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Sample records for anal del coipo

  1. ESTUDIOS MACRO Y MICROSCOPICO DEL SACO ANAL DEL COIPO (Myocastor coypus)

    OpenAIRE

    Rafasquino, Marta E.; Ramos, Pablo A.; Alonso, Cristina R.; Idiart, Julio R.

    1998-01-01

    RESUMEN:Fue realizada la disección del saco anal de 44 coipos, de ambos sexos, de distintas edades y procedencias, observándose algunas características similares a los sacos anales del perro y gato, aunque es impar y está ubicado en ventral del ano. Es ovoídeo o piriforme, siendo más grande en los adultos y, entre éstos, más aún en los machos que en las hembras; posee un conducto que desemboca en el canal anal a un centímetro del ano y que se exterioriza en el momento de secretar el producto ...

  2. Observaciones sobre la Morfología del Oviducto del Coipo (Myocastor coypus)

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe, Antonio E; Fumuso, Elida; Eyheramendy, Verónica; Lombardo, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Se efectuaron los análisis anatómico e histoarquitectónico del oviducto del coipo (Myocastor coypus) en la madurez sexual. Se trabajó con 34 oviductos que fueron segmentados en infundíbulo, ampolla, unión ámpulo-ístmica, istmo cefálico, medio y caudal y procesados con técnicas histológicas de rutina. Los oviductos se observaron como órganos tubulares y tortuosos, con amplia superficie infundibular, marcada flexura en la unión con los cuernos uterinos y el desarrollo de un colículo en la unión...

  3. Distribución espacial, comportamiento y estructura de poblaciones del coipo Myocastor Coypus en la cuenca del Río Luján (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Guichón, María Laura

    2003-01-01

    El coipo o nutria Mycastor coypus es un roedor de hábitos semiacuáticos del que se tiene escasa información sobre aspectos ecológicos dentro de su rango de distribucibn original (sur de Sudamérica),a pesar de su importancia como recurso de fauna. Los objetivos generales de este trabajo de tesis fueron: (1) analizar el patrón de distribución espacial del coipo en la cuenca del río Luján considerando distintas escalas espaciales y (2) estudiar la alimentación, el comportamiento social y la estr...

  4. Características espacio-temporales del desarrollo embrionario preimplantacional de Myocastor coypus (coipo

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    Antonio E. Felipe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar el desarrollo preimplantacional del coipo (Myocastor coypus. Se realizó el seguimiento colpocitológico y apareamiento dirigido de 33 hembras. La división en estadíos se efectuó considerando atributos morfológicos. El número medio de embriones por hembra fue de 6.3 ± 2.03 (rango de 1 a 11. En el día 1 poscoito (p.c., predominaron ovocitos y en el día 2 p.c. las cigotas. El período de segmentación abarcó desde el día 3 al día 6 p.c. Las mórulas se recolectaron desde el día 6 al día 9 p.c., en tanto que los estadíos de blastocisto se recolectaron en los días 8 y 9 p.c. Por el lavaje de oviductos, se recolectaron embriones en los estadíos de cigota hasta mórulas con menos de 30 células y por lavaje de hemiúteros se obtuvieron desde mórulas hasta blastocistos en crecimiento. El desarrollo preimplantacional abarcó 10 días.

  5. Carcinoma epidermoide del margen anal contra calidad de vida

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    Miguel A Reyes Argudín

    Full Text Available La calidad de vida de los pacientes debe tenerse en cuenta. Esta representa el resultado final de la actuación médica desde la perspectiva del paciente. En ocasiones solo nos basamos en este criterio para tomar decisiones terapéuticas ante determinadas enfermedades, como el carcinoma epidermoide de margen anal en estadío terminal. El tratamiento y conducta con fines paliativos tiene como objetivo mejorar la calidad de vida de estas personas. Presentamos el caso de paciente varón de 48 años de edad que acude a consulta por presentar lesión en el ano que no le permitía sentarse y después de realizársele todo el estudio necesario para determinar su diagnóstico definitivo (carcinoma epidermoide de ano evaluarlo y determinar el tratamiento requerido para el grado de la enfermedad, nos percatamos que el tratamiento radical no cambiaba la evolución de su estado y se decide tratamiento paliativo para mejorar la calidad de vida. En ocasiones acuden a consulta pacientes que al culminar su estudio, obtienen el diagnóstico de una enfermedad avanzada y es, a partir de este momento, que nuestro pensamiento médico debe cambiar y encaminar nuestros esfuerzos a mejorar la calidad de vida y no llevarlos a un final tormentoso con el objetivo de revertir la evolución de una enfermedad que no tiene regresión.

  6. Estudio de la fisiología del esfínter anal interno porcino y de la rata, y de la fisiopatología de las alteraciones de la motilidad del esfínter anal interno en pacientes con fisura anal

    OpenAIRE

    Opazo Valdés, Álvaro Javier

    2011-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: el 01 setembre 2012 Las patologías anorectales benignas (fisura anal, incontinencia fecal, hemorroides) presentan una elevada prevalencia. De forma general, se desconoce la fisiopatología de estas enfermedades en las que se producen diversas alteraciones del esfínter anal interno (EAI). Los objetivos para esta tesis fueron: 1º Caracterizar los mecanismos y neurotransmisores implicados en el control del tono, la relajación y la contracción del EAI en dos modelos anima...

  7. Los usos del síntoma: sus transformaciones en la cura analítica

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    Boxaca Juan Lucas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es exponer diversos usos del síntoma en la cura analítica. Se tomará como hilo conductor el conjunto de las transformaciones del mismo en el curso del tratamiento. La cuestión general del síntoma y sus transformaciones está asociada a dos variables específicas: por un lado, a las intervenciones del analista, que promueven la modificación del estatuto del padecimiento; por otro lado, a las elecciones del ser hablante, quien, coyunturalmente, puede variar su posición subjetiva y su relación con el síntoma en el transcurso del tratamiento. Les emplois du symptôme : ses transformations au long de la cure Les divers emplois du symptôme dans la cure analytique sont exposés au long de cet article. C’est l’ensemble des transformations du symptôme au long de la cure qui permettra d’accomplir ce projet. La question générale du symptôme et de ses transformations sont liées à deux variables spécifiques : d’une part, les interventions de l’analyste, qui cherchent à modifier le statut de la souffrance ; de l’autre, les choix de l’être parlant qui, conjoncturellement, peut modifier sa position subjective, donc sa relation visà- vis du symptôme au cours du traitement. The symptoms’ uses: their transformations during the cure The purpose of this article is to present various uses of symptoms in analytic cures. The symptoms’ transformations throughout the course of psychoanalytic treatment will be examined. The general question regarding these symptoms and their transformations is associated with two specific variables: first, the analyst’s interventions, which promote change in the status of a patient’s suffering, and second, the choices of the speaking being, (parletre who can vary his subjective position and, therefore, his relationship with his symptoms during the course of treatment.

  8. Modelo analítico del efecto de PRS sobre satélites GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, A.; Brunini, C.; Usandivaras, J. C.

    El sistema GPS (Global Position System) es, hoy en día, la herramienta de navegación y posicionamiento más potente y lo será sin duda en la próxima década. Gran parte de su valiosa utilidad se debe a la alta precisión que permite lograr y ésta, a su vez, depende, entre otras causas, de la precisión con que se conocen las órbitas de los satélites. La presión de radiación solar (PRS) fija el límite de la precisión con que pueden calcularse en la actualidad las efemérides satelitarias. El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer una mejor resolución de este fenómeno. El modelo analítico aquí presentado, se basa en el análisis del comportamiento de los residuos de un ajuste por mínimos cuadrados en el que se utiliza el modelo de PRS propuesto por Beutler. El mismo consiste en un modelo determinista del fenómeno con dos parámetros libres. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto que, aún después de aplicar dichos parámetros, prevalecen en los residuos efectos semidiurnos en las componentes radial,tangencial y normal. Estos resultados obtenidos se comparan con los de un trabajo desarrollado por el Instituto de Berne (Beutler et al., 1994), en el que se utilizaron como pseudo-observaciones las órbitas precisas del IGS (CODE). El intervalo de integración escogido por este centro fueron las semanas 680 y 681. En resumen se tienen arcos de 14 días para todos los satélites, donde las efemérides precisas de los mismos para los 14 días fueron utilizados como pseudo-observaciones. El modelo de fuerza que empleó dicho centro fue básicamente el tradicional en lo que respecta al modelo de las fuerzas gravitacionales, y para la PRS utilizo el modelo standard de Beutler. Los parámetros de este modelo junto con las 6 condiciones iniciales (posición y velocidad) fueron ajustados por el método general de mínimos cuadrados. Los residuos en la componente radial, tangencial y normal, para los satélites con un buen comportamiento, presentan una

  9. Should anorectal ultrasonography be included as a diagnostic tool for chronic anal pain? ¿Se debe incluir la ecografía rectoanal como prueba diagnóstica del dolor anal crónico?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. García-Montes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the efficiency of endorectal ultrasound (ERUS in the study of chronic idiopathic anal pain (CIAP. Material and method: this is a prospective and descriptive study in which 40 patients, 18 men and 22 women with an average of 47 years, were included. They had chronic anal pain of at least 3 months' duration. A complete colonoscopy was performed in all patients, which found no abnormalities to explain clinical symptoms. Patients with anal fissure and internal hemorrhoids of any degree, perianal suppurative processes, and pelvic surgery were excluded from the study. An ALOKA ProSound SSD-4000 ultrasound console attached to a multifrequency radial transductor ASU-67 (7.5 and 10 MHz was used. Results: one patient could not tolerate the examination. In 8 patients (20% of cases alterations were detected during ultrasonography: in 4 patients (10% of the cases; 1 man and 3 women internal anal sphincter (IAS hypertrophy, and in 5 patients (4 women and 1 man a torn sphincter complex. A tear in the upper IAS canal and hypertrophy of the middle anal canal were observed in one patient (1 woman. Conclusions: ERUS is a simple, economic and useful test to study anorectal pathologies. Although in most studied cases no damage to the anal canal or rectal wall was detected, in a considerable number of patients we observed a thickening of the IAS, a probable cause of anal pain. Therefore, we understand that ERUS should be included in the study of CIAP.Objetivo: evaluar el rendimiento de la ecografía rectoanal (ERA en el estudio del dolor anal crónico idiopático (DACI. Material y método: se trata de un estudio prospectivo y descriptivo en el que se han incluido 40 pacientes, 18 hombres y 22 mujeres, con edad media de 47 años, con clínica de dolor anal crónico de al menos 3 meses de evolución. A todos los pacientes se les había realizado una colonoscopia completa, en la que no se encontró anomalía que justificara la clínica. Se

  10. La contabilidad analítica del sector público en España: Un panorama

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Norverto Laborda; Clara Isabel Muñoz Colomina; Eloy Veuthey Martínez; Javier Zornoza Boy

    1988-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar un panorama del estado de elaboración teórica en que se encuentra en España la contabilidad analítica para el sector público, tanto en lo que se refiere a las propuestas emanadas de la propia Administración (particularmente el Grupo 9 del Plan General de Contabilidad Pública), como en lo relativo a las de los profesionales e investigadores independientes. Dado que el proceso de reforma de la contabilidad pública española se inició hace relativament...

  11. Estudi de la variabilitat biològica en el posttrasplantament renal optimització del protocol analític assistencial /

    OpenAIRE

    Biosca i Adzet, Carme

    2002-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada El motiu d'aquesta tesi ha estat trobar indicadors analítics capaços de senyalar canvis significatius en l'estat de salut dels pacients transplantats renals, abans de qualsevol manifestació clínica. En el seguiment de pacients es sol·liciten repetidament proves analítiques al llarg del temps, essent molt important determinar la diferència mínima entre resultats consecutius, d'una mateixa magnitud biològica, que expressen...

  12. El efecto del entorno en la emisión de fluorescencia . Modelos teóricos y aplicaciones analíticas

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Camón, Mª Arantzazu

    2012-01-01

    En esta Tesis Doctoral se abordan aspectos teóricos y prácticos de la fluorescencia molecular, en medio líquido y sólido, que pueden resumirse en: 1.- Estudio y utilización del efecto del entorno molecular en la intensidad de fluorescencia, que se refiere a cómo las interacciones no covalentes que sufre un fluoróforo en presencia de un analito y un disolvente afectan a su emisión y a la utilización de esos cambios para obtener información analítica del entorno. Para ello se ha desarrollad...

  13. El papel del razonamiento analógico en la construcción histórica de la noción de fuerza gravitatoria y del modelo de Sistema Solar (I Parte

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    Oliva, J.Mª.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, junto a otro que tenemos en preparación, se revisa la importancia del pensamiento analógico en la construcción histórica de la noción de fuerza gravitatoria y del modelo del Sistema Solar. Concretamente, en este primer artículo se empiezan analizando las ideas surgidas al respecto desde las civilizaciones más antiguas, incluida la griega, hasta las aportaciones de figuras como Copérnico, Kepler o el propio Galileo, en los albores de la revolución copernicana. En el otro, pendiente de publicar en un próximo número, se discuten algunos de los razonamientos analógicos formulados con posterioridad a partir de la segunda mitad del siglo XVII y que culminaría con la síntesis newtoniana.

  14. Ensayo de estudio analítico del instrumental lítico pulimentado. Su aplicación al conjuto de superficie de Urrunaga (Alava.

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    Aitor Ormazabal

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de una revisión crítica de los diferentes métodos aplicados al estudio del utillaje lítico pulimentado, se ha planteado la elaboración de una sistemática de estudio analítico. El fundamento de la misma radica en la determinación de una serie de caracteres morfológicos y técnicos pertinentes, cuya jerarquización y articulación, a través de codificaciones, permiten su síntesis en fórmulas analíticas. En una segunda parte, se aborda su aplicación práctica a un conjunto de utensilios hallados en superficie en los alrededores del embalse de Urrunaga (Alava.

  15. Kant, autoconciencia y actualidad del principio de apercepción en la literatura analítica reciente

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    Diego LAWLER

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Esta nota crítica consiste en una aproximación a la literatura analítica reciente que discute con mayor o menor interés algunas aristas del principio de apercepción kantiano. Prestando especial atención a la forma en que esta literatura acoge el enlace entre actividad judicativa y apercepción, se identifican grosso modo tres líneas interpretativas. Si bien entrañan teorías generales sobre la mente humana, aquí se trata de ver cómo cada una de ellas propicia una hipótesis de lectura sobre qué es lo que subyace a los argumentos kantianos que enlazan la capacidad de juzgar con la capacidad de apercibir.ABSTRACT: This critical commentary depicts an approximation to the recently analytical literature that discusses, both from different angles and with dissimilar philosophical interest, the Kantian apperception principie. Focusing on the way this literature looks at the link between judgement activity and apperception, three interpretative paths are broadly identified. Even though each of them involves a general theory of mind, this commentary pays attention only to the hypothesis promoted by those paths in order to examine whatsoever issues underlie the Kantian arguments that connect the capacity to judge with the capacity to apperceive.

  16. Differences in the pressures of canal anal and rectal sensitivity in patients with fecal incontinence, chronic constipation and healthy subjects Diferencias en las presiones del canal anal y la sensibilidad rectal en pacientes con incontinencia anal, estreñimiento crónico y sujetos sanos

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    C. Ciriza de los Ríos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There exist a great variability in the manometric findings between patients with anal incontinence (AI and healthy subjects. The correlation between the pressures of the anal canal and the AI is not exact by the wide rank of normal values. Objectives: Prospective study to evaluate differences in the pressures of the anal canal and in rectal sensitivity in patients with AI, chronic constipation (CC and healthy subjects. Material and methods: Ninety four patients with AI, 36 patients with CC and 15 healthy subjects were included. The following data were obtained: age, sex, resting pressure, anal canal length (ACL, squeeze maximum pressure (SMP, squeeze pressure duration (SPD, first sensation, urge and maximum tolerated volume (MTV. Statistical study: test of Kruskal-Wallis, test of Mann-Whitney, and multinomial logistic regression test. Results: There were significant differences in the resting pressure (p Introducción: Existe gran variabilidad en los hallazgos manométricos entre pacientes con incontinencia anal (IA y sujetos sanos. La correlación entre las presiones del canal anal y la IA no es exacta por el amplio rango de valores normales. Objetivos: Estudio prospectivo para evaluar diferencias en las presiones del canal anal y en la sensibilidad rectal en pacientes con IA, estreñimiento crónico (EC y sujetos sanos. Material y métodos: Noventa y cuatro pacientes con IA, 36 pacientes con EC y 15 sujetos sanos. Se obtuvieron: edad, sexo, presión de reposo, longitud del canal anal (LCA, presión de máxima contracción voluntaria (PMCV, duración de la contracción voluntaria, primera sensación, sensación de urgencia y máximo volumen tolerado (MVT. Estudio estadístico: test de Kruskal-Wallis, test de Mann-Whitney, regresión logística multinomial. Resultados: Se encontraron diferencias significativas en la edad (p < 0,001, la presión de reposo (p < 0,001, la LCA (p < 0,001 y la PMCV (p < 0,01 en el grupo de IA con

  17. El dibuix analític com a mètode d'interpretació del disseny gràfic.

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    Anna Pujadas Matarín

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Un mètode clàssic per a l'anàlisi dels elements gràfics d'una imatge és el Dibuix Analític de Kandinsky. En aquest treball es desenvolupa una teoria d'aquest mètode basada en els resultats personals d'ensenyament amb classes de grup. La declaració teòrica principal és que aquest mètode clàssic hauria d'ampliar amb vista a intentar la prospecció del significat dels elements gràfics. El treball acaba descrivint el nou mètode i la forma en què és capaç de proporcionar una interpretació crítica d'un producte gràfic.

  18. Análisis de discursos periodísticos. La lectura analítica en la era del Smartphone.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala Pérez, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Desde la masificación de la tecnología digital, los hábitos comunicativos han cambiado y el uso de los teléfonos inteligentes, especialmente entre los jóvenes, ha provocado un incesante intercambio de textos breves a través del servicio de SMS o WhatsApp, además de la comunicación de vivencias a través de Twitter o Facebook. No obstante lo anterior, cabe preguntarse si estos usuarios son capaces de realizar una lectura analítica no solo de esos, sino de otros textos, bien sean científicos,...

  19. Analítica del aprendizaje en un entorno virtual mediante un sistema de computación cognitiva: estudio preliminar

    OpenAIRE

    Larry Lugo Urribarrí

    2016-01-01

    En esta investigación se aplicaron métodos de la Analítica del Aprendizaje en el estudio de los datos masivos provenientes de la plataforma virtual de Fruticultura, mediante el sistema de computación cognitiva IBM Watson, basado en inteligencia artificial y aprendizaje automático. Se analizaron los registros de las evaluaciones en línea, así como las interacciones sociales en los foros para determinar su influencia sobre el desempeño estudiantil, durante los períodos lectivos desde el2006 has...

  20. Analítica del aprendizaje en un entorno virtual mediante un sistema de computación cognitiva: estudio preliminar

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    Larry Lugo Urribarrí

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se aplicaron métodos de la Analítica del Aprendizaje en el estudio de los datos masivos provenientes de la plataforma virtual de Fruticultura, mediante el sistema de computación cognitiva IBM Watson, basado en inteligencia artificial y aprendizaje automático. Se analizaron los registros de las evaluaciones en línea, así como las interacciones sociales en los foros para determinar su influencia sobre el desempeño estudiantil, durante los períodos lectivos desde el2006 hasta 2014 de la asignatura Fruticultura. Los factores estudiados permitieron mejorar el sistema de evaluación y estimarla nota definitiva con una fortaleza predictiva del 72%.

  1. Evolución del razonamiento analógico en niños: seguimiento desde los seis hasta los once años de edad

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    Luis Fidel Abregú Tueros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio es establecer el momento y período de desarrollo del razonamiento analógico (RA y evaluar su independencia y desempeño respecto a la edad. Se aplicó un diseño longitudinal de cohortes de dos grupos etáreos y seis etapas anuales de seguimiento para cada uno (2000-2005, 2001- 2006 desde seis hasta once años de edad en niños de la ciudad de Huánuco, Perú, en una muestra de ciento sesenta y siete niños (primera Etapa y n=121 (sexta etapa. Se administró en forma individual y sin límite de tiempo la prueba de matrices de Raven versión coloreada. Los resultados indican que la evolución del RA en niños ocurre en forma tardía y constante a partir de los siete y hasta los once años; así mismo, que existe independencia entre la capacidad de RA y la edad de los niños. Se discute la importancia del conocimiento en las relaciones de análogo y tópico ajustadas a la edad como el factor mediador de desarrollo del RA.

  2. Validación del método analítico para tabletas de dicloroisocianurato de sodio para desinfección de agua potable

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    Luis Octavio Martínez Álvarez

    Full Text Available Introducción: en Cuba se han desarrollado las primeras tabletas efervescentes de 3,5 mg dicloroisocianurato de sodio, como ingrediente activo no terapéutico, el cual libera una determinada cantidad de cloro al disolverse en un litro de agua, capaz de inducir a una adecuada desinfección del agua potable y lista para ingerir después de transcurrido 30 min. Objetivo: desarrollar y validar un método analítico yodométrico, aplicable al control de la calidad de las tabletas efervescentes de 3,5 mg de dicloroisocianurato de sodio. Métodos: para la cuantificación del contenido de cloro activo libre en las tabletas efervescentes, se empleó como técnica un método potenciométrico, utilizando electrodos de platino y solución valorada de tiosulfato de sodio 0,1 N. El método desarrollado fue validado según los parámetros exigidos para la categoría I, que incluye las técnicas destinadas a cuantificar principios activos en las formas terminadas. Adicionalmente se realizaron otras pruebas para evaluar la influencia del analista y el día en los resultados analíticos. Resultados: los parámetros evaluados en la validación del método se encontraron dentro de los límites establecidos. El método resultó ser específico, lineal, exacto y preciso en el rango de concentraciones estudiadas. Conclusiones: los resultados permiten que el método pueda emplearse de manera confiable y segura.

  3. Anal Itching

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has many possible causes, such as skin problems, hemorrhoids, and washing too much or not enough. If ... dermatitis. Other medical conditions. These include chronic diarrhea, hemorrhoids, anal tumors and diseases that affect the whole ...

  4. Anal fissure - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anal fissures are tears in the skin overlying the anal sphincter, usually due to increased tone of the anal sphincter muscles, and a failure of these muscle to relax. Anal fissures cause pain during defecation and bleeding from the anus.

  5. Protocolo estandarizado para el seguimiento poblacional del pavón, Oreophasis derbianus: propuesta de métodos de campo y analíticos

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    Fernando González-García

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available La estimación robusta del tamaño poblacional de especies de fauna silvestre es un requisito fundamental en estudios ecológicos y en el diseño e implementación de estrategias de conservación. Sin embargo, en varios casos, estas estimaciones carecen de exactitud, precisión, representatividad y comparabilidad. Esto ha ocasionado que la información generada para las poblaciones de una determinada especie sea difícilmente generalizable y que su aplicación sea limitada. Éste es el caso del pavón, Oreophasis derbianus, un ave endémica de Mesoamérica y en peligro de extinción. En este trabajo presentamos una propuesta de protocolo de muestreo en campo y métodos analíticos estandarizados para el estudio poblacional de esta especie. La propuesta está basada en nuestra experiencia en el estudio de la especie y en la aplicación de la teoría del muestreo de distancias. El propósito de este protocolo estandarizado es generar datos de campo de calidad para obtener estimaciones robustas de la abundancia poblacional de O. derbianus. Este protocolo lo desarrollamos y evaluamos principalmente en la Reserva de la Biosfera El Triunfo, en Chia­pas, México, pero también fue replicado en otras tres localidades en México y Guatemala. Su desarrollo y evaluación incluyó muestreos mensuales en campo durante casi diez años y la impartición de talleres de capacitación teórico-prácticos a personal de campo para la adecuada implementación de este protocolo. Como resultado de esta experiencia, definimos una serie de li­neamientos básicos y factibles que proponemos sea un estándar como métodos de muestreo y analíticos de las poblaciones de O. derbianus para asegurar la calidad y comparabilidad de los datos generados en campo. Finalmente, presentamos estimaciones de la densidad poblacional de O. derbianus en las cuatro localidades estudiadas y discutimos el significado de su variación espacial y temporal en el contexto de esta propuesta.

  6. Psicoterapia Analítico-Funcional y Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso: teoría, aplicaciones y continuidad con el análisis del comportamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Kohlenberg; Mavis Tsai; Rafael Ferro García; Luis Valero Aguayo; Antonio Fernández Parra; Javier Virués-Ortega

    2005-01-01

    El análisis funcional del comportamiento verbal de tradición skinneriana ha encontrado desarrollos recientes en modelos de intervención conductual que son objeto de exposición y análisis en el presente estudio teórico. La Psicoterapia Analítico- Funcional (PAF) se fundamenta en el análisis y moldeamiento del comportamiento verbal del paciente en tiempo real durante las sesiones de intervención. En este caso, la relación terapéutica se considera un modelo de relación interperson...

  7. Técnica analítica para el estudio de estabilidad del Cromoglicato de Sodio (Cápsulas para inhalación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Liz Pérez Suárez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia para la determinación del contenido de cromoglicato de sodio en las cápsulas. La técnica desarrollada resultó ser lineal, precisa, exacta y específica, la cual fue aplicada para realizar el estudio de estabilidad acelerada y el de vida de estante. Se comprobó la estabilidad química del medicamento por un período de 2 años.An analytical method was developed by high pressure liquid chromatography to determine the content of sodium cromoglicate in capsules. The technique developed proved to be linear, precise, accurate and specific and it was used to conduct the study of accelerated stability and that of shelf life. The chemical stability of the drug was verified for a period of 2 years.

  8. Desarrollo y validación de los métodos analíticos para el control de calidad del micocilén polvo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yania Suárez Pérez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El micocilén es un medicamento que se presenta en forma de polvo. Contiene 2 ingredientes farmacéuticos activos: el ácido undecilénico y el undecilinato de zinc. Por su acción fungistática, se ha convertido en un producto de alta demanda en Cuba, ya que las micosis se favorecen en climas cálidos y húmedos. Se realizó el desarrollo y la validación de 2 métodos analíticos para el control de calidad sobre la base de la cuantificación de cada analito presente en la formulación. Se seleccionaron técnicas volumétricas por neutralización acuosa y complejometría. Los resultados fueron satisfactorios, ya que en ambos casos se obtuvo adecuada especificidad, linealidad, exactitud, precisión y robustez. Los métodos propuestos se compararon con los aplicados anteriormente y se obtuvieron resultados mucho más confiables, según resultados del análisis estadístico aplicado, sin diferencias significativas entre las réplicas de un mismo lote.

  9. Desarrollo de metodologías analíticas para el estudio del metabolismo del azufre utilizando isótopos estables enriquecidos

    OpenAIRE

    Giner Martínez-Sierra, Justo

    2013-01-01

    La alteración intencionada de la composición isotópica de un elemento dado en un organismo vivo permite obtener información metabólica del elemento. La composición isotópica del azufre varía en la naturaleza por lo que para seguir la pista del azufre en un ser vivo utilizando un trazador marcado isotópicamente, la cantidad de trazador metabólico utilizada debe ser lo suficientemente elevada como para alterar la composición isotópica del azufre por encima de los límites de variabilidad natural...

  10. Anal acoustic reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J

    2011-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....

  11. Validación de un método analítico para la determinación del contenido de sodio en los alimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericka Valverde Montero

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Se validó la metodología analítica para la determinación de sodio en alimentos mediante espectroscopía de absorción atómica de llama. Las muestras de 0,5 g se digirieron en un horno de microondas con 5,0 mL de HNO3 al 65 % en masa. El ámbito de linealidad óptimo que se obtuvo fue de 0,043 mg/L a 0,70 mg/L con un coeficiente de correlación de 0,998. Los límites de detección y cuantificación reportados fueron de 0,025 mg/L y 0,043 mg/L, respectivamente; con una sensibilidad de calibración de 0,805 Lmg-1, una sensibilidad analítica de 44 Lmg-1.La precisión se evaluó en condiciones de repetibilidad y se obtuvo un valor para RDSr igual a 2,9%. La veracidad se determinó utilizando tres patrones certificados del NIST®, SRM 1846 Infant Formula con un valor reportado para sodio de (2310 ± 130 mg/kg, SRM 8414 Bovine Muscle Powder con (0,210 ± 0,008 % en masa, y SRM 8415 Whole Egg Powder con (0,377 ± 0,034 % en masa. Se obtuvieron sesgos de entre (-0,010 a 0,009 mg/L. De la lista de alimentos seleccionados para el estudio, se encontró que la leche entera en polvo, el pan blanco de trigo, el queso fresco y el queso mozzarella presentan el contenido más elevado en sodio, con concentraciones que oscilan entre (106 a 452 mg Na/100g

  12. Estudio descriptivo, analítico y predictivo de las heridas perforantes del bulbo ocular Descriptive, analytical and predicitive study of the stab wounds of the bulbus oculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Idalmis González Delgado

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el estudio descriptivo, analítico y predictivo de 163 pacientes (165 ojos con heridas perforantes del bulbo ocular sin cuerpo extraño intraocular (CEIO. Los lesionados se agruparon en 2 tipos de heridas: simple y contusas; de ellas 36 fueron heridas simples y129 heridas con contusión asociada. Los autores aplicaron en el estudio de las heridas de ambos grupos los métodos clínicos de ayuda al diagnóstico de las lesiones provocadas por el traumatismo perforante con el estudio ultrasonográfico y los estudios electrofisiológicos (ERG y PEV. Se pudo valorar en el estudio la efectividad de ambos métodos asociados al método clínico óptico-instrumental como elementos que permitieron establecer un alto porcentaje de los casos, un diagnóstico más preciso de las lesiones y ayudaron a establecer un pronóstico visual del lesionado. Sobresaliendo con esta metodología de estudio lesiones predominantes en el nivel del segmento anterior y del posterior en los dos tipos de heridas. Fue valorado el comportamiento de la agudeza visual antes y después del tratamiento en los dos grupos de heridas, obteniéndose los peores resultados en las heridas con contusión asociada y ubicadas en el segmento posterior y que presentaban un tamaño mayor que 5 mm. Pudo apreciarse cómo las heridas pequeñas tuvieron mejores resultados en la función visual independientemente de su localización topográfica. A los resultados más relevantes en el estudio clínico descriptivo (variables de interés clínico se les aplicó métodos estadísticos y se seleccionaron los que tuvieron una alta significación. Se confeccionó un índice de predicción aproximado. Los autores muestran el índice de predicción en forma de ecuación matemática para ser aplicado en los traumatismos perforantes del bulbo ocular.A descriptive, analytical, and descriptive study on 163 patients (165 eyes with perforating wounds of bulbus oculi without intraocular foreign body (IOFB

  13. Expresiones analíticas del coeficiente de pérdidas de energía en dispositivos de reducción del diámetro bajo régimen forzado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Villegas-León

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se obtienen expresiones analíticas del coeficiente de pérdidas de energía para dispositivos de reducción brusca y reducción gradual del diámetro, que operan en conductos bajo régimen forzado. Se observó que los métodos tradicionales para evaluar las pérdidas por dispositivos requieren el empleo de fórmulas, tablas y gráficos al estimar el coeficiente de pérdida K. Se obtuvieron curvas de valores promedio para K y se ajustaron con métodos de regresiones lineales múltiples hasta obtener una ecuación representativa para cada caso estudiado. Se concluyó que las ecuaciones pueden ser utilizadas confiablemente para determinar el coeficiente de pérdida K, sin necesidad de manipular tablas y gráficos.

  14. Método analítico para la determinación de etilentiourea (etu subproducto del Mancozeb en un Andisol del Oriente Antioqueño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Domínguez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El Mancozeb (etilenbisditiocarbamato de cinc y manganeso es uno de los fungicidas de mayor uso en Colombia, y esta clasificado en la categoría toxicológica IV. La etilentiourea (ETU es el principal producto de degradación del Mancozeb, estando clasificada en la categoría toxicológica I debido a que es carcinogénico y mutagénico, lo que lo convierte en un compuesto de alto riesgo para la salud de las personas. En el presente trabajo se validó un método de análisis de la ETU utilizando la cromatografía de líquidos (CL con detector de arreglo de diodos (DAD, el cual se usó para la cuantificación de la ETU en suelos del municipio de Marinilla (Oriente de Antioquia. El suelo usado en el análisis de la ETU se determinó como un Acrudoxic Fulvudand medial arcilloso mezclado, isomésico; estos suelos son los más utilizados para la agricultura en el Departamento de Antioquia y en Colombia. El límite de detección del análisis fue 0,00046 mg/L, el límite de cuantificación fue 0,0015 mg/L y el porcentaje de recuperación en el suelo fue 93%.

  15. Estudio de la efectividad de las columnas de extracción de octadecilo C18 en la evaluación del amargor (K225 del aceite de oliva virgen. Error y esquema analítico del método de evaluación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perdiguero Camacho, S.

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study developed two objetives: 1 to study the possibility of repeatedly using disposable C18 columns 2 to determine an appropriate analytical scheme and the inherent systematic error in the method to evaluate bitter substances in virgin olive oil. The results confirmed that we were able to recover the principles of olive oil without reducing the effectiveness of the C18 a columns with repeated uses at least ten times. The evaluation method errors of the bitter taste have been determined, in order to determine it precision. The confidence limits calculated for defined work schemes have given sufficient precision.El presente trabajo ha perseguido dos objetivos fundamentales: 1 estudiar la posibilidad de utilizar repetidamente las columnas "disposable" (de un sólo uso C18 y 2 determinar el error y esquema analítico apropiado del método de evaluación del amargor del aceite de oliva virgen. Los resultados obtenidos nos permiten afirmar que las recuperaciones de los productos responsables del amargor del aceite no disminuyen al reutilizarse las columnas al menos durante las diez utilizaciones probadas. Se han determinado los errores del método de evaluación del amargor para determinar su precisión. Los límites de confianza calculados para definir los esquemas de trabajo han dado suficiente precisión.

  16. La introducción de la actividad dirigida en la enseñanza de la electrónica analógica para estudiantes del grado de Electrónica Industrial y Automática

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez García, Herminio; Domingo Peña, Joan; Grau Saldes, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    A pesar del indiscutible avance y desarrollo de la electrónica y los sistemas digitales, es bien cierto que la electrónica analógica, y especial aquélla que incide directamente en el amplificador operacional realimentado en tensión y sus aplicaciones, es uno de los pilares fundamentales sobre los que se asientan los modernos planes de estudio para estudiantes de electrónica en diferentes ámbitos de la ingeniería (industrial, telecomunicaciones, etc.). Dentro de la oferta de ...

  17. Evaluación de dos técnicas analíticas para la especiación de arsénico en aguas superficiales del sur del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Chávez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El arsénico es altamente tóxico, la exposición crónica a este elemento causa diversos daños en la salud de las personas, en el Perú se han reportado niveles elevados, sobre todo en ríos de la costa sur. Objetivo. Evaluar dos técnicas analíticas de especiación de las dos formas de arsénico inorgánico en agua fluvial de Tacna, en el sur del Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se desarrolló un estudio comparativo entre la técnica de separación por resina de intercambio aniónico y la cromatografía iónica para la especiación del arsénico (V y arsénico (III en muestras de agua de cuatro ríos de la vertiente del Pacífico en dos distritos de la región Tacna. La cantidad de arsénico total se determinó con el sistema de inyección de flujo asistido con absorción atómica. Resultados. Se obtuvo un buen grado de separación en ambos procedimientos, sin embargo, la técnica de resinas de intercambio aniónico tiene un límite de detección inferior que la cromatografía iónica, 2,0 μg/L y 32 μg/L, respectivamente. En cuatro de las seis muestras se obtuvieron valores superiores a los recomendados por la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de los Estados Unidos, y en ellas se logró determinar las cantidades de arsénico (III y arsénico (V. Conclusiones. La técnica de separación por resina de intercambio aniónico tiene mayor sensibilidad de detección de arsénico que la cromatografía iónica y permite un alto grado de especiación del arsénico inórganico en muestras de agua fluvial.

  18. El pensamiento crítico-analítico en estudiantes del área de Biología de la Universidad de Guayaquil, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    López Silva, Byron Orlando; García Rodríguez, Idalmys Yelivi; Hernández Navarro, Marlene Isabel; López Córdova, Byron Alfredo; López Córdova, Marcel Orlando; Barbies Rubiera, Amarilis

    2016-01-01

    Fundamento: el pensamiento crítico-analítico es un proceso intelectual necesario en los estudiantes universitarios para su desarrollo profesional. Objetivo: indagar sobre las necesidades sentidas de estudiantes y profesores para desarrollar el pensamiento crítico-analítico en el primer año de la carrera de Medicina en el área de Biología en la Universidad de Guayaquil. Métodos: se desarrolló un estudio descriptivo en el período comprendido entre mayo y diciembre de 2015 en la Facultad de Medi...

  19. Comparación analítica de los métodos ultravioleta selectivo y test spectroquant 1.14773.0001 en la determinación del ión nitrato en aguas tratadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Severiche Sierra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La meta de un análisis químico de aguas es generar resultados correctos y confiables, siendo la comparación de métodos uno de los aspectos más importantes para conseguir este propósito; además, constituye un factor clave para la prestación de servicios analíticos. La determinación de ion nitrato en aguas es una de las metodologías analíticas más discutidas que se conoce en el ámbito científico técnico del análisis de aguas, dado los procedimientos complejos con los que se cuentan, la gran posibilidad de encontrar sustancias interferentes y los rangos de concentración limitados que presentan las diferentes técnicas. En la presente investigación, se hizo el cotejo de dos métodos analíticos, el UV selectivo y el test spectroquant 1.14773.0001, para la determinación del ión nitrato en aguas tratadas. El objetivo fue confirmar correctamente la aplicación de los métodos para el análisis de aguas; las muestras analizadas se tomaron de la red de agua potable de la ciudad de Cartagena de Indias, donde para ambos métodos se encontraron resultados satisfactorios en precisión y exactitud.

  20. Validación del método analítico para el control de la calidad y estudio de estabilidad de ketotifeno colirio 0,025 %

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenilen Troche Concepción

    Full Text Available El colirio de ketotifeno se indica para aliviar los signos y síntomas de las conjuntivitis alérgicas, por ser este un potente antihistamínico H1 que muestra cierta capacidad para inhibir la liberación de histamina y otros mediadores en mastocitos. En este trabajo se desarrolló y validó un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, para el control de la calidad y los estudios de estabilidad del ketotifeno colirio 0,025 %. El método se basó en la separación del principio activo a través una columna cromatográfica Lichrosorb RP-18 (5 µm (250 x 4 mm, con detección ultravioleta a 296 nm, para lo cual se empleó una fase móvil compuesta por una mezcla desgasificada de metanol:buffer fosfato (75:25; pH 8,5 y se le añadió 1 mL de isopropanol por cada 1 000 mL de la mezcla anterior, con una velocidad de flujo de 1,2 mL/min. El método analítico resultó lineal, preciso, específico y exacto en el intervalo de concentraciones estudiadas.

  1. Psicoterapia Analítico-Funcional y Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso: teoría, aplicaciones y continuidad con el análisis del comportamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Kohlenberg

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis funcional del comportamiento verbal de tradición skinneriana ha encontrado desarrollos recientes en modelos de intervención conductual que son objeto de exposición y análisis en el presente estudio teórico. La Psicoterapia Analítico- Funcional (PAF se fundamenta en el análisis y moldeamiento del comportamiento verbal del paciente en tiempo real durante las sesiones de intervención. En este caso, la relación terapéutica se considera un modelo de relación interpersonal a generalizar a la vida diaria del cliente. La PAF ofrece un análisis conductual de la relación terapeuta-paciente y de su importancia en el proceso clínico, así como un marco teórico para el análisis de los efectos sinérgicos derivados de su combinación con terapias cognitivas o cognitivo-conductuales tradicionales. Por otro lado, la Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso (ACT aborda los trastornos del comportamiento y las emociones enfatizando el análisis de la evitación de eventos privados aversivos (por ejemplo, evitación experiencial como función de una pluralidad de comportamientos de topografía «psicopatológica». Estos procesos pueden verse coadyuvados por el seguimiento de reglas verbales relativas al control estricto de emociones y cogniciones. La ACT ofrece varias herramientas clínicas para desmontar los procesos de evitación y de seguimiento de reglas asociados al problema del paciente. Finalmente, ambos modelos son analizados en términos de su continuidad teórica con el análisis funcional del comportamiento y el análisis de conducta tradicionales.

  2. Introducción e integración de extranjeros en el Egipto del Reino Nuevo: una aproximación cuantitativa a los Anales de Tuthmosis III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerván, Héctor Horacio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En el Antiguo Egipto, como en todas las sociedades del discurso mítico, el orden y la interpretación del mundo se vinculaba con el plano cósmico. Los diversos mitos cosmogónicos sirvieron de sustrato ideológico al aparato estatal para fundamentar y legitimar su acción sobre los pueblos extranjeros circundantes. Pero, ¿este discurso mítico se correlacionaba directamente con la realidad histórica? En este trabajo nos proponemos responder esta pregunta a partir de un caso particular, los Anales de Tuthmosis III. Adoptaremos para este propósito una metodología esencialmente cuantitativa, haciendo uso de las herramientas que nos brinda la estadística descriptiva. El análisis estadístico será, entonces, un medio para un fin, que estará dado por la identificación de ciertos valores numéricos significativos de los Anales. A partir de esto, las categorías analíticas subyacentes a ellos serán analizadas históricamente para describir las lógicas de inclusión/exclusión de los extranjeros traídos a Egipto por las campañas del monarca. Abstract In Ancient Egypt, as in all societies of mythic discourse, order and interpretation of the world was linked to the cosmic plane. The various creation myths were used as ideological substrate from state apparatus to support and legitimize their actions on the surrounding foreign peoples. But, this mythic discourse was directly correlated with historical reality? In this paper we propose to answer this question from a particular case, the Annals of Thutmose III. We will adopt for this purpose an essentially quantitative methodology, using the tools provided to us by descriptive statistics. Statistical analysis will then be a means to an end, which is given by the identification of certain significant numerical values of the Annals. From this, the underlying analytical categories to be analyzed them historically to describe the logics of inclusion/exclusion of foreigners brought to Egypt

  3. Solución analítica del problema directo de la tomografía de capacitancia eléctrica para un fluido bifásico con una inclusión circular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Reyes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se expone un modelo matemático al problema de la Tomografía de Capacitancia Eléctrica (TCE, para el caso de un fluido bifásico dieléctrico con una inclusión circular. Se resuelve el problema directo, que consiste en obtener una expresión analítica para las capacitancias mutuas. La solución del problema directo servirá para validar cualquier método de solución al problema inverso, para calibrar los equipos de medición actualmente existentes y además para construir un método de discretización adaptiva para resolver el problema inverso de la TCE.

  4. Anal Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anal cancer cases have been increasing over several decades. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major risk factor for anal cancer. Start here to find information on anal cancer treatment, causes and prevention, research, and statistics.

  5. Validación del método analítico para la cuantificación de bacitracina Validation of the analytical method to quantify the bacitracine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Velandia-Castellanos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló y validó un método analítico para la determinación cuantitativa de bacitracina zinc al 15 % y bacitracina metilen disalicilato al 11 %, por el método de cilindro en placa (difusión en agar, con el fin de ser usado en el control de calidad de las materias primas y productos farmacéuticos. Se evaluaron los parámetros de especificidad, selectividad, linealidad del sistema, y del método, exactitud, límite de cuantificación y precisión. Mediante el diseño experimental y la evaluación estadística de los resultados, se demostró que el método analítico es específico, selectivo, lineal, preciso (CVAn analytical method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of 15 % zinc bacitracine and 11 % disalicylate methylene-bacitracine by the plate-cylinder method (agar diffusion to be used in quality control of raw products and pharmaceutical products. Specificity, selectivity, system and method linearity, accuracy, quantification and precision parameters were assessed. By the experimental design and the statistic evaluation of results, it was demonstrated that the analytical method is specific, selective, linear, precise (CV< 5 % and exact (bias < 3 %, Gexp< Gtab< t exp< t tab during the study concentrations. The quantification and detection limit was of 0.02 and 0.005 Ul/mL, respectively. The analytical performance characteristics fulfill the requirement for the proposal analytical implementation.

  6. Validación del método analítico para la determinación de 3 vitaminas hidrosolubles en un suplemento vitamínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iverlis Díaz Polanco

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la validación de un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, para la determinación de tiamina mononitrato, piridoxina clorhidrato y nicotinamida en el suplemento nutricional neovitamin II, el cual se diseñó para separar las vitaminas entre sí, con la utilización de una columna RP-18 de 25 cm y un detector UV-Visible. Dicho método se empleó para el control de la calidad y la estabilidad de este producto. El método fue validado siguiendo una metodología de trabajo elaborada previamente en un Protocolo de Validación, donde se analizaron diferentes parámetros como son: linealidad, exactitud, precisión, selectividad, límites de detección y cuantificación, adecuación del sistema y estabilidad de las soluciones. Se obtuvieron resultados satisfactorios y se comprobó de esta forma la validez del método analítico.The results obtained in the validation of an anlytical method by high resolution liquid chromatography for the determination of thiamine mononitrate, pyridoxine hydrochloride and nicotinamide in the Neovitamin dietary supplement are presented. It was designed to separate vitamins among themselves, using a RP-18 column of 25 cm and a UV Visible detector. This method was used for controlling the quality and stability of the product. This method was validated according to a working methodology that was previously prepared in a Validation Protocol where paramaters such as lineality, accuracy, precision, selectivity, limits of detection and quantitation, system adequacy and the solution stability were analyzed. The results were satisfactory and the validity of the analytical method was proved.

  7. Actualización, adaptación y evolución del sistema de automedidas de receptores analógicos de TV

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez González, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Actualización, adaptación y evolución de un sistema automático de medidas para receptores analógicos de TV. Aumentando la calidad de las medidas, así como reduciendo el tiempo de medida y el coste de diseño. El proyecto consiste en la elaboración de un programa en entorno LabView para realizar medidas automáticas de sintonizadores de TV para la empresa Sony. Partimos de un programa básico de medidas semi-automáticas con la idea de desarrollar los siguientes objetivos: Control remoto de la ...

  8. A prática analítica atual e a problemática do poder La practica analítica actual y la problemática del poder Current analytic practice and the question of power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Carlos Marucco

    2004-12-01

    áctica psicoanalítica bajo el vértice del poder y diferencian el poder en su acepción verbal y sustantiva. El poder verbal es la aptitud de realizar alguna cosa en el sentido de ser capaz. El poder sustantivo es el dominio, la supremacía, la autoridad, o aún la fuerza, la superioridad. Si el poder es sustantivo o verbal, de esto resultará una diferencia de significado y también de significante. Los autores enuncian el poder como categoría antropológica, psíquica y social. A seguir definen qué es la práctica analítica actual partiendo de tres aportes: los diferentes esquemas referenciales, las patologías actuales (psicosomáticas, limítrofes, anorexia y bulimia, etc.. y la actualidad sociocultural. Después de enmarcado el campo conceptual, los autores plantean el abuso del poder del analista que se acompaña por una progresiva supresión de Eros, o sea, de una desfusión pulsional. Cuando ocurre, la pulsión de muerte se expresa por una idealización de la transferencia, que es igual al poder sustantivo, no al poder verbal. La hipnosis es el mejor ejemplo de este fenómeno: el enamoramiento, la transferencia idealizada. Cuando, al contrario, ese poder en el sentido sustantivo está en el paciente, el analista, por vía de la contratransferencia, es obligado a renunciar su sexualidad. El analista, entonces, procederá, por su fuerza, el desmantelamiento de esta situación infantil en la que un objeto poderoso anula el nacimiento de la sexualidad en el escenario de la práctica analítica. Finalizan con la afirmación de que el resultado iatrogénico del apego a un objeto, cuando ese se instala en el análisis, es impedir el desarrollo de la pulsión sexual como amor de transferencia; la anulación de la sexualidad va generando, en el par analítico, relaciones de poder. Si eso ocurre, no importa quien triunfe, la práctica analítica será inundada por la pulsi��n de muerte.The authors focus on psychoanalytic practice in the current days in what concerns power vs

  9. [Acute anal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Olivier; Demartines, Nicolas; Hahnloser, Dieter

    2013-07-01

    Acute anal pain is a common proctological problem. A detailed history together with the clinical examination are crucial for the diagnosis. An acute perianal vein thrombosis can be successfully excised within the first 72 hours. Acute anal fissures are best treated conservatively using stool regulation and topical medications reducing the sphincter spasm. A chronic anal fissure needs surgery. Perianal abscesses can very often be incised and drained in local anesthesia. Proctalgia fugax and the levator ani syndrome are exclusion diagnoses and are treated symptomatically.

  10. HIV-associated anal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Newsom-Davis, T; Bower, M

    2010-01-01

    HIV-associated anal carcinoma, a non-AIDS-defining cancer, is a human papillomavirus-associated malignancy with a spectrum of preinvasive changes. The standardized incidence ratio for anal cancer in patients with HIV/AIDS is 20-50. Algorithms for anal cancer screening include anal cytology followed by high-resolution anoscopy for those with abnormal findings. Outpatient topical treatments for anal intraepithelial neoplasia include infrared coagulation therapy, trichloroacetic acid, and imiqui...

  11. Comentarios sobre dibujo analítico

    OpenAIRE

    Mata Botella, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Cuaderno de apoyo a la docencia del DIBUJO DE ARQUITECTURA que pretende hacer reflexionar al alumno (de primero o segundo de carrera) sobre un tipo de dibujo que aquí se ha llamado “dibujo analítico”. Un dibujo que a través de operaciones gráficas y conceptuales como la esquematización y la selección de información, tiende a alejarse de la descripción del objeto arquitectónico para adentrarse en determinados aspectos o dimensiones que subyacen en el proyecto arquitectónico. Unas notas intr...

  12. Validación de los métodos analíticos para la identificación y cuantificación del dextrometorfano jarabe

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Fernández Serret; Yeni Aguilera Cabrera; Iván Morales Lacarrere; Esther Alonso Jiménez

    2002-01-01

    Para realizar el control de la calidad del dextrometorfano jarabe, se aplicó la técnica descrita en la USP 23, y se comprobó la fiabilidad de esta mediante la evaluación de la precisión, exactitud, linealidad y especificidad. Se incluyen además, la determinación de las características organolépticas, pH y contenido por frasco como ensayos propios de medicamentos líquidos de administración oral o de uso externo.The technique described in the USP 23 was applied to carry out the quality control ...

  13. Encopresis and anal masturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruffo, R N; Ibarra, S; Strupp, K R

    2000-01-01

    Current pediatric and psychiatric studies on encopresis and its treatment are heavily influenced by mechanical, physiological, and behavioral considerations. Although psychodynamic treatment has generally been considered to be of little benefit, and its findings suspect, the authors suggest that a psychodynamic approach adds substantially to the understanding of some cases of encopresis; that the anal sensations and anal erotic feelings reported by a number of encopretic children are intense, and that the encopretic symptom, soiling, in these children is the result of a conscious form of anal masturbation in which the fecal mass is used for stimulation; and that any study of encopresis is incomplete that does not include what encopretic children, engaged in a sound therapeutic relationship, know and say about their soiling. The authors further suggest that physical treatments of those children whose encopresis is psychologically driven may be contraindicated. The presence of a large stool does not in itself substantiate a physical illness. Further research is needed to elucidate the prevalence of anal masturbation in encopretic children.

  14. Validación de los métodos analíticos para la identificación y cuantificación del dextrometorfano jarabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Fernández Serret

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Para realizar el control de la calidad del dextrometorfano jarabe, se aplicó la técnica descrita en la USP 23, y se comprobó la fiabilidad de esta mediante la evaluación de la precisión, exactitud, linealidad y especificidad. Se incluyen además, la determinación de las características organolépticas, pH y contenido por frasco como ensayos propios de medicamentos líquidos de administración oral o de uso externo.The technique described in the USP 23 was applied to carry out the quality control of the dextrometorphan syrup . The reliability of this method was proved by evaluating the accuracy, exactitude, lineality and specificity. The determination of the organoleptic characteristics, pH and content per bottle were also included as own trials of liquid drugs for oral adminstration or for external use.

  15. Desarrollo y validación de los métodos analíticos para el control de calidad del micocilén polvo Development and validation of analytical methods for quality control of Micocilen powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yania Suárez Pérez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El micocilén es un medicamento que se presenta en forma de polvo. Contiene 2 ingredientes farmacéuticos activos: el ácido undecilénico y el undecilinato de zinc. Por su acción fungistática, se ha convertido en un producto de alta demanda en Cuba, ya que las micosis se favorecen en climas cálidos y húmedos. Se realizó el desarrollo y la validación de 2 métodos analíticos para el control de calidad sobre la base de la cuantificación de cada analito presente en la formulación. Se seleccionaron técnicas volumétricas por neutralización acuosa y complejometría. Los resultados fueron satisfactorios, ya que en ambos casos se obtuvo adecuada especificidad, linealidad, exactitud, precisión y robustez. Los métodos propuestos se compararon con los aplicados anteriormente y se obtuvieron resultados mucho más confiables, según resultados del análisis estadístico aplicado, sin diferencias significativas entre las réplicas de un mismo lote.The undecylenic acid (Micocilen is a drug in powder presentation containing two active pharmaceutical ingredients: undecylenic acid and zinc undecylenate. By its fungistatic action becames a first line product in Cuba because of mycoses are typical of wet and warm climates. Development and validation of two analytical methods for the quality control on the base of the quantification of each symbol present in the formula. Volumetric techniques were selected by aqueous neutralization and complexometric. Results were satisfactory since in both cases an appropriate specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness were obtained. Methods proposed were compared to those previously applied obtaining more reliable results, according to results of analytical analysis applied, without significant differences among replica of a same batch.

  16. De mundejarismo de los Anales Toledanos Segundos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe MAÍLLO SALGADO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Como es sabido los Anales Toledanos (Primeros, Segundos y Terceros, compuestos en su mayor parte durante el siglo XIII en distintos momentos y por diferentes manos, son piezas importantes de la historiografía medieval hispánica, tanto por recoger gran cantidad de noticias —por más que éstas sean escuetas— cuanto por estar todas ellas rigurosamente fechadas; de ahí que sean de gran utilidad para el historiador.De estos tres anales, los Segundos (A.T.II tienen unas peculiaridades que los distinguen fuertemente de los otros; sin embargo, en una primera hojeada el lector poco avisado vería que, por su aspecto formal, nada difieren de otros escritos del mismo género, un género éste cuya condición esencial radica en la consignación del evento fechado, esto es, se presenta en párrafos que comienzan o terminan —como es aquí el caso— con una fecha determinada. Nuestro imaginario lector, por otra parte, se encontraría con las peladas noticias típicas del género analístico, a saber: una serie de referencias que dan cuenta de fenómenos naturales (como son las sequías prolongadas o las excesivas lluvias, las heladas intempestivas, los terremotos, los eclipses..., que informan de las épocas de hambre o carestía, de los precios de los artículos, de prodigios, de acontecimientos locales, etc.; el todo amalgamado con noticias de carácter político-militar.

  17. Anal incontinence in women with recurrent obstetric anal sphincter rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgeskov, Reneé; Nickelsen, Carsten Nahne Amtoft; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Abstract Objectives: To determine the risk of recurrent anal sphincter rupture (ASR), and compare the risk of anal incontinence (AI) after recurrent ASR, with that seen in women with previous ASR who deliver by caesarean section or vaginally without sustaining a recurrent ASR. METHODS...

  18. The importance of ultrasound findings in the study of anal pain Importancia de los hallazgos ecográficos en el dolor anal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Vieira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: endoanal ultrasonography can detect organic causes of anal pain without pathology on physical examination. The aim of this study is to evaluate the importance of endoanal ultrasonography in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of idiopathic and functional anal pain. Material and methods: retrospective study, between 15 March 2005 and 15 June 2008, of all patients with proctalgia and normal examination or with alterations not responsible for anal pain at proctologic exam that have undergone an endoanal ultrasonography. Results: a total of 90 patients were analyzed, with a mean age of 50.5 years, 58% were female. Twenty-three patients had functional anal pain clinic criteria. Endoanal ultrasonography revealed alterations in 49% of patients. The primary findings were changes in sphincters in 14 patients, followed by anal sepsis in 12 patients, anal fissure in 10 patients, perirectal lesions in 6 patients and ulcer of the anal canal in 2 patients. Of the patients with sphincter defects, 5 patients had criteria of chronic anal pain. In this group of patients, no differences were found in manometric and defecographic results between the different ultrasound abnormalities. Conclusions: the endoanal ultrasonography detected occult organic lesions to proctologic examination, in half the patients with anal pain. Ultrasound abnormalities were found in 22% of patients with functional anal pain. However, there was no correlation between ultrasound findings and physiological studies, and therefore could not find etiological or pathogenic factors of functional anal pain.Objetivo: la ecografía endoanal puede detectar causas orgánicas en el dolor anal sin patología en la exploración física. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la importancia de la ecografía endoanal en el diagnóstico y en el abordaje terapéutico del dolor anal idiopática y funcional. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo realizado entre el 15 de marzo de 2005 y el

  19. [Effectiveness of human papillomavirus genotyping for detection of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia compared to anal cytology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-España, Laura; Repiso-Jiménez, Juan Bosco; Fernández-Sánchez, Fernando; Pereda, Teresa; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Fernández-Morano, Teresa; de la Torre-Lima, Javier; Palma, Fermín; Redondo, Maximino; de Troya-Martín, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN) -with an aetiological based on high-risk types of human papillomavirus- is increasing in some high-risk groups. Screening for HGAIN includes routine anal cytology and, more recently, HPV genotyping. The main objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of anal cytology and HPV genotyping for the detection of HGAIN. This is a study to determine the correlation of cytological and microbiological findings with anal biopsy findings in a cohort of patients at high risk of developing AIN referred to the department of sexually transmitted infections of the Hospital Costa del Sol, Spain, between January 2008 and December 2014. Of the 151 patients subjected to screening, a total of 92 patients, all of them with the result of three screening test (anal cytology, genotyping and biopsy) were included in the study. Just under two-thirds (62%) of them were HIV-positive. The sensitivity and specificity of anal cytology to detect HGAIN were 52.8 and 85.7%, respectively (k: 0.328), and 78 and 62.8% to detect two or more HPV oncogenic genotypes (k: 0.417). The detection of oncogenic HPV genotypes allowed the identification of 23 new cases of HGAIN that had been underdiagnosed with anal cytology, with 14 cases containing at least three high-risk genotypes. Anal cytology did not show enough sensitivity in HGAIN screening. HPV genotyping has shown to be a useful tool to detect HGAIN cases, although it could lead to an over-diagnosis as a solitary screening procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  20. Una apuesta analítica del funcionamiento del dispositivo psi pericial en el campo penal Uma aposta analitica do funcionamento do dispositivo psi pericial inserido no campo penal An analysis of the psy expert assemblage in the penal field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López Gallego

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La aproximación al dispositivo psi pericial inserto en el campo penal aquí efectuada, traza un itinerario de análisis que aborda el funcionamiento de dicho dispositivo, poniendo especial énfasis en las imbricadas relaciones entre los saberes jurídicos y lo psi. Para efectuar dicho análisis, se utilizan documentos específicos producidos por los peritos psi en el marco del Poder Judicial del Uruguay. Se entiende a las prácticas psi como el efecto de ciertas confluencias históricas relacionadas con el examen, con las estrategias de objetividad, con la traducción de categorías psi en categorías jurídicas y con la incorporación de la lógica de individualización como eje del dispositivo psi pericial. La pregunta que guía el análisis versa sobre lo que posibilita la incorporación del dispositivo psi pericial en el campo penal.A aproximação ao dispositivo psi pericial inserido no campo penal aqui realizada traça um itinerário de análise que aborda o funcionamento do dispositivo, enfatizando as relações imbricadas entre os saberes jurídicos e psi. Para realizar a análise, utilizam-se documentos específicos produzidos por peritos psi no marco do Poder Judicial do Uruguai. Entendem-se as práticas psi como efeito de certas confluências históricas relacionadas ao exame, às estratégias de objetividade, à tradução de categorias psi em categorias jurídicas e à incorporação da lógica da individualização como um ponto central do dispositivo psi pericial. A pergunta que orienta a análise é o que possibilita a incorporação do dispositivo psi pericial no campo penal.The approach made here about the "expert psy assemblage" inserted into the criminal field draws a path of analysis that considers the operation of this assemblage, highlighting the intertwined relationships between the legal and psychological knowledge. To undertake such analysis, specific documents produced by the psy experts, working under the Judiciary

  1. La tipología del fumador como determinante de las opciones terapéuticas para dejar de fumar : estudio analítico del cuestionario "reasons for smoking scale"

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Cruz Sarrate, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo parte de la hipótesis de que el test puede presentar una gran utilidad clínica debido a que: 1°)los diversos perfiles del fumador pueden asociarse significativamente a las tasas de cesación; y 2°) se podrían adaptar las intervenciones de cesación y 3º) predecir los resultados en función de su perfil, tal como se define en el RSS. Sobre la base de esta hipótesis, el análisis de los objetivos que se ha planteado incluye: 1) Evaluar si el test “Tipo de Fumador” (Reason...

  2. [Surgical treatment of anal fistula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiandong; Zhang, Yong

    2014-12-01

    Anal fistula is a common disease. It is also quite difficult to be solved without recurrence or damage to the anal sphincter. Several techniques have been described for the management of anal fistula, but there is no final conclusion of their application in the treatment. This article summarizes the history of anal fistula management, the current techniques available, and describes new technologies. Internet online searches were performed from the CNKI and Wanfang databases to identify articles about anal fistula management including seton, fistulotomy, fistulectomy, LIFT operation, biomaterial treatment and new technology application. Every fistula surgery technique has its own place, so it is reasonable to give comprehensive individualized treatment to different patients, which may lead to reduced recurrence and avoidance of damage to the anal sphincter. New technologies provide promising alternatives to traditional methods of management. Surgeons still need to focus on the invention and improvement of the minimally invasive techniques. Besides, a new therapeutic idea is worth to explore that the focus of surgical treatment should be transferred to prevention of the formation of anal fistula after perianal abscess.

  3. Anal Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anal cancer is a rare malignancy and accounts for a small percentage of cancers of the lower alimentary tract. The most common type of anal cancer is squamous cell carcinoma in the anal canal. Find evidence-based information on anal cancer treatment, causes and prevention, research, and statistics.

  4. Conversor analógico digital basado en oscilador controlado por tensión

    OpenAIRE

    Cardes García, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Convencionalmente, los micrófonos dan una salida analógica debida a la variación de presión que produce el sonido, y esta señal se digitaliza por medio de conversores analógico digitales tradicionales. En este proyecto se aborda el diseño de un sistema que obtenga como salida un código digitalizado a partir del sonido recibido por la cápsula microfónica. La principal ventaja de utilizar este sistema es que el circuito analógico que acondiciona la señal se simpli ca considerable...

