivas mães. Avaliou-se o desenvolvimento através de um teste de screening para rastreamento de risco. As mães responderam a uma entrevista e ao SRQ-20 para identificar indicadores de transtorno mental comum (TMC. Realizou-se análise descritiva dos dados e procedeu-se a análise estatística inferencial. Estavam em risco para o desenvolvimento global 43,1% das crianças e as áreas mais afetadas foram linguagem e motricidade fina; 44,6% das mães pontuaram para indicativo de transtorno mental comum, quando a criança tinha 1 ano. Na análise bivariada, depressão referida, tabagismo, infecções na gravidez, TMC após o nascimento e trabalhar fora associaram-se significativamente com o desenvolvimento da criança. Após os ajustes, apenas TMC apresentou-se como fator de risco e trabalhar fora fator de proteção. Para aumentar as chances de sucesso de programas direcionados a crianças com risco para o desenvolvimento em unidades de saúde parece importante ter dois focos: a estimulação da criança e a saúde mental materna.

  15. Comparison of elective inguinal node irradiation techniques in anal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Ji Hye; Seong, Jin Sil; Keum, Ki Chang; Lee, Chang Geol; Koom, Woong Sub [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    To compare photon thunderbird with deep match (technique 1) with 3-field technique with electron inguinal boost (technique 2) in acute skin toxicity, toxicity-related treatment breaks and patterns of failure in elective inguinal radiation therapy (RT) for curative chemoradiation in anal cancer. Seventeen patients treated between January 2008 and September 2010 without evidence of inguinal and distant metastasis were retrospectively reviewed. In 9 patients with technique 1, dose to inguinal and whole pelvis area was 41.4 to 45 Gy and total dose was 59.4 Gy. In 8 patients with technique 2, doses to inguinal, whole pelvis, gross tumor were 36 to 41.4 Gy, 36 to 41.4 Gy, and 45 to 54 Gy, respectively. The median follow-up period was 27.6 and 14.8 months in group technique 1 and 2, respectively. The incidences of grade 3 radiation dermatitis were 56% (5 patients) and 50% (4 patients), dose ranges grade 3 dermatitis appeared were 41.4 to 50.4 Gy and 45 to 54 Gy in group technique 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.819). The areas affected by grade 3 dermatitis in 2 groups were as follow: perianal and perineal areas in 40% and 25%, perianal and inguinal areas in 0% and 50%, and perianal area only in 60% and 25%, respectively (p = 0.196). No inguinal failure has been observed. Photon thunderbird with deep match technique and 3-field technique with electron inguinal boost showed similar incidence of radiation dermatitis. However, photon thunderbird with deep match seems to increase the possibility of severe perineal dermatitis.

  16. The Results of Curative Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Anal Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Uk; Yoon, Mee Sun; Song, Ju Young; Ahn, Sung Ja; Chung, Woong Ki; Nah, Byung Sik; Nam, Taek Keun [Chonnam National University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    To evaluate the predictive factors for treatment response and prognostic factors affecting survival outcomes after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma. Medical records of forty two patients with histologically confirmed analsquamous cell carcinoma, who had complete CCRT between 1993 and 2008, were reviewed retrospectively. Median age was 61.5 years (39-89 years), and median radiotherapy (RT) dose was 50.4 Gy (30.0-64.0 Gy). A total of 36 patients had equal to or less than T2 stage (85.7%). Fourteen patients (33.3%) showed regional nodal metastasis, 36 patients (85.7%) were treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) plus mitomycin, and the remaining patients were treated by 5-FU plus cisplatinum. The median follow--up time was 62 months (2-202 months).The 5-year overall survival, locoregional relapse-free survival, disease-free survival, and colostomy-free survival rates were 86.0%, 71.7%, 71.7%, 78.2%, respectively. Regarding overall survival, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status and complete response were found to be significant prognostic factors on univariate analysis. For multivariate analysis, only the ECOG performance status was significant. No significant factor was found for locoregional relapse-free survival or disease-free survival and similarly for treatment response, no significant factor was determined on logistic regression analysis. There were 7 patients who had local or regional recurrences and one patient with distant metastasis. The only evaluable toxicity in all patients was radiation dermatitis of perianal skin (grade 3), which developed in 4 patients (9.5%) and grade 2 in 22 patients (52.4%). This study revealed that patients with a performance score of ECOG 0-1 survived significantly longer than those with a poorer score. Finally, there was no significant predicting factors tested for treatment response.

  17. IMRT treatment of anal cancer with a scrotal shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, Rodney C.; Wu, Q. Jackie; McMahon, Ryan; Czito, Brian; Willett, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The risk of sterility in males undergoing radiotherapy in the pelvic region indicates the use of a shielding device, which offers protection to the testes for patients wishing to maintain fertility. The use of such devices in the realm of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the pelvic region can pose many obstacles during simulation, treatment planning, and delivery of radiotherapy. This work focuses on the development and execution of an IMRT plan for the treatment of anal cancer using a scrotal shielding device on a clinical patient. An IMRT plan was developed using Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA), using a wide array of gantry angles as well as fixed jaw and fluence editing techniques. When possible, the entire target volume was encompassed by the treatment field. When the beam was incident on the scrotal shield, the jaw was fixed to avoid the device and the collimator rotation optimized to irradiate as much of the target as possible. This technique maximizes genital sparing and allows minimal irradiation of the gonads. When this fixed-jaw technique was found to compromise adequate coverage of the target, manual fluence editing techniques were used to avoid the shielding device. Special procedures for simulation, imaging, and treatment verification were also developed. In vivo dosimetry was used to verify and ensure acceptable dose to the gonads. The combination of these techniques resulted in a highly conformal plan that spares organs and risk and avoids the genitals as well as entrance of primary radiation onto the shielding device.

  18. IMRT treatment of anal cancer with a scrotal shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Rodney C; Wu, Q Jackie; McMahon, Ryan; Czito, Brian; Willett, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The risk of sterility in males undergoing radiotherapy in the pelvic region indicates the use of a shielding device, which offers protection to the testes for patients wishing to maintain fertility. The use of such devices in the realm of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the pelvic region can pose many obstacles during simulation, treatment planning, and delivery of radiotherapy. This work focuses on the development and execution of an IMRT plan for the treatment of anal cancer using a scrotal shielding device on a clinical patient. An IMRT plan was developed using Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA), using a wide array of gantry angles as well as fixed jaw and fluence editing techniques. When possible, the entire target volume was encompassed by the treatment field. When the beam was incident on the scrotal shield, the jaw was fixed to avoid the device and the collimator rotation optimized to irradiate as much of the target as possible. This technique maximizes genital sparing and allows minimal irradiation of the gonads. When this fixed-jaw technique was found to compromise adequate coverage of the target, manual fluence editing techniques were used to avoid the shielding device. Special procedures for simulation, imaging, and treatment verification were also developed. In vivo dosimetry was used to verify and ensure acceptable dose to the gonads. The combination of these techniques resulted in a highly conformal plan that spares organs and risk and avoids the genitals as well as entrance of primary radiation onto the shielding device. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of elective inguinal node irradiation techniques in anal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Ji Hye; Seong, Jin Sil; Keum, Ki Chang; Lee, Chang Geol; Koom, Woong Sub

    2011-01-01

    To compare photon thunderbird with deep match (technique 1) with 3-field technique with electron inguinal boost (technique 2) in acute skin toxicity, toxicity-related treatment breaks and patterns of failure in elective inguinal radiation therapy (RT) for curative chemoradiation in anal cancer. Seventeen patients treated between January 2008 and September 2010 without evidence of inguinal and distant metastasis were retrospectively reviewed. In 9 patients with technique 1, dose to inguinal and whole pelvis area was 41.4 to 45 Gy and total dose was 59.4 Gy. In 8 patients with technique 2, doses to inguinal, whole pelvis, gross tumor were 36 to 41.4 Gy, 36 to 41.4 Gy, and 45 to 54 Gy, respectively. The median follow-up period was 27.6 and 14.8 months in group technique 1 and 2, respectively. The incidences of grade 3 radiation dermatitis were 56% (5 patients) and 50% (4 patients), dose ranges grade 3 dermatitis appeared were 41.4 to 50.4 Gy and 45 to 54 Gy in group technique 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.819). The areas affected by grade 3 dermatitis in 2 groups were as follow: perianal and perineal areas in 40% and 25%, perianal and inguinal areas in 0% and 50%, and perianal area only in 60% and 25%, respectively (p = 0.196). No inguinal failure has been observed. Photon thunderbird with deep match technique and 3-field technique with electron inguinal boost showed similar incidence of radiation dermatitis. However, photon thunderbird with deep match seems to increase the possibility of severe perineal dermatitis.

