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Sample records for anaerobically induced small

  1. Translational regulation of gene expression by an anaerobically induced small non-coding RNA in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Anders; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Kallipolitis, Birgitte H.;

    2010-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sRNA) have emerged as important elements of gene regulatory circuits. In enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella many of these sRNAs interact with the Hfq protein, an RNA chaperone similar to mammalian Sm-like proteins and act in the post-transcriptional regu......Small non-coding RNAs (sRNA) have emerged as important elements of gene regulatory circuits. In enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella many of these sRNAs interact with the Hfq protein, an RNA chaperone similar to mammalian Sm-like proteins and act in the post......S, possesses signatures of base-pairing RNAs, and we show by employing global proteomic and transcriptomic profiling that the expression of multiple genes is negatively regulated by the sRNA. Intriguingly, many of these genes encode enzymes with "aerobic" functions or enzymes linked to oxidative stress....... Furthermore, in previous work most of the potential target genes have been shown to be repressed by FNR through an undetermined mechanism. Collectively, our results provide insight into the mechanism by which FNR negatively regulates genes such as sodA, sodB, cydDC, and metE, thereby demonstrating...

  2. SLEEP DEPRIVATION INDUCED ANXIETY AND ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Arzu Vardar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation induced anxiety on anaerobic performance. Thirteen volunteer male physical education students completed the Turkish version of State Anxiety Inventory and performed Wingate anaerobic test for three times: (1 following a full-night of habitual sleep (baseline measurements, (2 following 30 hours of sleep deprivation, and (3 following partial-night sleep deprivation. Baseline measurements were performed the day before total sleep deprivation. Measurements following partial sleep deprivation were made 2 weeks later than total sleep deprivation measurements. State anxiety was measured prior to each Wingate test. The mean state anxiety following total sleep deprivation was higher than the baseline measurement (44.9 ± 12.9 vs. 27.6 ± 4.2, respectively, p = 0.02 whereas anaerobic performance parameters remained unchanged. Neither anaerobic parameters nor state anxiety levels were affected by one night partial sleep deprivation. Our results suggest that 30 hours continuous wakefulness may increase anxiety level without impairing anaerobic performance, whereas one night of partial sleep deprivation was ineffective on both state anxiety and anaerobic performance

  3. Small sewage treatment system with an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic combined biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S M; Jun, H B; Hong, S P; Kwon, J C

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a small sewage treatment system that could improve nitrogen and BOD5 removal efficiency as well as generate less solid using an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic biofiltration system. Wastewater temperature was in the range of 14-25 degrees C, and hydraulic residual times were 12 h for each reactor. The upflow anaerobic digester equipped with anoxic filter was fed with both raw sewage and recycled effluent from the aerobic filter to induce denitrification and solid reduction simultaneously. In the subsequent aerobic filter, residual organic carbon and ammonia might be oxidized and finally nitrate formed. In the anaerobic reactor, about 71% of influent TCOD was removed by sedimentation of the un-filterable COD at the recycle ratio of 300%. Another 20% of influent TCOD was removed in the anoxic filter by denitrification of the recycled nitrate. After 100 days operation, solid reduction and nitrification efficiency were about 30% and 95%, respectively. Overall removal efficiencies of COD and total nitrogen (T-N) were above 94% and 70% at the recycle ratio of 300%, respectively. Total wasted solid from the system after 100 days operation was about 316 g, which was only 44% of the solid generated from a controlled activated sludge system operated at sludge retention time of 8 days. PMID:14753539

  4. Design of A solar Thermophilic Anaerobic Reactor for Small Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashad, El H.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Zeeman, G.; Bot, G.P.A.; Lettinga, G.

    2004-01-01

    A 10 m(3) completely stirred tank reactor has been designed for anaerobic treatment of liquid cow manure under thermophilic conditions (50degreesC), using a solar heating system mounted on the reactor roof. Simulation models for two systems have been developed. The first system consists of loose com

  5. Diagnosis of an anaerobic pond treating temperate domestic wastewater: An alternative sludge strategy for small works

    OpenAIRE

    Cruddas, Peter; Wang, K.; Best, D.; Jefferson, Bruce; Cartmell, Elise; Parker, Alison; McAdam, Ewan J.

    2014-01-01

    An anaerobic pond (AP) for treatment of temperate domestic wastewater has been studied as a small works sludge management strategy to challenge existing practice which comprises solids separation followed by open sludge storage, for up to 90 days. During the study, effluent temperature ranged between 0.1 °C and 21.1 °C. Soluble COD production was noted in the AP at effluent temperatures typically greater than 10 °C and was coincident with an increase in effluent volatile fatty acids (VFA) con...

  6. Repeated pulse feeding induces functional stability in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vrieze, Jo; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2013-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an environmental key technology in the future bio-based economy. To achieve functional stability, a minimal microbial community diversity is required. This microbial community should also have a certain 'elasticity', i.e. the ability to rapidly adapt to suboptimal conditions or stress. In this study it was evaluated whether a higher degree of functional stability could be achieved by changing the feeding pattern, which can change the evenness, dynamics and richness of the bacterial community. The first reactor (CSTR stable ) was fed on daily basis, whereas the second reactor (CSTR dynamic ) was fed every 2 days. Average biogas production was 0.30 l CH4 l(-1) day(-1) in both reactors, although daily variation was up to four times higher in the CSTR dynamic compared with the CSTR stable during the first 50 days. Bacterial analysis revealed that this CSTR dynamic had a two times higher degree of bacterial community dynamics. The CSTR dynamic also appeared to be more tolerant to an organic shock load of 8 g COD l(-1) and ammonium levels up to 8000 mg TAN l(-1). These results suggest that the regular application of a limited pulse of organic material and/or a variation in the substrate composition might promote higher functional stability in anaerobic digestion.

  7. Life cycle assessment of a small-scale anaerobic digestion plant from cattle waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Emissions from plant manufacture contributed little towards the lifecycle impacts. ► The use phase of the AD plant could have significant impacts. ► Production of biogas and fertiliser created significant impacts. ► The consequential displacement of kerosene showed a net-benefit. ► The study concluded that it is essential to cover the digestate storage tank. -- Abstract: This paper outlines the results of a comprehensive life cycle study of the production of energy, in the form of biogas, using a small scale farm based cattle waste fed anaerobic digestion (AD) plant. The life cycle assessment (LCA) shows that in terms of environmental and energy impact the plant manufacture contributes very little to the whole life cycle impacts. The results show that compared with alternative energy supply the production and use of biogas is beneficial in terms of greenhouse gases and fossil fuel use. This is mainly due to the replacement of the alternative, kerosene, and from fertiliser production from the AD process. However, these benefits come at a cost to ecosystem health and the production of respiratory inorganics. These were found to be a result of ammonia emissions during the production phase of the biogas. These damages can be significantly reduced if further emission control measures are undertaken.

  8. An Analysis of the Feasibility of Anaerobic Digestion on Small-Scale Dairies in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Steven Chans

    2016-01-01

    With an ever increasing concern for the environment, different methods of managing organic waste on dairy farms have been explored and analyzed. Anaerobic digestion has long been a popular method of managing organic waste. Its popularity stems from the potential to decrease greenhouse gases, improve air quality and provide a source of additional revenue for the farm. Problems with implementing anaerobic digestion arise from high failure rates, high start-up costs and continuous maintenance an...

  9. Anaerobic-aerobic small scale on-site wastewater treatment process. Kenkiter dot koki shori hoshiki jokaso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamori, Y. (National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1991-01-05

    As a part of the developmental project of advanced domestic wastewater treatment facilities, the following three types of small scale on-site anaerobic-aerobic wastewater treatment processes with removal functions of both BOD and nutritive salts were developed with targets of 10mg/l in BOD, 10mg/l in T-N and 1mg/l or less in T-P: an anaerobic-aerobic bio-filter treatment process with the adjustment function of hydraulic loading (A), an anaerobic-aerobic immobilized microorganisms packed fluidized bed-biofilm process (B) and a circulated anaerobic-aerobic fixed bed process (C). As the results of demonstration tests of each process using real wastewater, each process could achieve nearly the desired end, and the A process was superior in removal functions of organic substances, nitrogen and phosphorus. The C process was superior in stable removal functions of BOD and nitrogen as well as its easy production and low cost. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Microbial Community Response to Seasonal Temperature Variation in a Small-Scale Anaerobic Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Michel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bacterial and Archaeal communities in a 1.14 m3 ambient temperature anaerobic digester treating dairy cow manure were investigated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP and direct sequencing of the cloned polymerase chain reaction (PCR products. Results indicate shifts in the structure of the both the Archaeal and Bacterial communities coincided with digester re-inoculation as well as temperature and loading rate changes. Following re-inoculation of the sour digester, the predominant Archaea shifted from Methanobrevibacter to Methanosarcina, which was the most abundant Archaea in the inoculum. Methonosarcina was replaced by Methanosaeta after the resumption of digester loading in the summer of 2010. Methanosaeta began to decline in abundance as the digester temperature cooled in the fall of 2010 while Methanobrevibacter increased in abundance. The microbial community rate of change was variable during the study period, with the most rapid changes occurring after re-inoculation.

  11. Biomass production, anaerobic digestion, and nutrient recycling of small benthic or floating seaweeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-02-01

    A number of experiments have been carried out supporting the development of a seaweed-based ocean energy farm. Beginning in 1976, forty-two species of seaweed indigenous to the coastal waters of Central Florida were screened for high biomass yields in intensive culture. Gracilaria tikvahiae achieved the highest annual yield of 34.8 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ day. Yield has been found to vary inversely with seawater exchange rate, apparently because of carbon dioxide limitation at low exchange rates. Gracilaria was anaerobically digested in 120 liter and 2 liter reactors. Gas yields in the large digesters averaged 0.4 1/g volatile solids (.24 1 CH/sub 4//gv.s.) with a bioconversion efficiency of 48%. Studies of the suitability of digester residue as a nutrient source for growing Gracilaria have been conducted. Nitrogen recycling efficiency from harvested plant through liquid digestion residue to harvested plant approached 75%. Studies of nutrient uptake and storage by Gracilaria, Ascophyllum, and Sargassum showed that nutrient starved plants are capable of rapidly assimilating and storing inorganic nutrients which may be used later for growth when no nutrients are present in the medium. A shallow water seaweed farm was proposed which would produce methane from harvested seaweed and use digester residues as a concentrated source of nutrients for periodic fertilizations.

  12. Anaerobic bacteria grow within Candida albicans biofilms and induce biofilm formation in suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Emily P; Cowley, Elise S; Nobile, Clarissa J; Hartooni, Nairi; Newman, Dianne K; Johnson, Alexander D

    2014-10-20

    The human microbiome contains diverse microorganisms, which share and compete for the same environmental niches. A major microbial growth form in the human body is the biofilm state, where tightly packed bacterial, archaeal, and fungal cells must cooperate and/or compete for resources in order to survive. We examined mixed biofilms composed of the major fungal species of the gut microbiome, Candida albicans, and each of five prevalent bacterial gastrointestinal inhabitants: Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis. We observed that biofilms formed by C. albicans provide a hypoxic microenvironment that supports the growth of two anaerobic bacteria, even when cultured in ambient oxic conditions that are normally toxic to the bacteria. We also found that coculture with bacteria in biofilms induces massive gene expression changes in C. albicans, including upregulation of WOR1, which encodes a transcription regulator that controls a phenotypic switch in C. albicans, from the "white" cell type to the "opaque" cell type. Finally, we observed that in suspension cultures, C. perfringens induces aggregation of C. albicans into "mini-biofilms," which allow C. perfringens cells to survive in a normally toxic environment. This work indicates that bacteria and C. albicans interactions modulate the local chemistry of their environment in multiple ways to create niches favorable to their growth and survival.

  13. Anaerobes beyond anaerobic digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, D. Z.; Pereira, M A; Alves, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms are widespread in nature. Sediments, gastrointestinal tracks, volcanic vents, geothermal sources are examples of habitats where anaerobic metabolism prevail, in some cases at extreme temperature, pH and pressure conditions. In such microbial ecosystems waste of some is food for others in a true integrated structure. Anaerobic microorganisms are able to use a wide variety of organic and inorganic compounds. Recalcitrant compounds, such as hydrocarbons, a...

  14. Exercise- and Hypoxia-Induced Anaerobic Metabolism and Recovery: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, B. B.; Boily, P.; Williamson, L. A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic metabolism is recruited in vertebrates under conditions of intense exercise or lowered environmental oxygen availability (hypoxia), typically resulting in the accumulation of lactate in blood and tissues. Lactate will be cleared over time after the reoxygenation of tissues, eventually returning to control levels. Here, we present a…

  15. Influence of wastewater composition on nutrient removal behaviors in the new anaerobic-anoxic/nitrifying/induced crystallization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Lu, Xiwu; Yu, Ran; Gu, Qian; Zhou, Yi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the new anaerobic-anoxic/nitrifying/induced crystallization (A2N-IC) system was compared with anaerobic-anoxic/nitrifying (A2N) process to investigate nutrient removal performance under different influent COD and ammonia concentrations. Ammonia and COD removal rates were very stable in both processes, which were maintained at 84.9% and 86.6% when the influent ammonia varied from 30 mg L(-1) to 45 mg L(-1) and COD ranged from 250 mg L(-1) to 300 mg L(-1). The effluent phosphorus always maintained below 0.2 mg L(-1) in A2N-IC, whereas in A2N the effluent phosphorus concentration was 0.4-1.7 mg L(-1), demonstrating that A2N-IC is suitable to apply in a broader influent COD and ammonia concentration range. Under higher influent COD (300 mg L(-1)) or lower ammonia conditions (30 mg L(-1)), the main function of chemical induced crystallization was to coordinate better nutrient ratio for anoxic phosphorus uptake, whereas under high phosphorus concentration, it was to reduce phosphorus loading for biological system. Under the similar influent wastewater compositions, phosphorus release amounts were always lower in A2N-IC. To clarify the decrease procedure of phosphorus release in the A2N-IC, the equilibrium between chemical phosphorus removal and biological phosphorus removal in A2N-IC was analyzed by mass balance equations. During the long-term experiment, some undesirable phenomena were observed: the declining nitrification in post-aerobic tank and calcium phosphorus precipitation in the anaerobic tank. The reasons were analyzed; furthermore, the corresponding improvements were proposed. Nitrification effect could be enhanced in the post-aerobic tank, therefore ammonia removal rate could be increased; and biologically induced phosphorus precipitation could be inhibited by controlling pH at the anaerobic stage, so the phosphorus release and recovery could be improved. PMID:24596502

  16. [Application of paramunity inducers in small animal practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, A L; Hartmann, K

    2016-01-01

    Paramunity inducers have been used to treat small animals for decades. Paramunity inducers are based on attenuated and inactivated poxviruses (avipox virus and parapox virus). Their applications include both therapeutic and prophylactic use in various diseases. Despite their wide and variable use, only a very small number of placebo-controlled studies has been published. Positive effects in preventing kitten mortality and in treating feline stomatitis have been reported, however, no statistically significant effect of their therapeutic use in canine parvovirus infection, feline leukemia infection virus infection or canine papillomavirus infection could be demonstrated. For these infectious diseases, paramunity inducers do not appear to be effective. PMID:26998822

  17. Sublethal Concentrations of Antibiotics Cause Shift to Anaerobic Metabolism in Listeria monocytogenes and Induce Phenotypes Linked to Antibiotic Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard; Fromberg, Arvid; Ng, Yin;

    2016-01-01

    antibiotic concentrations would affect the bacterial physiology and induce antibiotic tolerance. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrated that each of the four antibiotics tested caused an antibiotic-specific gene expression pattern related to mode-of-action of the particular antibiotic. All four antibiotics...... caused the same changes in expression of several metabolic genes indicating a shift from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism and higher ethanol production. A mutant in the bifunctional acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase encoded by Imo1634 did not have altered antibiotic tolerance. However, a mutant...... in Imo1179 (eutE) encoding an aldehyde oxidoreductase where rerouting caused increased ethanol production was tolerant to three of four antibiotics tested. This shift in metabolism could be a survival strategy in response to antibiotics to avoid generation of ROS production from respiration by oxidation...

  18. Phase Transition Induced by Small Molecules in Confined Copolymer Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ling

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the phase transition induced by small molecules in confined copolymer films by using density functional theory.It is found that the addition of small molecules can effectively promote the phase separation of copolymers.In a symmetric diblock copolymer film,the affinity and concentration of small molecules play an important role in the structure transjtions.The disordered-lamellar transitions lamellar-lamellar transitions and the re-entrant transitions of the same structures are observed.Our results have potential applications in the fabrication of new functional materials.

  19. Location and chemical composition of microbially induced phosphorus precipitates in anaerobic and aerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañas, A; Spérandio, M; Decker, F; Biscans, B

    2012-01-01

    This work focuses on combined scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) applied to granular sludge used for biological treatment of high-strength wastewater effluents. Mineral precipitation is shown to occur in the core of microbial granules under different operating conditions. Three dairy wastewater effluents, from three different upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors and two aerobic granular sequenced batch reactors (GSBR) were evaluated. The relationship between the solid phase precipitation and the chemical composition of the wastewater was investigated with PHREEQC software (calculation of saturation indexes). Results showed that pH, Ca:P ratios and biological reactions played a major role in controlling the biomineralization phenomena. Thermodynamics calculations can be used to foresee the nature of bio-precipitates, but the location of the mineral concretions will need further investigation as it is certainly due to local microbial activity. PMID:23393959

  20. Adherence to abiotic surface induces SOS response in Escherichia coli K-12 strains under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Suelen B; Campos, Ana Carolina C; Pereira, Ana Claudia M; de Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza; Júnior, Raphael Hirata; Rosa, Ana Cláudia P; Asad, Lídia M B O

    2014-09-01

    During the colonization of surfaces, Escherichia coli bacteria often encounter DNA-damaging agents and these agents can induce several defence mechanisms. Base excision repair (BER) is dedicated to the repair of oxidative DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by chemical and physical agents or by metabolism. In this work, we have evaluated whether the interaction with an abiotic surface by mutants derived from E. coli K-12 deficient in some enzymes that are part of BER causes DNA damage and associated filamentation. Moreover, we studied the role of endonuclease V (nfi gene; 1506 mutant strain) in biofilm formation. Endonuclease V is an enzyme that is involved in DNA repair of nitrosative lesions. We verified that endonuclease V is involved in biofilm formation. Our results showed more filamentation in the xthA mutant (BW9091) and triple xthA nfo nth mutant (BW535) than in the wild-type strain (AB1157). By contrast, the mutant nfi did not present filamentation in biofilm, although its wild-type strain (1466) showed rare filaments in biofilm. The filamentation of bacterial cells attaching to a surface was a consequence of SOS induction measured by the SOS chromotest. However, biofilm formation depended on the ability of the bacteria to induce the SOS response since the mutant lexA Ind(-) did not induce the SOS response and did not form any biofilm. Oxygen tension was an important factor for the interaction of the BER mutants, since these mutants exhibited decreased quantitative adherence under anaerobic conditions. However, our results showed that the presence or absence of oxygen did not affect the viability of BW9091 and BW535 strains. The nfi mutant and its wild-type did not exhibit decreased biofilm formation under anaerobic conditions. Scanning electron microscopy was also performed on the E. coli K-12 strains that had adhered to the glass, and we observed the presence of a structure similar to an extracellular matrix that depended on the

  1. Potentials of anaerobic membrane bioreactors to overcome treatment limitations induced by industrial wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli, Recep Kaan; Ersahin, Mustafa Evren; Ozgun, Hale; Ozturk, Izzet; Jeison, David; van der Zee, Frank; van Lier, Jules B

    2012-10-01

    This review presents a comprehensive summary on applications of anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology for industrial wastewaters in view of different aspects including treatability and filterability. AnMBRs present an attractive option for the treatment of industrial wastewaters at extreme conditions, such as high salinity, high temperature, high suspended solids concentrations, and toxicity that hamper granulation and retention of biomass or reduce the biological activity. So far, most of the research has been conducted at laboratory scale; however, also a number of full-scale AnMBR systems is currently being operated worldwide. Membrane fouling, a multivariable process, is still a research quest that requires further investigation. In fact, membrane fouling and flux decline present the most important reasons that hamper the wide-spread application of full-scale reactors. This paper addresses a detailed assessment and discussion on treatability and filterability of industrial wastewaters in both lab- and full-scale AnMBR applications, the encountered problems and future opportunities. PMID:22749827

  2. Anaerobic Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Ju, Mei-Ting; Li, Wei-Zun; Liu, Le; Wang, Yan-Nan; Chang, Chein-Chi

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on the focus of Anaerobic Process. It is divided into the following sections. Pretreatment Organic waste Multiple-stage co-digestion Process Methodology and Technology. PMID:27620085

  3. Anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook I, Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 297. Stedman's Online ...

  4. Sublethal Concentrations Of Antibiotics Cause Shift To Anaerobic Metabolism In Listeria Monocytogenes And Induce Phenotypes Linked To Antibiotic Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard; Ng, Yin; Gram, Lone

    2015-01-01

    dehydrogenase gene lmo1634 and repression of alsA and lmo1992, which are involved in acetoin production leading to more ethanol and less acetoin production. This shift in central metabolism indicates a shift from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism, that could reduce oxidative stress and be a survival strategy...... investigation. The concentration of acetoin and ethanol are also currently under investigation. Conclusions: Consistent with other studies, we hypothesize that L. monocytogenes when exposed to antibiotics alters its metabolism from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism, and this could prepare the organism...

  5. EFFECT OF WITH/WITHOUT AGITATIONOF AGRICULTURAL WASTE ON BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION-A SMALL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naphon Keanoi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing worldwide concerns over environment, health and monetary aspects have triggered a search for efficient and economic renewable sources of energy production. Agricultural sector holds the potential for development of one of the major source of renewable energy such as biogas. In this study, CSTR-small scale fermentation (200 L stainless steel was studied to observe the effect of stirring for natural water, cow dung, rice straw and water hyacinth ratio (2:1:1:1, which there are suitable of C: N ratio at 31.1: 1on the biogas and methane production at ambient temperature (31°C, 6.7-7.2 and 6.7-7.8 of pH for with/without stirring digester, respectively, for 52 days. The result showed that the biogas production increased progressively with stirring digester. The maximum biogas production and methane concentration was 98.56 L/days and 64.07% was obtained at stirring digester. This gave an increase of 7.56 over without stirring digester. Thus, agitation of digester can be used effectively as an operating strategy to optimize biogas production.

  6. Anaerobic workout

    OpenAIRE

    McAdam, Ewan J.

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic technology cannot directly replace current wastewater treatment processes exclusively. The UASB reactor configuration removes slightly less organic carbon by comparison as the process relies on lamella separation for passive clarification rather than using fine pores like anMBR. By contrast, whilst anMBR can operate as a single unit process for organic carbon removal, the membrane surface has to be cleaned using gas sparging to limit surface deposition, which requires extra energy. ...

  7. A cytokine-inducing hemagglutinin from small taros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Sang; Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2010-07-01

    A 22.4-kDa dimeric hemagglutinin was isolated from tubers of Colocasia esculenta cv. 'Small Taro' by employing a purification protocol that involved ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC)-ion exchange chromatography on Mono Q, and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 75. The hemagglutinin was isolated from the fraction of the taro extract adsorbed on Q-Sepharose and subsequently adsorbed on Mono Q. The major absorbance peak from the Superdex 75 column constituted purified hemagglutinin. Its hemagglutinating activity could not be inhibited by simple sugars, and was stable after exposure for 30 minutes to temperatures up to 40 degrees C and to ambient pH in the range of pH 2 to pH 13. The activity decreased progressively when the ambient temperature was raised from 40 degrees C to 100 degrees C. Negligible activity was detected at 100 degrees C. The activity plummeted, with about 40% and 10% remaining, 4 minutes and 20 minutes after exposure to 100 degrees C, respectively. About half of the activity remained at pH 0 and pH 1 whereas the activity was completely abolished at pH 14. The hemagglutinin exhibited slight anti-tumor activity toward hepatoma HepG2 cells, and weak mitogenic activity toward murine splenocytes. It induced expression of the cytokines interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-2, interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. However, it was devoid of anti-fungal activity toward a number of fungal species. PMID:19807671

  8. Anaerobic biodegradability of macropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    A variety of test procedures for determination of anaerobic biodegradability has been reported. This paper reviews the methods developed for determination of anaerobic biodegradability of macro-pollutants. Anaerobic biodegradability of micro-pollutants is not included. Furthermore, factors import...

  9. The prevention of radiation-induced small bowel complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, J.G.J. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis

    1995-07-01

    Moderate dose pelvic radiotherapy is associated with a 5% severe complication risk related to the small bowel. Strictures and/or fistulation can occur many years after treatment. These complications are difficult to treat, and surgical treatment (excision, bypass) bears a significant morbidity risk. The risk of chronic diarrhoea or malabsorption may increase to 40%, depending on the irradiated small bowel volume. Late small bowel complications are generally irreversible due to vascular aetiology. Prevention of these complications can be achieved by limiting the volume of small bowel treated. Consequence for radiotherapeutic techniques in treatment for rectal cancer are multiple beam set-up, customised blocking based on visualisation of the small bowel in the treatment position, and the use of a special open table-top device that results in a small bowel shift from the treatment field. (author).

  10. Titanium dioxide induced inflammation in the small intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carolina Maciel Nogueira; Walter Mendes de Azevedo; Maria Lucia Zaidan Dagli; Sérgio Hiroshi Toma; André Zonetti de Arruda Leite; Maria Laura Lordello; I(e)da Nishitokukado

    2012-01-01

    0.05); and TGF-α:NP 780.70 ± 318.50,MP 1409.00 ± 502.20 vs 205.50 ± 63.93 (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION:Our findings indicate that TiO2 particles induce a Thl-mediated inflammatory response in the small bowel in mice.

  11. Anaerobic thermophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    The term "extremophile" was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of "extreme" environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally "hot environments" on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has definitely

  12. Anaerobic Thermophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Canganella

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong

  13. Pseudoprolines as removable turn inducers: tools for the cyclization of small peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skropeta, Danielle; Jolliffe, Katrina A; Turner, Peter

    2004-12-10

    The cyclization of small peptides which do not incorporate turn inducers is often difficult. We have developed a method involving the use of removable turn inducers, in the form of pseudoprolines, for the cyclization of difficult peptide sequences. The pseudoprolines induce a cisoid amide bond in the peptide backbone which facilitates cyclization. They are then readily removed to yield a cyclic peptide that does not contain any turn inducers.

  14. Delay Induced Hopf Bifurcation of Small-World Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the stability and the Hopf bifurcation of small-world networks with time delay are studied. By analyzing the change of delay, we obtain several sufficient conditions on stable and unstable properties. When the delay passes a critical value, a Hopf bifurcation may appear. Furthermore, the direction and the stability of bifurcating periodic solutions are investigated by the normal form theory and the center manifold reduction. At last, by numerical simulations, we further illustrate the effectiveness of theorems in this paper.

  15. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-induced small intestinal injury and probiotic agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mario Guslandi

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal bacteria play a role in the development of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID)-induced small intestinal injury.Agents such as probiotics,able t omodify the gut ecology,might theoretically be useful in preventing small intestinal damage induced by NSAIDs.The clinical studies available so far do suggest that some probiotic agents can be effective in this respect.

  16. Terrestrial cometary tail and lunar corona induced by small comets: Predictions for Galileo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessler, A.J. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA)); Sandel, B.R. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA)); Vasyliunas, V.M. (Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau (West Germany))

    1990-11-01

    A search for small comets near 1 AU is an objective of the Galileo mission. If small comets are as numerous and behave as has been proposed, two near-Earth signatures of small comets should be observable by the UVS experiment on the Earth flybys of Galileo; (1) a comet-like tail of Earth created by small comets that come close to Earth, break up and vaporize, but just miss the atmosphere and proceed back into interplanetary space, and (2) a corona surrounding the Moon induced by lunar impact of small comets.

  17. Terrestrial cometary tail and lunar corona induced by small comets: Predictions for Galileo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search for small comets near 1 AU is an objective of the Galileo mission. If small comets are as numerous and behave as has been proposed, two near-Earth signatures of small comets should be observable by the UVS experiment on the Earth flybys of Galileo; (1) a comet-like tail of Earth created by small comets that come close to Earth, break up and vaporize, but just miss the atmosphere and proceed back into interplanetary space, and (2) a corona surrounding the Moon induced by lunar impact of small comets

  18. [The up-to-date methods of management of NSAIDs-induced injuries of small intestine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkach, S M; Balabantseva, H P; Levchenko, A R

    2014-01-01

    In the article the incidence, pathogenesis, clinical featuries, diagnostic, prevention and treatment of NSAIDs-induced injuries of small intestine are presented. The different strategies of management of NSAID-induced enteropathy, such as use of PPI, COX-2-inhibitors, prostaglandins, antibiotics and probiotics, new combination of NSAIDs with phosphatidylcholine, NO or H2S, food supplements and other drugs are discussed.

  19. Seismic risk analysis of small earthquakes induced by hydrocarbon production in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassing, B.B.T.; Waarts, P.H.; Roos, W.; Nepveu, M.; Muntendam-Bos, A.G.; Eck, T. van

    2010-01-01

    In the northern parts of The Netherlands, the exploitation of gas fields has induced small earthquakes. These induced earthquakes have occasionally caused damage to buildings. A workflow was developed in order to evaluate the seismic risk of the exploitation of hydrocarbon fields. A Bayesian analysi

  20. Physical exercise induces rapid release of small extracellular vesicles into the circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Frühbeis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs by default and in response to diverse stimuli for the purpose of cell communication and tissue homeostasis. EVs are present in all body fluids including peripheral blood, and their appearance correlates with specific physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we show that physical activity is associated with the release of nano-sized EVs into the circulation. Healthy individuals were subjected to an incremental exercise protocol of cycling or running until exhaustion, and EVs were isolated from blood plasma samples taken before, immediately after and 90 min after exercise. Small EVs with the size of 100–130 nm, that carried proteins characteristic of exosomes, were significantly increased immediately after cycling exercise and declined again within 90 min at rest. In response to treadmill running, elevation of small EVs was moderate but appeared more sustained. To delineate EV release kinetics, plasma samples were additionally taken at the end of each increment of the cycling exercise protocol. Release of small EVs into the circulation was initiated in an early phase of exercise, before the individual anaerobic threshold, which is marked by the rise of lactate. Taken together, our study revealed that exercise triggers a rapid release of EVs with the characteristic size of exosomes into the circulation, initiated in the aerobic phase of exercise. We hypothesize that EVs released during physical activity may participate in cell communication during exercise-mediated adaptation processes that involve signalling across tissues and organs.

  1. Oxygen Effects in Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshai Botheju

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of free oxygen in bio-gasification is a sparsely studied area, apart from the common argument of oxygen being toxic and inhibitory for anaerobic micro-cultures. Some studies have, however, revealed increased solubilisation of organic matter in the presence of some free oxygen in anaerobic digestion. This article analyses these counterbalancing phenomena with a mathematical modelling approach using the widely accepted biochemical model ADM 1. Aerobic oxidation of soluble carbon and inhibition of obligatory anaerobic organisms are modelled using standard saturation type kinetics. Biomass dependent first order hydrolysis kinetics is used to relate the increased hydrolysis rate with oxygen induced increase in biomass growth. The amended model, ADM 1-Ox (oxygen, has 25 state variables and 22 biochemical processes, presented in matrix form. The computer aided simulation tool AQUASIM 2.1 is used to simulate the developed model. Simulation predictions are evaluated against experimental data obtained using a laboratory batch test array comprising miniature anaerobic bio-reactors of 100 ml total volume each, operated under different initial air headspaces giving rise to the different oxygen loading conditions. The reactors were initially fed with a glucose solution and incubated at 35 Celsius, for 563 hours. Under the oxygen load conditions of 22, 44 and 88 mg/L, the ADM1-Ox model simulations predicted the experimental methane potentials quite adequately. Both the experimental data and the simulations suggest a linear reduction of methane potential with respect to the increase in oxygen load within this range.

  2. Reator compartimentado anaeróbio/aeróbio: sistema de baixo custo para tratamento de esgotos de pequenas comunidades Anaerobic/aerobic baffled reactor: low cost system for sewage treatment in small communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo H. R. da Silva

    2005-06-01

    /aerobic reactor to treat sanitary sewage in small urban and rural communities. The system performance was evaluated at several hydraulic detention times (HDT. The best values of chemical oxygen demand (CODtotal - 73.7% and total suspended solids (TSS removal - 78.8% were obtained for HDTtotal of 8 h (4 h for the anaerobic phase and 4 h for the aerobic phase. The baffled reactor presented good operational stability, a necessary feature of low cost systems.

  3. Protective effect of vitamin E against ethanol-induced small intestine damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirpoor, Alireza; Barmaki, Hanieh; Khadem Ansari, Mohamadhasan; Lkhanizadeh, BehrouzI; Barmaki, Haleh

    2016-03-01

    The role of oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction has been reported in various ethanol-induced complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol-induced structural alteration, oxidative stress, and inflammatory reaction on the small intestine of rats, and plausible protective effect of vitamin E to determine whether it inhibits the abnormality induced by ethanol in the small intestine. Twenty-four male wistar rats were divided into three groups, namely: Control, ethanol, and vitamin E treated ethanol groups. After six weeks of treatment, the small intestine length, villus height, crypt depth and muscular layer thickness, oxidative stress, and inflammatory parameters showed significant changes in the ethanol treated group compared to the control group. Vitamin E consumption along with ethanol ameliorated structural alteration of the small intestine and reduced the elevated amount of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers such as protein carbonyl, OX-LDL, IL-6, Hcy, and TNF-α. Furthermore, their total antioxidant capacity was increased significantly compared to that of the ethanol group. These findings indicate that ethanol induces the small intestine abnormality by oxidative and inflammatory stress, and that these effects can be alleviated by using vitamin E as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecule.

  4. Preventative Effects of Sodium Alginate on Indomethacin-induced Small-intestinal Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horibe, Sayo; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Kawauchi, Shoji; Mizuno, Shigeto; Rikitake, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in diagnostic technologies have revealed that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause serious mucosal injury in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract (including the small intestine). A drug to treat NSAID-induced small-intestinal injury (SII) is lacking. Sodium alginate is a soluble dietary fiber extracted from brown seaweed and its solution has been used as a hemostatic agent to treat gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastric ulcers. Whether sodium alginate has therapeutic effects on NSAID-induced SII and its mechanism of action are not known. Here, we investigated if administration of two forms (high-molecular-weight (HMW) and low-molecular-weight (LMW)) of sodium alginate could ameliorate indomethacin-induced SII. Pretreatment with HMW sodium alginate or LMW sodium alginate before indomethacin administration improved ulceration and the resultant intestinal shortening was associated with reduced histological severity of mucosal injury and ameliorated mRNA expression of inflammation-related molecules in the small intestine. We found that mRNAs of secretory Muc2 and membrane-associated Muc1, Muc3 and Muc4 were expressed in the small intestine. mRNA expression of Muc1-4 was increased in indomethacin-induced SII, and these increases were prevented by sodium alginate. Thus, administration of sodium alginate could be a therapeutic approach to prevent indomethacin-induced SII.

  5. Pluripotent stem cells induced from mouse neural stem cells and small intestinal epithelial cells by small molecule compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Junqing; Ge, Jian; Zhang, Xu; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Zhengyuan; He, Shan; Wang, Yuping; Lin, Hua; Yang, Weifeng; Liu, Junfang; Zhao, Yang; Deng, Hongkui

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported a chemical approach to generate pluripotent stem cells from mouse fibroblasts. However, whether chemically induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSCs) can be derived from other cell types remains to be demonstrated. Here, using lineage tracing, we first verify the generation of CiPSCs from fibroblasts. Next, we demonstrate that neural stem cells (NSCs) from the ectoderm and small intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from the endoderm can be chemically reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells. CiPSCs derived from NSCs and IECs resemble mouse embryonic stem cells in proliferation rate, global gene expression profile, epigenetic status, self-renewal and differentiation capacity, and germline transmission competency. Interestingly, the pluripotency gene Sall4 is expressed at the initial stage in the chemical reprogramming process from different cell types, and the same core small molecules are required for the reprogramming, suggesting conservation in the molecular mechanism underlying chemical reprogramming from these diverse cell types. Our analysis also shows that the use of these small molecules should be fine-tuned to meet the requirement of reprogramming from different cell types. Together, these findings demonstrate that full chemical reprogramming approach can be applied in cells of different tissue origins and suggest that chemical reprogramming is a promising strategy with the potential to be extended to more initial types. PMID:26704449

  6. Small Regulatory RNA-Induced Growth Rate Heterogeneity of Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Mars, Ruben A. T.; Nicolas, Pierre; Ciccolini, Mariano; Reilman, Ewoud; Reder, Alexander; Schaffer, Marc; Maeder, Ulrike; Voelker, Uwe; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Denham, Emma L.

    2015-01-01

    Author Summary Bacterial cells that share the same genetic information can display very different phenotypes, even if they grow under identical conditions. Despite the relevance of this population heterogeneity for processes like drug resistance and development, the molecular players that induce heterogenic phenotypes are often not known. Here we report that in the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis a small regulatory RNA (sRNA) can induce heterogeneity in growth rates by increas...

  7. Effect of anaerobic digestion on the high rate of nitritation, treating piggery wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiyeol Im; Kyungik Gil

    2011-01-01

    The amount of piggery wastewater as domestic livestock is increasing.The volume of piggery wastewater produced is less than the volume of other wastewaters,but piggery wastewater has a heavy impact on wastewater streams due to an extremely high concentration of nitrogen and COD.In this study,laboratory reactors were operated using piggery wastewater and the effluent of anaerobic digester from piggery wastewater plants.The purpose of this study was to induce the nitritation process,which is an economically advantageous nitrogen removal method that converts ammonium nitrogen into nitrite.The results showed that the effluent of anaerobic digester from piggery wastewater was more efficient than raw piggery wastewater in terms of inducing nitritation.It can be deduced that nitritation is largely affected by an organic fraction of piggery wastewater.It can also be concluded that a small amount of biodegradable organic matter in piggery wastewater is efficient in inducing nitritation.

  8. A case of metastasis-induced acute pancreatitis in a patient with small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yamanashi, Keiji; Marumo, Satoshi; Saitoh, Motoh; Kato, Motokazu

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We report a rare case of metastasis-induced acute pancreatitis (MIAP) from small cell lung cancer (SCLC) diagnosed on autopsy, indicating a diagnosis of MIAP with SCLC. Our case suggests that MIAP can arise as a complication of SCLC and has an extremely poor prognosis.

  9. Dietary squid ink polysaccharide induces goblet cells to protect small intestine from chemotherapy induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Tao; Cao, Lu; Xue, Changhu; Tang, Qing-Juan

    2015-03-01

    Gastrointestinal mucositis induced by chemotherapy is associated with alterations of intestinal barrier function due to the potential damage induced by anti-cancer drugs on the epithelial cells. Goblet cells, an important epithelial lining in the intestine, contribute to innate immunity by secreting mucin glycoproteins. Employing a mouse model of chemotherapy induced intestinal mucosal immunity injury by cyclophosphamide, we demonstrated for the first time that polysaccharide from the ink of Ommastrephes bartramii (OBP) enhanced Cyto18, which is a mucin expression in goblet cells. The up-regulation of mucins by OBP relied on the augmented quantity of goblet cells, but not on the changes in the ultrastructure of endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Our results may have important implications for enhanced immunopotentiation function of functional OBP on intestinal mucosal immunity against intestinal disorders involving inflammation and infection.

  10. Light-Induced Structural Flexibility of Thylakoid Membranes - Investigated using Small-Angle X-ray and Neutron Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Aagaard, Thomas Helverskov

    2005-01-01

    Using small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering the light-induced structural changes in pea thylakoids have been investigated. It is shown that light-induced shinkage in the thylakoids is connected to photosynthetic electron transduction.

  11. Colchicine prevents NSAID-induced small intestinal injury by inhibiting activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koji; Watanabe, Toshio; Shimada, Sunao; Takeda, Shogo; Itani, Shigehiro; Higashimori, Akira; Nadatani, Yuji; Nagami, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Fumio; Kamata, Noriko; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Tominaga, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    The inflammasome is a large, multiprotein complex that consists of a nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR), an apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, and pro-caspase-1. Activation of the inflammasome results in cleavage of pro-caspase-1 into cleaved caspase-1, which promotes the processing of pro-interleukin (IL)-1β into mature IL-1β. We investigated the effects of colchicine on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced small intestinal injury and activation of the NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Colchicine treatment inhibited indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury by 86% (1 mg/kg) and 94% (3 mg/kg) as indicated by the lesion index 24 h after indomethacin administration. Colchicine inhibited the protein expression of cleaved caspase-1 and mature IL-1β, without affecting the mRNA expression of NLRP3 and IL-1β. Although treatment with recombinant IL-1β (0.1 μg/kg) did not change the severity of small intestinal damage, the preventive effects of colchicine were abolished by supplementation with the same dose of recombinant IL-1β. Indomethacin-induced small intestinal damage was reduced by 77%, as determined by the lesion index in NLRP3(-/-) mice, and colchicine treatment failed to inhibit small intestinal damage in NLRP3(-/-) mice. These results demonstrate that colchicine prevents NSAID-induced small intestinal injury by inhibiting activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. PMID:27585971

  12. TRPC3 is involved in flow- and bradykinin-induced vasodilation in rat small mesenteric arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-ling LIU; Yu HUANG; Ching-yuen NGAI; Yuk-ki LEUNG; Xiao-qiang YAO

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To test the possible involvement of TRPC3 in agonist-induced relaxation and flow-induced vasodilation in rat small mesenteric arteries. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the present study. After 72 h-treatment of antisense oligo via tail vein injection, isometric tension and isobaric diameter measurement were carried out with isolated mesenteric artery segments by using either a Pressure Myograph or a Multi Myograph system. Endothelial [Ca2+]i changes were measured with a MetaFluor imaging system in response to flow or to 30 nmol/L bradykinin. Results: Immunohistochemical study showed that the 72 h-treatment of antisense oligo via tail vein injection markedly decreased the TRPC3 expression in mesenteric arteries, indicating the effectiveness of the antisense oligo. Isometric tension and isobaric diameter measurement showed that, although the antisense oligo treatment did not affect histamine-, ATP-, and CPA-induced relaxation, it did reduce the magnitude of flow-induced vasodilation by approximately 13% and decreased bradykinin-induced vascular relaxation with its EC50 value raised by nearly 3-fold. Endothelial [Ca2+]i measurement revealed that treatment of the arteries with antisense oligos significantly attenuated the magnitude of endothelial [Ca2+]i rise in response to flow and to 30 nmol/L bradykinin. Conclusion: The results suggest that TRPC3 is involved in flow- and bradykinin-induced vasodilation in rat small mesenteric arteries probably by mediating the Ca2+ influx into endothelial cells.

  13. Gender comparisons in anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity tests.

    OpenAIRE

    Maud, P. J.; Shultz, B B

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity test scores between young active men and women. Three performance measures of anaerobic power and two of anaerobic capacity were administered to a sample comprising 52 male and 50 female college students (means age = 21.4 yrs). Results indicated significant differences between men and women in body height, weight and per cent fat, in fat free mass (FFM), anaerobic power, and anaerobic capacity when recorded as gros...

  14. Identification of a conserved protein involved in anaerobic unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in Neiserria gonorrhoeae: implications for facultative and obligate anaerobes that lack FabA

    OpenAIRE

    Isabella, Vincent M.; Clark, Virginia L.

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis of the facultative anaerobe, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, revealed that many genes of unknown function were induced under anaerobic conditions. Mutation of one such gene, NGO1024, encoding a protein belonging to the 2-nitropropane dioxygenase-like superfamiliy of proteins, was found to result in an inability of gonococci to grow anaerobically. Anaerobic growth of an NG1024 mutant was restored upon supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), but not with the saturated ...

  15. Differential expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α in non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni Karetsi; Maria G. Ioannou; Theodora Kerenidi; Markos Minas; Paschalis A Molyvdas; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Efrosyni Paraskeva

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and vascular endothelial growth factor in small cell lung cancer and subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer and examine their relationships with clinicopathologic factors, response to treatment and survival. METHODS: We examined samples obtained by bronchial endoscopic biopsy from 55 patients with inoperable lung cancer (16 with adenocarcinoma, 17 with squamous cell carcinoma, and 22 with small cell...

  16. Irradiation Induced Defect Characterization in Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel by Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yougn-Soo; Shin, Eun-Joo; Lee, Chang-Hee; Park, Duck-Gun

    The degradation of the mechanical properties of the RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel) steel during an irradiation in a nuclear power plant is closely related to the irradiation induced defects. The size of these defects is known to be a few nanometer, and the small angle neutron scattering technique is regarded as the best non destructive technique to characterize the nano sized inhomogeneities in bulk samples. The investigated the RPV steel has been used in YeongKwang nuclear power plant at Korea and the Cu content of the RPV steel is 0.06 wt%. The RPV steel was irradiated in the HANARO reactor at KAERI. The small angle neutron scattering experiments were performed by the SANS instrument in the HANARO reactor. The nano sized irradiation induced defects were quantitatively analyzed by SANS and the type of the irradiation induced defects was discussed in detail. The relation between irradiation induced defects and the yield strength was investigated. The characteristics of irradiation induced defects in low Cu containing RPV steel were discussed.

  17. Affinity-purified interleukin 2 induces proliferation of large but not small B cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Mond, J J; C. Thompson; Finkelman, F.D.; Farrar, J.; Schaefer, M.; Robb, R J

    1985-01-01

    Immunoaffinity-purified interleukin 2 (IL2) stimulated proliferation of large but not small B cells. Stimulation was observed even when B cells were cultured at very low cell densities (3 X 10(4) per microwell containing 0.2 ml of medium). Addition of small numbers of purified splenic T cells did not enhance the IL2-induced B-cell proliferative response. These results suggest that IL2 was not operating through contaminating T cells. B cells cultured with anti-Ig antibody in vitro showed enhan...

  18. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9...

  19. Anaerobic sludge granulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Castro Lopes, de S.I.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews different theories on anaerobic sludge granulation in UASB-reactors that have been proposed during the past two decades
    This paper reviews different theories on anaerobic sludge granulation in UASB-reactors that have been proposed during the past two decades. The initial stage

  20. Traditional Herbal Medicine, Rikkunshito, Induces HSP60 and Enhances Cytoprotection of Small Intestinal Mucosal Cells as a Nontoxic Chaperone Inducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko Tamaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing incidence of small intestinal ulcers associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs has become a topic with recent advances of endoscopic technology. However, the pathogenesis and therapy are not fully understood. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of Rikkunshito (TJ-43, a traditional herbal medicine, on expression of HSP60 and cytoprotective ability in small intestinal cell line (IEC-6. Effect of TJ-43 on HSP60 expression in IEC-6 cells was evaluated by immunoblot analysis. The effect of TJ-43 on cytoprotective abilities of IEC-6 cells against hydrogen peroxide or indomethacin was studied by MTT assay, LDH-release assay, caspase-8 activity, and TUNEL. HSP60 was significantly induced by TJ-43. Cell necrosis and apoptosis were significantly suppressed in IEC-6 cells pretreated by TJ-43 with overexpression of HSP60. Our results suggested that HSP60 induced by TJ-43 might play an important role in protecting small intestinal epithelial cells from apoptosis and necrosis in vitro.