  5. [Usefulness of human papillomavirus testing in anal intraepithelial neoplasia screening in a risk behaviour population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-España, Laura; Repiso-Jiménez, Bosco; Fernández-Sánchez, Fernando; Frieyro-Elicegui, Marta; Fernández-Morano, Teresa; Pereda, Teresa; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Redondo, Maximino; de-Troya Martín, Magdalena

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of intraepithelial anal neoplasia is increasing in certain risk behaviour groups, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is involved in its pathogenesis. The systematic use of anal cytology, and more recently HPV detection by hybrid capture and genotyping, have been introduced into screening programs in recent decades. A retrospective cohort study was carried out on individuals with risk behaviours of developing intraepithelial anal neoplasia and who attended Sexually Transmitted Infections clinics in the Dermatology area of the Hospital Costa del Sol from January 2010 to December 2012. The intraepithelial anal neoplasia screening was performed using anal cytology and HPV genotyping. Half (50%) of the study population were HIV positive. A high frequency of anal dysplasia and presence of HPV in cytology (82.1%) and genotype (79%) was found. A statistically significant association (P<.005) was obtained between the presence of high-risk HPV genotypes and the presence of high-grade dysplasia in the second directed cytology. HPV genotyping enabled 17 cases (22%) of severe dysplasia to be identified that were under-diagnosed in the first cytology. Cases of high-grade dysplasia can be under-diagnosed by a first anal cytology. Detection of HPV can supplement this procedure, leading to the identification of those patients most at risk of developing high-grade anal dysplasia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. La Representabilidad del Genocidio

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona González, Lorena

    2012-01-01

    El presente artículo intenta hacer una aproximación histórica y analítica al fenómeno del Genocidio, sus implicaciones sociales y culturales que dieron como resultado la reformulación analítica y conceptual de hechos que hasta entonces superaban el conocimiento y la moral humana. De este modo, se hace un trayecto histórico de la paulatina aparición del asesinato masivo como practica de Estado, enmarcado en las experiencias del genocidio armenio y el alemán. A su vez, se hace una mirada sobre ...

  7. Internal anal sphincter: Clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lalit; Emmanuel, Anton

    2017-08-01

    To summarise current knowledge of Internal anal sphincter. The internal anal sphincter (IAS) is the involuntary ring of smooth muscle in the anal canal and is the major contributor to the resting pressure in the anus. Structural injury or functional weakness of the muscle results in passive incontinence of faeces and flatus. With advent of new assessment and treatment modalities IAS has become an important topic for surgeons. This review was undertaken to summarise our current knowledge of internal anal sphincter and highlight the areas that need further research. The PubMed database was used to identify relevant studies relating to internal anal sphincter. The available evidence has been summarised and advantages and limitations highlighted for the different diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. Our understanding of the physiology and pharmacology of IAS has increased greatly in the last three decades. Additionally, there has been a rise in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques specifically targeting the IAS. Although these are promising, future research is required before these can be incorporated into the management algorithm. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Validación del método analítico para el control de la calidad y estudio de estabilidad de propiltiouracilo 50 mg Analytical method validation for quality control and the study of the 50 mg Propylthiouracil stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Olga Valdés Bendoyro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló y validó un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, para el control de la calidad y los estudios de estabilidad del propiltiouracilo 50 mg, tabletas. El método se basó en la separación del principio activo a través una columna cromatográfica Lichrospher 100 RP-18 RP-18 (5 µm (250 x 4 mm, con detección ultravioleta a 272 nm, para lo cual se empleó una fase móvil compuesta por una mezcla desgasificada de solución amortiguadora fosfato de potasio monobásico 0,025 M a pH= 4,6, y acetonitrilo en una proporción de 80:20, con una velocidad de flujo de 0,5 mL/min. El método analítico resultó lineal, preciso, específico y exacto en el intervalo de concentraciones estudiadas.A high-performance liquid chromatography analytical method was developed and validated for the quality control and stability studies of 50 mg Propylthiouracil tablets. Method is based in active principle separation through a 100 RP-18 RP-18 (5 µm (250 x 4 mm Lichrospher chromatography with UV detection to 272 nm, using a mobile phase composed by a ungaseous mixture of a 0.025 M buffer solution-monobasic potassium phosphate to pH= 4,6 ad acetonitrile in a 80:20 ratio with a flux speed of 0,5 mL/min. Analytical method was linear, precise, specific and exact in the study concentrations interval.

  9. Validación del método analítico para el control de la calidad y el estudio de estabilidad del neolimpilen Validation of the analytical method for the quality control and the stability study of neolimpilem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad M García Peña

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Se validó el método analítico desarrollado para el control de la calidad y el estudio de estabilidad en la cuantificación de hidroxipropilmetilcelulosa y laurilsulfato de sodio por espectrofotometría con detección ultravioleta a 635 y 650 nm respectivamente. Además, se presentan los resultados analíticos del estudio de estabilidad realizado a la solución para la limpieza y conservación de lentes de contacto rígidos (neolimpilen, con el empleo de 3 lotes envasados en 2 frascos diferentes realizando el estudio por estabilidad acelerada y vida de estante; se comprueba la estabilidad física y química de la solución por espacio de 24 meses a temperatura ambiente. En la validación de la hidroxipropilmetilcelulosa, la curva de calibración en el rango de 0,06 a 0,18 mg/mL se comportó de forma lineal con un coeficiente de correlación igual a 0,99581; la prueba estadística para el intercepto y la pendiente resultó no significativa. Se obtuvo un recobrado del 99,8 % en el rango de concentración estudiado y las pruebas de Cochran´(G y Student´s (t resultaron no significativas. El coeficiente de variación en la repetibilidad se comportó igual a 0,9 % para 10 réplicas ensayadas, mientras que en la reproducibilidad las pruebas de Fischer y Student fueron no significativas. El método resultó específico, lineal, preciso y exacto. Mientras que en la validación del laurilsulfato de sodio la curva de calibración en el rango de 1,44 a 3,0 mg/mL se comportó de forma lineal con un coeficiente de correlación igual a 0,99036; la prueba estadística para el intercepto y la pendiente fue no significativa. Se obtuvo un recobrado del 99,9 % en el rango de concentración estudiado y las pruebas de Cochran´(G y Student´s (t resultaron no significativas. El coeficiente de variación en la repetibilidad se comportó igual a 0,8 % para 8 réplicas ensayadas, mientras que en la reproducibilidad las pruebas de Fischer y Student fueron no

  10. Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV+ MSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegenbeek van Heukelom, M.L.

    2018-01-01

    In this thesis we report on several aspects of high-grade anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM). It is estimated that 10% of HIV+ MSM with anal HSIL will develop anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) over 30 years time. Screening programs similar to

  11. [Caesarean section and anal incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalis, V; Stipán, J; Chaloupka, P; Karbanová, J; Rokyta, Z

    2008-04-01

    Summary of the impact of Caesarean section on anal incontinence. Review. Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Charles University and University Hospital Plzen. Review of the current international literature. Currently, Caesarean section is not considered to reduce symptoms of anal incontinence. If there is any reduction of symptoms, that remains only for a short term (40% in 3 months after the delivery in the largest trial). In a long term, virtually in no trial has been observed any difference, and others, non-obstetrical factors (particularly aging) prevail. Current knowledge does not allow to assess sufficiently pros and cons of Caesarean compared to vaginal delivery. High risk groups, that would profit from elective Ceasarean, have not been clearly identified yet.

  12. Validación del método analítico para el control de la calidad y estudio de estabilidad de ketotifeno colirio 0,025 % Validation of analytical method to quality control and the stability study of 0.025 % eyedrops Ketotiphen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenilen Troche Concepción

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El colirio de ketotifeno se indica para aliviar los signos y síntomas de las conjuntivitis alérgicas, por ser este un potente antihistamínico H1 que muestra cierta capacidad para inhibir la liberación de histamina y otros mediadores en mastocitos. En este trabajo se desarrolló y validó un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, para el control de la calidad y los estudios de estabilidad del ketotifeno colirio 0,025 %. El método se basó en la separación del principio activo a través una columna cromatográfica Lichrosorb RP-18 (5 µm (250 x 4 mm, con detección ultravioleta a 296 nm, para lo cual se empleó una fase móvil compuesta por una mezcla desgasificada de metanol:buffer fosfato (75:25; pH 8,5 y se le añadió 1 mL de isopropanol por cada 1 000 mL de la mezcla anterior, con una velocidad de flujo de 1,2 mL/min. El método analítico resultó lineal, preciso, específico y exacto en el intervalo de concentraciones estudiadas.The Ketotiphen eyedrop is prescribed to relief the signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis due to its potent H1 antihistaminic effect showing some ability to inhibit the histamine release and other mediators in cases of mastocytosis. The aim of present paper was to develop and validate an analytical method for the high-performance liquid chromatography, to quality control and the stability studies of 0.025 % eyedrop Ketotiphen. Method was based on active principle separation by means of a Lichrosorb RP-18 (5 µm (250 x 4 mm, with UV detection to 296 nm using a mobile phase including a non-gasified mixture of methanol:buffer-phosphate (75:25; pH 8.5 adding 1 mL of Isopropanol by each 1 000 mL of the previous mixture at a 1.2 mL/min flow velocity. The analytical method was linear, accurate, specific and exact during the study concentrations.

  13. HIV/AIDS, HPV and Anal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-ching J.; Sparano, Joseph; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Anal cancer is an increasingly common non-AIDS-defining cancer among HIV-infected individuals. It is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted infectious agent. The 14 oncogenic types of HPV are causally associated with 5–10% of all cancers, notably anogenital cancers. HPV16 is the most common genotype detected in about 70% of anal cancers. The HPV types detected in anal cancer are included in the 9-valent vaccine. HPV vaccines have demonstrated efficacy in reducing anal precancerous lesions in HIV-infected individuals. The standard treatment for anal cancer has been fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin (or cisplatin) as chemotherapy agents plus radiation, which can also be effectively used for the HIV-infected patients. Continued studies will be needed to test new treatment strategies in HIV-infected patients with anal cancer to determine which treatment protocols provide the best therapeutic index. PMID:27889034

  14. IMPORTANCE OF THE ANAL MANOMETRY IN THE JUDICIALMEDICAL EXPERTISE OF THE ANAL PENETRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelica Miljkovic

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The forceful anal penetration can leave as a consequence a lasting damage ofthe anal sphincter function. The anal manometry is one of the methods that, in anindirect way, by measuring the pressure in the anal channel, may determine theexistence of the anus-closing muscles' function damage. The importance of the analmanometry application as an objective indicator of a possible damage of the analsphincter function is presented in the cases of the judicial-medical expertise of theanal penetration. Three cases of criminal acts of sexual abuse and rape in which thejudicial-medical expertise by the anal manometry method was applied are analyzed.The anal manometry method is reliable in determining the functional stote of theexternal and the internal anal sphincter and it should be accepted as obligatory indiagnostics and verification of the anal penetration.

  15. Early discharge after external anal sphincter repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe an accelerated-stay program for repair of the external anal sphincter. METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients undergoing overlapping repair of the external anal sphincter were included in the study. Effect parameters were length of hospitalization....... CONCLUSION: We have described a safe accelerated-stay program (24 to 48 hours) for overlapping repair of external anal sphincter....

  16. Anal Sphincter Augmentation Using Biological Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nasra N; Narang, Sunil K; Köckerling, Ferdinand; Daniels, Ian R; Smart, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the use of biological materials in the augmentation of the anal sphincter either as part of an overlapping sphincter repair (OSR) or anal bulking procedure. A systematic search of PubMed was conducted using the search terms "anal bulking agents," "anal sphincter repair," or "overlapping sphincter repair." Five studies using biological material as part of an overlapping sphincter repair (OSR) or as an anal bulking agent were identified. 122 patients underwent anal bulking with a biological material. Anorectal physiology was conducted in 27 patients and demonstrated deterioration in maximum resting pressure, and no significant change in maximum squeeze increment. Quality of life scores (QoLs) demonstrated improvements at 6 weeks and 6 months, but this had deteriorated at 12 months of follow up. Biological material was used in 23 patients to carry out an anal encirclement procedure. Improvements in QoLs were observed in patients undergoing OSR as well as anal encirclement using biological material. Incontinence episodes decreased to an average of one per week from 8 to 10 preoperatively. Sphincter encirclement with biological material has demonstrated improvements in continence and QoLs in the short term compared to traditional repair alone. Long-term studies are necessary to determine if this effect is sustained. As an anal bulking agent the benefits are short-term.

  17. Efectividad de la logística del transporte aéreo de mercancías: Una aproximación multicriterio basada en el Proceso Analítico Sistémico (ANP)

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce Pérez, David; Larrodé Pellicer, Emilio; Moreno Jiménez, José María

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo principal de la presente Tesis Doctoral es crear y desarrollar un modelo de análisis que permita medir la alineación de los objetivos estratégicos del transporte aéreo de mercancías en la Situación Actual del sistema con dichos objetivos estratégicos en la Situación Ideal. Para ello, dicho modelo de análisis se basa en el apoyo metodológico que se obtiene de la técnica de análisis multicriterio Proceso de Análisis Sistémico (Anlytic Network Porcess, ANP) de T. Saaty (1996). Esta t...

  18. Electrocautery Superior to Topical Treatments for Precancerous Anal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Anal Cancer Treatment Anal Cancer Prevention Research Electrocautery Superior to Topical Treatments for Precancerous Anal Lesions ... randomized clinical trial conducted in Amsterdam suggest that electrocautery is better than topical imiquimod or fluorouracil at ...

  19. Nocturnal faecal soiling and anal masturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A F; Tayler, P J; Bhate, S R

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of late onset faecal soiling as a result of anal masturbation in children who were neither mentally handicapped nor psychotic were studied. The role of soiling in aiding the young person and his family to avoid separating and maturing is highlighted. We suggest that the association of anal masturbation and resistant nocturnal soiling may be unrecognised. PMID:2270946

  20. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV+ men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richel, O.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated several aspects of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) in HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM). This condition has gained clinical interest because of the impressive increase of the anal cancer incidence in HIV+ MSM since the introduction of combination antiretroviral

  1. Neuronal hyperplasia in the anal canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, C; Schrøder, H D

    1990-01-01

    In a consecutive series of minor surgical specimens from the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was found in nine of 56 haemorrhoidectomy specimens and in four of 23 fibrous polyps. In an additional series of 14 resections of the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was present in six cases, of which f...

  2. KRAS and BRAF mutations in anal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup-Hansen, Eva; Linnemann, Dorte; Høgdall, Estrid

    2015-01-01

    the frequency and the prognostic value of KRAS and BRAF mutations in a large cohort of patients with anal cancer. One hundred and ninety-three patients with T1-4N0-3M0-1 anal carcinoma were included in the study. Patients were treated with curative (92%) or palliative intent (8%) between January 2000...

  3. Aplicación del método de jerarquías analíticas (AHP) a la gestión de pérdidas de agua en redes de abastecimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Galván, Xitlali Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Las fugas en los sistemas de distribución de agua están provocadas por todos aquellos fallos en las tuberías, accesorios o tanques de almacenamiento que provocan una pérdida de agua. La cantidad de agua que se pierde por fugas en las redes de distribución de agua potable representa para los gestores de las empresas de abastecimiento uno de los mayores desafíos a los que deben enfrentarse, no solamente por el coste del agua que se pierde, sino porque esa agua lleva implícita una serie de coste...

  4. El juego simbólico una alternativa en las dilataciones anales

    OpenAIRE

    Aguinaga B. Oscar William

    1993-01-01

    "Las malformaciones ano-rectales están entre las más comunes de las malformaciones de tipo congénito causadas por anormalidades del desarrollo, aproximadamente uno de cada cinco mil partos con producto vivo, en Estados Unidos". Clasificaciones existen muchas, pero la de uso más generalizado y tenida en cuenta en el Hospital de la Misericordia, servicio de quirúrgicas, es: Estenosis anal congénita, agenecia anal, atresia rectal, fístula rectoperineal, fístula rectovaginal.

     

    ...

  5. El Ministerio de Fomento, impulsor del estudio y el reconocimiento del territorio mexicano (1877-1898

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIreya Blanco Martínez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es dar a conocer una serie de reflexiones acerca del papel que desempeñó el Ministerio de Fomento en torno al estudio y reconocimiento del territorio mexicano en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX, esto se sustentará en el análisis de los informes contenidos en una de las publicaciones del Ministerio de Fomento: los Anales del Ministerio de Fomento de la República Mexicana, correspondiendo el periodo delimitado para esta investigación con el de la publicación de Anales.

  6. Validación del método analítico para el control de la calidad y estudio de estabilidad de fenilefrina 10 % colirio Validation of an analytical method for quality control and stability study of 10 % Phenylephrine eyedrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiza Monteagudo Licea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La fenilefrina se emplea como midriático en exámenes de ojos y otros procedimientos oftálmicos. Se utiliza como vasoconstrictor con anestésicos locales. En este trabajo se validó un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución para el control de la calidad y los estudios de estabilidad de la fenilefrina 10 % colirio. El método se basó en la separación del principio activo a través una columna cromatográfica Lichrosorb RP-18 (5 µm (250 x 4 mm, con detección ultravioleta a 280 nm, para lo cual se empleó una fase móvil compuesta por una mezcla desgasificada de metanol:agua destilada (1:1, con 1,1 g de 1-octanosulfonato de sodio por litro ajustado a pH 3,0 con ácido fosfórico, con una velocidad de flujo de 1,0 mL/min. El método analítico resultó lineal, preciso, específico y exacto en el intervalo de concentraciones estudiadas.Phenylephrine is used like mydiatric in eye examinations and other ophthalmic procedures. It is used as vasoconstrictor with local anesthetic agents. In present paper a high ressolution liquid chromatography analytical method was validated to quality control and stability studies of 10 % Phenylephrine (eyedrops. Mathod was based in separation of active principle through a Lichrosorb RO-18 (5 µm (250 x 4 mm chromatography column with UV detection at 280 nm using a mobile phase composed by a non-gasified mixture of methanol distilled water (1:1 with 1.1 g of 1-sodium octane-sulphonate by liter adjusted to pH 3,0 with phosphoric acid at a flow speed of 1.0 mL/min. Analytical method was linear, accuracy, specific and exact in the interval of study concentrations.

  7. La teoría del contexto de T. Van Dijk como proyecto analítico derivado del pragmatismo peirciano: un aporte a la comprensión semiótica del discurso The theory of the context of T. Van Dijk as an analytical project derived from peirce's pragmatism: a contribution to semiotic understanding of discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Brower Beltramin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo desenvolver uma abordagem teórica sobre o contexto. Em tal sentido, expomos contribuições conceituais relativas às condições de produção discursiva propostos por Teun van Dijk segundo a tradição epistemológica pragmática. A perspectiva desse linguista permite a abertura a uma formalização teórica da situação em que se geram os discursos, expondo uma perspectiva que explica o fenômeno discursivo em sua dimensão social, indispensável para o trabalho analítico sobre qualquer tipo de discurso. Assim, inicialmente propomos uma elaboração de conhecimento significativo para, posteriormente, delimitar e selecionar os elementos conceituais que dão forma ao construto que denominamos contexto, utilizando como fonte teórica central os trabalhos de van Dijk e outros autores de alcance interdisciplinar cujas contribuições podem ser incorporadas a qualquer teoria e metodologia concebidas para lidar com a organização estrutural do discurso.The objective of this article is to develop a theoretical approach about the context. In such sense, we set out the conceptual contributions in relation to the conditions of discursive production proposed by Teun van Dijk from Pragmatic Epistemology tradition.The perspective of this linguist allows open us towards a theoretical formalization of the situation in which the discourses are generated, exposing a perspective that explains the discursive phenomenon in its social dimension, irreplaceable for the analytical work on any type of discourse. In this way, firstly we raised an elaboration of significant knowledge, and later we delimit and select those conceptual elements that give form to the frame that we call context, using as central theoretical source the works of van Dijk and others authors of interdisciplinary reach whose contributions can to be incorporated to any theory and methodology conceived to give account of the structural organization of the speech.

  8. Revisión bibliográfico analítica acerca de las diversas teorías y programas de intervención del autismo infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Mebarak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo realizar una revisión bibliográfica acerca del autismo infantil. Se hace énfasis en las diversas teorías e hipótesis psicológicas que subyacen a este singular trastorno y se complementa la información acerca de las diversas técnicas de intervención que a nivel interdisciplinario se vienen manejando, con el fin de mejorar la calidad de vida de los afectados. El autismo infantil presenta una gran heterogeneidad en sus manifestaciones sintomáticas, por lo que es posible confundirlo a nivel de diagnóstico diferencial. Se han encontrado contradicciones en los resultados de algunas investigaciones en relación con las diversas técnicas de intervención con las que se viene tratando actualmente el trastorno.

  9. Sistema analítico de evaluación de la actividad biológica del reactivo hemoclasificador HEMO-CIM ANTI-A Analytical system of evaluation of the biological activity of anti-A hemo-cim hemoclassifier reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Suárez Batista

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de llevar a cabo el escalado industrial de los productos hemoclasificadores a partir de anticuerpos monoclonales murinos, se realizaron diversas actividades para crear las condiciones que permitieran su manufactura con el cumplimiento de las buenas prácticas de producción en el Centro de Inmunología Molecular. Se introdujeron los métodos analíticos para determinar la calidad del producto hemoclasificador Hemo-CIM anti-A en el Departamento de Control de la Calidad, se entrenó al personal responsable de esta actividad en el uso de estos métodos de evaluación de la actividad biológica del AcM anti-A en el sobrenadante, líquido ascítico y producto terminado; se diseñaron y elaboraron los documentos que forman parte del sistema de documentación; entre ellos, los procedimientos normalizados de operación (PNO, los expedientes maestros de lotes, los documentos para la recolección de datos, así como los registros de lote, los certificados de calidad y los registros de las mediciones de la actividad biológica para archivar los resultados en el laboratorioWith the objective of carrying out industrial scaling of hemoclassifier products from murin monoclonal antibodies, a number of activities were performed to create the conditions for their manufacture in compliance with good manufacturing practices of the Molecular Immunology Center. The analytical methods were introduced to determine the quality of anti-A Hemo-CIM hemoclassifier in the Quality Assurance Department. Staff responsible for this work was trained in the use of these evaluation methods of the biological action of anti-A monoclonal antibody in supernatant, ascitic fluid and finished product; the documents that are part of the documentation system were designed and prepared, among them standard operating procedures, master production batch records, documents for data-gathering, batch records, quality certificates and biological activity measurement registers to

  10. A Mouse Model for Human Anal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Marie K.; Pitot, Henry C.; Liem, Amy; Schweizer, Johannes; Mahoney, Charles; Lambert, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    Human anal cancers are associated with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that cause other anogenital cancers and head and neck cancers. As with other cancers, HPV16 is the most common high-risk HPV in anal cancers. We describe the generation and characterization of a mouse model for human anal cancer. This model makes use of K14E6 and K14E7 transgenic mice in which the HPV16 E6 and E7 genes are directed in their expression to stratified squamous epithelia. HPV16 E6 and E7 possess oncogenic properties including but not limited to their capacity to inactivate the cellular tumor suppressors p53 and pRb, respectively. Both E6 and E7 were found to be functionally expressed in the anal epithelia of K14E6/K14E7 transgenic mice. To assess the susceptibility of these mice to anal cancer, mice were treated topically with dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a chemical carcinogen that is known to induce squamous cell carcinomas in other sites. Nearly 50% of DMBA-treated HPV16 E6/E7 transgenic mice showed overt signs of tumors; whereas, none of the like treated non-transgenic mice showed tumors. Histopathological analyses confirmed that the HPV16 transgenic mice were increased in their susceptibility to anal cancers and precancerous lesions. Biomarker analyses demonstrated that these mouse anal cancers exhibit properties that are similar to those observed in HPV-positive precursors to human anal cancer. This is the first mouse model for investigating the contributions of viral and cellular factors in anal carcinogenesis, and should provide a platform for assessing new therapeutic modalities for treating and/or preventing this type of cancer. PMID:20947489

  11. Método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución para el estudio de estabilidad del jarabe de loratadina 0,1 %

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Torres Amaro

    Full Text Available Se validó un método de cromatografía líquida de alta resolución para el estudio de estabilidad del jarabe de loratadina 0,1 %. La curva de calibración en el rango de 13,6 a 3,36 µg/mL fue lineal, con un coeficiente de correlación igual a 0,99975; la prueba estadística para el intercepto y la pendiente, no significativa. El recobrado obtenido resultó de 100,2 % en el rango de concentración estudiado, y las pruebas de Cochran y Student (t, no significativas. El coeficiente de variación en el estudio de repetibilidad fue igual a 0,41 % para 10 réplicas ensayadas, mientras que en la reproducibilidad las pruebas de Fischer y Student, no significativas. El método resultó específico, lineal, preciso y exacto.

  12. Keratosis reduces sensitivity of anal cytology in detecting anal intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElNaggar, Adam C; Santoso, Joseph T; Xie, Huiwen Bill

    2012-02-01

    To identify factors that may contribute to poor sensitivity of anal cytology in contrast to the sensitivity of anoscopy in heterosexual women. We analyzed 324 patients with biopsy confirmed diagnosis of genital intraepithelial neoplasia (either vulva, vaginal, or cervical) from 2006 to 2011 who underwent both anal cytology and anoscopy. Cytology, anoscopy, and biopsy results were recorded. Biopsy specimens underwent independent analysis for quality of specimen. Also, biopsy specimens were analyzed for characteristics that may contribute to correlation, or lack thereof, between anal cytology and anoscopic directed biopsy. 133 (41%) patients had abnormal anoscopy and underwent directed biopsy. 120 patients with normal anal cytology had anoscopy directed biopsies, resulting in 58 cases of AIN (sensitivity 9.4%; 0.039-0.199). This cohort was noted to have extensive keratosis covering the entire dysplastic anal lesion. 18 patients yielded abnormal anal cytology. Of these patients, 13 had anoscopic directed biopsies revealing 6 with AIN and absent keratosis (specificity 88.6%; 0.78-0.95). The κ statistic for anal cytology and anoscopy was -0.0213 (95% CI=-0.128-0.086). Keratosis reduces the sensitivity of anal cytology. Furthermore, anal cytology poorly correlates with anoscopy in the detection of AIN (κ statistic=-0.0213). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Enfoque híbrido simulación-proceso analítico jerárquico: caso de estudio del rediseño de un restaurante || Hybrid Approach between Analytic Hierarchy Process and Simulation: Case Study, Redesign of a Restaurant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Sánchez, Caridad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La simulación ha demostrado ser una técnica potente y particularmente eficaz para valorar diferentes alternativas de solución de problemas, sin ser necesaria su experimentación real. En particular, resulta útil para la toma de decisiones cuando se desea organizar los puestos de trabajo en una organización donde existan variables que tengan un comportamiento aleatorio e influyan en los resultados. En este trabajo se propone utilizar la simulación discreta para el rediseño y organización del trabajo en un restaurante de comida criolla, el cual presenta problemas en su diseño actual (entre los que destacan: demoras en la atención a los clientes, aumento de los tiempos de espera para sentarse, lo que ha provocado una disminución en las ventas en el ultimo período. Con la simulación se realiza la modelización y evaluación de diferentes alternativas de organización del trabajo y, posteriormente, para el ordenamiento y la selección de la mejor alternativa, se utiliza el enfoque multicriterio en espacios discretos, específicamente el método analítico jerárquico desarrollado por Thomas Saaty, utilizando para ello el software “Jerarquías". || The simulation has proved a particularly effective and powerful technique to evaluate different alternatives for solving problems, without being required actual experimentation. It is particularly useful for decision-making when you want to organize jobs in an organization where there are variables that have random behavior and influence the results. This paper proposes to use the discrete simulation for redesign and organization of work in a local food restaurant, which presents problems in its current design (among which are: delays in customer service, increased time waiting to sit, which has caused a decline in sales in the fourth quarter. With the simulation, it is obtained the modelling and evaluation of different alternatives of work organization and later, for the ordering and the

  14. Metodología de la investigación: El enfoque meta-analítico para la síntesis cuantitativa para la literatura en las ciencias del movimiento humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncada Jiménez, José

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este artículo se presenta una descripción de diferentes tipos de tamaños de efecto utilizados para resumir de manera cuantitativa el cuerpo de investigación proveniente de diversas áreas de las ciencias del movimiento humano. En total se revisaron 108 meta análisis publicados entre 1983 y 2005. En el documento se describen dos grupos o familias principales de tamaños de efecto, la familia d y la familia r. Los indicadores de la familia d se utilizan para describir el efecto de un tratamiento sobre la variable dependiente en estudios de tipo comparativos; mientras que los indicadores de la familia r se utilizan para explicar la magnitud de las relaciones entre las variables en los estudios correlacionales. Las revisiones sistemáticas cuantitativas se han convertido en una herramienta objetiva muy importante para la toma de decisiones con respecto a la continuación o no de una línea determinada de investigación, lo cual permite maximizar el tiempo y los recursos destinados para la investigación. Abstract: This article describes different effect sizes used to quantitatively summarize the body of knowledge from the different areas of the human movement sciences. A total of 108 meta-analyses dating from 1983 to 2005 were reviewed. In this document are described two effect size families, the d and the r. The d-family indicators are used to describe the effect of a treatment over the dependent variable in comparative studies; whereas the r-family indicators are used to explain the magnitude of the relationship between variables in correlational research. Systematic-quantitative reviews of literature have evolved into an useful decision making tool regarding whether a follow-up on specific research areas should be done or not. This decision might allow scholars to maximize their resources and time allowed to perform their research.

  15. ANAL SPHINCTER INJURIES (OASIS AT DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Jakopič

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anal incontinence severely impairs quality of life. It affects 4 to 19 % of women and is statistically related to number of vaginal deliveries. It is grossly underreported and most patients that do seek help are referred to gastroenterologists or colorectal surgeons. Incidence of recognized sphincter injuries at time of delivery is 1 to 2 %. However studies with anal ultrasound showed incidence of anal sphincter injuries at 28 to 41 %. Depending on the degree of injury symptoms range from partial to complete inability to control passing of winds, liquid or solid stools. About three thirds of patients are asymp- tomatic in puerperium, however half of them are at risk of developing anal incontinence in later life. Hypoestrogenisem, additional perineal trauma during consequent deliveries and sphincter atrophy can unmask anal sphincter damage years later. Timely recognition and treatment are vital for good long term results and quality of life, if possible immediately after delivery. Good knowledge of perineal anatomy, recognition of risk factors, intense search and appropriate treatment and follow-up are essential to management of anal sphincter injuries. All secondary sphincter repair is less effective. Content: Updated overview of current opinion and guidelines on anal sphincter injuries are pre- sented. Anal sphincter is composed of external anal sphincter (EAS and internal anal sphincter (IAS. Striated EAS is divided into three parts – subcutaneous, superficial, deep, and con- nected to puborectalis muscle posteriorly. Smooth-muscled IAS is a continuation of a cir- cular smooth-muscle layer of rectum. In between there is a thin longitudinal muscle layer. IAS constitutes 70 % of resting tone and is under constant contraction. EAS contributes to 30 % of resting tone and almost all pressure during active contraction. EAS injury leads to insufficient contraction after rectal sampling and filling which causes urgency – patient can

  16. Diseño, fabricación y aplicaciones analíticas de nanocelulosa y sus híbridos

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Palomero, Celia

    2017-01-01

    El gran avance nanotecnológico que ha experimentado la Química Analítica en los últimos años ha sido un indicador del grado de bienestar de la sociedad. La multidisciplinaridad de la Nanociencia y Nanotecnología ha sido esencial para el avance de los métodos y herramientas analíticas, así como para llevar a cabo la automatización, simplificación y miniaturización de los procesos analíticos integrados en los laboratorios [1]. En este campo, son muchos los nanomateriales explorados por sus ...

  17. Anal incontinence after two vaginal deliveries without obstetric anal sphincter rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Lisa K G; Sakse, Abelone; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate prevalence and risk factors for long-term anal incontinence in women with two prior vaginal deliveries without obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) and to assess the impact of anal incontinence-related symptoms on quality of life. METHODS: This is a nation-wide cross......-sectional survey study. One thousand women who had a first vaginal delivery and a subsequent delivery, both without OASIS, between 1997 and 2008 in Denmark were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Women with more than two deliveries in total till 2012 were excluded at this stage. Of the 1000 women...... affected their quality of life. No maternal or obstetric factors including episiotomy and vacuum extraction were consistently associated with altered risk of anal incontinence in the multivariable analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Anal incontinence and fecal urgency is reported by one fifth of women with two vaginal...

  18. HPV infection, anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN and anal cancer: current issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Margaret A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV is well known as the major etiological agent for ano-genital cancer. In contrast to cervical cancer, anal cancer is uncommon, but is increasing steadily in the community over the last few decades. However, it has undergone an exponential rise in the men who have sex with men (MSM and HIV + groups. HIV + MSM in particular, have anal cancer incidences about three times that of the highest worldwide reported cervical cancer incidences. Discussion There has therefore traditionally been a lack of data from studies focused on heterosexual men and non-HIV + women. There is also less evidence reporting on the putative precursor lesion to anal cancer (AIN – anal intraepithelial neoplasia, when compared to cervical cancer and CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. This review summarises the available biological and epidemiological evidence for HPV in the anal site and the pathogenesis of AIN and anal cancer amongst traditionally non-high risk groups. Summary There is strong evidence to conclude that high-grade AIN is a precursor to anal cancer, and some data on the progression of AIN to invasive cancer.

  19. Endosonographic and manometric assessment of the anal sphincters after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudol-Szopinska, I.; Jakubowski, W.; Ciesielski, A.; Bielecki, K.; Baczuk, L.; Tarnowski, W.

    2003-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to compare endosonography and manometry of the anal sphincters in patients after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). Patients and methods. Ten patients aged between 23 and 50 years with IPAA performed for ulcerative colitis were examined with anal endosonography (AES) and manometry. Results. AES visualised abnormal image of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) in 9 patients (90%). Defects of the external anal sphincter (EAS) and puborectalis muscle (PR) were shown in 4 patients (40%). In 5 patients (50%) correlation between endosonographic and manometric assessment for the all analysed muscles: IAS, EAS and PR was found. In 4 cases (40%) both methods correlated with the evaluation of the EAS only and in 1 patient (10%) no correlation was found. Correlation between both methods for the IAS was found in half of the patients (50%) while in the evaluation of the EAS and PR dynamic activity, it was found in 9 cases (90%). Conclusions. Anal endosonography and manometry allow us to assess the morphology as well as the function of the anal sphincters in patients with IPAA. The methods mentioned above show high correlation in the assessment of the EAS function (9 cases; 90%) whereas in the case of IAS, manometry frequently (5 patients; 50%) does not confirm endosonografically detected defects. (author)

  20. Chronic anal fissure: morphometric analysis of the anal canal at 3.0 Tesla MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, Ayşe; Peker, Elif; Gençtürk, Zeynep Bıyıklı

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTıVE: To compare the morphometric data relating to the muscular structures of the anal canal, in patients with chronic anal fissure and in control group, examined at a 3.0 Tesla MR system. Forty-seven consecutive patients with chronic anal fissure and randomly selected 40 patients who had no claims for perianal disease during their life time were included in the study. T2-weighted sagittal, high-resolution (HR) T2-weighted, and contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted oblique axial and oblique coronal images were retrospectively analyzed by two observers in consensus. Thickness of sphincteric muscles, anal canal length, anorectal angle, thickness of anococcygeal ligament, depth of Minor triangle, width between subcutaneous sphincters, vascularity of posterior commissure, visibility of posterosuperior projection of external sphincter, and angle between the distal anal canal and posterosuperior projection of external sphincter (H angle) in patients and in controls were compared and analyzed using t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Spearman correlation. The patients with chronic anal fissure had longer anal canal (51.50 mm ± 0.91 vs. 44.11 mm ± 0.71; p = 0.000), thicker internal anal sphincter muscle at mid-anal level (4.18 ± 0.15 vs. 3.39 ± 0.07; p = 0.007), and wider space between subcutaneous external sphincters (11.39 ± 0.50 vs. 6.89 ± 0.22; p = 0.000). In patients, there was a positive correlation between H angle and external sphincter thickness at proximal (r = 0.347; p = 0.021), middle (r = 0427; p = 0.000), and distal (r = 0.518; p = 0.000)) levels of the anal canal. CONCLUSıON: 3.0 Tesla MR imaging provides detailed information about the morphometric changes in the anal sphincter muscles in patients with chronic anal fissure.

  1. Estudios arqueofaunísticos en un contexto estratigráfico de las llanuras interiores de Entre Ríos: el sitio Laguna del Negro 1 (departamento Gualeguay, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bastourre

    Full Text Available Resumen Debido a la escasez de investigaciones en las llanuras interiores entrerrianas del Noreste argentino y la ausencia de estudios arqueológicos en contextos estratigráficos, la información zooarqueológica para este extenso contexto ambiental es virtualmente inexistente. A partir de la excavación de Laguna del Negro 1, un sitio de actividades múltiples correspondiente al Holoceno tardío, fue posible contar con una abundante muestra de especímenes óseos y malacológicos. En este trabajo se presenta el análisis taxonómico, anatómico y tafonómico del conjunto arqueofaunístico recuperado, con el objetivo de caracterizar la diversidad de recursos faunísticos que fueron explotados, comenzar a analizar las prácticas vinculadas con su procesamiento y discutir los procesos tafonómicos involucrados en la formación del conjunto óseo. A partir de estos estudios se propone que los cérvidos de mediano porte fueron los principales recursos faunísticos consumidos en el sitio. Sin embargo, una gran diversidad de taxones, que incluyen roedores (cuises, coipo, carpincho, dasipódidos, carnívoros, lagartos, rheidos, peces y moluscos, también fueron aprovechados. La integración de la información generada con la disponible a nivel microregional permite proponer un modelo de aprovechamiento de los recursos faunísticos vinculado a la explotación de taxones disponibles en los diversos microambientes de las fajas aluviales y las llanuras altas del interior entrerriano.

  2. Anal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anal cancer is uncommon, but often curable with treatment. Treatments include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery. Get detailed information about anal cancer including risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment in this expert-reviewed summary.

  3. Seoseid loov kunstiteose analüüs / Anneli Porri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Porri, Anneli, 1980-

    2013-01-01

    Kunstiteose analüüsi seosest riikliku õppekavaga, ülevaade kunstiteose analüüsimeetoditest kunstiteaduses ning metoodilistest tähelepanekutest kunsti ja visuaalkultuuri kujutiste vaatamise kohta gümnaasiumi kunstitunnis

  4. Hallazgos ecográficos en la proctalgia espontánea y postoperatoria Ultrasound findings in spontaneous and postoperative anal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pascual

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: valorar la utilidad de la ecografía endoanal como prueba de imagen para identificar la causa del dolor anal en los pacientes que presentan proctalgia idiopática o dolor postoperatorio y analizar cuáles son sus causas más frecuentes. Métodos: se realiza un estudio descriptivo de los hallazgos encontrados en las ecografías endoanales de pacientes con dolor anal en los últimos seis años. Todas las ecografías se llevaron a cabo con un ecógrafo B&K (Cheetah 2003, B&K Medical, Gentofte, Denmark con sonda endoanal de 7 MHz. Resultados: se estudiaron noventa y cinco casos de proctalgia mediante ecografía endoanal. Sesenta y siete correspondieron a pacientes con una cirugía previa perineal o pélvica tras la cual comenzó el dolor anal: 48 habían sido intervenidos de fisura anal, 12 de hemorroidectomía, 4 de episiotomía, 2 de fístula y 1 de prostatectomía. El hallazgo más frecuente tras la cirugía de fisura anal fue la presencia de una esfinterotomía incompleta. Entre los veintiocho pacientes sin cirugía previa, el 57,14% presentaba hipertrofia del esfínter anal interno como única alteración ecográfica. Conclusiones: los pacientes con proctalgia espontánea y postoperatoria pueden ser estudiados mediante ecografía endoanal ya que el uso de la sonda no impide completar la exploración. Con esta prueba se encontró una causa del dolor en el 81,93% de los casos. La hipertrofia del esfínter anal interno aislada es el hallazgo ecográfico más frecuente asociado a proctalgia espontánea.Objective: to assess the use of endoanal ultrasounds to identify anal pain etiology in patients with either spontaneous or postoperative pain, and to review the most frequent causes. Methods: a descriptive study of ultrasound findings in patients with anal pain during the last six years was performed. All ultrasound scans were performed using a B&K Diagnostic Ultrasound System (Cheetah 2003, B&K Medical, Gentofte, Denmark with a 7-MHz

  5. Complex anal fistulas: plug or flap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlmann, Mark D; Hayes, Julian L; Merrie, Arend E H; Parry, Bryan R; Bissett, Ian P

    2011-10-01

    Rectal mucosal advancement flaps (RMAF) and fistula plugs (FP) are techniques used to manage complex anal fistulas. The purpose of this study was to review and compare the results of these methods of repair. A retrospective review of all complex anal fistulas treated by either a RMAF or a FP at Auckland City Hospital from 2004 to 2008. Comparisons were made in terms of successful healing rates, time to failure and the use of magnetic resonance imaging. Overall, 70 operations were performed on 55 patients (55.7% male). The mean age was 44.9 years. Twenty-one patients (30%) had had at least one previous unsuccessful repair. Indications for repair included 57 high cryptoglandular anal (81%), 4 Crohn's anal (6%), 7 rectovaginal (10%), 1 rectourethral (1%) and 1 pouch-vaginal fistula (1%). All patients were followed up with a mean of 4.5 months. Forty-eight RMAFs (69% of total) were performed with 16 successful repairs (33%). Twenty-two FPs (31% of total) were performed with 7 successful repairs (32%, P = 0.9). In failed repairs, there was no difference in terms of mean time to failure (RMAF 4.8 months versus FP 4.1 months, P = 0.62). Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 21 patients (37%) before the repair. The success rate in these patients was 20%. The results of treatment of complex anal fistulas are disappointing. The choice of operation of either a RMAF or a FP did not alter the poor healing rates of about one third of patients in each group.

  6. La Contabilidad Analítica en los Hospitales Públicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Silvia Fresneda Fuentes

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available La confección de presupuestos públicos austeros para la consecución de los criterios de convergencia impuestos por el Tratado de Maastricht ha originado una preocupación en todo el Sector Público en general, y en el hospitalario en particular, por la contención de los costes. Esta situación ha puesto de manifiesto la necesidad de introducir sistemas de Contabilidad para la Gestión interna de las organizaciones hospitalarias públicas. Así, la Contabilidad Analítica o de Costes se constituye como un componente más de dichos sistemas y está llamada a alcanzar dos objetivos muy claros, por un lado, la determinación del coste del producto hospitalario para en base a él realizar una presupuestación prospectiva, y por otro, suministrar información interna que permita llevar a cabo un verdadero Control de Gestión. Con este trabajo se pretenden describir los modelos de costes alternativos propuestos por la literatura especializada, señalando su idoneidad en base a la consecución de los objetivos que la Contabilidad Analítica debe satisfacer. Se pondrá de manifiesto la tendencia actual a establecer modelos basados en la nueva definición de producto hospitalario, los cuales tienen como finalidad la determinación de los costes totales de dicho producto, dejando a un lado el objetivo del control de la eficacia y eficiencia de la gestión.The development of strict Public Budgets in order to reach the goals settled by Maastricht agreements have caused a deep concern in the Public Sector and mostly in hospitals in order to brake the growth of costs. Such a situation has stated clearly the necessity of implementing Management Accounting Systems in Public Hospitals organizations. Therefore, costs accounting cames to be a part of such systems, which is to reach two very clear objetives. In one hand, the definition of the hospital product cost using it as the base to develop the hospital budget. On the other hand, to supply internal

  7. Dysregulation of Autophagy Contributes to Anal Carcinogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evie H Carchman

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process that removes and recycles unnecessary/dysfunctional cellular components, contributing to cellular health and survival. Autophagy is a highly regulated cellular process that responds to several intracellular signals, many of which are deregulated by human papillomavirus (HPV infection through the expression of HPV-encoded oncoproteins. This adaptive inhibitory response helps prevent viral clearance. A strong correlation remains between HPV infection and the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the anus, particularly in HIV positive and other immunosuppressed patients. We hypothesize that autophagy is inhibited by HPV-encoded oncoproteins thereby promoting anal carcinogenesis (Fig 1.HPV16 transgenic mice (K14E6/E7 and non-transgenic mice (FVB/N, both of which do not spontaneously develop anal tumors, were treated topically with the chemical carcinogen, 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, to induce anal cancer. The anuses at different time points of treatment (5, 10, 15 and 20 weeks were analyzed using immunofluorescence (IF for two key autophagy marker proteins (LC3β and p62 in addition to histological grading. The anuses from the K14E6/E7 mice were also analyzed for visual evidence of autophagic activity by electron microscopy (EM. To see if there was a correlation to humans, archival anal specimens were assessed histologically for grade of dysplasia and then analyzed for LC3β and p62 protein content. To more directly examine the effect of autophagic inhibition on anal carcinogenesis, nontransgenic mice that do not develop anal cancer with DMBA treatment were treated with a known pharmacologic inhibitor of autophagy, chloroquine, and examined for tumor development and analyzed by IF for autophagic proteins.Histologically, we observed the progression of normal anoderm to invasive SCC with DMBA treatment in K14E6/E7 mice but not in nontransgenic, syngeneic FVB/N background control mice

  8. Validación de métodos analíticos para los estudios de estabilidad del naproxeno en supositorios para uso infantil y adulto Validation of analytical methods for the stability studies of naproxen suppositories for infant and adult use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaslenis Rodríguez Hernández

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realizaron los estudios analíticos y de validación para su aplicación en los estudios de estabilidad de las futuras formulaciones de supositorios de naproxeno para uso infantil y adulto. Se determinaron los factores que más influyeron en la estabilidad del naproxeno; la mayor degradación ocurrió en el medio ácido, oxidante y por acción de la luz. Se evaluó un método por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, el cual mostró adecuado desempeño para cuantificar naproxeno en supositorios y fue selectivo frente a los productos de degradación. Se obtuvo un límite de cuantificación de 3,480 µg, por lo que fue válido para la realización de dichos estudios. Adicionalmente, se evaluaron los parámetros especificidad para estabilidad, límites de detección y de cuantificación para el método por volumetría ácido-base semiacuosa directa validado anteriormente para control de calidad, lo cual mostró resultados satisfactorios. No obstante, los métodos volumétricos no se consideran indicadores de estabilidad, por lo que este método será utilizado conjuntamente con los métodos cromatográficos de elección para determinar productos de degradación: cromatografía de capa delgada y cromatografía líquida de alta resolución.Analytical and validating studies were performed in this paper, with a view to using them in the stability studies of the future formulations of naproxen suppositories for children and adults. The most influential factors in the naproxen stability were determined, that is, the major degradation occurred in acid medium, oxidative medium and by light action. One high-performance liquid chromatography-based method was evaluated, which proved to be adequate to quantify naproxen in suppositories and was selective against degradation products. The quantification limit was 3,480 µg, so it was valid for these studies. Additionally, the parameters specificity for stability, detection and

  9. Anal sphincter responses after perianal electrical stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ejnar; Klemar, B; Schrøder, H D

    1982-01-01

    By perianal electrical stimulation and EMG recording from the external anal sphincter three responses were found with latencies of 2-8, 13-18 and 30-60 ms, respectively. The two first responses were recorded in most cases. They were characterised by constant latency and uniform pattern, were...... not fatigued by repeated stimulation, were most dependent on placement of stimulating and recording electrodes, and always had a higher threshold than the third response. The third response was constantly present in normal subjects. It had the longest EMG response and the latency decreased with increasing...... stimulation to a minimum of 30-60 ms. This response represented the clinical observable spinal reflex, "the classical anal reflex". The latencies of the two first responses were so short that they probably do not represent spinal reflexes. This was further supported by the effect of epidural anaesthesia which...

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, F T

    2012-01-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

  11. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, J; Rosthøj, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Jangö H, Langhoff-Roos J, Rosthøj S, Sakse A. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures: a population-based cohort study. BJOG 2012;00:000-000 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03486.x. Objective  To determine the incidence and risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter...... were used to determine risk factors of recurrent ASR. Main outcome measures  The incidence of recurrent ASR and odds ratios for possible risk factors of recurrent ASR: age, body mass index, grade of ASR, birthweight, head circumference, gestational age, presentation, induction of labour, oxytocin...... augmentation, epidural, episiotomy, vacuum extraction, forceps, shoulder dystocia, delivery interval and year of second delivery. Results  Out of 159 446 women, 7336 (4.6%) experienced an ASR at first delivery, and 521 (7.1%) had a recurrent ASR (OR 5.91). The risk factors of recurrent ASR in the multivariate...

  12. Anal canal plasmacytoma - An uncommon presentation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, M. I.; Bujor, L.; Grillo, I. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMP) are rare plasma cell tumors that arise outside the bone marrow. They are most often located in the head and neck region, but may also occur in the other locations. The lower gastrointestinal EMP represents less than 5% of all cases, and location in the anal canal is exceedingly rare. Aim: We present an exceedingly rare case of anal canal plasmacytoma, aiming to achieve a better understanding of this rare entity. Methods: We report a case of a 61-year-old man with a bulky mass in the anal canal. The lesion measured about 6 cm and invaded in all layers of the anal canal wall. The biopsy was performed and revealed a round and plasmocitoid cell population with a solid growth pattern and necrosis. The tumoral cells have express CD79a and CD138 with lambda chains. There was no evidence of disease in other locations and these features were consistent with the diagnosis of an extra-osseous plasmacytoma. The patient was submitted to conformal radiotherapy 50.4 Gy total dose, 1.8 Gy per fraction. After 24 months, the patient is asymptomatic and the lesion has completely disappeared. Conclusions: EMP accounts for approximately 3% of plasma cell malignancies. The median age is about 60 years, and the majority of patients are male. The treatment of choice for extramedullary plasmacytoma is radiation therapy in a dosage of about 50 Gy. Patients should be followed-up for life with repeated bone marrow aspiration and protein studies to detect the development of multiple myeloma. (authors)

  13. Anal intraepitelial neoplasia: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garazi Elorza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anal intraepitelial neoplasia (AIN constitutes a major health problem in certain risk groups, such as patients with immunosuppression of varied origin, males who have sexual relations with other males, and females with a previous history of vaginal or cervical abnormalities in cytology. Its relationship with the human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been well documented; however, many of the factors involved in the progression and regression of the viral infection to dysplasia and anal carcinoma are unknown. AIN can be diagnosed through cytology of the anal canal or biopsy guided by high-resolution anoscopy. However, the need for these techniques in high-risk groups remains controversial. Treatment depends on the risk factors and given the high morbidity and high recurrence rates the utility of the different local treatments is still a subject of debate. Surgical biopsy is justified only in the case of progression suggesting lesions. The role of the vaccination in high-risk patients as primary prevention has been debated by different groups. However, there is no general consensus on its use or on the need for screening this population.

  14. Development of a pulse height analizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a Pulse Height Analizer is described. This equipment is essential to analize data coming from detectors producing information codified in pulse amplitudes. The system developed consist of a Signal Input Module connected to a Controller Module based on a 8085A microprocessor capable to memorize pulses up to 1 uS in 256 channels with a resolution better than 20 mV. A Communication Module with a serial interface is used for data transfer to a host computer using RS232c protocol. The Monitoring and Operation Module consist of a hexadecimal Keybord, a 6 digit 7-segment display and a XY analog output enabling real time visualization of data on a XY monitor. The hardware and the software designed for this low cost system were optimized to obtain a typical dead time of approximately 100 uS. As application, this device was used to adquire curves at the Small Angle X-ray Scattering Laboratory in this Department. The apparatus performance was tested by comparing its data with a Northern Pulse Height Analizer model NS633 output, with favorable results. (Author) [pt

  15. Psicoterapia cognitivo analítica y trastornos de la personalidad: revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rodríguez Moya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En los años 80 y 90, A. Ryle desarrolló un modelo de tratamiento denominado Psicoterapia Cognitivo Analítica (PCA. Con un enfoque integrador, breve y focal, la PCA se ha aplicado a diversas patologías, siendo su uso más frecuente con pacientes con trastorno de personalidad, sobre todo con trastorno límite. Estos pacientes poseen un número de disfunciones metacognitivas que dificultan el proceso de darse cuenta de sus diferentes estados mentales y de sus componentes. A través del modelo de Múltiples Estados del self, el objetivo es ayudar al paciente a identificar los procesos disfuncionales o restrictivos del self que está experimentando y dotarle de recursos para que pueda sustituirlos por otros más adaptativos.

  16. Aportaciones de la química analítica a la resolución de diversos poblemas medioambientales.

    OpenAIRE

    Moliner Martínez, Yolanda

    2005-01-01

    RESUMEN En el cambiante contexto socioeconómico de nuestros días, el panorama general del medioambiente resulta complejo. Se ha producido una mejora, por ejemplo, en la reducción de la contaminación del aire en algunas zonas del planeta, y también un importante avance en la gestión de los recursos hídricos y de la calidad del agua. Pero aún en esa zona correspondiente a los denominados países desarrollados todavía persisten numerosos y diversos problemas. La Química Analítica, junto con ot...

  17. Pensamiento meta-analítico: educación estadística

    OpenAIRE

    Frías-Navarro, Dolores; Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Pascual-Soler, Marcos; Monterde-i-Bort, Hector

    2013-01-01

    El procedimiento de significación de la hipótesis nula ha sido la estrategia de análisis dominante en el área de las ciencias sociales y de la salud. Sin embargo, también han sido muchas las críticas que han atacado el pensamiento dicotómico que implica dicho procedimiento. El movimiento de la reforma estadística plantea un cambio de perspectiva desde la significación estadística a la estimación de efectos. Desde esta nueva perspectiva destaca el desarrollo del pensamiento meta-analítico como...

  18. Informe científico de investigador: Concellón, Analía (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Concellón, Analía

    2013-01-01

    Durante el período 2013 se completó el plan de trabajo propuesto y producto de esto ya enviamos algunos trabajos científicos a publicar en revistas internacionales y estamos escribiendo otros, aunque también hemos publicado parte del trabajo reciente en Congresos Nacionales e internacionales. Producto de la colaboración que efectuara con el Dr. Giner y su equipo de trabajo en relación a las determinaciones analíticas de antioxidantes ...

  19. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E; Berry, Michael J; Pokomandy, Alexandra de; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening

  20. Carcinoma of the anal canal: radiation or radiation plus chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    An editorial is presented which discusses the treatment of carcinoma of the anal canal. Following the initial report of the successful preoperative use of combined chemotherapy and radiation by Nigro in 1974, several centers have confirmed the effectiveness of such combinations either as preoperative or as definitive treatment of anal carcinomas, and many patients are now being referred for radiation therapy. The article by Cantril in this issue describe the successful treatment of anal carcinomas by radiation alone, and raises the important issue of whether radiation plus chemotherapy is more effective treatment than radiation alone for squamous or cloacogenic carcinomas arising in the anal canal or perianal area. Several studies are cited

  1. Mode of delivery after obstetric anal sphincter injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmarkar, Roopali; Bhide, Alka; Digesu, Alex; Khullar, Vik; Fernando, Ruwan

    2015-11-01

    To assess the effect of vaginal delivery and caesarean section on faecal symptoms and structure and function of anal sphincter in women who sustained obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) in their previous pregnancy and were advised about the mode of delivery based on faecal incontinence symptoms, anal manometry and endoanal ultrasound. It is a descriptive study on a cohort of women who had OASIS from 2006 to 2013. They were assessed after OASIS and during subsequent pregnancy with a questionnaire, endoanal ultrasound and anal manometry. Vaginal delivery was recommended to asymptomatic women with normal investigations. Elective caesarean section was recommended to women with faecal symptoms, anal sphincter defects of more than 30° or low resting or incremental anal pressures. All women were reassessed after subsequent delivery. Fifty women who had pregnancies after OASIS, were seen after OASIS, during subsequent pregnancy and after the second delivery. 15 women had faecal symptoms after OASIS. The external, internal and combined anal sphincter defects were seen in 13, 11 and 9 women respectively. Low resting and incremental pressure were seen in 15 and 11 women respectively. Caesarean section was done in 22 women and 28 women delivered vaginally. Worsening of faecal symptoms and reduction in anal pressures were not observed in planned vaginal delivery or elective caesarean section groups. Faecal symptoms were worse with reduced anal pressures in three women from the planned caesarean section group. One of the women had a vaginal delivery and two women had emergency caesarean section at 7cm and 10cm dilatation. There were no new sphincter defects or recurrent OASIS in any of the women in the study group. Decision about the mode of delivery of pregnancy after OASIS based on symptoms, anal manometry and endoanal ultrasound helps in preserving the anal sphincter function and avoiding unnecessary caesarean sections. Further follow-up of these patients is essential

  2. Características clínicas asociadas al escurrimiento fecal ''soiling'' en pacientes operados de enfermedades anales

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco-Arróniz, Miguel Ángel; Jiménez-Bobadilla, Billy; Cruz-Palacios, Aracely; Villanueva-Herrero, Juan Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas relacionadas con el escurrimiento fecal ''soiling'' que presentan los pacientes operados de enfermedad hemorroidal, fístula, fisura anal y drenaje de absceso. Sede: Unidad de Coloproctología del Servicio de Gastroenterología del Hospital General de México ''Dr. Eduardo Liceaga''. Diseño: Estudio de casos y controles. Análisis estadístico: Medidas de tendencia central, t de Student, cálculo de momios (odds ratio; OR) y análisis no paramétrico co...

  3. Conservative management of anal and rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, J.P.; Romestaing, P.; Montbarbon, X.

    1989-01-01

    The role of irradiation in the management of anal and rectal cancer has changed during the past ten years. In small epidermoid carcinomas of the anal canal (T1 T2) irradiation is in most departments considered the primary treatment, giving a 5-year survival rate of between 60 and 80% with good sphincter preservation. Even in larger tumors, irradiation can still offer some chance of cure without colostomy. Surgery remains the basic treatment of rectal cancer but irradiation is used in association with surgery in many cases. Radiotherapy is of value in the conservative management of cancer of the rectum in three situations: In small polypoid cancers contact X-ray therapy can give local control in about 90%. In cancers of the middle rectum, preoperative external irradiation may increase the chances of restorative surgery and reduce the risk of local relapse. In inoperable patients, external radiotherapy and/or intracavitary irradiation may cure some patients with infiltrating tumors (T2 T3) without colostomy. (orig.)

  4. Mejoramiento de los límites de detección del análisis por inyección en flujo en espectrofotometría de absorción atómica con llama, mediante promediado conjunto de la señal analítica.

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Eduardo; Torres, Blanca

    2002-01-01

    El presente trabajo describe un sistema simple que permite al análisis por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica con llama (FAAS) mediante FIA, la conocida técnica de promediado conjunto de la señal analítica con la finalidad de incrementar la relación señal / ruido, mejorando los límites de detección obtenibles en un laboratorio con equipamiento corriente.

  5. Sotsiaalvõrgustike analüüs / Innar Liiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liiv, Innar, 1982-

    2005-01-01

    Sotsiaalvõrgustike analüüs (social network analys - SNA) on tehnikate, meetodite ning vahendite kogum, mis aitab avastada mustreid sotsiaalsetes struktuurides. Analüüsi kasutamisest energeetikaettevõtte Enron ja kohalike ettevõtete võrgustike näitel. Skeemid

  6. Fiber types in the striated urethral and anal sphincters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Reske-Nielsen, E

    1983-01-01

    Seven normal human striated urethral and anal sphincters obtained by autopsy were examined using histochemical techniques. In both the urethral sphincter and the subcutaneous (s.c.) and superficial part of the anal sphincter a characteristic pattern with two populations of muscle fibers, abundant...

  7. Anal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anal cancer is often curable with treatment. Major prognostic factors are site, size, and nodal status. Treatments include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery. Get detailed information for anal cancer risk factors, classification, staging, prognosis, and treatment in this summary for clinicians.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging anatomy of the anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, P.; Bates, N.

    2004-01-01

    The anatomy of the anal canal is complex but well demonstrated by MRI. Understanding the anatomy is a prerequisite for determining the true site and the extent of pathology, especially for surgical workup. In this article, the MRI anatomy of the anal canal has been displayed using highlighted MRI images and line diagrams. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  9. Leiomyoma of the anal canal: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witz, M; Bernheim, J; Griffel, B; Dinbar, A

    1986-10-01

    Leiomyoma of the rectum and anal canal is an unusual clinical entity. Generally, it does not produce any clinical signs and in most cases it is discovered incidentally in the course of routine rectal examination. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and surgical treatment are described in two presented cases of anal canal leiomyoma.

  10. The Danish anal sphincter rupture questionnaire: Validity and reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Ulla; Ottesen, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To revise, validate and test for reliability an anal sphincter rupture questionnaire in relation to construct, content and face validity. Setting and background. Since 1996 women with anal sphincter rupture (ASR) at one of the public university hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark have bee...

  11. Anal sphincter complex: endoanal MR imaging of normal anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussain, S. M.; Stoker, J.; Laméris, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the normal anatomy of the anal sphincter complex on magnetic resonance (MR) images. Ten healthy volunteers (four men, six women; age range, 21-26 years) underwent MR imaging with an endoanal coil. The lower part of the anal canal contained the internal sphincter, the longitudinal muscle

  12. Anal metastasis originating from colorectal cancer: Report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Min; Lim, Joon Seok; Choi, Jin Young; Park, Mi Suk; Kim, Myeong Jin [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Taek; Kim, Ho Guen [Dept. of Pathology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Anal metastasis from colorectal cancer rarely occurs, but it severely impairs the patient's quality of life, often requiring wide resection including the anal sphincter with permanent colostomy. This lesion can be misdiagnosed as a perianal fistula or an abscess, and it can be overlooked at the time of surgery because it is not included in the routine surgical extent of low anterior resection. We report two rare cases of anal metastasis from colorectal cancer. In both cases, perianal nodules with an internal solid portion were detected on preoperative rectal magnetic resonance imaging and additional local excisions of the anal lesions were performed during the process of treatment. Anal metastasis was pathologically confirmed by histology and immunohistochemical staining.

  13. The impact of anaemia on treatment outcome in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal and anal margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oblak Irena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiochemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Anaemia is reported to have adverse effect on survival in cancer patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of anaemia on radiochemotherapy treatment outcome in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

  14. Calidad ambiental del humedal poza La Arenilla, Callao 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Rivas, Guadalupe; Flores, Violeta; Henostroza Quiroz, Aída

    2014-01-01

    El presente informe da a conocer los resultados analíticos de la evaluación de parámetros físico-químicos, microbiológicos y contaminación de tipo orgánico de la calidad acuática del Humedal poza La Arenilla, La Punta, Provincia Constitucional del Callao en junio del 2008.

  15. Anal manometric evaluation of children with encopresis

    OpenAIRE

    CESAR, Maria Auxiliadora Prolungatti; MOURA, Brenda C de; SILVA, Fernanda Perez Adorno da; BARBIERI, Dorina; BRUNO, Rodrigo Ciotolla; BERTOLI, Ciro João; ORTIZ, Jorge Alberto

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A constipação crônica é doença comum na infância, ocorrendo em 5 a 10% dos pacientes pediátricos, considerada a segunda maior causa de procura nos consultórios de pediatria, sendo a encoprese decorrente de constipação grave associada à impactação fecal no reto. Dentre os exames diagnósticos, a manometria anal é utilizada para a avaliação de pacientes com distúrbios funcionais, como a constipação intestinal e a incontinência fecal, em alguns serviços para a avaliação de pacientes c...