  20. Urinary and anal incontinence during pregnancy and postpartum: incidence, severity, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solans-Domènech, Maite; Sánchez, Emília; Espuña-Pons, Montserrat

    2010-03-01

    To estimate frequency and severity and to identify risk factors of urinary incontinence (UI) and anal incontinence during pregnancy and after delivery in previously continent nulliparous women. We designed a cohort study of healthy, continent, nulliparous pregnant women attending public health care services. The field work was conducted during the control visits of the three trimesters of pregnancy, at the time of delivery, and postpartum. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess UI (validated and adapted) and anal incontinence. Frequency of UI and anal incontinence and their confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. The correlations between the severity of UI and the degree of effect on daily life were also estimated. Multivariable Cox models were applied to estimate hazard ratios for both incontinences (urinary/anal) during pregnancy and postpartum. The cumulative incidence rate during pregnancy was 39.1% (95% CI 36.3-41.9) for UI and 10.3% (95% CI 8.3-12.3) for anal incontinence. The correlation between severity of UI and effect on daily life was moderate. Age, baseline body mass index, and family history of UI were significantly associated with the occurrence of UI during pregnancy, while age and excess weight gain during pregnancy were associated with the occurrence of anal incontinence during pregnancy. Postpartum, the identified risk factors for both incontinences were incontinence during pregnancy and vaginal delivery. The occurrence of UI and anal incontinence during the postpartum period is related to the presence of incontinence in pregnancy, and vaginal delivery increases the risk of persistent incontinence. Some risk factors for both incontinences during pregnancy and postpartum are related to lifestyles and obstetric practices.

  1. Initial prevalence of anal human papilloma virus infection in liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grąt, Michał; Grąt, Karolina; Hołówko, Wacław; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Walter de Walthoffen, Szymon; Lewandowski, Zbigniew; Kobryń, Konrad; Patkowski, Waldemar; Majewski, Sławomir; Młynarczyk, Grażyna; Krawczyk, Marek

    2014-08-01

    Although liver transplant recipients are at increased risk of human papilloma virus (HPV)-related anal cancer, limited data are available regarding the initial prevalence of anal HPV infection in this population. Anal swabs collected from 50 liver transplant recipients within the first three postoperative weeks were subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of the four HPV genotypes: 6, 11, 16, and 18. Predictors of any, low-risk, and high-risk anal HPV infection were evaluated. Overall, the prevalence of any anal HPV infection was 18.0%, with the corresponding rates for high- and low-risk HPV genotypes being 8.0% and 10.0%, respectively. Infection with any type of anal HPV was higher in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (P = 0.027), ≥3 sexual partners (P = 0.031), and alcoholic liver disease (P = 0.063). HBV infection was the only factor significantly associated with high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.038). Male sex (P = 0.050), age ≥52 years (P = 0.016), ≥30 sexual partners (P = 0.003), age at first intercourse ≤18 years (P = 0.045), and time since first intercourse ≥38 years (P = 0.012) were identified as predictors of low-risk HPV infection. These results indicate that HPV vaccination of liver transplant candidates and screening for anal HPV infection in high-risk groups should be considered. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.

  2. Tumor Response and Survival Predicted by Post-Therapy FDG-PET/CT in Anal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Julie K.; Siegel, Barry A.; Dehdashti, Farrokh; Myerson, Robert J.; Fleshman, James W.; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the response to therapy for anal carcinoma using post-therapy imaging with positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and to compare the metabolic response with patient outcome. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of 53 consecutive patients with anal cancer. All patients underwent pre- and post-treatment whole-body FDG-PET/computed tomography. Patients had been treated with external beam radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy. Whole-body FDG-PET was performed 0.9-5.4 months (mean, 2.1) after therapy completion. Results: The post-therapy PET scan did not show any abnormal FDG uptake (complete metabolic response) in 44 patients. Persistent abnormal FDG uptake (partial metabolic response) was found in the anal tumor in 9 patients. The 2-year cause-specific survival rate was 94% for patients with a complete vs. 39% for patients with a partial metabolic response in the anal tumor (p = 0.0008). The 2-year progression-free survival rate was 95% for patients with a complete vs. 22% for patients with a partial metabolic response in the anal tumor (p < 0.0001). A Cox proportional hazards model of survival outcome indicated that a complete metabolic response was the most significant predictor of progression-free survival in our patient population (p = 0.0003). Conclusions: A partial metabolic response in the anal tumor as determined by post-therapy FDG-PET is predictive of significantly decreased progression-free and cause-specific survival after chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer

  3. Frequency of post-operative faecal incontinence in patients with closed and open internal anal sphincterotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghayas, N.G.; Younus, S.M.; Mirani, A.J.; Ghayasuddin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Fissure in ano is one of the commonest benign and painful proctologic diseases causing considerable morbidity and reduction in quality of life. There are medical as well as surgical treatment options for anal fissure. The study was conducted to compare the frequency of postoperative faecal incontinence in patients with closed lateral internal anal sphincterotomy with von-greaves knife versus standard Parks operation (open method) for chronic anal fissure. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted at the Department of Surgery, KVSS, S.I.T.E. Hospital, Karachi, for a period of six months from 13th February to 12th August 2011. Ninety four consecutive patients having chronic anal fissure were assigned through blocked randomization to groups A and B, with 47 patients in each group. Closed lateral internal anal sphincterotomy (CLIAS) via von-greaves knife was carried out in patients of group-A whereas patients of group-B were subjected to open internal anal sphincterotomy (OIAS) also known as Parks procedure. Faecal incontinence was noted on the 5th post-operative day. Data was analysed using SPSS 16. Results: There were 81 (86.2%) males and 13 (13.8%) females with male to female ratio being 6:1. Mean age was 38.38 mp±14.56 years. Post-operative faecal incontinence in patients undergoing CLIAS was 4.3% while it was 21.3% in those undergoing OIAS with a p-value of 0.027. CLIAS with von-greaves knife is effective in reducing faecal incontinence on 5th postoperative day as compared to standard OIAS. Conclusion: CLIAS with von-greaves knife is effective in reducing faecal incontinence on 5th postoperative day as compared to OIAS (Park's procedure). Therefore, this technique may be used in future regularly to treat chronic anal fissure for prevention of this morbidity. (author)

  4. Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection among HIV-Infected Men in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hun Lee

    Full Text Available Little is known about the epidemiology on human papillomavirus (HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea.A single-center cross-sectional study was conducted with HIV-infected men in Korea. Participants completed a detailed sexual behavior risk factor questionnaire. Anal samples were collected for cytology and HPV genotyping. Factors associated with anal HPV infection were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, stratifying by sexual behaviour.A total of 201 HIV-infected men were included in the study: 133 were from men who have sex with men (MSM and 68 from men who have sex with women (MSW. Any anal HPV infection was detected in 82.7% of HIV-infected MSM and in 51.5% of HIV- infected MSW (P < 0.001. High-risk HPV (HR-HPV prevalence was higher among MSM (47.4% than MSW (25.0%; P = 0.002. The HR-HPV types identified most frequently were HPV 16 (11%, HPV 18 (9.9%, and HPV 58 (5% in MSM, and HPV 58(11% and HPV 16 (8.9% in MSW. Prevalence of any HPV types in 9-valent vaccine types was higher among MSM than MSW (47.4% vs 22.1%. P = 0.001. Abnormal anal cytology was more commonly detected in MSM than MSW (42.9% vs.19.1%, P < 0.001. In HIV-infected MSM, higher number of lifetime male sex partners was significantly associated with any anal HPV infection, but age was a significant risk factor associated with anal HR-HPV infection.Anal HPV infection was highly prevalent in HIV-infected MSM in Korea, and also commonly found in HIV-infected MSW. In HIV-infected MSM, the significant risk factor for being infected with any HPV infection was lifetime number of male sexual partners, and with anal oncogenic HPV infection was age.