  1. Factors required for the high CO2 specificity of the anaerobically induced maize GapC4 promoter in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Julia; Machens, Fabian; Fornefeld, Eva; Keller-Hüschemenger, Jens; Hehl, Reinhard

    2011-02-01

    Flooding, a natural cause of anaerobiosis, is often accompanied by high CO(2) concentrations in the flood water. Plants need to respond to these environmental conditions. Strong anaerobic reporter gene activity in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) controlled by the glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapC4) promoter from maize (Zea mays) depends on the presence of CO(2) and light. To identify factors required for CO(2) regulated gene expression, promoter deletions fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene were studied in transgenic tobacco. Deletion of a 40 bp fragment directly upstream of the TATA box leads to increased anaerobic reporter gene activity both, in the presence and absence of CO(2). This deletion does not affect light specific anaerobic expression. A positive correlation between increasing CO(2) concentrations and gene activity is observed. Electrophoretic mobility shift experiments indicate that tobacco nuclear extracts harbour proteins that bind to part of the 40 bp fragment. Database assisted as well as experimental analysis reveal a role for AP2/EREBP transcription factors for conferring the high CO(2) specificity to the GapC4 promoter in tobacco leaves. This work highlights the importance for plants to respond to high environmental CO(2) concentrations under anaerobic conditions. PMID:20880205

  2. Ascaris lumbricoides-Induced Acute Pancreatitis: Diagnosis during EUS for a Suspected Small Pancreatic Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetto Mangiavillano; Silvia Carrara; Maria Chiara Petrone; Paolo Giorgio Arcidiacono; Pier Alberto Testoni

    2009-01-01

    Context Ascaris lumbricoides is the second most common intestinal parasite world-wide and, although the infection can be asymptomatic, in some cases it can present with complications, such as acute pancreatitis. Case report We describe the case of a 37- year-old man, with a history of travelling in Eastern countries who presented with Ascaris lumbricoides-induced acute pancreatitis mimicking a small pancreatic cancer, diagnosed during an upper EUS. The endoscopy revealeda roundworm floating i...

  3. Ume (Japanese Apricot-Induced Small Bowel Obstruction with Chronic Radiation Enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Hashimoto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Stricture formation is recognized as one of the complications of chronic radiation enteritis. Here, we present a case of a 73-year-old woman who presented with small bowel obstruction 16 years after pelvic irradiation for uterine cancer. Computed tomographic (CT scan of the abdomen demonstrated a 1-cm foreign body in the terminal ileum. Laparotomy revealed a stone of ume (Japanese apricot stuck in an ileal stricture, leading to complete impaction and perforation. She was successfully treated with ileocecal resection and ileocolic anastomosis without any complication. Pathological study revealed that the low compliance caused by fibrosis of the bowel wall prevented the small ume stone from passing through the irradiated ileum. Our case implies the specific risk of food-induced small bowel obstruction in patients with a history of pelvic irradiation.

  4. Aspirin-induced small bowel injuries and the preventive effect of rebamipide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuhiro Mizukami; Kazunari Murakami; Takashi Abe; Kunimitsu Inoue; Masahiro Uchida; Tadayoshi Okimoto; Masaaki Kodama; Toshio Fujioka

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the influence of taking low-dose aspirin for 4 wk on small intestinal complications and to examine the preventive effect of rebamipide. METHODS: This study was conducted as a singlecenter, randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebocontrolled study. Eleven healthy male subjects were enrolled. Each subject underwent video capsule endoscopy after 1 and 4 wk of taking aspirin and omeprazole, along with either rebamipide or placebo therapy. The primary endpoint was to evaluate small bowel damage in healthy subjects before and after taking low-dose aspirin for 4 wk. RESULTS: The number of subjects with mucosal breaks (defined as multiple erosions and/or ulcers) were 1 at 1 wk and 1 at 4 wk on the jejunum, and 6 at 1 wk (P = 0.0061) and 7 at 4 wk on the ileum (P = 0.0019). Rebamipide significantly prevented mucosal breaks on the ileum compared with the placebo group (P = 0.0173 at 1 wk and P = 0.0266 at 4 wk). CONCLUSION: Longer-term, low-dose aspirin administration induced damage in the small bowel. Rebamipide prevented this damage, and may be a candidate drug for treating aspirin-induced small bowel complications.

  5. MiR-122 Induces Radiosensitization in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debin Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available MiR-122 is a novel tumor suppresser and its expression induces cell cycle arrest, or apoptosis, and inhibits cell proliferation in multiple cancer cells, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells. Radioresistance of cancer cell leads to the major drawback of radiotherapy for NSCLC and the induction of radiosensitization could be a useful strategy to fix this problem. The present work investigates the function of miR-122 in inducing radiosensitization in A549 cell, a type of NSCLC cells. MiR-122 induces the radiosensitization of A549 cells. MiR-122 also boosts the inhibitory activity of ionizing radiation (IR on cancer cell anchor-independent growth and invasion. Moreover, miR-122 reduced the expression of its targeted genes related to tumor-survival or cellular stress response. These results indicate that miR-122 would be a novel strategy for NSCLC radiation-therapy.

  6. Skewness-induced asymmetric modulation of small-scale turbulence by large-scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Lionel; Leschziner, Michael; Gaitonde, Datta

    2016-01-01

    Several recent studies discuss of role of skewness of the turbulent velocity fluctuations in near-wall shear layers, in the context of quantifying the correlation between large-scale motions and amplitude variations of small-scale fluctuations—referred to as "modulation." The present study is based on the premise that the skewness of the small-scale fluctuations should be accounted for explicitly in the process of defining their envelope, which characterizes their amplitude variations. This leads to the notion of two envelopes, one for positive and the other for negative small-scale fluctuations, and hence also to two corresponding correlation coefficients. Justification for this concept is provided first by an examination of a high-frequency synthetic signal subjected to realistic skewness-inducing modulation. A new formalism is provided for deriving the two envelopes, and its fidelity is demonstrated for the synthetic test case. The method is then applied to a channel flow at a friction Reynolds number of 4200, for which direct numerical simulation (DNS) data are available. The large-scale and small-scale fields are separated by the empirical mode decomposition method, and the modulation of the small-scale fluctuations by the large scales is examined. Separate maps of the correlation coefficient and of two-point correlations, the latter linking the large-scale motions and the envelopes of the small-scale motions, are derived for the two envelopes pertaining to positive and negative small-scale fluctuations, and these demonstrate a significant sensitivity to the envelope-definition process, especially close to the wall where the skewness of the small-scale fluctuations is the dominant contributor to the total value.

  7. Aminoguanidine Alleviates Radiation-Induced Small-Bowel Damage Through Its Antioxidant Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect and its mechanism of aminoguanidine (AG) on small-bowel protection after whole-abdominal irradiation (WAI) in rats. Methods and Materials: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-400 g) subjected to 12 Gy WAI were used for the study. Aminoguanidine at a dose of 50-800 mg/kg was administered by the gavage route 2 h before WAI. Mucosal damage of small bowel was evaluated by the grade of diarrhea and crypt survival; oxidative stress was determined by the level of 8-hydroxy 2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) with immunohistochemistry (IHC). Nitrosative stress was evaluated by the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) with IHC, and systemic and portal vein NOx (nitrite + nitrate) levels were measured and compared with and without AG treatment after WAI. Results: Aminoguanidine showed a dose-dependent effect against WAI-induced diarrhea. Aminoguanidine at a dose of 400 mg/kg had the best protective effect, from 92% to 17% (p = 0.002). Aminoguanidine increased crypt survival from 23% to 46% (p = 0.003). It also significantly attenuated 8-OHdG expression but not 3-NT and iNOS expression at both 4 and 8 h after 12-Gy WAI. Aminoguanidine did not alter the portal vein NOx levels 4 and 8 h after 12-Gy WAI. Conclusion: Aminoguanidine has a radioprotective effect against radiation-induced small-bowel damage due to its antioxidant effect but not inhibition of nitric oxide production. Dietary AG may have a potentially protective effect on the small intestine of patients subjected to pelvic and abdominal radiotherapies.

  8. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  9. Evaluating Biological Treatment Systems: (i) Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor versus Biological Aerated Filtration, and (ii) Sulfide-Induced corrosion in Anaerobic Digester Gas Piping

    OpenAIRE

    Asiedu, Kofi

    2001-01-01

    The research presented in this report is in two sections. Section I involved the performance of a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) versus a biological aerated filtration (BAF) and Section II involved study on causes of deposition in anaerobic digester gas piping. The first section evaluated and compared the performance of a laboratory-scale MBBR and BAF for organic carbon and suspended solids removal. A kinetic study was also performed on the MBBR to evaluate the system performance. T...

  10. Irradiation induced injury reduces energy metabolism in small intestine of Tibet minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jue Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The radiation-induced energy metabolism dysfunction related to injury and radiation doses is largely elusive. The purpose of this study is to investigate the early response of energy metabolism in small intestinal tissue and its correlation with pathologic lesion after total body X-ray irradiation (TBI in Tibet minipigs. METHODS AND RESULTS: 30 Tibet minipigs were assigned into 6 groups including 5 experimental groups and one control group with 6 animals each group. The minipigs in these experimental groups were subjected to a TBI of 2, 5, 8, 11, and 14 Gy, respectively. Small intestine tissues were collected at 24 h following X-ray exposure and analyzed by histology and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. DNA contents in this tissue were also examined. Irradiation causes pathologic lesions and mitochondrial abnormalities. The Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA content-corrected and uncorrected adenosine-triphosphate (ATP and total adenine nucleotides (TAN were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by 2-8 Gy exposure, and no further reduction was observed over 8 Gy. CONCLUSION: TBI induced injury is highly dependent on the irradiation dosage in small intestine and inversely correlates with the energy metabolism, with its reduction potentially indicating the severity of injury.

  11. Autophagy Accompanied with Bisdemethoxycurcumin-induced Apoptosis in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jin Hong; YANG He Ping; ZHOU Xiang Dong; WANG Hai Jing; GONG Liang; TANG Chun Lan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, A549, and the highly metastatic lung cancer 95D cells. Methods CCK-8 assay was used to assess the effect of BDMC on cytotoxicity. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate apoptosis. Western blot analysis, electron microscopy, and quantification of GFP-LC3 punctuates were used to test the effect of BDMC on autophagy and apoptosis of lung cancer cells. Results BDMC inhibited the viability of NSCLC cells, but had no cytotoxic effects on lung small airway epithelial cells (SAECs). The apoptotic cell death induced by BDMC was accompanied with the induction of autophagy in NSCLC cells. Blockage of autophagy by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) repressed the growth inhibitory effects and induction of apoptosis by BDMC. In addition, BDMC treatment significantly decreased smoothened (SMO) and the transcription factor glioma-associated oncogene 1 (Gli1) expression. Furthermore, depletion of Gli1 by siRNA and cyclopamine (a specific SMO inhibitor) induced autophagy. Conclusion Aberrant activation of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling has been implicated in several human cancers, including lung cancers. The present findings provide direct evidence that BDMC-induced autophagy plays a pro-death role in NSCLC, in part, by inhibiting Hedgehog signaling.

  12. Effects of ceftriaxone-induced intestinal dysbacteriosis on dendritic cells of small intestine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Li, Weihua; Wen, Shu; Liu, Yinhui; Tang, Li

    2013-08-01

    Intestinal microflora plays a pivotal role in the development of the innate immune system and is essential in shaping adaptive immunity. Dysbacteriosis of intestinal microflora induces altered immune responses and results in disease susceptibility. Dendritic cells (DCs), the professional antigen-presenting cells, have gained increasing attention because they connect innate and adaptive immunity. They generate both immunity in response to stimulation by pathogenic bacteria and immune tolerance in the presence of commensal bacteria. However, few studies have examined the effects of intestinal dysbacteriosis on DCs. In this study, changes of DCs in the small intestine of mice under the condition of dysbacteriosis induced by ceftriaxone sodium were investigated. It was found that intragastric administration of ceftriaxone sodium caused severe dysteriosis in mice. Compared with controls, numbers of DCs in mice with dysbacteriosis increased significantly (P = 0.0001). However, the maturity and antigen-presenting ability of DCs were greatly reduced. In addition, there was a significant difference in secretion of IL-10 and IL-12 between DCs from mice with dysbacteriosis and controls. To conclude, ceftriaxone-induced intestinal dysbacteriosis strongly affected the numbers and functions of DCs. The present data suggest that intestinal microflora plays an important role in inducing and maintaining the functions of DCs and thus is essential for the connection between innate and adaptive immune responses.

  13. The p53-reactivating small molecule RITA induces senescence in head and neck cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ching Chuang

    Full Text Available TP53 is the most commonly mutated gene in head and neck cancer (HNSCC, with mutations being associated with resistance to conventional therapy. Restoring normal p53 function has previously been investigated via the use of RITA (reactivation of p53 and induction of tumor cell apoptosis, a small molecule that induces a conformational change in p53, leading to activation of its downstream targets. In the current study we found that RITA indeed exerts significant effects in HNSCC cells. However, in this model, we found that a significant outcome of RITA treatment was accelerated senescence. RITA-induced senescence in a variety of p53 backgrounds, including p53 null cells. Also, inhibition of p53 expression did not appear to significantly inhibit RITA-induced senescence. Thus, this phenomenon appears to be partially p53-independent. Additionally, RITA-induced senescence appears to be partially mediated by activation of the DNA damage response and SIRT1 (Silent information regulator T1 inhibition, with a synergistic effect seen by combining either ionizing radiation or SIRT1 inhibition with RITA treatment. These data point toward a novel mechanism of RITA function as well as hint to its possible therapeutic benefit in HNSCC.

  14. Clozapine Induces Autophagic Cell Death in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chun Yin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Previous studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia have a lower incidence of cancer than the general population, and several antipsychotics have been demonstrated to have cytotoxic effects on cancer cells. However, the mechanisms underlying these results remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of clozapine, which is often used to treat patients with refractory schizophrenia, on the growth of non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines and to examine whether autophagy contributes to its effects. Methods: A549 and H1299 cells were treated with clozapine, and cell cytotoxicity, cell cycle and autophagy were then assessed. The autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 and siRNA-targeted Atg7 were used to determine the role of autophagy in the effect of clozapine. Results: Clozapine inhibited A549 and H1299 proliferation and increased p21 and p27 expression levels, leading to cell cycle arrest. Clozapine also induced a high level of autophagy, but not apoptosis, in both cell lines, and the growth inhibitory effect of clozapine was blunted by treatment with the autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 or with an siRNA targeting atg7. Conclusions: Clozapine inhibits cell proliferation by inducing autophagic cell death in two non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines. These findings may provide insights into the relationship between clozapine use and the lower incidence of lung cancer among patients with schizophrenia.

  15. Self-induced flavor conversion of supernova neutrinos on small scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Hansen, R. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus,8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Izaguirre, I.; Raffelt, G.G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Self-induced flavor conversion of supernova (SN) neutrinos is a generic feature of neutrino-neutrino dispersion. The corresponding run-away modes in flavor space can spontaneously break the original symmetries of the neutrino flux and in particular can spontaneously produce small-scale features as shown in recent schematic studies. However, the unavoidable “multi-angle matter effect” shifts these small-scale instabilities into regions of matter and neutrino density which are not encountered on the way out from a SN. The traditional modes which are uniform on the largest scales are most prone for instabilities and thus provide the most sensitive test for the appearance of self-induced flavor conversion. As a by-product we clarify the relation between the time evolution of an expanding neutrino gas and the radial evolution of a stationary SN neutrino flux. Our results depend on several simplifying assumptions, notably stationarity of the solution, the absence of a “backward” neutrino flux caused by residual scattering, and global spherical symmetry of emission.

  16. Tumor Necrosis Factor Induces Developmental Stage-Dependent Structural Changes in the Immature Small Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn S. Brown

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Premature infants are commonly subject to intestinal inflammation. Since the human small intestine does not reach maturity until term gestation, premature infants have a unique challenge, as either acute or chronic inflammation may alter the normal development of the intestinal tract. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF has been shown to acutely alter goblet cell numbers and villus length in adult mice. In this study we tested the effects of TNF on villus architecture and epithelial cells at different stages of development of the immature small intestine. Methods. To examine the effects of TNF-induced inflammation, we injected acute, brief, or chronic exposures of TNF in neonatal and juvenile mice. Results. TNF induced significant villus blunting through a TNF receptor-1 (TNFR1 mediated mechanism, leading to loss of villus area. This response to TNFR1 signaling was altered during intestinal development, despite constant TNFR1 protein expression. Acute TNF-mediated signaling also significantly decreased Paneth cells. Conclusions. Taken together, the morphologic changes caused by TNF provide insight as to the effects of inflammation on the developing intestinal tract. Additionally, they suggest a mechanism which, coupled with an immature immune system, may help to explain the unique susceptibility of the immature intestine to inflammatory diseases such as NEC.

  17. Self-induced flavor conversion of supernova neutrinos on small scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, S.; Hansen, R. S.; Izaguirre, I.; Raffelt, G. G.

    2016-01-01

    Self-induced flavor conversion of supernova (SN) neutrinos is a generic feature of neutrino-neutrino dispersion. The corresponding run-away modes in flavor space can spontaneously break the original symmetries of the neutrino flux and in particular can spontaneously produce small-scale features as shown in recent schematic studies. However, the unavoidable ``multi-angle matter effect'' shifts these small-scale instabilities into regions of matter and neutrino density which are not encountered on the way out from a SN. The traditional modes which are uniform on the largest scales are most prone for instabilities and thus provide the most sensitive test for the appearance of self-induced flavor conversion. As a by-product we clarify the relation between the time evolution of an expanding neutrino gas and the radial evolution of a stationary SN neutrino flux. Our results depend on several simplifying assumptions, notably stationarity of the solution, the absence of a ``backward'' neutrino flux caused by residual scattering, and global spherical symmetry of emission.

  18. Self-induced flavor conversion of supernova neutrinos on small scales

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Sovan; Izaguirre, Ignacio; Raffelt, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Self-induced flavor conversion of supernova (SN) neutrinos is a generic feature of neutrino-neutrino dispersion. The corresponding run-away modes in flavor space can spontaneously break the original symmetries of the neutrino flux and in particular can spontaneously produce small-scale features as shown in recent schematic studies. However, the unavoidable "multi-angle matter effect" shifts these small-scale instabilities into regions of matter and neutrino density which are not encountered on the way out from a SN. The traditional modes which are uniform on the largest scales are most prone for instabilities and thus provide the most sensitive test for the appearance of self-induced flavor conversion. As a by-product we clarify the relation between the time evolution of an expanding neutrino gas and the radial evolution of a stationary SN neutrino flux. Our results depend on several simplifying assumptions, notably stationarity of the solution, the absence of a "backward" neutrino flux caused by residual sca...

  19. Investigations on geometrical features in induced ordering of collagen by small molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Madhan; Aruna Dhathathreyan; V Subramanian; T Ramasami

    2003-10-01

    Binding energies of the interaction of collagen like triple helical peptides with a series of polyphenols, viz. gallic acid, catechin, epigallocatechingallate and pentagalloylglucose have been computed using molecular modelling approaches. A correlation of calculated binding energies with the interfacial molecular volumes involved in the interaction is observed. Calculated interface surface areas for the binding of polyphenols with collagen-like triple helical peptides vary in the range of 60-210 Å2 and hydrogen bond lengths vary in the range of 2.7-3.4 Å. Interfacial molecular volumes can be calculated from the solvent inaccessible surface areas and hydrogen bond lengths involved in the binding of polyphenols to collagen. Molecular aggregation of collagen in the presence of some polyphenols and chromium (III) salts has been probed experimentally in monolayer systems. The monolayer arrangement of collagen seems to be influenced by the presence of small molecules like formaldehyde, gluteraldehyde, tannic acid and chromium (III) salts. A fractal structure is observed on account of two-dimensional aggregation of collagen induced by tanning species. Atomic force microscopy has been employed to probe the topographic images of two-dimensional aggregation of collagen induced by chromium (III) salts. A case is made that long-range ordering of collagen by molecular species involved in its stabilisation is influenced by molecular geometries involved in its interaction with small molecules.

  20. Cardiopulmonary bypass induced microcirculatory injury of the small bowel in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Hua Dong; Chang-Tian Wang; Yun Li; Biao Xu; Jian-Jun Qian; Hai-Wei Wu; Hua Jing

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate microvascular injury quantitatively in the small bowel with respect to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and related mechanisms.METHODS: In 10 male SD rats, normothermic CPB was established and continued with a flow rate of 100-150 mL/kg per minute for 60 min, while another 10 sham-operated animals served as controls. An approximate 10-cm loop of the terminal ileum was exteriorized for observation by means of intravital fluorescence microscopy. The small bowel microcirculatory network including arterioles, capillaries, and collecting venules was observed prior to CPB, CPB 30 min, CPB 60 min, post-CPB 60 min and post-CPB 120 min. The intestinal capillary perfusion, microvascular permeability and leukocyte adherence were also measured.RESULTS: The systemic hemodynamics remained stable throughout the experiment in both groups. In CPB animals, significant arteriolar vasoconstriction, blood velocity reduction and functional capillary density diminution were found. As concomitances, exaggerated albumin extravasation and increased leukocyte accumulation were also noted. These changes were more pronounced and there were no signs of restitution at the end of the observation period.CONCLUSION: CPB induces significant microcirculatoryinjury of the small bowel in rats. The major underlying mechanisms are blood flow redistribution and generalized inflammatory response associated with CPB.

  1. Metal balance shift induced in small fresh water fish by several environmental stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balance of essential elements in organisms might be changed by environmental stresses. Small fresh water fish, Medaka, was burdened with X-ray irradiation (total dose: 17 Gy), keeping in salty water (70% NaCl of sea water) and keeping in metal containing water (10 ppm of Cr and Co). These stresses are not lethal doses. Essential elements in liver, gall bladder, kidney, spleen, heart and brain in the stress-loaded fish were measured by PIXE method and compared with a control fish to determine the effect of the stresses. Various changes of the elemental contents were observed. Effect of X-ray irradiation was the smallest among the stresses. Relatively high content elements such as P, S, Cl and K were hardly affected with the stresses examined in this work. The effect of Cr on the metal balance seems to be larger than the other stresses. As PIXE method can analyze many elements in a small sample simultaneously, change of elemental distribution in small organisms induced by environmental stresses can be determined readily. (author)

  2. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  3. ISOLATION OF ANAEROBES IN DEEP SEATED PRESSURE ULCERS USING A NOVEL INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUE OF ANAEROBE ISOLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalbiaktluangi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Isolation of an anaerobe is usually neglected in hospitals with limited resources due to the expensive and complicated technique of anaerobic isolation methods, which is difficult to arrange in such resource poor settings. Conventionally adopted anaerobic culture methods such as Anaerobic jar, Gas-Pak, Anoxomat or Automated glove-box systems are extremely costly and cumbersome for single unit testing, but not suitable for small scale laboratories. However, anaerobic bacteria are not to be overlooked as they have made a comeback in clinical settings and are even showing resistance to Metronidazole, once thought to be the gold standard bullet against anaerobes. Deep seated pressure ulcers are usually the site where anaerobe causes an infection in synergy with aerobes. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Isolation of anaerobes in deep seated pressure ulcers using a novel innovative technique and to study their antibiogram profile. MATERIALS AND METHODS Swabs taken from depth of deep seated pressure ulcers were immediately inoculated in Brucella blood agar at bedside and placed in polycarbonate airtight jar for anaerobic incubation using a novel innovative Modified Candle Jar technique. In this technique five grams of grease-free grade zero steel wool were dipped in 50ml freshly prepared acidified copper sulphate solution until the copper colour appeared. Excess solution was drained and the steel wool was moulded into a loose pad to fit on an open Petri plate placed on top of the inoculated Brucella blood agar plates. A white-wax candle was placed at the centre of this plate. A small test tube containing mixture of 0.5g sodium-bicarbonate and 0.5g magnesium carbonate was kept ready to be placed inside the jar, just after placing the inoculated plate and incubated for 48 hours. RESULTS Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and Bacteroides fragilis were successfully isolated from deep seated pressure ulcers by this method. Antibiogram studies were done using the

  4. Climate induced thermocline change has an effect on the methyl mercury cycle in small boreal lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verta, Matti; Salo, Simo; Korhonen, Markku; Porvari, Petri; Paloheimo, Anna; Munthe, John

    2010-08-01

    We conducted a whole-lake experiment by manipulating the stratification pattern (thermocline depth) of a small polyhumic, boreal lake (Halsjärvi) in southern Finland and studying the impacts on lake mercury chemistry. The experimental lake was compared to a nearby reference site (Valkea-Kotinen Lake). During the first phase of the experiment the thermocline of Halsjärvi was lowered in order to simulate the estimated increase in wind speed and in total lake heat content (high-change climate scenario). The rate of methyl mercury (MeHg) production during summer stagnation (May-August) was calculated from water profiles before the treatment (2004), during treatment (2005, 2006) and after treatment (2007). We also calculated fluxes of MeHg from the epilimnion and from the hypolimnion to the sediments using sediment traps. Experimental mixing with a submerged propeller caused a 1.5-2 m deepening of the thermocline and oxycline. Methyl mercury production occurred mostly in the oxygen free layers in both lakes. In the experimental lake there was no net increase in MeHg during the experiment and following year; whereas the reference lake showed net production for all years. We conclude that the new exposed epilimnetic sediments caused by a lowering of the thermocline were a major sink for MeHg in the epilimnion. The results demonstrate that in-lake MeHg production can be manipulated in small lakes with anoxic hypolimnia during summer. The climate change induced changes in small boreal lakes most probably affect methyl mercury production and depend on the lake characteristics and stratification pattern. The results support the hypothesis that possible oxygen related changes caused by climate change are more important than possible temperature changes in small polyhumic lakes with regularly occurring oxygen deficiency in the hypolimnion.

  5. Protective Effect of Wheat Peptides Against Small Intestinal Damage Induced by Non-Steroidal Anti-Inlfammatory Drugs in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Hong; PAN Xing-chang; WANG Shao-kang; YANG Li-gang; SUN Gui-ju

    2014-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inlfammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were able to produce tissue damage and oxidative stress in animal models of small intestinal damage. In this study, the putative protective effect of wheat peptides was evaluated in a NSAID-induced small intestinal damage model in rats, different doses of wheat peptides or distilled water were administered daily by intragastric administration for 30 d until small intestinal damage was caused. Before sacriifcing, NSAIDs (aspirin and indomethacin) or physiological saline were infused into the digestive tract twice. Wheat peptides administration reduced edema and small intestinal damage, and signiifcantly decreased the level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in mucous membrane of small intestine. Oxidative stress was signiifcantly increased after NSAID infusion and was reduced by wheat peptides. Wheat peptides increased glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px) activity in mucous membrane of small intestine. µ-Opioid receptor mRNA expression decreased more signiifcantly in wheat peptides treated rats than in the model control group. Overall, the results suggest that non-steroidal anti-inlfammatory drugs induced small intestinal damage in rats and wheat peptides administration may be an effective tool for protecting small intestinal tissue against NSAID-induced small intestinal damage and oxidative stress.

  6. Differential expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α in non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Karetsi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and vascular endothelial growth factor in small cell lung cancer and subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer and examine their relationships with clinicopathologic factors, response to treatment and survival. METHODS: We examined samples obtained by bronchial endoscopic biopsy from 55 patients with inoperable lung cancer (16 with adenocarcinoma, 17 with squamous cell carcinoma, and 22 with small cell lung cancer. Hypoxiainducible factor 1α and vascular endothelial growth factor were detected using immunohistochemistry. The diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients were conducted according to the standard practice. RESULTS: A significant difference (p=0.022 in hypoxia-inducible factor 1α expression was observed between nonsmall cell lung cancer (75.8% positive and small cell lung cancer (45.5% positive. The frequency of hypoxiainducible factor 1α nuclear expression was 88.2% in squamous cell carcinoma, 62.5% in adenocarcinoma, and 45.5% in small cell lung cancer. A significant correlation was observed between hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and vascular endothelial growth factor expression (Fisher's exact test, p=0.001 when all types of lung cancer were examined, either collectively or separately. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α differs significantly between subtypes of lung cancer. These findings could help elucidate the biology of the different types of non-operable lung carcinomas and have implications for the design of new therapeutic approaches for lung cancer.

  7. Anaerobic bacteria in otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulghum, R S; Daniel, H J; Yarborough, J G

    1977-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria, Peptostrepotococcus intermedius and Propionibacterium acnes, were found in mixed culture specimens from four to ten tested cases of chronic secretory otitis media. These anaerobic bacteria were in a mixed infection flora with aerobic bacteria most often Staphylococcus epidermidis and Cornybacterium sp. which do not fit any established species. The findings of anaerobic bacteria in otitis media is consistent with the sporadic report of the involvement of anaerobic bacteria in otitis media in the literature since 1898.

  8. Heterogeneous delay-induced asynchrony and resonance in a small-world neuronal network system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-Ting; Tang, Jun; Ma, Jun; Yang, Xianqing

    2016-06-01

    A neuronal network often involves time delay caused by the finite signal propagation time in a given biological network. This time delay is not a homogenous fluctuation in a biological system. The heterogeneous delay-induced asynchrony and resonance in a noisy small-world neuronal network system are numerically studied in this work by calculating synchronization measure and spike interval distribution. We focus on three different delay conditions: double-values delay, triple-values delay, and Gaussian-distributed delay. Our results show the following: 1) the heterogeneity in delay results in asynchronous firing in the neuronal network, and 2) maximum synchronization could be achieved through resonance given that the delay values are integer or half-integer times of each other.

  9. Small angle neutron scattering studies on protein denaturation induced by different methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Chodankar; V K Aswal; J Kohlbrecher; R Vavrin; A G Wagh

    2008-11-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study conformational changes in protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) as induced by varying temperature and in the presence of protein denaturating agents urea and surfactant. BSA has pro-late ellipsoidal shape and is found to be stable up to 60°C above which it denaturates and subsequently leads to aggregation. The protein solution exhibits a fractal structure at temperatures above 64°C, with fractal dimension increasing with temperature. BSA protein is found to unfold in the presence of urea at concentrations greater than 4 M and acquires a random coil Gaussian chain conformation. The conformation of the unfolded protein in the presence of surfactant has been determined directly using contrast variation SANS measurements by contrast matching surfactant molecules. The protein acquires a random coil Gaussian conformation on unfolding with its radius of gyration increasing with increase in surfactant concentration

  10. Fluctuation Induced Structure in Chemical Reaction with Small Number of Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    We investigate the behaviors of chemical reactions of the Lotka-Volterra model with small number of molecules; hence the occurrence of random fluctuations modifies the deterministic behavior and the law of mass action is replaced by a stochastic model. We model it by using Abstract Rewriting System on Multisets, ARMS; ARMS is a stochastic method of simulating chemical reactions and it is based on the reaction rate equation. We confirmed that the magnitude of fluctuations on periodicity of oscillations becomes large, as the number of involved molecules is getting smaller; and these fluctuations induce another structure, which have not observed in the reactions with large number of molecules. We show that the underling mechanism through investigating the coarse grained phase space of ARMS.

  11. Developmentally and stress-induced small heat shock proteins in cork oak somatic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigderrajols, Pere; Jofré, Anna; Mir, Gisela; Pla, Maria; Verdaguer, Dolors; Huguet, Gemma; Molinas, Marisa

    2002-06-01

    The timing and tissue localization of small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) during cork oak somatic embryo development was investigated under normal growing culture conditions and in response to stress. Western blot analyses using polyclonal antibodies raised against cork oak recombinant HSP17 showed a transient accumulation of class I sHSPs during somatic embryo maturation and germination. Moreover, the amount of protein increased at all stages of embryo development in response to exogenous stress. The developmentally accumulated proteins localized to early differentiating, but not the highly dividing, regions of the root and shoot apical meristems. By contrast, these highly dividing regions were strongly immunostained after heat stress. Findings support the hypothesis of a distinct control for developmentally and stress-induced accumulation of class I sHSPs. The possible role of sHSPs is discussed in relation to their tissue specific localization.

  12. Small interfering ribonucleic acid induces liquid-to-ripple phase transformation in a phospholipid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, Amit; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) molecules play a pivotal role in silencing gene expression via the RNA interference mechanism. A key limitation to the widespread implementation of siRNA therapeutics is the difficulty of delivering siRNA-based drugs to cells. Here, we examine changes in the structure and dynamics of a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer in the presence of a siRNA molecule and mechanical barriers to siRNA transfection in the bilayer. Our all-atom molecular dynamics simulation shows that siRNA induces a liquid crystalline-to-ripple phase transformation in the bilayer. The ripple phase consists of a major region of non-interdigitated and a minor region of interdigitated lipid molecules with an intervening kink. In the ripple phase, hydrocarbon chains of lipid molecules have large compressive stresses, which present a considerable barrier to siRNA transfection.

  13. From small aromatic molecules to functional nanostructured carbon by pulsed laser-induced photochemical stitching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Gokhale

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel route employing UV laser pulses (KrF Excimer, 248 nm to cleave small aromatic molecules and stitch the generated free radicals into functional nanostructured forms of carbon is introduced. The process differs distinctly from any strategies wherein the aromatic rings are broken in the primary process. It is demonstrated that this pulsed laser-induced photochemical stitching (PLPS process when applied to routine laboratory solvents (or toxic chemical wastes when discarded Chlorobenzene and o-Dichlorobenzene yields Carbon Nanospheres (CNSs comprising of graphene-like sheets assembled in onion-like configurations. This room temperature process implemented under normal laboratory conditions is versatile and clearly applicable to the whole family of haloaromatic compounds without and with additions of precursors or other nanomaterials. We further bring out its applicability for synthesis of metal-oxide based carbon nanocomposites.

  14. Invited review: Fluctuation-induced transport. From the very small to the very large scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Suárez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of fluctuation-induced transport is concerned with the directed motion of particles on a substrate when subjected to a fluctuating external field. Work over the last two decades provides now precise clues on how the average transport depends on three fundamental aspects: the shape of the substrate, the correlations of the fluctuations and the mass, geometry, interaction and density of the particles. These three aspects, reviewed here, acquire additional relevance because the same notions apply to a bewildering variety of problems at very different scales, from the small nano or micro-scale, where thermal fluctuations effects dominate, up to very large scales including ubiquitous cooperative phenomena in granular materials.

  15. Small Molecule-Induced Allosteric Activation of the Vibrio Cholerae RTX Cysteine Protease Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupardus, P.J.; Shen, A.; Bogyo, M.; Garcia, K.C.

    2009-05-19

    Vibrio cholerae RTX (repeats in toxin) is an actin-disrupting toxin that is autoprocessed by an internal cysteine protease domain (CPD). The RTX CPD is efficiently activated by the eukaryote-specific small molecule inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP{sub 6}), and we present the 2.1 angstrom structure of the RTX CPD in complex with InsP{sub 6}. InsP{sub 6} binds to a conserved basic cleft that is distant from the protease active site. Biochemical and kinetic analyses of CPD mutants indicate that InsP{sub 6} binding induces an allosteric switch that leads to the autoprocessing and intracellular release of toxin-effector domains.

  16. Multiple NSAID-induced hits injure the small intestine: underlying mechanisms and novel strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelsterli, Urs A; Redinbo, Matthew R; Saitta, Kyle S

    2013-02-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) injury including jejunal/ileal mucosal ulceration, bleeding, and even perforation in susceptible patients. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown, but they are distinct from those related to gastric injury. Based on recent insights from experimental models, including genetics and pharmacology in rodents typically exposed to diclofenac, indomethacin, or naproxen, we propose a multiple-hit pathogenesis of NSAID enteropathy. The multiple hits start with an initial pharmacokinetic determinant caused by vectorial hepatobiliary excretion and delivery of glucuronidated NSAID or oxidative metabolite conjugates to the distal small intestinal lumen, where bacterial β-glucuronidase produces critical aglycones. The released aglycones are then taken up by enterocytes and further metabolized by intestinal cytochrome P450s to potentially reactive intermediates. The "first hit" is caused by the NSAID and/or oxidative metabolites that induce severe endoplasmic reticulum stress or mitochondrial stress and lead to cell death. The "second hit" is created by the significant subsequent inflammatory response that would follow such a first-hit injury. Based on these putative mechanisms, strategies have been developed to protect the enterocytes from being exposed to the parent NSAID and/or oxidative metabolites. Among these, a novel strategy already demonstrated in a murine model is the selective disruption of bacteria-specific β-glucuronidases with a novel small molecule inhibitor that does not harm the bacteria and that alleviates NSAID-induced enteropathy. Such mechanism-based strategies require further investigation but provide potential avenues for the alleviation of the GI toxicity caused by multiple NSAID hits.

  17. Methane and hydrogen production by human intestinal anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, L F; Holbrook, W P; Eastwood, M A

    1982-06-01

    The gas above liquid cultures of a variety of human intestinal anaerobic bacteria was sampled and analysed by headspace gas chromatography. Hydrogen production was greatest with strains of the genus Clostridium, intermediate with anaerobic cocci and least with Bacteroides sp. Very few strains produced methane although small amounts were detected with one strain of B. thetaiotaomicron, C. perfringens and C. histolyticum. There may be a relationship between these anaerobic bacteria and several gastrointestinal disorders in which there is a build up of hydrogen or methane in the intestines.

  18. Radiation-induced mobility of small defect clusters in covalent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; He, Li; Morgan, Dane; Voyles, Paul M.; Szlufarska, Izabela

    2016-07-01

    Although defect clusters are detrimental to the electronic and mechanical properties of semiconductor materials, annihilation of such clusters is limited by their lack of thermal mobility due to high migration barriers. Here, we find that small clusters in bulk SiC (a covalent material of importance for both electronic and nuclear applications) can become mobile at room temperature under the influence of electron radiation. So far, direct observation of radiation-induced diffusion of defect clusters in bulk materials has not yet been demonstrated. This finding was made possible by low-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with a nonrigid registration technique to remove sample instability, which enables atomic resolution imaging of small migrating defect clusters. We show that the underlying mechanism of this athermal diffusion is a ballistic collision between incoming electrons and cluster atoms. Our findings suggest that defect clusters may be mobile under certain irradiation conditions, changing the current understanding of the cluster annealing process in irradiated covalent materials.

  19. The influence of hydrolysis induced biopolymers from recycled aerobic sludge on specific methanogenic activity and sludge filterability in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntner, D; Spanjers, H; van Lier, J B

    2014-03-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of excess aerobic sludge on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), in order to establish the maximum allowable aerobic sludge loading. In batch tests, different ratios of aerobic sludge to anaerobic inoculum were used, i.e. 0.03, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15, showing that low ratios led to an increased SMA. However, the ratio 0.15 caused more than 20% SMA decrease. In addition to the SMA tests, the potential influence of biopolymers and extracellular substances, that are generated as a result of excess aerobic sludge hydrolysis, on membrane performance was determined by assessing the fouling potential of the liquid broth, taking into account parameters such as specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and supernatant filterability (SF). Addition of aerobic sludge to the anaerobic biomass resulted in a high membrane fouling potential. The increase in biopolymers could be ascribed to aerobic sludge hydrolysis. A clear positive correlation between the concentration of the colloidal fraction of biopolymer clusters (cBPC) and the SRF was observed and a negative correlation between the cBPC and the SF measured at the end of the above described SMA tests. The latter implies that sludge filtration resistance increases when more aerobic sludge is hydrolyzed, and thus more cBPC is released. During AnMBR operation, proteins significantly contributed to sludge filterability decrease expressed as SRF and SF, whereas the carbohydrate fraction of SMP was of less importance due to low concentrations. On the contrary, carbohydrates seemed to improve filterability and diminish SRF of the sludge. Albeit, cBPC increase caused an increase in mean TMP during the AnMBR operation, confirming that cBPC is positively correlated to membrane fouling.

  20. The influence of hydrolysis induced biopolymers from recycled aerobic sludge on specific methanogenic activity and sludge filterability in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntner, D; Spanjers, H; van Lier, J B

    2014-03-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of excess aerobic sludge on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), in order to establish the maximum allowable aerobic sludge loading. In batch tests, different ratios of aerobic sludge to anaerobic inoculum were used, i.e. 0.03, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15, showing that low ratios led to an increased SMA. However, the ratio 0.15 caused more than 20% SMA decrease. In addition to the SMA tests, the potential influence of biopolymers and extracellular substances, that are generated as a result of excess aerobic sludge hydrolysis, on membrane performance was determined by assessing the fouling potential of the liquid broth, taking into account parameters such as specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and supernatant filterability (SF). Addition of aerobic sludge to the anaerobic biomass resulted in a high membrane fouling potential. The increase in biopolymers could be ascribed to aerobic sludge hydrolysis. A clear positive correlation between the concentration of the colloidal fraction of biopolymer clusters (cBPC) and the SRF was observed and a negative correlation between the cBPC and the SF measured at the end of the above described SMA tests. The latter implies that sludge filtration resistance increases when more aerobic sludge is hydrolyzed, and thus more cBPC is released. During AnMBR operation, proteins significantly contributed to sludge filterability decrease expressed as SRF and SF, whereas the carbohydrate fraction of SMP was of less importance due to low concentrations. On the contrary, carbohydrates seemed to improve filterability and diminish SRF of the sludge. Albeit, cBPC increase caused an increase in mean TMP during the AnMBR operation, confirming that cBPC is positively correlated to membrane fouling. PMID:24284260

  1. Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment to increase the anaerobic hydrolysis rate of waste activated sludge during anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment for improving sludge anaerobic digestion was proposed. • Combined process enhanced the cell lysis, biopolymers releases, and thus sludge disintegration. • Increased solubilization of sludge increased the anaerobic hydrolysis rate. • Increased solubilization does not always induce an improved anaerobic digestion efficiency. - Abstract: Pretreatment can be used prior to anaerobic digestion to improve the efficiency of waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion. In this study, electrolysis and a commonly used pretreatment method of alkaline (NaOH) solubilization were integrated as a pretreatment method for promoting WAS anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment effectiveness of combined process were investigated in terms of disintegration degree (DDSCOD), suspended solids (TSS and VSS) removals, the releases of protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS), and subsequent anaerobic digestion as well as dewaterability after digestion. Electrolysis was able to crack the microbial cells trapped in sludge gels and release the biopolymers (PN and PS) due to the cooperation of alkaline solubilization, enhancing the sludge floc disintegration/solubilization, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays showed the highest methane yield was achieved with 5 V plus pH 9.2 pretreatment with up to 20.3% improvement over the non-pretreated sludge after 42 days of mesophilic operation. In contrast, no discernible improvements on anaerobic degradability were observed for the rest of pretreated sludges, probably due to the overmuch leakage of refractory soluble organics, partial chemical mineralization of solubilized compounds and sodium inhibition. The statistical analysis further indicated that increased solubilization induced by electrical-alkali pretreatment increased the first-order anaerobic hydrolysis rate (khyd), but had no, or very slight enhancement on WAS ultimate

  2. Monitoring drug induced apoptosis and treatment sensitivity in non-small cell lung carcinoma using dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruvai Kalyana Kumar, Rajeshwari; Liu, Shanshan; Minna, John D; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive real time methods for characterizing biomolecular events that contribute towards apoptotic kinetics would be of significant importance in the field of cancer biology. Effective drug-induced apoptosis is an important factor for establishing the relationship between cancer genetics and treatment sensitivity. The objective of this study was to develop a non-invasive technique to characterize cancer cells that are undergoing drug-induced apoptosis. We used dielectrophoresis to determine apoptotic cells as early as 2h post drug treatment as compared to 24h with standard flow cytometry method using non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) adenocarcinoma cell line (HCC1833) as a study model. Our studies have shown significant differences in apoptotic cells by chromatin condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies and exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the extracellular surface when the cells where treated with a potent Bcl-2 family inhibitor drug (ABT-263). Time lapse dielectrophoretic studies were performed over 24h period after exposure to ABT-263 at clinically relevant concentrations. The dielectrophoretic studies were compared to Annexin-V FITC flow assay for the detection of PS in mid-stage apoptosis using flow cytometry. As a result of physical and biochemical changes, inherent dielectric properties of cells undergoing varying stages of apoptosis showed amplified changes in their cytoplasmic and membrane capacitance. In addition, zeta potential of these fixed isolated cells was measured to obtain direct correlation to biomolecular events. PMID:27262539

  3. Small variations of soil properties control fire-induced water repellency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mataix-Solera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire induced soil water repellency (WR is controlled by many different factors (temperature reached, amount and type of fuel, etc.. Soil properties may determine the occurrence and intensity of this property in burned soils. The objectives of this paper are to make advances in the study of soil properties as key factors controlling the behaviour of fire-induced WR, and to study the impact of pre-fire SOM content and SOM quality in fire-induced soil WR. In this research, experimental laboratory burnings were carried out using soil samples from different sites with different lithologies, soil types and plant species. Soil samples taken from the same site differ only in quantity and quality of soil organic matter, as they were collected from under different plant species. All soil samples were heated in a muffle furnace at 200, 250, 300 and 350 ºC without the addition of any fuel load. WR was measured using the water drop penetration time test (WDPT. The results showed significant differences between soil types and plant species, indicating that small differences in soil properties may act as key factors controlling the development and persistence of WR reached, with burned soil samples ranging from wettable to extremely water repellent. The main soil property controlling the response was texture, specifically sand content. The quality of organic matter was also observed to have an effect, since soil samples from the same site with similar organic matter contents, but taken from beneath different plant species, showed different WR values after burning.

  4. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  5. Anaerobic biotransformation of estrogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czajka, Cynthia P. [Department of Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Londry, Kathleen L. [Department of Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada)]. E-mail: londryk@cc.umanitoba.ca

    2006-08-31

    Estrogens are important environmental contaminants that disrupt endocrine systems and feminize male fish. We investigated the potential for anaerobic biodegradation of the estrogens 17-{alpha}-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and 17-{beta}-estradiol (E2) in order to understand their fate in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Cultures were established using lake water and sediment under methanogenic, sulfate-, iron-, and nitrate-reducing conditions. Anaerobic degradation of EE2 (added at 5 mg/L) was not observed in multiple trials over long incubation periods (over three years). E2 (added at 5 mg/L) was transformed to estrone (E1) under all four anaerobic conditions (99-176 {mu}g L{sup -1} day{sup -1}), but the extent of conversion was different for each electron acceptor. The oxidation of E2 to E1 was not inhibited by E1. Under some conditions, reversible inter-conversion of E2 and E1 was observed, and the final steady state concentration of E2 depended on the electron-accepting condition but was independent of the total amount of estrogens added. In addition, racemization occurred and E1 was also transformed to 17-{alpha}-estradiol under all but nitrate-reducing conditions. Although E2 could be readily transformed to E1 and in many cases 17-{alpha}-estradiol under anaerobic conditions, the complete degradation of estrogens under these conditions was minimal, suggesting that they would accumulate in anoxic environments.