  16. Del internacionalismo al nacionalismo: rumbos del conflicto armado en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Zuleta P.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo tiene por propósito sugerir una interpretación del desarrollo del conflicto armado colombiano durante la última década del siglo XX mediante el uso de la concepción de poder de Michel Foucault. Ello con miras a presentar alternativas analíticas frente a la relación entre lo global y lo local donde se consideren algunas de las hipótesis contemporáneas sobre la cuestión del nacionalismo. El ensayo utiliza el término nacionalismo como sustantivo (lo que es en lugar de como adjetivo (lo que debe ser y ordena los conjuntos de acciones que, en torno al proyecto de lo nacional, han sido puestos en práctica por las guerrillas en Colombia.

  17. Anal endosonography and manometry: comparison in patients with defecation problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, R; Heyer, T; Gantke, B; Schäfer, A; Frieling, T; Häussinger, D; Enck, P

    1997-03-01

    Correlations between anal sphincter function as assessed by anorectal manometry and anal sphincter anatomy measured by endoluminal ultrasound have been reported in the literature both for patients and for healthy individuals but have not been confirmed by other authors. For a larger series of patients (152 consecutive patients, mean age 54.1 +/- 15.5 years; female:male ratio, 111:41) with anorectal dysfunctions such as incontinence (n = 92), constipation (n = 37), and other symptoms (n = 23), diagnostic work-up included conventional multilumen anorectal manometry to evaluate internal sphincter pressure at rest, maximum external sphincter squeeze pressure during contraction, and endoanal sonography to determine anal sphincter integrity and to measure dorsal, left lateral, and right lateral diameter of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) and external anal sphincter (EAS) muscles. Maximum squeeze pressure was significantly correlated to muscle thickness of the EAS (P = 0.001). No association was found between resting pressure and IAS diameter. Women had significantly lower resting and squeeze pressures than men (P = 0.008 and P = 0.003, respectively), but age-related changes of function were only found for resting pressure. Endosonographic values of IAS and EAS did not differ between genders but were significantly correlated with age (P = 0.008 and P = 0.02, respectively). Because all correlations were rather weak, they only can explain a small portion of data variance. Anal manometry and anal ultrasound, therefore, are of complementary value and are both indicated in adequate clinical problems.

  18. La universidad del futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO SANCÉN CONTRERAS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo señala la necesidad de reconstruir la Universidad, dado el dinamismo que muestra la ciencia y la sociedad, pues trae consigo cambios sustanciales en la visión del mundo y en el aumento del poder del hombre sobre la naturaleza. Se analizan los supuestos epistemológicos de la universidad tradicional y se propone una nueva explicación del conocimiento humano, enfatizando el conocimiento científico. Postula una docencia fundada en las propiedades de la ciencia, cuyo método inductivo basado en los paradigmas vigentes: analítico, crítico, pragmático, ofrece una herramienta para la docencia, la investigación y la difusión de la cultura. Se propone una educación centrada en el sujeto que se hace a sí mismo (etopoiética y que insiste en el proceso de auto-creación del individuo y de la sociedad.

  19. Ettevõtte konkurentsieelis inimeste analüüsi abil / Mait Raava

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raava, Mait

    2015-01-01

    Ettevõtte töötajate analüüsimisest, analüütika tulemuste rakendamisest juhtivates ettevõttes. Viiest sambast, millel põhineb inimeste analüüsi edukas rakendamine, analüütika rakendamise etapid

  20. SIMULACIÓN MEDIANTE REDES NEURONALES DEL ENFRIAMIENTO DEL ARCO ELÉCTRICO EN DISYUNTORES DE ALTA TENSIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRO BRYANTSEVICH

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La formulación de los modelos analíticos de enfriamiento de los arcos eléctricos en disyuntores de alta tensión todavía presenta muchas dificultades, y requiere nuevas hipótesis que los simplifique sustancialmente en relación con la realidad. Desde un punto de vista técnico, la aplicación de las redes neuronales podría ser una fuente objetiva para la simulación del enfriamiento del arco eléctrico, y para obtener resultados más cercanos a las propiedades reales del interruptor. En este trabajo se describe la problemática del desarrollo de modelos analíticos vinculados al enfriamiento del arco eléctrico de disyuntores de alta tensión mediante redes neuronales.

  1. [Proctalgia fugax. Differential diagnosis and therapy of fleeting anal cramp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staude, G

    1992-05-30

    Proctalgia fugax--short-lived anal spasm--is a common, extremely unpleasant, painful condition that occurs completely unexpectedly, often waking the victim at night. Scientific assessment is difficult on account of the functional nature of the condition and its multifactorial genesis. Before the patient is labeled "anal neurotic", however, he/she should be investigated by a specialist. The results of treating the rarely absent pathological organic findings give rise to optimism.

  2. Rare case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the anal canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. GIST of anal canal is very rare representing only 3% of all anorectal mesenchymal tumors. We report an extremely rare case of GIST of the anal canal in 60-years-old man with history of irregular bowel habits with dark colored stool mixed with blood and constipation from 6 month. Diagnosis was made on the basis of histomorphological and immunohistochemical examination.

  3. Trends in incidence of anal cancer and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in Denmark, 1978-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the incidences of anal cancer and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN2/3) over time in Danish women and men. Describing the burden of anal cancer and AIN may be valuable in future evaluations of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. We included all...... anal cancers in the Danish Cancer Register in the period 1978-2008 and all cases of AIN2/3 in the Danish Registry of Pathology. Overall and age-, period- and histology-specific incidence rates were estimated. During the 30-year period, 2187 anal cancers were identified, two thirds of which were...... in women. Between 1978-1982 and 2003-2008, the age-standardized incidence rate of anal cancer increased from 0.68 to 1.48 per 100 000 person-years in women and from 0.45 to 0.80 per 100 000 person-years in men. Although there is no systematic screening for AIN in Denmark, we nevertheless identified 608...

  4. Analítica o evocadora: el debate olvidado de la autoetnografía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Montagud Mayor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Existe la necesidad de una estrategia metodológica eficaz para sostener la investigación sobre la práctica profesional de los servicios sociales. La oposición entre el trabajo autoetnográfico de Carolyn ELLIS y Arthur BOCHNER (2000, 2006 y la propuesta analítica de Leon ANDERSON sirven como una lente a través de la cual explorar los aspectos clave de esta discusión. Mientras ELLIS y BOCHNER rechazan cualquier intento de abstracción o sistematización teórica, ANDERSON pretende tender puentes entre la tradición etnográfica y las formas emergentes de narrativa personal. Después de revisar la literatura autoetnográfica, concluyo que si bien la autoetnografía evocadora parece gozar del apoyo mayoritario en este campo, podría ser enriquecida por el enfoque analítico. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1603124

  5. Diseño de un circuito integrado analógico básico: amplificadror operacional (OPAMP) compensado de dos etapas con tecnología CMOS de 1.5 um

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal Carrillo, Iván

    1994-01-01

    Se presenta el proceso de diseño de un circuito integrado analógico con tecnología CMOS de 1.5 um, sin entrar en detalles de fabricación ni de cálculo. Se enfoca principalmente el principio de operación del circuito diseñado, un amplificador operacional de transconductancia (OTA) compensado de dos etapas. Se presenta el "layout" del circuito integrado diseñado y resultados obtenidos con los prototipos fabricados a través del proyecto multiusuario iberoamericano (PNU del CYTED).

  6. Análisis comparativo de algunos modelos analíticos para estrellas de quarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Malaver de la Fuente

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En la presente investigación se ha encontrado una nueva clase de soluciones que resuelven el sistema de ecuaciones de Maxwell-Einstein que satisface una ecuación lineal de estado para estrellas de quarks. Se propone una nueva forma particular de potencial gravitacional que depende de un parámetro ajustable, se resuelve el sistema de ecuaciones de MaxwellEinstein y se obtiene una ecuación diferencial de primer orden cuya solución es una familia de modelos analíticos singulares y no singulares para estrellas de quarks cargadas. Variables como la densidad de energía, la presión y la intensidad de campo eléctrico se escriben en términos de funciones racionales polinómicas. Una modificación del parámetro ajustable permite obtener una solución no singular propuesta por Komathiraj y Maharaj. A diferencia de otros modelos propuestos, la forma del potencial gravitacional escogido permite resolver la ecuación diferencial para cualquier valor del parámetro y obtener soluciones físicamente aceptables.

  7. Análisis comparativo de algunos modelos analíticos para estrellas de quarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Malaver de la Fuente

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En la presente investigación se ha encontrado una nueva clase de soluciones que resuelven el sistema de ecuaciones de Maxwell-Einstein que satisface una ecuación lineal de estado para estrellas de quarks. Se propone una nueva forma particular de potencial gravitacional que depende de un parámetro ajustable, se resuelve el sistema de ecuaciones de Maxwell-Einstein y se obtiene una ecuación diferencial de primer orden cuya solución es una familia de modelos analíticos singulares y no singulares para estrellas de quarks cargadas. Variables como la densidad de energía, la presión y la intensidad de campo eléctrico se escriben en términos de funciones racionales polinómicas. Una modificación del parámetro ajustable permite obtener una solución no singular propuesta por Komathiraj y Maharaj. A diferencia de otros modelos propuestos, la forma del potencial gravitacional escogido permite resolver la ecuación diferencial para cualquier valor del parámetro y obtener soluciones físicamente aceptables.

  8. Dominant Role of HPV16 E7 in Anal Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Marie K.; Pitot, Henry C.; Liem, Amy; Lambert, Paul F.

    2011-01-01

    Ninety percent of anal cancer is associated with human papilloma viruses (HPVs). Using our previously established HPV transgenic mouse model for anal cancer, we tested the role of the individual oncogenes E6 and E7. K14E6 and K14E7 transgenic mice were treated with dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to the anal canal and compared to matched nontransgenic and doubly transgenic K14E6/E7 mice. K14E7 and K14E6/E7 transgenic mice developed anal tumors (papillomas, atypias and carcinomas combined) at significantly higher rates (88% and 100%, respectively) than either K14E6 or NTG mice (18% and 19%, respectively). Likewise, K14E7 and K14E6/E7 transgenic mice developed frank cancer (carcinomas) at significantly higher rates (85% and 85%, respectively) than either K14E6 or NTG mice (18% and 10%, respectively). These findings indicate that E7 is the more potent oncogene in anal cancer caused by HPVs. PMID:21999991

  9. Vascularized anal autotransplantation model in rats: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, J; Mihara, M; Narushima, M; Iida, T; Sato, T; Koshima, I

    2011-11-01

    Ostomy has served as an effective surgery for various anorectal disfunctions. However, it must also be noted that those patients suffered greatly from stresses caused by their stoma. Many alternative therapies have been developed, but none have solved this critical issue. Meanwhile, due to the improvements in operative methods and immunosuppressive therapy, allotranplantation has gained great popularity in recent years. Therefore, we began development of an anal transplantation model. The operation was performed in six adult Wistar rats that were divided into two groups. Group 1 underwent vascular anastomoses, while group 2 did not Group 1 grafts survived, fully recovering anal function. However, many of the group 2 grafts did not survive; those that did survive showed major defects in their anus, never recovering anal function. We succeeded in establishing the rat anal transplantation model utilizing super-microsurgery. While research in anal transplantation was behind compared to that in other fields, we hope that this model will bring significant possibilities for the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sonographic appearance of anal cushions of hemorrhoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimaiti, Adilijiang; A Ba Bai Ke Re, Ma Mu Ti Jiang; Ibrahim, Irshat; Chen, Hui; Tuerdi, Maimaitituerxun; Mayinuer

    2017-05-28

    venous dilatation were obvious in the anal cushion of hemorhoidal tissues. After pathological results with arteriovenous fistulas were taken as the standard reference, we evaluated the compatibility between the two methods according to the Cohen's kappa co-efficiency calculation. The compatibility (Cohein kappa co-efficiency value) between "mosaic pattern" in the TPUS and arteriovenous fistula in pathology was very good (ĸ = 0.8939). When compared between different groups, TRUS presented the advantage that the mosaic pattern could be confirmed in more patients, especially for group A. There was a statistical difference when comparing group A with group B or C ( P hemorrhoids present with a pathologically abnormal cushion which usually appears as a "mosaic pattern" in sonography, which is in accord with an arteriovenous fistula in pathology. There are clearly different hemorrhoid structures shown by sonography. "Mosaic pattern" may be a parameter for surgical indication of grades III and IV hemorrhoids.

  11. Sonographic assessment of the anal sphincter after obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI) using transperineal ultrasound (TPUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Vered H; Valsky, Dan V; Yagel, Simcha

    2018-03-24

    Obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI) is the most common cause of anal incontinence and ano-rectal symptoms in women 1 . Reported rates of anal incontinence following primary repair of OASI range between 15-61%, with a mean of 39% 2, 3 . Other possible complications of OASI include perineal pain, dyspareunia, and less commonly, abscess formation, wound breakdown, and rectovaginal fistulae. Symptom onset may occur immediately, several years postpartum, or only late in life when aging of tissues adds to the delivery insult. Having sustained an OASI may impact significantly on women's physical and emotional health. Missed OASI, inadequate repair or lack of follow up are potential sources of litigation 4 . The reported incidence of OASI may be as high as 4-6.6% 4 , averaging 2.9% in the UK 3 . The incidence is higher in primiparae (6.1%) than in multiparae (1.7%) 3 . Recent years are seeing an increased awareness and structured training programs, which appear to have resulted in an increase in the detection rate of OASI 3 . The following risk factors have been identified with varying risk rates reported 3 : Asian ethnicity (OR 2.27, 95% CI 2.14-2.41), nulliparity (relative risk [RR] 6.97, 95% CI 5.40-8.99), birth weight greater than 4 kg (OR 2.27, 95% CI 2.18-2.36), shoulder dystocia (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.72-2.08), occipito-posterior position (RR 2.44, 95% CI 2.07-2.89), prolonged second stage of labor (up to RR 2.02, 95% CI 1.62-2.51 after four hours duration). Instrumental deliveries and episiotomy use have been extensively studied resulting in the following evidence: Vacuum delivery without episiotomy (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.74-2.05); vacuum delivery with episiotomy is protective (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.51-0.63); forceps delivery without episiotomy carries the highest potential risk (OR 6.53, 95% CI 5.57-7.64); and forceps delivery with episiotomy (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.21-1.49). Other potential risk factors have been suggested with varying evidence such as advanced maternal age at

  12. Los adjuntos como componentes del sintagma nominal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Henrik Høeg

    2000-01-01

    concretar las relaciones léxicosemánticas entre el adjunto y el elemento lingüístico del que se predica, se introduce la Estructura-qualia, modelo que, con sus cuatro categorías: [FORMA], [CONSTITUCIÓN], [FUNCIÓN] y [ORIGEN], sirve de instrumento analítico para dar cuenta de las cualidades léxicas de un...

  13. The Danish anal sphincter rupture questionnaire: Validity and reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Ulla; Ottesen, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To revise, validate and test for reliability an anal sphincter rupture questionnaire in relation to construct, content and face validity. Setting and background. Since 1996 women with anal sphincter rupture (ASR) at one of the public university hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark have been...... main questions but one. Two questions needed further explanation. Seven women made minor errors. Conclusion. The validated Danish questionnaire has a good construct, content and face validity. It is a well accepted, reliable, simple and clinically relevant screening tool. It reveals physical problems...... offered pelvic floor muscle examination and instruction by a specialist physiotherapist. In relation to that, a non-validated questionnaire about anal and urinary incontinence was to be answered six months after childbirth. Method. The original questionnaire was revised and a pilot test was performed...

  14. Anal carcinoma and HIV infection: is it time for screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz-Pinto, P; Sendagorta-Cudós, E; Bernardino-de la Serna, J I; Peña-Sánchez de Rivera, J M

    2014-03-01

    A 38-year-old white man had a 10-year history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (A3), with no episodes of opportunistic diseases and in good immunologic recovery (CD4 cell count: 450 and indetectable HIV viral load) while on HAART. He presented with a two-month history of mild anal symptoms, including pruritus and episodic bleeding. He referred past episodes of anal warts, self-treated with several topical compounds, all proven unsuccessful. Perianal examination showed erythema and scratching. A 0.5cm sized tumor, with infiltration at the base was detected on digital exam, located at 15mm from the anal margin. Local biopsy driven by high-resolution anuscopy (AAR) yielded a final diagnosis of infiltrative epidermoid carcinoma. Might that neoplasia have been prevented? Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. The identification of specialized pacemaking cells in the anal sphincters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafik, Ahmed; El Sibai, Olfat; Ahmed, Ismail

    2006-07-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are claimed to generate the electrical activity in the colon and stomach. As the external (EAS) and internal (IAS) anal sphincters exhibit resting electrical activity, we hypothesized the presence of ICC in these sphincters. This hypothesis was investigated in the current study. Specimens from the EAS and IAS were taken from normal areas of the anorectum which had been surgically excised by abdominoperineal operation for rectal cancer of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women, mean age 42.2+/-4.8 years). The specimens were subjected to c-kit immunohistochemistry. Controls for the specificity of the antisera consisted of tissue incubation with normal rabbit serum substituted for the primary antiserum. Fusiform, c-kit positive, ICC-like cells were detected in the anal sphincters; they had dendritic processes. They were clearly distinguishable from the non-branching, c-kit negative smooth and striated muscle cells of the anal sphincters. The specimens contained also c-kit positive mast cells, but they had a rounded body with no dendritic processes. Immunoreactivity was absent in negative controls in which the primary antibody was omitted. We have identified, for the first time, cells in EAS and IAS with morphological and immunological phenotypes similar to ICCs of the gut. These cells appear to be responsible for initiating the slow waves recorded from the anal sphincters and for controlling their activity. A deficiency or absence of these cells may affect the anal motile activity. Studies are needed to explore the role of these cells in anal motility disorders.

  16. Habermas y Parsons: La búsqueda del reencantamiento del mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ENRIQUE RODRÍGUEZ IBÁÑEZ

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan las tradiciones críticas y analíticas a través de un análisis del concepto de Habermas sobre el "universal pragmático" (Comunicación y la evolución de la sociedad y la noción de Talcott Parson del "paradigma de la condición humana" (Teoría de la Acción y la condición humana. Habermas y Parsons insisten fuertemente en el elemento simbólico del lenguaje en la sociedad, tendente al misterio y el reencantamiento de las categorías epistemológicas fundamentales. Sus posiciones deben su identidad y sentido del futuro a la sociedad industrial avanzada. La recuperación por parte de Habermas del diálogo entre las esferas teórica ("universal pragmático" e histórica ("paradigma reconstructivo", rompiendo con las posiciones del marxismo y los creadores de la Escuela de Frankfurt, abren un camino esperanzador para la investigación. Se analiza el normativismo epistemológico oculto del "paradigma de la condición humana" de Parson a través de sus primeros trabajos. El conflicto entre las tradiciones analítica y crítica se atribuye a diferentes grados de énfasis normativo-subjetivos y generativo-intersubjetivos.

  17. Implementación de la tecnología analítica de proesos (PAT) en algunos procesos de fabricación farmacéutica. Utilización de la espectroscopia del infrarrojo cercano (NIRS) y de técnicas de imagen qimica (CI)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas Portugal, Juan Guillermo P.

    2012-01-01

    La industria farmacéutica es objeto de estrictas regulaciones que tienen por objeto asegurar la calidad de los productos que ofrecen al mercado; el aseguramiento de esta calidad se realiza mediante la determinación de parámetros de calidad a través de ensayos off-line en el producto terminado. Sin embargo, la complejidad de los métodos y la variedad de los mismos retrasa de forma importante la liberación del producto con las consiguientes pérdidas económicas y de competitividad para la empres...

  18. Implementación de la tecnología analítica de procesos (PAT) en algunos procesos de fabricación farmacéutica utilización de la espectroscopia del infrarrojo cercano (NIRS) y de técnicas de imagen química (CI) /

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas Portugal, Juan Guillermo P.

    2013-01-01

    La industria farmacéutica es objeto de estrictas regulaciones que tienen por objeto asegurar la calidad de los productos que ofrecen al mercado; el aseguramiento de esta calidad se realiza mediante la determinación de parámetros de calidad a través de ensayos off-line en el producto terminado. Sin embargo, la complejidad de los métodos y la variedad de los mismos retrasa de forma importante la liberación del producto con las consiguientes pérdidas económicas y de competitividad para la empres...

  19. Aplicaciones de LC-MS/MS en la determinación de residuos de plaguicidas y drogas de abuso en muestras de latinoamérica. Énfasis en la problemática analática del glifosato

    OpenAIRE

    Botero Coy, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    El modelo de agricultura actual requiere del uso de plaguicidas para mantener la producción a los niveles exigidos por una población mundial que está en continuo aumento. A pesar de sus numerosos detractores, el uso de plaguicidas es muchas veces inevitable, por lo que es habitual encontrar residuos de estos compuestos en productos vegetales y en el medio ambiente. El establecimiento de Límites Máximos de Residuos (MRLs) es uno de los aspectos más importantes en el proceso de autorización de ...

  20. Empaatia kogemus kunstiteoses kujutatud subjekti suhtes: fenomenoloogiline analüüs / Marge Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Marge, 1976-

    2015-01-01

    Analüüsitakse vaataja esteetilist kogemust kunstiteose suhtes. Autor tugineb Edith Steini empaatia kogemuse uurimusele ja fenomenoloogilisele uurimismeetodile. Vaataja empaatia kogemuse analüüs Maarit Murka maalisarjas "Hairpower" kujutatud subjekti suhtes

  1. HIV infection connected to rising anal cancer rates in men in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection contributes substantially to the epidemic of anal cancer in men, but not women in the United States, according to new research from NCI. Chart shows overall incidence rates of anal cancers in general population

  2. Presence of skin metastasis related to an epidermoid carcinoma of anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danta Fundora, Debora; Collado Otero, Juan Carlos; Vazquez Gonzalez, Jose Manuel; Paredes Lopez, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Appearance of spreading skin metastases in colorectal cancer and of anal canal is infrequent. The aim of present paper was to show an interesting case of skin metastasis related to an advanced carcinoma of anal canal infiltrating rectum

  3. O Programa Saúde da Família no Brasil: análise do acesso à atenção básica El Programa Salud de la Familia en Brasil: analísis del acceso a la atención basica The Family Health Program in Brazil: analysis of access to basic care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fátima de Sousa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta dados de uma pesquisa sobre a implantação do Programa de Saúde da Família-PSF, realizada nos 12 municípios pioneiros, no que se refere ao acesso aos serviços básicos de saúde. Fundamentou-se, no contexto das ciências sociais, no método da hermenêutica-dialética. Foram utilizados roteiros de entrevista e grupos focais para coleta de dados. Evidenciou o estudo, no que se refere ao acesso aos serviços básicos de saúde, o PSF vem contribuindo para a diminuição das iniqüidades. Enfrenta, no entanto, uma série de desafios de ordem social, político, econômico institucional e cultural, materializados nas deficiências de coordenação, gestão, financiamento, e, sobretudo nas praticas médico assistencial, fortemente presentes no cotidiano do trabalho das equipes do PSF.Este artículo presenta datos de una investigación acerca de la implantación del Programa Salud de la Familia (PSF, realizada en las 12 municipalidades pioneras del programa, sobre el acceso a los servicios básicos de la salud. Fue basado en el contexto de ciencias sociales, en el método de la hermenéutica-dialectica. Los discursos de la entrevista y de los grupos focales para la recogida de datos fueron utilizadas. El estudio evidenció, cuanto al acceso a los servicios básicos de la salud, que el PSF hay contribuydo para la reducción de las diferencias. Sin embargo, enfrenta una serie de desafíos de orden social, política, institucional, cultural, económica, que son materializados en las deficiencias de la coordinación, de la gerencia, del financiamiento, y sobre todo en las practicas medico asistenciales, fuertemente presentes en el cotidiano del trabajo de los esquipos del PSF.This article shows a research about the implantation of the Family Helath Program, carried through 12 pioneer cities, related to the access to the basic health services. It was based in the context of social sciences, in the method of the hermeneutics

  4. Using of thermoradiotherapy on treatment of cancerous growths of anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, Yu.M.; Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter of book authors investigated using of thermoradiotherapy on treatment of cancerous growths of anal canal, methods of using of thermoradiotherapy at morbid with anal cancer, methods of irradiation, the characteristic of clinical observations, using of thermoradiotherapy at treatment of epidermoid cancer of anal zone, using of thermoradiotherapy at treatment of non epithelial cancer of anal zone and using thermoradiotherapy at others types of cancerous growths

  5. Análisis del sistema organizacional desde una perspectiva compleja como herramienta de recursos humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Tejada Zabaleta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la propuesta de un Modelo del Sistema Organizacional, como una herramienta analítica que pueda ser utilizada por los encargados de RRHH o Talento Humano en las organizaciones, para definir, caracterizar, analizar y decidir sobre los elementos constitutivos del sistema y las consecuentes interacciones de dichos elementos. Labase filosófica del modelo se sustenta en un intento de aproximacióndesde el llamado "paradigma de la complejidad".

  6. Cause-Specific Colostomy Rates After Radiotherapy for Anal Cancer: A Danish Multicentre Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Kåre G; Nørgaard, Mette; Lundby, Lilli

    2011-01-01

    In anal cancer, colostomy-free survival is a measure of anal sphincter preservation after treatment with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Failure to control anal cancer and complications of treatment are alternative indications for colostomy. However, no data exist on cause-specific colostomy...

  7. Relation between anal electrosensitivity and rectal filling sensation and the influence of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, PMA; Penninckx, FM

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of age and sex on the rectal filling sensation and anal electrosensitivity and to explore the relation between anal electrosensitivity and the parameters of the rectal filling sensation. METHODS: Anal mucosal electrosensitivity and anorectal

  8. Rectocele and anal sphincter defect – surgical anatomy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carefully directed translabial ultrasound scan of the rectum and anal sphincters. The ultrasound examination was performed by a radi- ologist with specific understanding of the pathology. Conventional two-dimensional ultrasound imaging was performed using a 4 - 8. MHz curved array probe. The patient was in the left ...

  9. Anal endosonographic findings in women after vaginal delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziejczak, Malgorzata [Department of Proctology, Hospital at Solec, Warsaw (Poland); Sudol-Szopinska, Iwona, E-mail: iwsud@ciop.pl [Department of Proctology, Hospital at Solec, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Second Faculty of Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw (Poland); Stefanski, Robert [Department of Proctology, Hospital at Solec, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Second Faculty of Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw (Poland); Panorska, Anna K. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Nevada, Reno (United States); Gardyszewska, Agnieszka [Second Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Warsaw (Poland); Krasnodebski, Ireneusz [Department of General and Gastroenterological Surgery and Nutrition, Medical University, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-04-15

    Objective: To estimate a frequency of obstetric anal sphincters defects in women after vaginal delivery. Methods: The study included 102 women, aged from 16 to 40 years (mean age 28.6 years). 28 women had perineal lacerations of 3rd and 4th degree. 22 women had instrumental delivery. Anal endosonography was performed on all participants using BK Medical scanner Pro focus with a 3D endoprobe during the first week after delivery. Starck's classification was used to score sphincters defects. Results: The endosonographic images were abnormal in 8 out of 102 women (7.8%). Follow-up examinations after 6 weeks confirmed defects in 6 out of 102 women (5.8%). Five women had external anal sphincter torn, and 1 woman had both sphincters, internal and external, defected. Discordance between endosonographic diagnosis of defect and clinical assessment of sphincters continuity was demonstrated in 6 (5.9%) out of 8 initially found, including 2 (1.9%) false endosonographic results and 4 (3.9%) false clinical diagnosis (occult sphincter defects). The endosonography sensitivity and accuracy in sphincter defect diagnostic amounted to 100% and 98%, respectively. Conclusions: (1) Anal sphincters' tears in symptomatic women are not as frequent as it was believed. (2) The defect diagnosis in the first week after delivery should be verified by a follow-up endosonography in 6 weeks, after regression of the edema and hematoma.

  10. Primary radiation therapy in the treatment of anal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantril, S.T. (Children' s Hospital of San Francisco, CA); Green, J.P.; Schall, G.L.; Schaupp, W.C.

    1983-09-01

    From 1966 to 1981, 47 patients with a diagnosis of anal carcinoma were irradiated. This group was composed of 23 males and 24 females, with age ranging from 38 to 84 years (average 64.4 years). Five patients were treated preoperatively and 34 were treated definitively with cancericidal doses of irradiation. Acute radiation reactions requiring a rest-break were noted in 28% of patients, but all were managed as outpatients without untoward chronic sequelae. Chronic complications were noted in 13 patients, including two patients who required colostomy for severe anal stenosis and two who required A-P resection for large painful ulcers. Twenty-eight of 35 patients (80%) treated with irradiation alone have remained locally controlled without further treatment. An additional four have been salvaged by surgery. Only three patients had interstitial implants as part of their treatment course. Actuarial survival at five years for the N/sub 0/ patients and the group as a whole are 95.6 and 79.3%, respectively. It is concluded that external beam irradiation alone, properly fractionated to cancericidal doses, can control anal carcinoma with acceptable morbidity rates and without the use of either chemotherapy or interstitial implants in most cases. There is also a strong correlation suggesting that anal intercourse and male homosexuality play a significant role in the etiology of this disease.

  11. Primary radiation therapy in the treatment of anal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantril, S.T.; Green, J.P.; Schall, G.L.; Schaupp, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    From 1966 to 1981, 47 patients with a diagnosis of anal carcinoma were irradiated. This group was composed of 23 males and 24 females, with age ranging from 38 to 84 years (average 64.4 years). Five patients were treated preoperatively and 34 were treated definitively with cancericidal doses of irradiation. Acute radiation reactions requiring a rest-break were noted in 28% of patients, but all were managed as outpatients without untoward chronic sequelae. Chronic complications were noted in 13 patients, including two patients who required colostomy for severe anal stenosis and two who required A-P resection for large painful ulcers. Twenty-eight of 35 patients (80%) treated with irradiation alone have remained locally controlled without further treatment. An additional four have been salvaged by surgery. Only three patients had interstitial implants as part of their treatment course. Actuarial survival at five years for the N 0 patients and the group as a whole are 95.6 and 79.3%, respectively. It is concluded that external beam irradiation alone, properly fractionated to cancericidal doses, can control anal carcinoma with acceptable morbidity rates and without the use of either chemotherapy or interstitial implants in most cases. There is also a strong correlation suggesting that anal intercourse and male homosexuality play a significant role in the etiology of this disease

  12. The anal verge: localization with multi-slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Tang Guangjian

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine and evaluate the method of localization of anal verge by multislice spiral CT. To provide an imaging reference for operative guidance of low-rectal cancer. Methods Forty eight consecutive adult patients suspected of abnormalities other than rectal disease were evaluated with abdominal and pelvic CT scans since August, 2009. They were divided into two groups based on sex and age. There were 23 men and 25 women. The ages of young group were 28 to 50 years and the average age was 41 years. The ages of elderly group were 52 to 81 years and the average age was 64 years. A small cotton ball dipped with contrast media was put at the anal verge as a marker and CT scans were performed with 64-slice spiral CT scanner. The distances between the cotton balls and the lower margin of the pubis combination (La), the lower margin of the Sth sacral vertebra (Lb), the inferior aperture of minor pelvis (Lc) and the lower margin of the basement of external anal sphincter (Ld) were measured on the mid- sagittal images obtained by MPR. The averages, the standard deviations (s), the 95% and 80% confidence intervals of La, Lb, Lc and Ld were calculated. We took the intervals of ±1.96 s or ±1.28 s 0.05) between two different sex groups [male group, (10.0±1.2) mm], female group, (9.6±1.2) mm and between two age groups [young group, (9.6±1.2) mm, elderly group, (9.9±1.3) mm]. Conclusions: The lower margin of the basement of external anal sphincter was a useful anatomic landmark for localizing the anal verge, and could be definitely identified on the middle sagittal pelvic CT image. The distance between the structure and anal verge is constant enough and can be used in measuring distance from low rectal lesion to the anal verge. (authors)

  13. Verificación analítica para las determinaciones de cromo hexavalente en aguas por espectrofotometría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Severiche Sierra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad la prestación de servicios analíticos de laboratorios, toma de forma ascendente más auge y utilidad. El efecto de un análisis de aguas es forjar resultados correctos y confiables, siendo la verificación de ensayos uno de los aspectos más importantes y factor clave para conseguir este propósito. La determinación de cromo hexavalente en aguas por colorimetría con la difenilcarbazida es la metodología analítica más usada y útil que se conoce en el ámbito científico técnico, principalmente, por su alta selectividad y también debatida por su reacción a las interferencias. En el presente estudio se hizo la valoración analítica del método espectrofotométrico para la determinación de cromo hexavalente en aguas; el objetivo de este trabajo fue confirmar correctamente la aplicación del método para el análisis de aguas. Se trabajaron muestras de diferentes tipos de agua: potable, residual y superficial, siguiéndose estrictamente los protocolos de verificación. Se encontraron resultados satisfactorios en precisión y exactitud con el fin de emitir resultados confiables y reales de la muestra analizada.

  14. Tumor de células granulares de la región anal: Presentación de 1 caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnerio Valerio Arzuaga Ánderson

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se informa un caso de tumor de células granulares (mioblastoma de la región anal, en una mujer de 54 años de edad que acudió al Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico Docente "Joaquín Albarrán" por "quiste palpable en las márgenes del ano. El tratamiento que se realizó fue la resección local del tumor. Se analizaron los patrones histopatológicos e inmunohistoquímicos, los cuales se correspondieron con los reportados en la literatura médica hasta el presenteThe authors present a case of granular cell tumor (myoblastoma of the anal region in a woman aged 54, who was attended at "Joaquin Albarrán" Clinical Surgical Hospital due to a palpable "cyst" in the anal edges. The treatment applied consisted in local resection of the tumor. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical patterns were analyzed and they corresponded to those reported in medical literature

  15. Early effect of external beam radiation therapy on the anal sphincter: A study using anal manometry and transrectal ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaum, E.H.; Dreznik, Z.; Myerson, R.J.; Lacey, D.L.; Fry, R.D.; Kodner, I.J.; Fleshman, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The early of pelvic irradiation on the anal sphincter has not been previously investigated. This study prospectively evaluated the acute effect of preoperative radiation on anal function. Twenty patients with rectal carcinoma received 4,500 cGy of preoperative external beam radiation. The field of radiation included the sphincter in 10 patients and was delivered above the anorectal ring in 10 patients. Anal manometry and transrectal ultrasound were performed before and four weeks after radiotherapy. No significant difference in mean maximal squeeze or resting pressure was found after radiation therapy. An increase in mean minimal sensory threshold was significant. Histologic examination revealed minimal radiation changes at the distal margin in 8 of 10 patients who underwent low anterior resection and in 1 of 3 patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection. The authors conclude that preoperative radiation therapy has minimal immediate effect on the anal sphincter and is not a major contributing factor to postoperative incontinence in patients after sphincter-saving operations for rectal cancer

  16. Botulinum toxin A injection for chronic anal fissures and anal sphincter spasm improves quality of life in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Chaptini, MBBS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a 20-year-old female with generalized, severe, recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa who developed secondary chronic anal fissures. This resulted in anal sphincter spasm and severe, disabling pain. She was treated with five botulinum toxin A injections into the internal anal sphincter over a period of 2 years and gained marked improvement in her symptoms. This case demonstrates the successful use of botulinum toxin A injections to relieve anal sphincter spasm and fissuring, with long-term improvement.

  17. Clinicopathological aspects and prevalence of human papillomavirus in anal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tayla Mesquita Aguiar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anal cancer is relatively rare; however, its incidence has increased in recent years. Several risk factors are associated with the development of anal cancer, including age older than 50 years, low-fiber diet, chronic anal fistulas, smoking, multiple partners, anal intercourse practice, Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and immunosuppression. However, the presence of human papillomavirus represents the main risk factor for the development of anal cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological aspects of a series of patients with anal carcinomas diagnosed in Hospital Araújo Jorge, Goiânia-Goiás, as well as the prevalence of human papillomavirus genome in these tumors. Clinical, pathological and socio-demographic data were collected from the respective medical files and paraffin blocks containing anal carcinomas specimens were used for DNA extraction and detection of human papillomavirus, by means of polymerase chain reaction, using short PCR fragment primers. Forty-three cases were selected and had the data analyzed, while 38 cases were tested for human papillomavirus genome detection. Among the evaluated patients, 62.8% were women; 53.4% of tumors were squamous cell carcinoma and 46.5% of the patients were aged between 60 and 75 years. Risk factors, such as smoking (39.5% and alcoholism (20.9% were recorded in the studied group. Lymph node metastases were detected in 30.2% of cases and 7.0% had distant metastasis. The detection of human papillomavirus DNA was positive in 76% of cases assessed and this was significantly associated with squamous cell carcinomas. Aggressive behavior and advanced stage of anal cancer described in this study highlight the need for preventive measures that contemplate these tumors, including vaccination against human papillomavirus. Resumo: O câncer anal é relativamente raro, entretanto, sua incidência aumentou nos últimos anos. Vários fatores de risco são associados ao

  18. Abnormal anal cytology risk in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Nobre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of abnormal anal cytology in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion. This study evaluated 200 women with and without genital squamous intraepithelial lesion who were recruited for anal Pap smears. Women who had abnormal results on equally or over atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance were classified as having abnormal anal cytology. A multiple logistic regression analysis (stepwise was performed to identify the risk for developing abnormal anal cytology. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 program. The average age was 41.09 (±12.64. Of the total participants, 75.5% did not practice anal sex, 91% did not have HPV-infected partners, 92% did not have any anal pathology, and 68.5% did not have anal bleeding. More than half (57.5% had genital SIL and a significant number developed abnormal anal cytology: 13% in the total sample and 17.4% in women with genital SIL. A significant association was observed between genital squamous intraepithelial lesion and anal squamous intraepithelial lesion (PR = 2.46; p = 0.03. In the logistic regression model, women having genital intraepithelial lesion were more likely to have abnormal anal Pap smear (aPR = 2.81; p = 0.02. This report shows that women with genital squamous intraepithelial lesion must be more closely screened for anal cancer.

  19. A new genus and new species of felt scales (Homoptera: Coccinea: Eriococcidae from Tierra del Fuego (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Gavrilov-Zimin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Telmatococcus igniumterrae gen. nov. et sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on the material collected from a sphagnum bog in the extreme southern part of South America (Tierra del Fuego. The new monotypic genus differs from all known genera of Eriococcidae in having short cylindrical truncated setae of the anal apparatus and pouches with numerous quinquelocular pores near the anal apparatus. The habitat of the new taxon is characterized.

  20. Use of Anal Acoustic Reflectometry in the Evaluation of Men With Passive Fecal Leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornung, Benjamin R; Telford, Karen J; Carlson, Gordon L

    2017-01-01

    with greater sensitivity and discriminatory ability than conventional anal manometry. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether men with fecal leakage have an abnormality in anal sphincter function that is detectable by anal acoustic reflectometry. DESIGN: This was an age-matched study......BACKGROUND: Men with passive fecal leakage represent a distinct clinical entity in which the pathophysiology remains unclear. Standard anorectal investigations fail to demonstrate consistent abnormalities in this group. Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new test of anal sphincter function...... of continent and incontinent men. SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Male patients with isolated symptoms of fecal leakage were recruited. Anal acoustic reflectometry, followed by conventional anal manometry, was performed. Results were then compared with those from...

  1. Los costes de olvidarse de ciertas categorías analíticas para entender nuestras realidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicenç Navarro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El artículo hace una crítica de las tesis liberales que sostienen que la desregulación de capitales y la expansión de los mercados a nivel mundial ha reducido las desigualdades sociales y la pobreza así como de las tesis de los autores marxistas Michael Hart y Antoni Negri (presentadas en su libro Empire que asumen que no existe un poder central en el orden mundial, que definen como Imperio, asumiendo que el poder de los Estado está siendo substituido por el poder de los mercados (tesis esta última también sostenida por autores como Susan George y Eric Hobsbawm. El autor presenta evidencia que muestra el error de estas tesis, señalando el gran poder que los Estado continúan teniendo (y dentro de ellos el Estado de EEUU en configurar el orden internacional. El artículo critica el abandono de categorías analíticas como clase, poder de clase y Estado no sólo por parte de teóricos liberales sino también teóricos del movimiento antiglobalizador, indicando que no se puede entender la realidad presente (desde el crecimiento de las desigualdades sociales y la pobreza hasta las guerras de Afganistán e Irak sin recuperar tales categorías en dichos análisis, indicando que el conflicto mayor existente hoy en el mundo no es entre los países ricos del Norte y los países pobres del Sur sino entre la alianza de las clases dominantes del Norte y del Sur frente y en contra de las clases dominadas del Norte y del Sur cuya influencia sobre sus Estado es mucho menor.

  2. Testing for and the role of anal and rectal sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J

    1992-03-01

    The rectum is insensitive to stimuli capable of causing pain and other sensations when applied to a somatic cutaneous surface. It is, however, sensitive to distension by an experimental balloon introduced through the anus, though it is not known whether it is the stretching or reflex contraction of the gut wall, or the distortion of the mesentery and adjacent structures which induces the sensation. No specific sensory receptors are seen on careful histological examination of the rectum in humans. However, myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibres are seen adjacent to the rectal mucosa, but no intraepithelial fibres arise from these. The sensation of rectal distension travels with the parasympathetic system to S2, S3 and S4. The two main methods for quantifying rectal sensation are rectal balloon distension and mucosal electrosensitivity. The balloon is progressively distended until particular sensations are perceived by the patient. The volumes at which these sensations are perceived are recorded. Three sensory thresholds are usually defined: constant sensation of fullness, urge to defecate, and maximum tolerated volume. The modalities of anal sensation can be precisely defined. Touch, pain and temperature sensation exist in normal subjects. There is profuse innervation of the anal canal with a variety of specialized sensory nerve endings: Meissner's corpuscles which record touch sensation, Krause end-bulbs which respond to thermal stimuli, Golgi-Mazzoni bodies and pacinian corpuscles which respond to changes in tension and pressure, and genital corpuscles which respond to friction. In addition, there are large diameter free nerve endings within the epithelium. The nerve pathway for anal canal sensation is via the inferior haemorrhoidal branches of the pudendal nerve to the sacral roots of S2, S3 and S4. Anal sensation may be quantitatively measured in response to electrical stimulation. The technique involves the use of a specialized constant current generator

  3. A trial of radiofrequency ablation for anal intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Robert N; Hasan, Shirin R; Drury, Steven; Darragh, Teresa M; van Zante, Annemieke; Goldstone, Stephen E

    2017-03-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) effectively treats esophageal high-grade dysplasia, but its efficacy in treating anal canal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) is unsubstantiated. This prospective study assessed the safety and efficacy of applying hemi-circumferential RFA to anal canal HSIL. Twenty-one HIV-negative participants with HSIL occupying ≤ half the anal canal circumference were treated with hemi-circumferential anal canal RFA. Participants were assessed every 3 months for 12 months with high-resolution anoscopy; recurrence in the treatment zone was re-treated with focal RFA. Twenty-one participants with a mean of 1.7 lesions (range 1-4) enrolled and completed the trial. Six (29 %) participants had recurrent HSIL within the treated hemi-circumference within 1 year. Four participants (19 %) had persistence of an index lesion at 3 months. One (2.9 %) index HSIL persisted again at 12 months. No participants had more than two RFA treatments. KM curve-predicted HSIL-free survival within the treatment zone at 1 year was 76 % (95 % CI 52-89 %). Comparing the first 7 and last 14 participants, the predicted 1-year HSIL-free survivals are 43 % (95 % CI 10-73 %) and 93 % (95 % CI 59-99 %), respectively (p = 0.008), suggesting a learning curve with the treating physician. Multivariable analysis showed decreased recurrence in the last 14 participants (HR 0.02; 95 % CI 0.001-0.63) while increasing BMI increased recurrence (HR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.01-2.01). No participants had device or procedure-related serious adverse events, anal stricture, or heavy bleeding. Hemi-circumferential RFA yielded a high rate of anal HSIL eradication in HIV-negative patients at 1 year with minimal adverse events. Lesion persistence was probably related to incomplete initial ablation.

  4. Anal sexual experience and HIV risk awareness among female sex workers in Dire Dawa, eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazeingia, Yohannes Teka; Olijjira, Lemessa; Dessie, Yadeta

    2017-01-01

    Female sex workers have been disproportionately affected with HIV and anal sexual experience elevate their vulnerability. Anal intercourse has more risk of HIV transmission than vaginal intercourse for receptors that coupled with low condom and proper lubricant use behavior during anal sex. Besides majority of them did not understand HIV transmission risk of anal intercourse. In Ethiopia, studies on anal sexual experience is almost none existent, so the purpose of this study is to explored anal sexual experience and HIV transmission risk awareness among female sex worker in Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Qualitative study with thematic analysis approach was conducted among 18 female sex workers and recruitment of study participants performed until saturation of information. The principal investigator conducted in-depth interviews using local language (Amharic) and it was recorded on audio recorder. Tape recorded data was transcribed and translated to English and entered into open code version 3.4 for coding and theme identification. Data collection conducted simultaneously with data analysis. Female sex workers practiced anal sex for different themes like financial influence, coercion, intentionally, peer pressure and as a sign of intimacy and love. Coercion, negative attitudes, poor awareness about HIV transmission risks of anal sex and protection capacity of condom and proper lubricants are the identified themes for not using condom and proper lubricants during anal sex by female sex workers. Inaccessibility and unavailability of health services for issues related to anal sex was the core reason for female sex workers' misperception and risk anal sexual experience. Female sex workers practiced anal sex without risk reduction approaches and they did not understand exacerbated risk of anal sex to HIV transmission. Stakeholders including ministry of health need to incorporate potential awareness raising tasks and programs about risk of anal sex and methods of risk

  5. Anal high-risk human papillomavirus infection and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia detected in women and heterosexual men infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandra S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sumanth Gandra, Aline Azar, Mireya WessolosskyDivision of Infectious Disease and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USABackground: Although anal high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV infection and anal cytological abnormalities are highly prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM, there are insufficient data on these abnormalities among HIV-infected heterosexual men (HSM and women. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of anal HR-HPV, cytological abnormalities, and performance of these screening tests in detecting high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN2+ among our cohort of HIV-infected MSM and non-MSM (HSM and women.Methods: A single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted with HIV-infected individuals who underwent anal cancer screening with anal cytology and HR-HPV testing from January 2011 to January 31, 2013.Results: Screening of 221 HIV-infected individuals for both HR-HPV and anal cytology showed the presence of HR-HPV in 54% (abnormal anal cytology 48% of MSM, 28% (abnormal anal cytology 28% of HSM, and 27% (abnormal anal cytology 34% of women. Among 117 (53% individuals with abnormal results (HR-HPV-positive and/or cytology was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or above, 67 underwent high resolution anoscopy. Of these 67 individuals, 22 individuals had AIN2+ (17 MSM, four women, and one HSM. HR-HPV correlated better with AIN2+ than with anal cytology on biopsy in both MSM (r=0.29 versus r=0.10; P=0.05 versus P=0.49 and non-MSM (r=0.36 versus r=-0.34; P=0.08 versus P=0.09.Conclusion: Given the presence of AIN2+ in screened HIV-infected HSM and women, routine anal cancer screening in all HIV-infected individuals should be considered. HR-HPV merits further evaluation for anal cancer screening among non-MSM.Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, anal human papillomavirus, heterosexual men, women, anal cancer

  6. Método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución para el estudio de estabilidad del jarabe de loratadina 0,1 % Analytical method by high resolution liquid chromatography for the stability study of loratidine syrup 0.1 %

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Torres Amaro

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Se validó un método de cromatografía líquida de alta resolución para el estudio de estabilidad del jarabe de loratadina 0,1 %. La curva de calibración en el rango de 13,6 a 3,36 µg/mL fue lineal, con un coeficiente de correlación igual a 0,99975; la prueba estadística para el intercepto y la pendiente, no significativa. El recobrado obtenido resultó de 100,2 % en el rango de concentración estudiado, y las pruebas de Cochran y Student (t, no significativas. El coeficiente de variación en el estudio de repetibilidad fue igual a 0,41 % para 10 réplicas ensayadas, mientras que en la reproducibilidad las pruebas de Fischer y Student, no significativas. El método resultó específico, lineal, preciso y exacto.A high resolution liquid chromatography method was validated to study the stability of loratidine syrup 0.1 %. The calibration curve in the range from 13.6 to 3.36 µg/mL was lineal, with a coefficient of correlation equal to 0.99975. The intercept and slope statistical test was not significant. The recovery obtained was 100.2 % in the concentration range studied, and the Cochran and Student (t tests results were not important. The variation coefficient in the repeatability study was equal to 0.41 % for 10 replications assayed, whereas in the reproducibility Fischer and Student tests were not remarkable. The method proved to be specific, lineal, accurate, and exact.

  7. Peces del Noroeste del Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Ramiro

    1994-01-01

    La ictiofauna del occidente del Ecuador es poco conocida. Los peces del noroccidente son diferentes a los del suroccidente del Ecuador. 34 familias y 82 especies fueron colectadas que equivale al 11 % de las especies de peces continentales registradas en el Ecuador. Icteogeográficamente se sabe que la costa ecuatoriana posee dos provincias: la del Pacifico Norte y la del Guayas, se determinó que el límite de las dos provincias es el río Santiago ya que las especies del mencionado río so...

  8. Análisis de la revista Bibliotecas: Anales de Investigación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Luis González-Valiente

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es describir el impacto académico, la calidad del proceso editorial, y las estrategias editoriales y de visibilidad de la revista científica cubana Bibliotecas. Anales de Investigación (BAI, editada por la Biblioteca Nacional de Cuba “José Martí”. Para determinar el impacto académico se efectúa un análisis de las citas recibidas a partir de la base datos Google Académico, mediante los indicadores bibliométricos: citas por año, citación vs. autocitación, revistas citables vs. documentos no citables, Índice Hirsch y factor de impacto. La calidad del proceso editorial y las estrategias de visibilidad se determinan mediante una autoevaluación efectuada con la metodología de los sistemas de indización SciELO, Scopus, CLASE, Redalyc, Latindex, Dialnet, y ERIH PLUS. Los resultados revelan una línea de crecimiento en la citación, destacándose como fuentes citantes las revistas científicas de las áreas Bibliotecología y Ciencia de la Información, Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, y Educación. Se evidencia que algunos aspectos de formato y contenido inciden negativamente en la calidad del proceso editorial. Se proponen estrategias para mejorar la visibilidad científica a través de la inclusión en bases de datos, directorios, y redes sociales y académicas. En general, este estudio contribuye a la toma de decisiones editoriales para aumentar el impacto y la visibilidad científica de BAI.

  9. Comunidad, sistema de cargos y proyecto social. Una propuesta analítica de sociedades locales en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íñigo González de la Fuente

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto contiene una propuesta de análisis antropológico del sistema de cargos que incluye tanto a comunidades indígenas como no-indígenas. Partiendo del reconocimiento del sistema de cargos como una institución esencialmente heterogénea, se sugiere que, como hipótesis principal, tal institución alimenta una serie de mecanismos que, en sí mismos, potencian los escenarios de interacciones que protagonizan los miembros de la comunidad a través de un conjunto de roles: fomentan que los escenarios puedan ser protagonizados por el mayor número de miembros; propician que tales escenarios se articulen con la mayor frecuencia posible; todo ello con el acuerdo tácito entre protagonistas de que exista rotación de roles entre escenario y escenario. Esta propuesta analítica va a estar estructurada en tres bloques. En primer lugar, se ubican los fenómenos estudiados en torno al sistema de cargos en un continuum de comportamientos tendentes al individualismo y a lo colectivo en sus dos polos. En segundo lugar, se explicita el concepto de comunidad como elemento básico para el estudio de los sistemas de cargos; por último, se propone la idea del proyecto comunitario como denominador común en cuanto a sistemas de cargos se refiere en el área mesoamericana.

  10. Patients with newly diagnosed cervical cancer should be screened for anal human papilloma virus and anal dysplasia: Results of a pilot study using a STELLA computer simulation and economic model

    OpenAIRE

    Eli D. Ehrenpreis; Dylan G. Smith

    2018-01-01

    Background: Women with cervical cancer often have anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and anal dysplasia. However, effectiveness of anal HPV screening is unknown. Methods: A dynamic model was constructed using STELLA. Populations are represented as ''stocks'' that change according to model rates. Initial anal cytology in new cervical cancer patients, dysplasia progression and regression, cost of treating high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and lifetime costs for anal can...

  11. MRI in children following surgery for anal and rectal atresia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahe, T.; Herold, A.; Doelken, W.; Hoecht, B.; Wuerzburg Univ.

    1989-01-01

    MRI of the pelvis was performed in 17 children following surgical correction of anal and rectal atresias and in five children without ano-rectal malformations. A muscle score was used to characterize the muscles of the pelvic floor and their relationship to the rectum. There was close agreement between the MRI muscle score and clinical continence. MRI provided additional information that should improve continence following conservative and surgical treatment. (orig.) [de

  12. coloproctectomie avec anastomose colo-sus-anale pour tumeur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une coloproctectomie fut réalisée le 30/06/2014 avec anastomose colo-anale, colostomie de protection sous-couvert d'une transfusion sanguine. L'examen histologique du segment colorectal prélevé objectiva une rectocolite granulomateuse autour de nombreux oeufs de schistosomes. En effet, le patient a vécu à Pahou, ...

  13. Pelvic floor ultrasound and anal incontinence in primiparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakse, Abelone Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Afhandlingen havde til formål at undersøge muskulære forandringer på bækkenbundsmuskulaturen i relation til første fødsel, med særligt fokus på anal inkontinens. Forsvaret fandt sted d. 10. september 2010 kl. 14:00 i Auditoriet på Hvidovre Hospital.   ...

  14. Endosonographic appearance of the anal sphincters in patients following colostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudol-Szopinska, I.; Jakubowski, W.; Szczepkowski, M.; Panorska, A.

    2002-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to visualize, by anal ultrasound (AUS), the suspected defects of the anal sphincters in the patients after colostomy and to analyze possible factors that could have led to such defects. Patients and methods. AUS, using a 7.0 MHz endorectal probe, was performed in a group of 25 patients with colostomy. The internal anal sphincter (IAS), external anal sphincter (EAS) and puborectalis muscle (PR) were visualized and the defects within them were qualified and quantified. For statistical analysis, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. Results. The IAS was thin in all but three patients (22 patients; 88 %) with the mean thickness of 1.62 mm. A circular reduction of the thickness along the entire length of the IAS was seen in 20 patients (90.9 %). The echogenicity of the IAS was increased in 15 patients (60 %), and in 10 of them (66.6%), this defect embraced the whole length and circumference of the IAS. The margins of the IAS were not well-defined in 10 patients (40%). A significant correlation was found between the length of the patient's life with the stoma and the IAS echogenicity defect (p-value = 0.0001). No significant correlation was found between the dynamic examination, the IAS thickness and the IAS borders definition. Conclusion. The reduced thickness, increased echogenicity and borders definition defect of the IAS are seen in the patients after colostomy. The only significant correlation was confirmed between the length of the patient's life with the stoma and the IAS echogenicity defect. (author)

  15. The impact of anal sphincter injury on perceived body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, David; Khan, Rabia; Naidoo, Kristina; Kearney, Rohna; Myers, Jenny; Reid, Fiona

    2017-05-01

    Obstetric anal sphincter injury is common but the effect on body image is unreported. The aim of this study was to explore patient perceived changes in body image and other psychological aspects in women attending a perineal follow-up clinic. This retrospective study analysed women's responses to a self-reported questionnaire. Consecutive women with anal sphincter injury who attended a United Kingdom Maternity Hospital perineal follow-up clinic between January 1999 and January 2012 were identified and the records obtained and reviewed. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine variables influencing self-reported change in body image. Questionnaires and operation notes were analysed from 422 women who attended at a median of four months after delivery. 222 (53%) reported a change in body image with 80 (19%) reporting lower self-esteem and 75 (18%) a change in their personality due to the change in body image. 248 (59%) perceived an anatomical change due to the delivery. Factors associated with increased likelihood of reporting a change in body image were reporting a perceived change in anatomy due to the delivery, adjusted OR 6.11 (3.56-10.49), anal incontinence, OR 1.97 (1.16-3.36), and delivery by forceps, OR 2.59 (1.23-5.43). This is the first study to quantify body image changes in women after anal sphincter injury sustained in childbirth. These were found to be very common, affecting up to 50% of women. The study has several limitations but it does highlight the significant psychosocial problems of negative self-esteem and personality changes associated with a perceived change in body image that has not previously been reported. It also outlines the further research questions that need to be addressed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiotherapy for carcinomas of the anal canal Tenon hospital experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touboul, E.; Moureau-Zabotto, L.; Lerouge, D.; Pene, F.; Deniaud-Alexandre, E.; Schlienger, M.; Laugier, A.; Tiret, E.; Parc, R.; Sezeur, A.; Houry, S.; Gallot, D.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1980, curative-intent radiation therapy of epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal is the standard first line treatment. The combined concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy is presently established for locally advanced tumors more than 4 cm in length and/or with nodal involvement. We report the Tenon hospital experience since 1972 concerning the long term results after radiation therapy, the modifications of the radiation technique, and the evolution of treatment strategy. (author)

  17. Extracción automática de definiciones analíticas y relaciones semánticas de hiponimia-hiperonimia con un sistema basado en patrones lingüísticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Dorantes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se muestra parte de un proyecto en curso centrada en el diseño de un autómata lexicográfico. El objetivo principal de la investigación es la extracción de definiciones analíticas y relaciones semánticas de términos con datos tomados directamente de internet. Presentamos dos de las capacidades del sistema: la extracción de definiciones analíticas y de hiperónimos. La metodología consiste principalmente en la búsqueda automática de esta información con patrones construidos manualmente basados en la estructura léxica de definiciones analíticas en lenguaje natural. Con este desarrollo, ha sido posible mejorar la precisión reportada en el estado del arte. Se ha conseguido una precisión de 92.5% para la tarea de extracción de definiciones analíticas y de las relaciones de hiperonimia.

  18. Impacto de la automatización de los ensayos analíticos en los servicios oncológicos del Laboratorio Clínico Impact of the automation of the analytic assays in the oncological services of the Clinical Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Céspedes Quevedo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Se diseñó una investigación longitudinal y prospectiva para evaluar la efectividad de la tecnología Elimat en el Laboratorio Clínico del Hospital Oncológico Docente “Conrado Benítez” de Santiago de Cuba, durante el bienio 2010-2011, al comparar la precisión y los costos mediante el empleo de 8 determinaciones químicas con muestras Elitrol I y II como controladores de calidad, procesadas por métodos automatizado y manual. En la serie se consideraron los indicadores: prueba T para igualdad de medias, coeficientes de variación de rutina e ideal, e índice de varianza; los criterios: escala de evaluación y nivel de significación αA longitudinal and prospective investigation was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the technology Elimat in the Clinical Laboratory of "Conrado Benítez" Teaching Oncological Hospital from Santiago de Cuba, during the biennium 2010-2011, by comparing the precision and the costs through the use of 8 chemical determinations with Elitrol I and II samples as quality controllers, processed by automatic and manual methods. In the series, indicators such as: T test for equality of means, coefficients of routine and ideal variation, and variance index; the approaches: evaluation scale and significance level a <0.05; as well as the standards: coefficient of ideal variation of each determination and mean values of controllers were considered. An expense of $2 057 pesos more was obtained in the 100 samples manually processed, the global precision was evaluated as good in both methods, the accuracy of the manual technique was evaluated of excellent and that of the automated procedure, was good too, with significant differences between the resulting means of this last one and those of the used controllers. The autoanalizer Elimat produced a positive impact economically and socially; however, as for the quality it presented the same precision and lower accuracy than the manual procedure.

  19. Determinación de esteroles y dialcoholes triterpénicos en aceite de oliva mediante separación de la fracción por cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia y análisis por cromatografía de gases. Estandarización del método analítico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cert, Arturo

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available A method is developed for the analysis of sterols together with triterpenic alcohols (erythrodiol and uvaol in vegetable oils. The method involves obtention of the unsaponifiable matter, isocratic HPLC separation with refractive index detector, preparation of silylderivatives, and analysis by capillary GC. Four procedures involving GC analysis of sterol and sterol+dialcohol fractions obtained by HPLC and CCF separations are compared. A collaborative trial comparing HPLC-sterols+dialcohols and CCF-sterols (official methods is carried out. For Δ7-sterols, higher values and better repeatability and reproducibility were observed in the first method, but no differences for the remainder sterols were found. The erythrodiol+uvaol determinations by HPLC-sterols+dialcohols and CCF-sterols+dialcohols (official methods resulted in similar precision.

    Se presenta un método para la determinación conjunta de esteróles y dialcoholes triterpénicos (eritrodiol y uvaol en aceites de oliva que consta de las etapas siguientes: obtención del insaponificable, fraccionamiento mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (CLAE en régimen isocrático con detector de índice de refracción, preparación de derivados sililados y análisis por cromatografía de gases en columna capilar. Se comparan cuatro procedimientos que utilizan el análisis por cromatografía de gases de las fracciones de esteroles y de esteroles + dialcoholes obtenidas tanto por CLAE como por CCF. Se lleva a cabo un análisis colaborativo para la determinación de esteroles comparando los métodos CLAE-esteroles+dialcoholes y CCFesteroles (método oficial. Los resultados mostraron que por el primer procedimiento la determinación de Δ7-esteroles se realiza con mayor repetibilidad y reproducibilidad, aunque los valores resultantes son más altos. No se encontraron diferencias en los parámetros de precisión ni en los valores de los restantes esteroles. Las determinaciones de

  20. Fractal dimension and image statistics of anal intraepithelial neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahammer, H.; Kroepfl, J.M.; Hackl, Ch.; Sedivy, R.

    2011-01-01

    Research Highlights: → Human papillomaviruses cause anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). → Digital image processing was carried out to classify the grades of AIN quantitatively. → The fractal dimension as well as grey value statistics was calculated. → Higher grades of AIN yielded higher values of the fractal dimension. → An automatic detection system is feasible. - Abstract: It is well known that human papillomaviruses (HPV) induce a variety of tumorous lesions of the skin. HPV-subtypes also cause premalignant lesions which are termed anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). The clinical classification of AIN is of growing interest in clinical practice, due to increasing HPV infection rates throughout human population. The common classification approach is based on subjective inspections of histological slices of anal tissues with all the drawbacks of depending on the status and individual variances of the trained pathologists. Therefore, a nonlinear quantitative classification method including the calculation of the fractal dimension and first order as well as second order image statistical parameters was developed. The absolute values of these quantitative parameters reflected the distinct grades of AIN very well. The quantitative approach has the potential to decrease classification errors significantly and it could be used as a widely applied screening technique.