  5. Samatähenduslike sünteetiliste ja analüütiliste verbide kasutamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pille Eslon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Huvi samatähenduslike sünteetiliste ja analüütiliste verbide vastu tekkis artikli esimesel autoril vene-eesti-vene tõlkesõnastikke toimetades, kui silma hakkasid regulaarsed valikud vene verbi grammatilise aspekti ning eesti keele sünteetiliste ja analüütiliste verbide vahel. Kuigi tegu on raskesti märgatava ja sugugi mitte sagedase nähtusega, tekitab see küsimusi: millal eelistab emakeelekõneleja kasutada sünteetilist, millal analüütilist verbi; kas lisaks samatähenduslikkusele ja vormilisele lihtsusele (sünteetiline verb koosneb ühest komponendist või keerukusele (analüütiline verb vähemalt kahest komponendist on veel tunnuseid, mis sünteetilise ja analüütilise verbi valikuid piiravad. Käesoleva uurimuse eesmärk on leida nendele küsimustele vastuseid. Analüüsitakse viit samatähendusliku sünteetilise ja analüütilise verbi paari (igatsema – igatsust tundma, lahkuma – ära minema, nõustuma – nõus olema, muretsema – muret tundma, töötama – tööd tegema, otsitakse mõlema verbi kasutusele omaseid keelestruktuure, analüüsitakse nende leksikaalsemantilise ja morfosüntaktilise varieerumise piire, võrreldakse verbide tähendusi. Nende tunnuste põhjal saab teha mõningaid järeldusi selle kohta, kas tegu võiks olla ühe verbi kahe vormiga või kahe erineva verbiga. Uurimuse empiiriline aspekt on seotud hüpoteesiga semantiliselt lähedaste sünteetiliste ja analüütiliste verbide tõmbumisest, millega kaasnevad ühelt poolt struktuursed, morfoloogilised, morfosüntaktilised ja leksikaalsemantilised kasutuspiirangud ning teisalt vaba varieerumine. Sisuliselt vastandlikud tendentsid – kinnistumine ja varieerumine – toimivad keele leksikaalgrammatilises perifeerias sama eesmärgi nimel, tagades keele pideva uuenemise ja säilimise.

  6. Primena cost-benefit-benefit analize u vrednovanju i izboru javnih projekata (ekonomski aspekt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana N. Petrović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cost-benefit analiza je celovita analiza koristi i troškova koje jedan projekat donosi samom vlasniku projekta i društvu u celini (uključujući i investitora. Izbor najbolje investicione alternative ostvaruje na osnovu finansijske i ekonomske analize, kao dva integralna dela cost-benefit analize. Prvu od ovih analiza obradila je ista grupa autora u članku „Primena cost-benefit analize u vrednovanju i izboru javnih projekata (finansijski aspekt“, objavljenom u prethodnom broju časopisa Vojnotehnički glasnik. Predmet obrade ovog rada je ekonomska analiza, kao logički nastavak prethodnog rada. Zbog toga se na brojne oznake tabela, uključenih u sadržaj finansijske analize (1-–5, nadovezuju (prema hronološkom redu oznake tabela koje pripadaju ekonomskoj analizi (6–8 Sprovođenje ekonomske analize ostvaruje se prema određenoj, dosta složenoj proceduri, a završava se utvrđivanjem kriterijuma ekonomske (društvene isplativosti projekta. U radu su obrađeni osnovni pokazatelji ekonomskog (društvenog prinosa projekta,  kao što su: neto sadašnja vrednost novčanih tokova i cost-benefit koeficijent.

  7. Multidisciplinary training in perineal care during labor and delivery for the reduction of anal sphincter injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jonathan; Gundry, Rowan; Young, Helen; Naguib, Adel

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether the introduction of a multidisciplinary intrapartum perineal-care training program reduced the rate of obstetric anal sphincter injuries in patients undergoing vaginal deliveries. A prospective observational cohort study enrolled women undergoing vaginal deliveries at a district general hospital maternity unit in the United Kingdom between April 1, 2012 and March 31, 2014. All women experiencing obstetric anal sphincter injuries during the study period were identified and the rate of obstetric anal sphincter injuries before (2012-2013) a multidisciplinary training program was implemented was compared with the rate after (2013-2014) implementation using logistic regression analysis. The study enrolled 4920 patients. Following the implementation of the training program, the rate of obstetric anal sphincter injuries decreased from 4.8% to 3.1% of vaginal deliveries (odds ratio 0.66; 95% confidence interval 0.493-0.899; P = 0.008). The integration of intrapartum perineal-care training into mandatory annual staff training was associated with a statistically and clinically significant reduction in the rate of obstetric anal sphincter injuries. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The diagnostic accuracy of endovaginal and transperineal ultrasound for detecting anal sphincter defects: The PREDICT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, A.-M., E-mail: annemarie.roos@gmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mayday University Hospital, Croydon (United Kingdom); Abdool, Z. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Sultan, A.H.; Thakar, R. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mayday University Hospital, Croydon (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Aim: To determine the accuracy and predictive value of transperineal (TPU) and endovaginal ultrasound (EVU) in the detection of anal sphincter defects in women with obstetric anal sphincter injuries and/or postpartum symptoms of faecal incontinence. Materials and methods: One hundred and sixty-five women were recruited, four women were excluded as they were seen years after their last delivery. TPU and EVU, followed by endonanal ultrasound (EAU), were performed using the B and K Viking 2400 scanner. Sensitivity and specificity, as well as predictive values with 95% confidence intervals, for detecting anal sphincter defects were calculated for EVU and TPU, using EAU as the reference standard. Results: On EAU a defect was found in 42 (26%) women: 39 (93%) had an external (EAS) and 23 (55%) an internal anal sphincter (IAS) defect. Analysable images of one level of the EAS combined with an analysable IAS were available in 140 (87%) women for EVU and in 131 (81%) for TPU. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of any defect was 48% (30-67%) and 85% (77-91%) for EVU and 64% (44-81%) and 85% (77-91%) for TPU, respectively. Conclusion: Although EAU using a rotating endoprobe is the validated reference standard in the identification of anal sphincter defects, it is not universally available. However while TPU and/or EVU with conventional ultrasound probes can be useful in identifying normality, for clinical purposes they are not sensitive enough to identify an underlying sphincter defect.

  9. The diagnostic accuracy of endovaginal and transperineal ultrasound for detecting anal sphincter defects: The PREDICT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, A.-M.; Abdool, Z.; Sultan, A.H.; Thakar, R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine the accuracy and predictive value of transperineal (TPU) and endovaginal ultrasound (EVU) in the detection of anal sphincter defects in women with obstetric anal sphincter injuries and/or postpartum symptoms of faecal incontinence. Materials and methods: One hundred and sixty-five women were recruited, four women were excluded as they were seen years after their last delivery. TPU and EVU, followed by endonanal ultrasound (EAU), were performed using the B and K Viking 2400 scanner. Sensitivity and specificity, as well as predictive values with 95% confidence intervals, for detecting anal sphincter defects were calculated for EVU and TPU, using EAU as the reference standard. Results: On EAU a defect was found in 42 (26%) women: 39 (93%) had an external (EAS) and 23 (55%) an internal anal sphincter (IAS) defect. Analysable images of one level of the EAS combined with an analysable IAS were available in 140 (87%) women for EVU and in 131 (81%) for TPU. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of any defect was 48% (30-67%) and 85% (77-91%) for EVU and 64% (44-81%) and 85% (77-91%) for TPU, respectively. Conclusion: Although EAU using a rotating endoprobe is the validated reference standard in the identification of anal sphincter defects, it is not universally available. However while TPU and/or EVU with conventional ultrasound probes can be useful in identifying normality, for clinical purposes they are not sensitive enough to identify an underlying sphincter defect.

  10. Sintomas e fatores de risco para asma entre escolares piauienses

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Gessianne Carvalho; Sousa, Lívia Kênia de Carvalho; Vera, Paula Valentina de Sousa; Lima, Luisa Helena de Oliveira; Oliveira, Edina Araújo Rodrigues; Lima, Rúbia Fernanda Santos; Magalhães, Luis Fernando Beserra; Araújo, Nileide Lima; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Analisar a prevalência de sintomas de asma entre escolares de seis a sete anos do município de Picos-PI; e identificar fatores de risco associados à doença. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com crianças de 6 e 7 anos de Picos em novembro de 2010 a maio de 2011. Para coletar os dados, foi utilizado um formulário adaptado do Internacional Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Os dados foram analisados com base na estatística descritiva e analítica. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 23...