  6. Anaerobic biological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Enso-Fenox process has been very successfully used to remove chlorinated phenolic compounds from pulp bleaching effluents. It is a two-stage anaerobic/aerobic process consisting of a nonmethanogenic anaerobic fluidized bed followed by a trickling filter. Studies have been conducted on reductive dechlorination of chlorinated aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions with chlorinated phenols as the sole carbon and energy source. Approximately 40% of the added chlorophenols was converted to CH4 and CO2. Substrate loading rates were 20 mg/L/d at hydraulic detention times of 2-4 days with 90% substrate conversion efficiency. Reductive dechlorination of mono, di-, tri-, and pentachlorophenols has been demonstrated in anaerobic sewage sludge. The following constituents were tested in the laboratory at their approximate concentrations in coal conversion wastewater (CCWW) and were anaerobically degraded in serum bottles: 1,000 mg/L phenol; 500 mg/L resorcinol; 1,000 mg/L benzoic acid; 500 mg/L p-cresol; 200 mg/L pyridine; 2,000 mg/L benzoic acid; 250 mg/L 40 methylcatechol; 500 mg/L 4-ethylpyridine; and 2,000 mg/L hexanoic acid. A petrochemical may initially exhibit toxicity to an unacclimated population of methane-fermenting bacteria, but with acclimation the toxicity may be greatly reduced or disappear. In addition, the microorganisms may develop the capacity to actually degrade compounds which showed initial toxicity. Since biomass digestion requires a complete consortium of bacteria, it is relevant to study the effect of a given process as well as to individual steps within the process. A toxicant can inhibit the rate-limiting step and/or change the step that is rate-limiting. Both manifestations of toxicity can severely affect the overall process

  7. Characterizing the anaerobic response of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Mia; Specht, Michael; Naumann, Bianca; Hippler, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The versatile metabolism of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is reflected in its complex response to anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic response is also remarkable in the context of renewable energy because C. reinhardtii is able to produce hydrogen under anaerobic conditions. To identify proteins involved during anaerobic acclimation as well as to localize proteins and pathways to the powerhouses of the cell, chloroplasts and mitochondria from C. reinhardtii in aerobic and anaerobic (induced by 8 h of argon bubbling) conditions were isolated and analyzed using comparative proteomics. A total of 2315 proteins were identified. Further analysis based on spectral counting clearly localized 606 of these proteins to the chloroplast, including many proteins of the fermentative metabolism. Comparative quantitative analyses were performed with the chloroplast-localized proteins using stable isotopic labeling of amino acids ([(13)C(6)]arginine/[(12)C(6)]arginine in an arginine auxotrophic strain). The quantitative data confirmed proteins previously characterized as induced at the transcript level as well as identified several new proteins of unknown function induced under anaerobic conditions. These proteins of unknown function provide new candidates for further investigation, which could bring insights for the engineering of hydrogen-producing alga strains. PMID:20190198

  8. Engineering and two-stage evolution of a lignocellulosic hydrolysate-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for anaerobic fermentation of xylose from AFEX pretreated corn stover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas S Parreiras

    Full Text Available The inability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment xylose effectively under anaerobic conditions is a major barrier to economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Although genetic approaches have enabled engineering of S. cerevisiae to convert xylose efficiently into ethanol in defined lab medium, few strains are able to ferment xylose from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the absence of oxygen. This limited xylose conversion is believed to result from small molecules generated during biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis, which induce cellular stress and impair metabolism. Here, we describe the development of a xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain with tolerance to a range of pretreated and hydrolyzed lignocellulose, including Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH. We genetically engineered a hydrolysate-resistant yeast strain with bacterial xylose isomerase and then applied two separate stages of aerobic and anaerobic directed evolution. The emergent S. cerevisiae strain rapidly converted xylose from lab medium and ACSH to ethanol under strict anaerobic conditions. Metabolomic, genetic and biochemical analyses suggested that a missense mutation in GRE3, which was acquired during the anaerobic evolution, contributed toward improved xylose conversion by reducing intracellular production of xylitol, an inhibitor of xylose isomerase. These results validate our combinatorial approach, which utilized phenotypic strain selection, rational engineering and directed evolution for the generation of a robust S. cerevisiae strain with the ability to ferment xylose anaerobically from ACSH.

  9. Engineering and two-stage evolution of a lignocellulosic hydrolysate-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for anaerobic fermentation of xylose from AFEX pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreiras, Lucas S; Breuer, Rebecca J; Avanasi Narasimhan, Ragothaman; Higbee, Alan J; La Reau, Alex; Tremaine, Mary; Qin, Li; Willis, Laura B; Bice, Benjamin D; Bonfert, Brandi L; Pinhancos, Rebeca C; Balloon, Allison J; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Liu, Tongjun; Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; Ong, Irene M; Li, Haibo; Pohlmann, Edward L; Serate, Jose; Withers, Sydnor T; Simmons, Blake A; Hodge, David B; Westphall, Michael S; Coon, Joshua J; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh; Keating, David H; Zhang, Yaoping; Landick, Robert; Gasch, Audrey P; Sato, Trey K

    2014-01-01

    The inability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment xylose effectively under anaerobic conditions is a major barrier to economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Although genetic approaches have enabled engineering of S. cerevisiae to convert xylose efficiently into ethanol in defined lab medium, few strains are able to ferment xylose from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the absence of oxygen. This limited xylose conversion is believed to result from small molecules generated during biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis, which induce cellular stress and impair metabolism. Here, we describe the development of a xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain with tolerance to a range of pretreated and hydrolyzed lignocellulose, including Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). We genetically engineered a hydrolysate-resistant yeast strain with bacterial xylose isomerase and then applied two separate stages of aerobic and anaerobic directed evolution. The emergent S. cerevisiae strain rapidly converted xylose from lab medium and ACSH to ethanol under strict anaerobic conditions. Metabolomic, genetic and biochemical analyses suggested that a missense mutation in GRE3, which was acquired during the anaerobic evolution, contributed toward improved xylose conversion by reducing intracellular production of xylitol, an inhibitor of xylose isomerase. These results validate our combinatorial approach, which utilized phenotypic strain selection, rational engineering and directed evolution for the generation of a robust S. cerevisiae strain with the ability to ferment xylose anaerobically from ACSH. PMID:25222864

  10. Propagation of small fluctuations in electromagnetically induced transparency. Influence of Doppler width

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis-Blostein, Pablo; 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.063824

    2009-01-01

    The propagation of a pair of quantized fields inside a medium of three-level atoms in $\\Lambda$ configuration is analyzed. We calculate the stationary quadrature noise spectrum of the field after propagating through the medium in the case where the field has a general (but small) noise spectrum and the atoms are in a coherent population trapping state and show electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Although the mean values of the field remain unaltered as the field propagates, there is an oscillatory interchange of noise properties between the probe and pump fields. Also, as the field propagates, there is an oscillatory creation and annihilation of correlations between the probe and pump quadratures. We further study the field propagation of squeezed states when there is two-photon resonance, but the field has a detuning $\\delta$ from atomic resonance. We show that the field propagation is very sensitive to $\\delta$. The propagation in this case can be explained as a combination of a frequency depend...

  11. Small heat shock proteins protect against α-synuclein-induced toxicity and aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein misfolding and inclusion formation are common events in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Huntington's disease (HD). α-Synuclein (aSyn) is the main protein component of inclusions called Lewy bodies (LB) which are pathognomic of PD, Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and other diseases collectively known as LB diseases. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are one class of the cellular quality control system that mediate protein folding, remodeling, and even disaggregation. Here, we investigated the role of the small heat shock proteins Hsp27 and αB-crystallin, in LB diseases. We demonstrate, via quantitative PCR, that Hsp27 messenger RNA levels are ∼2-3-fold higher in DLB cases compared to control. We also show a corresponding increase in Hsp27 protein levels. Furthermore, we found that Hsp27 reduces aSyn-induced toxicity by ∼80% in a culture model while αB-crystallin reduces toxicity by ∼20%. In addition, intracellular inclusions were immunopositive for endogenous Hsp27, and overexpression of this protein reduced aSyn aggregation in a cell culture model

  12. Optical interaction between small plasmonic nanowires: a perspective from induced forces and torques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeroth, Ricardo M. Abraham

    2016-08-01

    This paper addresses a new numerical study of the near electromagnetic coupling between two small, metallic nanowires under plane-wave illumination. The forces and torques induced give a different point of view of the interaction. The analysis of these near-field, mechanical observables is based entirely on the plasmon hybridization model, with the help of an adequate correlation with far fields. Although several studies of the opto-mechanical inductions have been done, unexpected features of the movement are obtained. ‘Coordinated’ spin for the wires are found, in addition to binding or repulsion forces between the wires and scattering forces. For heterodimers, also orbital torques are obtained. The binding and rotation of the nanowires as well as orbital torques are strongly dependent on the plasmonic excitations of the system. They identify uniquely the surface plasmons. In particular, dark modes can be optically detected without using evanescent fields. The optical forces and torques are calculated exactly by Maxwell stress tensor. ‘Realistic’ infinite nanowires of silver and gold are simulated by a size correction in bulk dielectric function. Thus, the importance of this correction on the mechanical results is also studied. The results can contribute to the design of devices for real observation/detection of surface plasmons. The spectra of forces, and specially of torques, show more resolved resonances because overlapping effects are not as present as in far-field calculations. The spinning of wires found and the analysis made could open new directions of studies and applications of dimers.

  13. Small for Gestational Age and Magnesium: Intrauterine magnesium deficiency may induce metabolic syndrome in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Takaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium deficiency during pregnancy as a result of insufficient or low intake of magnesium is common in developing and developed countries. Previous reports have shown that intracellular magnesium of cord blood platelets is lower among small for gestational age (SGA groups than that of appropriate for gestational age (AGA groups, suggesting that intrauterine magnesium deficiency may result in SGA. Additionally, the risk of adult-onset diseases such as insulin resistance syndrome is greater among children whose mothers were malnourished during pregnancy, and who consequently had a low birth weight. In a number of animal models, poor nutrition during pregnancy leads to offspring that exhibit pathophysiological changes similar to human diseases. The offspring of pregnant rats fed a magensium restricted diet have developed hypermethylation in the hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 promoter. These findings indicate that maternal magnesium deficiencies during pregnancy influence regulation of non-imprinted genes by altering the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, thereby inducing different metabolic phenotypes. Magnesium deficiency during pregnancy may be responsible for not only maternal and fetal nutritional problems, but also lifelong consequences that affect the offspring throughout their life. Epidemiological, clinical, and basic research on the effects of magnesium deficiency now indicates underlying mechanisms, especially epigenetic processes.

  14. Small regulatory RNA-induced growth rate heterogeneity of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Ruben A T; Nicolas, Pierre; Ciccolini, Mariano; Reilman, Ewoud; Reder, Alexander; Schaffer, Marc; Mäder, Ulrike; Völker, Uwe; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Denham, Emma L

    2015-03-01

    Isogenic bacterial populations can consist of cells displaying heterogeneous physiological traits. Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) could affect this heterogeneity since they act by fine-tuning mRNA or protein levels to coordinate the appropriate cellular behavior. Here we show that the sRNA RnaC/S1022 from the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis can suppress exponential growth by modulation of the transcriptional regulator AbrB. Specifically, the post-transcriptional abrB-RnaC/S1022 interaction allows B. subtilis to increase the cell-to-cell variation in AbrB protein levels, despite strong negative autoregulation of the abrB promoter. This behavior is consistent with existing mathematical models of sRNA action, thus suggesting that induction of protein expression noise could be a new general aspect of sRNA regulation. Importantly, we show that the sRNA-induced diversity in AbrB levels generates heterogeneity in growth rates during the exponential growth phase. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that the resulting subpopulations of fast- and slow-growing B. subtilis cells reflect a bet-hedging strategy for enhanced survival of unfavorable conditions. PMID:25790031

  15. Small regulatory RNA-induced growth rate heterogeneity of Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben A T Mars

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Isogenic bacterial populations can consist of cells displaying heterogeneous physiological traits. Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs could affect this heterogeneity since they act by fine-tuning mRNA or protein levels to coordinate the appropriate cellular behavior. Here we show that the sRNA RnaC/S1022 from the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis can suppress exponential growth by modulation of the transcriptional regulator AbrB. Specifically, the post-transcriptional abrB-RnaC/S1022 interaction allows B. subtilis to increase the cell-to-cell variation in AbrB protein levels, despite strong negative autoregulation of the abrB promoter. This behavior is consistent with existing mathematical models of sRNA action, thus suggesting that induction of protein expression noise could be a new general aspect of sRNA regulation. Importantly, we show that the sRNA-induced diversity in AbrB levels generates heterogeneity in growth rates during the exponential growth phase. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that the resulting subpopulations of fast- and slow-growing B. subtilis cells reflect a bet-hedging strategy for enhanced survival of unfavorable conditions.

  16. Small-Molecule XIAP Inhibitors Enhance γ-Irradiation-Induced Apoptosis in Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hari Krishna Vellanki

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Because evasion of apoptosis can cause radioresistance of glioblastoma, there is a need to design rational strategies that counter apoptosis resistance. In the present study, we investigated the potential of targeting the antiapoptotic protein XIAP for the radiosensitization of glioblastoma. Here, we report that small-molecule XIAP inhibitors significantly enhance γ-irradiation-induced loss of viability and apoptosis and cooperate with γ-irradiation to suppress clonogenic survival of glioblastoma cells. Analysis of molecular mechanisms reveals that XIAP inhibitors act in concert with γ-irradiation to cause mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, caspase activation, and caspasedependent apoptosis. Importantly, XIAP inhibitors also sensitize primary cultured glioblastoma cells derived from surgical specimens as well as glioblastoma-initiating stemlike cancer stem cells for γ-irradiation. In contrast, they do not increase the toxicity of γ-irradiation on some nonmalignant cells of the central nervous system, including rat neurons or glial cells, pointing to some tumor selectivity. In conclusion, by demonstrating for the first time that smallmolecule XIAP inhibitors increase the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma cells while sparing normal cells of the central nervous system, our findings build the rationale for further (preclinical development of XIAP inhibitors in combination with γ-irradiation in glioblastoma.

  17. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Zee, van der, KG Kristoffer

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many azo dyes and their breakdown products are toxic and/or mutagenic to life. To remove azo dyes from wastewater, a biological treatment strategy based on anaerobic reduction of the azo dyes, followed by aerobic transfo...

  18. Rebamipide Promotes the Regeneration of Aspirin-Induced Small-Intestine Mucosal Injury through Accumulation of β-Catenin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lai

    Full Text Available The effect of rebamipide on repairing intestinal mucosal damage induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and its mechanism remain unclear. In this study, we sought to explore the mechanism whereby rebamipide could promote the regeneration of aspirin-induced intestinal mucosal damage.BALB/c mice were administered aspirin (200 mg/kg/d for 5 days to induce acute small intestinal injury (SII. Subsequently, SII mice were treated with rebamipide (320 mg/kg/d for 5 days. The structure of intestinal barrier was observed with transmission electron microscope, and Zo-1 and occludin expressions were detected. The proliferative index was indicated by the percentage of proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive cells. The prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 levels in the small intestine tissues were measured by an enzyme immunoassay. The mRNA and protein expression levels of cyclooxygenase (COX and β-catenin signal were detected in the small intestine using quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively.COX expression was significantly down-regulated in aspirin induced SII (P < 0.05. In SII mice treated with rebamipide, histopathological findings of aspirin-induced intestinal inflammation were significantly milder and tight junctions between intestinal epithelial cells were improved significantly. The proliferative index increased after rebamipide treatment when compared with that in the control mice. The expressions of COX-2, β-catenin, and c-myc and the PGE2 concentrations in small intestinal tissues were significantly increased in mice with rebamipide treatments (P < 0.05.Rebamipide administration in aspirin-induced SII mice could improve the intestinal barrier structure and promote the regeneration of small intestinal epithelial injury through up-regulating COX-2 expression and the accumulation of β-catenin.

  19. The construction of functional protein nanotubes by small molecule-induced self-assembly of cricoid proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lu; Fan, Qiusheng; Zhao, Linlu; Qiao, Qinglong; Zhang, Xiyu; Hou, Chunxi; Xu, Jiayun; Luo, Quan; Liu, Junqiu

    2016-03-14

    A simple strategy has been developed to construct high-ordered protein nanotubes using electrostatic interactions and "zero-length" crosslinking induced by small molecular ethylenediamine. Furthermore, utilizing covalent crosslinking, we constructed stable nanoenzymes with multi-glutathione peroxidase (GPx) active centers on the surface of the nanotubes, which were anticipated to be ideal functional bionanomaterials. PMID:26899168

  20. Reversing hypoxic cell chemoresistance in vitro using genetic and small molecule approaches targeting hypoxia inducible factor-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Louisa M; Cowen, Rachel L; Debray, Camille;

    2006-01-01

    The resistance of hypoxic cells to conventional chemotherapy is well documented. Using both adenovirus-mediated gene delivery and small molecules targeting hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), we evaluated the impact of HIF-1 inhibition on the sensitivity of hypoxic tumor cells to etoposide. The g...

  1. Anaerobic metabolism in the N-limited green alga Selenastrum minutum. 3. Alanine is the product of anaerobic ammonium assimilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have determined the flow of 15N into free amino acids of the N-limited green alga Selenastrum minutum (Naeg.) Collins after addition of 15NH4+ to aerobic or anaerobic cells. Under aerobic conditions, only a small proportion of the N assimilated was retained in the free amino acid pool. However, under anaerobic conditions almost all assimilated NH4+ accumulates in alanine. This is a unique feature of anaerobic NH4+ assimilation. The pathway of carbon flow to alanine results in the production of ATP and reductant which matches exactly the requirements of NH4+ assimilation. Alanine synthesis is therefore an excellent strategy to maintain energy and redox balance during anaerobic NH4+ assimilation

  2. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2001-01-01

    requirements. In fact, most advances were achieved during the last three decades, when high-rate reactor systems were developed and a profound insight was obtained in the microbiology of the anaerobic communities. This insight led to a better understanding of anaerobic treatment and, subsequently, to a broader......The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern...

  3. Induced defense responses in rice plants against small brown planthopper infestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Canxing; Duan; Jiaojiao; Yu; Jianyu; Bai; Zhendong; Zhu; Xiaoming; Wang

    2014-01-01

    The small brown planthopper(SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus Fallén(Homoptera: Delphacidae), is a serious pest of rice(Oryza sativa L.) in China. To understand the mechanisms of rice resistance to SBPH, defense response genes and related defense enzymes were examined in resistant and susceptible rice varieties in response to SBPH infestation. The salicylic acid(SA) synthesis-related genes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase(PAL), NPR1, EDS1 and PAD4 were induced rapidly and to a much higher level in the resistant variety Kasalath than in the susceptible cultivar Wuyujing 3 in response to SBPH infestation. The expression level of PAL in the Kasalath rice at 12 h post-infestation(hpi) increased 7.52-fold compared with the un-infested control, and the expression level in Kasalath was 49.63, 87.18, 57.36 and 75.06 times greater than that in Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi, respectively. However, the transcriptional levels of the jasmonic acid(JA) synthesis-related genes LOX and AOS2 in resistant Kasalath were significantly lower than in susceptible Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi. The activities of the defense enzymes PAL, peroxidase(POD), and polyphenol oxidase(PPO) increased remarkably in Kasalath in response to SBPH infestation, and were closely correlated with the PAL gene transcript level. Our results indicated that the SA signaling pathway was activated in the resistant Kasalath rice variety in response to SBPH infestation and that the gene PAL played a considerable role in the resistance to SBPH.

  4. Induced defense responses in rice plants against small brown planthopper infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canxing Duan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus Fallén (Homoptera: Delphacidae, is a serious pest of rice (Oryza sativa L. in China. To understand the mechanisms of rice resistance to SBPH, defense response genes and related defense enzymes were examined in resistant and susceptible rice varieties in response to SBPH infestation. The salicylic acid (SA synthesis-related genes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, NPR1, EDS1 and PAD4 were induced rapidly and to a much higher level in the resistant variety Kasalath than in the susceptible cultivar Wuyujing 3 in response to SBPH infestation. The expression level of PAL in the Kasalath rice at 12 h post-infestation (hpi increased 7.52-fold compared with the un-infested control, and the expression level in Kasalath was 49.63, 87.18, 57.36 and 75.06 times greater than that in Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi, respectively. However, the transcriptional levels of the jasmonic acid (JA synthesis-related genes LOX and AOS2 in resistant Kasalath were significantly lower than in susceptible Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi. The activities of the defense enzymes PAL, peroxidase (POD, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO increased remarkably in Kasalath in response to SBPH infestation, and were closely correlated with the PAL gene transcript level. Our results indicated that the SA signaling pathway was activated in the resistant Kasalath rice variety in response to SBPH infestation and that the gene PAL played a considerable role in the resistance to SBPH.

  5. CCR5 small interfering RNA ameliorated joint inflammation in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hongmei; Yang, Pingting; Fang, Fang; Ding, Shuang; Xiao, Weiguo

    2014-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease. C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is found in inflamed synovium of RA patients and is necessary for formation of RA. We aimed to check whether delivery of CCR5-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) via electroporation suppresses local inflammation in arthritis rats. Vectors encoding siRNA that target CCR5 or negative control siRNA were constructed for gene silencing and the silencing effects of suppressing CCR5 expression in synovium examined by western blot. The vector with strongest effect was delivered into the knee joint of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rats by the in vivo electroporation method 7, 10, 13, and 16 days after immunization with Complete Freund's adjuvant. During an observation of 28 days, behavior, paw swelling, arthritis and histopathologic scoring were estimated. The expression level of CCR5 in synovium was evaluated by western blot and real-time PCR. Anti-CCR5 D1 siRNA was effectively inhibited CCR5 expression in vitro. Moreover, delivery of the siRNA into inflammatory joint also suppressed the expression of CCR5 in vivo and markedly suppressed paw swelling and inflammation. Local electroporation of anti-CCR5 siRNA into the left inflamed joints could achieve the silencing of CCR5 gene and alleviate local inflammation just in the knee joint injected with siRNA other than the opposite joint. Inhibition of CCR5 expression may provide a potential for treatment of RA.

  6. Involvement of IP3-receptor activation in endothelin-1-induced Ca(2+) influx in rat pulmonary small artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, K; Okamura, K; Hatta, M; Morita, H; Kajioka, S; Naito, S; Yamazaki, J

    2013-11-15

    We examined the endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced increase in the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in fura-2-loaded rat pulmonary small arteries. ET-1 (30 nM) elicited a long-lasting increase in [Ca(2+)]i in physiological salt solution (PSS). In subsequent experiments, arteries were pretreated with BQ-788, an ETB-specific blocker, to allow us to focus on responses mediated via the ETA receptor, the existence of which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In Ca(2+)-free PSS, ET-1 evoked a small transient increase in [Ca(2+)]i, indicating Ca(2+) release from the SR (sarcoplasmic reticulum). After a switch to PSS (containing 2mM CaCl2), ET-1 elicited a long-lasting increase in [Ca(2+)]i that was not inhibited by 1 μM nicardipine, an L-type Ca(2+)-channel inhibitor, suggesting involvement of a Ca(2+)-influx pathway independent of that channel. In arteries preincubated with 30 μM cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) or 2 μM thapsigargin (TG), the ET-1-induced Ca(2+)-release was greatly reduced, and the induced Ca(2+)-influx was attenuated. U-73122, a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, had inhibitory effects similar to those of CPA and TG on the ET-1-induced Ca(2+)-release and Ca(2+)-influx, whereas U-73343, an inactive analogue of U-73122, had no such effects. Two putative membrane-permeable IP3-receptor blockers, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB, 50 μM) and Xestospongin C (20 μM), (a) almost completely inhibited the ET-1-induced Ca(2+)-release and Ca(2+)-influx, and (b) reduced the ET-1-induced contraction. These results indicate that in rat pulmonary small arteries, ET-1 induces receptor-operated Ca(2+) influx via the ETA receptor, and that this influx interacts with InsP3-receptor activation. PMID:24157978

  7. Isogambogenic acid induces apoptosis-independent autophagic cell death in human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianhong; Zhou, Yongzhao; Cheng, Xia; Fan, Yi; He, Shichao; Li, Shucai; Ye, Haoyu; Xie, Caifeng; Wu, Wenshuang; Li, Chunyan; Pei, Heying; Li, Luyuan; Wei, Zhe; Peng, Aihua; Wei, Yuquan; Li, Weimin; Chen, Lijuan

    2015-01-09

    To overcome drug resistance caused by apoptosis deficiency in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), there is a need to identify other means of triggering apoptosis-independent cancer cell death. We are the first to report that isogambogenic acid (iso-GNA) can induce apoptosis-independent autophagic cell death in human NSCLC cells. Several features of the iso-GNA-treated NSCLC cells indicated that iso-GNA induced autophagic cell death. First, there was no evidence of apoptosis or cleaved caspase 3 accumulation and activation. Second, iso-GNA treatment induced the formation of autophagic vacuoles, increased LC3 conversion, caused the appearance of autophagosomes and increased the expression of autophagy-related proteins. These findings provide evidence that iso-GNA induces autophagy in NSCLC cells. Third, iso-GNA-induced cell death was inhibited by autophagic inhibitors or by selective ablation of Atg7 and Beclin 1 genes. Furthermore, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin increased iso-GNA-induced cell death by enhancing autophagy. Finally, a xenograft model provided additional evidence that iso-GNA exhibited anticancer effect through inducing autophagy-dependent cell death in NSCLC cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that iso-GNA exhibited an anticancer effect by inducing autophagy-dependent cell death in NSCLC cells, which may be an effective chemotherapeutic agent that can be used against NSCLC in a clinical setting.

  8. Anaerobic wastewater treatment using anaerobic baffled bioreactor: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Siti; Dahlan, Irvan

    2013-09-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is receiving renewed interest because it offers a means to treat wastewater with lower energy investment. Because the microorganisms involved grow more slowly, such systems require clever design so that the microbes have sufficient time with the substrate to complete treatment without requiring enormous reactor volumes. The anaerobic baffled reactor has inherent advantages over single compartment reactors due to its circulation pattern that approaches a plug flow reactor. The physical configuration of the anaerobic baffled reactor enables significant modifications to be made; resulting in a reactor which is proficient of treating complex wastewaters which presently require only one unit, ultimately significant reducing capital costs. This paper also concerns about mechanism, kinetic and hydrodynamic studies of anaerobic digestion for future application of the anaerobic baffled reactor for wastewater treatment.

  9. 小型酱香型白酒企业锅底水——窖底水厌氧产甲烷及其替代锅炉燃煤的研究%Anaerobic Methane-production and Substituting Coal Burning Boiler of Bottom Pot Water and Bottom Cellar Water in the Small and Sauce Sweet Model Liquor Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊诚; 刘煦晴; 向家新; 向科; 黄羽

    2011-01-01

    对小型酱香型白酒企业锅底水、窖底水及其三者的混合液分别按中温厌氧、高温厌氧在实验室进行COD去除率及其沼气产率的条件试验.结果表明:在控制的HRT内,单独的锅底水、窖底水COD去除率均难以突破90%.高温厌氧,不同的窖底水与锅底水体积比试验条件下,体积比为1:5时,混合样的COD去除率最佳,可达91.7%;HRT 24 h的高温厌氧COD去除及产沼气效果明显优于HRT 48 h的中温厌氧;厌氧产甲烷的适宜pH为7.0芹右.以贵州省茅台镇郑氏酒业有限公司600 t/a改扩建工程为例,按优选的厌氧产气条件,全厂锅底水、窖底水、酒糟1:1浸出液厌氧产沼气可替代本厂现有的2台0.5 t/h燃煤锅炉204.8 t/a燃煤量.实验结果为小型白酒企业高浓度有机废水的厌氧处理及沼气的回收利用提供了科学依据.%Using mesotherm and hyperthermy anaerobic methods respectively, the condition test on the COD removal rate and methane productivity of bottom pot water, bottom cellar water and the mixed liquor in the small and sauce sweet model liquor enterprise is studied. Result of the testing demonstrates that, in the controlled HRT, the COD removal rates of bottom pot water and bottom cellar water alone are both lower than 90%.While the volume ratio of bottom pot water and bottom cellar water is 1: 5, the COD removal in the mixed liquor is up to 91.7%, much better than any other condition. And the COD removal and methane production effect of 24h-HRT hyperthermy is obviously excellent, compared with 48h-HRT mesotherm anaerobic condition. Besides, the best suitable pH value of anaerobic methane-production is 7.0. Taking 600 t/a expansion project of Maotai Town Zheng Wine Co, Ltd in Guizhou Province for example, under optimized anaerobic methane-production conditions, the anaerobic methane from bottom pot water, bottom cellar water and distillers'grain lixivium( 1: 1 ) in the whole factory can replace the existing coal

  10. Identification of a conserved protein involved in anaerobic unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in Neiserria gonorrhoeae: implications for facultative and obligate anaerobes that lack FabA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabella, Vincent M; Clark, Virginia L

    2011-10-01

    Transcriptome analysis of the facultative anaerobe, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, revealed that many genes of unknown function were induced under anaerobic conditions. Mutation of one such gene, NGO1024, encoding a protein belonging to the 2-nitropropane dioxygenase-like superfamily of proteins, was found to result in an inability of gonococci to grow anaerobically. Anaerobic growth of an NG1024 mutant was restored upon supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), but not with the saturated fatty acid palmitate. Gonococcal fatty acid profiles confirmed that NGO1024 was involved in UFA synthesis anaerobically, but not aerobically, demonstrating that gonococci contain two distinct pathways for the production of UFAs, with a yet unidentified aerobic mechanism, and an anaerobic mechanism involving NGO1024. Expression of genes involved in classical anaerobic UFA synthesis, fabA, fabM and fabB, was toxic in gonococci and unable to complement a NGO1024 mutation, suggesting that the chemistry involved in gonococcal anaerobic UFA synthesis is distinct from that of the classical pathway. NGO1024 homologues, which we suggest naming UfaA, form a distinct lineage within the 2-nitropropane dioxygenase-like superfamily, and are found in many facultative and obligate anaerobes that produce UFAs but lack fabA, suggesting that UfaA is part of a widespread pathway involved in UFA synthesis. PMID:21895795

  11. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  12. Anaerobic Digestion of Piggery Waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsen, van A.F.M.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process by which organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide by microbes in the absence of air (oxygen). In nature, anaerobic conversions occur at all places where organic material accumulates and the supply of oxygen is deficient, e.g. in marshes an

  13. Measurement of small light absorption in microparticles by means of optically induced rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya; Maksimyak, P. P.;

    2015-01-01

    The absorption parameters of micro-particles have been associated with the induced spin exerted upon the particle, when embedded in a circularly polarized coherent field. The induced rotational speed is theoretically analyzed, showing the influence of the beam parameters, the parameters of the pa......The absorption parameters of micro-particles have been associated with the induced spin exerted upon the particle, when embedded in a circularly polarized coherent field. The induced rotational speed is theoretically analyzed, showing the influence of the beam parameters, the parameters...

  14. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Christopher B

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic heat production and, by inference, all energy expenditure – can be accounted for with a measurement of oxygen uptake as 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen. This manuscript incorporates contemporary bioenergetic interpretations of anaerobic and aerobic ATP turnover to promote the independence of these disparate types of metabolic energy transfer: each has different reactants and products, uses dissimilar enzymes, involves different types of biochemical reactions, takes place in separate cellular compartments, exploits different types of gradients and ultimately each operates with distinct efficiency. The 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen for carbohydrate oxidation includes a small anaerobic heat component as part of anaerobic energy transfer. Faster rates of ATP turnover that exceed mitochondrial respiration and that are supported by rapid glycolytic phosphorylation with lactate production result in heat production that is independent of oxygen uptake. Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry has revealed that this anaerobic heat does not disappear when lactate is later oxidized and so oxygen uptake does not adequately measure anaerobic efficiency or energy expenditure (as was suggested by the "oxygen debt" hypothesis. An estimate of anaerobic energy transfer supplements the measurement of oxygen uptake and may improve the interpretation of whole-body energy expenditure.

  15. Pharmacological Correction of Stress-Induced Gastric Ulceration by Novel Small-Molecule Agents with Antioxidant Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin V. Kudryavtsev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine novel small-molecule agents influencing the pathogenesis of gastric lesions induced by stress. To achieve this goal, four novel organic compounds containing structural fragments with known antioxidant activity were synthesized, characterized by physicochemical methods, and evaluated in vivo at water immersion restraint conditions. The levels of lipid peroxidation products and activities of antioxidative system enzymes were measured in gastric mucosa and correlated with the observed gastroprotective activity of the active compounds. Prophylactic single-dose 1 mg/kg treatment with (2-hydroxyphenylthioacetyl derivatives of L-lysine and L-proline efficiently decreases up to 86% stress-induced stomach ulceration in rats. Discovered small-molecule antiulcer agents modulate activities of gastric mucosa tissue superoxide dismutase, catalase, and xanthine oxidase in concerted directions. Gastroprotective effect of (2-hydroxyphenylthioacetyl derivatives of L-lysine and L-proline at least partially depends on the correction of gastric mucosa oxidative balance.

  16. Small molecule antagonism of oxysterol-induced Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 2 (EBI2) activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benned-Jensen, Tau; Madsen, Christian M; Arfelt, Kristine N;

    2013-01-01

    682753A, which blocks oxysterol-induced G-protein activation, β-arrestin recruitment and B-cell chemotaxis. We furthermore demonstrate that activation triggers pertussis toxin-sensitive MAP kinase phosphorylation, which is also inhibited by GSK682753A. Thus, EBI2 signalling in B cells mediates key...

  17. Coagulation-induced resistance to fluid flow in small-diameter vascular grafts and graft mimics measured by purging pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols, Michael D.; Choudhary, Rewa; Kodali, Santhisri; Reichert, William M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the coagulation-induced resistance to flow in small-diameter nonpermeable Tygon tubes and permeable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular grafts was characterized by measuring the upstream pressure needed to purge the coagulum from the tube lumen. This purging pressure was monitored using a closed system that compressed the contents of the tubes at a constant rate. The pressure system was validated using a glycerin series with well-defined viscosities and precisely ...

  18. Ultrasound-Guided Laser-Induced Thermal Therapy for Small Palpable Invasive Breast Carcinomas: A Feasibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    Esser, S; Stapper, G.; van Diest, P J; van den Bosch, M.A.A.J.; Klaessens, J. H. G. M.; Mali, W P Th M; Borel Rinkes, I. H. M.; van Hillegersberg, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background The next step in breast-conserving surgery for small breast carcinomas could be local ablation. In this study, the feasibility of ultrasound-guided laser-induced thermal therapy (LITT) is evaluated. Methods Patients with large-core needle biopsy-proven invasive, palpable breast carcinoma (clinically ≤2 cm) underwent ultrasound-guided LITT, followed by surgical excision. Completeness of ablation was determined by both hematoxylin and eosin staining and nicotinamide adenosine diaphor...

  19. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  20. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of low-level radioactive cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work has been completed using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale. Start-up and operating procedures have been developed, and effluent was generated for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and fed-batch conditions were made lasting 36, 90, and 423 d. Solids solubilization rates and gas production rates averaged approximately 1.8 g cellulose per L of reactor per d and 1.2 L of off-gas per L reactor per d. Greater than 80% destruction of the volatile suspended solids was obtained. A simple dynamic process model was constructed to aid in process design and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester

  1. Anaerobic fungal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of molecular techniques has greatly broadened our view of microbial diversity and enabled a more complete detection and description of microbial communities. The application of these techniques provides a simple means of following community changes, for example, Ishii et al. described transient and more stable inhabitants in another dynamic microbial system, compost. Our present knowledge of anaerobic gut fungal population diversity within the gastrointestinal tract is based upon isolation, cultivation and observations in vivo. It is likely that there are many species yet to be described, some of which may be non-culturable. We have observed a distinct difference in the ease of cultivation between the different genera, for example, Caecomyes isolates are especially difficult to isolate and maintain in vitro, a feature that is likely to result in the under representation of this genera in culture-based enumerations. The anaerobic gut fungi are the only known obligately anaerobic fungi. For the majority of their life cycles, they are found tightly associated with solid digesta in the rumen and/or hindgut. They produce potent fibrolytic enzymes and grow invasively on and into the plant material they are digesting making them important contributors to fibre digestion. This close association with intestinal digesta has made it difficult to accurately determine the amount of fungal biomass present in the rumen, with Orpin suggesting 8% contribution to the total microbial biomass, whereas Rezaeian et al. more recently gave a value of approximately 20%. It is clear that the rumen microbial complement is affected by dietary changes, and that the fungi are more important in digestion in the rumens of animals fed with high-fibre diets. It seems likely that the gut fungi play an important role within the rumen as primary colonizers of plant fibre, and so we are particularly interested in being able to measure the appearance and diversity of fungi on the plant

  2. Down Anaerobic Biofilter and Construct Wetland Process Treating Domestic Sewage in Medium and Small Towns%DAF+CW组合处理中小城镇生活污水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶亚玲; 何成达; 谈玲; 鲁梦江

    2003-01-01

    阐述了降流式厌氧生物滤池(Down Anaerobic Biofilter)的特点和人工湿地(Constructed Wetland)的去污机理.DAF启动快,不需回流,水力停留时间3 h时,COD容积负荷率为1.12~1.38 kg/(m3·d),COD去除率为60%左右,其后续工艺CW能对COD进一步去除,而且能有效地脱N除P.经DAF+CW组合,出水水质达到GB18918-2002一级A标准,并能回用.

  3. Role of p53 in Anticancer Drug Treatment- and Radiation-Induced Injury in Normal Small Intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the human gastrointestinal tract, the functional mucosa of the small intestine has the highest capacity for absorption of nutrients and rapid proliferation rates, making it vulnerable to chemoradiotherapy. Recent understanding of the protective role of p53-mediated cell cycle arrest in the small intestinal mucosa has led researchers to explore new avenues to mitigate mucosal injury during cancer treatment. A traditional p53 inhibitor and two other molecules that exhibit strong protective effects on normal small intestinal epithelium during anticancer drug treatment and radiation therapy are introduced in this work. The objective of this review was to update current knowledge regarding potential mechanisms and targets that inhibit the side effects induced by chemoradiotherapy

  4. Ganglioside GM3 synthase depletion reverses neuropathic pain and small fiber neuropathy in diet-induced diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, Nirupa D; Wilson, Heather M; Ren, Dongjun; Flood, Kelsey; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Shum, Andrew; Miller, Richard J; Paller, Amy S

    2016-01-01

    Background Small fiber neuropathy is a well-recognized complication of type 2 diabetes and has been shown to be responsible for both neuropathic pain and impaired wound healing. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that ganglioside GM3 depletion by knockdown of GM3 synthase fully reverses impaired wound healing in diabetic mice. However, the role of GM3 in neuropathic pain and small fiber neuropathy in diabetes is unknown. Purpose Determine whether GM3 depletion is able to reverse neuropathic pain and small fibers neuropathy and the mechanism of the reversal. Results We demonstrate that GM3 synthase knockout and the resultant GM3 depletion rescues the denervation in mouse footpad skin and fully reverses the neuropathic pain in diet-induced obese diabetic mice. In cultured dorsal root ganglia from diet-induced diabetic mice, GM3 depletion protects against increased intracellular calcium influx in vitro. Conclusions These studies establish ganglioside GM3 as a new candidate responsible for neuropathic pain and small fiber neuropathy in diabetes. Moreover, these observations indicate that systemic or topically applied interventions aimed at depleting GM3 may improve both the painful neuropathy and the wound healing impairment in diabetes by protecting against nerve end terminal degeneration, providing a disease-modifying approach to this common, currently intractable medical issue. PMID:27590073

  5. Recent Developments in β-Cell Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells Induced by Small and Large Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suresh Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem cells, including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs, hold promise as novel therapeutic tools for diabetes treatment because of their self-renewal capacity and ability to differentiate into beta (β-cells. Small and large molecules play important roles in each stage of β-cell differentiation from both hESCs and hiPSCs. The small and large molecules that are described in this review have significantly advanced efforts to cure diabetic disease. Lately, effective protocols have been implemented to induce hESCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs to differentiate into functional β-cells. Several small molecules, proteins, and growth factors promote pancreatic differentiation from hESCs and hMSCs. These small molecules (e.g., cyclopamine, wortmannin, retinoic acid, and sodium butyrate and large molecules (e.g. activin A, betacellulin, bone morphogentic protein (BMP4, epidermal growth factor (EGF, fibroblast growth factor (FGF, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, noggin, transforming growth factor (TGF-α, and WNT3A are thought to contribute from the initial stages of definitive endoderm formation to the final stages of maturation of functional endocrine cells. We discuss the importance of such small and large molecules in uniquely optimized protocols of β-cell differentiation from stem cells. A global understanding of various small and large molecules and their functions will help to establish an efficient protocol for β-cell differentiation.

  6. Elastocapillary snapping: capillarity induces snap-through instabilities in small elastic beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargette, Aurélie; Neukirch, Sébastien; Antkowiak, Arnaud

    2014-04-01

    We report on the capillarity-induced snapping of elastic beams. We show that a millimeter-sized water drop gently deposited on a thin buckled polymer strip may trigger an elastocapillary snap-through instability. We investigate experimentally and theoretically the statics and dynamics of this phenomenon and we further demonstrate that snapping can act against gravity, or be induced by soap bubbles on centimeter-sized thin metal strips. We argue that this phenomenon is suitable to miniaturization and design a condensation-induced spin-off version of the experiment involving a hydrophilic strip placed in a steam flow. PMID:24745456

  7. Recurrence of an NSAID-induced diaphragmatic disease of the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Daniel; Sahota, Jagjit; Schofield, John

    2016-01-01

    A 74-year-old woman was referred to the surgical team from clinic, reporting of a 1-week history of vomiting and abdominal distension on a background of previous large bowel resection for a flare up of diverticulitis with a suspicion of diaphragm disease of the small intestine diagnosed at the same time. She was initially managed conservatively owing to the likely diagnosis of adhesion(s) leading to small bowel obstruction, but a CT of the abdomen a day later revealed a recurrence of diaphragmatic disease of the small bowel causing an obstruction, most likely due to chronic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. She was taken to theatre for an emergency laparotomy and small bowel resection due to previous resections, from which she made a good recovery; she was discharged from hospital 8 days later. PMID:27170609

  8. Metastasis-induced acute pancreatitis in a patient with small cell carcinoma of the lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, K. H.; Kim, C D; Lee, S. J.; Lee, G.; Jeen, Y T; Lee, H.S.; Chun, H J; Song, C. W.; Um, S. H.; Lee, S. W.; Choi, J. H.; Ryu, H. S.; Hyun, J. H.

    1999-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis in cancer patients can be secondary to the malignant process itself or a complication of antineoplastic agent administration. However, acute pancreatitis caused by metastatic carcinoma of the pancreas is an uncommon condition with a poor prognosis. We report a case of a 63-year-old man with small cell carcinoma of the lung, who developed acute pancreatitis lately. Thirteen months earlier, he developed small cell carcinoma of the lung and received 6 cycles of chemotherapy. A...

  9. Gefitinib-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation in a patient with non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Guang-jin; KE Qin-hua; XU Xi-ming; YANG Ji-yuan; SU Xiao-yan

    2010-01-01

    @@ In February 2005, Gefitinib (Iressa), a small-molecular epidermal growth factor receptor and tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was approved in China as an anticancer agent for patients with advanced (local or metastatic) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who failed prior chemotherapy. The common adverse events of the drug include acne-like skin rash, paronychia, pruritus, diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, anorexia, hepatitis, and hyperbilirubinemia.~1

  10. Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors For Cost-Effective Municipal Water Reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özgün, H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology has been increasingly researched for municipal wastewater treatment as a means to produce nutrient-rich, solids free effluents with low levels of pathogens, while occupying a small footprint. An AnMBR can be used not only for on-site

  11. Composting of solids separated from anaerobically digested animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of bulking agents (BA) and mixing ratios on greenhouse gas (GHG) and NH3 emissions from composting digested solids (DS), separated from anaerobically digested manure and other bio-wastes, in small-scale laboratory composters. BA evaluated were plastic tube pieces (PT...

  12. FXR: Big fish or small fry for drug-induced liver injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballet, François

    2016-02-01

    By integrating network analysis and molecular modeling, a "system pharmacology" approach identified FXR as a potential off-target protein mediating non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID)-induced liver injury. In vitro assays showed that NSAID are potent FXR antagonists that inhibit FXR transcriptional activity. Given the role of FXR in bile acid homeostasis, liver inflammation and cell proliferation, the data suggest that FXR antagonism could mediate, at least in part, NSAID-induced liver injury. PMID:26797115

  13. A small amount of dietary carbohydrate can promote the HFD-induced insulin resistance to a maximal level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Mei

    Full Text Available Both dietary fat and carbohydrates (Carbs may play important roles in the development of insulin resistance. The main goal of this study was to further define the roles for fat and dietary carbs in insulin resistance. C57BL/6 mice were fed normal chow diet (CD or HFD containing 0.1-25.5% carbs for 5 weeks, followed by evaluations of calorie consumption, body weight and fat gains, insulin sensitivity, intratissue insulin signaling, ectopic fat, and oxidative stress in liver and skeletal muscle. The role of hepatic gluconeogenesis in the HFD-induced insulin resistance was determined in mice. The role of fat in insulin resistance was also examined in cultured cells. HFD with little carbs (0.1% induced severe insulin resistance. Addition of 5% carbs to HFD dramatically elevated insulin resistance and 10% carbs in HFD was sufficient to induce a maximal level of insulin resistance. HFD with little carbs induced ectopic fat accumulation and oxidative stress in liver and skeletal muscle and addition of carbs to HFD dramatically enhanced ectopic fat and oxidative stress. HFD increased hepatic expression of key gluconeogenic genes and the increase was most dramatic by HFD with little carbs, and inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis prevented the HFD-induced insulin resistance. In cultured cells, development of insulin resistance induced by a pathological level of insulin was prevented in the absence of fat. Together, fat is essential for development of insulin resistance and dietary carb is not necessary for HFD-induced insulin resistance due to the presence of hepatic gluconeogenesis but a very small amount of it can promote HFD-induced insulin resistance to a maximal level.

  14. The Treewidth of Induced Graphs of Conditional Preference Networks Is Small

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Conditional preference networks (CP-nets are recently an emerging topic as a graphical model for compactly representing ordinal conditional preference relations on multi-attribute domains. As we know, the treewidth, which can decrease the solving complexity for many intractability problems, is exactly a fundamental property of a graph. Therefore, we can utilize treewidth to solve some reasoning tasks on induced graphs, such as the dominance queries on the CP-nets in the future. In this paper, we present an efficient algorithm for computing the treewidth of induced graphs of CP-nets; what we need is to make an assumption that the induced graph of a CP-net has been given. Then, we can leverage the Bucket Elimination technique to solve treewidth within polynomial time. At last, it is revealed that by our experiment, the treewidth of induced graphs of CP-nets is much smaller with regard to the number of vertices. For example, for an induced graph of CP-net with 1024 vertices, its treewidth is only 10. As far as we know, this is the first time, using the Bucket Elimination, to compute the treewidth of an induced graph of a CP-net. This approach for solving the treewidth may lay a good foundation for efficiently solving dominance queries on CP-nets in the future.