  1. Anal sphincter electromyography in patients with Anorectal Dysfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinchet Soler, Rafael; Hidalgo Marrero, Yanet; Espichicoque Megret, Arianne; Manzano Suarez, Jianeya; Perez Gonzales, Ruth Maite

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the electromyography value of anal sphincter in patients with anorectal dysfunctions. Anorectal dysfunctions are frequent reason of pediatric consultation in children, especially with anal incontinence. A study of series of cases in patient with anorectal dysfunctions was carried out from January 2002 to January of 2006. 65 patients were studied. Anorectal malformations (ARM) represented the predominant affection with 38 patients (58.5%), prevailing the male sex in 25 patients (65.8%). Encopresis and intestinal agagliosis dicrease was observed. Sphincter was found before surgical treatment through electromyography in patients with anorectal malformations and colostomy; in those with definitive operation and open colostomy, it avoided the operation in a patient that did not have muscular activity of the external sphincter. In children already operated and with closed colostomy several electromyography changes were observed in correspondence with different incontinence grades. In encopresis cases the study was useful to rule out sphincter functional alterations. Electromyography was pathological in all the operated patients of intestinal aganglionosis. This procedure was very useful for anal incontinence study that helped to determine and establish the prognosis. (author)

  2. Hemorrhoids and anal fissures in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ugo, S; Stasi, E; Gaspari, A L; Sileri, P

    2015-12-01

    Perianal disease is a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It includes different conditions from more severe and potentially disabling ones, such as abscesses and fistulas, to more benign conditions such as hemorrhoids, skin tags and fissures. Most literature has been focused on anal sepsis and fistulae, as they carry the majority of disease burden and often alter the natural course of the disease. Hemorrhoids and anal fissures in patients with IBD have been overlooked, although they can represent a challenging problem. The management of hemorrhoids and fissures in IBD patients may be difficult and may significantly differ compared to the non-affected population. Historically surgery was firmly obstructed, and hemorrhoidectomy or sphincterotomy in patients with associated diagnosis of IBD was considered harmful, although literature data is scant and based on small series. Various authors reported an incidence of postoperative complications higher in IBD than in the general populations, with potential severe events. Considering that a spontaneous healing is possible, the first line management should be a medical therapy. In patients non-responding to conservative measures it is possible a judicious choice of surgical options on a highly selective basis; this can lead to acceptable results, but the risk of possible complications needs to be considered. In this review it is analyzed the current literature on the incidence, symptoms and treatment options of hemorrhoids and anal fissures in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

  3. Thermal responses of shape memory alloy artificial anal sphincters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yun; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Matsuzawa, Kenichi

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation of the thermal behavior of an artificial anal sphincter using shape memory alloys (SMAs) proposed by the authors. The SMA artificial anal sphincter has the function of occlusion at body temperature and can be opened with a thermal transformation induced deformation of SMAs to solve the problem of severe fecal incontinence. The investigation of its thermal behavior is of great importance in terms of practical use in living bodies as a prosthesis. In this work, a previously proposed phenomenological model was applied to simulate the thermal responses of SMA plates that had undergone thermally induced transformation. The numerical approach for considering the thermal interaction between the prosthesis and surrounding tissues was discussed based on the classical bio-heat equation. Numerical predictions on both in vitro and in vivo cases were verified by experiments with acceptable agreements. The thermal responses of the SMA artificial anal sphincter were discussed based on the simulation results, with the values of the applied power and the geometric configuration of thermal insulation as parameters. The results obtained in the present work provided a framework for the further design of SMA artificial sphincters to meet demands from the viewpoint of thermal compatibility as prostheses.

  4. Anal squamous carcinoma: a new AIDS-defining cancer? Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Squamous anal cell carcinoma is a rare malignancy that represents the 1.5% to 2% of all the lower digestive tract cancers. However, an increased incidence of invasive anal carcinoma is observed in HIV-seropositive population since the widespread of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Human papillomavirus is strongly associated with the pathogenesis of anal cancer. Anal intercourse and a high number of sexual partners appear to be risk factors to develop anal cancer in both sexes. Anal pain, bleeding and a palpable lesion in the anal canal are the most common clinical features. Endo-anal ultrasound is the best diagnosis method to evaluate the tumor size, the tumor extension and the infiltration of the sphincter muscle complex. Chemoradiotherapy plus antiretroviral therapy are the recommended treatments for all stages of localized squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in HIV-seropositive patients because of its high rate of cure. Here we present an HIV patient who developed a carcinoma of the anal canal after a long time of HIV infection under highly active antiretroviral therapy with a good virological and immunological response.

  5. Value of conventional cytology in the presence of macroscopic lesions of the anal canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lêda Pereira de Barcellos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To verify the value of conventional cytology for the diagnosis of macroscopic le- sions of the anal canal and to describe the limitations of the samples. Method: We evaluated 395 conventional cytology samples obtained by brushing the anal canal of patients (predominantly male, HIV-positive and compared them to the presence of macroscopic lesions of the anal canal observed under anorectal examination. Results: Of the total, 91.6% of samples were classified as adequate. Cellular elements repre- sentative of the anal transformation zone were observed in 63.5% of samples. Sensitivity in the presence or absence of cellularity was 80% and 31%, respectively. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the feasibility of using conventional anal cytology in outpatients. Resumo: Objetivo: verificar o valor da citologia convencional no diagnóstico de lesões macroscópicas do canal anal e descrever as limitações das amostras obtidas. Método: avaliamos 395 exames citológicos convencionais obtidos por escovado do canal anal de pacientes predominantemente do sexo masculino, soropositivos para HIV, e com- paramos com a presença de lesões macroscópicas do canal anal constatadas ao exame proctológico. Resultado: o percentual de amostras adequadas foi de 91,6%, e os elementos celulares re- presentativos da zona de transformação anal foram observados em 63,5% das amostras. Encontramos sensibilidade de 80% e 31% na presença ou ausência desta celularidade, res- pectivamente. Conclusão: O estudo demonstra a possibilidade de utilização da citologia anal convencional no rastreio de lesões macroscópicas do canal anal em pacientes ambulatoriais. Keywords: HPV Prevention of anal neoplasia Conventional cytology, Palavras-chave: HPV Prevenção de neoplasia anal Citologia convencional

  6. Filosofía educativa del P. Félix Varela y Morales en el contexto de Cuba a finales del siglo XVIII y primera mitad del XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Fors Castillo, María de las Nieves

    2017-01-01

    232 p. El trabajo de investigación que se presenta: Filosofía educativa del P. Félix Varela y Morales en el contexto de Cuba a finales del siglo XVIII y primera mitad del XIX es de tipo analítico-explicativo, ya que en él se profundiza en el análisis de las ideas filosófico-educativas de Félix Varela ¿resultado del pensamiento de la Ilustración- y cómo éstas influyen en la formación y desarrollo del pensamiento cubano.Para alcanzar los objetivos de la investigación se valora la importancia...

  7. Metodología para la optimización de la gestión y del mantenimiento de activos en un centro sanitario.

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Blanco, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de la tesis consiste en utilizar las técnicas y estrategias de ultima generación en la toma de decisiones sobre las políticas de mantenimiento como herramientas analíticas para diseñar el sistema de mantenimiento optimo del equipamiento médico e instalaciones vitales del hospital.

  8. HPV infection and intraepithelial lesions from the anal region: how to diagnose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Sérgio de Carvalho

    Full Text Available In the last years, the prevalence of HPV infection in the anal region has increased, especially in some groups like homosexual and HIV-positive people. Since this infection can be associated with the development of squamous anal cancer due to its progression from HPV infection to anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN and finally to cancer, the screening and evaluation of these conditions are important. Anal cytology and high resolution anoscopy are good methods that are available and can be used. Although useful, these methods should be performed correctly and not indiscriminately in all patients. Patients for whom anal cytology screening is recommended are: HIV-infected patients, homosexuals, women who present with high-grade vulvar squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, vulvar cancer or cervical cancer. An abnormal anal cytology should be further evaluated with high resolution anoscopy.

  9. Recent Advances in the Pharmacotherapy of Chronic Anal Fissure: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Medhi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Surgical sphincterotomy reduces anal tone and sphincter spasm and promotes ulcer healing. Because the surgery is associated with the side effect of faecal incontinence, pharmacological agents to treat chronic anal fissure have been explored recently. Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN ointment (0.2% has an efficacy of up to 68% in healing chronic anal fissure, but it is associated with headache as the major and most common side effect. Though botulinum toxin injected into the anal sphincter healed over 80% of chronic anal fis-sures, it is more invasive and expensive than GTN therapy. Diltiazem ointment achieved healing of chronic anal fissure comparable to 0.2% GTN ointment but was associated with fewer side effects. Other drugs that have been tried are lidocaine, the alpha-adrenergic antagonist indoramin, and the potassium channel opener minoxidil.

  10. The impact of anaemia on treatment outcome in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal and anal margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblak, Irena; Cesnjevar, Monika; Anzic, Mitja; Hadzic, Jasna But; Ermenc, Ajra Secerov; Anderluh, Franc; Velenik, Vaneja; Jeromen, Ana; Korosec, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Radiochemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Anaemia is reported to have adverse effect on survival in cancer patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of anaemia on radiochemotherapy treatment outcome in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. One hundred consecutive patients with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal were treated radically with 3-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy followed by brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy boost and with concurrent mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil. The influence on survival of pre-treatment, mean on-treatment and end-of-treatment haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations was studied. The 5-year locoregional control, disease free survival, disease specific survival and overall survival rates for all patients were 72%, 71%, 77% and 62%, respectively. In univariate analysis, patients with pre-treatment and end-of-treatment Hb > 120 g/L survived statistically significantly better compared to patients with Hb ≤ 120 g/L. Patients with mean on-treatment Hb > 120 g/L only had statistically significant better locoregional control and overall survival than patients with Hb ≤ 120 g/L. In multivariate analysis, independent prognostic factors were pre-treatment Hb (> 120 g/L vs. ≤ 120 g/L) for overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.419, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.190-0.927, p = 0.032) and stage (I & II vs. III) for disease specific (HR = 3.523, 95% CI = 1.375-9.026, p = 0.009) and overall survival (HR = 2.230, 95% CI = 1.167-4.264, p = 0.015). The pre-treatment, mean on-treatment and end-of-treatment Hb concentration > 120 g/L carried better prognosis for patients for with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated with radiochemotherapy. The pre-treatment Hb > 120 g/L was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival of patients with anal canal cancer.

  11. The impact of anaemia on treatment outcome in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal and anal margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblak, Irena; Cesnjevar, Monika; Anzic, Mitja; Hadzic, Jasna But; Ermenc, Ajra Secerov; Anderluh, Franc; Velenik, Vaneja; Jeromen, Ana; Korosec, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Radiochemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Anaemia is reported to have adverse effect on survival in cancer patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of anaemia on radiochemotherapy treatment outcome in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. One hundred consecutive patients with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal were treated radically with 3-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy followed by brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy boost and with concurrent mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil. The influence on survival of pre-treatment, mean on-treatment and end-of-treatment haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations was studied. The 5-year locoregional control, disease free survival, disease specific survival and overall survival rates for all patients were 72%, 71%, 77% and 62%, respectively. In univariate analysis, patients with pre-treatment and end-of-treatment Hb > 120 g/L survived statistically significantly better compared to patients with Hb ≤ 120 g/L. Patients with mean on-treatment Hb > 120 g/L only had statistically significant better locoregional control and overall survival than patients with Hb ≤ 120 g/L. In multivariate analysis, independent prognostic factors were pre-treatment Hb (> 120 g/L vs. ≤ 120 g/L) for overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.419, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.190–0.927, p = 0.032) and stage (I & II vs. III) for disease specific (HR = 3.523, 95% CI = 1.375–9.026, p = 0.009) and overall survival (HR = 2.230, 95% CI = 1.167–4.264, p = 0.015). The pre-treatment, mean on-treatment and end-of-treatment Hb concentration > 120 g/L carried better prognosis for patients for with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated with radiochemotherapy. The pre-treatment Hb > 120 g/L was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival of patients with anal canal cancer

  12. Does Sacral Nerve Stimulation Improve Continence Through Enhanced Sensitivity of the Anal Canal?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, S; Brock, C; Krogh, K

    2016-01-01

    . DESIGN: This is an explorative study. PATIENTS: Fifteen women with idiopathic fecal incontinence (mean age, 58 ± 12.2 years) were selected. INTERVENTIONS: Cortical evoked potentials were recorded during repeated rapid balloon distension of the rectum and the anal canal both before and during temporary...... the threshold for urge to defecate elicited from the anal canal, whereas supraspinal responses remained unaltered. This may suggest that sacral nerve stimulation, at least in part, acts via somatic afferent fibers enhancing anal sensation....

  13. Proceso de Explotación de Información para Analítica Académica en FaCENA-UNNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano E.A. Lopez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un proceso de explotación de información adaptado del modelo propuesto por Vanrell, el cual combina las etapas de la metodología CRISP-DM con actividades de la metodología COMPETISOFT, con el objetivo de aplicar un abordaje ingenieril para el desarrollo de una propuesta tecnológica como soporte para la implementación de Analítica Académica en la FaCENA-UNNE.

  14. Aportaciones de la Hermenéutica analógica a la Enfermería: entrevista al prof. Mauricio Beuchot Puente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Paramá

    Full Text Available Entrevista realizada al Prof. Dr. D. Mauricio Beuchot, fundador de la propuesta teórica llamada Hermenéutica Analógica. Este tipo de hermenéutica es, hoy en día, reconocida como una propuesta original y novedosa en el campo de la hermenéutica filosófica. Ya el propio Jean Grondin, uno de los mayores conocedores de la hermenéutica actual, llegó a afirmar que los investigadores en hermenéutica deberían comenzar a conocer el español para leer de primera mano la propuesta de hermenéutica analógica de Beuchot; mostrando con ello la importancia de este autor mexicano. El profesor Mauricio Hardie Beuchot Puente (Torreón, Coahuila, México, 1950, está reconocido como uno de los principales filósofos de Iberoamérica. Sacerdote y fraile dominico, es autor de más de 50 libros sobre temas relacionados con la Filosofía medieval, Filosofía del lenguaje, Filosofía analítica, Estructuralismo y sobre todo, Hermenéutica. Además es Director de la revista Analogía Filosófica, Director de Honor de la revista Hermes Analógica, subdirector de la revista Anamnesis, así como miembro de una cantidad importante de publicaciones académicas. En su larga trayectoria ha conseguido ser desde 1985 investigado titular "C" a tiempo completo del Centro de Estudios Clásicos del Instituto de Investigación Filológicas (IIFL de la UNAM (Universidad Nacional de México. Desde 1997 es miembro de número en la Academia Mexicana de la Lengua, desde 1999 es miembro de la Academia Pontificia de Santo Tomás de Aquino. Así mismo el Doctor Honoris Causa por la Universidad Anáhuac del Sur.

  15. Explicacions basades en raons i sociologia analítica. Una rèplica a Boudon

    OpenAIRE

    Manzo, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    El trabajo discute la teoría de la racionalidad ordinaria de Raymond Boudon, así como su valoración de la denominada «sociología analítica». Respecto a la primera cuestión, el artículo argumenta que, para combinar el realismo de una concepción de la racionalidad sin constreñimientos con el poder predictivo ex-ante facto de la versión estándar de la teoría de la elección racional, debemos comprender mejor la relación entre eventos potencialmente desencadenantes y las «razones» del actor. Heurí...

  16. Squamous intraepithelial lesions of the anal squamocolumnar junction: Histopathological classification and HPV genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Clavero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV-related anal cancer lesions are often found adjacent to the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ. We have assessed the histopathology and associated HPV genotypes in anal SCJ lesions in surgically excised anal warts in HIV-negative and –positive patients. Methods: Histopathology identified 47 squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs adjacent to the SCJ amongst a total of 145 cases of clinically diagnosed anal condylomata. The anal SCJ lesions were further analyzed with p16, CK7 and p63 immunohistochemistry and HPV genotyping. Results: Sixteen (16/47 of the excised anal wart lesions contained HSIL; Three were HSIL and exclusively associated with oncogenic HPVs. A further thirteen (13/47 were mixed lesions. Of these eight were HSILs with LSIL and six were HSILs with papillary immature metaplasia (PIM; Ten of the mixed lesions were associated with one or more oncogenic HPVs, while three cases were exclusively associated with HPV6. Conclusions: Clinically diagnosed anal warts cannot be assumed to be limited to low-grade lesions as anal warts of the SCJ often show heterogeneous lesions, with coexistence of LSIL, PIM, and HSIL. Lesions showing PIM, however, may mimic HSIL, because they are hypercellular, but lack the nuclear atypia and conspicuous mitotic activity of HSIL; and are p16 negative. Keywords: Anal squamocolumnar junction, Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL, Papillary immature metaplasia (PIM, HPV, HIV

  17. Aprendizaje de los conceptos de masa, peso y gravedad. Investigación de la efectividad de un modelo analógico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia E. Moro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La línea de investigación sobre los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje científico basada en modelos analógicos ha adquirido relevancia, pero notamos que son pocas las aplicaciones en el aula, sobre todo en el nivel medio de enseñanza. Los modelos didácticos analógicos son una herramienta importante para la instrucción pero a condición de que el profesor y los alumnos adquieran una visión en común sobre el análogo y se describan sus limitaciones comparado con el modelo teorético. Se espera del alumno una toma de conciencia sobre sus procesos y eventos cognitivos para que pueda evaluar los progresos y resultados, comprendiendo su propia versión acerca de la naturaleza de su conocimiento y sobre el proceso de aprendizaje, es decir sobre sus esencias epistemológicas. En este trabajo se evalúa la eficiencia de un modelo didáctico analógico para la enseñanza de los conceptos de masa, peso y gravedad mediante un estudio correlacional, cuasiexperimental con posprueba y grupo control.

  18. US Intergroup Anal Carcinoma Trial: Tumor Diameter Predicts for Colostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajani, Jaffer A.; Winter, Kathryn A.; Gunderson, Leonard L.; Pedersen, John; Benson, Al B.; Thomas, Charles R.; Mayer, Robert J.; Haddock, Michael G.; Rich, Tyvin A.; Willett, Christopher G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The US Gastrointestinal Intergroup Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 98-11 anal carcinoma trial showed that cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy resulted in a significantly higher rate of colostomy compared with mitomycin-based therapy. Established prognostic variables for patients with anal carcinoma include tumor diameter, clinical nodal status, and sex, but pretreatment variables that would predict the likelihood of colostomy are unknown. Methods A secondary analysis was performed by combining patients in the two treatment arms to evaluate whether new predictive and prognostic variables would emerge. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to correlate overall survival (OS), disease-free survival, and time to colostomy (TTC) with pretreatment and treatment variables. Results Of 682 patients enrolled, 644 patients were assessable and analyzed. In the multivariate analysis, tumor-related prognosticators for poorer OS included node-positive cancer (P ≤ .0001), large (> 5 cm) tumor diameter (P = .01), and male sex (P = .016). In the treatment-related categories, cisplatin-based therapy was statistically significantly associated with a higher rate of colostomy (P = .03) than was mitomycin-based therapy. In the pretreatment variables category, only large tumor diameter independently predicted for TTC (P = .008). Similarly, the cumulative 5-year colostomy rate was statistically significantly higher for large tumor diameter than for small tumor diameter (Gray's test; P = .0074). Clinical nodal status and sex were not predictive of TTC. Conclusion The combined analysis of the two arms of RTOG 98-11, representing the largest prospective database, reveals that tumor diameter (irrespective of the nodal status) is the only independent pretreatment variable that predicts TTC and 5-year colostomy rate in patients with anal carcinoma. PMID:19139424

  19. FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of anal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotter, Shane E.; Grigsby, Perry W.; Siegel, Barry A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical staging and treatment of anal carcinoma has been replaced by noninvasive staging studies and combined modality therapy. In this study, we compare computed tomography (CT) and physical examination to [ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in the staging of carcinoma of the anal canal, with special emphasis on determination of spread to inguinal lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Between July 2003 and July 2005, 41 consecutive patients with biopsy-proved anal carcinoma underwent a complete staging evaluation including physical examination, CT, and 2-FDG-PET/CT. Patients ranged in age from 30 to 89 years. Nine men were HIV-positive. Treatment was with standard Nigro regimen. Results: [ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) detected 91% of nonexcised primary tumors, whereas CT visualized 59%. FDG-PET/CT detected abnormal uptake in pelvic nodes of 5 patients with normal pelvic CT scans. FDG-PET/CT detected abnormal nodes in 20% of groins that were normal by CT, and in 23% without abnormality on physical examination. Furthermore, 17% of groins negative by both CT and physical examination showed abnormal uptake on FDG-PET/CT. HIV-positive patients had an increased frequency of PET-positive lymph nodes. Conclusion: [ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography detects the primary tumor more often than CT. FDG-PET/CT detects substantially more abnormal inguinal lymph nodes than are identified by standard clinical staging with CT and physical examination

  20. Histopathologic observations of anorectal abnormalities in anal atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Ruge, W A; Holschneider, A M

    2000-01-01

    Over the years from 1992 to 1997, 41 anorectal malformations (ARM) with histopathologic alterations were investigated to determine which morphologic abnormalities of the distal rectum accompany ARMs. Three other cases showed normal neuromuscular morphology; 9 further cases could not be evaluated owing to scanty biopsies. All resected specimens were caudocranially coiled and cryostat cut at -20 degrees C into serial sections, which were stained with a lactic dehydrogenase, succinic dehydrogenase, nitroxide synthase, and acetylcholinesterase reaction as well as hemalum and sirius red. Ten low, 15 intermediate, and 10 high forms of anal atresia (AA) were studied. In addition, six cloacal abnormalities were investigated. In 7 cases (17%) (5 intermediate, 2 low AAs), the characteristics of Hirschsprung's disease were observed. Oligoneuronal hypoganglionosis of the myenteric plexus proximal to the anal floor was diagnosed in 7 AAs (12%). In 10 children with high-type AA and resection of 1-5 cm distal rectum and in all cloacal anomalies (n = 6) defects of the muscularis propria were seen in the rectal-atresia sac. These defects were characterized by hypoplasia of the circular-muscle layer and/or the internal anal sphincter (IAS). Intestinal neuronal dysplasia of the submucous plexus was most frequently observed (12%) in high-type AA. A correlation between innervation anomalies or anomalies of the muscularis propria and the type of fistula could not be seen. In conclusion, all cases with high-type AA and cloacal anomalies were characterized by anomalies of the muscularis propria and/or IAS but this was not the case in intermediate and low-type AAs. Anomalies of the enteric nervous system were diagnosed in 60% of AAs.

  1. Time-dose considerations in the treatment of anal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, Eugene C.; Daly, William; Fung, Claire Y.; Willett, Christopher G.; Kaufman, Donald S.; DeLaney, Thomas F.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the impact of patient and treatment parameters in concurrent chemoradiation treatment for anal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of 50 MO anal cancer patients treated from 1984-1994. Most patients received concurrent 5-FU, mitomycin, and radiation. Local control and disease-free/overall survival were determined and analyzed according to patient and treatment parameters. Results: With 43 month median follow-up, projected overall survival is 66% at 5 and 8 years. Disease-free survival is 67% at 5 years and 59% at 8 years. Local control is 70% at 5 and 8 years. Doses of ≥54 Gy are associated with improved 5-year survival (84 vs. 47%, p = 0.02), disease-free survival (74 v. 56%, p = 0.09), and local control (77 vs. 61%, p = 0.04). Although local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival were improved in patients whose overall treatment time was <40 days, this was not statistically significant. Outcome in the four patients with pretreatment hemoglobin (Hgb) <10 appeared worse with 3-year overall survival 50 vs. 68% (p = 0.07), disease-free survival 0 vs. 67% (p = 0.11), and local control 0 vs. 74% (p = 0.05). Projected 5-year overall survival, relapse-free survival, and local control in 4 HIV (+) patients is 0, 75, and 75%. Multivariate analysis reveals that dose (p 0.02) and Hgb (p = 0.05) independently affect local control, dose (p = 0.02) affects disease-free survival, and dose (p = 0.01), Hgb (p = 0.03), T-stage (p = 0.03), and HIV-status (0.07) independently influence overall survival. Conclusion: Radiation doses of ≥54 Gy are associated with significantly improved survival and local control in anal cancer patients treated with chemoradiation. Overall treatment times of less than 40 days are associated with a trend towards improved outcome, but this is not significant. Pretreatment hemoglobin <10 is associated with worse treatment outcome. Survival of HIV (+) patient is poor, but the majority of such patients

  2. Unexpected Anal Squamous Cells Carcinoma after Open Hemorrhoidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarra Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of unexpected anal squamous cells carcinoma found in hemorrhoidectomy specimen. The patient had a 3-year history of prolapsing hemorrhoids. A prolapsing hemorrhoid was present at eleven o’clock in lithotomy. Milligan-Morgan was performed and gross examination of the specimen was unremarkable. Histopathologic evaluation showed noninvasive squamous cells carcinoma. The present case report evidences the opportunity of routine histopathologic analysis of hemorrhoidal specimens particularly in case of long-standing prolapse. Questions arise in the option of those techniques where no specimens are collected or tissue is excised far from deceased area.

  3. [Anal sphincter injury caused by falling off a trampoline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakarinen, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    A girl of preschool age fell off a trampoline in a sitting position onto an iron bar sticking up from the ground. In addition to a laceration of the terminal portion of the rectum, she was found to have a severe sphincter injury. The sphincters were repaired by a surgeon the next morning. After one month from the surgery the anal canal pressure was found to be symmetrical with good contractile force of the sphincters. No abnormalities were found in a contrast study or in rectoscopy. The protective stoma was closed after three months from the injury and fecal continence was normal after one and a half years.

  4. La Contabilidad Analítica en los Hospitales Públicos

    OpenAIRE

    Ma Silvia Fresneda Fuentes

    1998-01-01

    La confección de presupuestos públicos austeros para la consecución de los criterios de convergencia impuestos por el Tratado de Maastricht ha originado una preocupación en todo el Sector Público en general, y en el hospitalario en particular, por la contención de los costes. Esta situación ha puesto de manifiesto la necesidad de introducir sistemas de Contabilidad para la Gestión interna de las organizaciones hospitalarias públicas. Así, la Contabilidad Analítica o de Costes se constituye co...

  5. La red social de Defensores del Pueblo : Un estudio de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Lezcano, José María; Tello, Claudia Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    El trabajo explora y analiza la red social que constituyen los Defensores del Pueblo u Ombudsman nucleados en la Asociación de Defensores del Pueblo de la República Argentina (ADPRA). Particularmente, a partir del estudio de su génesis y dinámica de trabajo, propias de la horizontalidad organizacional de esta red, se puede observar que cada Ombudsman (nodo) actúa en un marco político (ciencia política), institucional y social que le es propio. Así, bajo el encuadre analítico del modelo de ...

  6. Prevalence of anal cytological abnormalities in women with positive cervical cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calore, Edenilson E; Giaccio, Claudia Maria Serafim; Nadal, Sidney R

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of cytological abnormalities of the anal mucosa in women with positive cervical cytology, but without macroscopic anal lesion. Ultimately we postulated if the anal mucosa may be a reservoir of HPV, which would allow the reinfection of cervix. Forty-nine patients with abnormal cervical cytology were selected for this work. In a period not exceeding one week of collecting cervix cytology, two swab specimens of the anal canal were also collected. Women diagnosed with cervical HSIL by Pap smear were referred for colposcopy with biopsy of the lesions, to confirm the cytologic diagnosis and ablation of the lesion. We demonstrated a high prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in patients with cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (29 of the total of 49 patients = 59.2%). Of the 20 cases of cervical LSIL, 11 (55%) had abnormal anal cytology. Of the 26 cases with cervical HSIL, 16 (61.5%) had abnormal anal cytology. So, there was a discrete higher prevalence of abnormal anal cytology in cases of high-grade cervical squamous lesions (cervical HSIL). These results help to support the hypothesis that the anal mucosa is a reservoir of HPV, which can be a source of re-infection for the cervix. However, there was no significant association between the practice of anal sex and the prevalence of anal cytological abnormalities. These facts are epidemiologically important for future programs for population eradication of cervical lesions related to HPV. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2011;39:323-327. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Diagnóstico de HPV anal em mulheres com NIC: prevenção de câncer do ânus? Anal HPV diagnosis in women with NIC: anal cancer prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Capobiango

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a frequência de HPV anal em pacientes com neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC, verificar a concordância entre os subtipos encontrados nos dois locais e investigar os fatores que influenciaram a ocorrência de HPV anal em mulheres com NIC sem evidências clínicas de imunodepressão. Foram avaliadas 52 mulheres com idades entre 16 e 72 anos e diagnóstico de neoplasia intraepitelial cervical graus I, II e III. A identificação do DNA (ácido desoxirribonucleico do HPV e de sete subtipos dos vírus foi realizada por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR em material colhido no ânus e colo uterino. Foram pesquisados fatores que poderiam contribuir para a infecção anal, como paridade, número de parceiros, tabagismo, manipulação e coito anal e o tipo de doença ginecológica. Das 52 mulheres, foi diagnosticado HPV na região anal em 25 (48%, das quais 23 (44% também apresentavam HPV no colo uterino - resultado significativo para existência do HPV em portadoras de NIC. Em 16 (31% o HPV foi diagnosticado somente no colo uterino e em 11 (21% não foi identificado em colo ou ânus. Houve associação significativa nas variáveis paridade (p=0,02 e número de parceiros (p=0,04. Concluiu-se que: as mulheres com HPV genital têm mais probabilidade de serem acometidas por HPV anal; não há concordância unânime entre os subtipos do HPV do colo do útero e do ânus e a paridade e o número de parceiros contribuem para aumentar a incidência de HPV anal nas mulheres sem imunodeficiência e com HPV cervical.This study aims were to assess the frequency of HPV anal infection in patients with cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN, to find out the relation between the found subtypes, when present in both regions, and investigate factors that influenced the occurrence of anal HPV in women with CIN. Fifty two women with age between 16 and 72 years and cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN diagnosis

  8. Influencia del masaje TUINA y Quinesioterapia en la atrofia del cuadriceps en pacientes portadores de condromalacia rotuliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Bravo Ramos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio analítico comparativo con masaje Tuina y Quinesioterapia a 50 pacientes que acudieron a la consulta de Medicina Física y Rehabilitación enviados del departamento de Ortopedia del Hospital de Trinidad en el período comprendido desde septiembre del 2007 hasta septiembre del 2008 con el diagnóstico clínico de condromalacia rotuliana con el objetivo de determinar la efectividad de este tratamiento con el tratamiento habitual, Magnetoterapia y Quinesioterapia. Se valoraron diferentes variables, la mejoría según el factor desencadenante así como la valoración del dolor antes y después del tratamiento por la escala analógico visual donde se arrojaron datos significativos para el tratamiento propuesto el cual resultó tener mayor aceptación por parte de los pacientes con resultados favorables para ellos y nuestra investigación. En esta investigación se obtuvieron resultados relevantes tales como: el tratamiento propuesto tuvo menor cantidad de pacientes que mantuvieran los síntomas de inicio. El tratamiento con Masaje Tuina y Quinesioterapia fue más efectivo que el tratamiento con Magnetoterapia y Quinesioterapia.

  9. Nuevas estrategias analíticas para el control de aldehídos como subproductos de desinfección de aguas por cromatrografía de líquidos y electroforesis capilar

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Molina, José María

    2015-01-01

    El desarrollo de metodologías analíticas para la identificación y determinación de compuestos químicos que se originan tras la desinfección del agua (subproductos de desinfección, DBPs) es el principal objetivo de nuestro Grupo de Investigación [1,2,3]. En esta Tesis Doctoral se aborda, dentro de estos DBPs, el estudio de compuestos carbonílicos, fundamentalmente aldehídos aromáticos derivados del benzaldehído, dado que constituyen un grupo de contaminantes emergentes no regulados para los cu...

  10. En busca del ser. El tiempo perdido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Hounie

    Full Text Available El texto refiere a un proceso llevado a cabo con un paciente de un Servicio asistencial universitario en un recorrido que procura, en el campo de la intervención analítica en el complejo marco de la clínica con las psicosis, tanto una comprensión de algunos fenómenos de descompensación del lenguaje, como un acercamiento al drama de quien busca en un encuentro significativo, una mirada que reconstituya su existencia como posibilidad.

  11. Relationship between external anal sphincter atrophy at endoanal magnetic resonance imaging and clinical, functional, and anatomic characteristics in patients with fecal incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, Maaike P.; Deutekom, Marije; Beets-Tan, Regina G. H.; Engel, Alexander F.; Janssen, Lucas W. M.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E. E.; Dobben, Annette C.; Baeten, Cor G. M. I.; de Priester, Jacobus A.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Stoker, Jaap

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: External anal sphincter atrophy at endoanal magnetic resonance imaging has been associated with poor outcome of anal sphincter repair. We studied the relationship between external anal sphincter atrophy on endoanal magnetic resonance imaging and clinical, functional, and anatomic

  12. Paroxysmal anal hyperkinesis: a characteristic feature of proctalgia fugax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S S; Hatfield, R A

    1996-10-01

    Proctalgia fugax is a common problem, yet its pathophysiology is poorly understood. The objective was to characterise colorectal disturbances in a paraplegic patient with a 10 year history of proctalgia fugax that began two years after an attack of transverse myelitis. Standard anorectal manometry and prolonged 33 hour ambulatory colonic manometry at six sites in the colon were performed together with myoelectrical recording of the anus. Provocative tests designed to simulate psychological and physical stress and two types of meals were included. Anorectal manometry showed normal internal sphincter tone and normal rectoanal inhibitory reflex but an inability to squeeze or to bear down or to expel a simulated stool. Rectal sensation (up to 360 ml inflation) was absent. Pudendal nerve latency was prolonged (4.5 ms (normal 3.2 mv), high frequency (5-50/min) anal myoelectrical activity, particularly after stress tests, meals, and at night. The myoelectrical disturbance only occurred with proctalgia. Intermittently, 16 bursts of 3 cycles/ min phasic rectal contractions were seen, but only six were associated with proctalgia. Colonic motility was reduced compared with normal subjects. The temporal association between a high amplitude, high frequency myoelectrical activity of the anal sphincter, and the occurrence of proctalgia suggests that paroxysmal hyperkinesis of the anus may cause proctalgia fugax.

  13. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiffert, D.; Moreau-Claeys, M.V.; Tournier-Rangeard, L.; Huger, S.; Marchesi, V.

    2011-01-01

    Anal canal carcinoma are highly curable by irradiation, combined with chemotherapy in locally advanced disease, with preservation of sphincter function. The clinical target volume for the nodes is extended, often including the inguinal nodes, which is not usual for other pelvic tumours. Acute and late effects are correlated with the volume and dose delivered to organs at risk, i. e. small bowel, bladder and increased by concomitant chemotherapy. Intensity modulated irradiation (IMRT) makes it possible to optimize the dose distribution in this 'complex U shaped' volume, while maintaining the dose distribution for the target volumes. The conversion from conformal irradiation to IMRT necessitates good knowledge of the definition and skills to delineate target volumes and organs at risk, including new volumes needed to optimize the dose distribution. Dosimetric and clinical benefits of IMRT are described, based on early descriptions and evidence-based publication. The growing development of IMRT in anal canal radiotherapy must be encouraged, and long-term benefits should be soon published. Radiation oncologists should precisely learn IMRT recommendations before starting the technique, and evaluate its early and late results for adverse effects, but also for long-term tumour control. (authors)

  14. Diagnostic methods for prevention of anal cancer and characteristics of anal lesions caused by HPV in men with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araiz Cajueiro Carneiro Pereira

    Full Text Available Abnormalities found with anuscopy under colposcopic vision, anal cytology and anal biopsy were evaluated in 21 men with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS at the Federal University of Pernambuco Hospital in Brazil. Mean age was 38.4 ± 6.0 years, and mean time of HIV infection was 8.3 ± 5.1 years; 95.2% of the patients had been on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART for an average of 6.6 ± 4.5 years. Mean CD4+ cell count was 482.2 ± 173.75 cells/mm³, and 80.9% presented a HIV viral load of < 5,000 copies/mL. Reported sexual preference was 52.4% homosexuals, 28.6% bisexuals, and 19.0%heterosexuals; 81% reported having had receptive anal intercourse and 61.9% reported more than 10 sexual partners of the same sex. Results of anuscopy under colposcopic vision revealed 17 (81.0% low-grade lesions and/or condylomata or micropapillae and four (19.0% high-grade lesions with or without condylomata. Among the 21 anal cytology examinations, seven (33.3% revealed low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL; three (14.3% presented atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and 11 (52.4% were normal. Seventeen patients were submitted to anal biopsy with the following findings: three patients (17.6% with normal epithelium, one (5.9% with infection by HPV, three (17.6% with condylomatas, two (11.8% with AIN 1, four (23.6% with AIN 2, three (17.6% with AIN 3, and one (5.9% with PAIN 2. Anuscopy under colposcopic vision was found to be useful for detecting anal lesions and for guiding anal biopsies. Anal cytology was less useful, as it underestimated the frequency of lesions.

  15. Tunni analüüs - mis see on? / Peep Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leppik, Peep

    2001-01-01

    Tunni analüüs, õppe-kasvatustöö eesmärgid. Tunni analüüs on hinnangu andmine protsessidele, mille kutsub esile õpetaja tegevus (või tegevusetus) tunnis. Tunni läbiviimise protsessi mõjutavad õpilaste koosseis klassis, erinevate õppevormide ja õppemeetodite kasutamine, kasutatud õppevõtete otstarbekus, erinevad metoodikad ja õppesüsteemid

  16. Prolonged-Release Oxycodone/Naloxone Improves Anal Sphincter Relaxation Compared to Oxycodone Plus Macrogol 3350

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Brock, Christina; Grønlund, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    /naloxone or PR oxycodone plus macrogol 3350. Resting anal pressure, anal canal distensibility, and relaxation of the internal sphincter to rectal distension were evaluated before treatment (baseline) and on day 5. The Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptom (PAC-SYM) questionnaire, stool frequency, and stool...

  17. Topical 5-fluorouracil treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richel, O.; Wieland, U.; de Vries, H. J. C.; Brockmeyer, N. H.; van Noesel, C.; Potthoff, A.; Prins, J. M.; Kreuter, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV) induced potential precursor lesion of anal cancer, is frequent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). So far, only a few prospective studies have been performed on the topical

  18. High-Resolution Anoscopy: Clinical Features of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia in HIV-positive Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richel, Olivier; Hallensleben, Nora D. L.; Kreuter, Alexander; van Noesel, Carel J. M.; Prins, Jan M.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-resolution anoscopy is increasingly advocated to screen HIV+ men who have sex with men for anal cancer and its precursor lesions, anal intraepithelial neoplasia. A systematic comparison between clinical features and the histopathology of suspect lesions is lacking. OBJECTIVE: This

  19. The increasing incidence of anal cancer: can it be explained by trends in risk groups?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, R. P.; Richel, O.; de Vries, H. J. C.; Prins, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Anal cancer incidence is gradually increasing. The cause of this increase is not exactly known. This systematic literature review aimed to investigate the trend in time of anal cancer incidence and to find an explanation for the supposed increase. The TRIP database and PubMed were searched for

  20. HPV and anal cancer in HIV-infected individuals: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Mooij, Sofie H.; Richel, Oliver; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Prins, Jan M.

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection is one of the strongest risk factors for anal squamous cell cancer (ASCC). Most ASCC are caused by HPV, and most HPV-associated ASCC are caused by HPV-16. Anal HPV infections are very common in men who have sex with men (MSM), and nearly universal among HIV-infected MSM. High-grade

  1. HIV-positive MSM's knowledge of HPV and anal cancer self-sampling: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, M K L; Wong, J P H; Li, A T W; Manuba, M; Bisignano, A; Owino, M; Vahabi, M

    2018-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (hpv) infection is the cause of anal squamous cell cancer (ascc) in 80% of cases. Available research has also shown high prevalence of anal hpv infection among men who have sex with men (msm). However, hpv vaccination is low among msm in Canada. In light of this information, we conducted a scoping review with the aim of exploring (1) the knowledge of hpv and anal cancer among hiv-positive msm and (2) the acceptability of hpv and anal cancer self-sampling in this population. In conducting the review, we searched five electronic databases for peer-reviewed articles and abstracts published in English, between 2007 and 2017. A total of 803 articles were retrieved; after accounting for duplicates ( n= 40) and unmet criteria ( n= 754), a total of 794 articles were excluded. A final total of nine articles were used in this review. Results of this review show that hiv-positive msm have limited knowledge regarding the risks of anal cancer associated with hiv and hpv coinfection. Furthermore, there is limited research on hpv and anal cancer self-sampling in this population. However, the review of available studies suggested that hiv-positive msm were open to anal cancer self-sampling. It also identified potential barriers to self-sampling. In conclusion, we provide suggestions and future directions for policy-makers and educators to develop inclusive and accessible strategies to reach hiv-positive msm regarding anal cancer education and self-screening.

  2. Resisting the "Condom Every Time for Anal Sex" Health Education Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jeffery; Neville, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Ensuring men who have sex with men (MSM) adopt and maintain condom use for anal sex is a challenging health education goal. In order to inform the development of social marketing practices to encourage safe-sex practices, the views of MSM about a key HIV health education message ("using a condom every time for anal sex") were…

  3. Hereditary internal anal sphincter myopathy causing proctalgia fugax and constipation. A newly identified condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, M A; Hoyle, C H; Burleigh, D E; Law, P J; Swash, M; Martin, J E; Nicholls, R J; Northover, J M

    1991-03-01

    A newly identified myopathy of the internal anal sphincter is described. In the affected family, at least one member from each of five generations had severe proctalgia fugax; onset was usually in the third to fifth decades of life. Three members of the family have been studied in detail. Each had severe pain intermittently during the day and hourly during the night. Constipation was an associated symptom, in particular difficulty with rectal evacuation. Clinically the internal anal sphincter was thickened and of decreased compliance. The maximum anal canal pressure was usually increased with marked ultraslow wave activity. Anal endosonography confirmed a grossly thickened internal anal sphincter. Two patients were treated by internal anal sphincter strip myectomy; one showed marked improvement and one was relieved of the constipation but had only slight improvement of the pain. The hypertrophied muscle in two of the patients showed unique myopathic changes, consisting of vacuolar changes with periodic acid-Schiff-positive polyglycosan bodies in the smooth muscle fibers and increased endomysial fibrosis. In vitro organ-bath studies showed insensitivity of the muscle to noradrenaline, isoprenaline, carbachol, dimethylpiperazinium, and electrical-field stimulation. Immunohistochemical studies for substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, galanin, neuropeptide Y, and vasoactive intestinal peptide showed staining in a similar distribution to that in control tissue. A specific autosomal-dominant inherited myopathy of the internal anal sphincter that causes anal pain and constipation has been identified and characterized.

  4. De chirurgische betekenis van de inwendige kringspier van het anale kanaal : een klinisch en manometrisch onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.R. Schouten (Ruud)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe high pressure zone within the anal canal is largely due to the activity of the internal anal sphincter and provides an effective barrier against rectal pressure. The continuous contraction of the internal sphincter also has a congesting effect on the vascular cushions, thereby

  5. Diagnostic imaging features of normal anal sacs in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yechan; Jeong, Eunseok; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Jimo; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Namsoo; Lee, Kichang

    2016-09-30

    This study was conducted to provide normal reference features for canine and feline anal sacs using ultrasound, low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph contrast as diagnostic imaging tools. A total of ten clinically normal beagle dogs and eight clinically normally cats were included. General radiography with contrast, ultrasonography and low-field MRI scans were performed. The visualization of anal sacs, which are located at distinct sites in dogs and cats, is possible with a contrast study on radiography. Most surfaces of the anal sacs tissue, occasionally appearing as a hyperechoic thin line, were surrounded by the hypoechoic external sphincter muscle on ultrasonography. The normal anal sac contents of dogs and cats had variable echogenicity. Signals of anal sac contents on low-field MRI varied in cats and dogs, and contrast medium using T1-weighted images enhanced the anal sac walls more obviously than that on ultrasonography. In conclusion, this study provides the normal features of anal sacs from dogs and cats on diagnostic imaging. Further studies including anal sac evaluation are expected to investigate disease conditions.

  6. Anales del XIII Congreso Argentino de Ciencias de la Computación (CACIC)

    OpenAIRE

    Red de Universidades con Carreras en Informática (RedUNCI); Simari, Guillermo Ricardo; De Giusti, Armando Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Contenido: Arquitecturas de computadoras Sistemas embebidos Arquitecturas orientadas a servicios (SOA) Redes de comunicaciones Redes heterogéneas Redes de Avanzada Redes inalámbricas Redes móviles Redes activas Administración y monitoreo de redes y servicios Calidad de Servicio (QoS, SLAs) Seguridad informática y autenticación, privacidad Infraestructura para firma digital y certificados digitales Análisis y detección de vulnerabilidades Sistemas o...

  7. Teetering near the edge; women's experiences of anal incontinence following obstetric anal sphincter injury: an interpretive phenomenological research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Julie; Clifton, Vicki; Wilson, Anne

    2014-08-01

    Obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) following vaginal delivery increases the risk of anal incontinence (AI). Subsequent vaginal delivery and ageing increase the risk of worsening symptoms. Very little literature describes any in-depth understanding of what it is like to live with AI following a history of known OASIS. To describe and interpret women's experience of AI following OASIS and its impact on quality of life. An interpretive phenomenological study was conducted in a level 2 tertiary hospital in South Australia. Women with a history of OASIS and AI were purposefully recruited. The St Marks Vaizey score was utilised to identify symptom severity. Semi-structured open-ended interviews were conducted, and data were analysed utilising Van Manen thematic analysis. Participants (n = 10) aged 26-56 years. All women were symptomatic of AI following OASIS, and 80% had received a primary OASIS at their first vaginal delivery. The St Marks Vaizey score mean was 9.1 (range within 4-22). Three essential themes grieving for loss, silence, striving for normality with eight subthemes identified a significant sense of loss and psychological impact of AI for this group of women. Health professionals require a greater understanding of the negative impact of OASIS and AI on women's quality of life. This may improve the management, education and clinical care of this condition which may result as a consequence of OASIS. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Regenerative medicine provides alternative strategies for the treatment of anal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, Søren; Tolstrup, Cæcilie Krogsgaard; Lose, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    of culture-expanded skeletal myogenic cells stimulates repair of both acute and 2 - 4-week-old anal sphincter injuries. The results from a small clinical trial with ten patients and a case report support the preclinical findings. Animal studies have also demonstrated that local injections of mesenchymal stem...... cells stimulate repair of sphincter injuries, and a complex bioengineering strategy for creation and implantation of an intrinsically innervated internal anal sphincter construct has been successfully developed in a series of animal studies. CONCLUSION: Cellular therapies with myogenic cells...... and mesenchymal stem cells and the use of bioengineering technology to create an anal sphincter are new potential strategies to treat anal incontinence caused by anal sphincter defects, but the clinical evidence is extremely limited. The use of culture-expanded autologous skeletal myogenic cells has been most...

  9. Cancer of the anal canal: Diagnosis, staging and follow-up with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durot, Carole; Hoeffel, Christine; Dohan, Anthony; Boudiaf, Mourad; Soyer, Philippe; Servois, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Although a rare disease, anal cancer is increasingly being diagnosed in patients with risk factors, mainly anal infection with the human papilloma virus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with external phased-array coils is recommended as the imaging modality of choice to grade anal cancers and to evaluate the response assessment after chemoradiotherapy, with a high contrast and good anatomic resolution of the anal canal. MRI provides a performance evaluation of size, extent and signal characteristics of the anal tumor before and after treatment, as well as lymph node involvement and extension to the adjacent organs. MRI is also particularly helpful in the assessment of complications after treatment, and in the diagnosis for relapse of the diseases

  10. [Detection and analysis of the characteristic expression of microRNAs of anal fistula patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jianming; Yu, Jiping; Yang, Guangen; Xu, Kan; Tao, Yong; Lin, Ali; Wang, Dong

    2016-07-01

    To detect and analyze the characteristic miRNAs profile of anal fistula and explore their possible target genes and potential clinical significance. The anal mucosa close to the hemorrhoids were collected from three patients undergoing fistulectomy and hemorrhoidectomy (fistula group) as well as three patients receiving only hemorroidectomy(hemorrhoids group), matching with fistula group in age, gender and body weight. miRNA microarray was used to compare the expression of 1 285 human miRNAs of the anal mucosa between two groups. Cluster analysis was adopted to analyze the accumulation of the differentially expressed miRNAs(Pcharacteristic miRNAs profile in anal fistula patients, which may play a role in the occurrence and development of anal fistula.

  11. Cancer of the anal canal: Diagnosis, staging and follow-up with MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durot, Carole; Hoeffel, Christine [Dept. of Radiology, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Reims, Reims (France); Dohan, Anthony; Boudiaf, Mourad; Soyer, Philippe [Dept. of Abdominal Imaging, Hopital Lariboisiere-APHP, Paris(France); Servois, Vincent [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institut Curie, Paris (France)

    2017-11-15

    Although a rare disease, anal cancer is increasingly being diagnosed in patients with risk factors, mainly anal infection with the human papilloma virus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with external phased-array coils is recommended as the imaging modality of choice to grade anal cancers and to evaluate the response assessment after chemoradiotherapy, with a high contrast and good anatomic resolution of the anal canal. MRI provides a performance evaluation of size, extent and signal characteristics of the anal tumor before and after treatment, as well as lymph node involvement and extension to the adjacent organs. MRI is also particularly helpful in the assessment of complications after treatment, and in the diagnosis for relapse of the diseases.

  12. Exploring dynamics of anal sex among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Saroj; Krishna, Rama; Prabhakar, Parimi; Panyam, Swarup; Anand, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    The anal sex among heterosexual couples is on the rise as reported in many scientific studies. Considering that unprotected anal sex has higher risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission than the vaginal sex, we undertook a study to understand the anal sex practices among Female Sex Workers (FSW). The study was conducted among FSW attending 11 randomly selected sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Bill and Melinda Gates supported targeted interventions in Andhra Pradesh. A structured questionnaire was administered to the 555 FSW attending these clinics by project clinic counselors. Informed consent was obtained from all the study participants. Engaging in anal sex was self reported by 22% of sex workers, though demand from clients was reported to be much higher (40%). The reasons for anal sex practices included more money (61%), clout/influence of the client (45%), risk of losing client (27%), and forced sex (1.2%). Factors associated with anal sex were higher number of clients, higher duration of sex work, higher income, and older age group. Associated risks perceived by FSW were bleeding and injury to anal canal (98%) while only 28% associated it with higher HIV transmission risk. Reported Condom and lubricant use was about 88% and 39% respectively. The study shows that there is frequent anal sex, inconsistent condom and infrequent lubricant usage, economic and physical coercion, and low awareness of STI/HIV transmission risk among FSW, which have serious implications for HIV prevention programmes. There is a need to focus on anal sex education and use of lubricants along with condoms during anal sex in FSW-targeted interventions in AP.

  13. HAART slows progression to anal cancer in HIV-infected MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Katrina C; Chan, Keith J; Chiu, Connie G; Montaner, Julio S G; Coldman, Andy J; Cescon, Angela; Au-Yeung, Christopher G; Wiseman, Sam M; Hogg, Robert S; Press, Natasha M

    2015-01-28

    Antiretrovirals do not prevent anal intraepithelial neoplasia. However, the influence of antiretrovirals in the natural history of invasive anal cancer is less clear. The objective is to investigate the impact of antiretrovirals in the time to the development of anal cancer in HIV-positive MSM. A retrospective analysis of cases of anal cancer in a cohort of HIV-positive MSM receiving antiretrovirals between 1988 and 2008. Time from first CD4 cell count or HIV RNA viral load test to anal cancer diagnosis was analysed using Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier curves. Anal cancer cases treated in the era prior to HAART (cancer cases (n = 37) were compared with a cohort of 1654 HIV-positive MSM on antiretrovirals. Antiretrovirals were started in the pre-HAART era by 70% of cancer cases, and median CD4 cell count nadir was 70 cells/μl (10-130). Time to development of anal cancer was shorter for cases treated during the pre-HAART era [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 3.04, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.48-6.24, P = 0.002], with a CD4 cell count nadir less than 100 cells/μl (AHR 2.21, 95% CI 1.06-4.62, P = 0.035) and longer duration of CD4 cell count less than 100 cells/μl (AHR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.58, P = 0.002). Results show that severe immunosuppression and starting therapy pre-HAART are associated with an increased risk of anal cancer. HIV-positive MSM initiating antiretrovirals during the HAART era (1996-2008) had a longer time to the development of anal cancer than those treated pre-HAART. Our results suggest that early use of HAART may delay progression to anal cancer.

  14. Radiation therapy of recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma in-situ: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noone Robert

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, also referred to as anal squamous carcinoma in-situ, or Bowen's disease of the anus, make up less than 1% of all digestive system cancers in the United States. The treatment of choice is surgical resection with anal mapping. However, this disease often recurs or persists, requiring additional surgery for these patients. This can compromise the anal sphincter leading to leakage. In this case report, we discuss the efficacy of radiation therapy as a modality to treat post-excisional recurrent Bowen's disease, which may prevent sphincter compromise, leading to improved quality of life. Case presentation An 84-year-old Caucasian woman presented with post-excisional persistent/recurrent squamous cell carcinoma in-situ. The initial lesion measured 3 cm in diameter on the right lateral side of the anal margin. A standard surgery consisting of wide local excision with anal mapping was performed. The margins were clear and our patient was followed up. Our patient recurred with a 1.2 × 0.8 cm lesion on the left anal verge extending to the anal canal. A biopsy along with mapping was done, and 2 of the 17 mapping specimens were positive for carcinoma in-situ, one in the anal canal. Due to the location of the positive anal mapping, and in order to prevent sphincter compromise on re-excision, our patient was offered definitive radiation therapy. Two years after radiation therapy, our patient showed no signs of recurrent disease and had good sphincter control. Conclusion Although the main treatment modality for treating persistent/recurrent Bowen's disease is surgery, an alternative approach using external beam radiation for CIS may be enough to provide a cure for some patients with recurrent disease.

  15. Las transformaciones empresariales en la industria de artes gráficas. Los retos analíticos de las historias por contar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentino Malaver Rodríguez

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se compone de dos partes. En la primera se identifican las tendencias que enmarcan las transformaciones ocurridas en la industria de artes gráficas, imprentas y editoriales en las dos últimas décadas del siglo XX. Entre estas se destacan la conformación de grupos empresariales en medio de un notable impacto del cambio técnico impulsado por la digitalización de la producción gráfica y una acelerada convergencia tecnológica que propicia la integración de la industria gráfica con las de la información, la comunicación y el entretenimiento. A causa de ello esta industria está inmersa en una reconfiguración que afecta su morfología. En la segunda parte, se intentan dilucidar los retos analíticos que se desprenden de las transformaciones detectadas, y se plantea que para interpretar la dinámica de las transformaciones empresariales detectadas y el papel vital que en ellas juega el cambio técnico se pueden integrar los aportes de la teoría de los costos de transacción, la perspectiva evolutiva del cambio técnico y el enfoque de los recursos y las capacidades. Se sugiere, igualmente, que síntesis analíticas como la propuesta reclaman una apertura disciplinaria concordante con los desafíos que abren transformaciones empresariales como la descrita en la primera parte del artículo y que poco se han estudiado en el país.

  16. Incontinence after primary repair of obstetric anal sphincter tears is related to relative length of reconstructed external sphincter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norderval, S; Røssaak, K.; Markskog, A

    2012-01-01

    To determine if anatomic primary repair with end-to-end reconstruction of the external anal sphincter (EAS) in its full length combined with separate repair of coexisting internal anal sphincter (IAS) tear, when present, results in less incontinence and better anal sphincter integrity compared...

  17. Surgical Treatment of Anal Stenosis with Diamond Flap Anoplasty Performed in a Calibrated Fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülen, Merter; Leventoğlu, Sezai; Ege, Bahadir; Menteş, B Bülent

    2016-03-01

    Regarding anoplasty for anal stenosis, it is not clear to what extent the final anal caliber should be targeted. The aim of this study was to investigate the results of diamond-flap anoplasty performed in a calibrated manner for the treatment of severe anal stenosis due to a previous hemorrhoidectomy. Prospectively prepared standard forms were evaluated retrospectively. Anoplasty with unilateral or bilateral diamond flaps was performed for moderate or severe anal stenosis, targeting a final anal caliber of 25 to 26 mm. The demographic characteristics, causes of anal stenosis, number of previous surgeries, anal stenosis staging (Milsom and Mazier), anal calibers (millimeter), the Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score, and the modified obstructed defecation syndrome Longo score were recorded on pre-prepared standard forms, as well as postoperative complications and the time of return to work. From January 2011 to July 2013, 18 patients (12 males, 67%) with a median age of 39 years (range, 27-70) were treated. All of the patients had a history of previous hemorrhoidectomy. The number of previous corrective interventions was 2.1 ± 1.8 (range, 0-4), and 2 patients had a history of failed anoplasty. Five patients (28%) had moderate anal stenosis and 13 (72%) had severe anal stenosis. Preoperative, intraoperative, and 12-month postoperative anal calibration values were 9 ± 3 mm (range, 5-15), 25 ± 0.75 mm (range, 24-26), and 25 ± 1 mm (range, 23-27) (p < 0.0001, for immediate postoperative and 12-month postoperative anal calibers compared with the intraoperative). Preoperative and 12-month postoperative Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Scores were 0.83 ± 1.15 (range, 0-4) and 0.39 ± 0.70 (range, 0-2) (p = 1.0). The clinical success rate was 88.9%. No severe postoperative complications were observed. This study was limited because it was a single-armed, retrospective analysis of prospectively designed data. Diamond-flap anoplasty performed in a standardized and calibrated

  18. Overdiagnosis and rising rate of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS): time for reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioutis, D; Thakar, R; Sultan, A H

    2017-11-01

    To determine the accuracy of clinical diagnosis of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) using three-dimensional (3D) endoanal ultrasound (EA-US) and to compare symptoms and anal manometry measurements between women with anal sphincters adequately repaired and those with persistent anal sphincter defects. The EA-US images of women with clinically diagnosed and repaired OASIS, defined as third- or fourth-degree perineal tear, who attended the perineal clinic at Croydon University Hospital over a 10-year period (2003-2013) were reanalyzed by a single expert blind to symptoms and the results of clinical examination. St Mark's Incontinence Scores (SMIS) and anal manometry measurements were obtained and compared between women with an intact anal sphincter and those with an anal sphincter scar and between those with an intact anal sphincter and those with a defect. Anal manometry measurements were compared between women with an external anal sphincter (EAS) defect and those with an internal anal sphincter (IAS) defect. The images of 908 women were reanalyzed. No evidence of OASIS was found in 64 (7.0%) women, an EAS scar alone was detected in 520 (57.3%) and an anal sphincter defect in 324 (35.7%). Of the 324 women with a defect, 112 had an EAS defect, 90 had an IAS defect and 122 had a combined IAS and EAS defect. SMIS results were significantly higher in women with an anal sphincter defect compared with those with no evidence of OASIS (P = 0.018), but there was no significant difference in scores between women with an intact sphincter and those with an EAS scar only. Women with a defect had a significantly lower maximum resting pressure (median (range), 44 (8-106) vs 55 (29-86) mmHg; P 40) vs 25 (10-40) mm; P = 0.003). Seven percent of women with a clinical diagnosis of OASIS were wrongly diagnosed. We believe that this rate may differ from that of other units but training methods and competency assessment tools for the diagnosis and repair of OASIS need

  19. Successful implantation of physiologically functional bioengineered mouse internal anal sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Shreya; Miyasaka, Eiichi A; Hashish, Mohamed; Somara, Sita; Gilmont, Robert R; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Bitar, Khalil N

    2010-08-01

    We have previously developed bioengineered three-dimensional internal anal sphincter (IAS) rings from circular smooth muscle cells isolated from rabbit and human IAS. We provide proof of concept that bioengineered mouse IAS rings are neovascularized upon implantation into mice of the same strain and maintain concentric smooth muscle alignment, phenotype, and IAS functionality. Rings were bioengineered by using smooth muscle cells from the IAS of C57BL/6J mice. Bioengineered mouse IAS rings were implanted subcutaneously on the dorsum of C57BL/6J mice along with a microosmotic pump delivering fibroblast growth factor-2. The mice remained healthy during the period of implantation, showing no external signs of rejection. Mice were killed 28 days postsurgery and implanted IAS rings were harvested. IAS rings showed muscle attachment, neovascularization, healthy color, and no external signs of infection or inflammation. Assessment of force generation on harvested IAS rings showed the following: 1) spontaneous basal tone was generated in the absence of external stimulation; 2) basal tone was relaxed by vasoactive intestinal peptide, nitric oxide donor, and nifedipine; 3) acetylcholine and phorbol dibutyrate elicited rapid-rising, dose-dependent, sustained contractions repeatedly over 30 min without signs of muscle fatigue; and 4) magnitudes of potassium chloride-induced contractions were 100% of peak maximal agonist-induced contractions. Our preliminary results confirm the proof of concept that bioengineered rings are neovascularized upon implantation. Harvested rings maintain smooth muscle alignment and phenotype. Our physiological studies confirm that implanted rings maintain 1) overall IAS physiology and develop basal tone, 2) integrity of membrane ionic characteristics, and 3) integrity of membrane associated intracellular signaling transduction pathways for contraction and relaxation by responding to cholinergic, nitrergic, and VIP-ergic stimulation. IAS smooth muscle

  20. Anal channel neoplasm: a neoplasm radio chemo curable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Lopez, M.; Avondet, I.; Vazquez, J.; Santini Blasco, A.