  11. Rastreamento mamográfico do câncer em mulheres do sul do Rio Grande do Sul com intervenção de mamógrafo móvel

    OpenAIRE

    Renck, Décio Valente

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo foi avaliar um programa de prevenção e diagnóstico precoce de câncer de mama, realizado com uma unidade móvel de mamografia (mamomóvel) que visitou municípios da região sul do Rio Grande do Sul onde não havia um aparelho de mamografia disponível. Para melhor contextualizar as populações examinadas, as características das mulheres avaliadas pelo mamomóvel foram comparadas com as de mulheres encaminhadas para exame mamográfico na cidade de Pelotas. Com a unidade móv...

  12. Aportaciones de la Hermenéutica analógica a la Enfermería: entrevista al prof. Mauricio Beuchot Puente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Paramá

    Full Text Available Entrevista realizada al Prof. Dr. D. Mauricio Beuchot, fundador de la propuesta teórica llamada Hermenéutica Analógica. Este tipo de hermenéutica es, hoy en día, reconocida como una propuesta original y novedosa en el campo de la hermenéutica filosófica. Ya el propio Jean Grondin, uno de los mayores conocedores de la hermenéutica actual, llegó a afirmar que los investigadores en hermenéutica deberían comenzar a conocer el español para leer de primera mano la propuesta de hermenéutica analógica de Beuchot; mostrando con ello la importancia de este autor mexicano. El profesor Mauricio Hardie Beuchot Puente (Torreón, Coahuila, México, 1950, está reconocido como uno de los principales filósofos de Iberoamérica. Sacerdote y fraile dominico, es autor de más de 50 libros sobre temas relacionados con la Filosofía medieval, Filosofía del lenguaje, Filosofía analítica, Estructuralismo y sobre todo, Hermenéutica. Además es Director de la revista Analogía Filosófica, Director de Honor de la revista Hermes Analógica, subdirector de la revista Anamnesis, así como miembro de una cantidad importante de publicaciones académicas. En su larga trayectoria ha conseguido ser desde 1985 investigado titular "C" a tiempo completo del Centro de Estudios Clásicos del Instituto de Investigación Filológicas (IIFL de la UNAM (Universidad Nacional de México. Desde 1997 es miembro de número en la Academia Mexicana de la Lengua, desde 1999 es miembro de la Academia Pontificia de Santo Tomás de Aquino. Así mismo el Doctor Honoris Causa por la Universidad Anáhuac del Sur.

  13. Metodología para la optimización de la gestión y del mantenimiento de activos en un centro sanitario.

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Blanco, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de la tesis consiste en utilizar las técnicas y estrategias de ultima generación en la toma de decisiones sobre las políticas de mantenimiento como herramientas analíticas para diseñar el sistema de mantenimiento optimo del equipamiento médico e instalaciones vitales del hospital.

  14. Heterosexual anal intercourse and HIV infection risks in the context of alcohol serving venues, Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey Kate B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most efficient sexual behavior for HIV transmission is unprotected receptive anal intercourse. However, it is unclear what role heterosexual unprotected anal sex is playing in the world's worst HIV epidemics of southern Africa. The objective is to examine the prevalence of heterosexual unprotected anal intercourse among men and women who drink at informal alcohol serving establishments (shebeens in South Africa. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were collected from a convenience sample of 5037 patrons of 10 shebeens in a peri-urban township of Cape Town, South Africa. Analyses concentrated on establishing the rates of unprotected anal intercourse practiced by men and women as well as the factors associated with practicing anal intercourse. Results We found that 15% of men and 11% of women reported anal intercourse in the previous month, with 8% of men and 7% of women practicing any unprotected anal intercourse. Multiple logistic regression showed that younger age, having primary and casual sex partners, and meeting sex partners at shebeens were independently associated with engaging in anal intercourse. Mathematical modeling showed that individual risks are significantly impacted by anal intercourse but probably not to the degree needed to drive a generalized HIV epidemic. Conclusions Anal intercourse likely plays a significant role in HIV infections among a small minority of South Africans who patronize alcohol serving establishments. Heterosexual anal intercourse, the most risky sexual behavior for HIV transmission, should not be ignored in HIV prevention for South African heterosexuals. However, this relatively infrequent behavior should not become the focus of prevention efforts.

  15. La influencia de las explicaciones de la dirección en la evaluación de los procedimientos analíticos de auditoría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Quick

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación de procedimientos analíticos está basada en la expectativa de que existan relaciones entre los datos contenidos en los estados contables, y proporcionan evidencia de auditoría sobre la validez, precisión e integridad de la información contable. Los auditores generan valores esperados y los comparan con los contenidos en los estados financieros. Cuando se producen discrepancias, el auditor debe generar hipótesis sobre las posibles causas, evaluarlas y elegir la más plausible. Los estándares de auditoría requieren que los auditores consulten a la dirección para encontrar explicaciones que justifiquen fluctuaciones inesperadas. Investigaciones empíricas anteriores revelan que las explicaciones de la dirección influyen en la generación de hipótesis y en los procedimientos analíticos. Este estudio experimental, basado en una fluctuación inesperada del margen bruto, es el primero alemán que investiga el efecto de las explicaciones de la dirección en las etapas de formación de hipótesis, búsqueda de información y juicios finales respecto a los procedimientos analíticos.

  16. Apontamentos sobre a psicologia analítica de Carl Gustav Jung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marcelo Alves Ramos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto faz uma introdução à Psicologia Analítica do psicólogo e psiquiatra suíço Carl Gustav Jung: define o conceito de Psicologia Analítica, traz uma biografia resumida de Carl Gustav Jung, indica as principais diferenças entre a Psicologia Analítica e a Psicanálise, descreve a estrutura e o funcionamento da psique e, por fim, apresenta sinteticamente as características dos tipos de personalidades traçadas por Jung. The text makes an introduction to the Analytical Psychology of the psychologist and swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung: it defines the concept of Analytical Psychology, brings a summarized biography of Carl Gustav Jung, indicates the main differences between Analytical Psychology and the Psychoanalysis, describes the structure and the functioning of psyche and, finally, presents synthetically the characteristics of the types of personalities traced by Jung.

  17. Incidence, Trends and Ethnic Differences of Oropharyngeal, Anal and Cervical Cancers: Singapore, 1968-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jennifer O.; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chow, Khuan-Yew; D’Souza, Gypsyamber

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, several Western countries have reported an increase in oropharyngeal and anal cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Trends in HPV-associated cancers in Asia have not been as well described. We describe the epidemiology of potentially HPV-related cancers reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry from 1968–2012. Analysis included 998 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), 183 anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) and 8,019 invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases. Additionally, 368 anal non-squamous cell carcinoma (ANSCC) and 2,018 non-oropharyngeal head and neck carcinoma (non-OP HNC) cases were included as comparators. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) were determined by gender and ethnicity (Chinese, Malay and Indian). Joinpoint regression was used to evaluate annual percentage change (APC) in incidence. OPSCC incidence increased in both genders (men 1993–2012, APC = 1.9%, pSingapore, but Pap screening programs have led to consistently decreasing incidence. PMID:26720001

  18. Oral and Anal vaccination against enteric red mouth disease protection against yersiniosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Lukas; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Kragelund Strøm, Helene

    dose of ERM bacterin fully protected rainbow trout when they are vaccinated anally. Oral vaccination can also induce full protection but the dose of the bacterin has to be 100 times higher than if the fish was to be vaccinated anally. This indicates that much of the oral feed bacteria is digested...... in the stomach of rainbow trout. This work has shown that it is possible to vaccinated orally against ERM, but the bacteria has to be coated in order to avoid digestion. Protection mechanisms will be discussed....... fish. The objective for this project is to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1 (biotype 1) causing Enteric Red Mouth disease (ERM) can protect rainbow trout against a subsequent experimental bath challenge.The rainbow trout were given oral...