  15. Methotrexate-induced nitrosative stress may play a critical role in small intestinal damage in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolli, Viswa Kalyan; Abraham, Premila [Christian Medical College, Department of Biochemistry, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Rabi, Suganthy [Christian Medical College, Department of Anatomy, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2008-10-15

    Methotrexate (MTX), a structural analogue of folic acid, is widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent for leukemia and other malignancies. One of the major toxic effects of MTX is intestinal injury and enterocolitis.The mechanism of gastrointestinal toxicity of methotrexate has not been investigated completely. Therefore cancer chemotherapy has to be accompanied by symptomatic therapy such as antibiotics and anti-diarrheal drugs. It is important to investigate the mechanism by which methotrexate induces intestinal damage in order to perform cancer chemotherapy effectively by preventing the side effects. This study aimed at investigating whether nitrosative stress plays a role in methotrexate induced small intestinal damage using a rat model. Adult male rats were administered methotrexate at the dose of 7 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally for 3 consecutive days and sacrificed 12 or 24 h after the final dose of methotrexate. Vehicle treated rats served as control. The intestinal tissue was used for light microscopic studies and markers of nitrosative stress including tissue nitrite level and nitrotyrosine. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, a marker of neutrophil infiltration was also measured in intestinal homogenates. The villi were damaged at 12 h and the damage progressed and became severe at 24 h after the final dose of MTX. Biochemically, tissue nitrate was elevated fivefold at 12 h and fourfold at 24 h after the final dose of MTX as compared with control. Nitrotyrosine, measured immunohistochemically was detected in all the parts of the small intestine. Duodenum stained the most for nitrotyrosine, followed by ileum and then jejunum. The staining for nitrotyrosine was more intense at 24 h as compared with 12 h after the final dose of methotrexate. There was marked neutrophil infiltration as evidenced by increase in MPO activity in the small intestines. In conclusion, the results of the present study reveal that nitrosative stress may play a critical role in

  16. Chinese prescription Shenlingbaizhu extract prevents radiation-induced small intestinal injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: to investigate the therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese prescription Shenlingbaizhu Extract on radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice. Methods: Proliferation improvement of irradiated intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) was tested by MTT assay in vitro. The preventive effect of the prescription was also tested in vivo. Mice were treated with Shenlingbaizhu by intragastric administration immediately after receiving local irradiation to the abdomen at a dose of 10 Gy (60Co γ-ray). The body mass, diarrhea and survival were recorded. The pathological changes in the jejunum of mice were stained by HE and observed. Results: Shenlingbaizhu Extract could significantly promote the proliferation of irradiated intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Shenlingbaizhu Extract treatment reduced the diarrhea of irradiated mice, improved the intestinal structural recovery and increased the mice survival. Conclusion: Traditional Chinese prescription Shenlingbaizhu Extract shows significant protective effect on radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice, providing data for clinical treatment of radiation-induced intestinal injury. (authors)

  17. Differentially expressed genes in repairing irradiation-induced damage in mouse intestinal tract by foreign mouse small intestinal RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the differentially expressed genes correlative to irradiation-induced damage in mouse intestinal tract and its repair by foreign mouse small intestinal RNA. Divide 90 mice into 4 groups randomly. For the experimental groups, each mouse was given 40μg foreign mouse small intestinal RNA, and for the control groups, 0.4 mL of 0.9% NaCl. The intestinal specimens were collected form each group 6h, 12h, 24h, 4d and 8d after 60Co γ-rays irradiation respectively. The differentially expressed genes in the tested and control groups were checked and cloned by long-distance PCR based on subtractive hybridization. 165 differential gene clones were obtained, of which 75 named as AXCZI-75 maybe were correlated with the irradiation-induced damage in mouse intestinal tract; and 90 named as XCZ1-90 maybe were correlated with repairing of the damaged mouse intestinal tract by foreign mouse small intestinal RNA

  18. The radiation dose induced by double-contrast examination of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis analyses the value of double-contrast examinations of the small intestine using water and methyl cellulose for clinical diagnostics in terms of technical feasibility, radiation dose to the patient, and rate of complications, in comparison to clinical relevance. The analysis relies on data obtained with 737 patients in the period January 1, 1976 until December 31, 1982. (MBC)

  19. NSAID-induced deleterious effects on the proximal and mid small bowel in seronegative spondyloarthropathy patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mihai Rimba(s); M(a)d(a)lina Marinescu; Mihail Radu Voiosu; Cristian R(a)svan B(a)icu(s); Simona Caraiola; Adriana Nicolau; Doina Ni(t)escu; Georgeta Camelia Badea; Magda Ileana P(a)rvu

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the small bowel of seronegative spondyloarthropathy (SpA) patients in order to ascertain the presence of mucosal lesions. METHODS:Between January 2008 and June 2010,54 consecutive patients were enrolled and submitted to avideo capsule endoscopy (VCE) examination.History and demographic data were taken,as well as the history of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) consumption.After reading each VCE recording,a capsule endoscopy scoring index for small bowel mucosal inflammatory change (Lewis score) was calculated.Statistical analysis of the data was performed. RESULTS:The Lewis score for the whole cohort was 397.73.It was higher in the NSAID consumption subgroup (P = 0.036).The difference in Lewis score between NSAID users and non-users was reproduced for the first and second proximal tertiles of the small bowel, but not for its distal third (P values of 0.036,0.001 and 0.18,respectively).There was no statistical significant difference between the groups with regard to age or sex of the patients. CONCLUSION:The intestinal inflammatory involvement of SpA patients is more prominent in NSAID users for the proximal/mid small bowel,but not for its distal part.

  20. Zeeman Electromagnetically Induced Transparency with crossed pump and probe beams: Small angle dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kaleb; Madkhaly, Samaya; de Medeiros, Dillon; Bali, Samir; Macklin Quantum Information Sciences Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    Progress toward undergraduate oriented experiments on image storage in room-temperature atomic vapor using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency is described. Using a scanning longitudinal magnetic field technique we diagnose and suppress stray magnetic fields and polarization impurity. We consider the pump-probe angular dependence of the EIT signal but at much smaller angles of less than a milliradian.

  1. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediates nicotine-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lili; Li, Lin; Wang, Weiqiang; Pan, Zhenhua; Zhou, Qinghua; Wu, Zhihao

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is not only a documented risk for lung carcinogenesis but also promotes lung cancer development. Nicotine, a major component of cigarette smoke but not a carcinogen by itself, has been found to induce proliferation, invasion and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here we reported that proinvasive effect of nicotine is analogous to that of hypoxia and involves stabilization and activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, a key factor in determining the presence of HIF-1 and expression of its downstream metastasis-associated genes. Furthermore, nicotine-induced upregulation of HIF-1α was dependent on mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ecotopic expression of mitochondrial targeted catalase effectively prevented nicotine-induced accumulation of HIF-1α protein. In addition, we demonstrated that the effect of nicotine in upregulation of HIF-1α was mediated by Dihydro-β-erythroidine (DhβE)-sensitive nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and required synergistic cooperation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. These results suggest that exposure to nicotine could mimic effects of hypoxia to stimulate HIF-1α accumulation and activity that might underlie the high metastatic potential of lung cancer. PMID:22349311

  2. Metastasis-Induced Acute Pancreatitis Successfully Treated with Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in a Patient with Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Okutur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although involvement of pancreas is a common finding in small cell lung cancer (SCLC, metastasis-induced acute pancreatitis (MIAP is very rare. A 50-year-old female with SCLC who had limited disease and achieved full response after treatment presented with acute pancreatitis during her follow-up. The radiologic studies revealed a small area causing obliteration of the pancreatic duct without mass in the pancreatic neck, and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA confirmed the metastasis of SCLC. The patient was treated successfully with systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy delivered to pancreatic field. In SCLC, cases of MIAP can be encountered with conventional computed tomography with no mass image, and positron emission tomography and EUS-FNA can be useful for diagnosis of such cases. Aggressive systemic and local treatment can prolong survival, especially in patients with good performance status.

  3. Small for Gestational Age and Magnesium in Cord Blood Platelets: Intrauterine Magnesium Deficiency May Induce Metabolic Syndrome in Later Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Takaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium deficiency in pregnancy frequently occurs because of inadequate or low intake of magnesium. Magnesium deficiency during pregnancy can induce not only maternal and fetal nutritional problems, but also consequences that might last in offspring throughout life. Many epidemiological studies have disclosed that small for gestational age (SGA is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in adult life. We reported that intracellular magnesium of cord blood platelets is lower in SGA groups than that in appropriate for gestational age groups, suggesting that intrauterine magnesium deficiency may result in SGA. Taken together, intrauterine magnesium deficiency in the fetus may lead to or at least program insulin resistance after birth. In this review, we propose that intrauterine magnesium deficiency may induce metabolic syndrome in later life. We discuss the potential contribution of aberrant magnesium regulation to SGA and to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.

  4. Pressure- and Heat-Induced Insertion of CO2 into an Auxetic Small-Pore Zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Lee; D Liu; D Seoung; Z Liu; C Kao; T Vogt

    2011-12-31

    When the small-pore zeolite natrolite is compressed at ca. 1.5 GPa and heated to ca. 110 C in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the unit cell volume of natrolite expands by 6.8% and ca. 12 wt % of CO{sub 2} is contained in the expanded elliptical channels. This CO{sub 2} insertion into natrolite is found to be reversible upon pressure release.

  5. Hydrological Regimes of Small Catchments in the High Tatra Mountains Before and After Extraordinary Wind-Induced Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, Ladislav; Hlavata, Helena; Kostka, Zdenek; Novak, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the results of rainfall-runoff data analysis for small catchments of the upper Poprad River affected by wind-induced deforestation in November 2004. Before-event and afterevent measured data were compared in order to assess the impact of deforestation on hydrological regimes. Several characteristics were used including water balance, minimum and maximum runoff, runoff thresholds, number of runoff events, selected characteristics of events, runoff coefficients, and flashiness indices. Despite increased spring runoff minima, which in one catchment (Velick Creek) exceeded previously observed values after deforestation took place, it can be generally concluded that the impact of the deforestation was not clearly manifested in the analyzed hydrological data.

  6. The histopathological comparison of L-carnitine with amifostine for protective efficacy on radiation-induced acute small intestinal toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Caloglu; Vuslat Yurut Caloglu; Tulin Yalta; Omer Yalcin; Cem Uzal

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to compare the protective efficacy of l-carnitine (LC) to amifostine on radiation-induced acute small intestine damage. Materials and Methods: Thirty, 4-week-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to four groups - Group 1: control (CONT, n = 6), Group 2: irradiation alone (RT, n = 8), Group 3: amifostine plus irradiation (AMI+RT, n = 8), and Group 4: l-Carnitine plus irradiation (LC+RT, n = 8). The rats in all groups were irradiated individually...

  7. Intratumor heterogeneity and chemotherapy-induced changes in EGFR status in non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jan Nyrop; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2012-01-01

    Biomarker expression is increasingly being used to customize treatment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The choice of systemic treatment usually depends on biomarker expression in the initial diagnostic biopsy taken before initiation of first-line treatment. Chemotherapy induces DNA damages...... in the tumor cells, and thus, biomarker expression in the tumor after systemic treatment might not be identical to biomarker expression in the diagnostic biopsy. NSCLC is highly heterogeneous and biomarker expression may vary in different areas within the same tumor. This review explores the tumor...

  8. A survey of small RNA population during FR-induced apical hook opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eLi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Photomorphogenesis is a mechanism employed by plants to regulate their architecture and developmental program in response to light conditions. As they emerge into light for the first time, dark-grown seedlings employ a rapid and finely-controlled photomorphogenic signaling network. Small RNAs have increasingly been revealed to play an important role in regulating multiple aspects of plant development, by modulating the stability of mRNAs. The rapid alteration of the mRNA transcriptome is a known hallmark of the de-etiolation response, thus we investigated the small RNA transcriptome during this process in specific seedling tissues. Here we describe a survey of the small RNA expression profile in four tissues of etiolated soybean seedlings, the cotyledons, hypocotyl and the convex and concave sides of the apical hook. We also investigate how this profile responds to a one-hour far-red light treatment. Our data suggests that miRNAs show a different global profile between these tissues and treatments, suggesting a possible role for tissue- and treatment-specific expression in the differential morphology of the seedling on de-etiolation. Further evidence for the role of miRNA in light-regulated development is given by the de-etiolation responses of a hypomorphic ago1 mutant, which displays reduced and delayed photomorphogenic responses in apical hook and cotyledon angle to far-red light.

  9. Making cardiomyocytes with your chemistry set:Small molecule-induced cardiogenesis in somatic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woong-Hee; Kim; Da-Woon; Jung; Darren; Reece; Williams

    2015-01-01

    Cell transplantation is an attractive potential therapy for heart diseases. For example, myocardial infarction(MI) is a leading cause of mortality in many countries. Numerous medical interventions have been developed to stabilize patients with MI and, although this has increased survival rates, there is currently no clinically approved method to reverse the loss of cardiac muscle cells(cardiomyocytes) that accompanies this disease. Cell transplantation has been proposed as a method to replace cardiomyocytes, but a safe and reliable source of cardiogenic cells is required. An ideal source would be the patients’ own somatic tissue cells, which could be converted into cardiogenic cells and transplanted into the site of MI. However, these are difficult to produce in large quantities and standardized protocols to produce cardiac cells would be advantageous for the research community. To achieve these research goals, small molecules represent attractive tools to control cell behavior. In this editorial, we introduce the use of small molecules in stem cell research and summarize their application to the induction of cardiogenesis in noncardiac cells. Exciting new developments in this field are discussed, which we hope will encourage cardiac stem cell biologists to further consider employing small molecules in their culture protocols.

  10. Galactic Cosmic-Ray Induced Production of Lithium in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Ćiprijanović, A

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the first lithium detection outside of the Milky Way was made in low-metallicity gas of the Small Magellanic Cloud, which was at the level of the expected primordial value. Part of the observed lithium in any environment has primordial origin, but there is always some post-BBN (Big Bang Nucleosynthesis) contamination, since lithium can also be produced in cosmic-ray interactions with the interstellar medium. Using the fact that processes involving cosmic rays produce lithium, but also gamma rays through neutral pion decay, we use the Small Magellanic Cloud gamma-ray observations by Fermi-LAT to make predictions on the amount of lithium in this galaxy that was produced by galactic cosmic rays accelerated in supernova remnants. By including both fusion processes, as well as spallation of heavier nuclei, we find that galactic cosmic rays could produce a very small amount of lithium. In the case of 6Li isotope (which should only be produced by cosmic rays) we can only explain 0.16% of the measured abund...

  11. FNR-mediated regulation of bioluminescence and anaerobic respiration in the light-organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri

    OpenAIRE

    Septer, Alecia N.; Bose, Jeffrey L.; Dunn, Anne K.; Stabb, Eric V.

    2010-01-01

    Vibrio fischeri induces both anaerobic respiration and bioluminescence during symbiotic infection. In many bacteria, the oxygen-sensitive regulator FNR activates anaerobic respiration, and a preliminary study using the light-generating lux genes from V. fischeri MJ1 cloned in Escherichia coli suggested that FNR stimulates bioluminescence. To test for FNR-mediated regulation of bioluminescence and anaerobic respiration in V. fischeri, we generated fnr mutants of V. fischeri strains MJ1 and ES1...

  12. Bacterial-excreted small volatile molecule 2-aminoacetophenone induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in murine skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhaya, Arunava; Constantinou, Caterina; Psychogios, Nikolaos; Ueki, Ryusuke; Yasuhara, Shingo; Martyn, J A Jeevendra; Wilhelmy, Julie; Mindrinos, Michael; Rahme, Laurence G; Tzika, A Aria

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress induces mitochondrial dysfunction and facilitates apoptosis, tissue damage or metabolic alterations following infection. We have previously discovered that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) quorum sensing (QS)-excreted small volatile molecule, 2-aminoacetophenone (2-AA), which is produced in infected human tissue, promotes bacterial phenotypes that favor chronic infection, while also dampening the pathogen‑induced innate immune response, thus compromising muscle function and promoting host tolerance to infection. In this study, murine whole-genome expression data have demonstrated that 2-AA affects the expression of genes involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, thus producing an oxidative stress signature in skeletal muscle. The results of the present study demonstrated that the expression levels of genes involved in apoptosis signaling pathways were upregulated in the skeletal muscle of 2-AA-treated mice. To confirm the results of our transcriptome analysis, we used a novel high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HRMAS), proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method and observed increased levels of bisallylic methylene fatty acyl protons and vinyl protons, suggesting that 2-AA induces skeletal muscle cell apoptosis. This effect was corroborated by our results demonstrating the downregulation of mitochondrial membrane potential in vivo in response to 2-AA. The findings of the present study indicate that the bacterial infochemical, 2-AA, disrupts mitochondrial functions by inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis signaling and likely promotes skeletal muscle dysfunction, which may favor chronic/persistent infection.

  13. Down-regulation of survivin expression by small interfering RNA induces pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis and enhances its radiosensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Tao Guan; Xing-Huan Xue; Zhi-Jun Dai; Xi-Jing Wang; Ang Li; Zhao-Yin Qin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the expression of survivin in pancreatic cancer cell line PC-2 and the role of siRNA in inducing PC-2 cell apoptosis and enhancing its radiosensitivity.METHODS: A siRNA plasmid expression vector against survivin was constructed and transfected into PC-2 cells with LipofectamineTM 2000. The down regulation of survivin expression was detected by semi-quantitive RT-PCR and immunohistochemical SP method and the role of siRNA in inducing PC-2 cell apoptosis and enhancing its radiosensitivity was detected by flow cytometry.RESULTS: The sequence-specific siRNA efficiently and specifically down-regulated the expression of survivin at both mRNA and protein levels. The expression inhibition ratio was 81.25% at mRNA level detected by semiquantitive RT-PCR and 74.24% at protein level detected by immunohistochemical method. Forty-eight hours after transfection,apoptosis was induced in 7.03% cells by siRNA and in 14.58% cells by siRNA combined with radiation.CONCLUSION: The siRNA plasmid expression vector against survivin can inhibit the expression of survivin in PC-2 cells efficiently and specifically. Inhibiting the expression of survivin can induce apoptosis of PC-2 cells and enhance its radiosensitivity significantly. RNAi against survivin is of potential value in gene tnerapy of pancreatic cancer.

  14. 5-Fluorouracil preferentially sensitizes mutant KRAS non-small cell lung carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haizhen; Yang, Tao; Wu, Xiangwei

    2015-11-01

    Mutations in the KRAS gene are very common in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but effective therapies targeting KRAS have yet to be developed. Interest in tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a potent inducer of cell death, has increased following the observation that TRAIL can selectively kill a wide variety of human cancer cells without killing normal cells both in vitro and in xenograft models. However, results from clinical trials of TRAIL-based therapy are disappointingly modest at best and many have demonstrated a lack of therapeutic benefit. Current research has focused on selecting a subpopulation of cancer patients who may benefit from TRAIL-based therapy and identifying best drugs to work with TRAIL. In the current study, we found that NSCLC cells with a KRAS mutation were highly sensitive to treatment with TRAIL and 5-fluorouracil (5FU). Compared with other chemotherapeutic agents, 5FU displayed the highest synergy with TRAIL in inducing apoptosis in mutant KRAS NSCLC cells. We also found that, on a mechanistic level, 5FU preferentially repressed survivin expression and induced expression of TRAIL death receptor 5 to sensitize NSCLC cells to TRAIL. The combination of low-dose 5FU and TRAIL strongly inhibited xenograft tumor growth in mice. Our results suggest that the combination of TRAIL and 5FU may be beneficial for patients with mutant KRAS NSCLC.

  15. Compound C induces the ramification of murine microglia in an AMPK-independent and small rhogtpase-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C; Lu, X; Wang, J L; Tong, L J; Ling, Y; Jiang, B; Yang, R R; Zhang, W

    2016-09-01

    Microglial cells are the pivotal immune cells of the central nervous system. Adult microglia cells under physiological conditions are in a ramification state with extensively branched processes. Upon disease stimulation, they retract their processes and become activated. Induction of ramification is an attracting strategy to terminate the excessive activation of microglia. Here, we investigated the influence of compound C (CC) on microglial shape. Results showed that CC reversibly induced a ramification of murine microglia in both basal and inflammatory conditions. These pro-ramification effects were independent of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibition as both AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 silence failed to induce microglial ramification. The ramification state of microglia induced by CC was associated with a decrease in pro-inflammatory factors and an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) protein and phagocytic activity. Mechanistic studies confirmed that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt) signal, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) or small RhoGTPase activation mediated the effect of CC on microglial shape change based on the following observations: (i) CC induced a significant activation of the small RhoGTPase Rac1 and Cdc42; (ii) CC promoted the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt; (iii) inhibition of Rac1, Cdc42, ERK1/2, or the PI3K-Akt signal abolished the effect of CC on microglial shape change. These signal mechanisms were also ascertained in primary microglia. Our results explore a potential agent that promotes microglial ramification, and provide an alternative explanation for the neuroprotective effects of CC in various disease models such as brain ischemia and subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:27318303

  16. Rapid response of advanced squamous non-small cell lung cancer with thrombocytopenia after first-line treatment with pembrolizumab plus autologous cytokine-induced killer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen eHui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the first clinical evidence of advanced squamous non-small cell lung cancer with severe thrombocytopenia showing dramatic improvement after first-line treatment with pembrolizumab plus cytokine-induced killer cells.

  17. Small regulatory RNA-induced growth rate heterogeneity of Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mars, Ruben A. T.; Pierre Nicolas; Mariano Ciccolini; Ewoud Reilman; Alexander Reder; Marc Schaffer; Ulrike Mäder; Uwe Völker; Jan Maarten van Dijl; Denham, Emma L.

    2015-01-01

    Isogenic bacterial populations can consist of cells displaying heterogeneous physiological traits. Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) could affect this heterogeneity since they act by fine-tuning mRNA or protein levels to coordinate the appropriate cellular behavior. Here we show that the sRNA RnaC/S1022 from the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis can suppress exponential growth by modulation of the transcriptional regulator AbrB. Specifically, the post-transcriptional abrB-RnaC/S1022 inter...

  18. Opiate-induced constipation related to activation of small intestine opioid μ2-receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wency Chen; Hsien-Hui Chung; Juei-Tang Cheng

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the role of opioid μ-receptor subtype in opiate-induced constipation (OIC).METHODS:The effect of loperamide on intestinal transit was investigated in mice.Ileum strips were isolated from 12-wk-old male BALB/c mice for identification of isometric tension.The ileum strips were precontracted with 1 μmol/L acetylcholine (ACh).Then,decrease in muscle tone (relaxation) was characterized after cumulative administration of 0.1-10 μmol/k loperamide into the organ bath,for a concentration-dependent study.Specific blockers or antagonists were used for pretreatment to compare the changes in loperamide-induced relaxation.RESULTS:In addition to the delay in intestinal transit,loperamide produced a marked relaxation in isolated ileum precontracted with ACh,in a dose-dependent manner.This relaxation was abolished by cyprodime,a selective opioid μ-receptor antagonist,but not modified by naloxonazine at a dose sufficient to block opioid μ-1 receptors.Also,treatment with opioid μ-1 receptor agonist failed to modify the muscle tone.Moreover,the relaxation by loperamide was attenuated by glibenclamide at a dose sufficient to block ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels,and by protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor,but was enhanced by an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase for cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).CONCLUSION:Loperamide induces intestinal relaxation by activation of opioid μ-2 receptors via the cAMPPKA pathway to open KATP channels,relates to OIC.

  19. Effectiveness of polaprezinc for low-dose aspirin-induced small-bowel mucosal injuries as evaluated by capsule endoscopy: a pilot randomized controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Watari, Ikue; Oka, Shiro; Tanaka, Shinji; Aoyama, Taiki; Imagawa, Hiroki; Shishido, Takayoshi; Yoshida, Shigeto; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2013-01-01

    Background Treatment of low-dose aspirin (LDA)-induced small-bowel injury has not been established. Polaprezinc, a chelate of zinc and L-carnosine, may be efficacious for such injury. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled study to investigate whether polaprezinc is effective against LDA-induced small-bowel injuries. Methods Consecutive patients under long-term (>3 months) LDA treatment and who agreed to participate in our study underwent initial capsule endoscopy (CE). Patients with LDA-...

  20. A Small U-Shaped Bending-Induced Interference Optical Fiber Sensor for the Measurement of Glucose Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu-Lin; Wang, Chen-Tung; Chiang, Chia-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The study proposes a small U-shaped bending-induced interference optical fiber sensor; this novel sensor is a probe-type sensor manufactured using a mechanical device, a heat source, optical fiber and a packaging module. This probe-type sensor overcomes the shortcomings of conventional optical fibers, including being difficult to repair and a tendency to be influenced by external forces. We manufactured three types of sensors with different curvature radiuses. Specifically, sensors with three radiuses (1.5 mm, 2.0 mm, and 3.0 mm) were used to measure common water and glucose solutions with concentrations of between 6% and 30% (the interval between concentrations was 4%). The results show that the maximal sensitivity was 0.85 dB/% and that the linearly-dependent coefficient was 0.925. The results further show that not only can the small U-shaped bending-induced interference optical fiber sensor achieve high sensitivity in the measurement of glucose solutions, but that it can also achieve great stability and repeatability. PMID:27618059

  1. Protective effect of ellagic acid and pumpkin seed oil against methotrexate-induced small intestine damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Boghdady, Noha A

    2011-12-01

    Gastrointestinal toxicity is one of the most serious side effects in the methotrexate (MTX) treatment. This study was designed to investigate whether ellagic acid (EA) and/or pumpkin seed oil (PSO) had a protective effect on MTX-induced small intestine damage. Forty albino rats were randomized into five groups of 8 rats each. Group I served as a normal control group. In Group II, MTX was administered as a single dose (20 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Groups III, IV and V were pre-treated respectively with either PSO (40 mg/kg), EA (10 mg/kg) or 0.2% DMSO (vehicle control) orally every day by gavage for 5 days and then they received MTX. All animals were sacrificed 5 days after the intraperitoneal injection of MTX for histopathological examination, estimation of serum prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level, assay of tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) levels and myloperoxidase (MPO), xanthine oxidase (XO) and adenosine deaminase (AD) activities. Administration of EA and/or PSO decreased the intestinal damage, PGE2, MDA and NO levels and MPO, XO and AD activities and increased GSH level. These results suggest that EA and PSO protect the small intestine of rats from MTX-induced damage through their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and thus have potential as a promising drug in the prevention of undesired side effects of MTX. PMID:22329239

  2. Identification of small molecule and genetic modulators of AON-induced dystrophin exon skipping by high-throughput screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra A O'Leary

    Full Text Available One therapeutic approach to Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD recently entering clinical trials aims to convert DMD phenotypes to that of a milder disease variant, Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD, by employing antisense oligonucleotides (AONs targeting splice sites, to induce exon skipping and restore partial dystrophin function. In order to search for small molecule and genetic modulators of AON-dependent and independent exon skipping, we screened approximately 10,000 known small molecule drugs, >17,000 cDNA clones, and >2,000 kinase- targeted siRNAs against a 5.6 kb luciferase minigene construct, encompassing exon 71 to exon 73 of human dystrophin. As a result, we identified several enhancers of exon skipping, acting on both the reporter construct as well as endogenous dystrophin in mdx cells. Multiple mechanisms of action were identified, including histone deacetylase inhibition, tubulin modulation and pre-mRNA processing. Among others, the nucleolar protein NOL8 and staufen RNA binding protein homolog 2 (Stau2 were found to induce endogenous exon skipping in mdx cells in an AON-dependent fashion. An unexpected but recurrent theme observed in our screening efforts was the apparent link between the inhibition of cell cycle progression and the induction of exon skipping.

  3. A Small U-Shaped Bending-Induced Interference Optical Fiber Sensor for the Measurement of Glucose Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu-Lin; Wang, Chen-Tung; Chiang, Chia-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The study proposes a small U-shaped bending-induced interference optical fiber sensor; this novel sensor is a probe-type sensor manufactured using a mechanical device, a heat source, optical fiber and a packaging module. This probe-type sensor overcomes the shortcomings of conventional optical fibers, including being difficult to repair and a tendency to be influenced by external forces. We manufactured three types of sensors with different curvature radiuses. Specifically, sensors with three radiuses (1.5 mm, 2.0 mm, and 3.0 mm) were used to measure common water and glucose solutions with concentrations of between 6% and 30% (the interval between concentrations was 4%). The results show that the maximal sensitivity was 0.85 dB/% and that the linearly-dependent coefficient was 0.925. The results further show that not only can the small U-shaped bending-induced interference optical fiber sensor achieve high sensitivity in the measurement of glucose solutions, but that it can also achieve great stability and repeatability. PMID:27618059

  4. The histopathological comparison of L-carnitine with amifostine for protective efficacy on radiation-induced acute small intestinal toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Caloglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to compare the protective efficacy of l-carnitine (LC to amifostine on radiation-induced acute small intestine damage. Materials and Methods: Thirty, 4-week-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to four groups - Group 1: control (CONT, n = 6, Group 2: irradiation alone (RT, n = 8, Group 3: amifostine plus irradiation (AMI+RT, n = 8, and Group 4: l-Carnitine plus irradiation (LC+RT, n = 8. The rats in all groups were irradiated individually with a single dose of 20 Gy to the total abdomen, except those in CONT. LC (300 mg/kg or amifostine (200 mg/kg was used 30 min before irradiation. Histopathological analysis of small intestine was carried out after euthanasia. Results: Pretreatment with amifostine reduced the radiation-induced acute degenerative damage (P = 0.009 compared to the RT group. Pretreatment with LC did not obtain any significant difference compared to the RT group. The vascular damage significantly reduced in both of the AMI+RT (P = 0.003 and LC+RT group (P = 0.029 compared to the RT group. The overall damage score was significantly lower in the AMI+RT group than the RT group (P = 0.009. There was not any significant difference between the LC+RT and RT group. Conclusions: Amifostine has a marked radioprotective effect against all histopathological changes on small intestinal tissue while LC has limited effects which are mainly on vascular structure.

  5. Small Mismatches in Fatty Acyl Tail Lengths Can Effect Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Induced Membrane Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Anupa; Sarkar, Munna

    2016-06-01

    Biological membranes are made up of a variety of lipids with diverse physicochemical properties. The lipid composition modulates different lipidic parameters, such as hydration, dynamics, lipid packing, curvature strain, etc. Changes in these parameters affect various membrane-mediated processes, such as membrane fusion which is an integral step in many biological processes. Packing defects, which originate either from mismatch in the headgroup region or in the hydrophobic acyl tail region, play a major role in modulating membrane dynamics. In this study, we demonstrate how even a small mismatch in the fatty acyl chain length, achieved by incorporation of low concentrations (up to 30 mol %) of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) into dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs), alters several lipidic parameters like packing, dynamics, and headgroup hydration. This in turn affects non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced membrane fusion. Dynamic light scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, second-derivative absorption spectrophotometry, and steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence have been used to elucidate the effect of small mismatch in the tails in DMPC/DPPC mixed vesicles and how it modulates membrane fusion induced by the oxicam NSAIDs, meloxicam (Mx), piroxicam (Px), and tenoxicam (Tx). Fusion kinetics was monitored using fluorescence based fusion assays. At low DPPC concentration of 10 mol %, additional fluidization promotes lipid mixing to some extent for Mx, but at higher mol % of DPPC, subsequent increase in rigidity of membrane interior along with increase in headgroup hydration, synergistically inhibits fusion to various extents for the three different drugs, Mx, Px, and Tx. PMID:27153337

  6. Pressure-Induced Argon Insertion into an Auxetic Small Pore Zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.; Hriljac, J; Vogt, T

    2010-01-01

    We report that natrolite, Na{sub 16}Al{sub 16}Si{sub 24}O{sub 48} {center_dot} 16H{sub 2}O, a small pore auxetic zeolite can incorporate significant amounts of Argon under moderate pressure- and temperature conditions resulting in Na{sub 16}Al{sub 16}Si{sub 24}O{sub 80} {center_dot} 16H{sub 2}O {center_dot} 6Ar. This material has a {approx}6.5% larger unit cell than natrolite at ambient conditions and its structure is related to Na{sub 16}Al{sub 16}Si{sub 24}O{sub 80} {center_dot} 24H{sub 2}O, an intermediate superhydrated natrolite referred to as para-natrolite. Argon insertion under pressure into auxetic frameworks such as natrolites is an important and overlooked confinement mechanism with potential applications and implications.

  7. An in vitro selection for small molecule induced switching RNA molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Laura; Ellington, Andrew D; Mansy, Sheref S

    2016-08-15

    The selection of RNA and DNA aptamers now has a long history. However, the ability to directly select for conformational changes upon ligand binding has remained elusive. These difficulties have stymied attempts at making small molecule responsive strand displacement circuitry as well as synthetic riboswitches. Herein we present a detailed strand displacement based selection protocol to directly select for RNA molecules with switching activity. The library was based on a previously selected thiamine pyrophosphate riboswitch. The fully in vitro methodology gave sequences that showed strong strand displacement activity in the presence of thiamine pyrophosphate. Further, the selected sequences possessed riboswitch activity similar to that of natural riboswitches. The presented methodology should aid in the design of more complex, environmentally responsive strand displacement circuitry and in the selection of riboswitches responsive to toxic ligands. PMID:26899430

  8. Dynamic instabilities induced by asymmetric influence: prisoners' dilemma game in small-world networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom Jun; Trusina, Ala; Holme, Petter; Minnhagen, Petter; Chung, Jean S; Choi, M Y

    2002-08-01

    A two-dimensional small-world-type network, subject to spatial prisoners' dilemma dynamics and containing an influential node defined as a special node, with a finite density of directed random links to the other nodes in the network, is numerically investigated. It is shown that the degree of cooperation does not remain at a steady state level but displays a punctuated equilibrium-type behavior manifested by the existence of sudden breakdowns of cooperation. The breakdown of cooperation is linked to an imitation of a successful selfish strategy of the influential node. It is also found that while the breakdown of cooperation occurs suddenly, its recovery requires longer time. This recovery time may, depending on the degree of steady state cooperation, either increase or decrease with an increasing number of long-range connections. PMID:12241214

  9. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of chemical reaction and reaction-induced self-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H. [Advanced Science Research Center(ASRC), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Department of Polymer Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8501 (Japan); Koizumi, S. [Advanced Science Research Center(ASRC), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hashimoto, T. [Advanced Science Research Center(ASRC), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan) and Department of Polymer Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: hashimoto.takeji@jaea.go.jp; Kurosaki, K. [Department of Materials Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8501 (Japan); Ohmae, M. [Department of Materials Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8501 (Japan); Kobayashi, S. [Department of Materials Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8501 (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    We have investigated a self-assembling process of cellulose artificially synthesized via enzymatic polymerization by means of in-situ and time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The results elucidated the following: (i) cellulose molecules were synthesized at a special reaction site of the enzyme (cellulase) located on or near the smooth surface of the self-assembled enzymes formed in the reaction medium; (ii) the synthesized molecules associated themselves via diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) and crystallized into fibrils and (iii) the fibrils formed the aggregates, which had the surface fractal dimension D {sub s} increasing from 2 to 2.3 with the reaction time, on the smooth surface of the enzyme aggregates.

  10. Radiation induced chemotherapy sensitization in trimodality therapy of stage 3 non small cell lung cancer. A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, H. [Millard Fillmore Hospital, Buffalo (United States); Shin, K. H. [CCS Oncology Center, Kenmore, NY, (United States)

    2000-12-01

    The overall cure rate of locally advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) remains poor. Although there have been encouraging reports of preoperative use of chemotherapy, more recent trend is the trimodal approach of radiation, chemo, and surgical-therapies. With the trimodal therapy, increased tumor response and resectability are reported, however, there are increased treatment related side effects. It was observed that a relatively small dose of radiation given prior to induction chemotherapy greatly enhanced the tumor response to the chemotherapy without increased toxicity. A total of 18 patients (8 3. A and 10 3.B) were initially given 20 Gy of radiation therapy in 10 fractions and then received 2 courses of Taxol combination chemotherapy. The overall response rate was 83% (15/18) and 13 out of 18 patients underwent surgery. There was one postoperative death (not therapy related). It is speculated that the small dose of radiation therapy may have sensitized the tumor to subsequent chemotherapy, and it was suggested a new hypothesis of radiation therapy induced chemotherapy sensitization.

  11. Local and global synchronization transitions induced by time delays in small-world neuronal networks with chemical synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Du, Jiwei; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile

    2015-02-01

    Effects of time delay on the local and global synchronization in small-world neuronal networks with chemical synapses are investigated in this paper. Numerical results show that, for both excitatory and inhibitory coupling types, the information transmission delay can always induce synchronization transitions of spiking neurons in small-world networks. In particular, regions of in-phase and out-of-phase synchronization of connected neurons emerge intermittently as the synaptic delay increases. For excitatory coupling, all transitions to spiking synchronization occur approximately at integer multiples of the firing period of individual neurons; while for inhibitory coupling, these transitions appear at the odd multiples of the half of the firing period of neurons. More importantly, the local synchronization transition is more profound than the global synchronization transition, depending on the type of coupling synapse. For excitatory synapses, the local in-phase synchronization observed for some values of the delay also occur at a global scale; while for inhibitory ones, this synchronization, observed at the local scale, disappears at a global scale. Furthermore, the small-world structure can also affect the phase synchronization of neuronal networks. It is demonstrated that increasing the rewiring probability can always improve the global synchronization of neuronal activity, but has little effect on the local synchronization of neighboring neurons.

  12. Robustness of Diversity Induced Synchronization Transition in a Delayed Small-World Neuronal Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jun; QU Li-Cheng; LUO Jin-Ming

    2011-01-01

    In a diverse and delayed small-world neuronal network, we have identified the oscillatory-like synchronization transition between anti-phase and complete synchronization [Phys. Rev. E 83(2011)046207]. Here we study the influence of the network topology and noise on the synchronization transition. The robustness of this transition is investigated. The results show that: (I) the synchronization transition is robust to the neuron number N in the network; (ii) only when the coupled neighbor number k is in the region [4,10], does the synchronization transition exist; (iii) to some extent, the synchronization is destroyed by noise and the oscillatory-like synchronization transition exists for relatively weak noise (D <0.003).%In a diverse and delayed small-world neuronal network,we have identified the oscillatory-like synchronization transition between anti-phase and complete synchronization [Phys.Rev.E 83 (2011) 046207].Here we study the influence of the network topology and noise on the synchronization transition.The robustness of this transition is investigated.The results show that:(i) the synchronization transition is robust to the neuron number N in the network;(ii) only when the coupled neighbor number k is in the region [4,10],does the synchronization transition exist;(iii) to some extent,the synchronization is destroyed by noise and the oscillatory-like synchronization transition exists for relatively weak noise (D <0.003).In the theoretical study of neuron systems,the synchronized behavior of a population of interacting neurons,namely,a neuronal network,is a hot issue due to its importance to the processing and transmission of information.[1] Many types of synchronization are identified in neuronal networks,such as complete synchronization,phase synchronization,anti-phase synchronization,phase-lock synchronization,cluster synchronization and lag synchronization.[2

  13. Small GTPase Rab21 mediates fibronectin induced actin reorganization in Entamoeba histolytica: implications in pathogen invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlyn Emmanuel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes a wide spectrum of intestinal infections. In severe cases, the trophozoites can breach the mucosal barrier, invade the intestinal epithelium and travel via the portal circulation to the liver, where they cause hepatic abscesses, which can prove fatal if left untreated. The host Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM plays a crucial role in amoebic invasion by triggering an array of cellular responses in the parasite, including induction of actin rich adhesion structures. Similar actin rich protrusive structures, known as 'invadosomes', promote chemotactic migration of the metastatic cancer cells and non-transformed cells by remodeling the ECM. Recent studies showed a central role for Rab GTPases, the master regulators of vesicular trafficking, in biogenesis of invadosomes. Here, we showed that fibronectin, a major host ECM component induced actin remodeling in the parasite in a Rab21 dependent manner. The focalized actin structures formed were reminiscent of the mammalian invadosomes. By using various approaches, such as immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, along with in vitro invasion assay and matrix degradation assay, we show that the fibronectin induced formation of amoebic actin dots depend on the nucleotide status of the GTPase. The ECM components, fibronectin and collagen type I, displayed differential control over the formation of actin dots, with fibronectin positively and collagen type I negatively modulating it. The cell surface adhesion molecule Gal/GalNAc complex was also found to impose additional regulation on this process, which might have implication in collagen type I mediated suppression of actin dots.

  14. Interleukin-10 modified dendritic cells induce allo-hyporesponsiveness and prolong small intestine allograft survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Zhu; Ming-Fa Wei; Fang Liu; Hui-Fen Shi; Guo Wang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether TL-10-transduced dendritic cells (DCs) could induce tolerogenicity and prolong allograft survival in rat intestinal transplantation.METHODS: Spleen-derived DCs were prepared and genetically modified by hTL-10 gene. The level of IL-10 expression was quantitated by ELTSA. DC function was assessed by MTT in mixed leukocyte reaction. Allogeneic T-cell apoptosis was examined by flow cytometric analysis. Seven days before heterotopic intestinal transplantation, 2x106 donor-derived IL-10-DC were injected intravenously, then transplantation was performed between SD donor and Wistar recipient.RESULTS: Compared with untransduced DC, IL-10-DC could suppress allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). The inhibitory effect was the most striking with the stimulator/effector (S/F) ratio of 1:10. The inhibition rate was 33.25 %,41.19 % (P<0.01) and 22.92 % with the S/E ratio of 1:1,1:10 and 1:50 respectively. At 48 hours and 72 hours by flow cytometry counting, apoptotic T cells responded to IL-10-DC in MLR were 13.8 % and 30.1%, while untransduced group did not undergo significant apoptosis (P<0.05). IL-10-DC pretreated recipients had a moderate survival prolongation with a mean allograft survival of 19.8 days (P<0.01),compared with 7.3±2.4 days in control group and 8.3±2.9days in untransduced DC group. Rejection occurred in the control group within three days. The difference between untreated DC group and control group was not significant.CONCLUSION: IL-10-DC can induce allogenic T-cell hyporesponsiveness in vitro and apoptosis may be involved in it. IL-10-DC pretreatment can prolong intestinal allograft survival in the recipient.

  15. Local structure of Ca(2+) induced hydrogels of alginate-oligoguluronate blends determined by small-angle-X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuguchi, Yoshiaki; Hasegawa, Ami; Padoł, Anna Maria; Draget, Kurt Ingar; Stokke, Bjørn Torger

    2016-11-01

    Short oligoguluronates, oligoG's, are reported to affect the ionotropic gelation of alginates both with respect to altered gelation kinetics and elastic properties of the resulting gels. The local structure of Ca(2+) induced changes in oligoguluronates and blends of oligoguluronates and alginates was determined by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Calcium was introduced in the aqueous polysaccharide solutions by in situ release of Ca(2+) from Ca-EGTA. The scattering profiles of the Ca(2+)-induced structures in the alginate-oligoG blends were accounted for by a two-component broken rod-like model, also with an additional term representing structural inhomogeneity by a Debye-Bueche term. Adding oligoG to the alginate yields an increase in the largest cross-sectional radius in the region of fractional Ca(2+) saturation of α-l-GulA units from 0.5 to 1. The time-lapse characterization during the Ca-induced changes in the alginate-oligoG blends shows that oligoG delays the emergence of the more extensive laterally aggregated junction zones.

  16. Regulation of Small RNAs and Corresponding Targets in Nod Factor-Induced Phaseolus vulgaris Root Hair Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formey, Damien; Martín-Rodríguez, José Ángel; Leija, Alfonso; Santana, Olivia; Quinto, Carmen; Cárdenas, Luis; Hernández, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    A genome-wide analysis identified the set of small RNAs (sRNAs) from the agronomical important legume Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), including novel P. vulgaris-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) potentially important for the regulation of the rhizobia-symbiotic process. Generally, novel miRNAs are difficult to identify and study because they are very lowly expressed in a tissue- or cell-specific manner. In this work, we aimed to analyze sRNAs from common bean root hairs (RH), a single-cell model, induced with pure Rhizobium etli nodulation factors (NF), a unique type of signal molecule. The sequence analysis of samples from NF-induced and control libraries led to the identity of 132 mature miRNAs, including 63 novel miRNAs and 1984 phasiRNAs. From these, six miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed during NF induction, including one novel miRNA: miR-RH82. A parallel degradome analysis of the same samples revealed 29 targets potentially cleaved by novel miRNAs specifically in NF-induced RH samples; however, these novel miRNAs were not differentially accumulated in this tissue. This study reveals Phaseolus vulgaris-specific novel miRNA candidates and their corresponding targets that meet all criteria to be involved in the regulation of the early nodulation events, thus setting the basis for exploring miRNA-mediated improvement of the common bean–rhizobia symbiosis. PMID:27271618

  17. Regulation of Small RNAs and Corresponding Targets in Nod Factor-Induced Phaseolus vulgaris Root Hair Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formey, Damien; Martín-Rodríguez, José Ángel; Leija, Alfonso; Santana, Olivia; Quinto, Carmen; Cárdenas, Luis; Hernández, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    A genome-wide analysis identified the set of small RNAs (sRNAs) from the agronomical important legume Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), including novel P. vulgaris-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) potentially important for the regulation of the rhizobia-symbiotic process. Generally, novel miRNAs are difficult to identify and study because they are very lowly expressed in a tissue- or cell-specific manner. In this work, we aimed to analyze sRNAs from common bean root hairs (RH), a single-cell model, induced with pure Rhizobium etli nodulation factors (NF), a unique type of signal molecule. The sequence analysis of samples from NF-induced and control libraries led to the identity of 132 mature miRNAs, including 63 novel miRNAs and 1984 phasiRNAs. From these, six miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed during NF induction, including one novel miRNA: miR-RH82. A parallel degradome analysis of the same samples revealed 29 targets potentially cleaved by novel miRNAs specifically in NF-induced RH samples; however, these novel miRNAs were not differentially accumulated in this tissue. This study reveals Phaseolus vulgaris-specific novel miRNA candidates and their corresponding targets that meet all criteria to be involved in the regulation of the early nodulation events, thus setting the basis for exploring miRNA-mediated improvement of the common bean-rhizobia symbiosis. PMID:27271618

  18. Matrix isolation model studies on the radiation-induced transformations of small molecules of astrochemical and atmospheric interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Vladimir I.; Ryazantsev, Sergey V.; Saenko, Elizaveta V.; Kameneva, Svetlana V.; Shiryaeva, Ekaterina S.

    2016-07-01

    The radiation-induced transformations of small molecules at low temperatures play an important role in the interstellar, planetary and atmospheric chemistry. This work presents a review of our recent model studies on the radiation chemistry of relevant molecules in solid noble gas (Ng) matrices, including some preliminary new results. Among the triatomic molecules, water and carbon dioxide were studied in detail. The radiation-induced degradation of isolated H2O yields hydrogen atoms and OH radicals, while oxygen atoms are produced at higher doses. Isolated CO2 molecules are decomposed to yield CO and trapped oxygen atoms. Upon annealing the trapped O and H atoms are mobilized selectively at different temperatures and react with other trapped species. The formation of HCO and HOCO radicals was observed in the mixed H2O/CO2/Ng systems. Other studies were concerned with the radiation-induced degradation of simple organic molecules (methanol, formic acid) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCl3, CF2Cl2). Preliminary results for methanol revealed deep dehydrogenation yielding HCO and CO, whereas CO2, CO and HOCO were detected as primary products for formic acid. In the case of chlorofluorocarbons, significance of ionic channels was demonstrated. The implications of the results for modeling the processes in astrochemical ices and atmosphere are discussed.