    1997-01-01

    Presently work is made an exhaustive revision of the anatomy of the region, the history of the treatments and of the current treatments of channel cancer anal. It makes emphasis in the importance of the conservative treatment with radiochemotherapy (RQT). The present is a prospective study,longitudinal and descriptive. Material and method: between January of 1989 and December of 1994 20 patients attended with cancer of anal channel with an illness metastasis. An average age it was of 62.4 years.The sex, 16 men and 4 women. The performance status 0,1 or 2 of the scale of the ECOQ. In the pathological anatomy: 15 patient epidermic neoplasm, 5 patient basal neoplasm. State I: 2 patients, II: 12 patients, III: 6 patients, IV: 0 patients.Treatment: the radiotherapy one carries out with cobalt 60 and it irradiates the primary tumour and the ganglion structures region, pelvic and inguinal. It surrendered to Gy/dia from Monday to Friday up to 50 Gy. The chemotherapy one carries out with mitomicine C 10 mg/ previous day to the radiotherapy and 5-UGH 1 intravenous g/my in infusion the days from 1 to 4 and from 29 to 32 after the radiotherapy.Results: to) control locorregional patient RC-16 (80%) ,RP 2 patients (10%) , without answer or with progression lesional a patient (5%) .b) State vital: living 15 patients, died 5 patients(continuation 12 to 60 months) .e)Tolerance: there were not deaths for the gastrointestinal treatment and haematological with toxicity moderate.To conclude:1) The radiochemotherapy is the treatment of elect.2)A feasible treatment of being carried out in our environment.3)Required of a good relationship predictable interdisciplinary.4)Toxicity and tolerable.5)Results of conservation of the sphincter in 80%(AU) [es

  1. Postpartum two- and three-dimensional ultrasound evaluation of anal sphincter complex in women with obstetric anal sphincter injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, C; Martínez-Franco, E; Wozniak, M M; Cassado, J; Santoro, G A; Elías, N; López, M; Palacio, M; Wieczorek, A P; Espuña-Pons, M

    2017-04-01

    To compare the sensitivity and specificity of two- (2D) and three- (3D) dimensional transperineal ultrasound (TPUS) and 3D endovaginal ultrasound (EVUS) with the gold standard 3D endoanal ultrasound (EAUS) in detecting residual defects after primary repair of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS). External (EAS) and internal (IAS) anal sphincters were evaluated by the four ultrasound modalities in women with repaired OASIS. 2D-TPUS was evaluated in real-time, whereas 3D-TPUS, 3D-EVUS and 3D-EAUS volumes were evaluated offline by six blinded readers. The presence/absence of any tear in EAS or IAS was recorded and defects were scored according to the Starck system. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated, using 3D-EAUS as reference standard. Inter- and intraobserver analyses were performed for all 3D imaging modalities. Association between patients' symptoms (Wexner score) and ultrasound findings (Starck score) was calculated. Images from 55 patients were analyzed. Compared with findings on 3D-EAUS, the agreement for EAS evaluation was poor for 3D-EVUS (κ = 0.01), fair for 2D-TPUS (κ = 0.30) and good for 3D-TPUS (κ = 0.73). The agreement for IAS evaluation was moderate for both 3D-EVUS (κ = 0.41) and 2D-TPUS (κ = 0.52) and good for 3D-TPUS (κ = 0.66). Good intraobserver (3D-EAUS, κ = 0.73; 3D-TPUS, κ = 0.78) and interobserver (3D-EAUS, κ = 0.68; 3D-TPUS, κ = 0.60) agreement was reported. Significant association between Starck and Wexner scores was found only for 3D-EAUS (Spearman's rho = 0.277, P = 0.04). 2D-TPUS and 3D-EVUS are not accurate modalities for the assessment of anal sphincters after repair of OASIS. 3D-TPUS shows good agreement with the gold standard 3D-EAUS and a high sensitivity in detecting residual defects. It, thus, has potential as a screening tool after primary repair of OASIS. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG

  2. Dose-time considerations in the treatment of anal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, Eugene C.; Daly, William; Fung, Claire Y.; Willett, Christopher G.; De Laney, Thomas F.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Concurrent chemoradiation has become the standard initial treatment of primary anal carcinomas. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact on treatment outcome of a variety of patient and treatment variables including radiation dose and overall treatment time in patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation for anal carcinomas. Materials and Methods: Retrospective chart review on 50 patients with MO anal cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiation during the years 1984-1993. Patients were identified from the hospital tumor registries. The majority of patients received treatment with 5-FU 1000 mg/m 2 days 1-4, 29-33 and Mitomycin 10-15 mg/m 2 days 1 ± 29. Radiation was given at 180-200 cGy daily starting at day 1 to total doses of 23.6-67.2 Gy (median 54 Gy) usually by shrinking field technique. Local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival of the group was determined and then analyzed with respect to a variety of patient characteristics including T and N stage, histology, radiation dose, overall treatment time, hemoglobin at the start of treatment, age, HIV status, and sex. Local control, disease-free and overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Tests for significance were done using the log-rank method. Results: Patient characteristics were: (1) histology-squamous 78 %, cloacogenic/basaloid 20%, and adenosquamous 2%; (2) age- range 30-82 years (median 58.5), (3) sex- female 58%, male 42%; (4) T stage- T1 16%, T2 46%, T3 24%, T4 8%, TX 6%; (5) N stage- NO 69%, N+ 23 %, NX 8%; (6) HIV (+) 8%, HIV(-/?) 92%. Follow-up ranged from 2-132 months (median 43 months). Overall survival was 66% and 44% at 5 and 10 years. Disease-free survival was 67% at 5 years and 59% at 10 years. Local control was 70% at 5 and 10 years. Five year local control by T stage: T stage- T1 87.5 %, T2 63%, T3 83%, T4 67%, TX 50%. Doses of ≥ 54 Gy are associated with improved 5-year survival (84 % vs. 47%, p=0.02), disease-free survival

  3. Psiconeurociencia y arquetipos: construyendo un diálogo entre Psicología Analítica y neurociencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario E. Saiz

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available El sostenido desarrollo de las neurociencias en el estudio del cerebro y la conducta humana, junto al desarrollo de puentes epistemológicos entre las psicociencias, especialmente referidos al estudio de la mente y al alma humana, ha comenzado a generar una complementariedad e integración del conocimiento desde diferentes disciplinas científicas, buscando la formulación de una teoría unificada cerebro-mente. En el contexto de esta generación de conocimiento, ha surgido la propuesta de los autores de un espacio transdisciplinario de estudio de las relaciones entre la mente y el cerebro, entre neurociencias y psicociencias, que denominan Psiconeurociencia. Desde esta perspectiva los autores plantean una re-visión de la noción de arquetipo formulada por la Psicología Analítica a la luz de los aportes de la neurociencia y de la psicología cognitiva, para describir a modo de ejemplo de este re-formulación, los patrones de organización que interactúan en los trastornos depresivos.

  4. Should anorectal ultrasonography be included as a diagnostic tool for chronic anal pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. García-Montes

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the efficiency of endorectal ultrasound (ERUS in the study of chronic idiopathic anal pain (CIAP. Material and method: this is a prospective and descriptive study in which 40 patients, 18 men and 22 women with an average of 47 years, were included. They had chronic anal pain of at least 3 months' duration. A complete colonoscopy was performed in all patients, which found no abnormalities to explain clinical symptoms. Patients with anal fissure and internal hemorrhoids of any degree, perianal suppurative processes, and pelvic surgery were excluded from the study. An ALOKA ProSound SSD-4000 ultrasound console attached to a multifrequency radial transductor ASU-67 (7.5 and 10 MHz was used. Results: one patient could not tolerate the examination. In 8 patients (20% of cases alterations were detected during ultrasonography: in 4 patients (10% of the cases; 1 man and 3 women internal anal sphincter (IAS hypertrophy, and in 5 patients (4 women and 1 man a torn sphincter complex. A tear in the upper IAS canal and hypertrophy of the middle anal canal were observed in one patient (1 woman. Conclusions: ERUS is a simple, economic and useful test to study anorectal pathologies. Although in most studied cases no damage to the anal canal or rectal wall was detected, in a considerable number of patients we observed a thickening of the IAS, a probable cause of anal pain. Therefore, we understand that ERUS should be included in the study of CIAP.

  5. Early Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal Resected by Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzuru Tamaru

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The standard treatment approach for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the anal canal includes abdominoperineal resection and chemoradiotherapy. However, there are currently very few reports of early SCC of the anal canal resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD. We report 2 rare cases of SCC of the anal canal resected by ESD. In case 1, a 66-year-old woman underwent a colonoscopy due to blood in her stool, and an elevated lesion, 15 mm in size, was identified from the rectum to the dentate line of the anal canal on internal hemorrhoids. The lesion was diagnosed as an early SCC of the anal canal, and ESD was successfully performed. The histopathological diagnosis was SCC in situ. In case 2, a 71-year-old woman underwent a colonoscopy due to constipation, and an elevated lesion, 25 mm in size, was identified from the dentate line to the anal canal. The lesion was diagnosed as early-stage SCC of the anal canal, and ESD was successfully performed. The histopathological diagnosis was SCC in situ. No complications or recurrence after ESD occurred in either case.

  6. An integrative review of guidelines for anal cancer screening in HIV-infected persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jessica S; Holstad, Marcia M; Thomas, Tami; Bruner, Deborah Watkins

    2014-07-01

    HIV-infected individuals are 28 times more likely than the general population to be diagnosed with anal cancer. An integrative review of recommendations and guidelines for anal cancer screening was performed to provide a succinct guide to inform healthcare clinicians. The review excluded studies that were of non-HIV populations, redundant articles or publications, non-English manuscripts, or nonclinical trials. The review found no formal national or international guidelines exist for routine screening of anal cancer for HIV-infected individuals. To date, no randomized control trial provides strong evidence supporting efficaciousness and effectiveness of an anal cancer screening program. The screening recommendations from seven international-, national-, and state-based reports were reviewed and synthesized in this review. These guidelines suggest anal cancer screening, albeit unproven, may be beneficial at decreasing the incidence of anal cancer. This review highlights the paucity of screening-related research and is an area of need to provide clear direction and to define standard of care for anal cancer screening in HIV-infected persons.

  7. Should anorectal ultrasonography be included as a diagnostic tool for chronic anal pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Montes, M J; Argüelles-Arias, Federico; Jiménez-Contreras, S; Sánchez-Gey, S; Pellicer-Bautista, F; Herrerías-Gutiérrez, J M

    2010-01-01

    To assess the efficiency of endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) in the study of chronic idiopathic anal pain (CIAP). This is a prospective and descriptive study in which 40 patients, 18 men and 22 women with an average of 47 years, were included. They had chronic anal pain of at least 3 months duration. A complete colonoscopy was performed in all patients, which found no abnormalities to explain clinical symptoms. Patients with anal fissure and internal hemorrhoids of any degree, perianal suppurative processes, and pelvic surgery were excluded from the study. An ALOKA ProSound SSD-4000 ultrasound console attached to a multifrequency radial transductor ASU-67 (7.5 and 10 MHz) was used. One patient could not tolerate the examination. In 8 patients (20% of cases) alterations were detected during ultrasonography: in 4 patients (10% of the cases; 1 man and 3 women) internal anal sphincter (IAS) hypertrophy, and in 5 patients (4 women and 1 man) a torn sphincter complex. A tear in the upper IAS canal and hypertrophy of the middle anal canal were observed in one patient (1 woman). ERUS is a simple, economic and useful test to study anorectal pathologies. Although in most studied cases no damage to the anal canal or rectal wall was detected, in a considerable number of patients we observed a thickening of the IAS, a probable cause of anal pain. Therefore, we understand that ERUS should be included in the study of CIAP.

  8. Anal HPV infection in HIV-positive men who have sex with men from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anal HPV infection, which contributes to the development of anal warts and anal cancer, is well known to be common among men who have sex with men (MSM, especially among those HIV positives. However, HIV and anal HPV co-infection among MSM has not been addressed in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Beijing and Tianjin, China. Study participants were recruited using multiple methods with the collaboration of local volunteer organizations. Blood and anal swabs were collected for HIV-1 serological test and HPV genotyping. RESULTS: A total of 602 MSM were recruited and laboratory data were available for 578 of them (96.0%. HIV and anal HPV prevalence were 8.5% and 62.1%, respectively. And 48 MSM (8.3% were found to be co-infected. The HPV genotypes identified most frequently were HPV06 (19.6%, HPV16 (13.0%, HPV52 (8.5% and HPV11 (7.6%. Different modes of HPV genotypes distribution were observed with respect to HIV status. A strong dose-response relationship was found between HIV seropositivity and multiplicity of HPV genotypes (p<0.001, which is consistent with the observation that anal HPV infection was an independent predictor for HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of HIV and anal HPV co-infection was observed in the MSM community in Beijing and Tianjin, China. Anal HPV infection was found to be independently associated with increased HIV seropositivity, which suggests the application of HPV vaccine might be a potential strategy to reduce the acquisition of HIV infection though controlling the prevalence of HPV.

  9. Manual del McVCO 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    McChesney, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    El McVCO es un generador de frecuencias basado en un microcontrolador que reemplaza al oscilador controlado por voltaje (VCO) utilizado en telemetría analógica de datos sísmicas. Acepta señales de baja potencia desde un sismómetro y produce una señal subportadora modulada en frecuencia adecuada para enlaces telefónicos o vía radio a un lugar remoto de recolección de datos. La frecuencia de la subportadora y la ganancia pueden ser seleccionadas mediante un interruptor. Tiene la opción de poder operar con dos canales para la observación con ganancia alta y baja. El McVCO fue diseñado con el propósito de mejorar la telemetría analógica de las señales dentro de la Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network (PNSN) (Red Sismográfica del Noroeste del Pacífico). Su desarrollo recibió el respaldo del Programa de Geofísica de la Universidad de Washington y del "Volcano Hazards and Earthquake Hazards programs of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) (Programa de Investigaciones de Riesgos Volcánicos y Programa de Investigaciones de Riesgos Sísmicos de los EEUU). Cientos de instrumentos se han construido e instalado. Además de utilizarlo el PNSN, el McVCO es usado por el Observatorio Vulcanológico de Alaska para monitorear los volcanes aleutianos y por el USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (Programa de Ayuda en las Catástrofes Volcánicas del USGS) para responder a crisis volcánicas en otros países. Este manual cubre el funcionamiento del McVCO, es una referencia técnica para aquellos que necesitan saber con más detalle cómo funciona el McVCO, y cubre una serie de temas que requieren un trato explícito o que derivan del despliegue del instrumento.

  10. Utilidade da citologia anal no rastreamento dos homens heterossexuais portadores do HPV genital Anal cytology for screening heterosexual men harboring genital HPV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Marianelli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Os papilomavírus humanos (HPV de alto risco estão fortemente relacionados à etiologia do carcinoma espinocelular (CEC anogenital e suas lesões precursoras. O HPV-16 é o tipo mais freqüente, estando presente em até 87% dos CEC do canal anal HPV-positivo. Apesar de ser relativamente raro, vem sendo cada vez mais diagnosticado, nas últimas décadas, sobretudo em indivíduos do sexo masculino. A incidência é ainda mais elevada nos grupos considerados de risco, particularmente, os homens e as mulheres HIV-positivo e os homens que fazem sexo com homens (HSH. Grande parte das pesquisas direcionadas à infecção anal pelo HPV e sua relação com neoplasia intraepitelial-anal (NIA e com o carcinoma esteve focada nos grupos de risco. Pouco interesse vem sendo destinado à investigação dos homens heterossexuais. Estudos epidemiológicos da prevalência da infecção pelo HPV em homens, mostraram que os heterossexuais masculinos apresentavam infecção anal pelo HPV em até 12%. As Sociedades médicas e os especialistas recomendam o rastreamento dos portadores de imunodepressão e dos HSH com citologia do raspado do canal anal. Entretanto, até o momento, não há recomendação de rastreamento para homens que fazem sexo com mulheres.The oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV are straightly associated with anogenital cancer and dysplasia. The HPV-16 is the most common type, isolated in 87% of the HPV-positive anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Despite being a rare tumor, the incidence of SCC has increased in the last decades, especially in males. Incidence is particularly high amongst men who have sex with men (MSM and among HIV infected men and women. For decades anogenital HPV researches have largely focused risk groups. Poor interest was intended to men who have sex with women (MSW. Prevalence studies of HPV infection in MSW have demonstrated that anal infection was identified in as far as 12%. Medical societies and specialists recommend anal

  11. Anal canal duplication and triplication: a rare entity with different presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazon, P; Julia, V; Saura, L; de Haro, I; Bejarano, M; Rovira, C; Tarrado, X

    2017-05-01

    Anal canal duplication (ACD) is the rarest of gastrointestinal duplications. Few cases have been reported. Most cases present as an opening in the midline, posterior to the normal anus. The aim of our revision is to contribute with eight new cases, some of them with unusual presentations: five presented as the typical form, one with a perianal nodule, and two presented as two separate orifices (anal canal triplication). Complete excision was performed in all patients with no complications. ACD is the most distal and the least frequent digestive duplication. Its treatment should be surgical excision, to avoid complications such as abscess, fistulization, or malignization. Anal canal triplication has never been described before.

  12. Acepciones de la responsabilidad extracontractual del Estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Soto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del artículo consiste en determinar las acepciones de la responsabilidad extracontractual del Estado previstas en la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela de 1999. La metodología utilizada es la investigación documental, sustentada en el método analítico y la técnica del análisis de contenido. Las fuentes para la recolección de información atienden a tres ámbitos: constitucional, doctrinal y jurisprudencial. Se concluye que la responsabilidad extracontractual del Estado es un sistema de acepciones entendido como valor superior, principio general del derecho público, deber constitucional del Estado en ejercicio de cualquier función pública, derecho subjetivo público de fuerza, rango o valor constitucional, garantía constitucional perteneciente al particular o administrado,integrante de cualquier sociedad democrática y de justicia, para exigir por vía administrativa o jurisdiccional la indemnización de daños y perjuicios, materiales y morales, causados en su situación jurídica -derecho subjetivo e interés legítimo o interés jurídico actual- o en sus bienes muebles o inmuebles imputables al funcionamiento, normal o anormal, de los entes y órganos del Estado.El Tribunal Supremo de Justicia en Sala Político-Administrativa establece una doctrina jurisprudencial iuspublicista sobre las acepciones de la responsabilidad extracontractual del Estado. El calificativo iuspublicista obedece a la circunstancia de que la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela de 1999 constituye el instrumento normativo contentivo de las determinadas acepciones o significados.

  13. Evaluación externa de la calidad analítica en hematología: una necesidad en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fink Nilda E.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available La garantía de calidad analítica de un laboratorio clínico se logra mediante un sistema de control de calidad interno complementado por un programa de evaluación externa. Esa garantía es la base que fundamenta la confiabilidad de los resultados obtenidos por los laboratorios y su uso en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las enfermedades. En los países de América Latina hay muchos laboratorios que no cuentan con sistemas apropiados de evaluación y control de la calidad. Dada la importancia de los diagnósticos basados en datos hematológicos, durante el XI Congreso Latinoamericano de Bioquímica Clínica (México, 1993 la Organización Panamericana de la Salud patrocinó un curso de control de la calidad en hematología en el que participaron Argentina, Chile, Cuba, México, Paraguay, República Dominicana y Uruguay. Como parte del curso se produjeron materiales de control: solución estándar secundario de cianmetahemoglobina (HICN, solución concentrada estabilizada de hemoglobina (Hb y sangre entera humana preservada con seudoleucocitos. Estos materiales fueron enviados a laboratorios de los siete países participantes para su uso en procedimientos analíticos, con objeto de llevar a cabo posteriormente una evaluación externa del desempeño individual y de la comparabilidad de los resultados en conjunto. Las tareas asignadas fueron: 1 determinación de hemoglobina, hematocrito, y glóbulos rojos y blancos con los métodos en uso en cada laboratorio; 2 registro de los datos obtenidos en formularios especiales para la notificación de datos y 3 envío de dichos formularios al coordinador de cada país. Los resultados fueron analizados en función de los procedimientos analíticos y de los países participantes. Los valores de referencia se establecieron por consenso general de todos los participantes después de someterse al método estadístico de truncamiento. El análisis comparado de los resultados mostró coeficientes de variaci

  14. Dimensiones del músculo masetero medido mediante ultrasonido, según sexo

    OpenAIRE

    Frugone A, Raúl; Hernández C, Arnoldo; Valenzuela P, Hernán; Retamal, Víctor

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: para establecer las dimensiones en profundidad, ancho y largo del músculo masetero según sexo, se realizó un estudio analítico no experimental entre pacientes seleccionados que acudieron al servicio de ecografía del Hospital Base de Linares, Chile entre los meses de julio y septiembre del año 2005. MÉTODOS: la muestra quedó determinada por 180 músculos maseteros, 90 de ellos pertenecientes a individuos de sexo femenino y 90 pertenecientes a individuos de sexo masculino. Se reali...

  15. HACIA LA (RE)CONSTRUCCIÓN DEL CAMPO MUSICAL NACIONAL UNA LECTURA EN CLAVE DE ROCK

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA, DAVID FERNANDO

    2009-01-01

    A partir del entrecruzamiento de dos visiones de diferente naturaleza sobre el panorama de la producción musical en Colombia, este artículo propone una manera de concebir la lógica del campo musical nacional. Esta construcción analítica de índole relacional pretende dar cuenta del espacio social en el que se negocia y define, tanto la producción de los diferentes géneros que conforman el universo de la música popular contemporánea en Colombia como las prácticas de los actores e instituciones ...

  16. Potencial del Agua del suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustamante Heliodoro

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available La energía potencial del agua presenta diferencias de un punto del suelo a otro; esas diferencias son las que originan el movimiento del agua de acuerdo a la tendencia universal de la materia en el sentido de moverse de donde la energía potencial es mayor a donde dicha energía es menor. En el suelo el agua en consecuencia se mueve hacia donde su energía decrece hasta lograr su estado de equilibrio. Se desprende entonces que la cantidad de energía potencial absoluta contenida en el agua, no es importante por sí misma, sino por su relación con la energía en diferentes lugares dentro del suelo. El concepto Potencial de agua del suelo es un criterio para esta energía.

  17. Facticidad, apropiación y destino. Infancia de J. M. Coetzee bajo la mirada de la analítica existencial heideggeriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Darío

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente artículo es proponer un diálogo entre la novela autobiográfica Infancia del autor sudafricano J. M. Coetzee, y la transformación existencial del ser-ahí heideggeriano, tal como esta es analizada e interpretada en Ser y tiempo. El camino que seguiremos consistirá en desarrollar un procedimiento hermenéutico de carácter especular, mediante el cual podamos articular el sentido de la obra literaria con el relato formal, ontológico, de la existencia del Dasein en Ser y tiempo de Heidegger. A través de este diálogo examinaremos cómo se interpelan, problematizan y, en algunos puntos, se aclaran mutuamente ambos relatos, haciendo uso de algunos conceptos claves de la analítica existencial como “disposición afectiva”, “comprensión”, “condición de arrojado”.

  18. El análisis de datos en enfoques biográficos-narrativos: desde los métodos hacia una intencionalidad analítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cornejo Cancino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de datos es una etapa crucial en investigaciones cualitativas, influyendo la calidad y aplicabilidad de los resultados obtenidos. Los textos sobre análisis de datos suelen indicar principios generales a seguir, escaseando descripciones detalladas de los procedimientos involucrados. Los investigadores cualitativos privilegian difundir resultados de investigación, presentando muy someramente cómo se realizó el análisis y qué fundamentos epistemológicos lo sustentaron. En este artículo, se presentan tres investigaciones que utilizaron procedimientos analíticos desde enfoques biográficos-narrativos: sobre memoria colectiva de la dictadura militar chilena; transmisión transgeneracional del trauma en nietos de víctimas de prisión política y tortura durante la dictadura chilena; y procesos de transformación de subjetividades en pobladores de sectores populares en Santiago. Se presenta en detalle cómo fue diseñado, ejecutado y recreado el análisis de datos en el desarrollo de los procesos investigativos, problematizando epistemológica y metodológicamente las decisiones tomadas en cada fase. Se propone la intencionalidad analítica como una forma de enfrentar el análisis, considerando tres dimensiones: la reflexividad del investigador y su equipo; una escucha polifónica, la que abre nuevas y múltiples opciones de análisis; y el ejercicio sistemático de escritura como una forma de construcción y divulgación del conocimiento. Estas dimensiones pueden contribuir a dotar de sentido al trabajo el análisis de datos en la investigación cualitativa. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1701160

  19. Anal carcinoma in HIV-infected patients in the period 1995-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Helleberg, Marie; Kronborg, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Several studies have demonstrated an increased risk of non-AIDS cancers in HIV patients and, for some cancers, also in relatives of HIV patients. We aimed to estimate (1) the risk of anal carcinoma among HIV patients and their parents, and (2) the mortality after a diagnosis...... 1995-2009, and (2) parents of HIV patients compared with parents of controls for the period 1978-2009. Cancer diagnoses were identified from The Danish Cancer Registry. We further estimated the mortality rate ratios (MRR) of HIV patients compared with controls after the diagnosis of anal carcinoma....... Results: Thirty-six HIV patients versus 8 population controls were diagnosed with anal carcinoma. HIV patients had an increased risk of anal carcinoma (IRR 77.9, 95% CI 36.2-167.7), especially among men who have sex with men (MSM) (IRR 101.4, 95% CI 39.3-261.5). Fathers of HIV patients had an increased...

  20. Riskide analüüs aitab kriisi puhuks varusid planeerida / Janis Toomla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toomla, Janis

    2005-01-01

    Riskide hindamisele järgnevast organisatsiooni jätkusuutlikkuse planeerimise faasist, kus toimub kriisistsenaariumide analüüs, võimalike kahjude suuruse hindamine ja taasteaja määratlemine (Business Impact Analyse)

  1. Chronic anal fissures: Open lateral internal sphincterotomy result; a case series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulwahid M. Salih

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: lateral sphincterotomy for internal anal sphincter, along, is the procedure of choice for management of CAF because it is effective and it can cure the disease in nearly all patients with good patient satisfaction.

  2. Treating High-grade Lesions to Prevent Anal Cancer in HIV-infected People

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study, called the ANCHOR trial, will investigate whether screening and prevention methods similar to those used to prevent cervical cancer can help prevent anal cancer in HIV-infected men and women.

  3. Anal Papilloma: An Exceptional Presentation of Fibrocystic Disease in Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Subashchandrabose

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously ectopic breast tissue was thought to be derived from the caudal remnants of the primitive embryonic milk ridges; anogenital mammary-like glands are presently considered as normal constituents of the anogenital region. We report a case of young female, who presented with an anal papilloma. Histopathological examination revealed extensive fibrocystic changes in anogenital mammary-like glands. To date, a lot of benign changes and a wide range of benign and malignant neoplasms have been reported in these glands. However, extensive fibrocystic change of these glands in anal region is very rare. In addition, fibrocystic disease of anal mammary glands, masquerading clinically as an anal papilloma, has not been reported in literature. Hence, it is essential for clinicians and the pathologists to be aware of such a rare presentation. The features of fibrocystic disease in perianal region are also discussed.

  4. Anal Papilloma: An Exceptional Presentation of Fibrocystic Disease in Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subashchandrabose, Priya; Esakkai, Muthuvel; Venugopal, Palani; Kannaiyan, Ilavarasan; Srinivasan, Chitra; Reddy, Punuru Tejashwini; Ebenezer, Evelyn Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Previously ectopic breast tissue was thought to be derived from the caudal remnants of the primitive embryonic milk ridges; anogenital mammary-like glands are presently considered as normal constituents of the anogenital region. We report a case of young female, who presented with an anal papilloma. Histopathological examination revealed extensive fibrocystic changes in anogenital mammary-like glands. To date, a lot of benign changes and a wide range of benign and malignant neoplasms have been reported in these glands. However, extensive fibrocystic change of these glands in anal region is very rare. In addition, fibrocystic disease of anal mammary glands, masquerading clinically as an anal papilloma, has not been reported in literature. Hence, it is essential for clinicians and the pathologists to be aware of such a rare presentation. The features of fibrocystic disease in perianal region are also discussed.

  5. Endosonographic and manometric evaluation of internal anal sphincter in patients with chronic anal fissure and its correlation with clinical outcome after topical glyceryl trinitrate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Marta; Pera, Miguel; Courtier, Ricard; Gil, Mariá José; Parés, David; Puig, Sonia; Andreu, Montserrat; Grande, Luis

    2007-08-01

    Anorectal pressure studies have demonstrated internal anal sphincter (IAS) hypertonia in patients with chronic anal fissure. It is unknown however, if these changes in IAS function are associated with any abnormality in sphincter morphology. The first aim was to investigate the clinical characteristics and the manometric and endosonographic findings of the IAS in a cohort of patients with chronic anal fissure. The second aim was to investigate the association between these findings and the outcome with topical Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) therapy. All patients who presented with chronic anal fissure from November 1999 to May 2004 were included after failure of conservative therapy. Anorectal manometry and anal endosonography were performed before treatment with 0.2% GTN ointment twice daily was initiated. Patients were evaluated after 8 weeks. One hundred and twenty-four patients (66 women, mean age, 45.2 +/- 14.8 years) were included. Hypertonia of the IAS was found in 84 (68%) patients. The mean maximum IAS thickness was 3.6 +/- 0.76 mm (1.6-5.5). An abnormally thick IAS, adjusted by age, was observed in 113 (91.1%) patients. We found no correlation between resting pressure and IAS thickness (r = 0.074; p = 0.41). At 8 weeks, 52 patients (42%) had healed with complete symptoms resolution. No statistically significant differences were observed when clinical features and manometric and endosonographic findings were compared between healing and no-healing fissures. The majority of patients with chronic anal fissure present an abnormally thick IAS. Clinical, manometric and endosonographic features had no association with outcome after GTN treatment.

  6. Cytological Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Associated with Anal High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Northern Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin Ruanpeng

    Full Text Available Anal cancer, one of human papillomavirus (HPV related malignancies, has increased in recent decades, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM and HIV-infected (HIV+ persons. We aimed to explore the prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL using Papanicolau (Pap screening among MSM in northern Thailand and its associated factors.Two hundreds MSM aged ≥18 years reporting receptive anal intercourse in the prior 6 months were recruited from July 2012 through January 2013. Medical history and behavioral data were collected by staff interview and computer-assisted self interview. Anal Pap smear, HPV genotyping, and HIV testing were performed. Two pathologists blinded to HPV and HIV status reported cytologic results by Bethesda classification.Mean age was 27.2 years (range 18-54. Overall, 86 (43.0% had ASIL: 28 (14.2% with atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 1 (0.5% with atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H, 56 (28.4% with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, and 1 (0.5% with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL. ASIL was associated by univariate analysis (p ≤0.05 with older age, gender identity other than bisexual (i.e., gay men and transgender women, rectal douching, anal symptoms, genital warts, HIV positivity, and high-risk-HPV infection. However, on multiple logistic regression ASIL was associated only with high-risk HPV type (p = 0.002 and HIV infection (p = 0.01.ASIL is quite common in high-risk MSM in northern Thailand and is associated with high-risk HPV types and HIV infection. Routine anal Pap screening should be considered, given the high frequency of ASIL, particularly in the HIV+. High resolution anoscopy (HRA, not done here, should be to confirm PAP smears whose sensitivity and specificity are quite variable. Timely HPV vaccination should be considered for this population.

  7. Cytological Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Associated with Anal High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruanpeng, Darin; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Kaewpoowat, Quanhathai; Supindham, Taweewat; Settakorn, Jongkolnee; Sukpan, Kornkanok; Utaipat, Utaiwan; Miura, Toshiyuki; Kosashunhanan, Natthapol; Saokhieo, Pongpun; Songsupa, Radchanok; Wongthanee, Antika

    2016-01-01

    Anal cancer, one of human papillomavirus (HPV) related malignancies, has increased in recent decades, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-infected (HIV+) persons. We aimed to explore the prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL) using Papanicolau (Pap) screening among MSM in northern Thailand and its associated factors. Two hundreds MSM aged ≥18 years reporting receptive anal intercourse in the prior 6 months were recruited from July 2012 through January 2013. Medical history and behavioral data were collected by staff interview and computer-assisted self interview. Anal Pap smear, HPV genotyping, and HIV testing were performed. Two pathologists blinded to HPV and HIV status reported cytologic results by Bethesda classification. Mean age was 27.2 years (range 18-54). Overall, 86 (43.0%) had ASIL: 28 (14.2%) with atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 1 (0.5%) with atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H), 56 (28.4%) with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), and 1 (0.5%) with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). ASIL was associated by univariate analysis (p ≤0.05) with older age, gender identity other than bisexual (i.e., gay men and transgender women), rectal douching, anal symptoms, genital warts, HIV positivity, and high-risk-HPV infection. However, on multiple logistic regression ASIL was associated only with high-risk HPV type (p = 0.002) and HIV infection (p = 0.01). ASIL is quite common in high-risk MSM in northern Thailand and is associated with high-risk HPV types and HIV infection. Routine anal Pap screening should be considered, given the high frequency of ASIL, particularly in the HIV+. High resolution anoscopy (HRA), not done here, should be to confirm PAP smears whose sensitivity and specificity are quite variable. Timely HPV vaccination should be considered for this population.

  8. El algoritmo de la transferencia como antecesor del discurso del amo. // The algorithm of transference as a predecessor of the master`s discourse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Cruz Aponasenko.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work establishes the counter argument between Lacan’s elaboration discussed in the Proposition of October 9 on the Psychoanalyst of the School, regarding the transference, and the quadripode called “master’s discourse”, delivered in the 1969-1970 seminar. In the “Proposition”, Lacan shows a formula commonly known as “algorithm of transference”, which formalizes the opening to the unconscious through the transference signifier operation and allows the possibility of the analytical work by the installation of the subject-supposed-to-know. We will see how this algorithm precedes the master’s discourse or the discourse of the unconscious. Thus we are going to establish a directionality in the analytical cure by observing the reversal of the master’s discourse that is the discourse of the analyst. // El trabajo establece un contrapunto entre la elaboración de Lacan presentada en la proposición del 9 de octubre sobre el psicoanalista de la escuela, en relación a la transferencia, y el cuadrípodo denominado "discurso del amo", presentado en el seminario del año 1969-1970. En la “proposición” Lacan presenta una fórmula conocida coloquialmente como "algoritmo de la transferencia", que permite formalizar la apertura al inconsciente mediante la operación del significante de la transferencia y producir allí la posibilidad del trabajo analítico vía la instalación del sujeto supuesto saber. Veremos cómo este algoritmo antecede al discurso del amo o discurso del inconsciente. Esto nos permitirá establecer una direccionalidad en la cura analítica observando la inversión del discurso del amo que es el discurso del analista.

  9. Viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function using acoustic reflectometry: a clinically useful technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J; Hosker, Gordon L; Lose, Gunnar; Kiff, Edward S

    2012-02-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis. The aim of this study was to assess whether the parameters measured in anal acoustic reflectometry are clinically valid between continent and fecally incontinent subjects. This was an age- and sex-matched study of continent and incontinent women. The study was conducted at a university teaching hospital. One hundred women (50 with fecal incontinence and 50 with normal bowel control) were included in the study. Subjects were age matched to within 5 years. Parameters measured with anal acoustic reflectometry and manometry were compared between incontinent and continent groups using a paired t test. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by the use of receiver operator characteristic curves. Four of the 5 anal acoustic reflectometry parameters at rest were significantly different between continent and incontinent women (eg, opening pressure in fecally incontinent subjects was 31.6 vs 51.5 cm H2O in continent subjects, p = 0.0001). Both anal acoustic reflectometry parameters of squeeze opening pressure and squeeze opening elastance were significantly reduced in the incontinent women compared with continent women (50 vs 99.1 cm H2O, p = 0.0001 and 1.48 vs 1.83 cm H2O/mm, p = 0.012). In terms of diagnostic accuracy, opening pressure at rest measured by reflectometry was significantly superior in discriminating between continent and incontinent women in comparison with resting pressure measured with manometry (p = 0.009). Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new, clinically valid technique in the assessment of continent and incontinent subjects. This technique, which assesses the response of the anal canal to distension and relaxation, provides a detailed viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. This technique

  10. Correlates of anal sex roles among Malay and Chinese MSM in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangerfield, Derek T; Gravitt, Patti; Rompalo, Anne M; Tai, Raymond; Lim, Sin How

    2016-03-01

    Identifying roles for anal sex is an important issue for populations of MSM. We describe the prevalence of identifying as being 'top', 'bottom', 'versatile', or 'don't know/not applicable' among Malay and Chinese MSM in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and behavioural outcomes according to these labels for sexual role identity. Data analysis was conducted on a survey administered during weekly outreach throughout Kuala Lumpur in 2012. Pearson's Chi square tests were used to compare demographic and behavioural characteristics of MSM who reported roles for anal sex. Binary logistic regression was used to explore the odds of behavioural outcomes among MSM who identified as 'bottom', 'versatile,' and 'don't know' compared to MSM who reported that 'top' was their sexual role. Labels for anal sex roles were significantly associated with condom use for last anal sex. Among MSM who used labels for anal sex roles, MSM who identified as 'bottom' had highest level of not using condoms for last anal sex (24.1%, p = .045). In binary logistic regression model, identifying as 'top' was significantly associated with reporting using a condom during last anal sex and reported consistent condom use for anal sex in the past six months (p = .039 and .017, respectively). With regard to sexual role identity, some MSM may be a part of a special subgroup of at-risk men to be targeted. Future research should evaluate the origins, meanings, and perceptions of these labels, and the developmental process of how these MSM identify with any of these categories. Research should also uncover condom use decision making with regard to these labels for sexual positioning. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Analüütikud soovitavad Eesti Energia börsile viia / Piret Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reiljan, Piret, 1983-

    2008-01-01

    Kohalikud analüütikud soovitavad viia Eesti Energia börsile, kuna see elavdaks aktsiaturgu ja tõmbaks ligi välisinvestoreid. Vt. samas: Raivo Vare: raske aeg töötab Eesti Energia börsiletoomise kasuks; Analüüs ootab pääsu valitsuskabinetti; Juhid ei püsi enam Eesti Energias. Diagrammid: Majandusnäitajad; Varade maht

  12. Regenerative medicine provides alternative strategies for the treatment of anal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräs, Søren; Tolstrup, Cæcilie Krogsgaard; Lose, Gunnar

    2017-03-01

    Anal incontinence is a common disorder but current treatment modalities are not ideal and the development of new treatments is needed. The aim of this review was to identify the existing knowledge of regenerative medicine strategies in the form of cellular therapies or bioengineering as a treatment for anal incontinence caused by anal sphincter defects. PubMed was searched for preclinical and clinical studies in English published from January 2005 to January 2016. Animal studies have demonstrated that cellular therapy in the form of local injections of culture-expanded skeletal myogenic cells stimulates repair of both acute and 2 - 4-week-old anal sphincter injuries. The results from a small clinical trial with ten patients and a case report support the preclinical findings. Animal studies have also demonstrated that local injections of mesenchymal stem cells stimulate repair of sphincter injuries, and a complex bioengineering strategy for creation and implantation of an intrinsically innervated internal anal sphincter construct has been successfully developed in a series of animal studies. Cellular therapies with myogenic cells and mesenchymal stem cells and the use of bioengineering technology to create an anal sphincter are new potential strategies to treat anal incontinence caused by anal sphincter defects, but the clinical evidence is extremely limited. The use of culture-expanded autologous skeletal myogenic cells has been most intensively investigated and several clinical trials were ongoing at the time of this report. The cost-effectiveness of such a therapy is an issue and muscle fragmentation is suggested as a simple alternative.

  13. Analysis and description of disease-specific quality of life in patients with anal fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Márquez, Manuel; Espínola-Cortés, Natalia; Reina-Duarte, Ángel; Granero-Molina, José; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano; Hernández-Padilla, José Manuel

    2018-04-01

    In patients diagnosed with anal fistula, knowing the quality of life specifically related to the disease can help coloproctology specialists to choose the most appropriate therapeutic strategy for each case. The aim of our study is to analyzse and describe the factors related to the specific quality of life in a consecutive series of patients diagnosed with anal fistula. Observational, cross-sectional study carried out from March 2015 to February 2017. All patients were assessed in the colorectal surgery unit of a hospital in southeast of Spain. After performing an initial anamnesis and a physical examination, patients diagnosed with anal fistula completed the Quality of Life in Ppatients with Anal Fistula Questionnaire (QoLAF-Q). This questionnaire specifically measures quality of life in people with anal fistula and its score range is the following: zero impact = 14 points, limited impact = 15 to 28 points, moderate impact = 29 to 42 points, high impact = 43 to 56 points, and very high impact = 57 to 70 points. A total of 80 patients were included. The median score obtained in the questionnaire for the sample studied was 34.00 (range=14-68). Statistically significant differences between patients with "primary anal fistula" (n=65) and "recurrent anal fistula" (n=15) were observed (mean rank=42.96 vs. mean rank=29.83, p=0.048). Furthermore, an inverse proportion (P=.016) between "time with clinical symptoms" and "impact on quality of life" was found (5 years: mean rank = 19.00). There were no statistically significant differences (P=.149) between quality of life amongst patients diagnosed with complex (mean rank = 36.13) and simple fistulae (mean rank = 43.59). Anal fistulae exert moderate-high impact on patients' quality of life. "Shorter time experiencing clinical symptoms" and the "presence of primary fistula" are factors that can be associated with worse quality of life. Copyright © 2018 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of hypothyroidism on primary anal malignant melanoma: a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Siddharth; Verma, Satyajeet; Kala, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Primary melanoma of the anal canal is rare and highly malignant condition, which is 1% of all invasive tumors in this site. This condition is often mistaken for benign conditions as either hemorrhoids or rectal polyp. Thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation causes high proliferation of malignant melanoma. The association of hypothyroidism with primary malignant melanoma of anal canal is very rare. We are reporting such a very rare case.

  15. Hereditary vacuolar internal anal sphincter myopathy causing proctalgia fugax and constipation: a new case contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Portilla, Fernando; Borrero, Juan José; Rafel, Enrique

    2005-03-01

    Hereditary anal sphincter myopathy is rare. We present a family with one affected member with proctalgia fugax, constipation and internal anal sphincter hypertrophy. Ultrastructural findings show vacuolization of smooth muscle cells without the characteristic polyglucosan inclusion. Further relief of symptoms was obtained using an oral calcium antagonist. Based on clinical presentation, endosonography and morphological findings, we consider our case is a histological variant of the vacuolar myopathy originally described.

  16. Impact of hypothyroidism on primary anal malignant melanoma: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary melanoma of the anal canal is rare and highly malignant condition, which is 1% of all invasive tumors in this site. This condition is often mistaken for benign conditions as either hemorrhoids or rectal polyp. Thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation causes high proliferation of malignant melanoma. The association of hypothyroidism with primary malignant melanoma of anal canal is very rare. We are reporting such a very rare case.

  17. Vaccine-preventable anal human papillomavirus in Australian gay and bisexual men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mary Poynten

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: HPV causes ~90% of anal cancer and HPV16 is the type most commonly associated with anal cancer. Gay and bisexual men (GBM are at greatly increased risk. We investigated patterns of vaccine-preventable anal HPV in older GBM. Methods: The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer (SPANC is an ongoing, prospective cohort study of HIV-positive and HIV-negative Australian GBM. Participants completed questionnaires and underwent an anal swab for HPV genotyping using Roche Linear Array. We analysed baseline data from SPANC by HPV type, mean number of types, stratified by age and HIV status. Results: Anal HPV results from 606 (98.2% of 617 participants (median age 49 years, 35.7% HIV-positive showed 525 (86.7% had ≥1 HPV type and 178 (29.4% had HPV16. Over one third of participants (214, 35.3% had no nonavalent vaccine-preventable types detected. Two (0.3% participants had all quadrivalent types and none had all nonavalent vaccine types. HIV-positive participants (p<0.001 and younger participants (p=0.059 were more likely to have more vaccine-preventable HPV types detected. Conclusion: Anal HPV was highly prevalent in this largely community-based GBM cohort. Vaccine-preventable HPV16 was detected in approximately one third of participants. These findings suggest that the potential efficacy of HPV vaccination of older GBM should be explored. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, HPV, Anal, Vaccine, Prevalence, Gay and bisexual men, MSM, HIV

  18. Analüütilised voolud psühholoogias ja nende rakendamine pedagoogikas / Aleksander Elango

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elango, Aleksander, 1902-2004

    2001-01-01

    Analüütise psühholoogia kolm koolkonda - S.Freudì koolkond e. päris-psühhoanalüüs, A.Adlerì koolkond e. individuaalpsühholoogia ja C.G.Jungì psühhoanalüüsi ja individuaalpsühholoogia sünteesi luua püüdev koolkond. Analüütise psühholoogia koolkondade ja pedagoogika suhetest

  19. Successful Implantation of Bioengineered, Intrinsically Innervated, Human Internal Anal Sphincter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Shreya; Gilmont, Robert R.; Miyasaka, Eiichi A.; Somara, Sita; Srinivasan, Shanthi; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Bitar, Khalil N.

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims To restore fecal continence, the weakened pressure of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) must be increased. We bioengineered intrinsically innervated human IAS, to emulate sphincteric physiology, in vitro. Methods We co-cultured human IAS circular smooth muscle with immortomouse fetal enteric neurons. We investigated the ability of bioengineered innervated human IAS, implanted in RAG1−/− mice, to undergo neovascularization and preserve the physiology of the constituent myogenic and neuronal components. Results The implanted IAS was neovascularized in vivo; numerous blood vessels were observed with no signs of inflammation or infection. Real-time force acquisition from implanted and pre-implant IAS showed distinct characteristics of IAS physiology. Features included the development of spontaneous myogenic basal tone; relaxation of 100% of basal tone in response to inhibitory neurotransmitter vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and direct electrical field stimulation of the intrinsic innervation; inhibition of nitrergic and VIPergic EFS-induced relaxation (by antagonizing nitric oxide synthesis or receptor interaction); contraction in response to cholinergic stimulation with acetylcholine; and intact electromechanical coupling (evidenced by direct response to potassium chloride). Implanted, intrinsically innervated bioengineered human IAS tissue preserved the integrity and physiology of myogenic and neuronal components. Conclusion Intrinsically innervated human IAS bioengineered tissue can be successfully implanted in mice. This approach might be used to treat patients with fecal incontinence. PMID:21463628

  20. Latvijas importa analīze un prognoze

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiļenko, Oļegs

    2010-01-01

    Viena no nozīmīgākām pazīmēm, kuras raksturo valsts ekonomikas stāvokli un attīstības līmeni, ir ārējās tirdzniecības bilance. Sakarā ar Latvijas ekonomikas situācijas pasliktināšanu, un, ar to saistītu, ārējās tirdzniecības negatīvās bilances strauju pieaugumu, importa analīzes un prognozes jautājuma nozīme vairāk kārt pieauga. Jau ilgāku laiku pieaug bezdarba līmenis Latvijā, līdz ar ko pasliktinās iedzīvotāju pirktspēja, kura, neapšaubāmi, ietekmē valsts ārējo tirdzniecību. ...

  1. Addressing Risk and Reluctance at the Nexus of HIV and Anal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I; Cassel, Kevin; Shiramizu, Bruce; Stotzer, Rebecca L; Robles, Andrew; Kapua, Cathy; Orton, Malulani; Milne, Cris; Sesepasara, Maddalynn

    2016-01-01

    Anal cancer disproportionately burdens persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) regardless of natal sex, sexual orientation, gender expression, and ethnic identity. Culturally competent communications are recommended to address health disparities, with sociocultural relevance ensured through constituent dialogic processes. Results are presented from six provider focus groups conducted to inform the promotion/education component of a Hawai'i-based project on anal cancer screening tools. Krueger's focus group methodology guided discussion queries. Verbatim transcripts of digitally recorded discussions were analyzed using grounded theory and PEN-3 procedures. Adherence to an audit trail ensured analytic rigor. Grounded theory analysis detected the overall theme of risk and reluctance to anal cancer screening, characterized by anal cancer not being "on the radar" of PLHIV, conflicting attributions of the anus and anal sex, fear of sex-shaming/-blaming, and other interrelated conceptual categories. PEN-3 analysis revealed strategies for destigmatizing anal cancer, through "real talk" (proactive, candid, nonjudgmental discussion) nested in a framework of sexual health and overall well-being, with additional tailoring for relevance to Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, transgender persons, and other marginalized groups. Application of strategies for health practice are specific to the Hawai'i context, yet may offer considerations for developing strengths-based, culturally relevant screening promotion/education with diverse PLHIV in other locales. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  2. Addressing Risk and Reluctance at the Nexus of HIV and Anal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka‘opua, Lana Sue I.; Cassel, Kevin; Shiramizu, Bruce; Stotzer, Rebecca L.; Robles, Andrew; Kapua, Cathy; Orton, Malulani; Milne, Cris; Sesepasara, Maddalynn

    2015-01-01

    Anal cancer disproportionately burdens persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) regardless of natal sex, sexual orientation, gender expression, and ethnic identity. Culturally competent communications are recommended to address health disparities, with sociocultural relevance ensured through constituent dialogic processes. Results are presented from six provider focus groups conducted to inform the promotion/education component of a Hawai‘i-based project on anal cancer screening tools. Krueger’s focus group methodology guided discussion queries. Verbatim transcripts of digitally recorded discussions were analyzed using grounded theory and PEN-3 procedures. Adherence to an audit trail ensured analytic rigor. Grounded theory analysis detected the overall theme of risk and reluctance to anal cancer screening, characterized by anal cancer not being “on the radar” of PLHIV, conflicting attributions of the anus and anal sex, fear of sex-shaming/-blaming, and other interrelated conceptual categories. PEN-3 analysis revealed strategies for destigmatizing anal cancer, through “real talk” (proactive, candid, nonjudgmental discussion) nested in a framework of sexual health and overall well-being, with additional tailoring for relevance to Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, transgender persons, and other marginalized groups. Application of strategies for health practice are specific to the Hawai‘i context, yet may offer considerations for developing strengths-based, culturally relevant screening promotion/education with diverse PLHIV in other locales. PMID:26630979

  3. Significance of the thickness of the anal sphincters with age and its relevance in faecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachrysostomou, M; Pye, S D; Wild, S R; Smith, A N

    1994-08-01

    Ultrasonographic studies in healthy volunteers showed that the external anal sphincter (EAS) and internal anal sphincter (IAS) thicknesses were inversely related at rest. The functional importance of the two sphincters in continence control was demonstrated in the relationship between the sum of the thicknesses of the two sphincters and the anal canal resting pressure. The aims of the present study were to assess the morphometric appearance of the anal sphincters by endosonography in faecally incontinent patients and to contrast this with that of older healthy subjects. Twenty-eight female patients with neurogenic faecal incontinence (FI) were studied. An older group of 7 healthy women, aged 41-75 years, and a young group of 11 nulliparous healthy women, aged 20-23 years, served as control groups. Anal endosonography was performed with a radial rotating endoprobe, with the subject in the left lateral position. Conventional anal manometry was performed in all subjects. The EAS in the FI group was thicker than the EAS in the old (p IAS thickness in the FI group did not differ from that in the older group. In both these groups the IAS was thicker than in the young women (p IAS in the FI group does not seem to compensate for function and results in a failure of the sphincter mechanism to maintain continence, whereas in healthy elderly subjects the increased IAS thickness appears to be compensatory and important for continence control.

  4. UNA NUEVA ESPECIE DE PEZ DEL GÉNERO HEMIBRYCON (CHARACIFORMES: CHARACIDAE DEL ALTO RÍO ATRATO, NOROCCIDENTE DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMÁN-VALENCIA CÉSAR

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie de Hemibrycon para la cuenca alta del río Atrato,al noroccidente de Colombia. La especie se distingue de sus congéneres por supequeño tamaño (de las órbitas y la parte ventral de la mandíbula superior planos, las mandíbulas noson iguales: la mandíbula superior sobresale con relación a la inferior, aleta pélvicalarga y su extremo alcanza el origen de la aleta anal, bajo número de vértebras yde radios ramifi cados en la aleta anal. Se incluyen datos ecológicos propios delambiente acuático del nuevo taxón y una clave para las especies de Hemibrycon deColombia.

  5. The anal canal as a risk organ in cervical cancer patients with hemorrhoids undergoing whole pelvic radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyunsoo; Baek, Jong Geun; Jo, Sunmi

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance of the anal canal tends to be ignored in patients with cervical cancer undergoing whole pelvic radiotherapy. However, patients with hemorrhoids may be troubled with low radiation dose. We tried to analyze the dose-volume statistics of the anal canal in patients undergoing whole pelvic radiotherapy. The records of 31 patients with cervical cancer who received definite or postoperative radiotherapy at one institution were reviewed. Acute anal symptoms, such as anal pain and bleeding, were evaluated from radiotherapy start to 1 month after radiotherapy completion. Various clinical and dosimetric factors were analyzed to characterize relations with acute anal complications. The anal verge was located an average of 1.2 cm (range -0.6~3.9) below the lower border of the ischial tuberosity and an average of 2.7 cm (range -0.6~5.7) behind the sacral promontory level. The presence of hemorrhoids before radiotherapy was found to be significantly associated with acute radiation-induced anal symptoms (p = 0.001), and the mean induction dose for anal symptoms was 36.9 Gy. No patient without hemorrhoids developed an anal symptom during radiotherapy. Dosimetric analyses of V30 and V40 showed marginal correlations with anal symptoms (p = 0.07). The present study suggests a relation between acute anal symptoms following radiotherapy and acute hemorrhoid aggravation. Furthermore, the location of the anal verge was found to be variable, and consequently doses administered to the anal canal also varied substantially. Our results caution careful radiation treatment planning for whole pelvic radiotherapy, and that proper clinical management be afforded patients with hemorrhoids during radiotherapy.

  6. Oral and anal sex practices among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie Amsale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the full range of sexual behaviors of young people is crucial in developing appropriate interventions to prevent and control sexually transmitted infections including HIV. However, such information is meager in developing countries. The objective of this study was to describe oral and anal sex practices and identify associated factors among high school youth. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A multi-stage sampling procedure was followed to select a representative sample of school youth. The total sample size for this study was 3840. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis was guided by the ecological framework. Results The overall proportion of people who reported ever having oral sex was 5.4% (190 and that of anal sex was 4.3% (154. Of these 51.6% (98 had oral sex and 57.1% (87 had anal sex in the past 12 months. Multiple partnerships were reported by 61.2% of the respondents who had oral sex and 51.1% of students practicing anal sex. Consistent condom use was reported by 12.2% of those practicing oral sex and 26.1% of anal sex. Reasons for oral and anal sex included prevention of pregnancy, preserving virginity, and reduction of HIV and STIs transmission. Oral sex practice was strongly and significantly associated with perception of best friends engagement in oral sex (AOR = 5.7; 95% CI 3.6-11.2 and having illiterate mothers (AOR = 11.5; 95%CI 6.4-18.5. Similarly, anal sex practice was strongly and significantly associated with favorable attitude towards anal sex (AOR = 6.2; 95%CI 3.8-12.4, and perceived best friends engagement in anal sex (AOR = 9.7; 95%CI 5.4-17.7. Conclusion Considerable proportion of adolescents had engaged in oral and anal sex practices. Multiple sexual partnerships were common while consistent condom use was low. Sexual health education and behavior change communication strategies need to

  7. Propiedades prooxidantes del camu camu (Myrciaria dubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Guija

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el efecto del ion férrico sobre las propiedades prooxidantes del camu camu (Myrciaria dubia. Diseño: Estudio analítico, experimental, prospectivo y longitudinal. Materiales y Métodos: Se ha evaluado las propiedades prooxidantes del camu camu (Myrciaria dubia, fruto caracterizado por tener un elevado contenido de vitamina C, frente a Fe(III, etilendiamino tetraacético (EDTA, tiourea y manitol. Resultados: El camu camu en presencia de Fe-III en tampón fosfato a pH 7,4 incrementó notablemente la generación de radicales libres a través de una cinética de saturación, efecto que fue dependiente de la concentración del metal. La presencia de tiourea o manitol, compuestos de conocida acción antioxidante, inhibieron la formación de radicales libres, en cambio el EDTA lo incrementó. Conclusión: El camu camu incrementa la generación de radicales libres en presencia de Fe(III y EDTA.

  8. del alcoholismo

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    Rodrigo Arias Duque

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el punto de vista farmacológico, es importante comprender qué es el alcohol y cómo actúa en el organismo. No existe una causa simple, sino una interacción complicada de factores neuroquímicos, fisiológicos, psicológicos y sociales que originan y desarrollan esta grave enfermedad fármaco-dependiente. La acción psicofisiológica y farmacodinámica del alcohol es fundamentalmente depresiva, por la reducción de la transmisión sináptica en el sistema nervioso humano. Es un hecho conocido que el consumo excesivo de alcohol causa una disfunción aguda y crónica del cerebro, produciendo trastornos en el sistema nervioso central, presentando alteraciones en la memoria y en las funciones intelectuales como cálculo, comprensión y aprendizaje. A nivel hepático tiene lugar, en su mayoría, el metabolismo del alcohol, produciéndose un hígado graso alcohólico, aumentando el tamaño, terminando en necrosis e inflamación grave del hígado; esto se llama hepatitis alcohólica, y si se sigue consumiendo alcohol se desarrollará la cirrosis. El alcohol también ha estado relacionado con alteraciones del miocardio; se ha constatado en animales de experimentación sanos que tanto la velocidad de contracción del músculo cardiaco y su máxima tensión disminuyen en presencia del alcohol, como consecuencia, la fuerza de cada contracción y el aumento de presión en el ventrículo izquierdo son menores, perdiendo eficacia el corazón como bomba.

  9. Comportamiento del riesgo preconcepcional

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    Jesús L Regueira Naranjo

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio analítico de casos y controles 1 x 1 sobre el comportamiento del riesgo preconcepcional en 35 consultorios, pertenecientes al Policlínico Comunitario Docente "Tula Aguilera", del Municipio Camagüey. El grupo estudio estuvo constituido por las mujeres con riesgo preconcepcional que concibieron un embarazo y fueron captadas en el período desde el 1ro. de enero al 30 de junio de 1994. El grupo control se constituyó con mujeres sin antecedentes de riesgo preconcepcional y que fueron captadas en igual período y la misma área de salud. Los resultados más notables fueron: como riesgo biológico la desnutrición materna III-IV con el 36,76 %, la anemia con el 48,52 %, la sepsis urinaria con el 25 % y la vaginal con 22,79 %. Se demostró la hipótesis de que los niños nacidos de madres con riesgo preconcepcional y obstétrico están expuestos a tener una mayor morbilidad y mortalidad perinatal que los recién nacidos de madres sin riesgo con un embarazo normalAn analytical 1-1 case-control study on the preconceptional risk behaviour in 35 physicians'offices from «Tula Aguilera» community teaching polyclinic located in Camagüey municipality was performed. The group was made up of women with preconceptional risk who got pregnant and were followed-up from January 1st to June 30th, 1994. The control group was formed by women without preconceptional risk history and who were followed-up in the same period of time and in the same health area. The most out-standing results as to biological risks were: maternal malnutrition III-IV, 36.76 %; anemia, 48.52 %; urinary tract infection; 25 % , and vaginal infection, 22.79 %. The hypotesis that infants born from mothers with preconceptional and obstetric risks are exposed to higher perinatal mortality and morbility risks than those from riskless mothers with a normal pregnancy was proved

  10. Correlates of unprotected anal intercourse: the influence of anal sex position among men who have sex with men in Beijing, china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Lu, Hongyan; Pan, Stephen W; Xia, Dongyan; Zhao, Yuejuan; Xiao, Yan; He, Xiong; Yue, Hai; Sun, Zheya; Xu, Yunan; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming

    2015-02-01

    Understanding barriers to consistent condom use among men who have sex with men (MSM) requires consideration of the context in which risk behaviors occur. Anal sex position is one such context. This pooled cross-sectional study used survey data from 1,230 MSM and their 2,618 reported male sexual partnerships. Overall, nearly half of the participants engaged in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with at least one of upto three partners in the past 6 months. "Insertive" men engaged in less UAI (39 %) than "receptive" (53 %) or "versatile" (51 %) men. Regardless of sexual position, UAI was associated with cohabiting with a male or female partner and perceiving great or moderate risk of HIV from male contact at the individual level, and steady (vs. casual) partnership at the dyad level. However, early MSM anal sex debut, high number of male partners, alcohol use, receiving and buying condoms, HIV testing, and MSM sex-seeking venues were found to be only statistically significantly correlated with UAI among some but not all sexual positions, implying that interventions to increase condom use should take into account how anal sex position may influence willingness and ability to engage in safer sex. Dyad level data appear to provide additional insight into the influence of sexual positions, and should be used to complement individual data for future intervention designs.

  11. Adenocarcinoma in the anal canal after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for familial adenomatous polyposis using a double-stapled technique: report of two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouenraets, Bart C.; van Duijvendijk, Peter; Bemelman, Willem A.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Slors, J. Frederik M.

    2004-01-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is thought to abolish the risk of colorectal adenoma development in patients suffering from familial adenomatous polyposis. Both after mucosectomy with a handsewn anastomosis and after a double-stapled anastomosis, rectal mucosa is

  12. Comparison of elective inguinal node irradiation techniques in anal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Ji Hye; Seong, Jin Sil; Keum, Ki Chang; Lee, Chang Geol; Koom, Woong Sub [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    To compare photon thunderbird with deep match (technique 1) with 3-field technique with electron inguinal boost (technique 2) in acute skin toxicity, toxicity-related treatment breaks and patterns of failure in elective inguinal radiation therapy (RT) for curative chemoradiation in anal cancer. Seventeen patients treated between January 2008 and September 2010 without evidence of inguinal and distant metastasis were retrospectively reviewed. In 9 patients with technique 1, dose to inguinal and whole pelvis area was 41.4 to 45 Gy and total dose was 59.4 Gy. In 8 patients with technique 2, doses to inguinal, whole pelvis, gross tumor were 36 to 41.4 Gy, 36 to 41.4 Gy, and 45 to 54 Gy, respectively. The median follow-up period was 27.6 and 14.8 months in group technique 1 and 2, respectively. The incidences of grade 3 radiation dermatitis were 56% (5 patients) and 50% (4 patients), dose ranges grade 3 dermatitis appeared were 41.4 to 50.4 Gy and 45 to 54 Gy in group technique 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.819). The areas affected by grade 3 dermatitis in 2 groups were as follow: perianal and perineal areas in 40% and 25%, perianal and inguinal areas in 0% and 50%, and perianal area only in 60% and 25%, respectively (p = 0.196). No inguinal failure has been observed. Photon thunderbird with deep match technique and 3-field technique with electron inguinal boost showed similar incidence of radiation dermatitis. However, photon thunderbird with deep match seems to increase the possibility of severe perineal dermatitis.

  13. The Results of Curative Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Anal Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Uk; Yoon, Mee Sun; Song, Ju Young; Ahn, Sung Ja; Chung, Woong Ki; Nah, Byung Sik; Nam, Taek Keun [Chonnam National University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    To evaluate the predictive factors for treatment response and prognostic factors affecting survival outcomes after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma. Medical records of forty two patients with histologically confirmed analsquamous cell carcinoma, who had complete CCRT between 1993 and 2008, were reviewed retrospectively. Median age was 61.5 years (39-89 years), and median radiotherapy (RT) dose was 50.4 Gy (30.0-64.0 Gy). A total of 36 patients had equal to or less than T2 stage (85.7%). Fourteen patients (33.3%) showed regional nodal metastasis, 36 patients (85.7%) were treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) plus mitomycin, and the remaining patients were treated by 5-FU plus cisplatinum. The median follow--up time was 62 months (2-202 months).The 5-year overall survival, locoregional relapse-free survival, disease-free survival, and colostomy-free survival rates were 86.0%, 71.7%, 71.7%, 78.2%, respectively. Regarding overall survival, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status and complete response were found to be significant prognostic factors on univariate analysis. For multivariate analysis, only the ECOG performance status was significant. No significant factor was found for locoregional relapse-free survival or disease-free survival and similarly for treatment response, no significant factor was determined on logistic regression analysis. There were 7 patients who had local or regional recurrences and one patient with distant metastasis. The only evaluable toxicity in all patients was radiation dermatitis of perianal skin (grade 3), which developed in 4 patients (9.5%) and grade 2 in 22 patients (52.4%). This study revealed that patients with a performance score of ECOG 0-1 survived significantly longer than those with a poorer score. Finally, there was no significant predicting factors tested for treatment response.