  19. Disorders of the pelvic floor and anal sphincters; a gastroenterologist’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamonn M.M. Quigley, MD FRCP FACP FACG FRCPI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration and coordination of the musculature of the pelvic floor and the anal sphincters is critical to two important physiological functions: defecation and continence. Consequently, disorders affecting the pelvic floor muscles, the anal sphincters, their innervation or their precise coordination will, depending on their nature, result either in obstructed defecation or fecal incontinence. Both of these disorders are much more common in females and the latter, in particular, is linked with parity. While the symptomatology, presentation and optimal mode of investigation of fecal incontinence are well standardized, considerable debate and controversy continues to surround the contributions of pelvic floor and anal sphincter dysfunction to chronic constipation and the optimal clinical approach to their investigation remains to be defined. In appropriately chosen cases surgical intervention may provide the best outcome for sufferers from incontinence; biofeedback approaches may be of value in both incontinence and obstructed defecation and surgery has little role to play in the latter.

  20. ESTUDIOS MACRO Y MICROSCOPICO DEL SACO ANAL DEL COIPO (Myocastor coypus)

    OpenAIRE

    Rafasquino, Marta E.; Ramos, Pablo A.; Alonso, Cristina R.; Idiart, Julio R.

    1998-01-01

    RESUMEN:Fue realizada la disección del saco anal de 44 coipos, de ambos sexos, de distintas edades y procedencias, observándose algunas características similares a los sacos anales del perro y gato, aunque es impar y está ubicado en ventral del ano. Es ovoídeo o piriforme, siendo más grande en los adultos y, entre éstos, más aún en los machos que en las hembras; posee un conducto que desemboca en el canal anal a un centímetro del ano y que se exterioriza en el momento de secretar el producto ...

  1. Pouch failures following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark-Christensen, A; Erichsen, R; Brandsborg, S

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is a procedure offered to patients with ulcerative colitis who opt for restoration of bowel continuity. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of pouch failure and ascertain risk factors associated with failure. METHOD: 1,991 patients with ulc......BACKGROUND: The ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is a procedure offered to patients with ulcerative colitis who opt for restoration of bowel continuity. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of pouch failure and ascertain risk factors associated with failure. METHOD: 1,991 patients......-anal anastomosis from Denmark, where pouch surgery is centralized, females had a higher risk of pouch failure. Of modifiable factors, low hospital volume and non-diversion were associated with a higher risk of pouch failure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  2. Psiconeurociencia y arquetipos: construyendo un diálogo entre Psicología Analítica y neurociencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario E. Saiz

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available El sostenido desarrollo de las neurociencias en el estudio del cerebro y la conducta humana, junto al desarrollo de puentes epistemológicos entre las psicociencias, especialmente referidos al estudio de la mente y al alma humana, ha comenzado a generar una complementariedad e integración del conocimiento desde diferentes disciplinas científicas, buscando la formulación de una teoría unificada cerebro-mente. En el contexto de esta generación de conocimiento, ha surgido la propuesta de los autores de un espacio transdisciplinario de estudio de las relaciones entre la mente y el cerebro, entre neurociencias y psicociencias, que denominan Psiconeurociencia. Desde esta perspectiva los autores plantean una re-visión de la noción de arquetipo formulada por la Psicología Analítica a la luz de los aportes de la neurociencia y de la psicología cognitiva, para describir a modo de ejemplo de este re-formulación, los patrones de organización que interactúan en los trastornos depresivos.

  3. Comunidad, sistema de cargos y proyecto social. Una propuesta analítica de sociedades locales en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íñigo González de la Fuente

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto contiene una propuesta de análisis antropológico del sistema de cargos que incluye tanto a comunidades indígenas como no-indígenas. Partiendo del reconocimiento del sistema de cargos como una institución esencialmente heterogénea, se sugiere que, como hipótesis principal, tal institución alimenta una serie de mecanismos que, en sí mismos, potencian los escenarios de interacciones que protagonizan los miembros de la comunidad a través de un conjunto de roles: fomentan que los escenarios puedan ser protagonizados por el mayor número de miembros; propician que tales escenarios se articulen con la mayor frecuencia posible; todo ello con el acuerdo tácito entre protagonistas de que exista rotación de roles entre escenario y escenario. Esta propuesta analítica va a estar estructurada en tres bloques. En primer lugar, se ubican los fenómenos estudiados en torno al sistema de cargos en un continuum de comportamientos tendentes al individualismo y a lo colectivo en sus dos polos. En segundo lugar, se explicita el concepto de comunidad como elemento básico para el estudio de los sistemas de cargos; por último, se propone la idea del proyecto comunitario como denominador común en cuanto a sistemas de cargos se refiere en el área mesoamericana.

  4. Valoración de las aguas residuales mediante procedimientos analíticos y biológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carballo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Ciertos procedimientos, basados en aproximaciones analíticas y biológicas, están demostrando ser útiles en la valoración del riesgo de las aguas residuales urbanas procedentes de las Plantas de Tratamiento. Estos efluentes, considerados “mezclas complejas”, compuestos por sustancias de muy diferente naturaleza, origen y características toxicológicas y medio ambientales, requieren una valoración realista. Con el fin de colaborar al conocimiento de una parte de la realidad de nuestro país, presentamos un estudio sobre once depuradoras urbanas en las que se ha realizado un perfil de compuestos orgánicos y una valoración toxicológica mediante tests de toxicidad agudos, crónicos, de estrogenicidad, mutagenicidad y teratogenia. Los resultados muestran que 7 efluentes presentan toxicidad aguda, 3 toxicidad crónica y 4 estrogenicidad. Destacamos el hecho de que los 4 efluentes que presentan estrogenicidad, poseen al menos 3 de las sustancias estrogénicas detectadas mediante el perfil cromatográfico. Este tipo de consideraciones nos hace reflexionar sobre la necesidad de incorporar este tipo de metodologías para disponer de un conocimiento más realista de estas situaciones.

  5. A produção analógica da verdade no processo penal: desvelando a reconstrução narrativa dos rastros do passado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Hassan Khaled Jr.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende discutir o regime da verdade do processo penal, problematizando o conceito de verdade correspondente (real, material, substancial e relativa a partir de uma epistemologia da passeidade, que procura atentar para a complexidade do tempo escoado que é o referencial cognitivo do processo penal: o conhecimento sobre o passado é construído a partir de rastros, conformando uma verdade analógica que é produzida narrativamente. Com isso, visa o rompimento do paradigma da verdade correspondente utilizada como sustentáculo da busca pela verdade real pelo juiz, resultando o famigerado ativismo judicial, maculando a estrutura acusatória do devido processo legal. A análise pretende superar o isolacionismo do discurso jurídico, atualmente deficitário diante dos novos paradigmas dos discursos dos demais campos do saber.

  6. Estudio analítico de MTA-Angelus® y Biodentine® con técnicas SPME-GCMS y AFM

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Flores García, Víctor; Martínez Pérez, Lucía; Escribano Otero, Amparo; Kayali Sayadi, Nour

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: El objetivo del estudio fue obtener información analítica sobre la pureza química y homogeneidad de los materiales de uso endodóntico MTA-Angelus® y Biodentine®. Material y métodos: Se analizaron ambos materiales mediante la técnica de microextracción en fase sólida (SPME), combinada con cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrómetro de masas (GC-MS) para separar e identificar los compuestos orgánicos volátiles (COVs) contenidos. Por otro lado, utilizando microscopía de f...

  7. Analítica del aprendizaje en un entorno virtual mediante un sistema de computación cognitiva: estudio preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Lugo Urribarrí

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se aplicaron métodos de la Analítica del Aprendizaje en el estudio de los datos masivos provenientes de la plataforma virtual de Fruticultura, mediante el sistema de computación cognitiva IBM Watson, basado en inteligencia artificial y aprendizaje automático. Se analizaron los registros de las evaluaciones en línea, así como las interacciones sociales en los foros para determinar su influencia sobre el desempeño estudiantil, durante los períodos lectivos desde el2006 hasta 2014 de la asignatura Fruticultura. Los factores estudiados permitieron mejorar el sistema de evaluación y estimarla nota definitiva con una fortaleza predictiva del 72%.

  8. Impacto aromático dos componentes voláteis do café soluvél : uma abordagem analítica e sensorial

    OpenAIRE

    Denisley Gentil Bassoli

    2006-01-01

    A aplicação de métodos instrumentais e analíticos cada vez mais sofisticados tem aprimorado a avaliação objetiva do aroma, característica determinante da qualidade de alimentos e de sua aceitabilidade, tendo sido detectados mais de oitocentos componentes voláteis no café torrado, mas com escassa informação disponível para café solúvel. Atualmente, a produção mundial de café solúvel é de aproximadamente quinhentas mil toneladas, sendo o Brasil um importante produtor. O café solúvel é obtido a ...