  19. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Tetrachloroethylene with Acetic Acid as Cometabolism Substrate under Anaerobic Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ye; LIU Fei; CHEN Honghan; SHI Jinhua; WANG Yufan

    2008-01-01

    A series of batch-type experiments with acetate acid as the primary substrate wereperformed using enrichment cultures developed from the anaerobic sludge to investigate the effect ofacetate acid on tetrachloroethylene (PCE) biodegradation. Experimental results indicated that acetateacid was an efficient electron donor in affecting the biotransformability of PCE. Trichloroethylene(TCE) was the primary dehalogenation product, and small amounts of dichloroethylenes (DCEs) werealso detected. No significant further DCEs degradation was detected. PCE degradation rate in theexperiment was 36.6 times faster than background rate in natural groundwater.

  20. Natural variation in small molecule-induced TIR-NB-LRR signaling induces root growth arrest via EDS1- and PAD4-complexed R protein VICTR in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Houn; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Bhattacharjee, Saikat; Hauser, Felix; Park, Jiyoung; Engineer, Cawas; Liu, Amy; Ha, Tracy; Parker, Jane E; Gassmann, Walter; Schroeder, Julian I

    2012-12-01

    In a chemical genetics screen we identified the small-molecule [5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)furan-2-yl]-piperidine-1-ylmethanethione (DFPM) that triggers rapid inhibition of early abscisic acid signal transduction via PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4)- and ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1)-dependent immune signaling mechanisms. However, mechanisms upstream of EDS1 and PAD4 in DFPM-mediated signaling remain unknown. Here, we report that DFPM generates an Arabidopsis thaliana accession-specific root growth arrest in Columbia-0 (Col-0) plants. The genetic locus responsible for this natural variant, VICTR (VARIATION IN COMPOUND TRIGGERED ROOT growth response), encodes a TIR-NB-LRR (for Toll-Interleukin1 Receptor-nucleotide binding-Leucine-rich repeat) protein. Analyses of T-DNA insertion victr alleles showed that VICTR is necessary for DFPM-induced root growth arrest and inhibition of abscisic acid-induced stomatal closing. Transgenic expression of the Col-0 VICTR allele in DFPM-insensitive Arabidopsis accessions recapitulated the DFPM-induced root growth arrest. EDS1 and PAD4, both central regulators of basal resistance and effector-triggered immunity, as well as HSP90 chaperones and their cochaperones RAR1 and SGT1B, are required for the DFPM-induced root growth arrest. Salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling pathway components are dispensable. We further demonstrate that VICTR associates with EDS1 and PAD4 in a nuclear protein complex. These findings show a previously unexplored association between a TIR-NB-LRR protein and PAD4 and identify functions of plant immune signaling components in the regulation of root meristematic zone-targeted growth arrest. PMID:23275581

  1. Natural variation in small molecule-induced TIR-NB-LRR signaling induces root growth arrest via EDS1- and PAD4-complexed R protein VICTR in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Houn; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Bhattacharjee, Saikat; Hauser, Felix; Park, Jiyoung; Engineer, Cawas; Liu, Amy; Ha, Tracy; Parker, Jane E; Gassmann, Walter; Schroeder, Julian I

    2012-12-01

    In a chemical genetics screen we identified the small-molecule [5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)furan-2-yl]-piperidine-1-ylmethanethione (DFPM) that triggers rapid inhibition of early abscisic acid signal transduction via PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4)- and ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1)-dependent immune signaling mechanisms. However, mechanisms upstream of EDS1 and PAD4 in DFPM-mediated signaling remain unknown. Here, we report that DFPM generates an Arabidopsis thaliana accession-specific root growth arrest in Columbia-0 (Col-0) plants. The genetic locus responsible for this natural variant, VICTR (VARIATION IN COMPOUND TRIGGERED ROOT growth response), encodes a TIR-NB-LRR (for Toll-Interleukin1 Receptor-nucleotide binding-Leucine-rich repeat) protein. Analyses of T-DNA insertion victr alleles showed that VICTR is necessary for DFPM-induced root growth arrest and inhibition of abscisic acid-induced stomatal closing. Transgenic expression of the Col-0 VICTR allele in DFPM-insensitive Arabidopsis accessions recapitulated the DFPM-induced root growth arrest. EDS1 and PAD4, both central regulators of basal resistance and effector-triggered immunity, as well as HSP90 chaperones and their cochaperones RAR1 and SGT1B, are required for the DFPM-induced root growth arrest. Salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling pathway components are dispensable. We further demonstrate that VICTR associates with EDS1 and PAD4 in a nuclear protein complex. These findings show a previously unexplored association between a TIR-NB-LRR protein and PAD4 and identify functions of plant immune signaling components in the regulation of root meristematic zone-targeted growth arrest.

  2. Correction of MRI-induced geometric distortions in whole-body small animal PET-MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frohwein, Lynn J., E-mail: frohwein@uni-muenster.de; Schäfers, Klaus P. [European Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of Münster, Münster 48149 (Germany); Hoerr, Verena; Faber, Cornelius [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital of Münster, Münster 48149 (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The fusion of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data can be a challenging task in whole-body PET-MRI. The quality of the registration between these two modalities in large field-of-views (FOV) is often degraded by geometric distortions of the MRI data. The distortions at the edges of large FOVs mainly originate from MRI gradient nonlinearities. This work describes a method to measure and correct for these kind of geometric distortions in small animal MRI scanners to improve the registration accuracy of PET and MRI data. Methods: The authors have developed a geometric phantom which allows the measurement of geometric distortions in all spatial axes via control points. These control points are detected semiautomatically in both PET and MRI data with a subpixel accuracy. The spatial transformation between PET and MRI data is determined with these control points via 3D thin-plate splines (3D TPS). The transformation derived from the 3D TPS is finally applied to real MRI mouse data, which were acquired with the same scan parameters used in the phantom data acquisitions. Additionally, the influence of the phantom material on the homogeneity of the magnetic field is determined via field mapping. Results: The spatial shift according to the magnetic field homogeneity caused by the phantom material was determined to a mean of 0.1 mm. The results of the correction show that distortion with a maximum error of 4 mm could be reduced to less than 1 mm with the proposed correction method. Furthermore, the control point-based registration of PET and MRI data showed improved congruence after correction. Conclusions: The developed phantom has been shown to have no considerable negative effect on the homogeneity of the magnetic field. The proposed method yields an appropriate correction of the measured MRI distortion and is able to improve the PET and MRI registration. Furthermore, the method is applicable to whole-body small animal

  3. Methyl jasmonate induces apoptosis and pro-apoptotic autophagy via the ROS pathway in human non-small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mutian; Su, Ling; Xiao, Zhenna; Liu, Xianfang; Liu, Xiangguo

    2016-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is a botanical hormone that serves as a signal transduction intermediate and regulates cell death in stressed plants. MJ induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and non-apoptotic cell death selectively in cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism of MJ-induced apoptosis remains unclear. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism through which MJ induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We found that MJ triggered apoptosis via the DDIT3-TN...

  4. Inducement of chromosome translocation with small alien segments by irradiating mature female gametes of the whole arm translocation line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ShengWei; CHEN PeiDu; WANG XiuE

    2008-01-01

    Haynaldia villosa Schur. (syn. Dasypyrum villosum Candargy, 2n=14, VV) has been proved to be an Important genetic resource for wheat improvement. The development of translocation with small alien chromosome segments, especially interstitial translocation, will be helpful for better utilization of its useful genes. Up to now, most of the reported Triticum aestivum - H. villosa translocation lines are involved in a whole arm or large alien fragments. In this paper, we report a highly efficient approach for the creation of small chromosome segment translocation lines. Before flowering, the female gametes of wheat-H, villosa 6VS/6AL trsnslocation line were irradiated by 60Co-γ ray at 160 Rad/M dosage rate and three dosages (1600, 1920, 2240 Rad). Anthers were removed from the irradiated florets on the same day and the florets were pollinated with normal fresh pollens of T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring after 2-3 days. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) at mitosis metaphase of root-tip cell of M1 plants was used to detect the chromosome structural changes involving 6VS of H. villosa. Among the 534 M1 plants screened, 97 plants contained small segment chromosome structural changes of 6VS, including 80 interstitial translocation chromosomes, 57 terminal translocation chromosomes and 55 deletion chromosomes. For the 2240 Rad dosage treatment, the inducement frequencies of interstitial translocation, terminal translocation and deletion were 21.02%, 14.01%, and 14.65%, respectively, which were much higher than those previously reported. The M2 seeds were obtained by bsckcrossing of 74 M1 plants involving 146 chromosomes structural changes of 6VS, and it was found that the structural aberrations in the M1 plants could be transmitted to their progenies. Irradiating mature female gametes of whole arm translocation is a new and highly efficient approach for creation of small segment chromosome structural changes, especially for interstitial translocations.

  5. Inducement of chromosome translocation with small alien segments by irradiating mature female gametes of the whole arm translocation line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Haynaldia villosa Schur. (syn. Dasypyrum villosum Candargy, 2n=14, VV) has been proved to be an important genetic resource for wheat improvement. The development of translocation with small alien chromosome segments, especially interstitial translocation, will be helpful for better utilization of its useful genes. Up to now, most of the reported Triticum aestivum – H. villosa translocation lines are involved in a whole arm or large alien fragments. In this paper, we report a highly efficient approach for the creation of small chromosome segment translocation lines. Before flowering, the female gametes of wheat-H. villosa 6VS/6AL translocation line were irradiated by 60CO-γ ray at 160 Rad/M dosage rate and three dosages (1600, 1920, 2240 Rad). Anthers were removed from the irradiated florets on the same day and the florets were pollinated with normal fresh pollens of T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring after 2-3 days. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) at mitosis metaphase of root-tip cell of M1 plants was used to detect the chromosome structural changes involving 6VS of H. villosa. Among the 534 M1 plants screened, 97 plants contained small segment chromosome structural changes of 6VS, including 80 interstitial translocation chromosomes, 57 terminal translocation chromosomes and 55 deletion chromosomes. For the 2240 Rad dosage treatment, the inducement frequencies of interstitial translo-cation, terminal translocation and deletion were 21.02%, 14.01%, and 14.65%, respectively, which were much higher than those previously reported. The M2 seeds were obtained by backcrossing of 74 M1 plants involving 146 chromosomes structural changes of 6VS, and it was found that the structural aberrations in the M1 plants could be transmitted to their progenies. Irradiating mature female gametes of whole arm translocation is a new and highly efficient approach for creation of small segment chromosome struc-tural changes, especially for interstitial translocations.

  6. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa

  7. Analysis of radiation-induced small intestinal tumors in APCMin/+mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of radiation on intestinal tumorigenesis was studied using APCMin/+ mouse, a hetero-knockout strain with highly tumorigenic sensitivity due to the lack of tumor suppressing adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene (the causing gene of human familial polyposis) (Min: multiple intestinal neoplasia). Offspring crossed by male APCMin/+ and female wild type c57BL/6N mice were used for experiments. Those offspring at the age of 2 weeks were irradiated by 2 Gy of 60Co-gamma ray at 1.22 Gy/min with the irradiator RE-1082 and were maintained thereafter for 9 and 19 weeks, when they were sacrificed for physical, hematological and histological examinations. No significant radiation-related changes were observed in wild type mice. In comparison with non-irradiated APCMin/+ mice, followings were observed with significance in irradiated animals: the peripheral hemoglobin value was decreased; spleen weight was increased; number of tumors present in small intestine increased to 2-fold; and a colorectal tumor as big as >2 mm diameter was observed in one mouse. Thus radiation promoted the intestinal tumor formation in APCMin/+ mice. (T.T.)

  8. Absence of repellents in Ustilago maydis induces genes encoding small secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teertstra, Wieke R; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Wösten, Han A B

    2011-08-01

    The rep1 gene of the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis encodes a pre-pro-protein that is processed in the secretory pathway into 11 peptides. These so-called repellents form amphipathic amyloid fibrils at the surface of aerial hyphae. A SG200 strain in which the rep1 gene is inactivated (∆rep1 strain) is affected in aerial hyphae formation. We here assessed changes in global gene expression as a consequence of the inactivation of the rep1 gene. Microarray analysis revealed that only 31 genes in the ∆rep1 SG200 strain had a fold change in expression of ≥2. Twenty-two of these genes were up-regulated and half of them encode small secreted proteins (SSPs) with unknown functions. Seven of the SSP genes and two other genes that are over-expressed in the ∆rep1 SG200 strain encode proteins that can be classified as secreted cysteine-rich proteins (SCRPs). Interestingly, most of the SCRPs are predicted to form amyloids. The SCRP gene um00792 showed the highest up-regulation in the ∆rep1 strain. Using GFP as a reporter, it was shown that this gene is over-expressed in the layer of hyphae at the medium-air interface. Taken together, it is concluded that inactivation of rep1 hardly affects the expression profile of U. maydis, despite the fact that the mutant strain has a strong reduced ability to form aerial hyphae.

  9. Utilizing small nutrient compounds as enhancers of exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Craig

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise, when performed regularly as part of a training program, leads to increases in whole-body and skeletal muscle-specific oxidative capacity. At the cellular level, this adaptive response is manifested by an increased number of oxidative fibres (Type I and IIA myosin heavy chain, an increase in capillarity and an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. The increase in mitochondrial biogenesis (increased volume and functional capacity is fundamentally important as it leads to greater rates of oxidative phosphorylation and an improved capacity to utilize fatty acids during sub-maximal exercise. Given the importance of mitochondrial biogenesis for skeletal muscle performance, considerable attention has been given to understanding the molecular cues stimulated by endurance exercise that culminate in this adaptive response. In turn, this research has led to the identification of pharmaceutical compounds, functional foods and small nutritional bioactive ingredients that appear able to amplify exercise-responsive signaling pathways in skeletal muscle. The aim of this review is to discuss these purported exercise mimetics and bioactive ingredients in the context of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. We will examine proposed modes of action, discuss evidence of application in skeletal muscle in vivo and finally comment on the feasibility of such approaches to support endurance-training applications in humans.

  10. Anaerobic Digestion of Piggery Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Velsen, van, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process by which organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide by microbes in the absence of air (oxygen). In nature, anaerobic conversions occur at all places where organic material accumulates and the supply of oxygen is deficient, e.g. in marshes and lake sediments. Microbial formation of methane also plays a role in the ruminant digestion.In digestion units, the external conditions acting upon the process can be regulated to speed it up as c...

  11. Nicotine-induced resistance of non-small cell lung cancer to treatment--possible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyżykowski, Rafał; Połowinczak-Przybyłek, Joanna; Potemski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading risk factor of lung cancer. Data from several clinical studies suggest that continuation of smoking during therapy of tobacco-related cancers is associated with lower response rates to chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, and even with decreased survival. Although nicotine--an addictive component of tobacco--is not a carcinogen, it may influence cancer development and progression or effectiveness of anti-cancer therapy. Several in vitro and in vivo trials have evaluated the influence of nicotine on lung cancer cells. The best known mechanisms by which nicotine impacts cancer biology involve suppression of apoptosis induced by certain drugs or radiation, promotion of proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and migration of cancer cells. This effect is mainly mediated by membranous nicotinic acetylcholine receptors whose stimulation leads to sustained activation of such intracellular pathways as PI3K/Akt/mTOR, RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK and JAK/STAT, induction of NF-κB activity, enhanced transcription of mitogenic promoters, inhibition of the mitochondrial death pathway or stimulation of pro-angiogenic factors. We herein summarize the mechanisms underlying nicotine's influence on biology of lung cancer cells and the effectiveness of anti-cancer therapy. PMID:26943316

  12. Nicotine-induced resistance of non-small cell lung cancer to treatment – possible mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Czyżykowski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is the leading risk factor of lung cancer. Data from several clinical studies suggest that continuation of smoking during therapy of tobacco-related cancers is associated with lower response rates to chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, and even with decreased survival. Although nicotine – an addictive component of tobacco – is not a carcinogen, it may influence cancer development and progression or effectiveness of anti-cancer therapy. Several in vitro and in vivo trials have evaluated the influence of nicotine on lung cancer cells. The best known mechanisms by which nicotine impacts cancer biology involve suppression of apoptosis induced by certain drugs or radiation, promotion of proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and migration of cancer cells. This effect is mainly mediated by membranous nicotinic acetylcholine receptors whose stimulation leads to sustained activation of such intracellular pathways as PI3K/Akt/mTOR, RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK and JAK/STAT, induction of NF-κB activity, enhanced transcription of mitogenic promoters, inhibition of the mitochondrial death pathway or stimulation of pro-angiogenic factors. We herein summarize the mechanisms underlying nicotine’s influence on biology of lung cancer cells and the effectiveness of anti-cancer therapy.

  13. Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria have lagged behind similar studies in aerobes. However, the current interest in biotechnology, the involvement of anaerobes in disease and the emergence of antibioticresistant strains have focused attention on the genetics of anaerobes. This article reviews molecular genetic studies in Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and methanogens. Certain genetic systems in some anaerobes differ from those in aerobes and illustrate the genetic diversity among bacteria

  14. Heat shock increases lifetime of a small RNA and induces its accumulation in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatosyan, Karina A; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2016-08-01

    4.5SH and 4.5SI RNA are two abundant small non-coding RNAs specific for several related rodent families including Muridae. These RNAs have a number of common characteristics such as the short length (about 100nt), transcription by RNA polymerase III, and origin from Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs). However, their stabilities in cells substantially differ: the half-life of 4.5SH RNA is about 20min, while that of 4.5SI RNA is 22h. Here we studied the influence of cell stress such as heat shock or viral infection on these two RNAs. We found that the level of 4.5SI RNA did not change in stressed cells; whereas heat shock increased the abundance of 4.5SH RNA 3.2-10.5 times in different cell lines; and viral infection, 5 times. Due to the significant difference in the turnover rates of these two RNAs, a similar activation of their transcription by heat shock increases the level of the short-lived 4.5SH RNA and has minor effect on the level of the long-lived 4.5SI RNA. In addition, the accumulation of 4.5SH RNA results not only from the induction of its transcription but also from a substantial retardation of its decay. To our knowledge, it is the first example of a short-lived non-coding RNA whose elongated lifetime contributes significantly to its accumulation in stressed cells.

  15. The phenomenon of granulation of anaerobic sludge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshoff Pol, L.W.

    1989-01-01

    Successful high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment can only be accomplished when the slowgrowing anaerobic biomass is efficiently held back in the anaerobic treatment system. This biomass retention can be achieved in various ways including immobilization of the organisms on fixed materials and immo

  16. Viscosity evolution of anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.; Baudu, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the apparent viscosity at steady shear rate of sieved anaerobic granular sludge (20¿315 ¿m diameter) sampled from different full-scale anaerobic reactors was recorded using rotation tests. The ¿limit viscosity¿ of sieved anaerobic granular sludge was determined from the apparent vis

  17. Kinetics and modeling of anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion modeling started in the early 1970s when the need for design and efficient operation of anaerobic systems became evident. At that time not only was the knowledge about the complex process of anaerobic digestion inadequate but also there were computational limitations. Thus, th...

  18. Small angle neutron scattering study of the damage induced by creep deformation in AISI 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the austenitic stainless steels, a class of materials largely used in the nuclear power plants, creep induces essentially two new microstructural effects: the nucleation and growth of grain boundary cavities and the precipitation of carbides. Carbides precipitate as a consequence of pure thermal treatment, whereas for the occurrence of voids the presence of stress is necessary. It should be noted however, that the kinetics of precipitation and even the precipitate crystal structure are changed by the introduction of dislocations due to straining during creep. The aim of the present study is a quantitative characterization of the creep damage occurring in a stainless steel of the type X 6 CrNi 8 11 (AISI 304). The experimental techniques used are optical and electron microscopy, microprobe analysis and small angle neutron scattering. This latter technique is described in more detail

  19. Role of calcium-activated potassium channels with small conductance in bradykinin-induced vasodilation of porcine retinal arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Thomas; Kroigaard, Christel; Bek, Toke;

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Endothelial dysfunction and impaired vasodilation may be involved in the pathogenesis of retinal vascular diseases. In the present study, the mechanisms underlying bradykinin vasodilation were examined and whether calcium-activated potassium channels of small (SK(Ca)) and intermediate (IK......(Ca)) conductance are involved in regulation of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in retinal arterioles was investigated. METHODS: Porcine retinal arterioles (diameter approximately 112 microm, N = 119) were mounted in microvascular myographs for isometric tension recordings. The arterioles were contracted with...... the thromboxane analogue, U46619, and concentration-response curves were constructed for bradykinin and a novel opener of SK(Ca) and IK(Ca) channels, NS309. RESULTS: In U46619-contracted arterioles, bradykinin and NS309 induced concentration-dependent relaxations. In vessels without endothelium...

  20. Experimentally induced pigment changes in small African 'Barbus' (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): Synonymy of 'Barbus' amphigramma and 'Barbus' taitensis with 'Barbus' paludinosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farm, Brian P.

    2001-01-01

    Pigmentation in fishes is known to be variable both among individuals of a species and within individuals over time. Use of pigment characters for taxonomic diagnoses must, therefore, be carefully considered. I present experimental evidence showing that pigment characters previously considered diagnostic for three small African 'Barbus' species may differ between living and preserved specimens and that lasting changes in these characters can be induced experimentally by placing fishes in a different, less turbid environment. Lateral line pigmentation and presence of a spot on the caudal peduncle showed significant changes that resulted in different species identifications before and after the experiment. These pigment patterns are thereby shown to be labile, nontrenchant characters having little or no diagnostic utility. 'Barbus' amphigramma Boulenger, 1903, and 'Barbus' taitensis Gu??nther, 1894, are thus shown to be junior synonyms of 'Barbus' paludinosus Peters, 1852.

  1. Anaerobic Treatment of Methanolic Wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettinga, G.; Geest, van der A.Th.; Hobma, S.W.; Laan, van der J.B.R.

    1979-01-01

    Although it is well known that methanol can be fermented directly by a specific species of methane bacteria, viz. Methanosarcina barkeri, until now little information was available about the effect of important environmental factors on the anaerobic fermentation of methanol. As methanol can be the m

  2. Monitoring Methanotrophic Bacteria in Hybrid Anaerobic-Aerobic Reactors with PCR and a Catabolic Gene Probe

    OpenAIRE

    Miguez, Carlos B; Shen, Chun F; Bourque, Denis; Guiot, Serge R; Groleau, Denis

    1999-01-01

    We attempted to mimic in small upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) bioreactors the metabolic association found in nature between methanogens and methanotrophs. UASB bioreactors were inoculated with pure cultures of methanotrophs, and the bioreactors were operated by using continuous low-level oxygenation in order to favor growth and/or survival of methanotrophs. Unlike the reactors in other similar studies, the hybrid anaerobic-aerobic bioreactors which we used were operated synchronously, not...

  3. From "Duck Factory" to "Fish Factory": Climate induced changes in vertebrate communities of prairie pothole wetlands and small lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kyle I.; Mushet, David M.; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region’s myriad wetlands and small lakes contribute to its stature as the “duck factory” of North America. The fishless nature of the region’s aquatic habitats, a result of frequent drying, freezing, and high salinity, influences its importance to waterfowl. Recent precipitation increases have resulted in higher water levels and wetland/lake freshening. In 2012–13, we sampled chemical characteristics and vertebrates (fish and salamanders) of 162 Prairie Pothole wetlands and small lakes. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling, principal component analysis, and bootstrapping techniques to reveal relationships. We found fish present in a majority of sites (84 %). Fish responses to water chemistry varied by species. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and brook sticklebacks (Culaea inconstans) occurred across the broadest range of conditions. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) occurred in a smaller, chemically defined, subset. Iowa darters (Etheostoma exile) were restricted to the narrowest range of conditions. Tiger salamanders (Ambystoma mavortium) rarely occurred in lakes with fish. We also compared our chemical data to similar data collected in 1966–1976 to explore factors contributing to the expansion of fish into previously fishless sites. Our work contributes to a better understanding of relationships between aquatic biota and climate-induced changes in this ecologically important area.

  4. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

    2003-12-01

    Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and organic matter. Molecular oxygen diffuses about 104 times more slowly through water than air, and organic matter supports a large biotic O2 demand that consumes the supply faster than it is replaced by diffusion. Such conditions exist in wetlands, rivers, estuaries, coastal marine sediments, aquifers, anoxic water columns, sewage digesters, landfills, the intestinal tracts of animals, and the rumen of herbivores. Anaerobic microsites are also embedded in oxic environments such as upland soils and marine water columns. Appreciable rates of aerobic respiration are restricted to areas that are in direct contact with air or those inhabited by organisms that produce O2.Rising atmospheric O2 reduced the global area of anaerobic habitat, but enhanced the overall rate of anaerobic metabolism (at least on an area basis) by increasing the supply of electron donors and acceptors. Organic carbon production increased dramatically, as did oxidized forms of nitrogen, manganese, iron, sulfur, and many other elements. In contemporary anaerobic ecosystems, nearly all of the reducing power is derived from photosynthesis, and most of it eventually returns to O2, the most electronegative electron acceptor that is abundant. This photosynthetically driven redox gradient has been thoroughly exploited by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for metabolism. The same is true of hydrothermal vents (Tunnicliffe, 1992) and some deep subsurface environments ( Chapelle et al., 2002), where thermal energy is the ultimate source of the reducing power.Although anaerobic habitats are currently a small fraction of Earth

  5. A natural small molecule, catechol, induces c-Myc degradation by directly targeting ERK2 in lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Do Young; Shin, Seung Ho; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Malakhova, Margarita; Kurinov, Igor; Wu, Qiong; Xu, Jinglong; Jiang, Yanan; Dong, Ziming; Liu, Kangdong; Lee, Kun Yeong; Bae, Ki Beom; Choi, Bu Young; Deng, Yibin; Bode, Ann; Dong, Zigang

    2016-01-01

    Various carcinogens induce EGFR/RAS/MAPK signaling, which is critical in the development of lung cancer. In particular, constitutive activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) is observed in many lung cancer patients, and therefore developing compounds capable of targeting ERK2 in lung carcinogenesis could be beneficial. We examined the therapeutic effect of catechol in lung cancer treatment. Catechol suppressed anchorage-independent growth of murine KP2 and human H460 lung cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Catechol inhibited ERK2 kinase activity in vitro, and its direct binding to the ERK2 active site was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Phosphorylation of c-Myc, a substrate of ERK2, was decreased in catechol-treated lung cancer cells and resulted in reduced protein stability and subsequent down-regulation of total c-Myc. Treatment with catechol induced G1 phase arrest in lung cancer cells and decreased protein expression related to G1-S progression. In addition, we showed that catechol inhibited the growth of both allograft and xenograft lung cancer tumors in vivo. In summary, catechol exerted inhibitory effects on the ERK2/c-Myc signaling axis to reduce lung cancer tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, including a preclinical patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model. These findings suggest that catechol, a natural small molecule, possesses potential as a novel therapeutic agent against lung carcinogenesis in future clinical approaches. PMID:27167001

  6. IARS2 silencing induces non-small cell lung cancer cells proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest and promotes cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J; Liu, W; Li, R; Liu, J; Zhang, Y; Tang, W; Wang, K

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential role of Ileucyl-tRNA synthetase (IARS2) silencing in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The silencing of IARS2 in H1299 cells and A549 cells were performed by lentivirus encoding shRNAs. The efficiency of IARS2 silencing was detected by quantitative real time PCR and western blot. The effects of IARS2 silencing on cell growth, cell apoptosis, cell cycle and cell colony formation ability were assessed by cells counting, MTT assay, flow cytometer analysis and soft agar colony formation assay, respectively. Compared with negative control group, IARS2 was significantly knockdown by transfection with lentivirus encoding shRNA of IARS2. The IARS2 silencing significantly inhibited the cells proliferation and cells colony formation ability, induced cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase and promoted cell apoptosis. IARS2 silencing induced NSCLC cells growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and promoted cell apoptosis. These results suggest that IARS2 may be a novel target for the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:26639235

  7. Anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye;

    2003-01-01

    by the immobilization of the biomass, which forms static biofilms, particle-supported biofilms, or granules depending on the reactor's operational conditions. The advantages of the high-rate anaerobic digestion over the conventional aerobic wastewater treatment methods has created a clear trend for the change......-rate anaerobic treatment systems based on anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm are described in this chapter. Emphasis is given to a) the Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems, b) the main characteristics of the anaerobic granular sludge, and c) the factors that control the granulation process...

  8. Non-small-cell lung cancer-induced immunosuppression by increased human regulatory T cells via Foxp3 promoter demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xing; Zhang, Shuping; Xu, Jian; Liu, Genyan; Zhang, Lixia; Xie, Erfu; Gao, Li; Li, Daqian; Sun, Ruihong; Wang, Fang; Pan, Shiyang

    2016-05-01

    Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have immune defects that are poorly understood. Forkhead box protein P3 (Foxp3) is crucial for immunosuppression by CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). It is not well known how NSCLC induces Foxp3 expression and causes immunosuppression in tumor-bearing patients. Our study found a higher percentage of CD4(+) Tregs in the peripheral blood of NSCLC compared with healthy donors. NSCLC patients showed demethylation of eight CpG sites within the Foxp3 promoter with methylation ratios negatively correlated with CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T levels. Foxp3 expression in CD4(+) Tregs was directly regulated by Foxp3 promoter demethylation and was involved in immunosuppression by NSCLC. To verify the effect of tumor cells on the phenotype and function of CD4(+) Tregs, we established a coculture system using NSCLC cell line and healthy CD4(+) T cells and showed that SPC-A1 induced IL-10 and TGF-β1 secretion by affecting the function of CD4(+) Tregs. The activity of DNA methyltransferases from CD4(+) T was decreased during this process. Furthermore, eight CpG sites within the Foxp3 promoter also appeared to have undergone demethylation. Foxp3 is highly expressed in CD4(+) T cells, and this may be caused by gene promoter demethylation. These induced Tregs are highly immunosuppressive and dramatically inhibit the proliferative activity of naïve CD4(+) T cells. Our study provides one possible mechanism describing Foxp3 promoter demethylation changes by which NSCLC down-regulates immune responses and contributes to tumor progression. Foxp3 represents an important target for NSCLC anti-tumor immunotherapy.

  9. Ca2+-induced structural changes in phosphorylase kinase detected by small-angle x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priddy, Timothy S. [University of Missouri and University of Kansas Medical Center; Macdonald, Brian A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Heller, William T [ORNL; Nadeau, Owen W. [University of Kansas Medical Center; Trewhella, Jill [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Carlson, Gerald M. [University of Kansas Medical Center

    2005-01-01

    Phosphorylase kinase (PhK), a 1.3-MDa ({alpha}{beta}{gamma}{delta}){sub 4} hexadecameric complex, is a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent regulatory enzyme in the cascade activation of glycogenolysis. PhK comprises two arched ({alpha}{beta}{gamma}{delta}){sub 2} octameric lobes that are oriented back-to-back with overall D{sub 2} symmetry and joined by connecting bridges. From chemical cross-linking and electron microscopy, it is known that the binding of Ca{sup 2+} by PhK perturbs the structure of all its subunits and promotes redistribution of density throughout both its lobes and bridges; however, little is known concerning the interrelationship of these effects. To measure structural changes induced by Ca{sup 2+} in the PhK complex in solution, small-angle X-ray scattering was performed on nonactivated and Ca{sup 2+}-activated PhK. Although the overall dimensions of the complex were not affected by Ca{sup 2+}, the cation did promote a shift in the distribution of the scattering density within the hydrated volume occupied by the PhK molecule, indicating a Ca{sup 2+}-induced conformational change. Computer-generated models, based on elements of the known structure of PhK from electron microscopy, were constructed to aid in the interpretation of the scattering data. Models containing two ellipsoids and four cylinders to represent, respectively, the lobes and bridges of the PhK complex provided theoretical scattering profiles that accurately fit the experimental data. Structural differences between the models representing the nonactivated and Ca{sup 2+}-activated conformers of PhK are consistent with Ca{sup 2+}-induced conformational changes in both the lobes and the interlobal bridges.

  10. Dihydroartemisinin inhibits glucose uptake and cooperates with glycolysis inhibitor to induce apoptosis in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-jun Mi

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in the therapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, the chemotherapy efficacy against NSCLC is still unsatisfactory. Previous studies show the herbal antimalarial drug dihydroartemisinin (DHA displays cytotoxic to multiple human tumors. Here, we showed that DHA decreased cell viability and colony formation, induced apoptosis in A549 and PC-9 cells. Additionally, we first revealed DHA inhibited glucose uptake in NSCLC cells. Moreover, glycolytic metabolism was attenuated by DHA, including inhibition of ATP and lactate production. Consequently, we demonstrated that the phosphorylated forms of both S6 ribosomal protein and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR, and GLUT1 levels were abrogated by DHA treatment in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, the upregulation of mTOR activation by high expressed Rheb increased the level of glycolytic metabolism and cell viability inhibited by DHA. These results suggested that DHA-suppressed glycolytic metabolism might be associated with mTOR activation and GLUT1 expression. Besides, we showed GLUT1 overexpression significantly attenuated DHA-triggered NSCLC cells apoptosis. Notably, DHA synergized with 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2DG, a glycolysis inhibitor to reduce cell viability and increase cell apoptosis in A549 and PC-9 cells. However, the combination of the two compounds displayed minimal toxicity to WI-38 cells, a normal lung fibroblast cell line. More importantly, 2DG synergistically potentiated DHA-induced activation of caspase-9, -8 and -3, as well as the levels of both cytochrome c and AIF of cytoplasm. However, 2DG failed to increase the reactive oxygen species (ROS levels elicited by DHA. Overall, the data shown above indicated DHA plus 2DG induced apoptosis was involved in both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways in NSCLC cells.

  11. Proton translocation coupled to dimethyl sulfoxide reduction in anaerobically grown Escherichia coli HB101.

    OpenAIRE

    Bilous, P T; Weiner, J H

    1985-01-01

    Proton translocation coupled to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reduction was examined in Escherichia coli HB101 grown anaerobically on glycerol and DMSO. Rapid acidification of the medium was observed when an anaerobic suspension of cells, preincubated with glycerol, was pulsed with DMSO, methionine sulfoxide, nitrate, or trimethylamine N-oxide. The DMSO-induced acidification was sensitive to the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (60 microM) and was inhibited by the quin...

  12. Characteristics of the Cholecystokinin-Induced Depolarization of Pacemaking Activity in Cultured Interstitial Cells of Cajal from Murine Small Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hwa Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In this study, we studied the effects of cholecystokinin (CCK on pacemaker potentials in cultured interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs from mouse small intestine using the whole cell patch clamp technique. Methods: ICCs are pacemaker cells that exhibit periodic spontaneous depolarization, which is responsible for the production of slow waves in gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and generate periodic pacemaker potentials in current-clamp mode. Results: Exposure to CCK (100 nM-5 µM decreased the amplitudes of pacemaker potentials and depolarized resting membrane potentials. To identify the type of CCK receptors involved in ICCs, we examined the effects of CCK agonists and found that the addition of CCK1 agonist (A-71323, 1 µM depolarized resting membrane potentials, whereas exposure to CCK2 agonist (gastrin , 1 µM had no effect on pacemaker potentials. To confirm these results, we examined the effects of CCK antagonists and found that pretreatment with CCK1 antagonist (SR 27897, 1 µM blocked CCK-induced effects. However, pretreatment with CCK2 antagonist (LY 225910, 1 µM did not. Furthermore, intracellular GDPβS suppressed CCK-induced effects. To investigate the involvements of phospholipase C (PLC, protein kinase C (PKC, and protein kinase A (PKA in the effects of CCK in cultured ICCs, we used U-73122 (an active PLC inhibitor, chelerythrine (a PKC inhibitor, SQ-22536 (an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, or mPKAI (an inhibitor of myristoylated PKA. All inhibitors blocked the CCK-mediated effects on pacemaker potentials. In addition, we found that transient receptor potential classical 5 (TRPC5 channel was involved in CCK-activated currents in cultured ICCs. Conclusion: These results suggest that the CCK induced depolarization of pacemaking activity occurs in a G-protein-, PLC-, PKC-, and PKA-dependent manner via CCK1 receptor and TRPC5 channel is a candidate for CCK-activated currents in cultured ICCs in murine small intestine

  13. Determination of metal balance shift induced in small fresh water fish by X-ray irradiation using PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the environmental pollution studies, it is very important to detect not only pollutants but also changes induced in organisms in the environment with various environmental stresses such as heavy metal toxicity radiation and agricultural chemicals. In the latter, monitoring is carried out using biological indicators to find out the changes, which have wide spectra from visible like deformity of the body to invisible such as changes in some enzyme activities. Changes of the balance of essential elements could occur in organisms to deal with the stresses. If we detect an elemental balance shift, we may see the environmental pollution in its early stages. Moreover, in the actual environment, combined effects, additive or reductive with coexistent elements or other stresses, is an important subject for investigation. Therefore, measurement of many elements in the biological indicator's simultaneously and determination of the distribution in the organisms are useful in clarifying the action of pollutants at sublethal levels. A small fresh water fish, Medaka can be used as one of the biological-indicators for determination of water quality. In the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), an inbred strain of Medaka Orizias laptipes was established and has been maintained for the research purposes. Since the genetic background of inbred animals is almost uniform, the individual deviation among animals is very small. This characteristic is very useful to investigate the physiological effects of environmental stresses. We have continued to investigate the balance shift of essential elements induced in the bodies of Medaka by several stresses. In this paper, elemental content in various organs of the X-ray irradiated fish determined by PIXE method are reported in comparison with that of the control fish to observe the effect of the X-rays. Body size of Medaka is about 3 cm long, and the internal organs are very small (about l mm on average). PIXE is the most

  14. Characterisation by image analysis of anaerobic sludge under shock conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, M. M.; Cavaleiro, A. J.; Ferreira, E.C.; A.L. Amaral; Mota, M; Motta, Maurício da; Vivier, H.; Pons, M.N.

    2000-01-01

    In the present work the characterisation by image analysis of anaerobic biomass under organic and hydraulic shocks was performed. The digester was fed with a synthetic substrate, containing 50% oleic acid (as COD). Organic and hydraulic shocks were performed by stepwise increasing the substrate concentration or by reducing the hydraulic retention time. In both cases the organic loading rate changed from 6 to 30 kg COD/m³.d. Hydraulic shock induced a fast decrease in the number of ...

  15. Ascorbic acid and a cytostatic inhibitor of glycolysis synergistically induce apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha B Vuyyuri

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid (AA exhibits significant anticancer activity at pharmacologic doses achievable by parenteral administration that have minimal effects on normal cells. Thus, AA has potential uses as a chemotherapeutic agent alone or in combination with other therapeutics that specifically target cancer-cell metabolism. We compared the effects of AA and combinations of AA with the glycolysis inhibitor 3-(3-pyridinyl-1-(4-pyridinyl-2-propen-1-one (3-PO on the viability of three non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines to the effects on an immortalized lung epithelial cell line. AA concentrations of 0.5 to 5 mM caused a complete loss of viability in all NSCLC lines compared to a <10% loss of viability in the lung epithelial cell line. Combinations of AA and 3-PO synergistically enhanced cell death in all NSCLC cell lines at concentrations well below the IC50 concentrations for each compound alone. A synergistic interaction was not observed in combination treatments of lung epithelial cells and combination treatments that caused a complete loss of viability in NSCLC cells had modest effects on normal lung cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS levels. Combination treatments induced dramatically higher ROS levels compared to treatment with AA and 3-PO alone in NSCLC cells and combination-induced cell death was inhibited by addition of catalase to the medium. Analyses of DNA fragmentation, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage, annexin V-binding, and caspase activity demonstrated that AA-induced cell death is caused via the activation of apoptosis and that the combination treatments caused a synergistic induction of apoptosis. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of AA against NSCLC cells and that combinations of AA with 3-PO synergistically induce apoptosis via a ROS-dependent mechanism. These results support further evaluation of pharmacologic concentrations of AA as an adjuvant treatment for NSCLC and that combination of AA with

  16. Effect of incubation conditions on anaerobic susceptibility testing results.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, P R; Niles, A C

    1982-01-01

    We determined the effect of performing antimicrobial susceptibility tests in five different anaerobic incubation systems: GasPak jar, large GasPak jar, evacuated-gassed anaerobic jar, anaerobic chamber, and Bio-Bag. Growth of the anaerobes was equivalent in all five incubation systems. The results of testing 38 anaerobes against 11 antimicrobial agents were comparable for the anaerobic jars and anaerobic chamber. However, discordant results were observed for metronidazole and cefamandole test...

  17. PRIMA-1Met/APR-246 induces apoptosis and tumor growth delay in small cell lung cancer expressing mutant p53

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandi, Roza; Selivanova, Galina; Christensen, Camilla Laulund;

    2011-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant disease with poor prognosis, necessitating the need to develop new and efficient treatment modalities. PRIMA-1(Met) (p53-dependent reactivation of massive apoptosis), also known as APR-246, is a small molecule, which restores tumor suppressor...... function to mutant p53 and induces cancer cell death in various cancer types. Since p53 is mutated in more than 90% of SCLC, we investigated the ability of PRIMA-1(Met) to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth in SCLC with different p53 mutations....

  18. Small activating RNA induces myogenic differentiation of rat adipose-derived stem cells by upregulating MyoD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghe Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:RNA activation (RNAa is a mechanism of gene activation triggered by promoter-targeted small double stranded RNAs (dsRNAs, also known as small activating RNAs (saRNAs. Myogenic regulatory factor MyoD is regarded as the master activator of myogenic differentiation cascade by binding to enhancer of muscle specific genes. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI is a condition primarily resulted from urethral sphincter deficiency. It is thus expected that by promoting differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs into myoblasts by activating MyoD gene through RNAa may offer benefits to SUI.Materials and Methods:Rats ADSCs were isolated, proliferated in vitro, and identified by flow cytometry. Purified ADSCs were then transfected with a MyoD saRNA or control transfected. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blotting were used to detect MyoD mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Immunocytochemical staining was applied to determine the expression of desmin protein in transfected cells. Cell viability was measured by using CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay kit.Results:Transfection of a MyoD saRNA (dsMyoD into ADSCs significantly induced the expression of MyoD at both the mRNA and protein levels, and inhibited cell proliferation. Desmin protein expression was detected in dsMyoD treated ADSCs 2 weeks later.Conclusion:Our findings show that RNAa mediated overexpression of MyoD can promote transdifferentiation of ADSCs into myoblasts and may help treat stress urinary incontinence (SUI–a condition primarily resulted from urethral sphincter deficiency.

  19. Reduced amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid beta-protein precursor by the small-molecule Differentiation Inducing Factor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myre, Michael A; Washicosky, Kevin; Moir, Robert D; Tesco, Giuseppina; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Wasco, Wilma

    2009-04-01

    The detection of cell cycle proteins in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains may represent an early event leading to neurodegeneration. To identify cell cycle modifiers with anti-Abeta properties, we assessed the effect of Differentiation-Inducing Factor-1 (DIF-1), a unique, small-molecule from Dictyostelium discoideum, on the proteolysis of the amyloid beta-protein precursor (APP) in a variety of different cell types. We show that DIF-1 slows cell cycle progression through G0/G1 that correlates with a reduction in cyclin D1 protein levels. Western blot analysis of DIF-treated cells and conditioned medium revealed decreases in the levels of secreted APP, mature APP, and C-terminal fragments. Assessment of conditioned media by sandwich ELISA showed reduced levels of Abeta40 and Abeta42, also demonstrating that treatment with DIF-1 effectively decreases the ratio of Abeta42 to Abeta40. In addition, DIF-1 significantly diminished APP phosphorylation at residue T668. Interestingly, site-directed mutagenesis of APP residue Thr668 to alanine or glutamic acid abolished the effect of DIF-1 on APP proteolysis and restored secreted levels of Abeta. Finally, DIF-1 prevented the accumulation of APP C-terminal fragments induced by the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin, and calpain inhibitor N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal (ALLN). Our findings suggest that DIF-1 affects G0/G1-associated amyloidogenic processing of APP by a gamma-secretase-, proteasome- and calpain-insensitive pathway, and that this effect requires the presence of residue Thr668. PMID:19154786

  20. Reduced amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid β-protein precursor by the small-molecule Differentiation Inducing Factor-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myre, Michael A.; Washicosky, Kevin; Moir, Robert D.; Tesco, Giuseppina; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Wasco, Wilma

    2013-01-01

    The detection of cell cycle proteins in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brains may represent an early event leading to neurodegeneration. To identify cell cycle modifiers with anti-Aβ properties, we assessed the effect of Differentiation-Inducing Factor-1 (DIF-1), a unique, small-molecule from Dictyostelium discoideum, on the proteolysis of the amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) in a variety of different cell types. We show that DIF-1 slows cell cycle progression through G0/G1 that correlates with a reduction in cyclin D1 protein levels. Western blot analysis of DIF-treated cells and conditioned medium revealed decreases in the levels of secreted APP, mature APP, and C-terminal fragments. Assessment of conditioned media by sandwich ELISA showed reduced levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42, also demonstrating that treatment with DIF-1 effectively decreases the ratio of Aβ42 to Aβ40. In addition, DIF-1 significantly diminished APP phosphorylation at residue T668. Interestingly, site-directed mutagenesis of APP residue Thr668 to alanine or glutamic acid abolished the effect of DIF-1 on APP proteolysis and restored secreted levels of Aβ. Finally, DIF-1 prevented the accumulation of APP C-terminal fragments induced by the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin, and calpain inhibitor N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal (ALLN). Our findings suggest that DIF-1 affects G0/G1-associated amyloidogenic processing of APP by a γ-secretase-, proteasome- and calpain-insensitive pathway, and that this effect requires the presence of residue Thr668. PMID:19154786

  1. Modulators of hepatic lipoprotein metabolism identified in a search for small-molecule inducers of tribbles pseudokinase 1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek M Nagiec

    Full Text Available Recent genome wide association studies have linked tribbles pseudokinase 1 (TRIB1 to the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD. Based on the observations that increased expression of TRIB1 reduces secretion of VLDL and is associated with lower plasma levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, higher plasma levels of HDL cholesterol and reduced risk for myocardial infarction, we carried out a high throughput phenotypic screen based on quantitative RT-PCR assay to identify compounds that induce TRIB1 expression in human HepG2 hepatoma cells. In a screen of a collection of diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS-derived compounds, we identified a series of benzofuran-based compounds that upregulate TRIB1 expression and phenocopy the effects of TRIB1 cDNA overexpression, as they inhibit triglyceride synthesis and apoB secretion in cells. In addition, the compounds downregulate expression of MTTP and APOC3, key components of the lipoprotein assembly pathway. However, CRISPR-Cas9 induced chromosomal disruption of the TRIB1 locus in HepG2 cells, while confirming its regulatory role in lipoprotein metabolism, demonstrated that the effects of benzofurans persist in TRIB1-null cells indicating that TRIB1 is sufficient but not necessary to transmit the effects of the drug. Remarkably, active benzofurans, as well as natural products capable of TRIB1 upregulation, also modulate hepatic cell cholesterol metabolism by elevating the expression of LDLR transcript and LDL receptor protein, while reducing the levels of PCSK9 transcript and secreted PCSK9 protein and stimulating LDL uptake. The effects of benzofurans are not masked by cholesterol depletion and are independent of the SREBP-2 regulatory circuit, indicating that these compounds represent a novel class of chemically tractable small-molecule modulators that shift cellular lipoprotein metabolism in HepG2 cells from lipogenesis to scavenging.