  14. IMRT treatment of anal cancer with a scrotal shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, Rodney C.; Wu, Q. Jackie; McMahon, Ryan; Czito, Brian; Willett, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The risk of sterility in males undergoing radiotherapy in the pelvic region indicates the use of a shielding device, which offers protection to the testes for patients wishing to maintain fertility. The use of such devices in the realm of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the pelvic region can pose many obstacles during simulation, treatment planning, and delivery of radiotherapy. This work focuses on the development and execution of an IMRT plan for the treatment of anal cancer using a scrotal shielding device on a clinical patient. An IMRT plan was developed using Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA), using a wide array of gantry angles as well as fixed jaw and fluence editing techniques. When possible, the entire target volume was encompassed by the treatment field. When the beam was incident on the scrotal shield, the jaw was fixed to avoid the device and the collimator rotation optimized to irradiate as much of the target as possible. This technique maximizes genital sparing and allows minimal irradiation of the gonads. When this fixed-jaw technique was found to compromise adequate coverage of the target, manual fluence editing techniques were used to avoid the shielding device. Special procedures for simulation, imaging, and treatment verification were also developed. In vivo dosimetry was used to verify and ensure acceptable dose to the gonads. The combination of these techniques resulted in a highly conformal plan that spares organs and risk and avoids the genitals as well as entrance of primary radiation onto the shielding device.

  15. IMRT treatment of anal cancer with a scrotal shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Rodney C; Wu, Q Jackie; McMahon, Ryan; Czito, Brian; Willett, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The risk of sterility in males undergoing radiotherapy in the pelvic region indicates the use of a shielding device, which offers protection to the testes for patients wishing to maintain fertility. The use of such devices in the realm of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the pelvic region can pose many obstacles during simulation, treatment planning, and delivery of radiotherapy. This work focuses on the development and execution of an IMRT plan for the treatment of anal cancer using a scrotal shielding device on a clinical patient. An IMRT plan was developed using Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA), using a wide array of gantry angles as well as fixed jaw and fluence editing techniques. When possible, the entire target volume was encompassed by the treatment field. When the beam was incident on the scrotal shield, the jaw was fixed to avoid the device and the collimator rotation optimized to irradiate as much of the target as possible. This technique maximizes genital sparing and allows minimal irradiation of the gonads. When this fixed-jaw technique was found to compromise adequate coverage of the target, manual fluence editing techniques were used to avoid the shielding device. Special procedures for simulation, imaging, and treatment verification were also developed. In vivo dosimetry was used to verify and ensure acceptable dose to the gonads. The combination of these techniques resulted in a highly conformal plan that spares organs and risk and avoids the genitals as well as entrance of primary radiation onto the shielding device. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of elective inguinal node irradiation techniques in anal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Ji Hye; Seong, Jin Sil; Keum, Ki Chang; Lee, Chang Geol; Koom, Woong Sub

    2011-01-01

    To compare photon thunderbird with deep match (technique 1) with 3-field technique with electron inguinal boost (technique 2) in acute skin toxicity, toxicity-related treatment breaks and patterns of failure in elective inguinal radiation therapy (RT) for curative chemoradiation in anal cancer. Seventeen patients treated between January 2008 and September 2010 without evidence of inguinal and distant metastasis were retrospectively reviewed. In 9 patients with technique 1, dose to inguinal and whole pelvis area was 41.4 to 45 Gy and total dose was 59.4 Gy. In 8 patients with technique 2, doses to inguinal, whole pelvis, gross tumor were 36 to 41.4 Gy, 36 to 41.4 Gy, and 45 to 54 Gy, respectively. The median follow-up period was 27.6 and 14.8 months in group technique 1 and 2, respectively. The incidences of grade 3 radiation dermatitis were 56% (5 patients) and 50% (4 patients), dose ranges grade 3 dermatitis appeared were 41.4 to 50.4 Gy and 45 to 54 Gy in group technique 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.819). The areas affected by grade 3 dermatitis in 2 groups were as follow: perianal and perineal areas in 40% and 25%, perianal and inguinal areas in 0% and 50%, and perianal area only in 60% and 25%, respectively (p = 0.196). No inguinal failure has been observed. Photon thunderbird with deep match technique and 3-field technique with electron inguinal boost showed similar incidence of radiation dermatitis. However, photon thunderbird with deep match seems to increase the possibility of severe perineal dermatitis.

  17. Urinary and anal incontinence during pregnancy and postpartum: incidence, severity, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solans-Domènech, Maite; Sánchez, Emília; Espuña-Pons, Montserrat

    2010-03-01

    To estimate frequency and severity and to identify risk factors of urinary incontinence (UI) and anal incontinence during pregnancy and after delivery in previously continent nulliparous women. We designed a cohort study of healthy, continent, nulliparous pregnant women attending public health care services. The field work was conducted during the control visits of the three trimesters of pregnancy, at the time of delivery, and postpartum. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess UI (validated and adapted) and anal incontinence. Frequency of UI and anal incontinence and their confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. The correlations between the severity of UI and the degree of effect on daily life were also estimated. Multivariable Cox models were applied to estimate hazard ratios for both incontinences (urinary/anal) during pregnancy and postpartum. The cumulative incidence rate during pregnancy was 39.1% (95% CI 36.3-41.9) for UI and 10.3% (95% CI 8.3-12.3) for anal incontinence. The correlation between severity of UI and effect on daily life was moderate. Age, baseline body mass index, and family history of UI were significantly associated with the occurrence of UI during pregnancy, while age and excess weight gain during pregnancy were associated with the occurrence of anal incontinence during pregnancy. Postpartum, the identified risk factors for both incontinences were incontinence during pregnancy and vaginal delivery. The occurrence of UI and anal incontinence during the postpartum period is related to the presence of incontinence in pregnancy, and vaginal delivery increases the risk of persistent incontinence. Some risk factors for both incontinences during pregnancy and postpartum are related to lifestyles and obstetric practices.

  18. Initial prevalence of anal human papilloma virus infection in liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grąt, Michał; Grąt, Karolina; Hołówko, Wacław; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Walter de Walthoffen, Szymon; Lewandowski, Zbigniew; Kobryń, Konrad; Patkowski, Waldemar; Majewski, Sławomir; Młynarczyk, Grażyna; Krawczyk, Marek

    2014-08-01

    Although liver transplant recipients are at increased risk of human papilloma virus (HPV)-related anal cancer, limited data are available regarding the initial prevalence of anal HPV infection in this population. Anal swabs collected from 50 liver transplant recipients within the first three postoperative weeks were subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of the four HPV genotypes: 6, 11, 16, and 18. Predictors of any, low-risk, and high-risk anal HPV infection were evaluated. Overall, the prevalence of any anal HPV infection was 18.0%, with the corresponding rates for high- and low-risk HPV genotypes being 8.0% and 10.0%, respectively. Infection with any type of anal HPV was higher in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (P = 0.027), ≥3 sexual partners (P = 0.031), and alcoholic liver disease (P = 0.063). HBV infection was the only factor significantly associated with high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.038). Male sex (P = 0.050), age ≥52 years (P = 0.016), ≥30 sexual partners (P = 0.003), age at first intercourse ≤18 years (P = 0.045), and time since first intercourse ≥38 years (P = 0.012) were identified as predictors of low-risk HPV infection. These results indicate that HPV vaccination of liver transplant candidates and screening for anal HPV infection in high-risk groups should be considered. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.

  19. Tumor Response and Survival Predicted by Post-Therapy FDG-PET/CT in Anal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Julie K.; Siegel, Barry A.; Dehdashti, Farrokh; Myerson, Robert J.; Fleshman, James W.; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the response to therapy for anal carcinoma using post-therapy imaging with positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and to compare the metabolic response with patient outcome. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of 53 consecutive patients with anal cancer. All patients underwent pre- and post-treatment whole-body FDG-PET/computed tomography. Patients had been treated with external beam radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy. Whole-body FDG-PET was performed 0.9-5.4 months (mean, 2.1) after therapy completion. Results: The post-therapy PET scan did not show any abnormal FDG uptake (complete metabolic response) in 44 patients. Persistent abnormal FDG uptake (partial metabolic response) was found in the anal tumor in 9 patients. The 2-year cause-specific survival rate was 94% for patients with a complete vs. 39% for patients with a partial metabolic response in the anal tumor (p = 0.0008). The 2-year progression-free survival rate was 95% for patients with a complete vs. 22% for patients with a partial metabolic response in the anal tumor (p < 0.0001). A Cox proportional hazards model of survival outcome indicated that a complete metabolic response was the most significant predictor of progression-free survival in our patient population (p = 0.0003). Conclusions: A partial metabolic response in the anal tumor as determined by post-therapy FDG-PET is predictive of significantly decreased progression-free and cause-specific survival after chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer

  20. Frequency of post-operative faecal incontinence in patients with closed and open internal anal sphincterotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghayas, N.G.; Younus, S.M.; Mirani, A.J.; Ghayasuddin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Fissure in ano is one of the commonest benign and painful proctologic diseases causing considerable morbidity and reduction in quality of life. There are medical as well as surgical treatment options for anal fissure. The study was conducted to compare the frequency of postoperative faecal incontinence in patients with closed lateral internal anal sphincterotomy with von-greaves knife versus standard Parks operation (open method) for chronic anal fissure. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted at the Department of Surgery, KVSS, S.I.T.E. Hospital, Karachi, for a period of six months from 13th February to 12th August 2011. Ninety four consecutive patients having chronic anal fissure were assigned through blocked randomization to groups A and B, with 47 patients in each group. Closed lateral internal anal sphincterotomy (CLIAS) via von-greaves knife was carried out in patients of group-A whereas patients of group-B were subjected to open internal anal sphincterotomy (OIAS) also known as Parks procedure. Faecal incontinence was noted on the 5th post-operative day. Data was analysed using SPSS 16. Results: There were 81 (86.2%) males and 13 (13.8%) females with male to female ratio being 6:1. Mean age was 38.38 mp±14.56 years. Post-operative faecal incontinence in patients undergoing CLIAS was 4.3% while it was 21.3% in those undergoing OIAS with a p-value of 0.027. CLIAS with von-greaves knife is effective in reducing faecal incontinence on 5th postoperative day as compared to standard OIAS. Conclusion: CLIAS with von-greaves knife is effective in reducing faecal incontinence on 5th postoperative day as compared to OIAS (Park's procedure). Therefore, this technique may be used in future regularly to treat chronic anal fissure for prevention of this morbidity. (author)

  1. Construcción y caracterización de un nuevo nebulizador múltiple para técnicas analíticas basadas en plasma (ICP-OES, ICP-MS y MP-AES).

    OpenAIRE

    Lúñez Fernández, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    En la siguiente memoria, se presenta la metodología para la construcción de un nuevo nebulizador múltiple, resultado de una serie de nebulizadores anteriores, los cuales se han ido mejorando para optimizar las características del aerosol generado y con ello los parámetros analíticos de calidad en la espectrometría de emisión atómica con plasma de microondas (MP-AES) y espectrometría de emisión óptica con plasma de acoplamiento inductivo (ICP-OES). Este nuevo nebulizador multiconducto presenta...

  2. Estudio analítico de MTA-Angelus® y Biodentine® con técnicas SPME-GCMS y AFM

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Flores García, Víctor; Martínez Pérez, Lucía; Escribano Otero, Amparo; Kayali Sayadi, Nour

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: El objetivo del estudio fue obtener información analítica sobre la pureza química y homogeneidad de los materiales de uso endodóntico MTA-Angelus® y Biodentine®. Material y métodos: Se analizaron ambos materiales mediante la técnica de microextracción en fase sólida (SPME), combinada con cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrómetro de masas (GC-MS) para separar e identificar los compuestos orgánicos volátiles (COVs) contenidos. Por otro lado, utilizando microscopía de f...

  3. La influencia de las explicaciones de la dirección en la evaluación de los procedimientos analíticos de auditoría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Quick

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación de procedimientos analíticos está basada en la expectativa de que existan relaciones entre los datos contenidos en los estados contables, y proporcionan evidencia de auditoría sobre la validez, precisión e integridad de la información contable. Los auditores generan valores esperados y los comparan con los contenidos en los estados financieros. Cuando se producen discrepancias, el auditor debe generar hipótesis sobre las posibles causas, evaluarlas y elegir la más plausible. Los estándares de auditoría requieren que los auditores consulten a la dirección para encontrar explicaciones que justifiquen fluctuaciones inesperadas. Investigaciones empíricas anteriores revelan que las explicaciones de la dirección influyen en la generación de hipótesis y en los procedimientos analíticos. Este estudio experimental, basado en una fluctuación inesperada del margen bruto, es el primero alemán que investiga el efecto de las explicaciones de la dirección en las etapas de formación de hipótesis, búsqueda de información y juicios finales respecto a los procedimientos analíticos.

  4. Valoración de las aguas residuales mediante procedimientos analíticos y biológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carballo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Ciertos procedimientos, basados en aproximaciones analíticas y biológicas, están demostrando ser útiles en la valoración del riesgo de las aguas residuales urbanas procedentes de las Plantas de Tratamiento. Estos efluentes, considerados “mezclas complejas”, compuestos por sustancias de muy diferente naturaleza, origen y características toxicológicas y medio ambientales, requieren una valoración realista. Con el fin de colaborar al conocimiento de una parte de la realidad de nuestro país, presentamos un estudio sobre once depuradoras urbanas en las que se ha realizado un perfil de compuestos orgánicos y una valoración toxicológica mediante tests de toxicidad agudos, crónicos, de estrogenicidad, mutagenicidad y teratogenia. Los resultados muestran que 7 efluentes presentan toxicidad aguda, 3 toxicidad crónica y 4 estrogenicidad. Destacamos el hecho de que los 4 efluentes que presentan estrogenicidad, poseen al menos 3 de las sustancias estrogénicas detectadas mediante el perfil cromatográfico. Este tipo de consideraciones nos hace reflexionar sobre la necesidad de incorporar este tipo de metodologías para disponer de un conocimiento más realista de estas situaciones.

  5. La Hispania antigua y medieval a través del vidrio: la aportación de la arqueometría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de Juan Ares

    2017-09-01

    El creciente volumen de datos analíticos demuestra el potencial de la arqueometría para profundizar en el conocimiento sobre la producción y comercialización del vidrio en la Península Ibérica en particular, y la economía antigua y medieval en general.

  6. Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection among HIV-Infected Men in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hun Lee

    Full Text Available Little is known about the epidemiology on human papillomavirus (HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea.A single-center cross-sectional study was conducted with HIV-infected men in Korea. Participants completed a detailed sexual behavior risk factor questionnaire. Anal samples were collected for cytology and HPV genotyping. Factors associated with anal HPV infection were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, stratifying by sexual behaviour.A total of 201 HIV-infected men were included in the study: 133 were from men who have sex with men (MSM and 68 from men who have sex with women (MSW. Any anal HPV infection was detected in 82.7% of HIV-infected MSM and in 51.5% of HIV- infected MSW (P < 0.001. High-risk HPV (HR-HPV prevalence was higher among MSM (47.4% than MSW (25.0%; P = 0.002. The HR-HPV types identified most frequently were HPV 16 (11%, HPV 18 (9.9%, and HPV 58 (5% in MSM, and HPV 58(11% and HPV 16 (8.9% in MSW. Prevalence of any HPV types in 9-valent vaccine types was higher among MSM than MSW (47.4% vs 22.1%. P = 0.001. Abnormal anal cytology was more commonly detected in MSM than MSW (42.9% vs.19.1%, P < 0.001. In HIV-infected MSM, higher number of lifetime male sex partners was significantly associated with any anal HPV infection, but age was a significant risk factor associated with anal HR-HPV infection.Anal HPV infection was highly prevalent in HIV-infected MSM in Korea, and also commonly found in HIV-infected MSW. In HIV-infected MSM, the significant risk factor for being infected with any HPV infection was lifetime number of male sexual partners, and with anal oncogenic HPV infection was age.

  7. Samatähenduslike sünteetiliste ja analüütiliste verbide kasutamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pille Eslon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Huvi samatähenduslike sünteetiliste ja analüütiliste verbide vastu tekkis artikli esimesel autoril vene-eesti-vene tõlkesõnastikke toimetades, kui silma hakkasid regulaarsed valikud vene verbi grammatilise aspekti ning eesti keele sünteetiliste ja analüütiliste verbide vahel. Kuigi tegu on raskesti märgatava ja sugugi mitte sagedase nähtusega, tekitab see küsimusi: millal eelistab emakeelekõneleja kasutada sünteetilist, millal analüütilist verbi; kas lisaks samatähenduslikkusele ja vormilisele lihtsusele (sünteetiline verb koosneb ühest komponendist või keerukusele (analüütiline verb vähemalt kahest komponendist on veel tunnuseid, mis sünteetilise ja analüütilise verbi valikuid piiravad. Käesoleva uurimuse eesmärk on leida nendele küsimustele vastuseid. Analüüsitakse viit samatähendusliku sünteetilise ja analüütilise verbi paari (igatsema – igatsust tundma, lahkuma – ära minema, nõustuma – nõus olema, muretsema – muret tundma, töötama – tööd tegema, otsitakse mõlema verbi kasutusele omaseid keelestruktuure, analüüsitakse nende leksikaalsemantilise ja morfosüntaktilise varieerumise piire, võrreldakse verbide tähendusi. Nende tunnuste põhjal saab teha mõningaid järeldusi selle kohta, kas tegu võiks olla ühe verbi kahe vormiga või kahe erineva verbiga. Uurimuse empiiriline aspekt on seotud hüpoteesiga semantiliselt lähedaste sünteetiliste ja analüütiliste verbide tõmbumisest, millega kaasnevad ühelt poolt struktuursed, morfoloogilised, morfosüntaktilised ja leksikaalsemantilised kasutuspiirangud ning teisalt vaba varieerumine. Sisuliselt vastandlikud tendentsid – kinnistumine ja varieerumine – toimivad keele leksikaalgrammatilises perifeerias sama eesmärgi nimel, tagades keele pideva uuenemise ja säilimise.

  8. Uso del Smartphone y de Facebook asociado a la autopercepción del rendimiento académico en estudiantes de Medicina peruanos

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Christian R; Flores, Salder D; Verastegui-Díaz, Araseli; García-Moreno, Katerine M; Vargas, Mariela; Cárdenas, Matlin M; Quiñones-Laveriano, Dante M

    2017-01-01

    El estudio tuvo el objetivo de determinar la asociación entre el uso del Smartphone y de Facebook con la autopercepción del rendimiento académico en estudiantes de una Facultad de Medicina Humana en la serranía peruana. Se realizó un estudio transversal analítico prospectivo. Se trabajó con estudiantes de Medicina de la Universidad Contiental en Huancayo-Perú y se usó una encuesta para medir el uso de Smartphone (teléfonos inteligentes), Facebook, así como la percepción de si estos mejoraban ...

  9. Culturas del Mundo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benwell, Ann Fenger; Costa, Alberto; Waehle, Espen

    2006-01-01

    ’Culturas del mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca’ with Ann Fenger Benwell in Culturas del Mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca, ed. Silvia Sauquet, Fundación "la Caixa", Barcelona 2006, pp. 31-39......’Culturas del mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca’ with Ann Fenger Benwell in Culturas del Mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca, ed. Silvia Sauquet, Fundación "la Caixa", Barcelona 2006, pp. 31-39...

  10. UNA DÉCADA DE INVESTIGACIONES EN ANALES DE DOCUMENTACIÓN (1998-2007: APROXIMACIÓN BIBLIOMÉTRICA Y TEMÁTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio González Alcaide

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un análisis bibliométrico y temático de la revista Anales de Documentación (AD con motivo del cumplimiento de su décimo aniversario (1998-2007. Se analiza la productividad, colaboración, ámbitos de investigación aborda-dos, visibilidad e impacto de la publicación. AD ha publicado 153 trabajos de investigación, en los que han intervenido 176 autores de 56 instituciones diferentes. AD presenta una paridad entre hombres y mujeres, habiendo participado en la revista instituciones de 12 países diferentes. Los principales temas abordados son Internet y las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación, la Biblioteconomía, la gestión de la información y del conocimiento, la evaluación de la calidad de los servicios, las fuentes de información y el acceso a las mismas y las publicaciones científicas. AD ha recibido 54 citas de 64 autores diferentes, con un 30,7% de trabajos que han sido citados al menos una vez, lo que ha permitido que la revista ocupe una destacada posición en el ranking de publicaciones españolas del área de la Biblioteconomía y Documentación.

  11. Primena cost-benefit-benefit analize u vrednovanju i izboru javnih projekata (ekonomski aspekt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana N. Petrović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cost-benefit analiza je celovita analiza koristi i troškova koje jedan projekat donosi samom vlasniku projekta i društvu u celini (uključujući i investitora. Izbor najbolje investicione alternative ostvaruje na osnovu finansijske i ekonomske analize, kao dva integralna dela cost-benefit analize. Prvu od ovih analiza obradila je ista grupa autora u članku „Primena cost-benefit analize u vrednovanju i izboru javnih projekata (finansijski aspekt“, objavljenom u prethodnom broju časopisa Vojnotehnički glasnik. Predmet obrade ovog rada je ekonomska analiza, kao logički nastavak prethodnog rada. Zbog toga se na brojne oznake tabela, uključenih u sadržaj finansijske analize (1-–5, nadovezuju (prema hronološkom redu oznake tabela koje pripadaju ekonomskoj analizi (6–8 Sprovođenje ekonomske analize ostvaruje se prema određenoj, dosta složenoj proceduri, a završava se utvrđivanjem kriterijuma ekonomske (društvene isplativosti projekta. U radu su obrađeni osnovni pokazatelji ekonomskog (društvenog prinosa projekta,  kao što su: neto sadašnja vrednost novčanih tokova i cost-benefit koeficijent.

  12. Multidisciplinary training in perineal care during labor and delivery for the reduction of anal sphincter injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jonathan; Gundry, Rowan; Young, Helen; Naguib, Adel

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether the introduction of a multidisciplinary intrapartum perineal-care training program reduced the rate of obstetric anal sphincter injuries in patients undergoing vaginal deliveries. A prospective observational cohort study enrolled women undergoing vaginal deliveries at a district general hospital maternity unit in the United Kingdom between April 1, 2012 and March 31, 2014. All women experiencing obstetric anal sphincter injuries during the study period were identified and the rate of obstetric anal sphincter injuries before (2012-2013) a multidisciplinary training program was implemented was compared with the rate after (2013-2014) implementation using logistic regression analysis. The study enrolled 4920 patients. Following the implementation of the training program, the rate of obstetric anal sphincter injuries decreased from 4.8% to 3.1% of vaginal deliveries (odds ratio 0.66; 95% confidence interval 0.493-0.899; P = 0.008). The integration of intrapartum perineal-care training into mandatory annual staff training was associated with a statistically and clinically significant reduction in the rate of obstetric anal sphincter injuries. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The diagnostic accuracy of endovaginal and transperineal ultrasound for detecting anal sphincter defects: The PREDICT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, A.-M., E-mail: annemarie.roos@gmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mayday University Hospital, Croydon (United Kingdom); Abdool, Z. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Sultan, A.H.; Thakar, R. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mayday University Hospital, Croydon (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Aim: To determine the accuracy and predictive value of transperineal (TPU) and endovaginal ultrasound (EVU) in the detection of anal sphincter defects in women with obstetric anal sphincter injuries and/or postpartum symptoms of faecal incontinence. Materials and methods: One hundred and sixty-five women were recruited, four women were excluded as they were seen years after their last delivery. TPU and EVU, followed by endonanal ultrasound (EAU), were performed using the B and K Viking 2400 scanner. Sensitivity and specificity, as well as predictive values with 95% confidence intervals, for detecting anal sphincter defects were calculated for EVU and TPU, using EAU as the reference standard. Results: On EAU a defect was found in 42 (26%) women: 39 (93%) had an external (EAS) and 23 (55%) an internal anal sphincter (IAS) defect. Analysable images of one level of the EAS combined with an analysable IAS were available in 140 (87%) women for EVU and in 131 (81%) for TPU. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of any defect was 48% (30-67%) and 85% (77-91%) for EVU and 64% (44-81%) and 85% (77-91%) for TPU, respectively. Conclusion: Although EAU using a rotating endoprobe is the validated reference standard in the identification of anal sphincter defects, it is not universally available. However while TPU and/or EVU with conventional ultrasound probes can be useful in identifying normality, for clinical purposes they are not sensitive enough to identify an underlying sphincter defect.

  14. The diagnostic accuracy of endovaginal and transperineal ultrasound for detecting anal sphincter defects: The PREDICT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, A.-M.; Abdool, Z.; Sultan, A.H.; Thakar, R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine the accuracy and predictive value of transperineal (TPU) and endovaginal ultrasound (EVU) in the detection of anal sphincter defects in women with obstetric anal sphincter injuries and/or postpartum symptoms of faecal incontinence. Materials and methods: One hundred and sixty-five women were recruited, four women were excluded as they were seen years after their last delivery. TPU and EVU, followed by endonanal ultrasound (EAU), were performed using the B and K Viking 2400 scanner. Sensitivity and specificity, as well as predictive values with 95% confidence intervals, for detecting anal sphincter defects were calculated for EVU and TPU, using EAU as the reference standard. Results: On EAU a defect was found in 42 (26%) women: 39 (93%) had an external (EAS) and 23 (55%) an internal anal sphincter (IAS) defect. Analysable images of one level of the EAS combined with an analysable IAS were available in 140 (87%) women for EVU and in 131 (81%) for TPU. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of any defect was 48% (30-67%) and 85% (77-91%) for EVU and 64% (44-81%) and 85% (77-91%) for TPU, respectively. Conclusion: Although EAU using a rotating endoprobe is the validated reference standard in the identification of anal sphincter defects, it is not universally available. However while TPU and/or EVU with conventional ultrasound probes can be useful in identifying normality, for clinical purposes they are not sensitive enough to identify an underlying sphincter defect.

  15. Los desafíos del marketing en la era del big data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsy Dayanna Ortiz Morales

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este escrito plantea cuatro desafíos del marketing a los que se enfrentan las empresas en la era digital teniendo en cuenta el enfoque estratégico, tecnológico y táctico; su objetivo es ayudar a que las organizaciones, en especial los departamentos de marketing, puedan tomar mejores decisiones implementando la analítica de datos. En la primera parte del artículo se presenta la definición y evolución del marketing desde la revolución industrial, con su enfoque en el producto y la producción en masa, hasta el marketing actual, que está centrado en el consumidor y las necesidades del cliente buscando una diferenciación y personalización tanto de productos como de servicios basándose en los avances tecnológicos y los diversos accesos a la información. En la segunda parte se especifica qué es Big Data, los volúmenes de datos, los tipos de datos y sus fuentes; igualmente, se puntualiza qué es la analítica de datos (data analytics. El tercer aporte esboza la descripción del marketing en nuestros días y cómo los servicios de la Web 2.0 (redes sociales, RSS, tecnologías rápidas de mensajería, vídeos, mensajería instantánea, wikis, blogs, etc. y sus bases teóricas ayudan a la captación, fidelización y posicionamiento de marca. Por último, se presentan los cuatro desafíos para las empresas en la actual era digital: el desafío de las 6V (volumen, velocidad, variedad, veracidad, valor y visualización; los retos estratégicos, tecnológicos y operativos en las organizaciones; las tendencias del marketing y la medición del ROMI (return on marketing investment.

  16. La operación analítica: límites y fundamentos The analytical operation: limits and fundaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Laznik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La construcción del corpus teórico psicoanalítico, en tanto teoría de una praxis, experimenta a lo largo de la obra freudiana diversas rectificaciones que inciden en la delimitación de los conceptos y de las operaciones inherentes a su campo. Desde esa perspectiva, la pregunta por el alcance y los límites del método psicoanalítico subsiste en articulación con las sucesivas reformulaciones. Luego de establecer la segunda tópica, Freud sistematiza, en 1926, los diferentes tipos de resistencias. Posteriormente y en diversos momentos, retoma la problemática en torno a los obstáculos que complican el trabajo analítico. Estas consideraciones introducen nuevos interrogantes y recortan la incidencia de nuevos factores que, aún sin precipitar en una formalización acabada, complejizan el estatuto y el alcance de la operación analítica.The construction of the theoretical psychoanalytic corpus, as a theory of a praxis, experiences along the Freudian work diverse rectifications that affect in the delimiting of the concepts and of the operations inherent to his field. From this perspective, the question for the range and the limits of the psychoanalytic method survives in joint with the successive reformulations. After establishing the second topic, Freud systematizes, in 1926, the different types of resistances. Later, and in diverse moments, he recaptures the problematics around the obstacles that complicate the analytical work. These considerations introduce new questions and delimits the incident of new factors that, still without precipitating in a finished formalization, complex the statute and the range of the analytical operation.

  17. Avaliação manométrica anal de crianças com encoprese Anal manometric evaluation of children with encopresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Prolungatti Cesar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A constipação crônica é doença comum na infância, ocorrendo em 5 a 10% dos pacientes pediátricos, considerada a segunda maior causa de procura nos consultórios de pediatria, sendo a encoprese decorrente de constipação grave associada à impactação fecal no reto. Dentre os exames diagnósticos, a manometria anal é utilizada para a avaliação de pacientes com distúrbios funcionais, como a constipação intestinal e a incontinência fecal, em alguns serviços para a avaliação de pacientes com encoprese, pois pode trazer informações sobre o mecanismo evacuatório e possíveis lesões esfincterianas anais. OBJETIVO: Verificar alterações manométricas em pacientes com encoprese. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo de 40 manometrias anais de crianças constipadas com encoprese (G1 e 12 crianças constipados sem encoprese (G2. Foram obtidos os seguintes dados: pressões de repouso, contração e evacuação do canal anal e ampola retal, ponto de maior pressão, reflexo inibitório anal e sensibilidade retal. As manometrias foram realizadas com o aparelho Alacer de perfusão com 8 canais. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças nas pressões de repouso, contração e evacuação do canal anal entre os grupos. Chamou-nos a atenção a ausência de necessidade de maior volume retal para desencadear o reflexo inibitório anal. Não houve diferença da incidência de anismus entre os dois grupos, demonstrando que não se trata de fator importante na manutenção da encoprese, mas sim da constipação. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve necessidade de maior volume para desencadear o reflexo inibitório anal. O anismus não foi diferente entre os dois grupos, não sendo importante na manutenção da encoprese.INTRODUCTION: Chronic constipation is a common childhood disorder that affects 5 to 10% of pediatric patients, being the second most common cause for seeking medical help, with the encopresis arising out of severe constipation

  18. Hacia la (re)construcción del campo musical nacional. Una lectura en clave de rock

    OpenAIRE

    David Fernando García

    2009-01-01

    A partir del entrecruzamiento de dos visiones de diferente naturaleza sobre el panorama de la producción musical en Colombia, este artículo propone una manera de concebir la lógica del campo musical nacional. Esta construcción analítica de índole relacional pretende dar cuenta del espacio social en el que se negocia y define, tanto la producción de los diferentes géneros que conforman el universo de la música popular contemporánea en Colombia como las prácticas de los actores e instituciones ...

  19. Persistencia y/o transformación de tricotecenos durante algunas etapas del procesamiento de trigo

    OpenAIRE

    Samar, María Margarita

    2003-01-01

    La finalidad del presente trabajo fue obtener informaciónsobre la persistencia y / o transformación de tricotecenos durante algunas etapas de procesamiento del trigo para contribuir a la estimación de la exposición como consecuencia de la ingesta de alimentos elaborados con trigo potencialmente contaminados por tricotecenos en la Argentina. Las tendencias identificadas en los métodos analíticos para la determinación de tricotecenos, durante los años 1990-2000 en diferentes partes del mundo, m...

  20. Genealogía hipnótica del mito del zombi: The Magic Island (1929

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carcavilla Puey, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of series of articles that aims to study the history and psychological significance of the “myth of the zombie” through the analysis of its allegorical and symbolic elements, based on a myth’s conceptualization extracted from the notions of Jung’s analytical psychology and Eliade’s history of religions. Here, we’ll look deeply into the symbolic genealogy that comes before and it’s inserted in zombie conception in Seabrook’s The magic island (first text where zombie appears as living dead through a comparative analysis with the somnambulist in literature and filmography of “the dark side of animal magnetism and hypnosis” and its connection with the automaton.Este es el primero de una serie de artículos en los que se pretende estudiar la historia y la significación psicológica del “mito del zombi” a través del análisis de sus elementos alegóricos y simbólicos partiendo de una conceptualización de “mito” extraída de las nociones de la psicología analítica de Jung y de la historia de las religiones de Eliade. Aquí profundizaremos en la genealogía simbólica que antecede y se inserta en la concepción del zombi en The Magic Island de Seabrook (primer texto donde aparece el zombi como muerto viviente a través del análisis comparativo con el sonámbulo de la literatura y cinematografía del “lado oscuro del magnetismo animal y la hipnosis” y su relación con el autómata.

  1. Heterosexual anal intercourse and HIV infection risks in the context of alcohol serving venues, Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey Kate B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most efficient sexual behavior for HIV transmission is unprotected receptive anal intercourse. However, it is unclear what role heterosexual unprotected anal sex is playing in the world's worst HIV epidemics of southern Africa. The objective is to examine the prevalence of heterosexual unprotected anal intercourse among men and women who drink at informal alcohol serving establishments (shebeens in South Africa. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were collected from a convenience sample of 5037 patrons of 10 shebeens in a peri-urban township of Cape Town, South Africa. Analyses concentrated on establishing the rates of unprotected anal intercourse practiced by men and women as well as the factors associated with practicing anal intercourse. Results We found that 15% of men and 11% of women reported anal intercourse in the previous month, with 8% of men and 7% of women practicing any unprotected anal intercourse. Multiple logistic regression showed that younger age, having primary and casual sex partners, and meeting sex partners at shebeens were independently associated with engaging in anal intercourse. Mathematical modeling showed that individual risks are significantly impacted by anal intercourse but probably not to the degree needed to drive a generalized HIV epidemic. Conclusions Anal intercourse likely plays a significant role in HIV infections among a small minority of South Africans who patronize alcohol serving establishments. Heterosexual anal intercourse, the most risky sexual behavior for HIV transmission, should not be ignored in HIV prevention for South African heterosexuals. However, this relatively infrequent behavior should not become the focus of prevention efforts.

  2. Apontamentos sobre a psicologia analítica de Carl Gustav Jung

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    Luís Marcelo Alves Ramos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto faz uma introdução à Psicologia Analítica do psicólogo e psiquiatra suíço Carl Gustav Jung: define o conceito de Psicologia Analítica, traz uma biografia resumida de Carl Gustav Jung, indica as principais diferenças entre a Psicologia Analítica e a Psicanálise, descreve a estrutura e o funcionamento da psique e, por fim, apresenta sinteticamente as características dos tipos de personalidades traçadas por Jung. The text makes an introduction to the Analytical Psychology of the psychologist and swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung: it defines the concept of Analytical Psychology, brings a summarized biography of Carl Gustav Jung, indicates the main differences between Analytical Psychology and the Psychoanalysis, describes the structure and the functioning of psyche and, finally, presents synthetically the characteristics of the types of personalities traced by Jung.

  3. Incidence, Trends and Ethnic Differences of Oropharyngeal, Anal and Cervical Cancers: Singapore, 1968-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jennifer O.; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chow, Khuan-Yew; D’Souza, Gypsyamber

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, several Western countries have reported an increase in oropharyngeal and anal cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Trends in HPV-associated cancers in Asia have not been as well described. We describe the epidemiology of potentially HPV-related cancers reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry from 1968–2012. Analysis included 998 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), 183 anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) and 8,019 invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases. Additionally, 368 anal non-squamous cell carcinoma (ANSCC) and 2,018 non-oropharyngeal head and neck carcinoma (non-OP HNC) cases were included as comparators. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) were determined by gender and ethnicity (Chinese, Malay and Indian). Joinpoint regression was used to evaluate annual percentage change (APC) in incidence. OPSCC incidence increased in both genders (men 1993–2012, APC = 1.9%, pSingapore, but Pap screening programs have led to consistently decreasing incidence. PMID:26720001

  4. Oral and Anal vaccination against enteric red mouth disease protection against yersiniosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Lukas; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Kragelund Strøm, Helene

    dose of ERM bacterin fully protected rainbow trout when they are vaccinated anally. Oral vaccination can also induce full protection but the dose of the bacterin has to be 100 times higher than if the fish was to be vaccinated anally. This indicates that much of the oral feed bacteria is digested...... in the stomach of rainbow trout. This work has shown that it is possible to vaccinated orally against ERM, but the bacteria has to be coated in order to avoid digestion. Protection mechanisms will be discussed....... fish. The objective for this project is to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1 (biotype 1) causing Enteric Red Mouth disease (ERM) can protect rainbow trout against a subsequent experimental bath challenge.The rainbow trout were given oral...

  5. O terapêutico e o analítico em Freud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Anciães Darriba

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo investigar, na obra de Freud, a demarcação que se institui entre o terapêutico e o analítico. Tal investigação enfoca, primeiramente, a passagem da hipnose à associação livre e o direcionamento do autor à questão da causa, o que estabelece uma visada para a cura analítica em confluência com o que se desdobra da exploração do campo do inconsciente e da consideração de um domínio pulsional. Delimitados por esta via os objetivos terapêuticos e analíticos, interroga-se, em seguida, como a dimensão do terapêutico se veria reintroduzida nos termos da nova direção de cura proposta por Freud.

  6. Disorders of the pelvic floor and anal sphincters; a gastroenterologist’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamonn M.M. Quigley, MD FRCP FACP FACG FRCPI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration and coordination of the musculature of the pelvic floor and the anal sphincters is critical to two important physiological functions: defecation and continence. Consequently, disorders affecting the pelvic floor muscles, the anal sphincters, their innervation or their precise coordination will, depending on their nature, result either in obstructed defecation or fecal incontinence. Both of these disorders are much more common in females and the latter, in particular, is linked with parity. While the symptomatology, presentation and optimal mode of investigation of fecal incontinence are well standardized, considerable debate and controversy continues to surround the contributions of pelvic floor and anal sphincter dysfunction to chronic constipation and the optimal clinical approach to their investigation remains to be defined. In appropriately chosen cases surgical intervention may provide the best outcome for sufferers from incontinence; biofeedback approaches may be of value in both incontinence and obstructed defecation and surgery has little role to play in the latter.

  7. Incertidumbre en métodos analíticos de rutina.

    OpenAIRE

    Maroto Sánchez, Maria Alicia

    2002-01-01

    Para que los laboratorios de análisis puedan acreditarse según la norma ISO 17025, es necesario que los resultados analíticos vayan acompañados de dos parámetros de calidadbásicos: su trazabilidad y su incertidumbre. Esto ha hecho que, hoy en día, la verificaciónde la trazabilidad y el cálculo de la incertidumbre de los resultados analíticos sea cada vezmás importante. En esta tesis doctoral hemos propuesto diversas metodologías para calcularla incertidumbre en métodos analíticos que se utili...

  8. Pouch failures following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark-Christensen, A; Erichsen, R; Brandsborg, S

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is a procedure offered to patients with ulcerative colitis who opt for restoration of bowel continuity. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of pouch failure and ascertain risk factors associated with failure. METHOD: 1,991 patients with ulc......BACKGROUND: The ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is a procedure offered to patients with ulcerative colitis who opt for restoration of bowel continuity. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of pouch failure and ascertain risk factors associated with failure. METHOD: 1,991 patients......-anal anastomosis from Denmark, where pouch surgery is centralized, females had a higher risk of pouch failure. Of modifiable factors, low hospital volume and non-diversion were associated with a higher risk of pouch failure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  9. Design of sEMG assembly to detect external anal sphincter activity: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraz, Arsam; Leaker, Brian; Mosse, Charles Alexander; Solomon, Eskinder; Craggs, Michael; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2017-10-31

    Conditional trans-rectal stimulation of the pudendal nerve could provide a viable solution to treat hyperreflexive bladder in spinal cord injury. A set threshold of the amplitude estimate of the external anal sphincter surface electromyography (sEMG) may be used as the trigger signal. The efficacy of such a device should be tested in a large scale clinical trial. As such, a probe should remain in situ for several hours while patients attend to their daily routine; the recording electrodes should be designed to be large enough to maintain good contact while observing design constraints. The objective of this study was to arrive at a design for intra-anal sEMG recording electrodes for the subsequent clinical trials while deriving the possible recording and processing parameters. Having in mind existing solutions and based on theoretical and anatomical considerations, a set of four multi-electrode probes were designed and developed. These were tested in a healthy subject and the measured sEMG traces were recorded and appropriately processed. It was shown that while comparatively large electrodes record sEMG traces that are not sufficiently correlated with the external anal sphincter contractions, smaller electrodes may not maintain a stable electrode tissue contact. It was shown that 3 mm wide and 1 cm long electrodes with 5 mm inter-electrode spacing, in agreement with Nyquist sampling, placed 1 cm from the orifice may intra-anally record a sEMG trace sufficiently correlated with external anal sphincter activity. The outcome of this study can be used in any biofeedback, treatment or diagnostic application where the activity of the external anal sphincter sEMG should be detected for an extended period of time.

  10. Does endoscopic ultrasound improve detection of locally recurrent anal squamous-cell cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carrie Y; Weiser, Martin R; Paty, Philip B; Guillem, Jose G; Nash, Garrett M; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio; Patil, Sujata; Temple, Larissa K

    2015-02-01

    Evaluating patients for recurrent anal cancer after primary treatment can be difficult owing to distorted anatomy and scarring. Many institutions incorporate endoscopic ultrasound to improve detection, but the effectiveness is unknown. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of digital rectal examination and endoscopic ultrasound in detecting locally recurrent disease during routine follow-up of patients with anal cancer. This study is a retrospective, single-institution review. This study was conducted at an oncologic tertiary referral center. Included were 175 patients with nonmetastatic anal squamous-cell cancer, without persistent disease after primary chemoradiotherapy, who had at least 1 posttreatment ultrasound and examination by a colorectal surgeon. The primary outcomes measured were the first modality to detect local recurrence, concordance, crude cancer detection rate, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value. Eight hundred fifty-five endoscopic ultrasounds and 873 digital rectal examinations were performed during 35 months median follow-up. Overall, ultrasound detected 7 (0.8%) mesorectal and 32 (3.7%) anal canal abnormalities; digital examination detected 69 (7.9%) anal canal abnormalities. Locally recurrent disease was found on biopsy in 8 patients, all detected first or only with digital examination. Four patients did not have an ultrasound at the time of diagnosis of recurrence. The concordance of ultrasound and digital examination in detecting recurrent disease was fair at 0.37 (SE, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.21-0.54), and there was no difference in crude cancer detection rate, sensitivity, specificity, and negative or positive predictive values. The heterogeneity of follow-up timing and examinations is not standardized in this study but is reflective of general practice. Endoscopic ultrasound did not provide any advantage over digital rectal examination in identifying locally recurrent anal cancer, and should not be recommended for

  11. Diversity of human papillomavirus in the anal canal of men: the HIM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichero, L; Nyitray, A G; Nunes, E M; Nepal, B; Ferreira, S; Sobrinho, J S; Baggio, M L; Galan, L; Silva, R C; Lazcano-Ponce, E; Giuliano, A R; Villa, L L

    2015-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with the development of anogenital lesions in men. There are no reports describing the distribution of non-α HPV types in the anal canal of a sexually diverse group of men. The HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study is a multicentre study on the natural history of HPV infection in Brazil, Mexico, and the USA. At baseline, 12% of anal canal PCR HPV-positive specimens were not typed by the Roche Linear Array, and were considered to be unclassified. Our goals were to characterize HPVs among these unclassified specimens at baseline, and to assess associations with participant socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics. Unclassified HPVs were typed by sequencing of amplified PGMY09/11 products or cloning of PGMY/GP + nested amplicons followed by sequencing. Further analysis was conducted with FAP primers. Of men with unclassified HPV in the anal canal, most (89.1%) were men who have sex with women. Readable sequences were produced for 62.8% of unclassified specimens, of which 75.2% were characterized HPV types. Eighteen, 26 and three different α-HPV, β-HPV and γ-HPV types were detected, respectively. α-HPVs were more commonly detected among young men (18-30 years) than among older men (45-70 years), whereas β-HPVs were more frequent among mid-adult men (31-44 years). β-HPVs were more common among heterosexual men (85.0%) than among non-heterosexual men. All β-HPVs detected among non-heterosexual men were β2-HPV types. The high prevalence of β-HPV in the anal canal of men who do not report receptive anal sex is suggestive of other forms of transmission that do not involve penile-anal intercourse. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The value of high-resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in hiv-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicidad Gimenez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Anal cancer, although a still rare disease, is being observed in ascending rates among some population segments known to be at risk for the development of the disease. Human papillomavirus (HPV infection, immunodepression and anal intercourse are some factors associated with the development of the malignancy. Its similarities to cervical cancer have led to many studies aiming to establish guidelines for detecting and treating precursor lesions of anal cancer, with the goal of prevention. High-resolution anoscopy is routinely used for the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in many centers but the medical literature is still deficient concerning the role of this diagnostic modality. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate diagnostic validation and precision measures of high-resolution anoscopy in comparison to histopathological results of anal biopsies performed in HIV-positive patients treated at the Tropical Medicine Foundation of Amazonas, AM, Brazil. To observe any possible association between some risk factors for the development of anal cancer and the presence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions. METHODS: A hundred and twenty-eight HIV-positive patients were submitted to anal canal cytological sampling for the detection of HPV infection by a PCR based method. High-resolution anoscopy was then performed after topical application of acetic acid 3% in the anal canal for 2 minutes. Eventual acetowhite lesions that were detected were recorded in respect to location, and classified by their tinctorial pattern, distribution aspect, relief, surface and vascular pattern. Biopsies of acetowhite lesions were performed under local anesthesia and the specimens sent to histopathological analysis. The patients were interviewed for the presence of anal cancer risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalences of anal HPV infection and of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in the studied population were, respectively, 79% and 39.1%. High-resolution anoscopy

  13. A presença de retocele interfere nos resultados de exames de fisiologia anal? Rectocele influences results of anal physiological examinations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Prolungatti Cesar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A retocele é causa comum de constipação por defecação obstruída. Freqüentemente está relacionada com outras causas de defecação obstruída, e os exames de fisiologia anal são importantes para o diagnóstico preciso da causa de constipação intestinal. OBJETIVO: observar a influência da retocele nos exames de fisiologia anal, e a necessidade da realização desses após o diagnóstico da retocele. MÉTODO: Para este trabalho foram estudados 40 pacientes com diagnóstico de defecação obstruída. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos aos exames de manometria, sensibilidade retal, eletromiografia, latência do nervo pudendo e proctografia, e foram separados em 2 grupos: portadores e não portadores de retocele . Foram encontrados 18 pacientes com retocele, e o diagnóstico mais freqüentemente associado foi o anismus . Em relação aos exames foi encontrada diferença significante apenas na proctografia no ângulo ano retal, demonstrando que a presença de retocele não interferiu nos resultados de exames de fisiologia anal quando comparados com outros constipados, mas esteve associada a outras causas de constipação, como anismus que necessita de outro tipo de tratamento. CONCLUSÃO: A retocele não interferiu nos valores dos exames de fisiologia anal, mas esteve associada a outros diagnósticos, sendo importante a realização dos mesmos.INTRODUCTION: Rectocele is a common cause of constipation for obstructed defecation. It often is related with other causes of outlet obstruction and the examinations of anal physiology tests are important for necessary diagnosis of the constipation cause. OBJECTIVE: To observe the influence of rectocele in the anal physiology tests and the necessity of its accomplishment to the diagnosis of rectocele. METHOD: In this study, 40 patients with diagnosis of outlet obstruction had been analyzed. All the patients had been submitted to manometry, rectal sensitivity, electromyography, pudendal

  14. The prevalence of anal human papillomavirus among young HIV negative men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Huachun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Men who have sex with men (MSM especially those who are HIV positive are at risk for HPV-associated anal cancer. We systematically reviewed studies with data on the prevalence of vaccine preventable anal HPV among men who have sex with men aged 25 or younger and identified 6 studies. None of these studies were specifically designed to determine the prevalence of HPV in this population. Available data, albeit limited, suggest many young MSM may not already be HPV infected. Further studies using representative sampling focused on teenage MSM are required to confirm this.

  15. Differential gene expression in patients with anal fistula reveals high levels of prolactin recepetor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yi-Huan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. There are limited data examining variations in the local expression of inflammatory mediators in anal fistulas where it is anticipated that an improved understanding of the inflammatory milieu might lead to the potential therapeutic option of instillation therapy in complicated cases. The aim of the present study was to examine prolactin receptors (PRLR as inflammatory markers and to correlate their expression with both the complexity of anal fistulas and the likelihood of fistula recurrence. Methods. Microarray was used to screen the differentially expressed gene profile of anal fistula using anal mucosa samples with hemorrhoids with ageand sex-matched patients as controls and then a prospective analysis of 65 patients was conducted with anal fistulas. PRLR immunohistochemistry was performed to define expression in simple, complex and recurrent anal fistula cases. The quantitative image comparison was performed combining staining intensity with cellular distribution in order to create high and low score PRLR immunohistochemical groupings. Results. A differential expression profile of 190 genes was found. PRLR expression was 2.91 times lower in anal fistula compared with control. Sixty-five patients were assessed (35 simple, 30 complex cases. Simple fistulas showed significantly higher PRLR expression than complex cases with recurrent fistulae showing overall lower PRLR expression than de novo cases (p = 0.001. These findings were reflected in measurable integrated optical density for complex and recurrent cases (complex cases, 8.31 ± 4.91 x 104 vs simple cases, 12.30 ± 6.91 x 104; p < 0.01; recurrent cases, 7.21 ± 3.51 x 104 vs primarily healing cases, 8.31 ± 4.91 x 104; p < 0.05. In univariate regression analysis, low PRLR expression correlated with fistula complexity; a significant independent effect maintained in multivariate analysis odds ratio [(OR low to high PRLR expression = 9.52; p = 0.001]. Conclusion. PRLR

  16. Familial disseminated plaque type porokeratosis with multiple horns and squamous cell carcinoma involving anal skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma Nilendu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Porokeratosis is a disorder of keratinization showing a well-defined lesion with a hyperkeratotic ridge on the border that contains the coronoid lamella. We report familial (autosomal dominant with reduced penetrance disseminated plaque type (Mibelli′s type porokeratosis in a father and son. In the father, there were multiple horns and a large squamous cell carcinoma in a large lesion over the perianal region that reached up to the squamo-columnar junction of the anal mucosa and even invaded the anal sphincteric muscles. Disseminated lesions of the Mibelli′s type, development of horns, and malignancy in this unusual location have not been previously reported.

  17. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy and colonic J-pouch anal anastomosis for lower rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yasuhiro; Okigami, Masato; Kawamoto, Aya; Hiro, Junichiro; Toiyama, Yuji; Kobayashi, Minako; Tanaka, Koji; Miki, Chikao; Kusunoki, Masato

    2011-01-01

    We performed colonic J-pouch anal anastomosis in 61 patients with rectal cancer located <4 cm from the anal verge. Surgical and oncological results were evaluated in multimodality therapy for advanced rectal cancer. According to Wexner's score, 7% of patients were fully continent, 71% had acceptable function with minor continence problems, and 22% were incontinent. No patients required intermittent self-catheterization during follow-up. After a median follow-up of 49 months, there was only 1 case of local recurrence after surgery. Our surgical approach irrespective of internal sphincter resection produces satisfactory functional and oncological results in multimodality therapy using preoperative chemoradiotherapy for lower rectal cancer. (author)

  18. OCCULT ANAL SPHINCTER INJURIES (OASIS IN DEPARTMENT OF PERINATOLOGY IN LJUBLJANA – INCIDENCE AND RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Jakopič

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaginal delivery is the most important risk factors for development of faecal incontinence, which significantly affects quality of life. Foreign studies show OASIS occur at 20 to 40 % of vaginal deliveries. In Slovenia we recognize sphincter injuries at 1.7 % of deliveries, while true incidence of OASIS in our population remains unknown. Caesarean section prevents anal sphincter injuries. Known risk factors in foreign studies include prolonged second stage of labour, fetal weight > 3500 g, malpresentation, forceps delivery, maternal age more than 35 years at the time of first delivery, first delivery. Few women complain about defecatory problems in puerperium unless they are directly asked about them, so true incidence of such injuries is grossly underestimated. Previously compensated anal sphincter dysfunction can clinically manifest as late as in menopause. The most probable cause is atrophy of muscle and fibrous tissue of pelvic floor and anal sphincter due to lack of estrogen support in this period. With anal ultrasound we tried to determine the incidence of occult damage to anal sphincter in primiparas after vaginal delivery and the relation of injury to symptoms 6 weeks after delivery and identify possible risk factors in our population. We also tried to find out how many patients with anal sphincter injury become symptomatic immediately after deliv- ery. Methods: From January to June 2009 we examined 26 primiparas after vaginal delivery in the Ljubljana Maternity Hospital with anal ultrasound and compared various data about the delivery from our national delivery form. We excluded all patients with caesarean section, recognized anal sphincter injury at the time of the delivery or previous anorectal surgery, history of irritable bowel syndrome or pre-existing inflammatory bowel disease. All patients completed a bowel-function questionnaire, which included questions about faecal urgency and involuntary passing of gas, liquid or

  19. Vulnerabilidad y riesgo como conceptos indisociables para el estudio del impacto del cambio climático en la salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Enrique Díaz Caravantes

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available En diversas investigaciones, los conceptos de vulnerabilidad y riesgo se han estudiado por separado, como si no existiera una relación entre ellos. De aquí emerge nuestro objetivo de examinar las ventajas analíticas de estudiar ambos dentro de un mismo marco conceptual. Para ello, se revisaron definiciones de vulnerabilidad y riesgo utilizadas en distintos campos como el social, la salud pública y el impacto del clima y desastres. Las implicaciones analíticas se ilustran mediante el caso de las altas temperaturas en el noroeste de México. En los resultados se hace patente que la disociación entre vulnerabilidad y riesgo conduce a que se minusvaloren las capacidades analíticas de ambos conceptos. En tanto su integración proporciona herramientas metodológicas para desarrollar acciones precautorias ante las altas temperaturas, como la identificación de los grupos vulnerables en un entorno geográfico específico y, a su vez, posibles caminos para reducir la exposición y la vulnerabilidad ante el cambio climático.

  20. La Iglesia Universal del Reino de Dios en Europa

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    Nilton Cezar Pereira Pinto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El proceso por el cual la Iglesia Universal del Reino de Dios (IURD se ha expandido por decenas de países, incluso Portugal e Inglaterra, es un capítulo importante de una de las principales transformaciones religiosas de finales del siglo XX: la transformación del petencostalismo en religión global y el cambio del centro, no sólo numérico, sino también del impulso expansionista internacional, para regiones distantes de los centros históricos del protestantismo._____________ABSTRACT:The process by which the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God (IURD has spreaded in dozens of countries, including Portugal and England, is an important part of a major religious transformation of the late twentieth century: the transformation of petencostalism in Global religion and the creation of more centres. It is also analized the international expansionist impulse toward regions far away from the historical centers of Protestantism.

  1. Handedness is a biomarker of variation in anal sex role behavior and Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity among gay men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A.; Monks, D. Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P.

    2017-01-01

    Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333) completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role) were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role). In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles. PMID:28234947

  2. The deposition of anal excretions by Melipona favosa foragers (Apidae: Meliponinae): behavioural observations concerning the location of food sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar, I. (Ingrid); Sommeijer, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Melipona favosa consistently deposited anal excretions while foraging. Anal depositions were released more frequently and by more bees on artificial food sources at a greater distance from the nest. Our hypothesis that these deposits serve as scent marks is supported by experimental evidence

  3. Handedness is a biomarker of variation in anal sex role behavior and Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity among gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Monks, D Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P

    2017-01-01

    Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333) completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role) were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role). In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles.

  4. Handedness is a biomarker of variation in anal sex role behavior and Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity among gay men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlyn Swift-Gallant

    Full Text Available Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333 completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role. In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles.

  5. Candidíase vulvovaginal: sintomatologia, fatores de risco e colonização anal concomitante Vulvovaginal candidiasis: symptomatology, risk factors and concomitant anal colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Arildo Reginaldo de Holanda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal quanto a sintomatologia, fatores de risco e resultados da cultura anal, identificar a freqüência de Candida albicans e não C. albicans e correlacionar as colonizações anal e vaginal. MÉTODOS: foram incluídas 99 pacientes com suspeita clínica de candidiase vulvovaginal, procedentes de Natal, RN, atendidas entre maio de 2003 e maio de 2005, perfazendo-se o total de 294 coletas. O material clínico, colhido por zaragatoas, foi semeado em CHROMagar Candida®. As leveduras foram identificadas pelo método clássico, além da prova de crescimento a 42 e 45ºC e da prova do caldo Sabouraud hipertônico. A sintomatologia, fatores de risco e colonização anal foram analisados de acordo com a positividade ou negatividade para Candida spp. As culturas positivas para C. albicans nos dois sítios foram comparadas com outros resultados encontrados. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o teste do chi2, com correção de Yates e o teste exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: a espécie mais frequente foi C. albicans em 69% dos casos. Uso de roupas íntimas justas e/ou sintéticas, presença de doenças alérgicas, ocorrência de prurido, leucorréia e hiperemia apresentaram associação com a positividade vaginal para Candida spp. A chance de uma paciente com colonização anal positiva de apresentar positividade vaginal concomitante foi 2,8 e 4,9 vezes maior, respectivamente, para Candida spp e C. albicans. A chance de uma paciente com cultura anal positiva para C. albicans de apresentar resultado vaginal positivo foi 3,7 vezes maior quando comparada a espécies não C. albicans. CONCLUSÕES: C. albicans foi a espécie mais comum, tendo sido observada associação da positividade vaginal para Candida spp com uso de roupas justas e/ou sintéticas, doenças alérgicas, prurido, leucorréia e eritema (pPURPOSE: to analyze patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis with respect to risk factors, symptomatology

  6. Efectos del consumo de cigarrillo en la presentaci?n y severidad de la dismenorrea

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Gonz?lez, July Vianneth

    2014-01-01

    Introducci?n: La dismenorrea se presenta como una patolog?a cada vez m?s frecuente en mujeres de 16-30 a?os. Dentro de los factores asociados a su presentaci?n, el consumo de tabaco ha revelado resultados contradictorios. El objetivo del presente estudio es explorar la asociaci?n entre el consumo de cigarrillo y la presentaci?n de dismenorrea, y determinar si los trastornos del ?nimo y la depresi?n, alteran dicha asociaci?n. Materiales y m?todos: Se realiz? un estudio de prevalencia anal?tica...

  7. Factores asociados al riesgo nutricional del adulto mayor no institucionalizado, Pasto, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Rangel, Juanita del Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: determinar los factores sociales, demográficos, y de salud que se asocian al riesgo nutricional de los adultos mayores no institucionalizados de la ciudad de Pasto en el año 2016. Metodología: estudio de prevalencia analítico a partir del análisis secundario de los datos para la ciudad de Pasto de la encuesta “Índice de vulnerabilidad de los adultos mayores, en tres ciudades de Colombia, 2016”. Se utilizó la Iniciativa del Tamizaje Nutricional (NSI) con la escala DETERMINE para l...

  8. Conocimientos sobre el virus del papiloma humano (VPH) y su vacuna dentro de la comunidad universitaria

    OpenAIRE

    San Martín González, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar el nivel de conocimientos sobre el VPH en una muestra de universitarios. Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo y analítico de corte transversal con el objetivo principal de evaluar el nivel de conocimientos y actitudes sobre VPH en una muestra de universitarios de la Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca. La muestra cuenta con 194 sujetos, 103 estudiantes del grado de enfermería y 91 estudiantes del grado de psicología que cumplían los criterios de inclusión y ...

  9. Utilización del transporte aéreo en el comercio exterior argentino

    OpenAIRE

    Lanfranconi Bobbio, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Tesis (Maestría en Comercio Internacional) -- Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Argentina, 2016. La utilización del modal aéreo para el transporte internacional de mercaderías presenta numerosos beneficios para las empresas que operan en el comercio internacional. Los pronósticos de las industrias especializadas y las organizaciones internacionales del área indican que en los próximos años este modal tendrá un gran crecimiento. La presente investigación anal...

  10. Prevalence of Anal HPV Infection Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alexandra L; Karthik, Rajiv; Sivasubramanian, Murugesan; Raghavendran, Anantharam; Gnanamony, Manu; Lensing, Shelly; Lee, Jeannette Y; Kannangai, Rajesh; Abraham, Priya; Mathai, Dilip; Palefsky, Joel M

    2016-04-01

    India has a large population of HIV-positive individuals, including men who have sex with men (MSM), and the incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers is high. In developed countries, HIV-positive MSM exhibit the highest prevalence of anal HPV infection and incidence of anal cancer. Little is known about anal HPV infection in HIV-positive Indian MSM. We evaluated 300 HIV-positive MSM from 2 cities in India. Men were tested for anal HPV infection using L1-HPV DNA polymerase chain reaction with probes specific for 29 types and a mixture of 10 additional types. CD4 level and plasma HIV viral load were measured. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including a sexual history. The prevalence of anal HPV was 95% (95% confidence interval: 91% to 97%). The 3 most common types were HPV 35 (20%), HPV 16 (13%), and HPV 6/11 (13%). History of taking antiretroviral medications decreased risk of anal HPV 16 infection [relative risk (RR): 0.6 (0.4-1.0)]. Having an increased number of vaginal sex partners lowered risk of any anal HPV infection. Ever having receptive sex increased risk of any anal HPV [RR: 1.2 (1.1-1.4)] and anal HPV 16 [RR: 6.5 (1.8-107)]. Almost all Indian HIV-positive MSM had anal HPV infection. The prevalence of HPV 16 was lower and the prevalence of other oncogenic HPV types was higher than in similar populations in North America and Europe. Vaccine-based prevention strategies for HPV infection in India should consider potential differences in HPV type distribution among HIV-infected MSM when designing interventions.

  11. El mito del zombi en la actualidad: desmembramiento sacrificial colectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carcavilla Puey, Lorenzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For several decades the zombie myth maintained the same symbolic structure as literature and cinematography regarding the perverse use of animal magnetism and hypnosis, the genealogy from which it descends. In the last third of twentieth century the myth underwent a profound transformation, which nevertheless represented a continuation of its previous unconscious meaning. The analysis of the new archetypal elements that it included, closely related to a nuclear aspect of the spirit of twentieth century art, enables us to develop an interpretive approach to a mythical framework and its underlying psychological process currently running through the collective psyche: respectively, the initiation death and the solvent and disintegrative dynamic of the soul. It will be based in the analytical psychology theoretical framework and we will use the historical-comparative method.El mito del zombi conservó durante varias décadas la misma estructura simbólica que la literatura y cinematografía acerca del uso perverso del magnetismo animal y la hipnosis, su genealogía. En el último tercio del siglo XX el mito sufre una profunda transformación que, no obstante, supone la continuación de su anterior sentido inconsciente. El análisis de los nuevos elementos arquetípicos que va a incorporar, estrechamente relacionados con un aspecto nuclear del espíritu del arte del siglo XX, nos va a permitir realizar una aproximación interpretativa a cierto entramado mítico y su proceso psicológico subyacente que atraviesa actualmente la psique colectiva: la muerte iniciática y la dinámica disolvente y desintegradora del alma, respectivamente. Nos basaremos para ello en el marco teórico de la psicología analítica y haremos uso del método histórico-comparativo.