  9. Urbanismo, cultura e globalização em Portugal: modelos analíticos e de desenvolvimento territorial Urbanism, culture and globalization in Portugal: analytical and territorial development Models

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Castro Seixas

    2011-01-01

    As cidades têm sido concebidas como actores chave face aos processos globais desde o último quarto do séculoXX. Neste quadro, é fundamental perceber-se os diferentes modelos que as cidades utilizam para responder aosdesafios globais. O artigo analisa o estado da arte em Portugal na relação entre cidade e globalização nos últimos25 anos, no âmbito das ciências sociais e sua relação com as políticas públicas. São caracterizados quatromodelos analíticos e de desenvolvimento territorial que respo...

  10. Design of sEMG assembly to detect external anal sphincter activity: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraz, Arsam; Leaker, Brian; Mosse, Charles Alexander; Solomon, Eskinder; Craggs, Michael; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2017-10-31

    Conditional trans-rectal stimulation of the pudendal nerve could provide a viable solution to treat hyperreflexive bladder in spinal cord injury. A set threshold of the amplitude estimate of the external anal sphincter surface electromyography (sEMG) may be used as the trigger signal. The efficacy of such a device should be tested in a large scale clinical trial. As such, a probe should remain in situ for several hours while patients attend to their daily routine; the recording electrodes should be designed to be large enough to maintain good contact while observing design constraints. The objective of this study was to arrive at a design for intra-anal sEMG recording electrodes for the subsequent clinical trials while deriving the possible recording and processing parameters. Having in mind existing solutions and based on theoretical and anatomical considerations, a set of four multi-electrode probes were designed and developed. These were tested in a healthy subject and the measured sEMG traces were recorded and appropriately processed. It was shown that while comparatively large electrodes record sEMG traces that are not sufficiently correlated with the external anal sphincter contractions, smaller electrodes may not maintain a stable electrode tissue contact. It was shown that 3 mm wide and 1 cm long electrodes with 5 mm inter-electrode spacing, in agreement with Nyquist sampling, placed 1 cm from the orifice may intra-anally record a sEMG trace sufficiently correlated with external anal sphincter activity. The outcome of this study can be used in any biofeedback, treatment or diagnostic application where the activity of the external anal sphincter sEMG should be detected for an extended period of time.

  11. Does endoscopic ultrasound improve detection of locally recurrent anal squamous-cell cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carrie Y; Weiser, Martin R; Paty, Philip B; Guillem, Jose G; Nash, Garrett M; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio; Patil, Sujata; Temple, Larissa K

    2015-02-01

    Evaluating patients for recurrent anal cancer after primary treatment can be difficult owing to distorted anatomy and scarring. Many institutions incorporate endoscopic ultrasound to improve detection, but the effectiveness is unknown. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of digital rectal examination and endoscopic ultrasound in detecting locally recurrent disease during routine follow-up of patients with anal cancer. This study is a retrospective, single-institution review. This study was conducted at an oncologic tertiary referral center. Included were 175 patients with nonmetastatic anal squamous-cell cancer, without persistent disease after primary chemoradiotherapy, who had at least 1 posttreatment ultrasound and examination by a colorectal surgeon. The primary outcomes measured were the first modality to detect local recurrence, concordance, crude cancer detection rate, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value. Eight hundred fifty-five endoscopic ultrasounds and 873 digital rectal examinations were performed during 35 months median follow-up. Overall, ultrasound detected 7 (0.8%) mesorectal and 32 (3.7%) anal canal abnormalities; digital examination detected 69 (7.9%) anal canal abnormalities. Locally recurrent disease was found on biopsy in 8 patients, all detected first or only with digital examination. Four patients did not have an ultrasound at the time of diagnosis of recurrence. The concordance of ultrasound and digital examination in detecting recurrent disease was fair at 0.37 (SE, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.21-0.54), and there was no difference in crude cancer detection rate, sensitivity, specificity, and negative or positive predictive values. The heterogeneity of follow-up timing and examinations is not standardized in this study but is reflective of general practice. Endoscopic ultrasound did not provide any advantage over digital rectal examination in identifying locally recurrent anal cancer, and should not be recommended for

  12. Diversity of human papillomavirus in the anal canal of men: the HIM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichero, L; Nyitray, A G; Nunes, E M; Nepal, B; Ferreira, S; Sobrinho, J S; Baggio, M L; Galan, L; Silva, R C; Lazcano-Ponce, E; Giuliano, A R; Villa, L L

    2015-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with the development of anogenital lesions in men. There are no reports describing the distribution of non-α HPV types in the anal canal of a sexually diverse group of men. The HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study is a multicentre study on the natural history of HPV infection in Brazil, Mexico, and the USA. At baseline, 12% of anal canal PCR HPV-positive specimens were not typed by the Roche Linear Array, and were considered to be unclassified. Our goals were to characterize HPVs among these unclassified specimens at baseline, and to assess associations with participant socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics. Unclassified HPVs were typed by sequencing of amplified PGMY09/11 products or cloning of PGMY/GP + nested amplicons followed by sequencing. Further analysis was conducted with FAP primers. Of men with unclassified HPV in the anal canal, most (89.1%) were men who have sex with women. Readable sequences were produced for 62.8% of unclassified specimens, of which 75.2% were characterized HPV types. Eighteen, 26 and three different α-HPV, β-HPV and γ-HPV types were detected, respectively. α-HPVs were more commonly detected among young men (18-30 years) than among older men (45-70 years), whereas β-HPVs were more frequent among mid-adult men (31-44 years). β-HPVs were more common among heterosexual men (85.0%) than among non-heterosexual men. All β-HPVs detected among non-heterosexual men were β2-HPV types. The high prevalence of β-HPV in the anal canal of men who do not report receptive anal sex is suggestive of other forms of transmission that do not involve penile-anal intercourse. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The value of high-resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in hiv-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicidad Gimenez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Anal cancer, although a still rare disease, is being observed in ascending rates among some population segments known to be at risk for the development of the disease. Human papillomavirus (HPV infection, immunodepression and anal intercourse are some factors associated with the development of the malignancy. Its similarities to cervical cancer have led to many studies aiming to establish guidelines for detecting and treating precursor lesions of anal cancer, with the goal of prevention. High-resolution anoscopy is routinely used for the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in many centers but the medical literature is still deficient concerning the role of this diagnostic modality. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate diagnostic validation and precision measures of high-resolution anoscopy in comparison to histopathological results of anal biopsies performed in HIV-positive patients treated at the Tropical Medicine Foundation of Amazonas, AM, Brazil. To observe any possible association between some risk factors for the development of anal cancer and the presence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions. METHODS: A hundred and twenty-eight HIV-positive patients were submitted to anal canal cytological sampling for the detection of HPV infection by a PCR based method. High-resolution anoscopy was then performed after topical application of acetic acid 3% in the anal canal for 2 minutes. Eventual acetowhite lesions that were detected were recorded in respect to location, and classified by their tinctorial pattern, distribution aspect, relief, surface and vascular pattern. Biopsies of acetowhite lesions were performed under local anesthesia and the specimens sent to histopathological analysis. The patients were interviewed for the presence of anal cancer risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalences of anal HPV infection and of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in the studied population were, respectively, 79% and 39.1%. High-resolution anoscopy

  14. The prevalence of anal human papillomavirus among young HIV negative men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Huachun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Men who have sex with men (MSM especially those who are HIV positive are at risk for HPV-associated anal cancer. We systematically reviewed studies with data on the prevalence of vaccine preventable anal HPV among men who have sex with men aged 25 or younger and identified 6 studies. None of these studies were specifically designed to determine the prevalence of HPV in this population. Available data, albeit limited, suggest many young MSM may not already be HPV infected. Further studies using representative sampling focused on teenage MSM are required to confirm this.