  2. Anaerobic digestion of solid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavilin, V.A.; Lokshina, L.Y.; Flotats, X.;

    2007-01-01

    A new multidimensional (3 and 2D) anaerobic digestion model for cylindrical reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions was developed to study the way in which mixing intensity affects the efficiency of continuous-flow anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments reported and simulated...... earlier by Vavilin and Angelidaki (2005) were used to modernize a kinetic scheme and to obtain the corresponding kinetic coefficients. In the new models, hydrolytic microorganisms were included using Contois kinetics for the hydrolysis/acidogenesis degradation of municipal solid waste (MSW). Monod...... kinetics was applied for description of methanogenesis. Both hydrolytic and methanogenic microorganisms were assumed to be inhibited by high volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration. According to the new distributed models, the mixing level reduction expressed by increasing dimensionless Peclet number may...

  3. Anaerobic procedures of wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zupančič, Tadeja

    2013-01-01

    Highly polluted wastewater is formed in dairies, pig farms and slaughterhouses. Before released into watercourses, wastewater should be properly processed with different treatment procedures in wastewater treatment plants. The thesis deals with the descriptions of mechanical, physical and chemical, and biological wastewater treatment procedures and the description of the factors which affect the reactions in wastewater treatment plants. I give special emphasis on anaerobic wastewater treatmen...

  4. Anaerobic digestion of aliphatic polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmejkalová, Pavla; Kužníková, Veronika; Merna, Jan; Hermanová, Soňa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic processes for the treatment of plastic materials waste represent versatile and effective approach in environmental protection and solid waste management. In this work, anaerobic biodegradability of model aliphatic polyesters, poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), in the form of powder and melt-pressed films with varying molar mass, was studied. Biogas production was explored in batch laboratory trials at 55 ± 1°C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The inoculum used was thermophilic digested sludge (total solids concentration of 2.9%) from operating digesters at the Central Waste Water Treatment Plant in Prague, Czech Republic. Methanogenic biodegradation of PCLs typically yielded from 54 to 60% of the theoretical biogas yield. The biodegradability of PLAs achieved from 56 to 84% of the theoretical value. High biogas yield (up to 677 mL/g TS) with high methane content (more than 60%), comparable with conventionally processed materials, confirmed the potential of polyester samples for anaerobic treatment in the case of their exploitation in agriculture or as a packaging material in the food industry. PMID:27191559

  5. DMSO-induced dehydration of DPPC membranes studied by x-ray diffraction, small angle neutron scattering and calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a cryoprotector well known for its biological and therapeutic applications, were investigated on lipid membranes by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The DSC study of water freezing and melting of ice was performed in the ternary system which consists of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/DMSO/water system. The influence of DMSO on the DPPC membrane structure was established in the excess of solvent in the region of DMSO mole fraction from 0.0 to 1.0. The methods applied demonstrated the differences in the membrane structure in three sub-regions of DMSO mole fraction (XDMSO) from 0.0 to 0.3 for the first, from 0.3 to 0.9 for the second, and from 0.9 to 1.0 for the third sub-region. The results for 0.0 ≤ XDMSO ≤ 0.3 can be explained in the framework of DMSO-induced dehydration of intermembrane space

  6. Sera from children with autism induce autistic features which can be rescued with a CNTF small peptide mimetic in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Faraz Kazim

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized clinically by impairments in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication skills as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. It has been hypothesized that altered brain environment including an imbalance in neurotrophic support during early development contributes to the pathophysiology of autism. Here we report that sera from children with autism which exhibited abnormal levels of various neurotrophic factors induced cell death and oxidative stress in mouse primary cultured cortical neurons. The effects of sera from autistic children were rescued by pre-treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF small peptide mimetic, Peptide 6 (P6, which was previously shown to exert its neuroprotective effect by modulating CNTF/JAK/STAT pathway and LIF signaling and by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression. Similar neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammation were observed in young Wistar rats injected intracerebroventricularly with autism sera within hours after birth. The autism sera injected rats demonstrated developmental delay and deficits in social communication, interaction, and novelty. Both the neurobiological changes and the behavioral autistic phenotype were ameliorated by P6 treatment. These findings implicate the involvement of neurotrophic imbalance during early brain development in the pathophysiology of autism and a proof of principle of P6 as a potential therapeutic strategy for autism.

  7. l-DOPA as a small molecule surrogate to promote angiogenesis and prevent dexamethasone-induced ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Claire F; Burgess, Diane J; Kastellorizios, Michail

    2016-08-10

    The foreign body response to implantable biosensors has been successfully countered through the use of corticosteroids, such as dexamethasone. However, while controlling inflammation, dexamethasone also decreases angiogenesis, which may lead to delayed analyte readings. The concurrent application of VEGF with dexamethasone increases angiogenesis, but VEGF has physical stability issues and is not cost-effective. The use of l-DOPA, a small molecule drug shown to up-regulate VEGF in the Parkinsonian brain, can potentially resolve these issues by substituting for VEGF. In this work, l-DOPA was used for the first time as a pro-angiogenic agent to counteract dexamethasone-induced ischemia. Angiogenesis was modeled using the CAM assay and changes in blood vessel formation were recorded with both manual and digital techniques. As expected, dexamethasone reduced blood vessel formation in the CAM. Application of l-DOPA, on the other hand, increased blood vessel formation when dexamethasone and l-DOPA were administered simultaneously. This novel finding suggests the utility of l-DOPA in the field of implantable medical devices, such as biosensors, as well as tissue engineering applications where both a vascularized tissue environment and control of tissue response is desired. PMID:27261334

  8. DMSO-Induced Dehydration of DPPC Membranes Studied by X-ray Diffraction, Small-Angle Neutron Scattering, and Calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, M A; Kisselev, A M; Grabielle-Madelmond, C; Ollivon, M

    1999-01-01

    The influence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on membrane thickness, multilamellar repeat distance, and phase transitions of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was investigated by X-ray diffraction and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study of water freezing and ice melting was performed in the ternary DPPC /DMSO /water and binary DMSO /water systems. The methods applied demonstrated the differences in membrane structure in three sub-regions of the DMSO mole fraction (X_dmso): from 0.0 to 0.3 for the first, from 0.3 to 0.8 for the second, and from 0.9 to 1.0 for the third sub-region. The thickness of the intermembrane solvent at T =20C decreases from 14.4 +/- 1.8 A at X_dmso =0.0 to 7.8 +/- 1.8 A at X_dmso =0.1. The data were used to determine the number of free water molecules in the intermembrane space in the presence of DMSO. The results for 0.0 < X_dmso < 0.3 were explained in the framework of DMSO-induced dehydration of the interme...

  9. Surface treatment by binary solvents induces the crystallization of a small molecular donor for enhanced photovoltaic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weihua; Xie, Yuanpeng; Hu, Xiaotian; Zhang, Lin; Meng, Xiangchuan; Zhang, Yong; Ma, Wei; Chen, Yiwang

    2016-01-14

    The surface treatment of the active layer with binary solvents composed of methanol (MeOH) and 1-chloronaphthalene (CN), was demonstrated to effectively improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 2.4% to 6.5% for p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC71BM based small molecular solar cells. The optical properties and morphology of the p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC71BM films were carefully investigated. The results indicate that treatment with MeOH:CN binary solvents could significantly enhance the absorption of the active layer, due to the formation of more p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 nanofibrils associated with higher crystallinity as revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The two-dimensional grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) results further demonstrate that the molecular packing of p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 molecules could be strongly enhanced after treatment with the binary solvents. In contrast, pristine methanol shows no significant influence on the crystalline structure, phase separation or the photovoltaic properties of the p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC71BM system, showing that the CN solvent plays the main role in inducing the crystallization of p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 molecules. PMID:26660911

  10. Cardenolide-Induced Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization Demonstrates Therapeutic Benefits in Experimental Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Mijatovic

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs are the leading cause of cancer deaths in most developed countries. Targeting heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 expression and function, together with the induction of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP, could overcome the multiple anti-cell death mechanisms evidenced in NSCLCs that are responsible for the failure of currently used chemotherapeutic drugs. Because cardenolides bind to the sodium pump, they affect multiple signaling pathways and thus have a number of marked effects on tumor cell behavior. The aim of the present study was to characterize in vitro and in vivo the antitumor effects of a new cardenolide (UNBS1450 on experimental human NSCLCs. UNBS1450 is a potent source of in vivo antitumor activity in the case of paclitaxeland oxaliplatin-resistant subcutaneous human NCIH727 and orthotopic A549 xenografts in nude mice. In vitro UNBS1450-mediated antitumor activity results from the induction of nonapoptotic cell death. UNBS1450 mediates the decrease of Hsp70 at both mRNA and protein levels, and this is at least partly due to UNBS1450-induced downregulation of NFAT5/ TonEBP (a factor responsible for the transcriptional control of Hsp70. These effects were paralleled by the induction of LMP, as evidenced by acridine orange staining and immunofluorescence analysis for cathepsin B accumulation.

  11. Time delay and long-range connection induced synchronization transitions in Newman-Watts small-world neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The synchronization transitions in Newman-Watts small-world neuronal networks (SWNNs) induced by time delay τ and long-range connection (LRC) probability P have been investigated by synchronization parameter and space-time plots. Four distinct parameter regions, that is, asynchronous region, transition region, synchronous region, and oscillatory region have been discovered at certain LRC probability P = 1.0 as time delay is increased. Interestingly, desynchronization is observed in oscillatory region. More importantly, we consider the spatiotemporal patterns obtained in delayed Newman-Watts SWNNs are the competition results between long-range drivings (LRDs) and neighboring interactions. In addition, for moderate time delay, the synchronization of neuronal network can be enhanced remarkably by increasing LRC probability. Furthermore, lag synchronization has been found between weak synchronization and complete synchronization as LRC probability P is a little less than 1.0. Finally, the two necessary conditions, moderate time delay and large numbers of LRCs, are exposed explicitly for synchronization in delayed Newman-Watts SWNNs.

  12. Anaerobic survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by pyruvate fermentation requires an Usp-type stress protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, K; Boes, N; Escbach, M;

    2006-01-01

    :4596-4604, 2004). Anaerobic long-term survival of P. aeruginosa might be essential for survival in deeper layers of a biofilm and the persistent infection of anaerobic mucus plaques in the cystic fibrosis lung. Proteome analysis of P. aeruginosa cells during a 7-day period of pyruvate fermentation revealed......Recently, we identified a pyruvate fermentation pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa sustaining anaerobic survival in the absence of alternative anaerobic respiratory and fermentative energy generation systems (M. Eschbach, K. Schreiber, K. Trunk, J. Buer, D. Jahn, and M. Schobert, J. Bacteriol. 186...... the induced synthesis of three enzymes involved in arginine fermentation, ArcA, ArcB, and ArcC, and the outer membrane protein OprL. Moreover, formation of two proteins of unknown function, PA3309 and PA4352, increased by factors of 72- and 22-fold, respectively. Both belong to the group of universal stress...

  13. Potential for anaerobic conversion of xenobiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Dolfing, J.; Haagensen, Frank;

    2003-01-01

    This review covers the latest research on the anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic xenobiotic compounds, with emphasis on surfactants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalate esters, polychlorinated biphenyls, halogenated phenols, and pesticides. The versatility of anaerobic reactor systems...... regarding the treatment of xenobiotics is shown with the focus on the UASB reactor, but the applicability of other reactor designs for treatment of hazardous waste is also included. Bioaugmentation has proved to be a viable technique to enhance a specific activity in anaerobic reactors and recent research...

  14. Anaerobic conditions improve germination of a gibberellic acid deficient rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Jonathan M.; Bugbee, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Dwarf plants are useful in research because multiple plants can be grown in a small area. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is especially important since its relatively simple genome has recently been sequenced. We are characterizing a gibberellic acid (GA) mutant of rice (japonica cv 'Shiokari,' line N-71) that is extremely dwarf (20 cm tall). Unfortunately, this GA mutation is associated with poor germination (70%) under aerobic conditions. Neither exogenous GA nor a dormancy-breaking heat treatment improved germination. However, 95% germination was achieved by germinating the seeds anaerobically, either in a pure N2 environment or submerged in unstirred tap water. The anaerobic conditions appear to break a mild post-harvest dormancy in this rice cultivar. Copyright 2002 Crop Science Society of America.

  15. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies of metastable intermediates of beta-lactoglobulin isolated after heat-induced aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrotta, R.; Arleth, L.; Pedersen, J.S.;

    2003-01-01

    Small-angle x-ray scattering was used for studying intermediate species, isolated after heat-induced aggregation of the A variant of bovine P-lactoglobulin. The intermediates were separated in two fractions, the heated metastable dimer and heated metastable oligomers larger than the dimer. The pa...

  16. Cathepsin B mediates caspase-independent cell death induced by microtubule stabilizing agents in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broker, L.E.; Huisman, C.; Span, SW; Rodriguez, J.A.; Kruyt, F.A.E.; Giaccone, G.

    2004-01-01

    We have previously reported that the microtubule stabilizing agents (MSAs) paclitaxel, epothilone B and discodermolide induce caspase-independent cell death in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Here we present two lines of evidence indicating a central role for the lysosomal protease catheps

  17. Molecular ecology of anaerobic reactor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H. Jacob Peider; Zheng, D.; Westermann, Peter;

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic reactor systems are essential for the treatment of solid and liquid wastes and constitute a core facility in many waste treatment plants. Although much is known about the basic metabolism in different types of anaerobic reactors, little is known about the microbes responsible...... to the abundance of each microbe in anaerobic reactor systems by rRNA probing. This chapter focuses on various molecular techniques employed and problems encountered when elucidating the microbial ecology of anaerobic reactor systems. Methods such as quantitative dot blot/fluorescence in-situ probing using various...

  18. Compound 13, an α1-selective small molecule activator of AMPK, inhibits Helicobacter pylori-induced oxidative stresses and gastric epithelial cell apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Half of the world's population experiences Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, which is a main cause of gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcer, and gastric cancers. In the current study, we investigated the potential role of compound 13 (C13), a novel α1-selective small molecule activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), against H. pylori-induced cytotoxicity in cultured gastric epithelial cells (GECs). We found that C13 induced significant AMPK activation, evidenced by phosphorylation of AMPKα1 and ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase), in both primary and transformed GECs. Treatment of C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced GEC apoptosis. AMPK activation was required for C13-mediated GEC protection. Inhibition of AMPK kinase activity by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C, or silencing AMPKα1 expression by targeted-shRNAs, alleviated C13-induced GEC protective activities against H. pylori. Significantly, C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. C13 induced AMPK-dependent expression of anti-oxidant gene heme oxygenase (HO-1) in GECs. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), two HO-1 inhibitors, not only suppressed C13-mediated ROS scavenging activity, but also alleviated its activity in GECs against H. pylori. Together, these results indicate that C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced ROS production and GEC apoptosis through activating AMPK–HO–1 signaling. - Highlights: • We synthesized compound 13 (C13), a α1-selective small molecule AMPK activator. • C13-induced AMPK activation requires α1 subunit in gastric epithelial cells (GECs). • C13 enhances Helicobacter pylori-induced pro-survival AMPK activation to inhibit GEC apoptosis. • C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. • AMPK-heme oxygenase (HO-1) activation is required for C13-mediated anti-oxidant activity

  19. Compound 13, an α1-selective small molecule activator of AMPK, inhibits Helicobacter pylori-induced oxidative stresses and gastric epithelial cell apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hangyong; Zhu, Huanghuang; Lin, Zhou; Lin, Gang; Lv, Guoqiang, E-mail: lvguoqiangwuxivip@163.com

    2015-08-07

    Half of the world's population experiences Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, which is a main cause of gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcer, and gastric cancers. In the current study, we investigated the potential role of compound 13 (C13), a novel α1-selective small molecule activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), against H. pylori-induced cytotoxicity in cultured gastric epithelial cells (GECs). We found that C13 induced significant AMPK activation, evidenced by phosphorylation of AMPKα1 and ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase), in both primary and transformed GECs. Treatment of C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced GEC apoptosis. AMPK activation was required for C13-mediated GEC protection. Inhibition of AMPK kinase activity by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C, or silencing AMPKα1 expression by targeted-shRNAs, alleviated C13-induced GEC protective activities against H. pylori. Significantly, C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. C13 induced AMPK-dependent expression of anti-oxidant gene heme oxygenase (HO-1) in GECs. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), two HO-1 inhibitors, not only suppressed C13-mediated ROS scavenging activity, but also alleviated its activity in GECs against H. pylori. Together, these results indicate that C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced ROS production and GEC apoptosis through activating AMPK–HO–1 signaling. - Highlights: • We synthesized compound 13 (C13), a α1-selective small molecule AMPK activator. • C13-induced AMPK activation requires α1 subunit in gastric epithelial cells (GECs). • C13 enhances Helicobacter pylori-induced pro-survival AMPK activation to inhibit GEC apoptosis. • C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. • AMPK-heme oxygenase (HO-1) activation is required for C13-mediated anti-oxidant activity.

  20. Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-containing wastewater from distilleries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioprocess evaluation of a staged arrangement of a Pulse Driven Loop Reaktor (PDLR) and a Pulsed Anaerobic Filter (PAF) using highly polluted cherry slops as industrial wastewater shows a COD removal efficiency of 80-90% at loading rates of 8-4 kg COD/(M3.d). Contamination of cherry slops by sulfate (2 g/l) and copper (150-200 mg/l) reduces COD degradation to 40-50 percent. A pulsed anaerobic baffled reactor was envisaged as a corrective tool to improve mineralisation in the presence of sulfate-rich substrates by confining sulfate reducing bacteria to the first 4 chambers of the reactor. Phasing slightly improves COD degradation yield, but is not sufficient for stable process performance. Consequently, the use of lactic acid in stead of sulfuric acid in cherry-fermentation was suggested as a preventive method to avoid sulphide-induced digester failure. (orig.)

  1. Dehalobacter restrictus gen. nov. and sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic bacterium that reductively dechlorinates tetra- and trichloroethene in an anaerobic respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holliger, C; Hahn, D; Harmsen, H; Ludwig, W; Schumacher, W; Tindall, B; Vazquez, F; Weiss, N; Zehnder, AJB

    1998-01-01

    The highly enriched anaerobic bacterium that couples the reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene to growth, previously referred to as PER-K23, was obtained in pure culture and characterized. The bacterium, which does not form spores, is a small, gram-negative rod with one lateral flagellum. It

  2. Abdominal γ-Radiation Induces an Accumulation of Function-Impaired Regulatory T Cells in the Small Intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the frequency and the functional characteristics of one major component of immune tolerance, the CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in a mouse model of abdominal irradiation. Methods and Materials: Mice were exposed to a single abdominal dose of γ-radiation (10 Gy). We evaluated small intestine Treg infiltration by Foxp3 immunostaining and the functional suppressive activity of Tregs isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes. Results: Foxp3 immunostaining showed that radiation induced a long-term infiltration of the intestine by Tregs (levels 5.5 times greater than in controls). Co-culture of Tregs from mesenteric lymph nodes with CD4+ effector cells showed that the Tregs had lost their suppressive function. This loss was associated with a significant decrease in the levels of Foxp3, TGF-β, and CTLA-4 mRNA, all required for optimal Treg function. At Day 90 after irradiation, Tregs regained their suppressive activity as forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) expression returned to normal. Analysis of the secretory function of mesenteric lymph node Tregs, activated in vitro with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 Abs, showed that this dysfunction was independent of a defect in interleukin-10 secretion. Conclusion: Radiation caused a long-term accumulation of function-impaired Foxp3+CD4+ Tregs in the intestine. Our study provides new insights into how radiation affects the immune tolerance in peripheral tissues.

  3. Persistence of smoking-induced dysregulation of miRNA expression in the small airway epithelium despite smoking cessation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Wang

    Full Text Available Even after quitting smoking, the risk of the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer remains significantly higher compared to healthy nonsmokers. Based on the knowledge that COPD and most lung cancers start in the small airway epithelium (SAE, we hypothesized that smoking modulates miRNA expression in the SAE linked to the pathogenesis of smoking-induced airway disease, and that some of these changes persist after smoking cessation. SAE was collected from 10th to 12th order bronchi using fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Affymetrix miRNA 2.0 arrays were used to assess miRNA expression in the SAE from 9 healthy nonsmokers and 10 healthy smokers, before and after they quit smoking for 3 months. Smoking status was determined by urine nicotine and cotinine measurement. There were significant differences in the expression of 34 miRNAs between healthy smokers and healthy nonsmokers (p1.5, with functions associated with lung development, airway epithelium differentiation, inflammation and cancer. After quitting smoking for 3 months, 12 out of the 34 miRNAs did not return to normal levels, with Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway being the top identified enriched pathway of the target genes of the persistent dysregulated miRNAs. In the context that many of these persistent smoking-dependent miRNAs are associated with differentiation, inflammatory diseases or lung cancer, it is likely that persistent smoking-related changes in SAE miRNAs play a role in the subsequent development of these disorders.

  4. Loss of glucocorticoid receptor expression by DNA methylation prevents glucocorticoid induced apoptosis in human small cell lung cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kay

    Full Text Available Human small cell lung cancer (SCLC is highly aggressive, and quickly develops resistance to therapy. SCLC cells are typically insensitive to glucocorticoids due to impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR expression. This is important as we have previously shown that expression of a GR transgene induces cell death in-vitro, and inhibits tumor growth in-vivo. However, the underlying mechanism for loss of GR expression is unknown. The SCLC cell line, DMS79, has low GR expression, compared to non-SCLC cell lines and normal bronchial epithelial cells. Retroviral GR expression in DMS79 cells caused activation of the apoptotic pathway as evidenced by marked induction of caspase-3 activity. Methylation analysis of the GR promoter revealed some methylation in the 1D, and 1E promoters of the GR gene, however the ubiquitous constitutively active 1C promoter was heavily methylated. In the 1C promoter there was a highly significant increase in DNA methylation in a panel of 14 human SCLC cell lines compared to a mixed panel of GR expressing, and non-expressing cell lines, and to peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Furthermore, within the panel of SCLC cell lines there was a significant negative correlation seen between methylation of the 1C promoter, and GR protein expression. Reversal of GR gene methylation with DNA methyltransferase inhibition caused increased GR mRNA and protein expression in SCLC but not non-SCLC cells. This resulted in increased Gc sensitivity, decreased Bcl-2 expression and increased caspase-3 activity in SCLC cells. These data suggest that DNA methylation decreases GR gene expression in human SCLC cells, in a similar manner to that for conventional tumor suppressor genes.

  5. Anaerobic digestion of coffee waste

    OpenAIRE

    L. Neves; Ribeiro, R.; Oliveira, Rosário; Alves, M. M.

    2005-01-01

    The anaerobic co-digestion of five different by-products from instant coffee substitutes production was studied in mesophilic conditions. The co-substrate was the excess of sewage sludge from the wastewater treatment plant located in the same coffee factory. Four of the tested wastes produced methane in the range of 0.24-0.28 m³CH4(STP)/kgVSinitial . Reduction of 50-73% in total solids and 75-80% in volatile solids were obtained and the hydrolysis rate constants were in the ran...

  6. Punica granatum (pomegranate) leaves extract induces apoptosis through mitochondrial intrinsic pathway and inhibits migration and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yali; Yang, Fangfang; Zheng, Weidong; Hu, Mingxing; Wang, Juanxiu; Ma, Sisi; Deng, Yuanle; Luo, Yi; Ye, Tinghong; Yin, Wenya

    2016-05-01

    Most conventional treatments on non-small cell lung carcinoma always accompany with awful side effects, and the incidence and mortality rates of this cancer are increasing rapidly worldwide. The objective of this study was to examine the anticancer effects of extract of Punica granatum (pomegranate) leaves extract (PLE) on the non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line A549, H1299 and mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cell line LL/2 in vitro, and explore its mechanisms of action. Our results have shown that PLE inhibited cell proliferation in non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry (FCM) assay showed that PLE affected H1299 cell survival by arresting cell cycle progression in G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner and inducing apoptosis. Moreover, PLE could also decrease the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔYm), indicating that PLE may induce apoptosis via mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, PLE blocked H1299 cell migration and invasion, and the reduction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression were also observed in vitro. These results suggested that PLE could be an effective and safe chemotherapeutic agent in non-small cell lung carcinoma treatment by inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and impairing cell migration and invasion. PMID:27133061

  7. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, A S; Dhagat, N N

    2001-04-01

    means that a sudden increase in the easily degradable organics will result in increased acid production with subsequent accumulation of acids. This inhibits the methanogenesis step. Acclimatization of the microorganisms to a substrate has been reported to take more than five weeks. Sufficiently acclimated bacteria have shown greater stability towards stress-inducing events such as hydraulic overloads, fluctuations in temperature, fluctuations in volatile acid and ammonia concentrations etc. Several environmental factors can affect anaerobic digestion, by altering the parameters such as specific growth rate, decay rate, gas production, substrate utilization, start-up and response to changes in input. It has long been recognized that an anaerobic process is in many ways ideal for wastewater treatment and has following merits: A high degree of waste stabilization A low production of excess A low nutrient requirements No oxygen requirement Production of methane gas Anaerobic microorganisms, especially methanogens have a slow growth rate. At lower HRTs, the possibility of washout of biomass is more prominent. This makes it difficult to maintain the effective number of useful microorganisms in the system. To maintain the population of anaerobes, large reactor volumes or higher HRTs are required. This may ultimately provide longer SRTs upto 20 days for high rate systems. Thus, provision of larger reactor volumes or higher HRTs ultimately lead to higher capital cost. Among notable disadvantages, it has low synthesis/reaction rate hence long start up periods and difficulty in recovery from upset conditions. Special attention is, therefore, warranted towards, controlling the factors that affect process adversely; important among them being environmental factors such as temperature, pH and concentration of toxic substances. The conventional anaerobic treatment process consists of a reactor containing waste and biological solids (bacteria) responsible for the digestion process

  8. Instrumentation in anaerobic treatment - research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, H.; Lier, van J.B.

    2006-01-01

    High rate anaerobic treatment reactors are able to uncouple solids and liquid retention time, resulting in high biomass concentrations. Principal advantages of anaerobic treatment include: energy efficiency, low biomass yield, low nutrient requirement and high volumetric organic loadings. In order t

  9. Carbon monoxide conversion by anaerobic bioreactor sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and 55degreesC
    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and

  10. Anaerobic critical velocity in four swimming techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, H P; Fernandes, R J; Vilas-Boas, J P

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess critical velocity in order to control and evaluate anaerobic swimming training. 51 highly trained male swimmers performed maximal 15, 25, 37.5 and 50 m in the 4 swimming techniques to determine critical velocity from the distance-time relationship. Anaerobic critical velocity was compared with 100 m swimming performance and corresponding partials. Complementarily, 9 swimmers performed a 6×50 m (4 min interval) training series at front crawl individual anaerobic critical velocity, capillary blood lactate concentrations being assessed after each repetition. The mean±SD values of anaerobic critical velocity and its relationship with the 100 m event were: 1.61±0.07 (r=0.60, p=0.037), 1.53±0.05 (r=0.81, p=0.015), 1.33±0.05 (r=0.83, p=0.002), and 1.75±0.05 (r=0.74, p=0.001), for butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke and front crawl, respectively. However, differences between anaerobic critical velocity and performance were observed (with exception of the second half of the 100 m swimming events in breaststroke and butterfly). Lactate concentration values at the end of the series were 14.52±1.06 mmol.l (-1), which suggests that it was indeed an anaerobic training set. In this sense, anaerobic critical velocity can be used to prescribe anaerobic training intensities.

  11. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  12. Biogas production in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor by using tequila vinasses: effect of pH and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola-Vargas, J; Jaramillo-Gante, N E; Celis, L B; Corona-González, R I; González-Álvarez, V; Méndez-Acosta, H O

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, anaerobic digestion has been recognized as a suitable alternative for tequila vinasses treatment due to its high energy recovery and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency. However, key factors such as the lack of suitable monitoring schemes and the presence of load disturbances, which may induce unstable operating conditions in continuous systems, have limited its application at full scale. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (AnSBR) configuration in order to provide a low cost and easy operation alternative for the treatment of these complex effluents. In particular, the AnSBR was evaluated under different pH-temperature combinations: 7 and 32 °C; 7 and 38 °C; 8 and 32 °C and 8 and 38 °C. Results showed that the AnSBR configuration was able to achieve high COD removal efficiencies (around 85%) for all the tested conditions, while the highest methane yield was obtained at pH 7 and 38 °C (0.29 L/g COD added). Furthermore, high robustness was found in all the AnSBR experiments. Therefore, the full-scale application of the AnSBR technology for the treatment of tequila vinasses is quite encouraging, in particular for small and medium size tequila industries that operate under seasonal conditions.

  13. Expansion due to the anaerobic corrosion of iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, N.R.; Rance, A.P.; Fennell, P.A.H. [Serco Assurance, Culham Science Centre (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    . Initially, three cells were set up: two contained alternate carbon steel and copper discs, and the third, a control cell, consisted of alternate stainless steel and copper discs. A slight contraction of the control cell was observed but no expansion was measured in the carbon steel-copper cells. Analytical measurements showed that the corrosion products were magnetite and hydrogen, indicating that anaerobic corrosion was occurring. In a second series of experiments, one experiment was carried out in which carbon steel was replaced with cast iron and in a further experiment air was allowed to enter the test chamber. No expansion was detected in either of these additional experiments. However, expansion was detected when a separate stack of copper and steel washers was corroded in ambient atmospheric conditions under very small compressive loads, and subjected to a wet-dry cycle, demonstrating that the experimental technique was capable of detecting corrosion-induced expansion if it were occurring. In parallel with the stress cell experiments, coupons of mild steel and cast iron were corroded in anoxic, artificial groundwater at 50 deg C and 80 deg C for several months. The coupons were examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine the mechanical properties and the structure of the corrosion product films, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to identify the chemical composition of the film. The report presents Young's modulus, thickness and hardness data for the oxides, which were much more compliant than the magnetite films formed at high temperatures, probably because of their high water content. The report considers the application of the results to assessing the performance of the SKB canister in a repository situation.

  14. Prospects of Anaerobic Digestion Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As the world's largest developing country, China must face the problem of managing municipal solid waste, and the challenge of organic waste disposal is even more serious. Considering the characteristics of traditional waste disposal technologies and the subsequent secondary pollution, anaerobic digestion has various advantages such as reduction in the land needed for disposal and preservation of environmental quality. In light of the energy crisis, this paper focuses on the potential production of biogas from biowaste through anaerobic digestion processes, the problems incurred by the waste collection system, and the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. Use of biogas in a combined heat and power cogeneration system is also discussed. Finally, the advantages of anaerobic digestion technology for the Chinese market are summarized. The anaerobic digestion is suggested to be a promising treating technology for the organic wastes in China.

  15. Anaerobic biorefinery: Current status, challenges, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdeenarunat, Chayanon; Nguyen, Duc; Surendra, K C; Shrestha, Shilva; Rajendran, Karthik; Oechsner, Hans; Xie, Li; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been in use for many decades. To date, it has been primarily aimed at treating organic wastes, mainly manures and wastewater sludge, and industrial wastewaters. However, with the current advancements, a more open mind is required to look beyond these somewhat restricted original applications of AD. Biorefineries are such concepts, where multiple products including chemicals, fuels, polymers etc. are produced from organic feedstocks. The anaerobic biorefinery concept is now gaining increased attention, utilizing AD as the final disposal step. This review aims at evaluating the potential significance of anaerobic biorefineries, including types of feedstocks, uses for the produced energy, as well as sustainable applications of the generated residual digestate. A comprehensive analysis of various types of anaerobic biorefineries has been developed, including both large-scale and household level applications. Finally, future directives are highlighted showing how anaerobic biorefinery concept could impact the bioeconomy in the near future. PMID:27005786

  16. Correlations of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α/hypoxia-inducible factor -2α expression with angiogenesis factors expression and prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xian-hua; QIAN Cheng; YUAN Kai

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) may play an important role in the process of tumorigenesis as well as tumor progression. The aim of this study was to compare the expression between HIF-1α and HIF-2α in tumor angiogenesis and the overall impact on patient prognosis in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Methods In the current work we compared the immunohistochemical expression of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in surgical specimens of 140 patients with NSCLC in a tissue microarray study. Relationships between HIF-α expression and clinicopathological or angiogenic factors, including prognosis, were analyzed.Results High HIF-1α and HIF-2α expression was noted in 49/140 (35.0%) and in 64/140 (45.7%) of the cases,respectively. There was no direct correlation between HIF-1α and HIF-2α expression. Patients with advanced stage tumors had frequent high expression of HIF-2α (P=0.007), and we also found a significant correlation between HIF-2αand T or N stage (P=0.030 and 0.043, respectively). HIF-1α showed a marginal association with T stage (P=0.084),which showed a higher expression in early stage tumors. A significant correlation (P=0.045) was noticed between HIF-1αand vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression while the expression levels of thymidine phosphorylase (TP),cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and microvessel density (MVD) were significantly higher in high HIF-2α tumors (P=0.020, 0.004,and 0.046, respectively). In addition, univariate analysis of overall survival demonstrated that HIF-2α expression, but not HIF-1α, was related to poor outcome (P=0.001) and it retained significant in multivariate analysis (P=0.036).Conclusions Taken together, we conclude that HIF-1α and HIF-2α may differentially regulate the major angiogenic factors in different stages of the tumor process in NSCLC. HIF-2α may play a dominant role in tumor angiogenesis and appears to be of obvious value as a significant prognostic factor in NSCLC.

  17. Inhibition of fibroblast growth factor 2-induced apoptosis involves survivin expression, protein kinase Cα activation and subcellular translocation of Smac in human small cell lung cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desheng Xiao; Kuansong Wang; Jianhua Zhou; Huiqiu Cao; Zhenghao Deng; Yongbin Hu; Xiahui Qu; Jifang Wen

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism by which fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) inhibits apoptosis in the human small cell lung cancer cell line H446 subjected to serum starvation,apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry, Hoechst 33258 staining, caspase-3 activity, and DNA fragmentation.Survivin expression induced by FGF-2 and protein kinase Cα (PKCα) translocation was detected by subcellular fractionation and Western blot analysis. In addition, FGF-2-induced release of Smac from mitochondria to the cytoplasm was analyzed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence.FGF-2 reduced apoptosis induced by serum starvation and up-regulated survivin expression in H446 cells in a dosedependent and time-dependent manner, and inhibited caspase-3 activity. FGF-2 also inhibited the release of Smac from mitochondria to the cytoplasm induced by serum starvation and increased PKCα translocation from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane. In addition, PKC inhibitor inhibited the expression of survivin. FGF-2 up-regulates the expression of survivin protein in H446 cells and blocks the release of Smac from mitochondria to the cytoplasm. PKCα regulated FGF-2-induced survivin expression. Thus, survivin, Smac,and PKCα might play important roles in the inhibition of apoptosis by FGF-2 in human small cell lung cancer cells.

  18. Thermal fatigue of pipes induced by fluid temperature change (18). Applicability of crack growth law based on continuum fracture mechanics criterion to small fatigue cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High cycle thermal fatigue failure of pipes induced by fluid temperature change is one of the interdisciplinary issues to be concerned for long term structural reliability of high temperature components in energy systems. In order to explore advanced life assessment methods to prevent the failure, fatigue crack propagation tests were earned out in an austenitic stainless steel. Special attention was paid to the applicability of continuum fracture mechanics treatment to small or short cracks. It was shown exponentially that the crack propagation analysis based on continuum fracture mechanics was almost successfully applied, to the small fatigue cracks of which size was comparable to a few times of material grain size. (author)

  19. Methyl jasmonate induces apoptosis and pro-apoptotic autophagy via the ROS pathway in human non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mutian; Su, Ling; Xiao, Zhenna; Liu, Xianfang; Liu, Xiangguo

    2016-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is a botanical hormone that serves as a signal transduction intermediate and regulates cell death in stressed plants. MJ induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and non-apoptotic cell death selectively in cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism of MJ-induced apoptosis remains unclear. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism through which MJ induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We found that MJ triggered apoptosis via the DDIT3-TNFRSF10B-CASP axis. MJ treatment significantly decreased the expression of CFLAR (CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator, an inhibitor of CASP8) in NSCLC cells, and ectopic expression of CFLAR partly protected cells from MJ-induced apoptosis. MJ also induced pro-apoptotic autophagy in NSCLC cells. Importantly, inhibition of ROS suppressed both MJ-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Taken together, MJ induces apoptosis and pro-apoptotic autophagy in NSCLC cells through the ROS pathway. Thus, MJ and its derivative treatment may serve as a novel chemotherapeutic strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:27186395

  20. Iso-suillin from Suillus flavus Induces Apoptosis in Human Small Cell Lung Cancer H446 Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Xia Zhao; Qing-Shuang Zhang; Ying Chen; Sheng-Jie Yao; Yong-Xin Yan; Ying Wang; Jin-Xiu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Background:The suillin isoform iso-suillin is a natural substance isolated from a petroleum ether extract of the fruiting bodies of the mushroom Suillusflavus.Previous studies have found its inhibition effect on some cancer cells,and we aimed to study its effects on human small cell lung cancer H446 cell line.Methods:Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay.Cellular morphological changes (apoptosis and necrosis) were evaluated using an electron microscope and Hoechst 33258 staining detected by the inverted microscope.Flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis,cell cycle distribution,and mitochondrial membrane potential.Protein expression was determined by Western blotting analysis.Results:Here,we describe the ability of iso-suillin to inhibit the growth of H446 cells in time-and dose-dependent way.Iso-suillin had no obvious impact on normal human lymphocyte proliferation at low concentrations (9.09,18.17,or 36.35 μmol/L) but promoted lymphocyte proliferation at a high concentration (72.70 μmol/L).After treatment of different concentrations of iso-suillin (6.82,13.63,or 20.45 μmol/L),the apoptosis rate of H446 cells increased with increasing concentrations of iso-suillin (16.70%,35.54%,and 49.20%,respectively,all P < 0.05 compared with the control),and the expression of related apoptotic proteins in the mitochondrial pathway including cytochrome c and caspase-9 were up-regulated compared with the control (all P < 0.05).On the contrary,Bcl-2/Bax ratio was down-regulated compared with the control.Besides,the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins in the death receptor apoptosis pathway,including Fas-associating protein with a novel death domain and caspase-8,and the expression of caspase-3,a downstream regulatory protein of apoptosis,were also increased compared with the control (all P < 0.05).Inhibitors of caspase-9 and caspase-8 reversed the apoptosis process in H446 cells to varying

  1. LKB1 deficiency enhances sensitivity to energetic stress induced by erlotinib treatment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells

    OpenAIRE

    Whang, Young Mi; Park, Serk In; Trenary, Irina A.; Egnatchik, Robert A.; Fessel, Joshua P.; Kaufman, Jacob M.; Carbone, David P.; Young, Jamey D.

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11 or LKB1) is mutated in 20–30% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient tumors. Loss of LKB1-AMPK signaling confers sensitivity to metabolic inhibition or stress-induced mitochondrial insults. We tested the hypothesis that loss of LKB1 sensitizes NSCLC cells to energetic stress induced by treatment with erlotinib. LKB1-deficient cells exhibited enhanced sensitivity to erlotinib in vitro and in vivo that was associated with alterations...

  2. Hydrogen generation via anaerobic fermentation of paper mill wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Vazquez, Idania; Sparling, Richard; Risbey, Derek; Rinderknecht-Seijas, Noemi; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the hydrogen production from paper mill wastes using microbial consortia of solid substrate anaerobic digesters. Inocula from mesophilic, continuous solid substrate anaerobic digestion (SSAD) reactors were transferred to small lab scale, batch reactors. Milled paper (used as a surrogate paper waste) was added as substrate and acetylene or 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) was spiked for methanogenesis inhibition. In the first phase of experiments it was found that acetylene at 1% v/v in the headspace was as effective as BES in inhibiting methanogenic activity. Hydrogen gas accumulated in the headspace of the bottles, reaching a plateau. Similar final hydrogen concentrations were obtained for reactors spiked with acetylene and BES. In the second phase of tests the headspace of the batch reactors was flushed with nitrogen gas after the first plateau of hydrogen was reached, and subsequently incubated, with no further addition of inhibitor nor substrate. It was found that hydrogen production resumed and reached a second plateau, although somewhat lower than the first one. This procedure was repeated a third time and an additional amount of hydrogen was obtained. The plateaux and initial rates of hydrogen accumulation decreased in each subsequent incubation cycle. The total cumulative hydrogen harvested in the three cycles was much higher (approx. double) than in the first cycle alone. We coined this procedure as IV-SSAH (intermittently vented solid substrate anaerobic hydrogen generation). Our results point out to a feasible strategy for obtaining higher hydrogen yields from the fermentation of industrial solid wastes, and a possible combination of waste treatment processes consisting of a first stage IV-SSAH followed by a second SSAD stage. Useful products of this approach would be hydrogen, organic acids or methane, and anaerobic digestates that could be used as soil amenders after post-treatment.

  3. Hydrogen generation via anaerobic fermentation of paper mill wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdez Vazquez, I.; Poggi Varaldo, H.M. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. of Biotechnology and Bioengineering; Sparling, R.; Risbey, D. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg (Canada). Dept. of Microbiology; Rinderknecht Seijas, N. [ESIQUIE-IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Division Base Sciences

    2005-11-15

    The objective of this work was to determine the hydrogen production from paper mill wastes using microbial consortia of solid substrate anaerobic digesters. Inocula from mesophilic, continuous solid substrate anaerobic digestion (SSAD) reactors were transferred to small lab scale, batch reactors. Milled paper (used as a surrogate paper waste) was added as substrate and acetylene or 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) was spiked for methanogenesis inhibition. In the first phase of experiments it was found that acetylene at 1% v/v in the headspace was as effective as BES in inhibiting methanogenic activity. Hydrogen gas accumulated in the headspace of the bottles, reaching a plateau. Similar final hydrogen concentrations were obtained for reactors spiked with acetylene and BES. In the second phase of tests the headspace of the batch reactors was flushed with nitrogen gas after the first plateau of hydrogen was reached, and subsequently incubated, with no further addition of inhibitor nor substrate. It was found that hydrogen production resumed and reached a second plateau, although somewhat lower than the first one. This procedure was repeated a third time and an additional amount of hydrogen was obtained. The plateaux and initial rates of hydrogen accumulation decreased in each subsequent incubation cycle. The total cumulative hydrogen harvested in the three cycles was much higher (approx. double) than in the first cycle alone. We coined this procedure as IV-SSAH (intermittently vented solid substrate anaerobic hydrogen generation). Our results point out to a feasible strategy for obtaining higher hydrogen yields from the fermentation of industrial solid wastes, and a possible combination of waste treatment processes consisting of a first stage IV-SSAH followed by a second SSAD stage. Useful products of this approach would be hydrogen, organic acids or methane, and anaerobic digestates that could be used as soil amenders after post-treatment. (author)

  4. White tea extract induces apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells: the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} and 15-lipoxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jenny T; Nie, Wen-Xian; Tsu, I-Hsien; Jin, Yu-Sheng; Rao, Jian Yu; Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Go, Vay Liang W; Serio, Kenneth J

    2010-09-01

    Emerging preclinical data suggests that tea possess anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic properties. We therefore hypothesize that white tea extract (WTE) is capable of favorably modulating apoptosis, a mechanism associated with lung tumorigenesis. We examined the effects of physiologically relevant doses of WTE on the induction of apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines A549 (adenocarcinoma) and H520 (squamous cell carcinoma) cells. We further characterized the molecular mechanisms responsible for WTE-induced apoptosis, including the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) and the 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) signaling pathways. We found that WTE was effective in inducing apoptosis in both A549 and H520 cells, and inhibition of PPAR-gamma with GW9662 partially reversed WTE-induced apoptosis. We further show that WTE increased PPAR-gamma activation and mRNA expression, concomitantly increased 15(S)-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid release, and upregulated 15-LOX-1 and 15-LOX-2 mRNA expression by A549 cells. Inhibition of 15-LOX with nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NGDA), as well as caffeic acid, abrogated WTE-induced PPAR-gamma activation and upregulation of PPAR-gamma mRNA expression in A549 cells. WTE also induced cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A mRNA expression and activated caspase-3. Inhibition of caspase-3 abrogated WTE-induced apoptosis. Our findings indicate that WTE is capable of inducing apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. The induction of apoptosis seems to be mediated, in part, through the upregulation of the PPAR-gamma and 15-LOX signaling pathways, with enhanced activation of caspase-3. Our findings support the future investigation of WTE as an antineoplastic and chemopreventive agent for lung cancer. PMID:20668019

  5. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes: laboratory tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 10 references, 17 figures, 4 tables

  6. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH4/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH4: 81.23% and CO2: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  7. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati, E-mail: suparnirahayu@yahoo.co.id [Doctoral Program in Environmental Science, University of Diponegoro, Semarang (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Polytechnic of Semarang, Semarang Indonesia (Indonesia); Purwanto,, E-mail: p.purwanto@che.undip.ac.id; Budiyono, E-mail: budiyono@live.undip.ac.id [Doctoral Program in Environmental Science, University of Diponegoro, Semarang (Indonesia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University, Semarang Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH{sub 4}/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH{sub 4}: 81.23% and CO{sub 2}: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  8. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH4/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH4: 81.23% and CO2: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature

  9. Efectos de la alcalosis metabólica inducida por la dieta en el rendimiento anaeróbico de alta intensidad Effects of the metabolic alkalosis induced by the diet in the high intensity anaerobic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ríos Enríquez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: El propósito principal de este estudio es comparar el efecto de una alcalosis y acidosis inducidas por la dieta sobre el rendimiento en un esfuerzo anaeróbico láctico mantenido. Métodos: Para ello, trece sujetos activos se sometieron de forma cruzada a sendas dietas durante dos días y medio. Inmediatamente después realizaron una prueba de esfuerzo anaeróbica láctica máxima de estado estable hasta el agotamiento sobre cicloergómetro a 250 W. Resultados: La valoración de las dietas mostró una diferencia significativa en la excreción renal neta de ácidos (NAE estimada, así como un déficit calórico del 54% en la dieta alcalinizante, debido principalmente a una ingesta reducida de hidratos de carbono. En un 83% de los sujetos aumentó el pH urinario tras la dieta alcalinizante. El 77% incrementó sus niveles de lactato en sangre en la prueba tras la dieta alcalina. Los tiempos hasta la extenuación durante la prueba mejoraron o se mantuvieron en un 58% de los sujetos, siendo las mujeres las que mejor respondieron a la dieta con un 83% de casos. Conclusiones: Parece haber evidencias de mejora de rendimiento en esfuerzos de tipo anaeróbico láctico hasta el agotamiento de 60 s a 2 min de duración tras consumir una dieta con potencial alcalinizante.Objectives: The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of two diets, one acidifier and the other alkalizer, on the sport performance in an extreme anaerobic stress test. Methods: For that purpose thirteen individuals were subjected to two such diets in a crossed test for two and a half days. Immediately after, they were tested in a maximum lactic anaerobic stress test of stable state to exhaustion on an ergo-cycle at 250W. Results: The assessment of the diets yielded a significant difference in the estimated NAE (net acid excretion and a caloric deficit of 54% on the alkalizer diet, mainly due to a reduced ingestion of carbohydrates. The urinary pH increased by 83% for

  10. Evaluation of sulfate reduction at experimentally induced mixing interfaces using small-scale push-pull tests in an aquifer-wetland system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneeshaw, T.A.; McGuire, J.T.; Smith, E.W.; Cozzarelli, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents small-scale push-pull tests designed to evaluate the kinetic controls on SO42 - reduction in situ at mixing interfaces between a wetland and aquifer impacted by landfill leachate at the Norman Landfill research site, Norman, OK. Quantifying the rates of redox reactions initiated at interfaces is of great interest because interfaces have been shown to be zones of increased biogeochemical transformations and thus may play an important role in natural attenuation. To mimic the aquifer-wetland interface and evaluate reaction rates, SO42 --rich anaerobic aquifer water (??? 100 mg / L SO42 -) was introduced into SO42 --depleted wetland porewater via push-pull tests. Results showed SO42 - reduction was stimulated by the mixing of these waters and first-order rate coefficients were comparable to those measured in other push-pull studies. However, rate data were complex involving either multiple first-order rate coefficients or a more complex rate order. In addition, a lag phase was observed prior to SO42 - reduction that persisted until the mixing interface between test solution and native water was recovered, irrespective of temporal and spatial constraints. The lag phase was not eliminated by the addition of electron donor (acetate) to the injected test solution. Subsequent push-pull tests designed to elucidate the nature of the lag phase support the importance of the mixing interface in controlling terminal electron accepting processes. These data suggest redox reactions may occur rapidly at the mixing interface between injected and native waters but not in the injected bulk water mass. Under these circumstances, push-pull test data should be evaluated to ensure the apparent rate is actually a function of time and that complexities in rate data be considered. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. ANIMAL MANURE – REDUCED QUALITY BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun;

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion may reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, but we know little about its impact on soil fertility. Reduced concentrations of easily degradable C in the manure may imply less food for the soil fauna and microflora. A field experiment to study its effect on crop yields and soil...... caused the death of both surface-dwelling and soil-living earthworms shortly after application, but the long-term effect of manure application seemed more positive, especially at low application levels. So far, we have observed only small differences in the effects of digested and undigested manure...