  12. Los anales de biotipología, eugenesia y medicina social y un cambio en la nosografía psiquiátrica relacionado con el origen de la psicología en la Argentina: The Anales De Biotipología, Eugenesia Y Medicina Social And A Change In The Classification Of Psychiatric Diseases Related With The Origin Of The Psychology In Argentine

    OpenAIRE

    Vanesa Eva Navarlaz

    2008-01-01

    El presente trabajo parte de un estudio bibliométrico de los términos psiquiátricos mencionados en los títulos de los artículos publicados en Anales de Biotipología Eugenesia y Medicina Social. La muestra extraída del análisis bibliométrico se compara con los diagnósticos utilizados en las Historias clínicas del Hospicio de las Mercedes entre los años 1930 y 1945. Se realiza un análisis de la aplicación institucional que tuvo el modelo biotipológico de ésta publicación médica, que tuvo entre ...

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life and Sexual Functioning of HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men Who Are Treated for Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegenbeek van Heukelom, Matthijs L.; Richel, Olivier; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Prins, Jan M.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the treatment of precursor lesions of anal cancer (anal intraepithelial neoplasia) on health-related quality of life has not been investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of 3 treatment options for anal intraepithelial neoplasia on health-related quality of life and sexual

  14. Recto-anal junction (RAJ) microbiota composition in Escherichia coli O157:H7 shedding cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Cattle are the asymptomatic reservoirs of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) that tend to preferentially colonize the bovine recto-anal junction (RAJ). Therefore, understanding the taxonomic profile, microbial diversity, and microbiota-O157 interactions at the RAJ could give insights into...

  15. Evaluation of radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy for anal canal epidermoid cancer in our center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Kunihiko; Sahara, Rikisaburo; Yamana, Tetsuro; Okamoto, Kinya; Takahashi, Tomoko; Furukawa, Satomi; Okada, Daisuke; Kaneko, Yasushi; Matsumoto, Atsuo

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of radiotherapy (RT) and chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for anal canal epidermoid cancer were evaluated. Twenty-four patients with anal canal epidermoid cancer were treated in our center between 1988 and 2006, consisting of 13 patients treated by RT and 11 by CRT. In these patients, the efficacy and safety of RT and CRT were evaluated in terms of adverse events, 5-year local control rates, 5-year disease-free survival rates, and 5-year survival rates. No grade 3 or higher adverse events were noted in patients receiving RT. In contrast, anorexia, diarrhea, neutropenia, and anemia were observed in 33.3%, 10%, 33.3%, and 10%, respectively, of the patients receiving CRT. The anal preserving rate, 5-year local control rate, 5-year disease-free survival rate, and 5-year survival rate were 66.7%, 73%, 77.5%, and 88.4%, respectively. RT and CRT for anal canal epidermoid cancer should be first-line treatments because of their safety and efficacy. (author)

  16. Patterns of Vaginal, Oral, and Anal Sexual Intercourse in an Urban Seventh-Grade Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examines the prevalence of vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse among a population of urban, public middle school students, the characteristics of early sexual initiators, and the sequence of sexual initiation. Such data are limited for early adolescents. Methods: A total of 1279 seventh-grade students (57.3% female, 43.6%…

  17. External anal sphincter atrophy on endoanal magnetic resonance imaging adversely affects continence after sphincteroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briel, J. W.; Stoker, J.; Rociu, E.; Laméris, J. S.; Hop, W. C.; Schouten, W. R.

    1999-01-01

    There is still considerable debate about the value of preoperative anorectal physiological parameters in predicting the clinical outcome after sphincteroplasty. Recently it has been reported that atrophy of the external anal sphincter can be clearly shown with endoanal magnetic resonance imaging

  18. Parlamentide info- ja analüüsiteenistuste koostöövõrgud / Aare Kasemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kasemets, Aare, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    Euroopa parlamentide teabe- ja analüüsiteenistused ning raamatukogud teevad koostööd mitmes võrgustikus, millest kaks suuremat on Euroopa Parlamendiuuringute ja -dokumentatsiooni Keskus (ECPRD) ning Rahvusvaheline Raamatukoguühingute ja -institutsioonide Liidu (IFLA) parlamendisektsioon. Ülevaade koostöövõrgustikest. Tabel: ECPRD seminarid 2002. ja 2003. aastal

  19. Assessing the impact of FDG-PET in the management of anal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Brandon T.; Joon, Daryl Lim; Khoo, Vincent; Quong, George; Chao, Michael; Wada, Morikatsu; Joon, Michael Lim; See, Andrew; Feigen, Malcolm; Rykers, Kym; Kai, Cynleen; Zupan, Eddy; Scott, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the utility of FDG-PET in anal cancer for staging and impact on radiotherapy planning (RTP), response and detection of recurrent disease. Methods and materials: Fifty histopathological anal cancer patients were reviewed between 1996 and 2006. The median age was 58 years (range 36-85) with 19 males:31females. Clinical assessment with CT was compared to PET. Impact on management, disease response, recurrence and metastases was evaluated. Results: The non-PET staging was Stage I(8), Stage II(18), Stage III(22), and Stage IV(2)s. The primary was strongly FDG avid in 98% with non-excised tumors compared to CT (58%). PET upstaged 17% with unsuspected pelvic/inguinal nodal disease. Pre-treatment PET identified 11 additional by involved nodal groups in 48 patients causing RTP amendments in 19%. Post-treatment PETs at median 17 weeks (range 9-28) showed complete responses in 20 (80%) and 5 (20%) partial responses (PR). PRs were biopsy positive in 2 and negative in 3. Fifteen had follow-up scans of which all nine PETs detected recurrences were pathologically confirmed. Conclusions: Anal cancer is FDG-PET avid. PET upstages 17% and changes the RTP in 19%. PET can aid in anal cancer staging and identification of residual disease, recurrent/metastatic disease but warrants further prospective studies

  20. Development of Cerebral Metastasis after Medical and Surgical Treatment of Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Austin Gassman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus is a relatively uncommon GI malignancy. When it does occur, it metastasizes in only a small minority of patients. Spread of anal squamous cell carcinoma to the brain is exceedingly rare, and has been previously reported only three times in the medical literature. We report the case of a 67 year old male who was diagnosed on presentation with a poorly differentiated anal squamous cell carcinoma that already had a solitary metastasis to the liver. While the tumors were initially responsive to chemoradiotherapy, the patient’s primary and liver lesions recurred. The patient then underwent synchronous abdominoperineal resection for the primary lesion and a liver lobectomy for the metastasis. Soon thereafter, the patient developed focal neurologic symptoms and was found to have an intracranial lesion that on biopsy demonstrated metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. This case highlights the fact that patients with a previous history of anal squamous cell carcinoma can occasionally develop cerebral metastasis. Furthermore, cerebral metastases from anal squamous cell carcinoma portend a dismal prognosis even in the face of aggressive medical and surgical therapy.

  1. Tehnoloogia aitab varusid juhtida ja analüüsida / Aleksei Dobrõshman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dobrõshman, Aleksei

    2005-01-01

    Autor tutvustab logistikavaldkonnas kasutatavaid uusi tarkvaralahendusi: marketingi- ja CRM-süsteemi, elektrooniliste dokumentide vahetamise süsteemi, juhtimise ja analüüsi süsteemi, täiustatud veebitellimuste süsteemi, kliendihaldussüsteemi liikuvatele töötajatele. Lisa: Veebilahendus on mugavam

  2. Rectal prolapse and anal incontinence treated with a modified Roscoe Graham operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klaaborg, K E; Qvist, N; Kronborg, O

    1985-01-01

    The results of abdominal mobilization of the rectum and repair of the pelvic floor behind the anorectal junction are reported in 23 patients with rectal prolapse, being accompanied by some form of anal incontinence in 12. Within 20 months, on the average, three patients had recurrent prolapse. Tw...

  3. PR-spetsid annavad Partsile nõu puhata ja analüüsida

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    TÜ avalikkussuhete õppejõud Kaja Saksakulm-Tampere soovitab Juhan Partsil toimunut analüüsida, suhtekorraldusspetsialist Ivo Rulli arvates oleks Juhan Partsil mõistlik võtta oma edasises avalikus elus pikem paus, taanduda Res Publica esimehe kohalt ja tegutseda parlamendis opositsioonis

  4. Laevade erinevate soetamisviiside kommertstingimuste võrdlev analüüs / Ain Eidast, Allan Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eidast, Ain, 1939-2013

    2005-01-01

    Laevade erinevate soetamisviiside analüüs näitab, et ühtse, kõikidele osapooltele vastuvõetavate tingimuste väljatöötamine ja rakendamine ei ole tehniliselt võimalik ning majanduslikult õigustatud. Tabelid. Diagrammid

  5. Relation between flexor spasms, uninhibited detrusor contractions and anal sphincter activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, E; Petersen, T; Schrøder, H D

    1986-01-01

    The time relation between flexor spasms, detrusor contractions and anal sphincter activity was recorded in a consecutive series of 111 patients with hyperreflexic bladder and flexor spasms. In 76 of the patients flexor spasms were preceded by detrusor contractions. The opposite pattern, namely de...

  6. Assertividade e autocontrole: interpretação analítico-comportamental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Marchezini-Cunha

    Full Text Available Questões relacionadas à assertividade têm recebido atenção por parte de terapeutas comportamentais há mais de três décadas. É mais recente, porém, o esforço de terapeutas analítico-comportamentais para examinar problemas dessa ordem com os mesmos recursos conceituais e metodológicos empregados por seus pares da pesquisa básica e conceitual. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo oferecer uma interpretação analítico-comportamental para padrões de comportamento assertivos, agressivos e passivos. Recuperamos algumas definições de assertividade/agressividade/passividade e examinamos os fenômenos correspondentes enquanto relações comportamentais; discutimos alguns aspectos da abordagem analítico-comportamental para o autocontrole; e sugerimos que as relações comportamentais definidas como assertividade/agressividade/passividade podem ser interpretadas enquanto instâncias de autocontrole ou impulsividade. A abordagem pode abrir novas perspectivas de investigação clínica de habilidades sociais sob um enfoque analítico-comportamental.

  7. High survivin expression as a risk factor in patients with anal carcinoma treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraunholz, Ingeborg; Rödel, Claus; Distel, Luitpold; Rave-Fränk, Marget; Kohler, Daniela; Falk, Stefan; Rödel, Franz

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prognostic value of survivin expression in pretreatment specimens from patients with anal cancer treated with concurrent 5-FU and mitomycin C-based chemoradiation (CRT). Immunohistochemical staining for survivin was performed in pretreatment biopsies of 62 patients with anal carcinoma. Survivin expression was correlated with clinical and histopathological characteristics as well as local failure free- (LFFS), distant metastases free- (DMFS), cancer specific- (CSS), and overall survival (OS). Survivin staining intensity was weak in 10%, intermediate in 48% and intense in 42% of the patients. No association between survivin expression and clinicopathologic factors (tumor stage, age and HIV status) could be shown. In univariate analysis, the level of survivin staining was significantly correlated with DMFS (low survivin vs. high survivin: 94% vs. 74%, p = 0.04). T-stage, N-stage and the tumor grading were significantly associated with OS and CSS and with DMFS and LFFS, respectively. In multivariate analysis, survivin was confirmed as independent prognostic parameter for DMFS (RR, 0.04; p = 0.02) and for OS (RR, 0.27; p = 0.04). Our results demonstrated that the level of pretreatment survivin is correlated with the clinical outcome in patients with anal carcinoma treated with concurrent CRT. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the complex role of survivin for the oncologic treatment and to exploit the protein as a therapeutic target in combined modality treatment of anal cancer

  8. Problems and personal preferences in the therapy of rectal and anal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangabashyam, N.

    1985-01-01

    The three modalities of treatment for rectal cancer are radiotherapy chemotherapy and surgery. The problems in the therapy of rectal and anal cancers are discussed. For maximum benefit a combination of pre-operative irradiation and chemotherapy followed by surgery and if needed continued post-operative irradiation therapy is recommended. (author)

  9. Anorectal pain and irritation: anal fissure, levator syndrome, proctalgia fugax, and pruritus ani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, C

    1999-03-01

    Anal fissures, proctalgia fugax, levator ani syndrome, and pruritus ani are common causes of anorectal pain and irritation. The clinician who obtains a thorough history and performs a complete examination can accurately diagnose these disorders. Ancillary tests seldom are helpful and rarely are necessary. Most patients suffering from these conditions readily respond to conservative therapy provided in the primary care practitioner's office.

  10. Clinical application of continent anal plug in bedridden patients with intractable diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Shim, M C; Choi, B Y; Ahn, S H; Jang, S H; Shin, H J

    2001-08-01

    Some patients bedridden from various causes such as stroke or spinal cord injury experience poor control of bowel movement. This causes fecal leakage and diarrhea, increases the risk of perianal excoriation and bed sores, and is a burden on caregivers. To evaluate the efficacy of fecal evacuation and the prevention and treatment of skin complications in intractable diarrhea patients using a new device. A continent anal plug (US Patent No. 5 569 216) comprises an inner balloon surrounded by an outer balloon, both of which are mounted on a silicone tube containing a pair of air passages and an enema fluid inlet. The tube is secured in place in the rectum by the inflatable outer balloon and is designed to drain fecal matter through a thin collapsible hose situated in the anal canal. Thirty-two patients (21 male; median age 61 (range, 28-76) years) were evaluated after fully informed consent. Median duration was 12 (range, 3-37) days. The continent anal plug evacuated efficiently in those patients with loose or watery stools who only required irrigation once daily or not at all. Skin excoriations improved in three to seven days. Minimal leakage was seen around the anus. There was no anorectal mucosal injury noted over 37 days. The continent anal plug is an efficient method of treating patients with loss of bowel control and incontinence because it enables controlled fecal evacuation and helps reduce skin complications without causing anorectal mucosal injury.

  11. A case of anal canal cancer which developed fournier's syndrome after chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momma, Tomoyuki; Kikuchi, Daiki; Watanabe, Yohei; Onozawa, Hisashi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Izumi; Ohki, Shinji; Takenoshita, Seiichi; Yoshida, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Fournier's syndrome is an acute necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum which progresses rapidly, resulting in poor prognosis if not treated appropriately at an early stage. Here we report a case of anal canal cancer which developed Fournier's syndrome after chemoradiotherapy (CRT). A 79-year-old man with anal canal cancer received a double-barrel sigmoid colostomy followed by concurrent CRT (50.4 Gy) with S-1 (100 mg/body). Although the patient was discharged after CRT, he developed a fever at 10 days after discharge and visited our hospital complaining of pain in the anal region. He was hospitalized with a diagnosis of Fournier's syndrome. Extensive drainage, administration of antibiotics, additional drainage and continuous irrigation of the affected region improved the symptoms of Fournier's syndrome. Multiple liver metastases were found on a CT scan at 3 months after onset of Fournier's syndrome, and the patient was transferred to another hospital for systemic chemotherapy. There have been no reports on the onset of Fournier's syndrome after CRT for rectal cancer with anal canal involvement; we report this case with a review of the literature. (author)

  12. Dialoogiaktid ja suhtlusstrateegiad : eesti dialoogikorpuse analüüs / Liina Eskor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eskor, Liina

    2005-01-01

    Artikkel põhineb autori magistritööl, mille eesmärgiks oli kohandada soome arvutilingvisti Kristiina Jokineni suhtlusstrateegiate teooriat eestikeelse infodialoogiga ning leida ja analüüsida strateegiate ja dialoogiaktide seoseid. Tutvustatakse ka eesti dialoogikorpust ja dialoogiaktide tüpoloogiat

  13. Uptake and Predictors of Anal Cancer Screening in Men Who Have Sex With Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Rajan, Shirani D.; Bhatia, Rohini; Cranston, Ross D.; Plankey, Michael W.; Silvestre, Anthony; Ostrow, David G.; Wiley, Dorothy; Shah, Nisha; Brewer, Noel T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated attitudes about and acceptance of anal Papanicolaou (Pap) screening among men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. Free anal Pap screening (cytology) was offered to 1742 MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, who reported history of, attitudes about, and experience with screening. We explored predictors of declining screening with multivariate logistic regression. Results. A history of anal Pap screening was uncommon among non–HIV-infected MSM, but more common among HIV-infected MSM (10% vs 39%; P < .001). Most participants expressed moderate or strong interest in screening (86%), no anxiety about screening (66%), and a strong belief in the utility of screening (65%). Acceptance of screening during this study was high (85%) across all 4 US sites. Among those screened, most reported it was “not a big deal” or “not as bad as expected,” and 3% reported that it was “scary.” Declining to have screening was associated with Black race, anxiety about screening, and low interest, but not age or HIV status. Conclusions. This study demonstrated high acceptance of anal Pap screening among both HIV-infected and non–HIV-infected MSM across 4 US sites. PMID:23865658

  14. Management of anal fistula by ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zirak-Schmidt, Samira; Perdawood, Sharaf

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) is a sphincter-preserving procedure for treatment of anal fistulas described in 2007 by Rojanasakul et al. Several studies have since then assessed the procedure with varied results. This review assesses the relevant literature o...

  15. A New Method to Treat High Anal Fistula - Bidirectional Isobaric Drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Linghua; Wang, Yanmei; Zhao, Jingbo

    2016-01-01

    -category verbal rating scale, VRS), and the score of anal function (Wexner Incontinence Score) were quantitatively evaluated. Results: Comparison of the efficacy between two groups indicated that the complete cure rate differed significantly between two groups (P... in the Experimental group than in the Control group (PVRS and Wexner scores were significantly smaller in Experimental group than in Control group (P

  16. PENGARUH GROUP INVESTIGATION BERBASIS OUTDOOR STUDY TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR ANALITIS SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriana Rasweda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to find out the Group Investigation outdoor study-based having an affect on student’s analytichal thinking ability. The type of research is PretestPosttest Control Group Design. The research was conducted at Lawang 1st Public Senior High School Malang Regency with experiment class X-IIS 1 and control class X-IIS 2. The data is an analytichal thinking ability. Data analysis was done by comparing the gain score student’s analytichal thinking ability using SPSS 17.0 for Windows. The results showed that Group Investigation outdoor study-based having an affect on student’s analytichal thinking ability.  Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui apakah model Group Investigation berbasis outdoor study berpengaruh terhadap kemampuan berpikir analitis siswa. Penelitian ini merupakan jenis penelitian eksperimen semu (quasi experiment yang termasuk penelitian kuantitatif. Rancangan penelitian yang dikembangkan adalah Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design. Penelitian dilaksanakan di SMA Negeri 1 Lawang Kabupaten Malang. Kelas ekperimen ialah kelas X-IIS 1 dan kelas kontrol ialah kelas X-IIS 2. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah kemampuan berpikir analitis. Analisis data dilakukan dengan membandingkan gain score kemampuan berpikir analitis siswa menggunakan bantuan program SPSS 17.0 for Windows. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa model Group Investigation berbasis outdoor study berpengaruh terhadap kemampuan berpikir analitis siswa.

  17. Loovutatava isiku õigused loovutamismenetluses. Kohtupraktika analüüs / Marje Allikmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allikmets, Marje, 1989-

    2013-01-01

    Euroopa vahistamismääruse alusel toimuvast loovutamismenetlusest. Loovutatava isiku õiguste kaitse probleemidest. Artikkel põhineb autori 2013. a. Tartu Ülikooli õigusteaduskonnas kaitstud magistritööl "Loovutatava isiku õigused loovutamismenetluses - kohtupraktika analüüs"

  18. Frequency of operative trauma to anal sphincters: evaluation with endoanal ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatiadis, Apostolos; Konstantinou, Evangelos; Theodosopoulou, Eleni; Mamoura, Konstantinia

    2002-01-01

    Sphincter trauma after anorectal surgery is usually asymptomatic. Frequency of trauma cannot be established with the clinical examination only. The frequency of operative sphincter defects and their correlation with disorders of continence was evaluated with the endoanal ultrasound. This study includes 123 subjects who had undergone anorectal surgery in the past and were examined with endoanal ultrasound for various indications such as continence disorders, recurrent fistula, idiopathic perineal pain, or simple postoperative follow-up. No subjects had isolated external anal sphincter defects. Nineteen of 123 patients (15%) had minor or major continence disorders, 55 patients (45%) had no sphincter defects, 42 (34%) had only internal anal sphincter (IAS) defects, and 26 (21%) had simultaneously external and internal anal sphincter (EAS) defects. The incidence of IAS and EAS trauma after Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy was 1/18 (5.5%) and 0/18 respectively; after fistula repair, 24/42 (57%) and 12/42 (29%); and after anal dilatation, 13/17 (76%) and 4/17 (24%). Sixteen of 26 patients (62%) with EAS trauma and 51/68 patients (75%) with IAS trauma did not report any disorders of continence. In patients with two or more operations, the frequency of IAS trauma was 74%, 30% for EAS trauma, and 26% for continence disorders.

  19. Endoanal MRI of the anal sphincter complex: correlation with cross-sectional anatomy and histology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussain, S. M.; Stoker, J.; Zwamborn, A. W.; den Hollander, J. C.; Kuiper, J. W.; Entius, C. A.; Laméris, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate the in vivo endoanal MRI findings of the anal sphincter with the cross-sectional anatomy and histology. Fourteen patients with rectal tumours were examined with a rigid endoanal MR coil before undergoing abdominoperineal resection. In addition, 12 cadavers

  20. Endoanal MRI of the anal sphincter complex: correlation with cross-sectional anatomy and histology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Hussain (Shahid); J. Stoker (Jacob); A.W. Zwamborn; J.C. den Hollander (Jan); J.-W. Kuiper (Jan-Willem); C.A. Entius; J.S. Lameris

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to correlate the in vivo endoanal MRI findings of the anal sphincter with the cross-sectional anatomy and histology. Fourteen patients with rectal tumours were examined with a rigid endoanal MR coil before undergoing

  1. Sources and severity of self-reported food intolerance after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhagen, E.; Roos, de N.M.; Bouwman, C.A.; Laarhoven, van C.J.H.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Data on food intolerance after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis are scarce. The aim of this study was to identify foods causing intolerance and to determine the nature and severity of reported symptoms. Patients from the Dutch Crohn's and Ulcerative Colitis Association were mailed a survey on food

  2. Schenker laseb kliendil analüüsida teenuse võtmenäitajaid / Toomas Udu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Udu, Toomas

    2005-01-01

    Logistikaettevõtte Schenker IT- ja arendusdirektor tutvustab klientidele mõeldud veebipõhist analüüsitööriista KPI (Key Performance Indicator - soorituse võtmenäitajad), mille abil on võimalik jälgida saadetise kohaletoimetamise tähtaegadest kinnipidamist. Ekraanipildid

  3. Symptom outcomes important to women with anal incontinence: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Vivian W; Rogers, Rebecca G; Bann, Carla M; Arya, Lily; Barber, Matthew D; Lowder, Jerry; Lukacz, Emily S; Markland, Alayne; Siddiqui, Nazema; Wilmot, Amanda; Meikle, Susan F

    2014-05-01

    To develop a framework that describes the most important symptom outcomes for anal incontinence treatment from the patient perspective. A conceptual framework was developed by the Pelvic Floor Disorders Network based on four semistructured focus groups and confirmed in two sets of 10 cognitive interviews including women with anal incontinence. We explored: 1) patient-preferred terminology for describing anal incontinence symptoms; 2) patient definitions of treatment "success"; 3) importance of symptoms and outcomes in the framework; and 4) conceptual gaps (defined as outcomes not previously identified as important). Sessions were conducted according to grounded theory transcribed, coded, and qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed to identify relevant themes. Content and face validity of the framework were further assessed using cognitive interviews. Thirty-four women participated in focus groups and 20 in cognitive interviews. Overall, 29 (54%) were aged 60 years or older, 42 (78%) were white, and 10 (19%) had a high school degree or less. Two overarching outcome themes were identified: "primary bowel leakage symptoms" and "ancillary bowel symptoms." Subdomains important in primary bowel leakage symptoms included leakage characteristics (symptom frequency, amount of leakage, symptom bother) and conditions when bowel leakage occurs (predictability, awareness, urgency). Subdomains important under ancillary bowel symptoms included emptying disorders (constipation, obstructed defecation, and wiping issues) and discomfort (pain, burning). New outcomes identified included predictability, awareness, wiping issues, and discomfort. Women with anal incontinence desire a wide range of symptom outcomes after treatment. These are captured in our conceptual framework, which can aid clinicians and researchers in assessing anal incontinence. LEVEL OF EVIEDENCE: II.

  4. Preoperative Therapy for Lower Rectal Cancer and Modifications in Distance From Anal Sphincter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavioli, Margherita; Losi, Lorena; Luppi, Gabriele; Iacchetta, Francesco; Zironi, Sandra; Bertolini, Federica; Falchi, Anna Maria; Bertoni, Filippo; Natalini, Gianni

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the frequency and magnitude of changes in lower rectal cancer resulting from preoperative therapy and its impact on sphincter-saving surgery. Preoperative therapy can increase the rate of preserving surgery by shrinking the tumor and enhancing its distance from the anal sphincter. However, reliable data concerning these modifications are not yet available in published reports. Methods and Materials: A total of 98 cases of locally advanced cancer of the lower rectum (90 Stage uT3-T4N0-N+ and 8 uT2N+M0) that had undergone preoperative therapy were studied by endorectal ultrasonography. The maximal size of the tumor and its distance from the anal sphincter were measured in millimeters before and after preoperative therapy. Surgery was performed 6-8 weeks after therapy, and the histopathologic margins were compared with the endorectal ultrasound data. Results: Of the 90 cases, 82.5% showed tumor downsizing, varying from one-third to two-thirds or more of the original tumor mass. The distance between the tumor and the anal sphincter increased in 60.2% of cases. The median increase was 0.73 cm (range, 0.2-2.5). Downsizing was not always associated with an increase in distance. Preserving surgery was performed in 60.6% of cases. It was possible in nearly 30% of patients in whom the cancer had reached the anal sphincter before the preoperative therapy. The distal margin was tumor free in these cases. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that in very low rectal cancer, preoperative therapy causes tumor downsizing in >80% of cases and in more than one-half enhances the distance between the tumor and anal sphincter. These modifications affect the primary surgical options, facilitating or making sphincter-saving surgery possible

  5. Anal HPV genotypes and related displasic lesions in Italian and foreign born high-risk males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Giovanna; Beretta, Rosangela; Fasolo, M Michela; Amendola, Antonella; Bianchi, Silvia; Mazza, Francesca; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2009-05-29

    Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer are closely related to infection from high-risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) genotypes. Since HPVs involved in disease progression are reported to vary by geographical regions, this study focuses on HPV genotypes spectrum in 289 males attending a Sexual Transmitted Diseases (STD) unit according to their nationality. Anal cytology, Digene Hybrid Capture Assay (HC2) and HPV genotyping were evaluated in 226 Italian (IT) and 63 foreign born (FB) subjects, recruited between January 2003 and December 2006. FB people were younger (median 32y-IQR 27-35 vs 36y-IQR 31-43, respectively; Mann-Whitney test por=atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS)) on anal cytology (95.0% vs 84.04%) (p=0.032; OR 3.61; 95% CI 1.04-1.23). HPV-16 is by far the most common genotype found in anal cytological samples independently from nationality while differences in distribution of other HPV genotypes were observed. The probability of infection from high-risk HPVs was higher in FB (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.07-2.68) and is due to a higher rate of HPV-58 (OR 4.98; 95% CI 2.06-12.04), to a lower rate of HPV-11 (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.16-0.77), to the presence of other high-risk genotypes (HPV-45, HPV-66, HPV-69). Multiple infections rate was high and comparable between IT and FB people. The relative contribution of each HPV genotype in the development of pre-neoplastic disease to an early age in the FB group cannot be argued by this study and more extensive epidemiological evaluations are needed to define the influence of each genotype and the association with the most prevalent high-risk HPVs on cytological intraepithelial lesions development.

  6. Gender Nonconformity and Birth Order in Relation to Anal Sex Role Among Gay Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Monks, D Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P

    2018-05-01

    Androphilia is associated with an elevated number of older brothers among natal males. This association, termed the fraternal birth order effect, has been observed among gay men who exhibit marked gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity has been linked to gay men's preferred anal sex role. The present study investigated whether these two lines of research intersect by addressing whether the fraternal birth order effect was associated with both gender nonconformity and a receptive anal sex role (243 gay men, 91 heterosexual men). Consistent with previous research, we identified the fraternal birth order effect in our sample of gay men. Also, gay men were significantly more gender-nonconforming on adulthood and recalled childhood measures compared to heterosexual men. When gay men were compared based on anal sex role (i.e., top, versatile, bottom), all groups showed significantly greater recalled childhood and adult male gender nonconformity than heterosexual men, but bottoms were most nonconforming. Only gay men with a bottom anal sex role showed evidence of a fraternal birth order effect. A sororal birth order effect was found in our sample of gay men, driven by versatiles. No significant associations were found between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity measures. These results suggest that the fraternal birth order effect may apply to a subset of gay men who have a bottom anal sex role preference and that this subgroup is more gender-nonconforming. However, there were no significant associations between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity at the individual level. As such, based on the present study, whether processes underpinning the fraternal birth order effect influence gender nonconformity is equivocal.

  7. Oral and Anal Vaccination Confers Full Protection against Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM) in Rainbow Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Maki; Strøm, Helene Kragelund; Raida, Martin Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate for decades. Recently both M-like cells and dendritic cells have been discovered in the intestine of rainbow trout. It is therefore likely that antigens reaching the intestine can be taken up and thereby induce immunity in orally vaccinated fish. The objective of this project was to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout induces protection against an experimental waterborne infection with the pathogenic enterobacteria Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 1 the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM). Rainbow trout were orally vaccinated with AquaVac ERM Oral (MERCK Animal Health) or an experimental vaccine bacterin of Y. ruckeri O1. Both vaccines were tested with and without a booster vaccination four months post the primary vaccination. Furthermore, two groups of positive controls were included, one group receiving the experimental oral vaccine in a 50 times higher dose, and the other group receiving a single dose administered anally in order to bypass the stomach. Each group was bath challenged with 6.3×108 CFU/ml Y. ruckeri, six months post the primary vaccination. The challenge induced significant mortality in all the infected groups except for the groups vaccinated anally with a single dose or orally with the high dose of bacterin. Both of these groups had 100% survival. These results show that a low dose of Y. ruckeri bacterin induces full protection when the bacterin is administered anally. Oral vaccination also induces full protection, however, at a dose 50 times higher than if the fish were to be vaccinated anally. This indicates that much of the orally fed antigen is digested in the stomach before it reaches the second segment of the intestine where it can be taken up as immunogenic antigens and presented to lymphocytes. PMID:24705460

  8. Cause-specific colostomy rates after radiotherapy for anal cancer: a Danish multicentre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunesen, Kåre G; Nørgaard, Mette; Lundby, Lilli; Havsteen, Hanne; Buntzen, Steen; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole; Laurberg, Søren

    2011-09-10

    In anal cancer, colostomy-free survival is a measure of anal sphincter preservation after treatment with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Failure to control anal cancer and complications of treatment are alternative indications for colostomy. However, no data exist on cause-specific colostomy rates. We examined this in a cohort study. Through national registries and review of medical records, we identified patients with anal cancer diagnosed from 1995 to 2003 who had curative-intent radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy in four Danish centers. We computed cumulative incidence of tumor-related colostomy and therapy-related colostomy, treating colostomy and death as competing events. Follow-up started at completion of radiotherapy and continued throughout 2008. We used competing risk regression to compute hazard ratios (HRs) to compare the cumulative incidence of cause-specific colostomies between age, sex, tumor size, chemotherapy, and local excision before radiotherapy. We included 235 patients with anal cancer. The 5-year cumulative incidences of tumor-related and therapy-related colostomy were 26% (95% CI, 21% to 32%) and 8% (95% CI, 5% to 12%), respectively. Tumor size greater than 6 cm versus less than 4 cm was a risk factor for tumor-related colostomy (adjusted HR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.7 to 8.1), and local excision before radiotherapy was a risk factor for therapy-related colostomy (adjusted HR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 13.5). After curative-intent radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, one third of patients had a colostomy, of which one third were related to therapy. Large tumor size was associated with a higher risk of tumor-related colostomy, whereas history of prior excision was associated with an increased incidence of therapy-related colostomy.

  9. Unsatisfactory exfoliative anal cytology samples, 15-year experience with histologic, cytologic, and molecular follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ruba; McMeekin, Emily; Taege, Alan J; Hekman, James M; Brainard, Jennifer A; Underwood, Dawn; Procop, Gary W; Sturgis, Charles D

    2018-02-01

    The incidence of anal carcinoma has risen in recent decades. Exfoliative cytology screening of selected high risk patients is performed in many centers. Unsatisfactory cytology results are frustrating to patients, clinicians, and laboratorians. The aim of this study is to ascertain outcomes of patients with non-diagnostic anal cytology. A retrospective review of anal cytology testing performed at the Cleveland Clinic between 01/01/2001 and 12/31/2015 was performed. All cases were received as liquid-based samples and processed as ThinPreps (Hologic, Marlborough, MA). Co-testing for HR-HPV DNA was performed using Hybrid Capture 2® (Qiagen, Germantown, MD) in the majority of patients. Of 1,276 ThinPrep anal cytology samples, 130 (10%) were deemed unsatisfactory. 77% of patients were HIV positive. 85% were males. Of the unsatisfactory cases, 116 (89%) were co-tested for HR-HPV DNA. Of those, 40 patients (34%) had a simultaneous positive HR-HPV DNA. Adequate follow up cytology within a one year and a two year period revealed that 18/130 (14%) and 26/130 (20%) of patients had ASC or SIL respectively. Histologic follow-up within one and two years showed 3 patients (2%) and 8 patients (6%) with HSIL or worse. High risk patients with unsatisfactory anal cytology are not "negative". At least one-third proved to be concomitantly HR-HPV DNA positive with one-fifth showing subsequent cytologic squamous abnormalities and with more than 5% being diagnosed with a high grade intraepithelial lesion within two years. Prompt repeat cytology and/or HR-HPV DNA is recommended for high risk patients with non-diagnostic cytology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Rectal squamous cell carcinoma in immunosuppressed populations: is this a distinct entity from anal cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    COGHILL, Anna E.; SHIELS, Meredith S.; RYCROFT, Randi K.; COPELAND, Glenn; FINCH, Jack L.; HAKENEWERTH, Anne M.; PAWLISH, Karen S.; ENGELS, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the rectum is rare, but as with anal cancer, risk may be increased among immunosuppressed individuals. We assessed risk of rectal SCC in HIV-infected people. Design Population-based registry Methods We utilized the HIV/AIDS Cancer Match, a linkage of US HIV and cancer registries (1991–2010), to ascertain cases of anal SCC, rectal SCC, rectal non-SCC, and colon non-SCC. We compared risk in HIV-infected persons to the general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and evaluated risk factors using Poisson regression. We reviewed cancer registry case notes to confirm site and histology for a subset of cases. Results HIV-infected persons had an excess risk of rectal SCC compared to the general population (SIR=28.9; 95%CI 23.2–35.6), similar to the increase for anal SCC (SIR=37.3). Excess rectal SCC risk was most pronounced among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM, SIR=61.2). Risk was not elevated for rectal non-SCC (SIR=0.88) or colon non-SCC (SIR=0.63). Individuals diagnosed with AIDS had higher rectal SCC rates than those with HIV-only (incidence rate ratio=1.86; 95%CI 1.04–3.31). Based on available information, one-third of rectal SCCs were determined to be misclassified anal cancer. Conclusions HIV-infected individuals, especially with advanced immunosuppression, appear to have substantially elevated risk for rectal SCC. As for anal SCC, rectal SCC risk was highest in MSM, pointing to involvement of a sexually transmitted infection such as human papillomavirus. Site misclassification was present, and detailed information on tumor location is needed to prove that rectal SCC is a distinct entity. PMID:26372482

  11. Anal microbiota profiles in HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoqin; Fadrosh, Doug; Ma, Bing; Ravel, Jacques; Goedert, James J

    2014-03-13

    Because differences in anal microbial populations (microbiota) could affect acquisition of HIV or other conditions, especially among MSM, we profiled the microbiota of the anal canal, assessed its stability, and investigated associations with diversity and composition. Microbiota profiles in anal swabs collected from 76 MSM (52 in 1989, swab-1; 66 1-5 years later, swab-2) were compared by HIV status (25 HIV-positive), T-cell subsets, and questionnaire data. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified, sequenced (Illumina MiSeq), and clustered into species-level operational taxonomic units (QIIME and Greengenes). Regression models and Wilcoxon tests were used for associations with alpha diversity (unique operational taxonomic units, Shannon's index). Composition was compared by Adonis (QIIME). Most anal bacteria were Firmicutes (mean 60.6%, range 21.1-91.1%) or Bacteroidetes (29.4%, 4.1-70.8%). Alpha diversity did not change between the two swabs (N = 42 pairs). In swab-2, HIV-positives had lower alpha diversity (P ≤ 0.04) and altered composition, with fewer Firmicutes and more Fusobacteria taxa (P ≤ 0.03), not completely attributable to very low CD4(+) cell count (median 232 cells/μl), prior AIDS clinical diagnosis (N = 17), or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use (N = 6). Similar but weaker differences were observed in swab-1 (HIV-positive median 580 CD4(+) cells/μl; no trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). Associations with T-cell subsets, smoking, and sexual practices were null or inconsistent. The anal microbiota of MSM was relatively stable over 1-5 years. However, with uncontrolled, advanced HIV infection, the microbiota had altered composition and reduced diversity partially attributable to antibiotics. Investigations of microbial community associations with other immune perturbations and clinical abnormalities are needed.

  12. Design and Psychometric Evaluation of the Quality of Life in Patients With Anal Fistula Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Márquez, Manuel; Espínola-Cortés, Natalia; Reina-Duarte, Angel; Granero-Molina, José; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano; Hernández-Padilla, José Manuel

    2017-10-01

    Quality of life is often considered when deciding and evaluating the treatment strategy for patients diagnosed with anal fistula. The purpose of this study was to develop and psychometrically test the Quality of Life in Patients with Anal Fistula Questionnaire. This was an observational cross-sectional study for the development and validation of a psychometric tool. The study was conducted at a general hospital in the southeast of Spain. A convenience sample included 54 patients diagnosed with anal fistula. The reliability of the tool was assessed through its internal consistency (Cronbach α) and temporal stability (Spearman correlation coefficient (r) between test-retest). The content validity index of the items and the scale was calculated. Correlation analysis and an ordinal regression analysis between the developed tool and the Short Form 12 Health Survey examined its concurrent validity. Principal component analysis and known-group analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test examined its construct validity. The reliability of the developed questionnaire was very high (α = 0.908; r = 0.861; p questionnaire to detect expected differences in patients presenting with different symptomatology. The major limitations of this study were the use of a small sample of Spanish-speaking patients, not including patients in the initial development of the questionnaire, and developing the scoring system using a summation method. The Quality of Life in Patients with Anal Fistula Questionnaire has proven to be a valid, reliable, and concise tool that could contribute to the evaluation of quality of life among patients with an anal fistula. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A368.

  13. Morphologic changes of the anal sphincter musculature during and after temporary stool deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, M; Fein, M; Fuchs, K H; Bussen, D; Grun, C; Thiede, A

    2001-04-01

    Temporary stool deviation, using a stoma, is a well-known surgical principle to protect low colorectal or coloanal anastomoses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate any morphologic changes with regard to the anal sphincter muscles during and after temporary ileostomy. Forty-four patients with rectal carcinomas were studied prospectively. All patients underwent low anterior resection. Reconstruction was performed using either a coloanal pouch or a straight end-to-end anastomosis. A protective stoma was fashioned in all 44 patients (ileostomy n=41; colostomy n=3). Stoma closure was carried out after a median of 85 days (41-330 days). Using a standard protocol, anal-sphincter thickness [m. puborectalis, external anal sphincter (EAS) and internal anal (IAS) sphincter] was assessed by means of endoanal ultrasonography preoperatively, at the time of stoma closure, and every 3 months thereafter for 1 year. The diameter of the puborectal muscle decreased from a median preoperative value of 6.3 mm to 5.7 mm at the time of stoma closure (P=0.03). After 3 months, 6.2 mm was measured. This value remained stable for the complete follow-up period. Similar results were recorded for the EAS. The IAS thickness remained stable throughout the study period, measuring between 2.1 mm and 2.4 mm. Temporary stool deviation does lead to morphologic changes of the anal sphincter. While the smooth muscle remains unchanged, the striated counterpart undergoes atrophic transformation. However, after passage reconstruction, i.e., stoma closure, a rapid regeneration of the voluntary muscles is observed.

  14. The diagnostic accuracy of endovaginal and transperineal ultrasound for detecting anal sphincter defects: The PREDICT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, A-M; Abdool, Z; Sultan, A H; Thakar, R

    2011-07-01

    To determine the accuracy and predictive value of transperineal (TPU) and endovaginal ultrasound (EVU) in the detection of anal sphincter defects in women with obstetric anal sphincter injuries and/or postpartum symptoms of faecal incontinence. One hundred and sixty-five women were recruited, four women were excluded as they were seen years after their last delivery. TPU and EVU, followed by endonanal ultrasound (EAU), were performed using the B&K Viking 2400 scanner. Sensitivity and specificity, as well as predictive values with 95% confidence intervals, for detecting anal sphincter defects were calculated for EVU and TPU, using EAU as the reference standard. On EAU a defect was found in 42 (26%) women: 39 (93%) had an external (EAS) and 23 (55%) an internal anal sphincter (IAS) defect. Analysable images of one level of the EAS combined with an analysable IAS were available in 140 (87%) women for EVU and in 131 (81%) for TPU. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of any defect was 48% (30-67%) and 85% (77-91%) for EVU and 64% (44-81%) and 85% (77-91%) for TPU, respectively. Although EAU using a rotating endoprobe is the validated reference standard in the identification of anal sphincter defects, it is not universally available. However while TPU and/or EVU with conventional ultrasound probes can be useful in identifying normality, for clinical purposes they are not sensitive enough to identify an underlying sphincter defect. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. La gramática visual del español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romo Simón, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo investiga las posibilidades analíticas y descriptivas que ofrece el lenguaje visual aplicado al estudio de fenómenos gramaticales del español y su viabilidad como plataforma de introducción de dichos fenómenos en el aula de español como lengua extranjera. A continuación se definen las características del uso funcional del lenguaje gráfico como medio de representación de elementos gramaticales, que hemos denominado: imagen metalingüística. Finalmente, se ofrecen algunos ejemplos de imagen metalingüística de algunos fenómenos gramaticales del español que resultan especialmente problemáticos en el aula de ELE.

  16. Il dono del racconto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polito, Paola

    1998-01-01

    L'articolo indaga a vari livelli strutturali del romanzo "Il coraggio del pettirosso" (rete metaforica, dialogismo diegetico, dialogismo come fenomeno di voce, strategie discorsive messe in atto dalla voce narrante, stile colloquiale) la complessa realizzazione testuale del genere narrativo...

  17. Resolución experimental y analítica de un problema de dinámica rotacional: interpretación de los resultados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rosario Follari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7941.2016v33n2p606   La resolución de problemas y las prácticas de laboratorio son parte esencial de las actividades que deben realizar los estudiantes de Física en sus primeros cursos de Física. Se relata una experiencia de aula en la que se propuso a los estudiantes de Física II del primer año de las carreras Profesorado y Licenciatura en Física, el estudio de un carrete que rueda sin deslizar. La misma constó de dos partes: en la primera se les solicitó que planificaran y llevaran a cabo una experiencia para determinar el momento de inercia del carrete; en la segunda se les pidió el desarrollo analítico para encontrar la aceleración y fuerza de rozamiento al hacerlo rodar. La actividad se llevó a cabo en grupo y los resultados fueron expuestos y discutidos. La propuesta resultó positiva ya que llevó a los estudiantes a expresar sus ideas, a la discusión grupal y promovió la autonomía para planificar experiencias sencillas y llevarlas a cabo. Se puso énfasis en la interpretación de las ecuaciones resultantes.

  18. Evaluación de un modelo didáctico analógico para el aprendizaje de energía interna y temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamorano, R.O.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Las dificultades de los estudiantes para conceptualizar correctamente las leyes de la termodinámica han sido estudiadas por diferentes autores, asimismo se han detectado los errores en nociones relativas a las magnitudes involucradas. Esas dificultades parecen residir en la falta de correspondencia entre el modelo macroscópico de las leyes de la termodinámica y el modelo cinético molecular de la materia. Ambos modelos teoréticos, uno macroscópico y otro microscópico se plantean habitualmente en la clase, de modo que esta falta de conexión sería en parte proveniente de la instrucción. Consideramos que existe una continuidad entre los modelos conceptuales de los alumnos y el modelo teorético objeto del aprendizaje. En este trabajo se propone un modelo didáctico analógico para la enseñanza de los conceptos de temperatura y energía interna y se evalúa su eficiencia. Los resultados obtenidos fueron positivos mostrando una mejor utilización del modelo cinético molecular por parte de los alumnos.

  19. El nexo migración-desplazamiento-asilo en el orden fronterizo de las cosas. Una propuesta analítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Naranjo Giraldo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Las evidencias empíricas de la multiplicación de patrones y ciclos migratorios complejos cuya característica es la mezcla entre categorías de migrantes, son la expresión de la tendencia de los movimientos migratorios desde el llamado Sur global hacia el Norte global a manifestarse como migración forzada, en especial desde el fin de la Guerra fría. Asumir el reconocimiento de los nexos entre tipos de migración y de los diferentes posicionamientos de las personas, plantea retos de conceptualización en torno a las continuidades entre procesos migratorios, en la perspectiva de superar dualismos teóricos y metodológicos que analizan estas tipologías de manera separada. A partir de la idea de que el fenómeno y las conexiones entre el movimiento de personas, el régimen internacional de los refugiados y el estudio de los desplazamientos han ocurrido bajo el orden nacional de las cosas, y que este mismo parámetro ha inspirado los estudios en las Ciencias Sociales, hacemos una propuesta analítica diferente para explicar el nexo migración-desplazamiento-asilo en el marco del régimen de fronteras, y así avanzar en el desvelamiento del orden fronterizo de las cosas.

  20. El nexo migración-desplazamiento-asilo en el orden fronterizo de las cosas. Una propuesta analítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Naranjo Giraldo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las evidencias empíricas de la multiplicación de patrones y ciclos migratorios complejos cuya característica es la mezcla entre categorías de migrantes, son la expresión de la tendencia de los movimientos migratorios desde el llamado Sur global hacia el Norte global a manifestarse como migración forzada, en especial desde el fin de la Guerra fría. Asumir el reconocimiento de los nexos entre tipos de migración y de los diferentes posicionamientos de las personas, plantea retos de conceptualización en torno a las continuidades entre procesos migratorios, en la perspectiva de superar dualismos teóricos y metodológicos que analizan estas tipologías de manera separada. A partir de la idea de que el fenómeno y las conexiones entre el movimiento de personas, el régimen internacional de los refugiados y el estudio de los desplazamientos han ocurrido bajo el orden nacional de las cosas, y que este mismo parámetro ha inspirado los estudios en las Ciencias Sociales, hacemos una propuesta analítica diferente para explicar el nexo migracióndesplazamiento-asilo en el marco del régimen de fronteras, y así avanzar en el desvelamiento del orden fronterizo de las cosas.

  1. Desarrollo teórico de la Resiliencia y su aplicación en situaciones adversas: Una revisión analítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina García-Vesga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo hacemos una revisión analítica acerca de las teorías surgidas en las últimas tres décadas alrededor de la capacidad que poseen los niños y las niñas para afrontar situaciones adversas. Realizamos un recorrido por las definiciones del concepto, clasificándolas según la relación que hacen los distintos autores y autoras con los conceptos de adaptabilidad, capacidad y competencia. Identificamos dos momentos en la evolución teórica del enfoque y analizamos los fundamentos psicológicos, los factores de personalidad, y el temperamento, como categorías asociadas al concepto Resiliencia. Recogemos las implicaciones prácticas en programas que promueven la construcción de la Resiliencia, basados en el reconocimiento de la importancia de los entornos -familia, comunidad, Estado- en interacción continua con el individuo. Explicitamos elementos comunes en los programas que se han desarrollado en países como Perú, Argentina y Brasil.

  2. Genetic Architecture of the Variation in Male-Specific Ossified Processes on the Anal Fins of Japanese Medaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawajiri, Maiko; Fujimoto, Shingo; Yoshida, Kohta; Yamahira, Kazunori; Kitano, Jun

    2015-10-28

    Traits involved in reproduction evolve rapidly and show great diversity among closely related species. However, the genetic mechanisms that underlie the diversification of courtship traits are mostly unknown. Japanese medaka fishes (Oryzias latipes) use anal fins to attract females and to grasp females during courtship; the males have longer anal fins with male-specific ossified papillary processes on the fin rays. However, anal fin morphology varies between populations: the southern populations tend to have longer anal fins and more processes than the northern populations. In the present study, we conducted quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to investigate the genetic architecture underlying the variation in the number of papillary processes of Japanese medaka fish and compared the QTL with previously identified QTL controlling anal fin length. First, we found that only a few QTL were shared between anal fin length and papillary process number. Second, we found that the numbers of papillary processes on different fin rays often were controlled by different QTL. Finally, we produced another independent cross and found that some QTL were repeatable between the two crosses, whereas others were specific to only one cross. These results suggest that variation in the number of papillary processes is polygenic and controlled by QTL that are distinct from those controlling anal fin length. Thus, different courtship traits in Japanese medaka share a small number of QTL and have the potential for independent evolution. Copyright © 2015 Kawajiri et al.

  3. Incidence and survival patterns of rare anal canal neoplasms using the surveillance epidemiology and end results registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metildi, Cristina; McLemore, Elisabeth C; Tran, Thuy; Chang, David; Cosman, Bard; Ramamoorthy, Sonia L; Saltzstein, Sidney L; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2013-10-01

    Small cell, neuroendocrine tumors, and melanoma of the anus are rare. Limited data exist on the incidence and management for these rare tumors. A large, prospective, population-based database was used to determine incidence and survival patterns of rare anal neoplasms. The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registry was queried to identify patients diagnosed with anal canal neoplasms. Incidence and survival patterns were evaluated with respect to age, sex, race, histology, stage, and therapy. We identified 7078 cases of anal canal neoplasms: melanoma (n = 149), neuroendocrine (n = 61), and small cell neuroendocrine (n = 26). Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (n = 6842) served as the comparison group. Anal melanoma (AM) demonstrated the lowest survival rate at 2.5 per cent. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) demonstrated similar survival as SCC (10-year survival for regional disease of 25 and 22.3%, respectively). Ten-year survival of small cell NETs resembled AM (5.3 vs 2.5%). Age 60 years or older, sex, black race, stage, and surgery were independent predictors of survival. This study presents the largest patient series of rare anal neoplasms. NETs of the anal canal demonstrate similar survival patterns to SCC, whereas small cell NETs more closely resemble AM. Accurate histologic diagnosis is vital to determine treatment and surgical management because survival patterns can differ among rare anal neoplasms.

  4. Acerca del Psicoanálisis de las Relaciones Vinculares

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    Sonia Cesio

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Descripción del marco terapéutico que posibilita un despliegue emocional equivalente a transferir conflictos sobre el encuadre, como para que sea accesible a la acción analítica e interpretativa. El cambio en lo que respecta al análisis clásico tiene que ver con la modificación del concepto de realidad externa, y la descripción del vínculo diferenciándolo de relación objetal. El psicoanálisis vincular propicia las transferencias vinculares, fenómeno que no puede ocurrir en el análisis individual. La relación clásica con el analista posee un componente real vincular, pero no admite la transferencia sobre él de la situación del conflicto matrimonial, familiar o grupal. La dinámica de los análisis de las configuraciones vinculares, está dado por el tope que implica la presencia del otro real en la regresión fantasmática. Esa presencia atribuye significados, emociones, sentimientos. La transferencia en la situación analítica desarrolla la presentación de una situación que no tuvo lugar antes, la relación de las alteridades que se constituyen como sujetos cuando se instituye el vínculo. Se posibilita la constitución de un aparato vincular que se origina y permite la relación con los otros. La ajenidad del analista promueve el despliegue del amor infantil con lo cual se espera modificar ese aspecto; eso convierte a la transferencia en un instrumento para construir la intersubjetividad, entendida como relación entre los sujetos cuya ajenidad daría sentido al origen de un vínculo, y produce una situación inaugural, estableciendo marcas que no tenían registro previo. Con esta modalidad de abordaje se suscitan otros tipos de mecanismos de defensa: al vínculo con otro (resistencias de vincularidad, a lo ajeno del otro, y al surgimiento de lo nuevo.

  5. Convergencia y televisión: retos del legislador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Alberto Pérez Gómez

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de convergencia entre los medios de comunicación, las telecomunicaciones y las tecnologías de la información que está teniendo lugar en la actualidad abre un nuevo mundo de posibilidades, pero el resultado del proceso no depende sólo de los aspectos técnicos, sino también en buena medida de la postura que adopte el legislador. Los cambios que introduce este proceso de convergencia en el sector de la televisión hacen que muchas de las normas existentes pasen a ser obsoletas. El legislador está obligado, en primer lugar, a analizar cuáles son las implicaciones sociales, culturales, técnicas y económicas del proceso de convergencia sobre la televisión, para poder así a continuación dar cumplida respuesta a los nuevos retos que se le plantean: el control de los contenidos, la redefinición del servicio público, el control de la concentración empresarial, la garantía del derecho de acceso de los ciudadanos, la concesión de licencias, la transición del sistema analógico al digital, la creación de autoridades independientes en esta materia...

  6. Epidemiology of anal HPV infection in high-risk men attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Puerto Rico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Colón-López

    Full Text Available Recent studies in Puerto Rico have reported an increasing incidence of anal cancer in Puerto Rican men. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among men attending an STI clinic in Puerto Rico.We conducted a cross-sectional study among 205 men 18 years and older. A comprehensive survey was administered that included a demographic and a behavioral assessment. Separate logistic regression models were performed to determine factors associated with any, high-risk (HR, and multiple anal HPV infection.The mean age of the study sample was 38.0±13.5 years. The most common HR types were 58, 51 and 31. Overall, HR anal HPV infection was found in 53.5% of the participants. Multiple HPV types in the anal canal were found in 47.6% of the sample. A third (29.8% of participants reported being men who had sex with men (MSM. MSM had a significantly higher prevalence of any, HR and multiple HPV infection (p-value<0.05. Separate multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that being MSM was associated with any (OR = 4.5; [95%CI: 1.9-10.7], HR (OR = 3.4; [95%CI: 1.1-10.3 and multiple anal HPV infection (OR = 3.6; [95%CI: 1.5-9.1. HIV was marginally associated with multiple anal HPV infection in multivariate analysis (OR = 3.3; 95%CI = 1.0-11.0.Anal HPV is common among sexually active men attending this STI clinic, with higher likelihood of anal HPV infection among MSM.

  7. La limitada capacidad del concepto de populismo punitivo como herramienta de interpretación del sistema penal colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando León Tamayo Arboleda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En los intentos por explicar la evolución reciente en la configuración de los sistemas de castigo penal y el reformismo que en esta materia se ha presentado en diversos países del hemisferio occidental, se ha propuesto el concepto de populismo punitivo como herramienta analítica. Sin embargo, su capacidad explicativa parece reducida desde el punto de vista teórico, debido a la dificultad para su determinación y diferenciación de otros conceptos, así como desde el punto de vista práctico, por su insuficiencia para explicar las tendencias recientes en materia de castigo. Por ello, el presente artículo busca problematizar la capacidad analítica que brinda el concepto de populismo punitivo, a partir de un análisis teórico contrastado con las recientes tendencias políticas en Colombia y las reformas penales que mayor impacto han tenido desde la implementación del Código Penal vigente. A partir de lo anterior, se concluye que el concepto de populismo punitivo no representa una novedad frente a otros conceptos previamente utilizados en Colombia, y que su formulación tiene una limitada capacidad para explicar la política criminal en el país.

  8. El Archivo de la Palabra : contexto y proyecto del repositorio audiovisual del Ateneu Barcelonès

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcaraz Martínez, Rubén

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Es presenten els resultats del projecte de digitalització del fons audiovisual de l'Ateneu Barcelonès iniciat per l'Àrea de Biblioteca i Arxiu Històric l'any 2011. S'explica la metodologia de treball fent èmfasi en la gestió dels fitxers analògics i nascuts digitals i en la problemàtica derivada dels drets d'autor. Finalment, es presenta l'Arxiu de la Paraula i l'@teneu hub, nous repositori i web respectivament, l'objectiu dels quals és difondre el patrimoni audiovisual i donar accés centralitzat als diferents continguts generats per l'entitat.Se presentan los resultados del proyecto de digitalización del fondo audiovisual del Ateneu Barcelonès iniciado por el área de Biblioteca y Archivo Histórico en 2011. Se explica la metodología de trabajo haciendo énfasis en la gestión de los ficheros analógicos y nacidos digitales y en la problemática derivada de los derechos de autor. Finalmente, se presenta el Archivo de la Palabra y el @teneo hub, nuevos repositorio y web respectivamente, cuyo objetivo es difundir el patrimonio audiovisual y dar acceso centralizado a los diferentes contenidos generados por la entidad.This paper reports on the project to digitize the audiovisual archives of the Ateneu Barcelonès, which was launched by that institution’s Library and Archive department in 2011. The paper explains the methodology used to create the repository, focusing on the management of analogue files and born-digital materials and the question of author’s rights. Finally, it presents the new repository L’Arxiu de la Paraula (the Word Archive and the new website, @teneu hub, which are designed to disseminate the Ateneu’s audiovisual heritage and provide centralized access to its different contents.

  9. Anal carcinomas: the role of endoanal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in staging, response evaluation and follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, Jyoti; Shaw, Aidan; Griffin, Nyree [Guys and St. Thomas' Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Grant, Lee A. [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Schizas, Alexis M.P.; Datta, Vivek; Williams, Andrew B. [Guys and St. Thomas' Hospital, Department of General Surgery, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Anal carcinoma is an important but rare condition, managed in specialist centres. Both endoanal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used in the locoregional staging and follow-up of patients with anal cancer, and both may assist in treatment planning and prognosis. Recent guidelines published by the European Society for Medical Oncology have recommended MRI as the technique of choice for assessment of locoregional disease. This paper describes the techniques for both endoanal ultrasound and MRI, and compares the relative merits and disadvantages of each in the local assessment of anal carcinoma. (orig.)

  10. El uso del lenguaje estadístico R: herramientas para su uso en docencia e investigación

    OpenAIRE

    Cid, Fabricio Damian

    2017-01-01

    El uso del lenguaje estadístico R: Herramientas para su uso en docencia e investigación. Articulo publicado en la sección "TICs y Docencia" de la Revista Actualidad Analítica" Fil: Cid, Fabricio Damian. Universidad Nacional de San Luis. Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina

  11. El pensamiento económico de Juan de Lugo. Un estudio sobre sus teorías del precio justo, del dinero y del interés

    OpenAIRE

    Monsalve Serrano, Favio

    2002-01-01

    Esta tesis aborda el pensamiento económico de Juan de Lugo y, más concretamente, sus teorías del precio justo, del dinero y de la usura. También aborda un breve análisis comparativo entre Juan de Lugo y escolásticos coetáneos, principalmente Luis de Molina, así como una proyección de las ideas de Lugo sobre el análisis económico moderno. La teoría del precio justo se aborda desde un enfoque analítico mostrando cada uno de los elementos que componen dicha teoría (respeto a la justicia, teor...

  12. Análisis filogenético y biogeográfico de los peces del genero Diapterus Ranzani, 1842 (percoidei. gerreidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Pliego, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Los peces del género Diapterus (familia Gerreidae) se distribuyen en los mares tropicales y subtropicales de América. Se distinguen de otros guerreidos por tener aserraciones en el preopérculo, lacrimal sin aserraciones, placas faríngeas con dentición caniniforme, cuerpo romboidal y segunda espina de las aletas dorsal y anal gruesas. El género está conformado por cuatro especies: D. auratus y D. rhombeus, en las costas del Atlántico occidental y D.brevirostris y D. aureolus en las costas del ...

  13. Evaluación de la prevalencia de disfunción sexual en mujeres médicos, del Eje Cafetero colombiano, en etapa de climaterio.

    OpenAIRE

    Espitia De La Hoz, Franklin José

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: evaluar la prevalencia de disfunción sexual en mujeres médicos, del Eje Cafetero, en etapa de climaterio. Materiales y métodos: estudio analítico y transversal en 132 mujeres médicos en climaterio, en las principales ciudades del Eje Cafetero, entre enero de 2013 y junio del 2016. Mediante una entrevista se les aplicó un instrumento para la obtención de datos socio-demográficos y el índice de función sexual femenina (IFSF). Resultados: la edad promedio en este grupo de mujeres es de...

  14. Incidencia de anemia ferropénica y factores asociados en las gestantes del distrito de Rapayan, Ancash, Perú: Periodo mayo 2010 - marzo 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Vite Gutiérrez, Flor Yessenia

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo: Conocer la incidencia de anemia ferropénica y factores asociados en la gestación en el distrito de Rapayan, Ancash, Perú. Material y método: estudio prospectivo, analítico y longitudinal en 39 gestantes del distrito de Rapayán, provincia de Huari, departamento de Ancash, Perú durante el periodo comprendido entre mayo 2010 y marzo del 2011. Se procedió a tomar muestras de sangre del total de la muestra n= 39 gestantes, durante los tres trimestres con el fin de controlar los niveles d...

  15. Metodología para recuperar metales preciosos: Oro, plata y grupo del platino, presentes en desechos electrónicos

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros Gómez, Honorio

    2011-01-01

    Se desarrolló a nivel de laboratorio una metodología de extracción de los metales preciosos oro, plata y del grupo del platino (platino, paladio, iridio y rodio) presentes en desechos electrónicos. Para determinarla, se indagó el estado del arte en la recuperación de metales a partir de desechos electrónicos, se desensamblaron componentes electrónicos, se caracterizó el material electrónico mediante técnicas analíticas de microscopia electrónica de barrido “Scanning electron microscope” SEM, ...

  16. del cambio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Canales

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las propuestas y los compromisos en materia de cobertura y de financiamiento en el periodo 2000-2006. En particular, revisa las modificaciones y los ajustes de los tres principales documentos en los que se expresaron las iniciativas: el de la Asociación Nacional de Universidades e Instituciones de Educación Superior, el del equipo de la transición y el programa sectorial. Los resultados muestran que las cifras de atención a la demanda educativa e inversión quedaron lejos de las metas autoimpuestas por el gobierno federal y que será necesario realizar mayores esfuerzos para atender tales desafíos.