  15. OCCULT ANAL SPHINCTER INJURIES (OASIS IN DEPARTMENT OF PERINATOLOGY IN LJUBLJANA – INCIDENCE AND RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Jakopič

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaginal delivery is the most important risk factors for development of faecal incontinence, which significantly affects quality of life. Foreign studies show OASIS occur at 20 to 40 % of vaginal deliveries. In Slovenia we recognize sphincter injuries at 1.7 % of deliveries, while true incidence of OASIS in our population remains unknown. Caesarean section prevents anal sphincter injuries. Known risk factors in foreign studies include prolonged second stage of labour, fetal weight > 3500 g, malpresentation, forceps delivery, maternal age more than 35 years at the time of first delivery, first delivery. Few women complain about defecatory problems in puerperium unless they are directly asked about them, so true incidence of such injuries is grossly underestimated. Previously compensated anal sphincter dysfunction can clinically manifest as late as in menopause. The most probable cause is atrophy of muscle and fibrous tissue of pelvic floor and anal sphincter due to lack of estrogen support in this period. With anal ultrasound we tried to determine the incidence of occult damage to anal sphincter in primiparas after vaginal delivery and the relation of injury to symptoms 6 weeks after delivery and identify possible risk factors in our population. We also tried to find out how many patients with anal sphincter injury become symptomatic immediately after deliv- ery. Methods: From January to June 2009 we examined 26 primiparas after vaginal delivery in the Ljubljana Maternity Hospital with anal ultrasound and compared various data about the delivery from our national delivery form. We excluded all patients with caesarean section, recognized anal sphincter injury at the time of the delivery or previous anorectal surgery, history of irritable bowel syndrome or pre-existing inflammatory bowel disease. All patients completed a bowel-function questionnaire, which included questions about faecal urgency and involuntary passing of gas, liquid or

  16. Differential gene expression in patients with anal fistula reveals high levels of prolactin recepetor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yi-Huan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. There are limited data examining variations in the local expression of inflammatory mediators in anal fistulas where it is anticipated that an improved understanding of the inflammatory milieu might lead to the potential therapeutic option of instillation therapy in complicated cases. The aim of the present study was to examine prolactin receptors (PRLR as inflammatory markers and to correlate their expression with both the complexity of anal fistulas and the likelihood of fistula recurrence. Methods. Microarray was used to screen the differentially expressed gene profile of anal fistula using anal mucosa samples with hemorrhoids with ageand sex-matched patients as controls and then a prospective analysis of 65 patients was conducted with anal fistulas. PRLR immunohistochemistry was performed to define expression in simple, complex and recurrent anal fistula cases. The quantitative image comparison was performed combining staining intensity with cellular distribution in order to create high and low score PRLR immunohistochemical groupings. Results. A differential expression profile of 190 genes was found. PRLR expression was 2.91 times lower in anal fistula compared with control. Sixty-five patients were assessed (35 simple, 30 complex cases. Simple fistulas showed significantly higher PRLR expression than complex cases with recurrent fistulae showing overall lower PRLR expression than de novo cases (p = 0.001. These findings were reflected in measurable integrated optical density for complex and recurrent cases (complex cases, 8.31 ± 4.91 x 104 vs simple cases, 12.30 ± 6.91 x 104; p < 0.01; recurrent cases, 7.21 ± 3.51 x 104 vs primarily healing cases, 8.31 ± 4.91 x 104; p < 0.05. In univariate regression analysis, low PRLR expression correlated with fistula complexity; a significant independent effect maintained in multivariate analysis odds ratio [(OR low to high PRLR expression = 9.52; p = 0.001]. Conclusion. PRLR

  17. Familial disseminated plaque type porokeratosis with multiple horns and squamous cell carcinoma involving anal skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma Nilendu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Porokeratosis is a disorder of keratinization showing a well-defined lesion with a hyperkeratotic ridge on the border that contains the coronoid lamella. We report familial (autosomal dominant with reduced penetrance disseminated plaque type (Mibelli′s type porokeratosis in a father and son. In the father, there were multiple horns and a large squamous cell carcinoma in a large lesion over the perianal region that reached up to the squamo-columnar junction of the anal mucosa and even invaded the anal sphincteric muscles. Disseminated lesions of the Mibelli′s type, development of horns, and malignancy in this unusual location have not been previously reported.

  18. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy and colonic J-pouch anal anastomosis for lower rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yasuhiro; Okigami, Masato; Kawamoto, Aya; Hiro, Junichiro; Toiyama, Yuji; Kobayashi, Minako; Tanaka, Koji; Miki, Chikao; Kusunoki, Masato

    2011-01-01

    We performed colonic J-pouch anal anastomosis in 61 patients with rectal cancer located <4 cm from the anal verge. Surgical and oncological results were evaluated in multimodality therapy for advanced rectal cancer. According to Wexner's score, 7% of patients were fully continent, 71% had acceptable function with minor continence problems, and 22% were incontinent. No patients required intermittent self-catheterization during follow-up. After a median follow-up of 49 months, there was only 1 case of local recurrence after surgery. Our surgical approach irrespective of internal sphincter resection produces satisfactory functional and oncological results in multimodality therapy using preoperative chemoradiotherapy for lower rectal cancer. (author)

  19. El juego simbólico una alternativa en las dilataciones anales

    OpenAIRE

    Aguinaga B. Oscar William

    1993-01-01

    "Las malformaciones ano-rectales están entre las más comunes de las malformaciones de tipo congénito causadas por anormalidades del desarrollo, aproximadamente uno de cada cinco mil partos con producto vivo, en Estados Unidos". Clasificaciones existen muchas, pero la de uso más generalizado y tenida en cuenta en el Hospital de la Misericordia, servicio de quirúrgicas, es: Estenosis anal congénita, agenecia anal, atresia rectal, fístula rectoperineal, fístula rectovaginal.

     

    ...

  20. Handedness is a biomarker of variation in anal sex role behavior and Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity among gay men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A.; Monks, D. Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P.

    2017-01-01

    Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333) completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role) were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role). In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles. PMID:28234947

  1. The deposition of anal excretions by Melipona favosa foragers (Apidae: Meliponinae): behavioural observations concerning the location of food sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar, I. (Ingrid); Sommeijer, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Melipona favosa consistently deposited anal excretions while foraging. Anal depositions were released more frequently and by more bees on artificial food sources at a greater distance from the nest. Our hypothesis that these deposits serve as scent marks is supported by experimental evidence

  2. Handedness is a biomarker of variation in anal sex role behavior and Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity among gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Monks, D Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P

    2017-01-01

    Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333) completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role) were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role). In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles.

  3. Handedness is a biomarker of variation in anal sex role behavior and Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity among gay men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlyn Swift-Gallant

    Full Text Available Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333 completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role. In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles.

  4. para palmito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Paulo Chaimsohn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Densidades de siembra, arreglos espaciales y fertilización en pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes cv Diamantes-10 para palmito. La investigación se llevó a cabo en la Estación Experimental Los Diamantes (Guápiles, Costa Rica, el 3 de octubre del 2003, cuyo objetivo fue la evaluación del efecto de diferentes densidades de siembra (3.333, 5.000 y 6.666 plantas/ha, arreglos espaciales, y diversos métodos de fertilización (química, orgánica, sobre el crecimiento de las plantas de pejibaye para producción de palmito. Se consideraron las variables diámetro y altura del tallo primario y el número de hojas y rebrotes como indicadores de producción. El período de evolución abarcó sólo los primeros 25 meses de crecimiento en el campo. El número de hojas, la altura y el diámetro del tallo no mostraron diferencias de respuesta relevantes. Sólo el número de rebrotes disminuyó al aumentar la densidad de la población, cuando se midió a los 15 meses de edad. El efecto de la fertilización se hizo evidente después de la primera cosecha, realizada a los 20 meses, debido al aumento de la competencia entre plantas, ahora más desarrolladas. Fue entonces cuando la fertilización química indujo la producción de un mayor número y vigor de los rebrotes. Sin embargo, las prácticas evaluadas 25 meses después de la siembra, no habían infl uido hasta ese momento en el número de palmitos cosechados, ni tampoco había afectado las características físicas de los sectores foliar y caulinar del palmito.

  5. Análisis del comercio electrónico en Ecuador : limitaciones para su implementación

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Sánchez, Diana Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Mantener un nivel alto de competitividad en un mundo globalizado es indispensable para el desarrollo económico de un país; el Comercio Electrónico es una herramienta muy poderosa para mejorar las actividades comerciales en Ecuador. La Tesina titulada "Análisis del Comercio Electrónico en el Ecuador: Limitaciones para su Implementación" es un estudio teórico-analítico de la situación actual en la que se encuentra nuestro país en cuanto al desarrollo del comercio electrónico. El Capítulo ...