  12. Effect of music on anaerobic exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atan, T

    2013-03-01

    For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to "slow rhythm music", "fast rhythm music" or "no music". 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN) tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music) was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p > 0.05). On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise. PMID:24744463

  13. The role of the small intestine in the development of dietary fat-induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bromhaar Mechteld

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and insulin resistance are two major risk factors underlying the metabolic syndrome. The development of these metabolic disorders is frequently studied, but mainly in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. To gain more insight in the role of the small intestine in development of obesity and insulin resistance, dietary fat-induced differential gene expression was determined along the longitudinal axis of small intestines of C57BL/6J mice. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet that mimicked the fatty acid composition of a Western-style human diet. After 2, 4 and 8 weeks of diet intervention small intestines were isolated and divided in three equal parts. Differential gene expression was determined in mucosal scrapings using Mouse genome 430 2.0 arrays. Results The high-fat diet significantly increased body weight and decreased oral glucose tolerance, indicating insulin resistance. Microarray analysis showed that dietary fat had the most pronounced effect on differential gene expression in the middle part of the small intestine. By overrepresentation analysis we found that the most modulated biological processes on a high-fat diet were related to lipid metabolism, cell cycle and inflammation. Our results further indicated that the nuclear receptors Ppars, Lxrs and Fxr play an important regulatory role in the response of the small intestine to the high-fat diet. Next to these more local dietary fat effects, a secretome analysis revealed differential gene expression of secreted proteins, such as Il18, Fgf15, Mif, Igfbp3 and Angptl4. Finally, we linked the fat-induced molecular changes in the small intestine to development of obesity and insulin resistance. Conclusion During dietary fat-induced development of obesity and insulin resistance, we found substantial changes in gene expression in the small intestine, indicating modulations of biological processes, especially related to lipid

  14. Celebrating 40 years anaerobic sludge bed reactors for industrial wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lier, J.B.; Van der Zee, F.P.; Frijters, C.T.M.J.; Ersahin, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    In the last 40 years, anaerobic sludge bed reactor technology evolved from localized lab-scale trials to worldwide successful implementations at a variety of industries. High-rate sludge bed reactors are characterized by a very small foot print and high applicable volumetric loading rates. Best perf

  15. Multiple Colon Ulcers with Typical Small Intestinal Lesions Induced by Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Momoko; Ando, Takayuki; Hamashima, Takeru; Yoshita, Hiroki; Nanjo, Sohachi; Mihara, Hiroshi; Fujinami, Haruka; Kajiura, Shinya; Nishikawa, Jun; Miura, Yoshiaki; Hosokawa, Ayumu; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of NSAID-induced colon ulcers is difficult when the distribution or endoscopic findings are not typical. An 83-year-old woman was transferred to our hospital for hemorrhagic diarrhea. Colonoscopy showed multiple ulcers in the entire colon, particularly longitudinal ulcers in the transverse colon. These were unusual for NSAID-induced colopathy, although she had been on meloxicam. However, capsule endoscopy revealed multiple scars and erosions, characteristic of NSAIDs users. The final diagnosis was NSAID-induced enteropathy, and all lesions were in remission after meloxicam discontinuation. We herein emphasize the value of an endoscopic assessment of the entire digestive tract in the diagnosis of NSAID-induced mucosal lesions. PMID:26278290

  16. Effects of the acidogenic biomass on the performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeison, D.A.; Plugge, C.M.; Pereira, M.A.; Lier, van J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Continuous flow experiments were performed to study the effects of acidogenic biomass development, induced by feeding with non-acidified substrate, on the operation and performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). The AnMBR was operated at cross-flow velocities up to 1.5m/s and fed with

  17. Serosal zinc attenuate serotonin and vasoactive intestinal peptide induced secretion in piglet small intestinal epithelium in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Dorthe; Sehested, Jakob; Feng, Z;

    2008-01-01

    This study addressed the mechanisms by which dietary zinc affects diarrhoea and aimed to study possible interactions between zinc status and the presence of zinc in vitro on secretagogue-induced secretion from piglet intestinal epithelium in Ussing chambers.......This study addressed the mechanisms by which dietary zinc affects diarrhoea and aimed to study possible interactions between zinc status and the presence of zinc in vitro on secretagogue-induced secretion from piglet intestinal epithelium in Ussing chambers....

  18. Antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Audrey N

    2014-09-01

    Infections due to anaerobic bacteria can be severe and life-threatening. Susceptibility testing of anaerobes is not frequently performed in laboratories, but such testing is important to direct appropriate therapy. Anaerobic resistance is increasing globally, and resistance trends vary by geographic region. An overview of a variety of susceptibility testing methods for anaerobes is provided, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are reviewed. Specific clinical situations warranting anaerobic susceptibility testing are discussed.

  19. Characterizing the Anaerobic Response of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Quantitative Proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Terashima, Mia; Specht, Michael; Naumann, Bianca; Hippler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The versatile metabolism of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is reflected in its complex response to anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic response is also remarkable in the context of renewable energy because C. reinhardtii is able to produce hydrogen under anaerobic conditions. To identify proteins involved during anaerobic acclimation as well as to localize proteins and pathways to the powerhouses of the cell, chloroplasts and mitochondria from C. reinhardtii in aerobic and anaerobic...

  20. Anaerobe Tolerance to Oxygen and the Potentials of Anaerobic and Aerobic Cocultures for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Kato

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic treatment processes are considered to be well-established methods for the elimination of easily biodegradable organic matter from wastewaters. Some difficulties concerning certain wastewaters are related to the possible presence of dissolved oxygen. The common belief is that anaerobes are oxygen intolerant. Therefore, the common practice is to use sequencing anaerobic and aerobic steps in separate tanks. Enhanced treatment by polishing off the residual biodegradable oxygen demand from effluents of anaerobic reactors, or the biodegradation of recalcitrant wastewater pollutants, usually requires sequenced anaerobic and aerobic bacteria activities. However, the combined activity of both bacteria can also be obtained in a single reactor. Previous experiments with either pure or mixed cultures showed that anaerobes can tolerate oxygen to a certain extent. The oxygen toxicity to methanogens in anaerobic sludges was quantified in batch experiments, as well as in anaerobic reactors. The results showed that methanogens have a high tolerance to oxygen. In practice, it was confirmed that dissolved oxygen does not constitute any detrimental effect on reactor treatment performance. This means that the coexistence of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in one single reactor is feasible and increases the potentials of new applications in wastewater treatment

  1. Decrease in anaerobe-related bacteraemias and increase in Bacteroides species isolation rate from 1998 to 2007: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarovitch, Tsilia; Freimann, Sarit; Shapira, Galina; Blank, Helena

    2010-06-01

    Conflicting data have accumulated in recent years regarding the incidence of anaerobic bacteraemias. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacteraemias due to anaerobic bacteria and evaluate the importance of anaerobic blood cultures in a university hospital in Israel. A retrospective survey which focused on anaerobic blood culture bottles was performed on blood cultures received in our laboratory during the decade from January 1998 to December 2007. Anaerobic-related bacteraemias decreased during that period, whereas a significant increase was observed in Bacteroides species isolated from the blood cultures (from 18% during 1998-2002 to 43% during 2003-2007). Comparison of the medical records of 54 patients with Bacteroides-related bacteraemia during the two end periods (1998-1999 and 2006-2007) revealed a marked increase in complex underlying diseases. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus type II were found in 29% of the patients in 1998-1999 and increased to 43-45% of the patients in 2006-2007. Ischemic heart disease also increased from 14% of the patients in 1998-1999 to 43% in 2006-2007. We conclude that although positive anaerobic blood cultures account for a small percentage of positive blood samples, the growing involvement of Bacteroides species-related bacteraemias together with an increase in complex underlying diseases in these patients emphasize the importance of anaerobic blood cultures, particularly in patients with co-morbidities.

  2. [Progress of Researches on Relationship between Acu-moxibustion Induced Modulation of Small Intestinal Motility and Autonomic Nervous Activity ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Yu, Zhi; Xu, Bin

    2014-12-01

    A large body of evidence of clinical and experimental outcomes showed that acupuncture and moxibustion can effectively treat disorders of small intestinal motility. The present articJe collected related literatures and made an analysis on the correlation between the effect of acupuncture-moxibustion intervention and needle-manipulation techniques, stimulating quantities, acupoint recipes, and the body functional states, as well as the corresponding mechanisms. Results indicate that acupuncture stimulation of acupoints of the limbs mainly enhance the motility of the small intestine, while acupuncture stimulation of acupoints in the abdominal region predominately suppress it, which may be closely associated with its effects on activities of the autonomic nervous system. This conclusion tells us that in clinical treatment of small intestinal hypodynamia, acupoints of the limbs should be selected first while in treating intestinal hyperdynamia, those acupoints in the abdominal region should be taken preferably. In ad- dition, at present, non-invaded detection techniques of the small intestinal motility are definitely and urgently needed and will greatly promote the progress of researches of acu-moxibustion on the mechanism underlying modulation of small intestinal motility. PMID:25632580

  3. Multivariate monitoring of anaerobic co-digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    Anaerobic digestion processes for production of renewable energy in the form of biogas, and in the future hydrogen, are becoming increasingly important worldwide. Sustainable solutions for renewable energy production systems are given high political priority, amongst other things due to global...... warming and environmental concerns. Anaerobic digestion applied in agriculture can simultaneously convert heterogeneous biomasses and wastes from the primary agricultural sector and from the bio processing industries, for instance food processing, pharma, and biofuel production, into valuable organic...... distinct scales. The aim was to investigate, whether changes in the chemical environment in the anaerobic digesters could be monitored by NIRS enabling biogas plant operators to respond to the process dynamics. Results show that several key intermediates suitable for control of the anaerobic digestion...

  4. Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Eekert, van M.H.A.; Dolfing, J.; Schraa, G.

    2006-01-01

    Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory

  5. An anaerobic mitochondrion that produces hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, Brigitte; Graaf, Rob M. de; Staay, Georg W.M. van der; Alen, Theo A. van; Ricard, Guenola; Gabaldón, Toni; Hoek, Angela H.A.M. van; Moon-van der Staay, Seung Yeo; Koopman, Werner J.H.; Hellemond, Jaap J. van; Tielens, Aloysius G.M.; Friedrich, Thorsten; Veenhuis, Marten; Huynen, Martijn A.; Hackstein, Johannes H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes are organelles that produce ATP and hydrogen, and are found in various unrelated eukaryotes, such as anaerobic flagellates, chytridiomycete fungi and ciliates. Although all of these organelles generate hydrogen, the hydrogenosomes from these organisms are structurally and metabolicall

  6. EML4-ALK induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition consistent with cancer stem cell properties in H1299 non-small cell lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4(EML4) – anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene has been identified as a driver mutation in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the role of EML4-ALK in malignant transformation is not entirely clear. Here, for the first time, we showed that H1299 NSCLC cells stably expressing EML4-ALK acquire EMT phenotype, associated with enhanced invasive migration and increased expression of EMT-inducing transcription factors. H1299-EML4-ALK cells also displayed cancer stem cell-like properties with a concomitant up-regulation of CD133 and enhanced ability of mammospheres formation. Moreover, we found that inhibition of ERK1/2 reversed EMT induced by EML4-ALK in H1299 cells. Taken together, these results suggested that EML4-ALK induced ERK activation is mechanistically associated with EMT phenotype. Thus, inhibition of ERK signaling pathway could be a potential strategy in treatment of NSCLC patients with EML4-ALK translocation. - Highlights: • EML4-ALK induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition in H1299 cells. • Expression of EML4-ALK promotes invasion and migration in vitro. • EML4-ALK enhanced sphere formation and stem cell-like properties in H1299 cells. • Blockage of ERK1/2 reverse Epithelial–Mesenchymal transition induced by EML4-ALK

  7. EML4-ALK induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition consistent with cancer stem cell properties in H1299 non-small cell lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Fuchun; Liu, Xiaoke, E-mail: liuxk57@163.com; Qing, Qin, E-mail: qinqingscu@126.com; Sang, Yaxiong, E-mail: yaxiongsang@gmail.com; Feng, Chengjun, E-mail: leymj@163.com; Li, Xiaoyu, E-mail: lixiaoyu2012huaxi@163.com; Jiang, Li, E-mail: summer.jl06@foxmail.com; Su, Pei, E-mail: keyanxiaozhu@163.com; Wang, Yongsheng, E-mail: wangys@scu.edu.cn

    2015-04-10

    The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4(EML4) – anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene has been identified as a driver mutation in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the role of EML4-ALK in malignant transformation is not entirely clear. Here, for the first time, we showed that H1299 NSCLC cells stably expressing EML4-ALK acquire EMT phenotype, associated with enhanced invasive migration and increased expression of EMT-inducing transcription factors. H1299-EML4-ALK cells also displayed cancer stem cell-like properties with a concomitant up-regulation of CD133 and enhanced ability of mammospheres formation. Moreover, we found that inhibition of ERK1/2 reversed EMT induced by EML4-ALK in H1299 cells. Taken together, these results suggested that EML4-ALK induced ERK activation is mechanistically associated with EMT phenotype. Thus, inhibition of ERK signaling pathway could be a potential strategy in treatment of NSCLC patients with EML4-ALK translocation. - Highlights: • EML4-ALK induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition in H1299 cells. • Expression of EML4-ALK promotes invasion and migration in vitro. • EML4-ALK enhanced sphere formation and stem cell-like properties in H1299 cells. • Blockage of ERK1/2 reverse Epithelial–Mesenchymal transition induced by EML4-ALK.

  8. Treatment of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer with Erlotinib following Gefitinib-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Review of 8 Clinical Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Yano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Gefitinib often induces liver damage. A few reports have described that the subsequent administration of erlotinib was associated with less hepatotoxicity, but the safety and efficacy of this treatment are still not fully investigated. Therefore, we evaluated retrospectively the patients with erlotinib following gefitinib-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods and Patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records between December 2007 and March 2010. The patients were evaluated including the following information: age, gender, histology of lung cancer, performance status, smoking status, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation status, liver metastasis, viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver injury, clinical response, and hepatotoxicity due to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Results. We identified 8 patients with erlotinib following gefitinib-induced hepatotoxicity. All achieved disease control by gefitinib. Hepatotoxicity was grades 2 and 3 in 3 and 5 patients, respectively. The median duration of treatment with gefitinib was 112.5 days and the median time to gefitinib-induced hepatotoxicity was 51.5 days. The median duration of treatment with erlotinib was 171.5 days. Grade 1 and 2 erlotinib-induced hepatotoxicity was observed in 2 and 1 patient, respectively. Conclusions. Erlotinib administration with careful monitoring is thought to be a good alternative strategy for patients who respond well to gefitinib treatment but experience hepatotoxicity.

  9. Comparative Studies of Alternative Anaerobic Digestion Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Inman, David C.

    2004-01-01

    Washington D.C. Water and Sewage Authority is planning to construct a new anaerobic digestion facility at its Blue Plains WWTP by 2008. The research conducted in this study is to aid the designers of this facility by evaluating alternative digestion technologies. Alternative anaerobic digestion technologies include thermophilic, acid/gas phased, and temperature phased digestion. In order to evaluate the relative merits of each, a year long study evaluated the performance of bench scale dig...

  10. Anaerobic Digestion of Paper Mill Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan; Siti Baizura Mahat; Md. Fadjil Md. Din; A. Yuzir; Othman, N.

    2012-01-01

    In general, paper mill wastewater contains complex organic substances which could not be treated completely using conventional treatment processes, e.g. aerobic processes. As a result, anaerobic technology is a promising alternative for paper mill wastewater treatment due to its ability to degrade hard organic compounds. In the present study, treatment of paper mill wastewater using a stage anaerobic reactor was investigated. The more specific objectives of this study were to confirm whether ...

  11. Psychrophilic anaerobic treatment of low strength wastewaters.

    OpenAIRE

    Rebac, S.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to design a high-rate anaerobic system for the treatment low strength wastewaters under psychrophilic conditions.Psychrophilic (3 to 20 °C) anaerobic treatment of low strength synthetic and malting wastewater was investigated using a single and two stage expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor system. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies found in the experiments with synthetic wastewater exceeded 90 % in the single stage reactor at im...

  12. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Atan, T.

    2013-01-01

    For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-...

  13. Methotrexate and etanercept-induced primary cutaneous CD4 positive small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma*

    Science.gov (United States)

    MA, Han; Qiu, Shu; Lu, Rongbiao; Feng, Peiying; Lu, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs and biological agents may represent a potential risk of lymphoma development in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. But most cases are diffuse, large B-cell lymphomas. Primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma, a provisional entity in the 2005 WHO-EORTC classification of cutaneous lymphomas, is only described in a limited number of reports. To our knowledge, our case is a rare instance of primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma, after associated treatment with methotrexate and etanercept, in a patient with moderate rheumatoid arthritis who had undergone an orchidectomy incorrectly. PMID:27438209

  14. Methotrexate and etanercept-induced primary cutaneous CD4 positive small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Han; Qiu, Shu; Lu, Rongbiao; Feng, Peiying; Lu, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs and biological agents may represent a potential risk of lymphoma development in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. But most cases are diffuse, large B-cell lymphomas. Primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma, a provisional entity in the 2005 WHO-EORTC classification of cutaneous lymphomas, is only described in a limited number of reports. To our knowledge, our case is a rare instance of primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma, after associated treatment with methotrexate and etanercept, in a patient with moderate rheumatoid arthritis who had undergone an orchidectomy incorrectly. PMID:27438209

  15. Protection of radiation-induced damage to the hematopoietic system, small intestine and salivary glands in rats by JNJ7777120 compound, a histamine H4 ligand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego J Martinel Lamas

    Full Text Available Based on previous data on the histamine radioprotective effect on highly radiosensitive tissues, in the present work we aimed at investigating the radioprotective potential of the H4R ligand, JNJ7777120, on ionizing radiation-induced injury and genotoxic damage in small intestine, salivary glands and hematopoietic tissue. For that purpose, rats were divided into 4 groups. JNJ7777120 and JNJ7777120-irradiated groups received a daily subcutaneous JNJ7777120 injection (10 mg/kg starting 24 h before irradiation. Irradiated groups received a single dose of 5 Gy on whole-body using Cesium-137 source and were sacrificed 3 or 30 days after irradiation. Tissues were removed, fixed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin or PAS staining and histological characteristics were evaluated. Proliferative and apoptotic markers were studied by immunohistochemistry, while micronucleus assay was performed to evaluate DNA damage. Submandibular gland (SMG function was evaluated by methacholine-induced salivation. Results indicate that JNJ7777120 treatment diminished mucosal atrophy and preserved villi and the number of crypts after radiation exposure (240±8 vs. 165±10, P<0.01. This effect was associated to a reduced apoptosis and DNA damage in intestinal crypts. JNJ7777120 reduced radiation-induced aplasia, preserving medullar components and reducing formation of micronucleus and also it accelerated bone marrow repopulation. Furthermore, it reduced micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood (27±8 vs. 149±22, in 1,000 erythrocytes, P<0.01. JNJ7777120 completely reversed radiation-induced reduced salivation, conserving glandular mass with normal histological appearance and reducing apoptosis and atrophy of SMG. JNJ7777120 exhibits radioprotective effects against radiation-induced cytotoxic and genotoxic damages in small intestine, SMG and hematopoietic tissues and, thus, could be of clinical value for patients undergoing radiotherapy.

  16. Involvement of calcium-sensing receptors in hypoxia-induced vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension by promoting phenotypic modulation of small pulmonary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xue; Li, Hong-Xia; Shao, Hong-Jiang; Li, Guang-Wei; Sun, Jian; Xi, Yu-Hui; Li, Hong-Zhu; Wang, Xin-Yan; Wang, Li-Na; Bai, Shu-Zhi; Zhang, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Li; Yang, Guang-Dong; Wu, Ling-Yun; Wang, Rui; Xu, Chang-Qing

    2014-11-01

    Phenotype modulation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) plays an important role during hypoxia-induced vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension (PAH). We had previously shown that calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in rat PASMCs. However, little is known about the role of CaSR in phenotypic modulation of PASMCs in hypoxia-induced PAH as well as the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we investigated whether CaSR induces the proliferation of PASMCs in small pulmonary arteries from both rats and human with PAH. PAH was induced by exposing rats to hypoxia for 7-21 days. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVI), the percentage of medial wall thickness to the external diameter (WT %), and cross-sectional total vessel wall area to the total area (WA %) of small pulmonary arteries were determined by hematoxylin and eosin (HE), masson trichrome and Weigert's staining. The protein expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-3, CaSR, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), and smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype marker proteins in rat small pulmonary arteries, including calponin, SMα-actin (SMAα), and osteopontin (OPN), were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, respectively. In addition, immunohistochemistry was applied to paraffin-embedded human tissues from lungs of normal human and PAH patients with chronic heart failure (PAH/CHF). Compared with the control group, mPAP, RVI, WT % and WA % in PAH rats were gradually increased with the prolonged hypoxia. At the same time, the expressions of CaSR, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-3, PCNA, OPN, and p-ERK were markedly increased, while the expressions of SMAα and calponin were significantly reduced in lung tissues or small pulmonary arteries of PAH rats. Neomycin (an agonist of CaSR) enhanced but NPS2390 (an

  17. AT-101, a small molecule inhibitor of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, activates the SAPK/JNK pathway and enhances radiation-induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooswinkel Rogier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gossypol, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound has been identified as a small molecule inhibitor of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. It induces apoptosis in a wide range of tumor cell lines and enhances chemotherapy- and radiation-induced cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Bcl-2 and related proteins are important inhibitors of apoptosis and frequently overexpressed in human tumors. Increased levels of these proteins confer radio- and chemoresistance and may be associated with poor prognosis. Consequently, inhibition of the anti-apoptotic functions of Bcl-2 family members represents a promising strategy to overcome resistance to anticancer therapies. Methods We tested the effect of (--gossypol, also denominated as AT-101, radiation and the combination of both on apoptosis induction in human leukemic cells, Jurkat T and U937. Because activation of the SAPK/JNK pathway is important for apoptosis induction by many different stress stimuli, and Bcl-XL is known to inhibit activation of SAPK/JNK, we also investigated the role of this signaling cascade in AT-101-induced apoptosis using a pharmacologic and genetic approach. Results AT-101 induced apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, with ED50 values of 1.9 and 2.4 μM in Jurkat T and U937 cells, respectively. Isobolographic analysis revealed a synergistic interaction between AT-101 and radiation, which also appeared to be sequence-dependent. Like radiation, AT-101 activated SAPK/JNK which was blocked by the kinase inhibitor SP600125. In cells overexpressing a dominant-negative mutant of c-Jun, AT-101-induced apoptosis was significantly reduced. Conclusion Our data show that AT-101 strongly enhances radiation-induced apoptosis in human leukemic cells and indicate a requirement for the SAPK/JNK pathway in AT-101-induced apoptosis. This type of apoptosis modulation may overcome treatment resistance and lead to the development of new effective combination

  18. AT-101, a small molecule inhibitor of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, activates the SAPK/JNK pathway and enhances radiation-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossypol, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound has been identified as a small molecule inhibitor of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. It induces apoptosis in a wide range of tumor cell lines and enhances chemotherapy- and radiation-induced cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Bcl-2 and related proteins are important inhibitors of apoptosis and frequently overexpressed in human tumors. Increased levels of these proteins confer radio- and chemoresistance and may be associated with poor prognosis. Consequently, inhibition of the anti-apoptotic functions of Bcl-2 family members represents a promising strategy to overcome resistance to anticancer therapies. We tested the effect of (-)-gossypol, also denominated as AT-101, radiation and the combination of both on apoptosis induction in human leukemic cells, Jurkat T and U937. Because activation of the SAPK/JNK pathway is important for apoptosis induction by many different stress stimuli, and Bcl-XL is known to inhibit activation of SAPK/JNK, we also investigated the role of this signaling cascade in AT-101-induced apoptosis using a pharmacologic and genetic approach. AT-101 induced apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, with ED50 values of 1.9 and 2.4 μM in Jurkat T and U937 cells, respectively. Isobolographic analysis revealed a synergistic interaction between AT-101 and radiation, which also appeared to be sequence-dependent. Like radiation, AT-101 activated SAPK/JNK which was blocked by the kinase inhibitor SP600125. In cells overexpressing a dominant-negative mutant of c-Jun, AT-101-induced apoptosis was significantly reduced. Our data show that AT-101 strongly enhances radiation-induced apoptosis in human leukemic cells and indicate a requirement for the SAPK/JNK pathway in AT-101-induced apoptosis. This type of apoptosis modulation may overcome treatment resistance and lead to the development of new effective combination therapies

  19. Tumor endothelial marker 5 expression in endothelial cells during capillary morphogenesis is induced by the small GTPase Rac and mediates contact inhibition of cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor endothelial marker (TEM) 5 is an adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor upregulated in endothelial cells during tumor and physiologic angiogenesis. So far, the mechanisms leading to upregulation of TEM5 and its function during angiogenesis have not been identified. Here, we report that TEM5 expression in endothelial cells is induced during capillary-like network formation on Matrigel, during capillary morphogenesis in a three-dimensional collagen I matrix, and upon confluence on a two-dimensional matrix. TEM5 expression was not induced by a variety of soluble angiogenic factors, including VEGF and bFGF, in subconfluent endothelial cells. TEM5 upregulation was blocked by toxin B from Clostridium difficile, an inhibitor of the small GTPases Rho, Rac, and Cdc42. The Rho inhibitor C3 transferase from Clostridium botulinum did not affect TEM5 expression, whereas the Rac inhibitor NSC23766 suppressed TEM5 upregulation. An excess of the soluble TEM5 extracellular domain or an inhibitory monoclonal TEM5 antibody blocked contact inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation resulting in multilayered islands within the endothelial monolayer and increased vessel density during capillary formation. Based on our results we conclude that TEM5 expression during capillary morphogenesis is induced by the small GTPase Rac and mediates contact inhibition of proliferation in endothelial cells.

  20. Butylated hydroxyanisole induces distinct expression patterns of Nrf2 and detoxification enzymes in the liver and small intestine of C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin; Chen, Yeru; Wu, Deqi; Shou, Jiafeng; Wang, Shengcun; Ye, Jie; Tang, Xiuwen; Wang, Xiu Jun

    2015-11-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is widely used as an antioxidant and preservative in food, food packaging and medicines. Its chemopreventive properties are attributing to its ability to activate the transcription factor NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which directs central genetic programs of detoxification and protection against oxidative stress. This study was to investigate the histological changes of Nrf2 and its regulated phase II enzymes Nqo1, AKR1B8, and Ho-1 in wild-type (WT) and Nrf2(-/-) mice induced by BHA. The mice were given a 200mg/kg oral dose of BHA daily for three days. Immunohistochemistry revealed that, in the liver from WT mice, BHA increased Nqo1 staining in hepatocytes, predominately in the pericentral region. In contrast, the induction of AKR1B8 appeared mostly in hepatocytes in the periportal region. The basal and inducible Ho-1 was located almost exclusively in Kupffer cells. In the small intestine from WT mice, the inducible expression patterns of Nqo1 and AKR1B8 were nearly identical to that of Nrf2, with more intense staining in the villus than that the crypt. Conversely, Keap1 was more highly expressed in the crypt, where the proliferative cells reside. Our study demonstrates that BHA elicited differential expression patterns of phase II-detoxifying enzymes in the liver and small intestine from WT but not Nrf2(-/-) mice, demonstrating a cell type specific response to BHA in vivo. PMID:26291391

  1. Tumor endothelial marker 5 expression in endothelial cells during capillary morphogenesis is induced by the small GTPase Rac and mediates contact inhibition of cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallon, Mario, E-mail: m.vallon@arcor.de [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Rohde, Franziska; Janssen, Klaus-Peter [Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Essler, Markus [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany)

    2010-02-01

    Tumor endothelial marker (TEM) 5 is an adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor upregulated in endothelial cells during tumor and physiologic angiogenesis. So far, the mechanisms leading to upregulation of TEM5 and its function during angiogenesis have not been identified. Here, we report that TEM5 expression in endothelial cells is induced during capillary-like network formation on Matrigel, during capillary morphogenesis in a three-dimensional collagen I matrix, and upon confluence on a two-dimensional matrix. TEM5 expression was not induced by a variety of soluble angiogenic factors, including VEGF and bFGF, in subconfluent endothelial cells. TEM5 upregulation was blocked by toxin B from Clostridium difficile, an inhibitor of the small GTPases Rho, Rac, and Cdc42. The Rho inhibitor C3 transferase from Clostridium botulinum did not affect TEM5 expression, whereas the Rac inhibitor NSC23766 suppressed TEM5 upregulation. An excess of the soluble TEM5 extracellular domain or an inhibitory monoclonal TEM5 antibody blocked contact inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation resulting in multilayered islands within the endothelial monolayer and increased vessel density during capillary formation. Based on our results we conclude that TEM5 expression during capillary morphogenesis is induced by the small GTPase Rac and mediates contact inhibition of proliferation in endothelial cells.

  2. Anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residue: potential for improvement and implementation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, W. J.; Capener, H. R.; Dell& #x27; orto, S.

    1978-02-01

    The results of studies designed to evaluate the potential of rapidly improving the technology of anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues and methods of implementing it in existing agricultural operations are reported. The main objectives of this study were to: identify simple and low cost anaerobic fermentor design criteria that would be appropriate in small agricultural operations, develop high rate fermentor concepts that would enable multiple product recovery from the reactor, expand the information base particularly in the area of temperature influence on the process, and to review sociological and economic issues relating to implementation of fermentation technology. This study has identified several major anaerobic fermentation concepts which illustrate that the technology may be rapidly improved. A simple reactor design utilizing an unmixed plug flow concept was shown to be comparable to the more complex completely mixed reactor when using dairy cow residue. A high rate thermophilic reactor designed to encourage flotation of particulate solids illustrated that liquid, solid, and gaseous products can be generated within the anaerobic fermentor thus eliminating an additional dewatering unit process. A third reactor concept involved extension of the anaerobic attached microbial film expanded bed to the treatment of cow manure slurries. A high rate of methane generation was recorded. Comprehensive thermophilic fermentation studies (60/sup 0/C) indicated that the increased temperature resulted in little improvement in total quantity or the rate of yield of gas over that obtained with mesophilic fermentation with reactor retention periods greater than 10 days. Finally, other areas where preliminary date were obtained are noted.

  3. 激光诱导等离子体模拟微小空间碎片撞击诱发放电研究%Simulation of small space debris impact inducing discharge using laser-induced plasma metho d

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏伟; 韩建伟; 蔡明辉; 吴逢时; 张振龙

    2014-01-01

    Small space debris impact that induces discharge can trigger disturbance of a spacecraft, which is a big threat to the safety of it. Research on this effect has already been carried out, but due to the limit of the facilities the research is also restricted. Since the primary cause of small space debris impact that induces discharge is to induce the plasma, similar to the laser inducing the plasma, this paper tries to simulate the space debris impact inducing discharge using a laser-induced discharge method. The analysis and experimental results are given, and they prove that this method is reliable.%微小空间碎片撞击诱发放电能够触发航天器的在轨工作异常甚至失效,对航天器的安全运行构成严重威胁。国内外相关机构已经利用地面模拟装置对撞击诱发放电的机理进行了初步的研究,但是更深入的研究由于实验条件的限制受到制约,本文根据激光诱导等离子体与碎片撞击诱发等离子体参数相似的特点,首次提出了利用脉冲激光诱导等离子体技术模拟微小空间碎片撞击诱发放电的方法,并从理论上对该方法进行分析,初步的实验结果证实了该方法的可行性。

  4. Selection of forward osmosis draw solutes for subsequent integration with anaerobic treatment to facilitate resource recovery from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Ashley J; Hai, Faisal I; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2015-09-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) can be used to extract clean water and pre-concentrate municipal wastewater to make it amenable to anaerobic treatment. A protocol was developed to assess the suitability of FO draw solutes for pre-concentrating wastewater for potential integration with anaerobic treatment to facilitate resource recovery from wastewater. Draw solutes were evaluated in terms of their ability to induce osmotic pressure, water flux, and reverse solute flux. The compatibility of each draw solute with subsequent anaerobic treatment was assessed by biomethane potential analysis. The effect of each draw solute (at concentrations corresponding to the reverse solute flux at ten-fold pre-concentration of wastewater) on methane production was also evaluated. The results show that ionic organic draw solutes (e.g., sodium acetate) were most suitable for FO application and subsequent anaerobic treatment. On the other hand, the reverse solute flux of inorganic draw solutions could inhibit methane production from FO pre-concentrated wastewater. PMID:25978854

  5. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erşahin, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become m

  6. Small indels induced by CRISPR/Cas9 in the 5' region of microRNA lead to its depletion and Drosha processing retardance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qian; Meng, Xing; Meng, Lingwei; Chang, Nannan; Xiong, Jingwei; Cao, Huiqing; Liang, Zicai

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNA knockout by genome editing technologies is promising. In order to extend the application of the technology and to investigate the function of a specific miRNA, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to deplete human miR-93 from a cluster by targeting its 5' region in HeLa cells. Various small indels were induced in the targeted region containing the Drosha processing site and seed sequences. Interestingly, we found that even a single nucleotide deletion led to complete knockout of the target miRNA with high specificity. Functional knockout was confirmed by phenotype analysis. Furthermore, de novo microRNAs were not found by RNA-seq. Nevertheless, expression of the pri-microRNAs was increased. When combined with structural analysis, the data indicated that biogenesis was impaired. Altogether, we showed that small indels in the 5' region of a microRNA result in sequence depletion as well as Drosha processing retard.

  7. [Carboplatin plus irinotecan induced partial response in a patient with small cell carcinoma of the prostate; a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroko; Uegaki, Masayuki; Aoyama, Teruyoshi; Kawai, Jun; Hamano, Toshiaki; Hashimura, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    An 80-year-old man with prostate cancer receiving hormone therapy presented with urinary retention. The computed tomographic scan showed metastases to the lung, liver, and lymph nodes, as well as increased prostate volume. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was performed, and the resected specimen was pathologically found to be a small cell carcinoma of the prostate. The patient was treated with a combination of carboplatin and irinotecan, and achieved a partial response : size reduction of the prostate and the metastatic lesions, and decreased neuron specific enolase (NSE) level. The chemotherapy with carboplatin and irinotecan is reported to have fewer serious adverse effects, and equivalent efficacy to the cisplatin/etoposide chemotherapy. Therefore, this regimen could also be a treatment option for the patients with small cell carcinoma of the prostate.

  8. A small synthetic molecule functions as a chloride-bicarbonate dual-transporter and induces chloride secretion in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng-Yun; Li, Shing-To; Shen, Fang-Fang; Ko, Wing-Hung; Yao, Xiao-Qiang; Yang, Dan

    2016-05-31

    A C2 symmetric small molecule composed of l-phenylalanine and isophthalamide was found to function as a Cl(-)/HCO3(-) dual transporter and self-assemble into chloride channels. In Ussing-chamber based short-circuit current measurements, this molecule elicited chloride-dependent short-circuit current (Isc) increase in both Calu-3 cell and CFBE41o-cell (with F508del mutant CFTR) monolayers. PMID:27188496

  9. DMSO-Induced Dehydration of DPPC Membranes Studied by X-ray Diffraction, Small-Angle Neutron Scattering, and Calorimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kiselev, M. A.; Lesieur, P.; Kisselev, A. M.; Grabielle-Madelmond, C.; Ollivon, M.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on membrane thickness, multilamellar repeat distance, and phase transitions of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was investigated by X-ray diffraction and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study of water freezing and ice melting was performed in the ternary DPPC /DMSO /water and binary DMSO /water systems. The methods applied demonstrated the differences in membrane structure in t...

  10. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Activation of Activating Transcription Factor 6 Decreases Insulin Gene Expression via Up-Regulation of Orphan Nuclear Receptor Small Heterodimer Partner

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Yong Deuk; Lee, Kyeong-Min; Min, Ae-Kyung; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Hye-Soon; Won, Kyu-Chang; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2008-01-01

    The highly developed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) structure of pancreatic β-cells is a key factor in β-cell function. Here we examined whether ER stress-induced activation of activating transcription factor (ATF)-6 impairs insulin gene expression via up-regulation of the orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP; NR0B2), which has been shown to play a role in β-cell dysfunction. We examined whether ER stress decreases insulin gene expression, and this process is mediated by ATF6. A...

  11. The Mechanism of Gefitinib Resistance Induced by Hepatocyte Growth Factor 
in Sensitive Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglan XUAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Previous studies have reported that Met might be related to gefitinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The present study aims to explore the mechanism of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF-induced gefitinib resistance in different gene types of sensitive NSCLC in vitro. Methods The PC-9 and H292 cell lines were chosen and induced by HGF. The cell survival was measured using MTT assay, the cell cycle distribution was measured using PI assay, and cell apoptosis with an Annexin V-PE assay, respectively. The c-Met and p-Met protein expression was determined via Western blot analysis. Results Gefitinib inhibited the growth of PC-9 and H292 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration-survival curves of both cell lines shifted to the right when induced with HGF. HGF did not affect PC-9 and H292 cell proliferation. The cell also had a higher cell survival rate when treated with HGF and gefitinib compared with that under gefitinib alone (P<0.05. The apoptotic rate and cell cycle progression showed no significant difference between the HG and G group (P>0.05. HGF stimulated Met phosphorylation in the PC-9 and H292 cells. Gefitinib inhibited the HGF-induced Met phosphorylation in PC-9 cells, but not in H292 cells. Conclusion HGF induces gefitinib resistance in PC-9 and H292 cells. HGF-induced Met phosphorylation may be an important mechanism of gefitinib resistance in sensitive NSCLC.

  12. Accuracy of cDNA microarray methods to detect small gene expression changes induced by neuregulin on breast epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Sharlin

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background cDNA microarrays are a powerful means to screen for biologically relevant gene expression changes, but are often limited by their ability to detect small changes accurately due to "noise" from random and systematic errors. While experimental designs and statistical analysis methods have been proposed to reduce these errors, few studies have tested their accuracy and ability to identify small, but biologically important, changes. Here, we have compared two cDNA microarray experimental design methods with northern blot confirmation to reveal changes in gene expression that could contribute to the early antiproliferative effects of neuregulin on MCF10AT human breast epithelial cells. Results We performed parallel experiments on identical samples using a dye-swap design with ANOVA and an experimental design that excludes systematic biases by "correcting" experimental/control hybridization ratios with control/control hybridizations on a spot-by-spot basis. We refer to this approach as the "control correction method" (CCM. Using replicate arrays, we identified a decrease in proliferation genes and an increase in differentiation genes. Using an arbitrary cut-off of 1.7-fold and p values Conclusions We validated two experimental design paradigms for cDNA microarray experiments capable of detecting small (

  13. Flow- and acetylcholine-induced dilation in small arteries from rats with renovascular hypertension - effect of tempol treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Frank Holden; Stankevicius, Edgaras; Hansen, Thomas;

    2007-01-01

    with either vehicle or tempol (from weeks 5 to 10 after placement of the clip), and uninephrectomized control rats were investigated. In renal hypertensive rats systolic blood pressure increased to 171±6 mmHg (n=10), while in tempol-treated rats systolic blood pressure remained normal (139±7 mmHg, n=5...... blood pressure and tempol treatment. Simultaneous measurements of NO-concentration and relaxation were performed in isolated coronary arteries from the same animals. As compared to vehicle-treated rats, both acetylcholine-induced relaxation and NO-concentration increased in arteries from tempol......-treated animals, while only the relaxation was improved by the NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). In conclusion renovascular hypertension selectively inhibits flow-induced NO-mediated vasodilatation, while EDHF-type vasodilatation remains unaffected, suggesting that high blood pressure leads...

  14. Effects of tetrodotoxin and ion replacements on the short-circuit current induced by Escherichiacoli heat stable enterotoxin across small intestine of the gerbil (Gerbillus cheesmani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia Yaqoub Al-Balool

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mucosally added Escherichia coli heat stable enterotoxin (STa 30 ng ml-1 on the basal short-circuit current (Isc in µA cm-2 across stripped and unstripped sheets of jejuna and ilea taken from fed, starved (4 days, water ad lib and undernourished (50% control food intake for 21 days gerbil (Gerbillus cheesmani were investigated. The effect of neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX 10 µM and the effects of replacing chloride by gluconate or the effects of removing bicarbonate from bathing buffers on the maximum increase in Isc induced by STa were also investigated. The maximum increase in Isc which resulted from the addition of STa were significantly higher in jejuna and ilea taken from starved and undernourished gerbils when compared with the fed control both using stripped and unstripped sheets. In the two regions of the small intestine taken from fed and starved animals TTX reduced the maximum increase in Isc induced by STa across unstripped sheets only. Moreover in jejuna and ilea taken from undernourished gerbils TTX reduced significantly the maximum increase in Isc induced by STa across stripped and unstripped sheets. Replacing chloride by gluconate decreased the maximum increase in Isc induced by STa across jejuna and ilea taken from undernourished gerbils only. Removing bicarbonates from bathing buffer decreased the maximum increase in Isc across the jejuna and ilea taken from starved and undernourished gerbils.

  15. Phloretin induces apoptosis of non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells via JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jie; Huang, Kenan; Tang, Hua; Ding, Xinyu; Qi, Chen; Qin, Xiong; Xu, Zhifei

    2015-12-01

    Phloretin (Ph) existing in apples, pears and various vegetables is known to have antitumor activities in several cancer cell lines. However, little is known about its effect on human lung cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to see whether Ph could induce apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, and explore the possible underlying mechanism of action. We found that Ph markedly induced cell apoptosis of NSCLC cell line A549, and inhibited the migration of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The expression level of BAX, cleaved caspase-3 and -9, and degraded form of PARP was increased and Bcl-2 was decreased after Ph treatment. In addition, the phosphorylation of P38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 was increased in a dose‑dependent manner in parallel with Ph treatment. Inhibition of P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 by specific inhibitors significantly abolished the Ph-induced activation of the caspase-3 and -9. In vivo tumor-suppression assay further indicated that Ph (20 mg/kg) displayed a more significant inhibitory effect on A549 xenografts in tumor growth. All these findings indicate that Ph is able to inhibit NSCLC A549 cell growth by inducing apoptosis through P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 pathways, and therefore may prove to be an adjuvant to the treatment of NSCLC.

  16. NAMPT inhibition synergizes with NQO1-targeting agents in inducing apoptotic cell death in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Ying; Li, Qing-Ran; Cheng, Xue-Fang; Wang, Guang-Ji; Hao, Hai-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) catalyzes the first rate-limiting step in converting nicotinamide to NAD(+), essential for a number of enzymes and regulatory proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes, including deacetylation enzyme SIRT1 which modulates several tumor suppressors such as p53 and FOXO. Herein we report that NQO1 substrates Tanshione IIA (TSA) and β-lapachone (β-lap) induced a rapid depletion of NAD(+) pool but adaptively a significant upregulation of NAMPT. NAMPT inhibition by FK866 at a nontoxic dose significantly enhanced NQO1-targeting agent-induced apoptotic cell death. Compared with TSA or β-lap treatment alone, co-treatment with FK866 induced a more dramatic depletion of NAD(+), repression of SIRT1 activity, and thereby the increased accumulation of acetylated FOXO1 and the activation of apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, the results from the present study support that NAMPT inhibition can synergize with NQO1 activation to induce apoptotic cell death, thereby providing a new rationale for the development of combinative therapeutic drugs in combating non-small lung cancer. PMID:27608947

  17. Transcription factor PREP1 induces EMT and metastasis by controlling the TGF-β-SMAD3 pathway in non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risolino, Maurizio; Mandia, Nadia; Iavarone, Francescopaolo; Dardaei, Leila; Longobardi, Elena; Fernandez, Serena; Talotta, Francesco; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Pisati, Federica; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Harter, Patrick N; Mittelbronn, Michel; Schulte, Dorothea; Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Blasi, Francesco; Verde, Pasquale

    2014-09-01

    Pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox (Pbx)-regulating protein-1 (Prep1) is a ubiquitous homeoprotein involved in early development, genomic stability, insulin sensitivity, and hematopoiesis. Previously we have shown that Prep1 is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor that inhibits neoplastic transformation by competing with myeloid ecotropic integration site 1 for binding to the common heterodimeric partner Pbx1. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is controlled by complex networks of proinvasive transcription factors responsive to paracrine factors such as TGF-β. Here we show that, in addition to inhibiting primary tumor growth, PREP1 is a novel EMT inducer and prometastatic transcription factor. In human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, PREP1 overexpression is sufficient to trigger EMT, whereas PREP1 down-regulation inhibits the induction of EMT in response to TGF-β. PREP1 modulates the cellular sensitivity to TGF-β by inducing the small mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (SMAD3) nuclear translocation through mechanisms dependent, at least in part, on PREP1-mediated transactivation of a regulatory element in the SMAD3 first intron. Along with the stabilization and accumulation of PBX1, PREP1 induces the expression of multiple activator protein 1 components including the proinvasive Fos-related antigen 1 (FRA-1) oncoprotein. Both FRA-1 and PBX1 are required for the mesenchymal changes triggered by PREP1 in lung tumor cells. Finally, we show that the PREP1-induced mesenchymal transformation correlates with significantly increased lung colonization by cells overexpressing PREP1. Accordingly, we have detected PREP1 accumulation in a large number of human brain metastases of various solid tumors, including NSCLC. These findings point to a novel role of the PREP1 homeoprotein in the control of the TGF-β pathway, EMT, and metastasis in NSCLC.