  17. Manejo dos portadores das neoplasias intraepiteliais anais Managment of anal intra-epithelial neoplasia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Acredita-se que a neoplasia intraepitelial anal (NIA, provocada pelo HPV, seja a lesão precursora do carcinoma anal. Segundo a literatura, são encontradas entre 11% e 52% dos homens infectados pelo HIV, entre 6% a 20% dos homens e 1% a 2,8% das mulheres sem essa infecção. Entre 8,5% e 13% das NIA de alto grau evoluirão para carcinoma invasivo, indicando a necessidade do rastreamento e do seguimento desses doentes para prevenção. Não há tratamento satisfatório com baixos índices de morbidez e a recidiva é comum. Em geral, as formas de tratamento podem de ser divididas em tópicas, entre elas, ácido tricloroacético, podofilina, podofilotoxina, imiquimod, terapia fotodinâmica, e ablativas, ou seja, excisão cirúrgica, ablação pelo LASER, coagulação pelo infravermelho e eletrofulguração. Há, ainda, os que consideram aceitável a conduta expectante. O tratamento tópico se justifica pelo caráter multifocal da lesão e os ablativos têm taxas de complicação e recidiva muito semelhantes. De qualquer forma, doentes com qualquer anormalidade histológica necessitam de seguimento adequado, principalmente com colposcopia e citologia anal.Anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN, provoked by HPV, is considered as an anal cancer precursor. Some articles noticed that it occurred among 11% and 52% of men who have sex with men (MSM infected with HIV and, among seronegatives, from 6% to 20% of men and from 1% to 2.8% of women. From 8.5% to 13% of high grade AIN will evolve to invasive carcinoma, needing follow-up and screening for prevention. There is no satisfactory treatment with low morbidity and recurrence is frequent. There are two main forms of treatment: topics (trichloroacetic acid, podophylin, podophylotoxin, imiquimod, photodynamic therapy and ablatives (chirurgical excision, LASER, infrared, eletrocautery. Others consider acceptable an expectant management. Topical therapy is justified because of multifocal presentation of HPV

  18. La gestión tecnológica: una herramienta para el desarrollo de la cadena productiva del ají en el Valle del Cauca

    OpenAIRE

    Rada Barona, Omar; Chaverra Palacios, Yurlady; Morante Granobles, Diego Fernando; Mosquera Mosquera, Omaira

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este artículo es contribuir al desarrollo del proyecto de investigación: Diseño de un modelo de gestión tecnológica en la cadena productiva del ají en el Valle del Cauca. En este sentido se realizó un análisis sobre los antecedentes y el concepto de la gestión tecnológica, la agroindustria, la cadena productiva y el desarrollo de la misma en el ámbito nacional y departamental. El enfoque que se implementó es descriptivo y analítico, los instrumentos que se utilizaron ...

  19. El difícil proceso de creación del Instituto de Vacunación del Estado (1871-1877

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Marín, Ricardo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Until 1871 Spain did not have a public institution in order to culture, to popularize and to check smallpox vaccine. The present article analizes the creation of Instituto de Vacunación del Estado and problems, several foundations and reformations it suffered between 1871-1877. The characters of the main dificulties it faced were both administrative and tecnique ones.

    Hasta 1871, España no contó con un organismo estatal encargado de cultivar, difundir y controlar la vacuna antivariólica. En este trabajo se analizan los problemas de creación del Instituto de Vacunación del Estado que sufrió varias refundaciones y remodelaciones entre 1871-1877. Las principales dificultades a las que tuvo que hacer frente fueron de tipo administrativo y técnico.

  20. Menetlejate küsitlemistehnikad : alla 14-aastaste laste ülekuulamisprotokollide analüüs / Kristjan Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kristjan, 1980-

    2010-01-01

    Alla 14-aastaste laste kohtueelse ülekuulamise videosalvestiste analüüsist. Ülevaade põhineb Justiitsministeeriumi poolt 2009. aastal läbi viidud uurimisprojektil "Alaealiste ülekuulamine kriminaalmenetluses". Tabelid

  1. Analýza sportovního areálu vybranými metodami

    OpenAIRE

    Jelínek, Vojtěch

    2014-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zabývá analýzou sportovního areálu U Hrocha, který má být dokončen v roce 2014. Obsahuje teoretická východiska, která jsou následně implementována do skutečné reality podniku, a to prostřednictvím PESTLE analýzy, Porterovy analýzy a SWOT analýzy. Závěrem je vyhodnocena situace a jsou navržena řešení pro optimalizaci chodu sportovního areálu. This bachelor´s thesis deals with analysis of the sports complex U Hrocha, which will be completed in 2014. It contains theoretica...

  2. Võlur Ozi eksperimentide kogumine ja partneri algatatud paranduste analüüs / Siiri Pärkson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärkson, Siiri

    2011-01-01

    Kirjeldatakse teise võlur Ozi kirjalike eksperimentide seeria analüüsi tulemusi. Materjal pärineb dialoogidest, kus katseisikutel paluti testida kirjalikus eesti keeles suhtlevat internetilehel asuvat programmi

  3. Electromagnetic effects on the biological tissue surrounding a transcutaneous transformer for an artificial anal sphincter system*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Peng; Yang, Bang-hua; Shao, Yong; Yan, Guo-zheng; Liu, Hua

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the electromagnetic effects on the biological tissue surrounding a transcutaneous transformer for an artificial anal sphincter. The coupling coils and human tissues, including the skin, fat, muscle, liver, and blood, were considered. Specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density were analyzed by a finite-length solenoid model. First, SAR and current density as a function of frequency (10–107 Hz) for an emission current of 1.5 A were calculated under different tissue thickness. Then relations between SAR, current density, and five types of tissues under each frequency were deduced. As a result, both the SAR and current density were below the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The results show that the analysis of these data is very important for developing the artificial anal sphincter system. PMID:21121071

  4. Incidence and cost of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J.; Jorgensen, T. R.; Kofoed, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Besides being a causative agent for genital warts and cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV) contributes to 40-85% of cases of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer and precancerous lesions. HPV types 16 & 18 in particular contribute to 74-93% of these cases. Overall the number...... of new cases of these four cancers may be relatively high implying notable health care cost to society. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and the health care sector costs of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer. Methods: New anogenital cancer patients were identified from the Danish...... Groups) and DAGS (Danish Outpatient Groups System) charges as cost estimates for inpatient and outpatient contacts, respectively. Health care consumption by cancer patients diagnosed in 2004-2007 was compared with that by an age-and sex-matched cohort without cancer. Hospital costs attributable to four...

  5. Of mice and men: an introduction to mouseology or, anal eroticism and Disney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, A A

    1991-01-01

    This essay deals with two important comics, Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse and George Herriman's Krazy Kat, and considers the social, cultural, psychological and symbolic significance of the main characters and their creators. In the discussion of Disney and his work (based, in part on writings about him) it is suggested that he exhibited traits associated with anal eroticism, which raises an interesting question about the popularity of his work with the American public. The two dominant themes found in Krazy Kat are described as "the triumph of illusion over reality" and "anti-authoritarianism." In a comparison of the two characters, it is shown they are polar opposites: Mickey Mouse is sadistic, asexual, and anal while Ignatz Mouse, the hero of Krazy Kat, is playful, sexual, and phallic.

  6. Mikroekonomická analýza odběratelů společnosti

    OpenAIRE

    Voháňková, Petra

    2007-01-01

    Práce se zabývá analýzou vývoje a struktury odběratelů společnosti, která vyrábí růžový porcelán. V práci je popsána pozice společnosti na trhu z hlediska dostupnosti zdrojů, možnosti ovlivnění cen výrobků a vyráběného množství. Poslední část práce je zaměřena na zjednodušenou analýzu elasticity poptávky po produktech společnosti a je vysloven názor na možnosti jejího ovlivnění.

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi in the anal glands of urban opossums: I- isolation and experimental infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Urdaneta-Morales

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Opossums (Didelphis marsupialis captured in intensely urbanized areas of the city of Caracas, Venezuela, were found infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The developmental cycle of trypomastigote-epimastigote-metacyclic infective trypomastigote, usually occurring in the intestine of the triatomine vector, was taking place in the anal odoriferous glands of the opossums. Material from the glands, inoculated in young, healthy opossums and white mice by different routes, subcutaneously, intraperitoneally, orally, and into the eye, induced T. cruzi infections in all animals. Parasitemia, invasion of cardiac and skeletal muscle, and intracellular multiplication of amastigotes were observed. Inoculation of metacyclics from anal glands, cultured in LIT medium, gave equivalent results. All opossums survived; all mice died. Excreta of opossums may thus transmit Chagas' disease by contamination, even in urban areas where insect vectors are not present.

  8. La superaci??n del modelo del ??ngel del hogar:

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado Mu??oz, M??nica

    2012-01-01

    La Tesis Doctoral titulada "La superaci??n del modelo del "??ngel del hogar". Recuperaci??n de la escritora Leonor Canalejas y Fustegueras (1869-1945)" aborda, en primer lugar, un an??lisis sociol??gico de las circunstancias que rodearon a la mujer espa??ola en el cambio de siglo en el ??mbito social y educativo, en un intento de esclarecer las caracter??sticas propias del contexto en el que la mujer accede a la intelectualidad en general y a la literatura en particular. Esta parte concluye q...

  9. Dolor musculo - esquelético y factores ergonómicos del trabajo en recicladores de la margen izquierda del río Rímac - 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Valle Bayona, José Julio

    2016-01-01

    Determina la prevalencia de dolor musculo - esquelético y asociación con nivel de riesgo ergonómico en los recicladores de residuos sólidos de la margen izquierda del río Rímac en el año 2010. Estudio observacional, transversal y con componente analítico, en 92 recicladores del total de la población objetivo. Se realiza observaciones con lista de chequeo PLIBEL y entrevistas con cuestionario nórdico de síntomas musculoesqueléticos, identificando las variables dolor, nivel de riesgo ergonómico...

  10. OPEC usub analüütikutest erinevalt nafta hinna langusesse / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 1. sept. lk. 19. Vaherahu sõlmimine. Iraagi sõda langetas nafta hinda maailmaturul. Analüütikud prognoosivad aga nafta nõudluse jätkuva kasvu tõttu hinnatõusu. Kommenteerib Pärt Kivaste. Graafik: Toornafta hinna langus veab alla ka naftafirmade aktsiad. Tabel: Viie suurema hulgas kolm Euroopa naftafirmat

  11. Reproducibility and genital sparing with a vaginal dilator used for female anal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briere, Tina Marie; Crane, Christopher H.; Beddar, Sam; Bhosale, Priya; Mok, Henry; Delclos, Marc E.; Krishnan, Sunil; Das, Prajnan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Acute vulvitis, acute urethritis, and permanent sexual dysfunction are common among patients treated with chemoradiation for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Avoidance of the genitalia may reduce sexual dysfunction. A vaginal dilator may help delineate and displace the vulva and lower vagina away from the primary tumor. The goal of this study was to evaluate the positional reproducibility and vaginal sparing with the use of a vaginal dilator. Materials and methods: Ten female patients treated with IMRT for anal cancer were included in this study. A silicone vaginal dilator measuring 29 mm in diameter and 114 mm in length was inserted into the vagina before simulation and each treatment. The reproducibility of dilator placement was investigated with antero-posterior and lateral images acquired daily. Weekly cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging was used to confirm coverage of the GTV, which was typically posterior and inferior to the dilator apex. Finally, a planning study was performed to compare the vaginal doses for these 10 patients to a comparable group of 10 female patients who were treated for anal cancer with IMRT without vaginal dilators. Results: The absolute values of the location of the dilator apex were 7.0 ± 7.8 mm in the supero-inferior direction, 7.5 ± 5.5 mm in the antero-posterior, and 3.8 ± 3.1 mm in the lateral direction. Coverage of the GTV and CTV was confirmed from CBCT images. The mean dose to the vagina was lower by 5.5 Gy, on average, for the vaginal dilator patients, compared to patients treated without vaginal dilators. Conclusion: The vaginal dilator tended to be inserted more inferiorly during treatment than during simulation. For these ten patients, this did not compromise tumor coverage. Combined with IMRT treatment planning, use of a vaginal dilator could allow for maximum sparing of female genitalia for patients undergoing radiation therapy for anal cancer.

  12. Long-term anorectal, urinary and sexual dysfunction causing distress after radiotherapy for anal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, K G; Nørgaard, M; Lundby, L

    2015-01-01

    . For each symptom we assessed frequency and severity and the level of symptom-induced distress (no, little, moderate or great distress). RESULTS: Of 94 eligible patients, 84 (89%) returned the completed questionnaire at a median of 33 months after radiotherapy. Incontinence for solid stools, liquid stools...... function. CONCLUSION: Distressing long-term anorectal and sexual dysfunction was common after radiotherapy for anal cancer, and morbidity due to urinary dysfunction was moderate....

  13. Specific obstetrical risk factors for urinary versus anal incontinence 4years after first delivery.

    OpenAIRE

    Fritel , Xavier; Khoshnood , Babak; Fauconnier , Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    International audience; AIM: Delivery can be complicated by urinary or anal incontinence (UI or AI). We hypothesized that the mechanisms of injury may differ for UI and AI. Hence, obstetrical risk factors may be specific for different types of incontinence. DESIGN: Data on maternal characteristics were collected at first delivery. Data on incontinence were obtained by a questionnaire completed by 627 women 4years after first delivery. UI was defined by "Do you have involuntary loss of urine" ...

  14. Retrospective study about 71 patients with anal carcinoma, treated with a uniform radiochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesmeth, Alfred J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this retrospectively prospective study was to examine the outcome (over all survival, tumorspecific survival, local control, colostomy free survival as well as sideeffects of the tumorspecific treatment) on a roughly homogenous and compared to other studies appropriate large group of 71 patients with diagnosed anal carcinoma. All patients underwent primary radiochemotherapy during the period of 1991 to 2010 in a municipal hospital. The median follow-up consisted of 38 month.

  15. Anal cancer: ESMO–ESSO–ESTRO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynne-Jones, Robert; Nilsson, Per J.; Aschele, Carlo; Goh, Vicky; Peiffert, Didier; Cervantes, Andrés; Arnold, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is a rare cancer but its incidence is increasing throughout the world, and is particularly high in the human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) population. A multidisciplinary approach is mandatory (involving radiation therapists, medical oncologists, surgeons, radiologists and pathologists). SCCA usually spreads in a loco-regional manner within and outside the anal canal. Lymph node involvement at diagnosis is observed in 30–40% of cases while systemic spread is uncommon with distant extrapelvic metastases recorded in 5–8% at onset, and rates of metastatic progression after primary treatment between 10% and 20%. SCCA is strongly associated with human papilloma virus (HPV, types 16–18) infection. The primary aim of treatment is to achieve cure with loco-regional control and preservation of anal function, with the best possible quality of life. Treatment dramatically differs from adenocarcinomas of the lower rectum. Combinations of 5FU-based chemoradiation and other cytotoxic agents (mitomycin C) have been established as the standard of care, leading to complete tumour regression in 80–90% of patients with locoregional failures in the region of 15%. There is an accepted role for surgical salvage. Assessment and treatment should be carried out in specialised centres treating a high number of patients as early as possible in the clinical diagnosis. To date, the limited evidence from only 6 randomised trials [1,2,3,4,5,6,7], the rarity of the cancer, and the different behaviour/natural history depending on the predominant site of origin, (the anal margin, anal canal or above the dentate line) provide scanty direction for any individual oncologist. Here we aim to provide guidelines which can assist medical, radiation and surgical oncologists in the practical management of this unusual cancer

  16. Penile Duplication and Two Anal Openings; Report of a Very Rare Case

    OpenAIRE

    Bakheet, Mohamed Abdel Al M.; Refaei, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Background Penile duplication (diphallus) is an extremely rare disorder. It is almost always associated with other malformations like double bladder, exstrophy of the cloacae, imperforate anus, duplication of the rectosigmoid and vertebral deformities. Meanwhile anal canal duplication, the most distal and least common duplication of the digestive tube and is a very rare congenital malformation. Case Presentation A 21 days old Egyptian neonate is reported with complete penile duplication and t...

  17. Tracking vaginal, anal and oral infection in a mouse papillomavirus infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiafen; Budgeon, Lynn R; Cladel, Nancy M; Balogh, Karla; Myers, Roland; Cooper, Timothy K; Christensen, Neil D

    2015-12-01

    Noninvasive and practical techniques to longitudinally track viral infection are sought after in clinical practice. We report a proof-of-principle study to monitor the viral DNA copy number using a newly established mouse papillomavirus (MmuPV1) mucosal infection model. We hypothesized that viral presence could be identified and quantified by collecting lavage samples from cervicovaginal, anal and oral sites. Nude mice infected at these sites with infectious MmuPV1 were tracked for up to 23 weeks starting at 6 weeks post-infection. Viral DNA copy number was determined by SYBR Green Q-PCR analysis. In addition, we tracked viral DNA load through three complete oestrous cycles to pinpoint whether there was a correlation between the DNA load and the four stages of the oestrous cycle. Our results showed that high viral DNA copy number was reproducibly detected from both anal and cervicovaginal lavage samples. The infection and disease progression were further confirmed by histology, cytology, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Interestingly, the viral copy number fluctuated over the oestrous cycle, with the highest level at the oestrus stage, implying that multiple sampling might be necessary to provide a reliable diagnosis. Virus DNA was detected in oral lavage samples at a later time after infection. Lower viral DNA load was found in oral samples when compared with those in anal and vaginal tracts. To our knowledge, our study is the first in vivo study to sequentially monitor papillomavirus infection from mucosal anal, oral and vaginal tracts in a preclinical model.

  18. ARM tõestab, et ka analüütikud eksivad / Fredy-Edwin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Esse, Fredy-Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Apple'i iPadidele ja iPhone'idele kiipe tootva Suurbritannia firma ARM Holdings aktsia on kõige suurem tõusja Londoni FTSE 100 indeksi kuue kuu, 12 kuu, 18 kuu, kahe aasta ja kolme aasta lõikes, samas on analüütikud kõigist indeksi aktsiatest kõige negatiivsemalt meelestatud just ARM Holdingsi suhtes. Graafik

  19. [Clinical significance of detection of internal anal sphincter in children with functional constipation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiang-yu; Wang, Ling-yun; Wang, Wei-lin; Li, Yong; Bai, Yu-zuo

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the structural and functional changes of internal anal sphincter (IAS) in children with functional constipation (FC), and to evaluate the association between the thickness of IAS and the severity of clinical symptoms. A total of 35 children with FC(constipation group,17 with incontinence) between June 2008 and December 2008 at the Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University were evaluated using anal manometry and endosonography. These patients were compared to 23 hospitalized children who were excluded for digestive and endocrinal diseases(control group). A validated symptom score(SS) was used to assess the severity of symptoms. The sum of SS ranged between 0 and 65. Anorectal manometry showed reflex relaxation of IAS in response to distension of rectal balloon in all patients. Rectal perceptional threshold in FC group was significantly higher than that in the controls[(42.4 ± 19.5) ml vs.(29.1 ± 15.6) ml, PIAS was significantly higher than that in the controls [(55.6 ± 31.6) ml vs.(30.5 ±13.8) ml, PIAS was noted in all the patients[(3.8 ± 1.7) mm vs.(2.5 ± 1.0) mm, P0.05]. The median symptom score was 9.3 ± 4.3 in the FC group. The thickness of IAS correlated significantly with total symptom severity score(r=0.407, PIAS and age, sex, or duration of disease(P>0.05). Structural and functional changes of internal anal sphincter exist in children with functional constipation. The thickness of internal anal sphincter correlates significantly with symptom severity.

  20. Comparison of botox and lateral internal sphincterotomy treatment outcomes in chronic anal fissures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Dinç

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Both botox and lateral internal sfinkterotomi are treatment technics used in chronic anal fissure; provide the relaxation of anal sphincter and as a result of this, healing occurs. Aim of this study is to compare efficacy of botox and LIS treatment in chronic anal fissure and discussing with the literature. Methods: 60 of 66 patients who has chronic anal fissure, that we reached, treated but not healed with medical therapy, appealed to the Dr. Sami Ulus Hospital included the study. Gender, age, fissure localization, complaints (pain, bleeding, itching, constipation, complaint length, recurrences after treatment, continence conditions and complications of patients were registered. Results: Sixty patients were enrolled the study. Of the 60 patients; 38(63.3% were male and 22 (27.7% were female. Mean age of all patients was 35.93 ± 11.45 (21 -60. Pain was the common complaint of the all patients. 10 (32.3% recurrence were detected in botox treatment group (Group-I, only 1 (3.4% recurrence was in LIS group (Group-II. There was no complication as an incontinence in group-I but 3 cases with incontinence (10.39% were obtained in group-II. In the evaluation of these 3 cases by Cleveland Clinic Continence Scoring System, 2 cases classified as gas incontinence and 1 case as moderate fecal incontinence. Conclusion: Although botulinum toxin injection seen as an alternative treatment method with low complication rates such as incontinence, high recurrence is an important shortcoming of this technic. LIS performed by experienced surgeons remained the most popular treatment modality with low complication rates and great deal of healing success.

  1. The male bulbospongiosus muscle and its relation to the external anal sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peikert, Kevin; Platzek, Ivan; Bessède, Thomas; May, Christian Albrecht

    2015-04-01

    The bulbospongiosus muscle is part of the superficial muscular layer of the perineum and pelvic floor. Its morphology remains controversial in the literature. Therefore, we reinvestigated the fascial arrangement and fiber courses of the bulbospongiosus muscle and its topographical relation to the external anal sphincter. The perineum was dissected in 9 male cadavers (mean ± SD age 78.3 ± 10.7 years). Select samples were obtained for histology and immunohistochemistry. In 43 patients (mean age 60.7 ± 12 years) the topographical relation between the bulbospongiosus muscle and the external anal sphincter was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. The perineum contains several fascial layers consisting of elastic and collagen fibers as well as bundles of smooth muscle cells. The bulbospongiosus muscle was subdivided into a ventral and dorsal portion, which developed in 4 variants. The ventral insertion formed a morphological unity with the ischiocavernous muscle while the dorsal origin had a variable relation to the external anal sphincter (5 variants). A muscle-like or connective tissue-like connection was frequently present between the muscles. However, in some cases the muscles were completely separated. We suggest a concept of variations of bulbospongiosus muscle morphology that unifies the conflicting literature. Its ventral fiber group and the ischiocavernosus muscle form a functional and morphological unity. While the bulbospongiosus muscle and the external anal sphincter remain independent muscles, their frequent connection might have clinical implications for perineal surgery and anogenital disorders. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of cutaneous beta and gamma human papillomaviruses in the anal canal of men who have sex with women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Smelov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data regarding anal cutaneous HPV detection among HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons largely relies on studies among men who have sex with men in limited geographical settings. Understanding the distribution, determinants, and potential human health effects of anal cutaneous HPV types among men who have sex with women (MSW is important. Methods: Anal canal swab samples from 415 Russian MSW (384 HIV-negative and 31 HIV-positive were tested for 43 β-HPVs and 29 γ-HPVs, using a multiplex PCR combined with Luminex technology. Results: β-HPV was detected in 24.4% and γ-HPV in 15.9% of anal samples of all Russian MSW. In total, 34 β-HPV and 19 γ-HPV types were detected, with the most commonly detected β-HPV types being 110, 22 and 124 and the most common γ-HPV types being 95, 132 and 50. For both genera, being HIV-positive at the time of testing was a significant determinant of detection (74.2% for β-HPVs and 48.4% for γ-HPVs compared to 20.1% and 12.5% in HIV-negative MSW, respectively. Conclusions: A wide spectrum and moderate prevalence of anal β-HPV and γ-HPV types was found in our MSW study sample, suggesting that routes other than penile-anal intercourse may be important in cutaneous HPV transmission. Keywords: Anal cutaneous HPV, Beta-HPV, Gamma-HPV, HIV-negative MSW, Penile-anal, HPV transmission

  3. Patterns of repeated anal cytology results among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary A. Robbins

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM are at increased risk for anal cancer. In cervical cancer screening, patterns of repeated cytology results are used to identify low- and high-risk women, but little is known about these patterns for anal cytology among MSM. Methods: We analyzed Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS data for MSM who were offered anal cytology testing annually (HIV-positive or every 2 years (HIV-negative for 4 years. Results: Following an initial negative (normal cytology, the frequency of a second negative cytology was lower among HIV-positive MSM with CD4 ≥ 500 (74% or CD4 < 500 (68% than HIV-negative MSM (83% (p < 0.001. After an initial abnormal cytology, the frequency of a second abnormal cytology was highest among HIV-positive MSM with CD4 < 500 (70% compared to CD4 ≥ 500 (53% or HIV-negative MSM (46% (p = 0.003. Among HIV-positive MSM with at least three results, 37% had 3 consecutive negative results; 3 consecutive abnormal results were more frequent among CD4 < 500 (22% than CD4 ≥ 500 (10% (p = 0.008. Conclusions: More than one-third of HIV-positive MSM have consistently negative anal cytology over three years. Following abnormal anal cytology, a repeated cytology is commonly negative in HIV-negative or immunocompetent HIV-positive men, while persistent cytological abnormality is more likely among HIV-positive men with CD4 < 500. Keywords: Anal cancer, Anal cytology, HIV, MSM, Anal cancer screening

  4. Handedness is a biomarker of variation in anal sex role behavior and Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity among gay men

    OpenAIRE

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A.; Monks, D. Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P.

    2017-01-01

    Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Further...

  5. Carcinoma of the anal canal: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT)

    OpenAIRE

    Sale, Charlotte; Moloney, Phillip; Mathlum, Maitham

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Patients with anal canal carcinoma treated with standard conformal radiotherapy frequently experience severe acute and late toxicity reactions to the treatment area. Roohipour et al. (Dis Colon Rectum 2008; 51: 147–53) stated a patient's tolerance of chemoradiation to be an important prediction of treatment success. A new intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique for anal carcinoma cases has been developed at the Andrew Love Cancer Centre aimed at reducing radiation ...

  6. High Prevalence of Anal Human Papillomavirus-Associated Cancer Precursors in a Contemporary Cohort of Asymptomatic HIV-Infected Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Isabelle; Etienney, Isabelle; Potard, Valérie; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Moore, Catherine; Lesage, Anne-Carole; Ressiot, Emmanuelle; Crenn-Hebert, Catherine; Fléjou, Jean-François; Cubie, Heather; Costagliola, Dominique; Darragh, Teresa M

    2015-05-15

    Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women are at high risk for anal cancer, few data have been published on prevalence of and risk factors for anal precancer and potential screening strategies in this risk group. A cross-sectional anal screening study was nested in a gynecological cohort of HIV-infected women. Anal swab specimens were collected for cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. High-resolution anoscopy, with biopsy when indicated, was systematically performed. Among the 171 enrolled women, median age was 47.3 years and 98% were receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. Median CD4(+) count was 655 cells/µL and HIV load was associated with increased risk of HG-AIN+. Abnormal anal cytology and HPV-16 infection performed best as a screening strategy for HG-AIN+ histology, with positive likelihood ratios of 3.4 (95% CI, 2.3-5.1) and 4.7 (95% CI, 2.5-8.7) and negative likelihood ratios of 0.2 (95% CI, .07-.8) and 0.4 (95% CI, .2-.9), respectively. HIV-infected women with a history of HPV-associated cervical disease are at increased risk for HG-AIN+ and should be offered anal cancer screening. Anal cytology and HPV-16 genotyping had the best screening performance. Anal cytology is easy to perform routinely; it may be the best candidate for screening for HG-AIN among HIV-infected women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Sexual restrictions beyond anti-gay prejudice: Anal sex, oral sex, masculinity and sexual prejudice in Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    West, Keon

    2016-01-01

    This is the first quantitative research to investigate attitudes toward heterosexual anal and oral sex in Jamaica, compare them to anti-gay and anti-lesbian attitudes, and frame them within a broader understanding of sexual prejudice based on gender norms. Fifty Jamaican participants’ attitudes toward heterosexual anal sex were as negative as attitudes toward gay male sex, and more negative than attitudes toward lesbian sex. Negative attitudes toward male sexual behaviours were predicted by m...

  8. Role of age, bowel function and parity on anorectocele pathogenesis according to cinedefecography and anal manometry evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, F A; Regadas, F S P; Murad-Regadas, S M; Rodrigues, L V; Silva, F R S; Escalante, R D; Bezerra, R F

    2009-11-01

    The study aimed to verify the role of parity, age and bowel function in the pathogenesis of anorectocele. A cross-sectional study was conducted regarding age, obstetrical history, Cleveland Clinic Constipation Score (CCCS), cinedefecography and anal manometry findings. Forty-five adult women complaining of obstructed defecation were evaluated; the median age was 46 years and median CCCS, 13. Fifteen patients were nulliparous and 23 multiparous (median parity 2). Eighteen had a history of episiotomy, fourteen delivered large babies and two had forceps-assisted delivery. Statistical analysis was performed using Spearman's correlation test and Fisher's exact test. Anal hypertonia was found in 14 (31.1%) patients, anal hypotonia in eight (17.8%), anismus in 13 (28.9%) and anorectoceles in 34 (75.6%) [median size 2.8 cm (0-6.4)]. There were no correlations between anorectocele and anal hypertonia (P = 0.7171), anismus (P = 0.4666), parity comparing nulliparous and multiparous patients (P = 1.000), episiotomy (P = 1.0000), forceps assistance (P = 1.0000), delivery of a large baby (P = 1.0000) anal resting pressure (P = 0.0883), anal voluntary pressure (P = 0.7327), parity (P = 0.4987) and age (P = 0.8603). There were correlations between anorectocele and the CCCS (P = 0.0082) and anal hypotonia (P = 0.0141). Anorectocele is not correlated with parity, age, episiotomy, delivery of a large baby and anismus. It was more frequent in patients with severe constipation and less common in patients with anal hypotonia.

  9. Modelo Analítico del Comportamiento a Compresión de Bloques Huecos de Concreto

    OpenAIRE

    García Giraldo,John Mario; Bonett Díaz,Ricardo León; Ledezma Araya,Christian

    2013-01-01

    El desempeño estructural de la albañilería está relacionado directamente con las propiedades mecánicas de sus materiales constituyentes. Uno de los principales parámetros que controlan el comportamiento de este sistema, es la resistencia a la compresión de la unidad. Sin embargo, para la modelación numérica de la albañilería se emplean modelos simplificados elásticos-lineales recomendados por los códigos de diseño, los cuales no permiten establecer adecuadamente el comportamiento real de este...

  10. El Análisis del discurso implica analizar: Crítica de seis atajos analíticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antaki, Charles

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of ways of treating talk and textual data are identified which fall short of discourse analysis. They are: (1 under-analysis through summary; (2 under-analysis through taking sides; (3 under-analysis through over-quotation or through isolated quotation; (4 the circular identification of discourses and mental constructs; (5 false survey; and (6 analysis that consists in simply spotting features. We show, by applying each of these to an extract from a recorded interview, that none of them actually analyse the data. We hope that illustrating shortcomings in this way will encourage further development of rigorous discourse analysis in social psychology.

  11. Chronic idiopathic anal pain. Results of a diagnostic-therapeutic protocol in a colorectal referral unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armañanzas, Laura; Arroyo, Antonio; Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; López, Alberto; Santos, Jair; Moya, Pedro; Gómez, María Amparo; Candela, Fernando; Calpena, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic anal pain (CIAP) remains a diagnosis of exclusion. Its study and management still lack a standardized protocol. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results obtained with the diagnostic-therapeutic protocol established in our service. We performed a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with CIAP at the Colorectal Unit of the General University Hospital of Elche, between 2005 and 2011. We evaluated 57 patients with a diagnosis of chronic anal pain for functional anorectal disease (FAD). After the application of our diagnostic protocol, final diagnosis of chronic anal pain (CAP) was achieved in 43 cases (75%), including 22 cases of descending perineum syndrome, 12 of proctalgia fugax, 2 of pudendal neuritis and 7 of coccydynia. In 14 patients exclusion diagnosis of CIAP was established. Among the therapies used on patients with CIAP, biofeedback combined with conservative measures improved symptoms in 43% of the cases. Sacral nerve stimulation was assessed in patients who did not respond to other treatments. Through proper anamnesis, physical examination and complementary tests, a specific diagnosis of the cause of CAP by FAD can be achieved, reducing exclusion diagnosis of CIAP to 25% of cases. Conservative measures combined with biofeedback achieved an improvement in pain in more than 40% of the cases of CIAP in our study. Sacral nerve stimulation can be considered as a treatment option in refractory cases. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of smoking and other risk factors on the outcome after radiochemotherapy for anal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai, Sabine Kathrin; Welzel, Grit; Haegele, Verena; Wenz, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is an important risk factor for the development of cancer. Smoking during radiochemotherapy therapy may have a negative influence on prognosis. We evaluated the effect of smoking during radiochemotherapy on the outcome for patients with anal cancer. Sixty-eight patients (34 smokers, 34 non-smokers) treated by radiochemotherapy for anal cancer were analysed. The effect of smoking during radiochemotherapy and other risk factors (gender, T- and N category, tumor site, dose, therapy protocol) on disease-specific survival (DSS), local control (LC) and colostomy free survival (CFS) was evaluated. There was a significant difference in age and male:female ratio between the two groups. With a median follow up of 22 months (max. 119) DSS, LC, and CFS were 88%, 84% and 84%. A significant difference in local control between smokers (S) and non-smokers (NS) was found (S 74% vs. NS 94%, p = .03). For DSS and CFS a difference in terms of outcome between smokers and non-smokers was seen (DSS: S 82% vs. NS 96%, p = .19, CFS: S 75% vs. 91%, p = .15), which did not reach statistical significance. In multivariate analyses only gender had a significant association with LC and T category with CFS. The other risk factors did not reach statistical significance. Even though our evaluation reached statistical significance only in univariate analysis, we suggest, that the role of smoking during radiochemotherapy for anal cancer should not be ignored. The potential negative effect on prognosis should be explained to patients before therapy

  13. Faecal incontinence after chemoradiotherapy in anal cancer survivors: Long-term results of a national cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, Anne Gry; Guren, Marianne G.; Vonen, Barthold; Wanderås, Eva H.; Frykholm, Gunilla; Wilsgaard, Tom; Dahl, Olav; Balteskard, Lise

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the prevalence and severity of faecal incontinence amongst anal cancer survivors after chemoradiotherapy. Material and methods: Anal cancer survivors from a complete, unselected, national cohort, minimum 2-years follow-up, were invited to a cross-sectional study. The St. Mark’s incontinence score was used to evaluate occurrence and degree of faecal incontinence the last four weeks. The results were compared to age- and sex-matched volunteers from the general population. Results: Of 199 invited survivors and 1211volunteers, 66% and 21%, respectively, signed informed consent. The survivors had significantly higher St. Mark’s score than the volunteers (mean 9.7 vs. 1.1, p < 0.001). Incontinence of stool of any degree was reported by 43% vs. 5% (OR 4.0, CI 2.73–6.01), and urgency was reported by 64% vs. 6% (OR 6.6, CI 4.38–9.90) of the survivors and volunteers, respectively. Only 29% of those with leakage of liquid stool used constipating drugs. Survivors of locally advanced tumours had a higher incontinence score (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Moderate to severe faecal incontinence is common amongst anal cancer survivors. Post-treatment follow-up should include the evaluation of continence, and incontinent survivors should be offered better symptom management and multidisciplinary approach if simple measures are insufficient

  14. NMR imaging of the anal levator and sphincter muscles in anorectal malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hideyo; Maie, Masahiko; Ohnuma, Naomi; Etoh, Takao; Iwai, Jun

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the anal levater and sphincter muscles was obtained on 4 normal volunteers and 11 patients with postoperative anorectal malformations (including 8 supra-levator type and 3 low type). Balloon catheter were inserted into the rectum and marked it as the center of a anal canal. Four normal subjects revealed the levater and sphincter muscles were thick and well developed in all sections (Sagittal, Transevse, Coronal). In most of the supra-levator type of anorectal malformations, thin levator and sphincter muscles were observed by Sagittal and Coronal scans. Transeverse scan revealed that the neorectum was not effectively pull-throughed into the puborectal muscle in one patient. Coronal scan showed the dameged external sphincter muscle. In three low types of anorectal malformations, the levator and the sphincter muscles were all well developed, but in one patient the external sphincter muscle existed at the posterior part of the anal canal. These observations were usefull in managing the postoperative care of anorectal malformations. (author)

  15. A project proposal for the implementation of IMRT in anal canal tumors in the INOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Lourdes; Alert, Jose; Larrinaga, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of choice for locally advanced tumors of the anal canal is to radio chemotherapy, patients being treated for these tumors have a very prolonged therapeutic range due to the high toxicity of treatment, which negatively affects the results. Intensity Modulated Radiation therapy has been to improve this situation by allowing an adequate tolerance of treatment. The main objective is to reduce the toxicity of treatment and thus the therapeutic range, which will improve treatment outcomes. Inclusion criteria: We included all patients with tumors of the anal canal, with locally advanced disease or those with early stage tumors not amenable to surgical treatment for medical contraindications. All patients should be discussed at the Central in the gastrointestinal tract. Planning CT scan in all patients by placing a radiopaque marker to the anus. Volumes were selected to be irradiated, which will include the anal canal, rectum and nodal regions, including the groin. Be designed all organs at risk. Treatment was performed in 3 phases, using five fields and energy combinations. The treatment was performed in 1220 of INOR LINAC and treatment planning will be held in the PRESICA PLAN. Patients will be followed for 3 years in order to evaluate late toxicity and survival and disease-free interval. (Author)

  16. SIA „Origami” saimnieciskās darbības analīze

    OpenAIRE

    Skalbiņš, Verners

    2014-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir „SIA „Origami” saimnieciskās darbības analīze”. Darbā apskatītais uzņēmums ir poligrāfijas nozares uzņēmums, kas specializējas lielformāta drukas jomā. Darba mērķis ir identificēt uzņēmuma stiprās un vājās puses, un izstrādāt priekšlikumus tā attīstībai un uzlabošanai. Mērķa sasniegšanai izvirzīti sekojoši uzdevumi: izpētīt uzņēmuma analīzes veikšanai nepieciešamo teorētisko bāzi, uz tās balstoties veikt uzņēmuma analīzi, kā arī izstrādāt secinājumus par līdzšinējo ...

  17. Penile duplication and two anal openings; report of a very rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakheet, Mohamed Abdel Al M; Refaei, Mohammad

    2012-03-01

    Penile duplication (diphallus) is an extremely rare disorder. It is almost always associated with other malformations like double bladder, exstrophy of the cloacae, imperforate anus, duplication of the rectosigmoid and vertebral deformities. Meanwhile anal canal duplication, the most distal and least common duplication of the digestive tube and is a very rare congenital malformation. A 21 days old Egyptian neonate is reported with complete penile duplication and two scrotums with each one carrying two palpable testes. Both penises have normal shaft with normally located meatus. Clear urine voids from both meati spontaneously. The child had also a fold of redundant skin about 4×5 cm at the anal region in which two separate anal openings are present. In rectal examination we found two normal anuses passing stool spontaneously. Ascending (voiding) cystourethrography revealed two penises with two separate meatuses and one bladder from which the two urethras go out separately. Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) revealed two normal kidneys and ureters. Barium study revealed duplication of rectum and colon, otherwise normal GIT. In our review of the literature, we did not come across any other case of this variety of the penile duplication and congenital presence of two anuses. Unfortunately the patient expired before any surgical correction.

  18. Detekce útoku DNS Amplification z pasivní analýzy DNS provozu

    OpenAIRE

    Míšaný, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Táto práce je zaměřená na analýzu a detekci útoku DNS amplification, který patří mezi útoky typu DoS. Úvod práce je zaměřený na základní teorii zahrnující počítačové sítě, službu DNS a útoky typu DoS. Větší část práce se zabývá analýzou útoku DNS amplification, návrhem a implementací nástroje pro detekci v jazyce C++. Závěr je věnovaný analýze výsledků detekčního nástroje. This thesis is focused on the analysis and detection of DNS Amplification attack which is type of the DoS attack. Intr...

  19. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the anal sphincter using a dedicated endoanal receiver coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSouza, N.M.; Williams, A.D.; Gilderdale, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The use of a surface coil in MR imaging improves signal-to-noise ratio of adjacent tissues of interest. We therefore devised an endoanal receiver coil for imaging the anal sphincter. The probe is solid and re-usable: it comprises a saddle geometry receiver with integral tuning, matching and decoupling. It is placed in the anal canal and immobilised externally. Both in vitro and in vivo normal anatomy is identified. The mucosa is high signal intensity, the submucosa low signal intensity, the internal sphincter uniformly high signal intensity and the external sphincter low signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images. In females, the transverse perineal muscle bridges the inferior part of the external sphincter anteriorly. In perianal sepsis, collections and the site of the endoanal opening are identified. In early-onset fecal incontinence following obstetric trauma/surgery, focal sphincter defects are demonstrated; in late-onset fecal incontinence external sphincter atrophy is seen. In fecally incontinent patients with scleroderma, forward deviation of the anterior sphincter musculature with descent of rectal air and feces into the anal canal is noted. The extent of sphincter invasion is assessed in low rectal tumours. In children with congenital anorectal anomalies, abnormalities of the muscle components are defined using smaller-diameter coils. Such information is invaluable in the assessment and surgical planning of patients with a variety of anorectal pathologies. (orig.)

  20. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the anal sphincter using a dedicated endoanal receiver coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSouza, N.M.; Williams, A.D.; Gilderdale, D.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-04-01

    The use of a surface coil in MR imaging improves signal-to-noise ratio of adjacent tissues of interest. We therefore devised an endoanal receiver coil for imaging the anal sphincter. The probe is solid and re-usable: it comprises a saddle geometry receiver with integral tuning, matching and decoupling. It is placed in the anal canal and immobilised externally. Both in vitro and in vivo normal anatomy is identified. The mucosa is high signal intensity, the submucosa low signal intensity, the internal sphincter uniformly high signal intensity and the external sphincter low signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images. In females, the transverse perineal muscle bridges the inferior part of the external sphincter anteriorly. In perianal sepsis, collections and the site of the endoanal opening are identified. In early-onset fecal incontinence following obstetric trauma/surgery, focal sphincter defects are demonstrated; in late-onset fecal incontinence external sphincter atrophy is seen. In fecally incontinent patients with scleroderma, forward deviation of the anterior sphincter musculature with descent of rectal air and feces into the anal canal is noted. The extent of sphincter invasion is assessed in low rectal tumours. In children with congenital anorectal anomalies, abnormalities of the muscle components are defined using smaller-diameter coils. Such information is invaluable in the assessment and surgical planning of patients with a variety of anorectal pathologies. (orig.) With 15 figs., 26 refs.

  1. Seroconversion following anal and genital HPV infection in men: The HIM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R. Giuliano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protection from naturally acquired human papillomavirus (HPV antibodies may influence HPV infection across the lifespan. This study describes seroconversion rates following genital, anal, and oral HPV 6/11/16/18 infections in men and examines differences by HPV type and anatomic site. Methods: Men with HPV 6/11/16/18 infections who were seronegative for those genotypes at the time of DNA detection were selected from the HPV Infection in Men (HIM Study. Sera specimens collected ≤36 months after detection were analyzed for HPV 6/11/16/18 antibodies using a virus-like particle-based ELISA. Time to seroconversion was separately assessed for each anatomic site, stratified by HPV type. Results: Seroconversion to ≥1 HPV type (6/11/16/18 in this sub-cohort (N=384 varied by anatomic site, with 6.3%, 18.9%, and 0.0% seroconverting following anal, genital, and oral HPV infection, respectively. Regardless of anatomic site, seroconversion was highest for HPV 6 (19.3%. Overall, seroconversion was highest following anal HPV 6 infection (69.2%. HPV persistence was the only factor found to influence seroconversion. Conclusions: Low seroconversion rates following HPV infection leave men susceptible to recurrent infections that can progress to HPV-related cancers. This emphasizes the need for HPV vaccination in men to ensure immune protection against new HPV infections and subsequent disease. Keywords: HPV, Men, Seroconversion, HPV antibodies, Human papillomavirus

  2. Cutting Whole Length or Partial Length of Internal Anal Sphincter in Managementof Fissure in Ano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furat Shani Aoda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A chronic anal fissure is a common painful perianal condition.The main operative procedure to treat this painful condition is a lateral internal sphincteretomy (LIS.The aim of study is to compare the outcome and complications of closed LIS up to the dentate line (whole length of internal sphincter or up to the fissure apex (partial length of internal sphincter in the treatment of anal fissure.It is a prospective comparativestudy including 100 patients with chronic fissure in ano. All patients assigned to undergo closed LIS. Those patients were randomly divided into two groups: 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of dentate line (whole length and other 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of fissure apex (partial length. Patients were followed up weekly in the 1st month, twice monthly in the second month then monthly   for next 2 months and finally after 1 year. There was satisfactory relief of pain in all patients in both groups & complete healing of the fissure occurred. Regarding post operative incontinence no major degree of incontinence occur in both group but minor degree of incontinence persists In 7 patients after whole length LIS after one year. In conclusion, both whole length & partial length LIS associated with improvement of pain, good chance of healing but whole length LIS associated with more chance of long term  flatus incontinence. Hence,we recommend partial length LIS as treatment forchronic anal fissure.

  3. Case of anal fistula with Fournier's gangrene in an obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Hiroshi; Kawakami, Kyoko; Yoshino, Gen; Sawada, Katsuhiro

    2016-03-01

    A 64-year-old man was admitted to Shin-suma General Hospital, Kobe, Japan, complaining of a 3-day history of scrotal swelling and high fever. He had type 2 diabetes mellitus. On examination, his body temperature had risen to 38.5 °C. Examination of the scrotum showed abnormal enlargement. Laboratory data were as follows: white cell count 35,400/μL and glycated hemoglobin 9.6%. Anal fistula was found in an endorectal ultrasound. Computed tomography scan showed a relatively high density of subcutaneous tissue and elevated air density. Thus, he was diagnosed with Fournier's gangrene. On the fourth hospital day, the patient underwent debridement of gangrenous tissue. Seton surgery was carried out for anal fistula on the 34th hospital day. He responded to the treatment very well. He was discharged on the 33rd postoperative day. Once Fournier's gangrene has been diagnosed, considering the association of anal fistula and perianal abscess is important.

  4. Restoration of continence following rectopexy for rectal prolapse and recovery of the internal anal sphincter electromyogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, R; Duthie, G S; Bartolo, D C; MacGregor, A B

    1992-05-01

    Twenty-two patients with full-thickness rectal prolapse underwent ambulatory fine wire electromyography of the internal and sphincter (IAS), external and sphincter and puborectalis, together with anorectal manometry, using a computerized system. Examinations were performed both before and 3 to 4 months after rectopexy. The median (interquartile range (i.q.r.)) preoperative IAS electromyogram (EMG) frequency was 0.18 (0.05-0.31) Hz and the median (i.q.r.) preoperative resting anal pressure was 28 (15-64) cmH2O. An improvement in the IAS EMG frequency, median (i.q.r.) 0.29 (0.19-0.38) Hz (P less than 0.03), and resting anal pressure, median (i.q.r.) 41 (20-72) cmH2O (P less than 0.05), was recorded after operation, but these variables remained significantly lower than those found in normal controls: median (i.q.r.) IAS EMG frequency 0.44 (0.36-0.48) Hz and median (i.q.r.) resting anal pressure 92 (74-98) cmH2O. We suggest that repair of the prolapse allows the IAS to recover by removing the cause of persistent rectoanal inhibition.

  5. The immediate effect of vaginal and caesarean delivery on anal sphincter measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcaaltincaba, Deniz; Erkaya, Salim; Isik, Hatice; Haberal, Ali

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of vaginal and caesarean delivery on internal and external anal sphincter muscle thickness using translabial ultrasonography (TL-US). This prospective cohort study enrolled nulliparous women who either had vaginal or caesarean deliveries. The thickness of the hypoechoic internal anal sphincter (IAS) and hyperechoic external anal sphincter (EAS) at the 12, 3, 6, and 9 o'clock positions at the distal level were measured before delivery and within 24-48 h after delivery. A total 105 consecutive women were enrolled in the study: 60 in the vaginal delivery group and 45 in the caesarean delivery group. The IAS muscle thickness at the 12 o'clock position in the vaginal delivery group was significantly thicker before compared with after delivery (mean ± SD: 2.31 ± 0.74 mm versus 1.81 ± 0.64 mm, respectively). The EAS muscle thickness at the 12 o'clock position in the vaginal delivery group was significantly thicker before compared with after delivery (mean ± SD: 2.42 ± 0.64 mm versus 1.97 ± 0.85, respectively). There was significant muscle thinning of both the IAS and EAS at the 12 o'clock position after vaginal delivery, but not after caesarean delivery. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Võlur Ozi eksperimentide kogumine ja partneri algatatud paranduste analüüs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siiri Pärkson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available 2009. aastal viidi Eestis läbi teine võlur Ozi kirjalike eksperimentide seeria ning käesolev artikkel annab ülevaate eksperimentide korraldamisest ning kogutud dialoogide partneri algatatud paranduste analüüsimise tulemustest. Katseisikutel paluti testida interneti veebilehel asuvat programmi Aivo, mis on suuteline suhtlema inimesega kirjalikus eesti keeles. Tegelikkuses vastas inimeste küsimustele interneti vahendusel eksperimendi läbiviija (võlur Oz. Kogutud dialooge on analüüsitud toetudes vestlusanalüüsi meetodi mõistestikule. Tartu Ülikoolis välja töötatud dialoogiaktide tüpoloogia järgi jaguneb partneri algatatud parandus üleküsimiseks, ümbersõnastamiseks ja mittemõistmiseks. Artiklis analüüsitakse näidetele toetudes eelnimetatud kolme partneri algatatud paranduse esinemist kogutud dialoogides, pidades silmas tulevikus loodavaid reaalseid dialoogsüsteeme, mis suudaksid arvutikasutajaga suhelda loomulikus eesti keeles. http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa7.12

  7. Seroconversion Following Anal and Genital HPV Infection in Men: The HIM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Anna R; Viscidi, Raphael; Torres, B Nelson; Ingles, Donna J; Sudenga, Staci L; Villa, Luisa L; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Abrahamsen, Martha; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmeron, Jorge; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Protection from naturally acquired human papillomavirus (HPV) antibodies may influence HPV infection across the lifespan. This study describes seroconversion rates following genital, anal, and oral HPV 6/11/16/18 infections in men and examines differences by HPV type and anatomic site. Men with HPV 6/11/16/18 infections who were seronegative for those genotypes at the time of DNA detection were selected from the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Sera specimens collected ≤36 months after detection were analyzed for HPV 6/11/16/18 antibodies using a virus-like particle-based ELISA. Time to seroconversion was separately assessed for each anatomic site, stratified by HPV type. Seroconversion to ≥1 HPV type (6/11/16/18) in this sub-cohort (N=384) varied by anatomic site, with 6.3, 18.9, and 0.0% seroconverting following anal, genital, and oral HPV infection, respectively. Regardless of anatomic site, seroconversion was highest for HPV 6 (19.3%). Overall, seroconversion was highest following anal HPV 6 infection (69.2%). HPV persistence was the only factor found to influence seroconversion. Low seroconversion rates following HPV infection leave men susceptible to recurrent infections that can progress to HPV-related cancers. This emphasizes the need for HPV vaccination in men to ensure immune protection against new HPV infections and subsequent disease.

  8. Influencia del tratamiento ortodóncico en la percepción de la estética dental

    OpenAIRE

    Bolás Colvée, Belén

    2017-01-01

    Se trata de un estudio transversal, en el que se le tomo una fotografía frontal intraoral a una paciente, esta fotografía fue modificada con adobe phothosop para crear una boca lo más perfecta posible. A partir de esta boca se crearon distintas alteraciones en distintos grados. Debajo de cada imagen se puso una escala visual analógica, del 0 al 10. Los participantes del estudio deben marcar en dicha escala cuanto les gusta cada fotografía. Este estudio esta compuesto por tres grupos; un grupo...

  9. Marco para el análisis del tema ecológico en la literatura venezolana

    OpenAIRE

    María De los Ángeles Martín Hernández

    2016-01-01

    El propósito del artículo es sistematizar las premisas teóricas que constituyen la base fundamental para el abordaje analítico de los textos literarios con tema ecológico. Se conjugan y sintetizan los planteamientos hallados en la revisión bibliográfica realizada, relacionados con definiciones y caracterizaciones de la vinculación actividad literaria-tema ecológico en el contexto venezolano; se organizan consideraciones que explican la adopción del adjetivo “ecológico” y las vinculaciones eco...

  10. Factores que predisponen, facilitan y refuerzan el uso del preservativo en jóvenes universitarios de cali, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia, Claudia Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos Identificar la frecuencia del uso habitual del condón y los factores que predicen, facilitan y refuerzan su uso en jóvenes universitarios. Métodos Estudio analítico de corte transversal con análisis multivariado. La muestra fue de 397 estudiantes seleccionados aleatoriamente mediante un muestreo estratificado por Facultades a quienes se les aplicó una encuesta asistida por computador denominada “Reconociendo mi salud sexual”. Resultados El uso habitual de condón se da para el 33 % d...

  11. Análisis del comercio electrónico en Ecuador : limitaciones para su implementación

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Sánchez, Diana Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Mantener un nivel alto de competitividad en un mundo globalizado es indispensable para el desarrollo económico de un país; el Comercio Electrónico es una herramienta muy poderosa para mejorar las actividades comerciales en Ecuador. La Tesina titulada "Análisis del Comercio Electrónico en el Ecuador: Limitaciones para su Implementación" es un estudio teórico-analítico de la situación actual en la que se encuentra nuestro país en cuanto al desarrollo del comercio electrónico. El Capítulo ...

  12. Otra aproximación a Carl Gangolf Kaiser (1837-1895), arquitecto de la corte del emperador Maximiliano

    OpenAIRE

    Drewes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Michael Drewes ha estudiado el ambiente artístico que rodeó al que fuera segundo emperador de México, Maximiliano de Austria. En por lo menos dos artículos anteriores publicados en Anales del Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas (números 59 y 63), se ocupó ya del arquitecto Carl Gangolf Kaiser, un artista que presentó diversos proyectos de construcción y remodelación para Maximiliano. Quizás por su juventud, los proyectos que entonces realizó este arquitecto para remodelar edificios tan imp...

  13. Prevalence and correlates of heterosexual anal and oral sex in adolescents and adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, Jami S; Chandra, Anjani; Liddon, Nicole; Fenton, Kevin A; Aral, Sevgi O

    2007-12-15

    Heterosexual anal and oral sex are related to the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus infection. We examined the correlates of heterosexual anal and oral sex in the general population, using data from the National Survey of Family Growth. The sample included 12,571 men and women aged 15-44 years (79% response rate). One-third of men and women had ever had anal sex, and three-quarters had ever had oral sex. Condom use during last oral or anal sex was relatively uncommon. In separate models for men and women, having ever had anal sex was associated with white race, age of 20-44 years, and having had a non-monogamous sex partner. White race, age of 20-44 years, being married, and having higher numbers of lifetime sex partners were related to having ever given oral sex in men and women. Giving oral sex was associated with having a non-monogamous sex partner in men. Ever receiving oral sex was associated with white race and a non-monogamous sex partner in men and women. It would be beneficial to track the prevalence of heterosexual anal and oral sex and associated condom use on a more frequent basis.

  14. Radiological diagnosis in constipation and anal incontinence due to changes in the pelvic floor and sphincter apparatus of the anus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bistolfi, F.; Grillo Ruggeri, F.; Siragusa, A.

    1987-01-01

    Rectal constipation, anal incontinence and constipation combined with incontinence, are often caused by organic or simply functional changes in the pelvic floor and sphincterial apparatus. Therefore morphological as well as manometric and electromyographic studies of these anatomical parts are required. This is possible by combining two techniques: Intestinal Transit Time (ITT) and Defecatory Proctogram with Balloon (DPB). Personal experience of 38 patients with constipation with or without incontinence is reported. The results lead to the following conclusion: 1) ITT is a simple and non-invasive radiological technique that provides us with objective evidence of an impairment, i.e. constipation, whose symptoms are often only subjective; especially is allows us to identify rectal constipation, that can be caused by impairment of the anal sphincteral apparatus. 2) Using an uroprophylactic with a collar that adapts to the size of the anal duct, DPB always permits visualization of the duct with good representation of the recto-anal angle, whose changes may be the expression of organic or only functional impairments of the anal sphincterial apparatus. Increasing use of the two radiological techniques is therefore recommended in the diagnosis of alterations of the pelvic floor or anal sphincter

  15. Comparison of anal HPV natural history among men by country of residence: Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudenga, Staci L; Nyitray, Alan G; Torres, B Nelson; Silva, Roberto; Villa, Luisa; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Abrahamsen, Martha; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R

    2017-07-01

    Globally, anal cancer incidence is rare, but is increasing in some world regions. Our objective was to assess differences in anal HPV natural history in three countries. Men aged 18-70 years were recruited from the US (n = 634), Mexico (n = 665), and Brazil (n = 731). Anal specimens were collected every six-months. HPV genotyping was assessed by Linear Array. Anal HPV prevalence was compared using the Fisher's exact test. HPV infection incidence rates (IR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Any anal HPV prevalence was highest among men from Brazil (24%) compared to Mexico (15%) and the US (15%). When stratified by sexual history, the prevalence of any HPV among MSM/MSMW was 43%, 37%, and 45% and 9%, 12%, and 10% for MSW from Brazil, Mexico, and US, respectively. Any HPV incidence was significantly higher among men from Brazil compared to US men (IRR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.7-3.4) and comparable between men from Mexico and the US (IRR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.8-1.8). Men in Brazil and Mexico often have similar, if not higher incidence of anal HPV compared to men from the U.S., and may benefit from gender neutral HPV vaccine policies. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relación del sentimiento de soledad y el estado de salud de los adultos mayores que acuden al Centro Médico Tierra Nueva, mediante la aplicación del cuestionario Sf 36 y escala este , periodo febrero-mayo del 2015”.

    OpenAIRE

    Cantuña Tapuyo, Cristina De Los Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: Estudios revelan correlación de la soledad en el deterioro de salud. La presente investigación, tiene como objetivo general, analizar la relación del sentimiento de soledad y el estado de salud de los adultos mayores que acuden al Centro Médico Tierra Nueva, en los meses de Febrero a Mayo del 2015. Metodología: Es un estudio de tipo transversal analítico. Se estudió 165 adultos mayores, con la aplicación de la escala ESTE y cuestionario SF 36. Para el análisis de los datos se...

  17. Las competencias "del ser" del gerente del talento humano y su evidencia en los procesos de evaluación de desempeño, selección y capacitación en un grupo de empresas Manizaleñas

    OpenAIRE

    Cuervo Valencia, Angela María

    2011-01-01

    Tésis de grado (Maestría en Gerencia del Talento Humano).Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas, 2011 La presente investigación se enmarcó en el enfoque empírico-analítico de corte cualitativo; se tomó la realidad del mundo empresarial, de los gerentes de talento humano de empresas de la ciudad de Manizales, que han participado en los diferentes procesos de gestión por competencias en una relación ínter comunicativa que se alimenta de percepciones, experiencias y...

  18. Vaz Ferreira y la filosofía del derecho contemporánea: encuentros y desencuentros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Sarlo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Entiendo por filosofía del derecho contemporánea la que va consolidándose después de la II Guerra Mundial, a través de diversas líneas de investigación que van configurando una nueva fisonomía de la materia.Si hay una nota caracterizante del período, es la consolidación del método analítico para la construcción de las teorías; más allá de divergencias a veces importantes, el rigor analítico pasó a ser una exigencia generalizada en la elaboración teórica.Por la misma razón, podemos identificar otra gran línea de desarrollo que caracteriza a la teoría del derecho contemporánea, y es su apertura a la interdisciplinariedad: la comprensión del derecho se ve iluminada desde los más diversos campos disciplinarios, cosa que no había sucedidonunca antes, al menos en esa medida.Así es que, llegados a este momento, podemos distinguir perfectamente tres grandes líneas de investigación que apuntan a la concreción de una teorización completa del campo jurídico.La filosofía del derecho contemporánea. Vaz Ferreira y el Derecho. Desencuentros de Vaz con la moderna teoría del Derecho. Encuentros de Vaz con la moderna teoría del Derecho. Teoría de la justicia social en Vaz Ferreira

  19. Husserl y la fenomenología trascendental: Perspectivas del sujeto en las ciencias del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paoli Bolio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra de manera general la gran importancia de la fenomenología como un paradigma teórico clave, porque influyó de manera contundente en la ciencia y la filosofía del siglo xx. Su influencia se deja ver en los autores más conspicuos del existencialismo, del historicismo, de la hermenéutica, de la historia de la ciencia, de la filosofía analítica, de la llamada postmodernidad; su ascendiente es notable en personajes importantes de las místicas y las religiones contemporáneas. Aquí se señala también el surgimiento y la influencia de la fenomenología en pensadores mexicanos de mediados del siglo xx. Como filosofía, se opone al positivismo y a lo que Husserl llamó el "objetivismo", se muestra cómo la fenomenología reivindica la perspectiva del sujeto y se opone a la falta de voluntad y de método de diversas escuelas para esclarecer la intencionalidad. Se introduce a nociones básicas de esta corriente como son: "fenomenología trascendental", la perspectiva del sujeto, "reducción fenomenológica", "acto intencional" y "objeto intencional", "lo constituido" y "lo constituyente", para terminar con la presentación de lo que Husserl define como "psicología fenomenológica", que es un camino al autoconocimiento del individuo y la sociedad.

  20. PENGARUH MODEL PROBLEM BASED LEARNING TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR ANALITIS DAN KETERAMPILAN PROSES SAINS KIMIA PESERTA DIDIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Rohaeti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the effect of PBL model on students’ analytical thinking abilities and science process skills at rate reaction. This research was quasi experimental research using posttest-only control design. The sample was consisted 2 classess, experiment class used Problem Based Learning model and control class used Direct Instruction model with a total sample of 61 students. Instruments of this research were the observation sheet for measuring science process skills and the integrated assessment instrument which involved two indicators, analytical thinking abilities and science process skills. The result of this study shows that PBL model can increase students’ analytical thinking abilities and science process skills. The mean of posttest analytical thinking abilities and science process skills in experiment class is better than control class. The result of the statistic tests using ancova analysis shows that significance 0.000 < 0.05 at 5% significance level, so there’s effect of the using of PBL model on students’ analytical thinking abilities and science process skills. Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh model PBL terhadap kemampuan berpikir analitis dan keterampilan proses sains kimia peserta didik pada materi laju reaksi menggunakan instrumen penilaian terintegrasi. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian eksperimen semu. Desain penelitian yang digunakan, yaitu posttest control group design. Sampel dalam penelitian ini sebanyak 61 peserta didik yang dibagi dalam dua kelas, yaitu kelas eksperimen dan kelas kontrol. Kelas eksperimen menggunakan model Problem Based Learning, sedangkan kelas kontrol menggunakan model Direct Instruction. Instrumen yang digunakan dalam penelitian, yaitu lembar observasi untuk mengukur keterampilan proses sains kimia dan instrumen penilaian terintegrasi yang mencakup indikator kemampuan berpikir analitis dan keterampilan proses sains kimia peserta didik. Hasil