  6. Resolución experimental y analítica de un problema de dinámica rotacional: interpretación de los resultados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rosario Follari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7941.2016v33n2p606   La resolución de problemas y las prácticas de laboratorio son parte esencial de las actividades que deben realizar los estudiantes de Física en sus primeros cursos de Física. Se relata una experiencia de aula en la que se propuso a los estudiantes de Física II del primer año de las carreras Profesorado y Licenciatura en Física, el estudio de un carrete que rueda sin deslizar. La misma constó de dos partes: en la primera se les solicitó que planificaran y llevaran a cabo una experiencia para determinar el momento de inercia del carrete; en la segunda se les pidió el desarrollo analítico para encontrar la aceleración y fuerza de rozamiento al hacerlo rodar. La actividad se llevó a cabo en grupo y los resultados fueron expuestos y discutidos. La propuesta resultó positiva ya que llevó a los estudiantes a expresar sus ideas, a la discusión grupal y promovió la autonomía para planificar experiencias sencillas y llevarlas a cabo. Se puso énfasis en la interpretación de las ecuaciones resultantes.

  7. APLICACIÓN DE LA FOTOCATÁLISIS OXIDATIVA CON ZnO Y LUZ SOLAR PARA EL TRATAMIENTO DE AGUA CONTAMINADA CON COLORANTES INDUSTRIALES

    OpenAIRE

    ORTIZ ROMERO, DERLY DAVID

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo aplicar la fotocatálisis oxidativa con ZnO como fotocatalizador y luz solar para el tratamiento de agua contaminada con colorantes industriales. Para este fin; se validaron las técnicas analíticas necesarias para efectuar la investigación en los colorantes Amarillo Oro K–2R, Ácido Carmínico y Rodamina B; los métodos mostraron respuesta lineal, sensible y precisa para los tres colorantes; asimismo se realizó monitorización de la intensidad de...

  8. Prevalence of Anal HPV Infection Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alexandra L; Karthik, Rajiv; Sivasubramanian, Murugesan; Raghavendran, Anantharam; Gnanamony, Manu; Lensing, Shelly; Lee, Jeannette Y; Kannangai, Rajesh; Abraham, Priya; Mathai, Dilip; Palefsky, Joel M

    2016-04-01

    India has a large population of HIV-positive individuals, including men who have sex with men (MSM), and the incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers is high. In developed countries, HIV-positive MSM exhibit the highest prevalence of anal HPV infection and incidence of anal cancer. Little is known about anal HPV infection in HIV-positive Indian MSM. We evaluated 300 HIV-positive MSM from 2 cities in India. Men were tested for anal HPV infection using L1-HPV DNA polymerase chain reaction with probes specific for 29 types and a mixture of 10 additional types. CD4 level and plasma HIV viral load were measured. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including a sexual history. The prevalence of anal HPV was 95% (95% confidence interval: 91% to 97%). The 3 most common types were HPV 35 (20%), HPV 16 (13%), and HPV 6/11 (13%). History of taking antiretroviral medications decreased risk of anal HPV 16 infection [relative risk (RR): 0.6 (0.4-1.0)]. Having an increased number of vaginal sex partners lowered risk of any anal HPV infection. Ever having receptive sex increased risk of any anal HPV [RR: 1.2 (1.1-1.4)] and anal HPV 16 [RR: 6.5 (1.8-107)]. Almost all Indian HIV-positive MSM had anal HPV infection. The prevalence of HPV 16 was lower and the prevalence of other oncogenic HPV types was higher than in similar populations in North America and Europe. Vaccine-based prevention strategies for HPV infection in India should consider potential differences in HPV type distribution among HIV-infected MSM when designing interventions.

  9. Diversidade de modelos narrativos para documentários transmídia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Renó

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma definição de modelos para a produção dedocumentários transmídia a partir de um estudo de caso múltiplo de caráter analítico. Paratanto, foram analisadas três obras documentais de formatos distintos, mas relacionadosàs especificidades definidas pela narrativa transmídia. Com os resultados apresentados,espera-se orientar produtores e investigadores para o desenvolvimento de novos olhares.

  10. Informatización del conocimiento para la conservación de la biodiversidad

    OpenAIRE

    Mata Montero, Erick

    2006-01-01

    El proceso de informatizar el conocimiento necesario para conservar la biodiversidad de un país o región requiere de varias etapas de desarrollo de sistemas de información. Típicamente se inicia con el manejo de datos en formatos analógicos y se continúa con una secuencia de seis etapas más que culminan con el desarrollo de sistemas digitales interinstitucionales descentralizados que permiten generar y acceder a conocimiento para la toma de decisiones, la definición de políticas y la...

  11. Informatización del conocimiento para la conservación de la biodiversidad

    OpenAIRE

    E. Mata; E. Mata Montero

    2006-01-01

    El proceso de informatizar el conocimiento necesario para conservar la biodiversidad de un país o región requiere de varias etapas de desarrollo de sistemas de información. Típicamente se inicia con el manejo de datos en formatos analógicos y se continúa con una secuencia de seis etapas más que culminan con el desarrollo de sistemas digitales interinstitucionales descentralizados que permiten generar y acceder a conocimiento para la toma de decisiones, la definición de políticas y la educació...

  12. Comparison between tympanic and anal temperature with a clinical infrared ray thermometer in dogs Comparação entre a temperatura timpânica e a temperatura anal usando um termômetro clínico de raio infravermelho em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G.S. Wiedemann

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A clinical thermometer of infrared rays was used twice to record consecutively the temperature of the tympanic membrane in each ear and in the anus of 53 dogs. Temperatures did not differ significantly between organs, and were strongly correlated. The anal temperature measurement with an infrared thermometer in dogs is feasible and trustworthy, as well as the thermal checking of tympanic temperature.Utilizou-se um termômetro clínico de emissão de raios infravermelhos para medir, duas vezes consecutivas, a temperatura da membrana timpânica de cada ouvido e duas vezes a temperatura no ânus de 53 cães. Não houve diferença entre as temperaturas quanto ao órgão estudado e a correlação entre as temperaturas foi alta. Em cães, a medida da temperatura anal com o termômetro clínico de emissão de raios infravermelhos é rápida e confiável tanto quanto a da temperatura timpânica.

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life and Sexual Functioning of HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men Who Are Treated for Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegenbeek van Heukelom, Matthijs L.; Richel, Olivier; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Prins, Jan M.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the treatment of precursor lesions of anal cancer (anal intraepithelial neoplasia) on health-related quality of life has not been investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of 3 treatment options for anal intraepithelial neoplasia on health-related quality of life and sexual

  14. Recto-anal junction (RAJ) microbiota composition in Escherichia coli O157:H7 shedding cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Cattle are the asymptomatic reservoirs of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) that tend to preferentially colonize the bovine recto-anal junction (RAJ). Therefore, understanding the taxonomic profile, microbial diversity, and microbiota-O157 interactions at the RAJ could give insights into...

  15. Evaluation of radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy for anal canal epidermoid cancer in our center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Kunihiko; Sahara, Rikisaburo; Yamana, Tetsuro; Okamoto, Kinya; Takahashi, Tomoko; Furukawa, Satomi; Okada, Daisuke; Kaneko, Yasushi; Matsumoto, Atsuo

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of radiotherapy (RT) and chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for anal canal epidermoid cancer were evaluated. Twenty-four patients with anal canal epidermoid cancer were treated in our center between 1988 and 2006, consisting of 13 patients treated by RT and 11 by CRT. In these patients, the efficacy and safety of RT and CRT were evaluated in terms of adverse events, 5-year local control rates, 5-year disease-free survival rates, and 5-year survival rates. No grade 3 or higher adverse events were noted in patients receiving RT. In contrast, anorexia, diarrhea, neutropenia, and anemia were observed in 33.3%, 10%, 33.3%, and 10%, respectively, of the patients receiving CRT. The anal preserving rate, 5-year local control rate, 5-year disease-free survival rate, and 5-year survival rate were 66.7%, 73%, 77.5%, and 88.4%, respectively. RT and CRT for anal canal epidermoid cancer should be first-line treatments because of their safety and efficacy. (author)

  16. Patterns of Vaginal, Oral, and Anal Sexual Intercourse in an Urban Seventh-Grade Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examines the prevalence of vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse among a population of urban, public middle school students, the characteristics of early sexual initiators, and the sequence of sexual initiation. Such data are limited for early adolescents. Methods: A total of 1279 seventh-grade students (57.3% female, 43.6%…

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