  18. Bozepinib, a novel small antitumor agent, induces PKR-mediated apoptosis and synergizes with IFNα triggering apoptosis, autophagy and senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Juan Antonio; Carrasco, Esther; Ramirez, Alberto; Jiménez, Gema; Olmedo, Carmen; Peran, Macarena; Agil, Ahmad; Conejo-García, Ana; Cruz-López, Olga; Campos, Joaquin María; García, María Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Bozepinib [(RS)-2,6-dichloro-9-[1-(p-nitrobenzenesulfonyl)-1,2,3,5-tetrahydro-4,1-benzoxazepin-3-yl]-9H-purine] is a potent antitumor compound that is able to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells. In the present study, we show that bozepinib also has antitumor activity in colon cancer cells, showing 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values lower than those described for breast cancer cells and suggesting great potential of this synthetic drug in the treatment of cancer. We identified that the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is a target of bozepinib, being upregulated and activated by the drug. However, p53 was not affected by bozepinib, and was not necessary for induction of apoptosis in either breast or colon cancer cells. In addition, the efficacy of bozepinib was improved when combined with the interferon-alpha (IFNα) cytokine, which enhanced bozepinib-induced apoptosis with involvement of protein kinase PKR. Moreover, we report here, for the first time, that in combined therapy, IFNα induces a clear process of autophagosome formation, and prior treatment with chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, is able to significantly reduce IFNα/bozepinib-induced cell death. Finally, we observed that a minor population of caspase 3-deficient MCF-7 cells persisted during long-term treatment with lower doses of bozepinib and the bozepinib/IFNα combination. Curiously, this population showed β-galactosidase activity and a percentage of cells arrested in S phase, that was more evident in cells treated with the bozepinib/IFNα combination than in cells treated with bozepinib or IFNα alone. Considering the resistance of some cancer cells to conventional chemotherapy, combinations enhancing the diversity of the cell death outcome might succeed in delivering more effective and less toxic chemotherapy. PMID:24194639

  19. Mechanism of Inhibition of Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide-Induced Membrane Damage by a Small Organic Fluorogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxu; Wan, Mingwei; Gao, Lianghui; Fang, Weihai

    2016-01-01

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is believed to be responsible for the death of insulin-producing β-cells. However, the mechanism of membrane damage at the molecular level has not been fully elucidated. In this article, we employ coarse- grained dissipative particle dynamics simulations to study the interactions between a lipid bilayer membrane composed of 70% zwitterionic lipids and 30% anionic lipids and hIAPPs with α-helical structures. We demonstrated that the key factor controlling pore formation is the combination of peptide charge-induced electroporation and peptide hydrophobicity-induced lipid disordering and membrane thinning. According to these mechanisms, we suggest that a water-miscible tetraphenylethene BSPOTPE is a potent inhibitor to rescue hIAPP-induced cytotoxicity. Our simulations predict that BSPOTPE molecules can bind directly to the helical regions of hIAPP and form oligomers with separated hydrophobic cores and hydrophilic shells. The micelle-like hIAPP-BSPOTPE clusters tend to be retained in the water/membrane interface and aggregate therein rather than penetrate into the membrane. Electrostatic attraction between BSPOTPE and hIAPP also reduces the extent of hIAPP binding to the anionic lipid bilayer. These two modes work together and efficiently prevent membrane poration. PMID:26887358

  20. Mechanism of Inhibition of Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide-Induced Membrane Damage by a Small Organic Fluorogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxu; Wan, Mingwei; Gao, Lianghui; Fang, Weihai

    2016-02-01

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is believed to be responsible for the death of insulin-producing β-cells. However, the mechanism of membrane damage at the molecular level has not been fully elucidated. In this article, we employ coarse- grained dissipative particle dynamics simulations to study the interactions between a lipid bilayer membrane composed of 70% zwitterionic lipids and 30% anionic lipids and hIAPPs with α-helical structures. We demonstrated that the key factor controlling pore formation is the combination of peptide charge-induced electroporation and peptide hydrophobicity-induced lipid disordering and membrane thinning. According to these mechanisms, we suggest that a water-miscible tetraphenylethene BSPOTPE is a potent inhibitor to rescue hIAPP-induced cytotoxicity. Our simulations predict that BSPOTPE molecules can bind directly to the helical regions of hIAPP and form oligomers with separated hydrophobic cores and hydrophilic shells. The micelle-like hIAPP-BSPOTPE clusters tend to be retained in the water/membrane interface and aggregate therein rather than penetrate into the membrane. Electrostatic attraction between BSPOTPE and hIAPP also reduces the extent of hIAPP binding to the anionic lipid bilayer. These two modes work together and efficiently prevent membrane poration.

  1. The effect of outside conditions on anaerobic ammonia oxidation reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Min; WANG Shu-bo

    2016-01-01

    Organic carbon, inorganic carbon, temperature, pH and ORP are all to have a certain influence on the anaerobic ammonia oxidation reaction. We can draw some conclusions on the optimum conditions of anaerobic ammonia oxidation reaction. The optimum temperature of the anaerobic ammonia oxidation reaction is 30-35℃. And the optimum pH of the anaerobic ammonia reaction is 7.5-8.3. The presence of organic matters can affect the anaerobic ammonia reaction, and different organic matters have different influence on it. The concentration of the inorganic carbon also exist great influence on the reaction. High inorganic carbon concentration also can inhibit anaerobic ammonia oxidation reaction.

  2. Anaerobic wastewater treatment and membrane filtration: a one night stand or a sustainable relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeison, D; van Lier, J B

    2008-01-01

    Several anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR) were operated, under various conditions, applying different reactor configurations. Applicable fluxes were strongly determined by the physical properties of the sludge present in the reactors. Results show that particle size is a key determining factor for the attainable fluxes. Under thermophilic conditions, small sludge particle size was observed, resulting in low critical fluxes reaching 6-7 L/m2h for the submerged configuration and acidified substrate. In contrast, under mesophilic conditions critical fluxes of 20 L/m2h were obtained. The acidification level also showed a strong effect. Under thermophilic conditions, the presence of a significant fraction of non-acidified organic matter induced the growth of suspended acidogenic biomass that seriously affected the applicable fluxes, both in submerged and side-stream configurations. Under all conditions tested cake formation showed to be the limiting factor determining the applicable fluxes. Only low levels of irreversible fouling were observed. Due to technical and economical considerations, most interesting perspectives for the application of AnMBR are expected with the treatment of high-strength particulate wastewaters, and with extreme wastewaters characterised by high temperature, salinity, etc. PMID:18359991

  3. Bacterial vaginosis with special reference to anaerobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumati A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and to estimate the prevalence of anaerobic organisms in vaginal discharge of women suffering from bacterial vaginosis. Settings and Design: Patients attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of a Medical College Hospital. A one year cross-sectional study. Methods and Materials: High vaginal swabs taken from 174 female patients complaining of abnormal vaginal discharge. BV was diagnosed by clinical composite criteria and by gram stain. Anaerobes were isolated and identified from the discharge. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square test, with level of significance set at a value of P< 0.05. Results: BV was diagnosed in 68.39% of the cases by using clinical composite criteria and in 58.4% of the cases by gram stain. Anaerobic culture isolation of vaginal swabs revealed that out of 174 cases 143 (82.65% were culture positive for anaerobes. Bacteroides were significantly raised in BV as compared with non bacterial vaginosis (NBV; < 0.05%. Conclusions: Anaerobic bacteria are important pathogens in the causation of bacterial vaginosis along with other aerobic organisms. Bacteroides and peptostreptococci are significantly raised in BV.

  4. Peptide-induced Asymmetric Distribution of Charged Lipids in a Vesicle Bilayer Revealed by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, William; Qian, Shuo

    2012-02-01

    Cellular membranes are complex mixtures of lipids, proteins and other small molecules that provide functional, dynamic barriers between the cell and its environment, as well as between environments within the cell. The lipid composition of the membrane is highly specific and controlled in terms of both content and lipid localization. Here, small-angle neutron scattering and selective deuterium labeling were used to probe the impact of the membrane-active peptides melittin and alamethicin on the structure of lipid bilayers composed of a mixture of the lipids dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) and chain-perdeuterated dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC). We found that both peptides enriched the outer leaflet of the bilayer with the negatively charged DMPG, creating an asymmetric distribution of lipids. The level of enrichment is peptide concentration-dependent and is stronger for melittin than alamethicin. The enrichment between the inner and outer bilayer leaflets occurs at very low peptide concentrations, and increases with peptide concentration, including when the peptide adopts a membrane-spanning, pore-forming state.

  5. Expression and cytoprotective activity of the small GTPase RhoB induced by the Escherichia coli cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huelsenbeck, Stefanie C; Roggenkamp, Dennis; May, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    RhoB is the only member of the Rho subfamily of small GTPases, which is classified as an immediate early gene product. RhoB is up-regulated in response to growth factors as well as cytotoxic and genotoxic agents. Clostridial glucosylating toxins have been reported to evoke pronounced RhoB express......RhoB is the only member of the Rho subfamily of small GTPases, which is classified as an immediate early gene product. RhoB is up-regulated in response to growth factors as well as cytotoxic and genotoxic agents. Clostridial glucosylating toxins have been reported to evoke pronounced Rho......B expression, based on the inactivation of Rho/Ras proteins. In this study, we report on a long lasting expression of RhoB in cultured cells upon activation of Rho proteins by the cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1) from Escherichia coli. The observations of this study highlight a new pathway involving Rac1......, which positively regulates the activity of the rhoB promoter and RhoB expression. Conversely, the isomeric cytotoxic necrotizing factor from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (CNFy) drives GTP-loading of basal RhoB but fails to cause activation of the rhoB promoter and thus its expression. CNF1 inhibits...

  6. Modeling circulation patterns induced by spatial cross-shore wind variability in a small-size coastal embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerralbo, Pablo; Espino, Manuel; Grifoll, Manel

    2016-08-01

    This contribution shows the importance of the cross-shore spatial wind variability in the water circulation in a small-sized micro-tidal bay. The hydrodynamic wind response at Alfacs Bay (Ebro River delta, NW Mediterranean Sea) is investigated with a numerical model (ROMS) supported by in situ observations. The wind variability observed in meteorological measurements is characterized with meteorological model (WRF) outputs. From the hydrodynamic simulations of the bay, the water circulation response is affected by the cross-shore wind variability, leading to water current structures not observed in the homogeneous-wind case. If the wind heterogeneity response is considered, the water exchange in the longitudinal direction increases significantly, reducing the water exchange time by around 20%. Wind resolutions half the size of the bay (in our case around 9 km) inhibit cross-shore wind variability, which significantly affects the resultant circulation pattern. The characteristic response is also investigated using idealized test cases. These results show how the wind curl contributes to the hydrodynamic response in shallow areas and promotes the exchange between the bay and the open sea. Negative wind curl is related to the formation of an anti-cyclonic gyre at the bay's mouth. Our results highlight the importance of considering appropriate wind resolution even in small-scale domains (such as bays or harbors) to characterize the hydrodynamics, with relevant implications in the water exchange time and the consequent water quality and ecological parameters.

  7. Evidence of small modulation of ethinylestradiol induced effects by concurrent exposure to trenbolone in male eelpout Zoarces viviparus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M; Bjerregaard, Poul; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2013-07-01

    The interaction of xenobiotics is common in aquatic ecosystems; therefore, we wanted to evaluate if trenbolone (TB) modulates the effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). Male eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) were exposed to 5 ng L(-1) EE2 continuously for 19 d (EE2-C) or discontinuously (11 d, EE2-D) alone or in combination with low (50 ng L(-1), TBL) or high (500 ng L(-1), TBH) concentrations of TB (19 d). Exposure to EE2 caused reduced gonadosomatic index, increased plasma vitellogenin concentrations, up-regulated vtg and era mRNA expression and severe alterations in gonadal histology. TBL and TBH did not affect plasma vitellogenin, era or vtg mRNA expression. TBL and TBH did not counteract the EE2-induced increase in plasma vitellogenin and reduction in 11-ketotestosterone whereas TBH counteracted the EE2 induced increase in vtg and era mRNA expression. Exposure to TBH and EE2-C + TBH lead to severe gonadal histology alterations. TBL and EE2-D + TBH exposed fish showed less histopathological alterations.

  8. [Anaerobic-aerobic infection in acute appendicitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamchich, V I; Ulitovskiĭ, I V; Savich, E I; Znamenskiĭ, V A; Beliaeva, O A

    1998-01-01

    362 patients with acute appendicitis (AA) were examined. For microbiological diagnosis of aerobic and anaerobic nonclostridial microflora we used complex accelerated methods (including evaluation of gram-negative microorganisms in comparison with tinctorial-fermentative method of differential staining according to oxygen sensitivity of catalasopositive together with aerobic and cathalasonegative anaerobic microorganisms) as well as complete bacteriologic examination with determination of sensitivity of the above microorganism to antimicrobial remedies. High rate of aerobic-anaerobic microbial associations and substantial identity of microflora from appendicis and exudate from abdominal cavity was revealed, which evidenced the leading role of endogenous microorganisms in etiology and pathogenesis of AA and peritonitis i. e. autoinfection. In patients with destructive forms of AA, complicated by peritonitis it is recommended to use the accelerated method of examination of pathologic material as well as the complete scheme of examination with the identification of the isolated microorganisms and the correction of antibiotic treatment. PMID:9511291

  9. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, A. G.; Chen, Y. R.; Varel, V. H.

    1981-01-01

    The conversion of livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation is summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis are discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process is presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration to have significant effects on CH4 production rate. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter s by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost is presented.

  10. Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-18

    We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

  11. Biochar from anaerobically digested sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, Mandu; Gao, Bin; Pullammanappallil, Pratap; Ding, Wenchuan; Zimmerman, Andrew R

    2010-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of anaerobic digestion on biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse was anaerobically digested to produce methane. The digested residue and fresh bagasse was pyrolyzed separately into biochar at 600 degrees C in nitrogen environment. The digested bagasse biochar (DBC) and undigested bagasse biochar (BC) were characterized to determine their physicochemical properties. Although biochar was produced from the digested residue (18% by weight) and the raw bagasse (23%) at a similar rate, there were many physiochemical differences between them. Compared to BC, DBC had higher pH, surface area, cation exchange capacity (CEC), anion exchange capacity (AEC), hydrophobicity and more negative surface charge, all properties that are generally desirable for soil amelioration, contaminant remediation or wastewater treatment. Thus, these results suggest that the pyrolysis of anaerobic digestion residues to produce biochar may be an economically and environmentally beneficial use of agricultural wastes. PMID:20634061

  12. Catalytic site inhibition of insulin-degrading enzyme by a small molecule induces glucose intolerance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez-Poulain, Rebecca; Hennuyer, Nathalie; Bosc, Damien; Liang, Wenguang G; Enée, Emmanuelle; Marechal, Xavier; Charton, Julie; Totobenazara, Jane; Berte, Gonzague; Jahklal, Jouda; Verdelet, Tristan; Dumont, Julie; Dassonneville, Sandrine; Woitrain, Eloise; Gauriot, Marion; Paquet, Charlotte; Duplan, Isabelle; Hermant, Paul; Cantrelle, François-Xavier; Sevin, Emmanuel; Culot, Maxime; Landry, Valerie; Herledan, Adrien; Piveteau, Catherine; Lippens, Guy; Leroux, Florence; Tang, Wei-Jen; van Endert, Peter; Staels, Bart; Deprez, Benoit

    2015-09-23

    Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a protease that cleaves insulin and other bioactive peptides such as amyloid-β. Knockout and genetic studies have linked IDE to Alzheimer's disease and type-2 diabetes. As the major insulin-degrading protease, IDE is a candidate drug target in diabetes. Here we have used kinetic target-guided synthesis to design the first catalytic site inhibitor of IDE suitable for in vivo studies (BDM44768). Crystallographic and small angle X-ray scattering analyses show that it locks IDE in a closed conformation. Among a panel of metalloproteases, BDM44768 selectively inhibits IDE. Acute treatment of mice with BDM44768 increases insulin signalling and surprisingly impairs glucose tolerance in an IDE-dependent manner. These results confirm that IDE is involved in pathways that modulate short-term glucose homeostasis, but casts doubt on the general usefulness of the inhibition of IDE catalytic activity to treat diabetes.

  13. Glucose-induced thermogenesis in patients with small cell lung carcinoma. Before and after inhibition of tumour growth by chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Sengeløv, H;

    1993-01-01

    Seven weight-losing patients with histologically verified small cell lung carcinoma were given an oral glucose load of 75 g before and at least 3 weeks after the end of chemotherapy to examine the effect of glucose on whole body and skeletal muscle thermogenesis before and after reduction of tumour....... Whole body energy expenditure was measured by the open circuit ventilated hood system. Forearm blood flow was measured by venous-occlusion strain-gauge plethysmography. The uptake of oxygen in skeletal muscle was calculated as the product of the forearm blood flow and the difference in a-v oxygen....... This is significantly increased compared to that found in a healthy control group (74.7 +/- 4.8 kJ 180 min-1, P muscles was 6.9 +/- 0.3 mumol 100 g-1 min...

  14. Epithelial mesenchymal transition of non-small-cell lung cancer cells A549 induced by SPHK1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Ni; Xiao-Lei Shi; Zhi-Gang Qu; Hong Jiang; Zi-Qian Chen; Jun Hu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect and molecular mechanism ofSPHK1 in the invasion and metastasis process of non-small-cell lung cancer cells(A549).Methods:Recombinant retrovirus was used to mediate the production ofA549/vector,A549/SPHK1,A549/scramble, andA549/SPHK1/RNAi that stably expressed or silencedSPHK1.The invasion and migration capacities of A549 cells overexpressing or silencingSPHK1 were determined usingTranswell invasion assay and scratch wound repair experiment.The protein and mRNA expression levels ofE-cadherin, fibronectin, vimentin inA549/vector,A549/SPHK1,A549/scramble,A549/SPHK1/RNAi were detected withWestern blot(WB) and quantitativePCR(QPCR) methods, respectively.Results:Transwell invasion assay and scratch wound repair experiments showed that over-expression of SPHK1 obviously enhanced the invasion and migration capacities ofA549 cells.WB andQPCR detection results showed that, the expression ofE-cadherin(a molecular marker of epithelial cells) and fibronectin, vimentin(molecular markers of mesenchymal cells) inA549 cells was upregulated after overexpression ofSPHK1; whileSPHK1 silencing significantly reduced the invasion and metastasis capacities ofA549cells, upregulated the expression of molecular marker of epithelial cells, and downregulated the expression of molecular marker of mesenchymal cells. Conclusions:SPHK1 promotes epithelial mesenchymal transition of non-small-cell lung cancer cells and affects the invasion and metastasis capacities of these cells.

  15. Effects of Organic Loading Rate on the Performance of a Pressurized Anaerobic Filter in Two-Phase Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuling Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of organic loading rate (OLR on a pressurized anaerobic filter was studied in a laboratory two-phase anaerobic digestion system. The anaerobic filter was operated successively at two working pressures (9 bar and 1.5 bar. The OLR(COD for each pressure was increased from 5 to 17.5 kg·m−3·day−1. The best performance of the reactor at 9 bar was observed at OLR(COD of 12.5 kg·m−3·day−1 and hydraulic retention time (HRT of 1.8 day, with specific biogas productivity (SBP of 5.3 L·L−1·day−1 and COD degradation grade of 90.6%. At higher OLRs and shorter HRTs, the process became unstable. In contrast, there was no indication of digester failure during the experiments at 1.5 bar. The SBP peaked at OLR(COD of 17.5 kg·m−3·day−1 with 8.2 L·L−1·day−1, where COD degradation grade was 90.4%. The biogas collected from the reactor at 9 bar and 1.5 bar contained approximately 74.5% CH4 and 66.2% CH4, respectively, regardless of OLR variation. At OLR(COD of 5–12.5 kg·m−3·day−1, the reactor at 9 bar had the same specific methane yield as at 1.5 bar, which was in the range of 0.31–0.32 LN·g−1COD. Raising the working pressure in the reactor resulted in an increase of methane content of the produced biogas. However, the low pH value (approximately 6.5 inside the reactor, induced by high CO2 partial pressure seemed to limit the reactor performance at high OLRs and short HRT.

  16. Cadmium removal by Euglena gracilis is enhanced under anaerobic growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago-Martínez, M. Geovanni; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Encalada, Rusely; Pineda, Erika; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología (Mexico); Zepeda-Rodriguez, Armando [Facultad de Medicina, UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico); Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología (Mexico); Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo, E-mail: rjass_cardiol@yahoo.com.mx [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología (Mexico)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The protist Euglena gracilis had the ability to grow and remove large amounts of Cd{sup 2+} under anaerobic conditions. • High biomass was attained by combination of glycolytic and mitochondrial carbon sources. • Routes of degradation of glucose, glutamate and malate under anaerobic conditions in E. gracilis are described. • Biosorption was the main mechanism of Cd{sup 2+} removal in anaerobiosis, whereas the Cd{sup 2+} intracellularly accumulated was inactivated by thiol-molecules and polyphosphate. - Abstract: The facultative protist Euglena gracilis, a heavy metal hyper-accumulator, was grown under photo-heterotrophic and extreme conditions (acidic pH, anaerobiosis and with Cd{sup 2+}) and biochemically characterized. High biomass (8.5 × 10{sup 6} cells mL{sup −1}) was reached after 10 days of culture. Under anaerobiosis, photosynthetic activity built up a microaerophilic environment of 0.7% O{sub 2}, which was sufficient to allow mitochondrial respiratory activity: glutamate and malate were fully consumed, whereas 25–33% of the added glucose was consumed. In anaerobic cells, photosynthesis but not respiration was activated by Cd{sup 2+} which induced higher oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were 20 times lower in control cells under anaerobiosis than in aerobiosis, although Cd{sup 2+} induced a higher MDA production. Cd{sup 2+} stress induced increased contents of chelating thiols (cysteine, glutathione and phytochelatins) and polyphosphate. Biosorption (90%) and intracellular accumulation (30%) were the mechanisms by which anaerobic cells removed Cd{sup 2+} from medium, which was 36% higher versus aerobic cells. The present study indicated that E. gracilis has the ability to remove Cd{sup 2+} under anaerobic conditions, which might be advantageous for metal removal in sediments from polluted water bodies or bioreactors, where the O{sub 2} concentration is particularly low.

  17. Metabolic interactions between methanogenic consortia and anaerobic respiring bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stams, A.J.; Oude Elferink, S.J.; Westermann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Most types of anaerobic respiration are able to outcompete methanogenic consortia for common substrates if the respective electron acceptors are present in sufficient amounts. Furthermore, several products or intermediate compounds formed by anaerobic respiring bacteria are toxic to methanogenic...

  18. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  19. The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the high sensi

  20. Succession of lignocellulolytic bacterial consortia bred anaerobically from lake sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korenblum, Elisa; Jiménez Avella, Diego; van Elsas, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria degrade lignocellulose in various anoxic and organically rich environments, often in a syntrophic process. Anaerobic enrichments of bacterial communities on a recalcitrant lignocellulose source were studied combining polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresi

  1. Podophyllotoxin acetate blocks IR-induced invasion of non-small cell lung cancer cell, A549

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jeong Hyun; Choi, Jae Yeon; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Um, Hong-Duck; Park, Jong Kuk [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Some research result presented that local radiotherapy administered to primary tumors speeds their metastatic growth in vivo (4-6), thereby suggesting that besides its therapeutic effects, IR promotes the malignant behaviors of surviving cancer cells. Our findings demonstrate podophyllotoxin acetate (PA), one of new natural products, prevented side effects of IR such as invasion or metastasis promotion for improve the efficacy of radiotherapy. In this study, we demonstrated that PA inhibits IR-induced invasion and migration of A549 cells. We also observed that IR stimulates several intracellular pathway involving EMT and MAPKinses; EMT-associated events including an increase of vimentin levels and increased phosphorylation of p38 ERK, JNK in A549 cells. PA could decrease these activations of several intracellular signaling molecules. Therefore, PA might inhibit IRinduced invasion and migration via blocking EMT and MAPKiase pathway of A549 cells.

  2. Exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) prevents chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rat small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kissow, Hannelouise; Viby, Niels-Erik; Hartmann, Bolette;

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Gastrointestinal mucositis is an unwanted and often dose-limiting side effect to most cancer treatments. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a peptide secreted from intestinal L-cells in response to nutrient intake. The peptide is involved in the regulation of apoptosis and proliferation...... the reduction in villus height in the control rats. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in influx of MPO-positive cells in the GLP-2-treated rats. CONCLUSION: GLP-2 is secreted from the intestine in response to intestinal injury, probably explaining the compensatory hyperproliferation after...... in the intestine. We aimed to investigate the role of GLP-2 in experimental chemotherapy-induced mucositis. METHODS STUDY 1: Rats were given a single injection with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and killed in groups of five each day for 5 days. Blood samples were analysed for GLP-2 concentrations. The intestine...

  3. Bozepinib, a novel small antitumor agent, induces PKR-mediated apoptosis and synergizes with IFNα triggering apoptosis, autophagy and senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchal JA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Juan Antonio Marchal,1,2 Esther Carrasco,1 Alberto Ramirez,1,3 Gema Jiménez,1,2 Carmen Olmedo,4 Macarena Peran,1,3 Ahmad Agil,5 Ana Conejo-García,6 Olga Cruz-López,6 Joaquin María Campos,6 María Ángel García4,7 1Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine Institute, Centre for Biomedical Research, 2Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, Granada, 3Department of Health Sciences, University of Jaén, Jaén, 4Experimental Surgery Research Unit, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada, 5Department of Pharmacology and Neurosciences Institute, Faculty of Medicine, 6Department of Pharmaceutical and Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, 7Department of Oncology, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada, Spain Abstract: Bozepinib [(RS-2,6-dichloro-9-[1-(p-nitrobenzenesulfonyl-1,2,3,5-tetrahydro-4,1- benzoxazepin-3-yl]-9H-purine] is a potent antitumor compound that is able to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells. In the present study, we show that bozepinib also has antitumor activity in colon cancer cells, showing 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 values lower than those described for breast cancer cells and suggesting great potential of this synthetic drug in the treatment of cancer. We identified that the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR is a target of bozepinib, being upregulated and activated by the drug. However, p53 was not affected by bozepinib, and was not necessary for induction of apoptosis in either breast or colon cancer cells. In addition, the efficacy of bozepinib was improved when combined with the interferon-alpha (IFNα cytokine, which enhanced bozepinib-induced apoptosis with involvement of protein kinase PKR. Moreover, we report here, for the first time, that in combined therapy, IFNα induces a clear process of autophagosome formation, and prior treatment with chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, is able to

  4. FEL induced dynamics of small molecules on surfaces $N_{2}O$ on NaCl(1 0 0)

    CERN Document Server

    Redlich, Britta; Van der Meer, Alex F G; Von Helden, Gert; Zacharias, Helmut

    2003-01-01

    The infrared laser-induced desorption of N//2O condensed on the single crystal surface of NaCl(100) is studied. In investigations of the desorption process of molecules from surfaces as well as of the dynamics of vibrationally excited adsorbate systems, a selective excitation of specific molecular vibrations is desirable. The Free Electron Laser for Infrared eXperiments "FELIX" is providing rapidly tunable infrared radiation that is well suited for this kind of investigations. A comparison of the wavelength dependent desorption yield to the linear absorption spectrum shows that desorption of intact, neutral molecules occurs when FELIX is resonant with an infrared active mode of the molecules. An analysis of the time-of- flight spectra as well as the dependence of the desorption yield on the layer thickness, laser fluence and substrate temperature point towards a resonant heating mechanism. First measurements on the dynamics of the vibrationally excited adsorbate using pump-probe spectroscopy are presented.

  5. Investigation of parameters highlighting drug induced small changes of the T-wave's morphology for drug safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Tobias; Gräfe, Ksenija; Khawaja, Antoun; Dössel, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    In guideline E14, the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requests for clinical studies to investigate the prolongation of the heart rate corrected QT-interval (QTc) of the ECG. As drug induced QT-prolongation can be caused by changes in the repolarisation of the ventricles, it is so far a thorough ECG biomarker of risk for ventricular tachyarrhythmias and Torsade de Pointes (TdP). Ventricular repolarisation changes not only change QT but also influence the morphology of the T-wave. In a (400 mg single dose) Moxifloxacin positive control study both, QTc and several descriptors describing the T-wave morphology have been measured. Moxifloxacin is changing two shape dependent descriptors significantly (P<0.05) about 3 to 4 hours after a 400 mg oral single dose of Moxifloxacin.

  6. HER2 induces cell proliferation and invasion of non-small-cell lung cancer by upregulating COX-2 expression via MEK/ERK signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi F

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Feng Chi, Rong Wu, Xueying Jin, Min Jiang, Xike Zhu Department of Medical Oncology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: HER2 positivity has been well studied in various cancers, but its importance in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC is still being explored. In this study, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR was performed to detect HER2 and COX-2 expression in NSCLC tissues. Then, pcDNA3.1-HER2 was used to overexpress HER2, while HER2 siRNA and COX-2 siRNA were used to silence HER2 and COX-2 expression. MTT assay and invasion assay were used to detect the effects of HER2 on cell proliferation and invasion. Our study revealed that HER2 and COX-2 expression were upregulated in NSCLC tissues and HER2 exhibited a significant positive correlation with the levels of COX-2 expression. Overexpression of HER2 evidently elevated COX-2 expression, while silencing of HER2 evidently decreased COX-2 expression. Furthermore, overexpressed HER2 induced the ERK phosphorylation, and this was abolished by the treatment with U0126, a pharmacological inhibitor of MEK, an upstream kinase of ERK. HER2-induced expression and promoter activity of COX-2 were also suppressed by U0126, suggesting that the MEK/ERK signaling pathway regulates COX-2 expression. In addition, HER2 induced activation of AKT signaling pathway, which was reversed by pretreatment with U0126 and COX-2 siRNA. MTT and invasion assays revealed that HER2 induced cell proliferation and invasion that were reversed by pretreatment with U0126 and COX-2 siRNA. In this study, our results demonstrated for the first time that HER2 elevated COX-2 expression through the activation of MEK/ERK pathway, which subsequently induced cell proliferation and invasion via AKT pathway in NSCLC tissues. Keywords: HER2, MEK/ERK, COX-2, AKT signaling pathway, non-small-cell lung cancer

  7. A novel small molecule inhibitor of influenza A viruses that targets polymerase function and indirectly induces interferon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Brum Ortigoza

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses continue to pose a major public health threat worldwide and options for antiviral therapy are limited by the emergence of drug-resistant virus strains. The antiviral cytokine, interferon (IFN is an essential mediator of the innate immune response and influenza viruses, like many viruses, have evolved strategies to evade this response, resulting in increased replication and enhanced pathogenicity. A cell-based assay that monitors IFN production was developed and applied in a high-throughput compound screen to identify molecules that restore the IFN response to influenza virus infected cells. We report the identification of compound ASN2, which induces IFN only in the presence of influenza virus infection. ASN2 preferentially inhibits the growth of influenza A viruses, including the 1918 H1N1, 1968 H3N2 and 2009 H1N1 pandemic strains and avian H5N1 virus. In vivo, ASN2 partially protects mice challenged with a lethal dose of influenza A virus. Surprisingly, we found that the antiviral activity of ASN2 is not dependent on IFN production and signaling. Rather, its IFN-inducing property appears to be an indirect effect resulting from ASN2-mediated inhibition of viral polymerase function, and subsequent loss of the expression of the viral IFN antagonist, NS1. Moreover, we identified a single amino acid mutation at position 499 of the influenza virus PB1 protein that confers resistance to ASN2, suggesting that PB1 is the direct target. This two-pronged antiviral mechanism, consisting of direct inhibition of virus replication and simultaneous activation of the host innate immune response, is a unique property not previously described for any single antiviral molecule.

  8. Small interfering RNA targeting mcl-1 enhances proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis in various solid malignant tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeting the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is a promising approach for anticancer strategies. Recently, we found Bik accumulation in cancer cell lines after they were treated with bortezomib. However, recent evidence indicates that proteasome inhibitors may also induce the accumulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. The current study was designed to analyze the levels of several anti-apoptotic members of Bcl-2 family in different human cancer cell lines after they were treated with proteasome inhibitors. Methods Different human cancer cell lines were treated with proteasome inhibitors. Western blot were used to investigate the expression of Mcl-1 and activation of mitochondrial apoptotic signaling. Cell viability was investigated using SRB assay, and induction of apoptosis was measured using flow cytometry. Results We found elevated Mcl-1 level in human colon cancer cell lines DLD1, LOVO, SW620, and HCT116; human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3; and human lung cancer cell line H1299, but not in human breast cancer cell line MCF7 after they were treated with bortezomib. This dramatic Mcl-1 accumulation was also observed when cells were treated with other two proteasome inhibitors, MG132 and calpain inhibitor I (ALLN. Moreover, our results showed Mcl-1 accumulation was caused by stabilization of the protein against degradation. Reducing Mcl-1 accumulation by Mcl-1 siRNA reduced Mcl-1 accumulation and enhanced proteasome inhibitor-induced cell death and apoptosis, as evidenced by the increased cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase. Conclusions Our results showed that it was not only Bik but also Mcl-1 accumulation during the treatment of proteasome inhibitors, and combining proteasome inhibitors with Mcl-1 siRNA would enhance the ultimate anticancer effect suggesting this combination might be a more effective strategy for cancer therapy.

  9. DANGER is involved in high glucose-induced radioresistance through inhibiting DAPK-mediated anoikis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, TaeWoo; Youn, HyeSook; Son, Beomseok; Kim, Daehoon; Seong, Ki Moon; Park, Sungkyun; Kim, Wanyeon; Youn, BuHyun

    2016-02-01

    18F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake during FDG positron emission tomography seems to reflect increased radioresistance. However, the exact molecular mechanism underlying high glucose (HG)-induced radioresistance is unclear. In the current study, we showed that ionizing radiation-induced activation of the MEK-ERK-DAPK-p53 signaling axis is required for anoikis (anchorage-dependent apoptosis) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in normal glucose media. Phosphorylation of DAPK at Ser734 by ERK was essential for p53 transcriptional activity and radiosensitization. In HG media, overexpressed DANGER directly bound to the death domain of DAPK, thus inhibiting the catalytic activity of DAPK. In addition, inhibition of the DAPK-p53 signaling axis by DANGER promoted anoikis-resistance and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), resulting in radioresistance of HG-treated NSCLC cells. Notably, knockdown of DANGER enhanced anoikis, EMT inhibition, and radiosensitization in a mouse xenograft model of lung cancer. Taken together, our findings offered evidence that overexpression of DANGER and the subsequent inhibitory effect on DAPK kinase activity are critical responses that account for HG-induced radioresistance of NSCLC.

  10. An efficient strategy to induce and maintain in vitro human T cells specific for autologous non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Canderan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The efficient expansion in vitro of cytolytic CD8+ T cells (CTLs specific for autologous tumors is crucial both for basic and translational aspects of tumor immunology. We investigated strategies to generate CTLs specific for autologous Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC, the most frequent tumor in mankind, using circulating lymphocytes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Classic Mixed Lymphocyte Tumor Cultures with NSCLC cells consistently failed to induce tumor-specific CTLs. Cross-presentation in vitro of irradiated NSCLC cells by autologous dendritic cells, by contrast, induced specific CTL lines from which we obtained a high number of tumor-specific T cell clones (TCCs. The TCCs displayed a limited TCR diversity, suggesting an origin from few tumor-specific T cell precursors, while their TCR molecular fingerprints were detected in the patient's tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, implying a role in the spontaneous anti-tumor response. Grafting NSCLC-specific TCR into primary allogeneic T cells by lentiviral vectors expressing human V-mouse C chimeric TCRalpha/beta chains overcame the growth limits of these TCCs. The resulting, rapidly expanding CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lines stably expressed the grafted chimeric TCR and specifically recognized the original NSCLC. CONCLUSIONS: This study defines a strategy to efficiently induce and propagate in vitro T cells specific for NSCLC starting from autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes.

  11. Small kinetochore associated protein (SKAP promotes UV-induced cell apoptosis through negatively regulating pre-mRNA processing factor 19 (Prp19.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Lu

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a regulated cellular suicide program that is critical for the development and maintenance of healthy tissues. Previous studies have shown that small kinetochore associated protein (SKAP cooperates with kinetochore and mitotic spindle proteins to regulate mitosis. However, the role of SKAP in apoptosis has not been investigated. We have identified a new interaction involving SKAP, and we propose a mechanism through which SKAP regulates cell apoptosis. Our experiments demonstrate that both overexpression and knockdown of SKAP sensitize cells to UV-induced apoptosis. Further study has revealed that SKAP interacts with Pre-mRNA processing Factor 19 (Prp19. We find that UV-induced apoptosis can be inhibited by ectopic expression of Prp19, whereas silencing Prp19 has the opposite effect. Additionally, SKAP negatively regulates the protein levels of Prp19, whereas Prp19 does not alter SKAP expression. Finally, rescue experiments demonstrate that the pro-apoptotic role of SKAP is executed through Prp19. Taken together, these findings suggest that SKAP promotes UV-induced cell apoptosis by negatively regulating the anti-apoptotic protein Prp19.

  12. Main Factors Effecting Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-fei

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (ANAMMOX) drew more attentions because of its denitrification in wastewater with low carbon resource. The external conditions of ANAMMOX are relatively harsh,however this reaction does not require the participation of oxygen and organics. So the research and technology development of ANAMMOX has the significance of sustainable development.In this paper, the main influencing factors of ANAMMOX were summarized,Combined with recent research status of ANAMMOX technology, the development trend of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation technology was prospected.

  13. The Pasteur effect in facultative anaerobic metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H; Kamp, G

    1996-05-15

    The existence and the regulatory mechanisms of the Pasteur effect in facultative anaerobic metazoa are discussed. There are three reasons for the controversy surrounding this phenomenon. 1) The different definitions of the Pasteur effect, 2) the antagonistic effect of metabolic depression and its species specific response to hypoxia, as well as 3) the laboratory-specific differences in the experimental procedures for analyzing the Pasteur effect and its regulation. This review aims to clarify the confusion about the existence of the Pasteur effect in facultative anaerobic metazoa and to offer possible molecular mechanisms.

  14. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto, SH, Kampus Baru Tembalang, Semarang (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  15. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  16. REDUCING OF EXCESS SLUDGE PRODUCTION IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT USING COMBINED ANAEROBIC/AEROBIC SUBMERGED BIOLOGICAL FILTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Baghapour

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, possibility of reducing excess sludge production in wastewater treatment was investigated using a combined anaerobic and aerobic submerged biological filter in a pilot scale. The physical model designed, erected and operated consisted of two pipes of PVC type with 147mm and 237mm diameter used as aerobic and anaerobic filters, respectively. The effective height of porous media in these filters was 70cm. Two filters were connected to eachother in a series form and the resulted system was loaded using synthetic wastewater based on sucrose in the range of 1.91 to 30.61 kg/m3 for anaerobic filter and 1.133 to 53.017 kg/m3 for aerobic filter. For similar loadings, the aerobic filter showed efficiency of 1.8 times that of anaerobic filter in removal of soluble COD. Return of 100% flow from the aerobic filter to the anaerobic filter for 30kg/m3.d of organic loading increased the efficiencies of the anaerobic filter, the aerobic filter and the combined system as 17%, 14% and 15%, respectively and the effect of the return of the flow was more pronounced in smaller hydraulic retention times and larger loadings. 100% return of the flow reduced the yield coefficient for the whole system to 0.037 for 53 kg/m3 loading which is a suitable value with regard to the scheme and no use of chemical materials such as chlorine and ozone. This coefficient reached a value as small as 0.007 in common loadings (7.5kg/m3 for 100% return of the flow which is very close to zero. So, this method could be considered as a complete biological treatment with low excess sludge and could be assessed in full scale.

  17. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration

  18. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediates radiation-induced invasiveness through the SDF-1α/CXCR4 pathway in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; He, Yan; Ji, Jianfeng; Yao, Yifan; Shen, Wenhao; Luo, Jialin; Zhu, Wei; Cao, Han; Geng, Yangyang; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping; Ding, Wei-Qun

    2015-05-10

    Radiotherapy is an important procedure for the treatment of inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, recent evidence has shown that irradiation can promote the invasion and metastasis of several types of cancer, and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism by which radiation enhances the invasiveness of NSCLC cells. We found that after irradiation, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) was increased and translocated into the nucleus, where it bound to the hypoxia response element (HRE) in the CXCR4 promoter and promoted the transcription of CXCR4. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) also plays a role in the radiation-induced expression of CXCR4. Our results revealed that 2 Gy X-ray irradiation promoted the metastasis and invasiveness of H1299, A549 and H460 cells, which were significantly enhanced by SDF-1α treatment. Blocking the SDF-1α/CXCR4 interaction could suppress the radiation-induced invasiveness of NSCLC cells. The PI3K/pAkt and MAPK/pERK1/2 pathways were found to be involved in radiation-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. In vivo, irradiation promoted the colonization of H1299 cells in the liver and lung, which was mediated by CXCR4. Altogether, our findings have elucidated the underlying mechanisms of the irradiation-enhanced invasiveness of NSCLC cells.

  19. Startup and stabilization of anaerobic membrane bioreactors at ambient temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Peña, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in wastewater treatment in last decades to reduce human footprint. Primarily, anaerobic technology focused on treatment and stabilization of sludge, but now the tendency is to give it a major role in low cost treatment of high/low strength wastewaters, since anaerobic digestion offers energy generation through gas production. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR) combine anaerobic digestion with membrane filtration. They are becoming a feasible opti...

  20. The Financial Feasibility of Anaerobic Digestion for Ontario's Livestock Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Weersink, Alfons; Mallon, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    This report is an investigation of the financial feasibility of farm based anaerobic digestion investments under Ontario's Standard Offer Contract electricity prices. Using Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) Agricultural Anaerobic Digestion Calculation Spreadsheet (AADCS) anaerobic digestion inputs, outputs, cost and revenues were estimated and used to conduct a financial analysis on the feasibility of four sized farm base anaerobic digestion investments. The res...

  1. The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Field, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the high sensitivity of the anaerobic bacteria (ie. methanogenic bacteria) to toxic compounds. The anaerobic technologies were initially developed for the treatment of non-toxic organic wastewaters. As the techn...

  2. Treatment of domestic sewage in a two-step system anaerobic filter/anaerobic hybrid reactor at low temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmitwalli, T.A.; Zeeman, G.; Oahn, K.L.T.; Lettinga, G.

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature of 13 degrees Celsius was investigated in a two-step system consisting of an anaerobic filter (AF) + an anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs)

  3. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  4. Techniques for controlling variability in gram staining of obligate anaerobes.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, M. J.; Thatcher, E; Cox, M E

    1995-01-01

    Identification of anaerobes recovered from clinical samples is complicated by the fact that certain gram-positive anaerobes routinely stain gram negative; Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus, Eubacterium plautii, Clostridium ramosum, Clostridium symbiosum, and Clostridium clostridiiforme are among the nonconformists with regard to conventional Gram-staining procedures. Accurate Gram staining of American Type Culture Collection strains of these anaerobic bacteria is possible by implementing fi...

  5. The Influence of Hydration on Anaerobic Performance: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Justin A.; Green, James M.; Bishop, Phillip A.; Richardson, Mark T.; Neggers, Yasmin H.; Leeper, James D.

    2012-01-01

    This review examines the influence of dehydration on muscular strength and endurance and on single and repeated anaerobic sprint bouts. Describing hydration effects on anaerobic performance is difficult because various exercise modes are dominated by anaerobic energy pathways, but still contain inherent physiological differences. The critical…

  6. Changing anaerobic spectrum in suppurative lung disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beena, V K; Kumari, G R; Rao, P V; Murty, M V; Shivananda, P G

    1996-01-01

    A spectrum of three different anaerobes were isolated from a debilitated patient with suppurative lung disease, within a two-year period. Repeated isolation from three consecutive samples and symptomatic relief with metronidazole provide clinical evidence of anaerobic lung infection. This case emphasizes the importance of anaerobic culture in cases of protracted pulmonary suppurative disease. PMID:8822645

  7. Inducing effect of PGRs on small regulatory si/miRNA in resistance to sugar beet cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsygankova, V A; Stefanovska, T R; Galkin, A P; Ponomarenko, S P; Blume, Ya B

    2012-01-01

    Sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii Schmidt is an economically important plant parasite of sugar beet in Ukraine. The pest control options are limited. Sugar beet cyst nematode resistant varieties are not available on the market. Carbamate and organophosphate pesticides have been banned due to the high toxicity. The problem is aggravated by continuously increasing of oilseed rape (which is suitable host for H. schachtii) growing area due to biofuel demands. Several studies' results indicate that PGRs have role in management of plant parasitic nematodes but for sugar beet it is not studied well. We had an objective- studying of the role of four compositional PGRs created based of avermectin in suppression of sugar beet cyst nematode population on sugar beet and oilseed rape caused by enhancing of endogenous si/miRNA complementary to H. schachtii mRNA. Laboratory study was conducted in 2011 with using method DOT-blot hybridization si/miRNA with mRNA and by testing inhibitory activity in cell free system protein biosynthesis. That was shown that application of the PGRs enhances sugar beet and oilseeds rape plant immune-protective properties and resistance against plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schochtii through enhancement of synthesis of small regulatory si/miRNA related (complementary) to an mRNA structure of the parasitic organisms. As a result, translation of mRNA of the nematode is blocked and causes the mortality of plant parasite juveniles.

  8. Plasticity-induced characteristic changes of pattern dynamics and the related phase transitions in small-world neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase transitions widely exist in nature and occur when some control parameters are changed. In neural systems, their macroscopic states are represented by the activity states of neuron populations, and phase transitions between different activity states are closely related to corresponding functions in the brain. In particular, phase transitions to some rhythmic synchronous firing states play significant roles on diverse brain functions and disfunctions, such as encoding rhythmical external stimuli, epileptic seizure, etc. However, in previous studies, phase transitions in neuronal networks are almost driven by network parameters (e.g., external stimuli), and there has been no investigation about the transitions between typical activity states of neuronal networks in a self-organized way by applying plastic connection weights. In this paper, we discuss phase transitions in electrically coupled and lattice-based small-world neuronal networks (LBSW networks) under spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). By applying STDP on all electrical synapses, various known and novel phase transitions could emerge in LBSW networks, particularly, the phenomenon of self-organized phase transitions (SOPTs): repeated transitions between synchronous and asynchronous firing states. We further explore the mechanics generating SOPTs on the basis of synaptic weight dynamics. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  9. Clinical Significance of the Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chun-lu; WANG Yong; ZHAO Jun; ZHANG Yi-liang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the expressive characteristics of iNOS in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and it's affection to the prognosis NSCLC patients. Methods: The expression of iNOS was detected in 50 NSCLC tissues by Immuno- histochemistry technology. Results: There was positive expression in NSCLC (positive rate 38.00%). The expression of iNOS had a correlation with lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between positive expression of iNOS and lung cancer histological types, TNM stages, T stages (P>0.05). But the data suggested that there was a direct correlation between expression of iNOS and clinical prognosis (P<0.05). Conclusion: Positive expression of iNOS was observed in NSCLC, which correlated with postoperative survival time and lymph node metastasis. Although iNOS level had no significant relation with T stage, we find the positive rate in T2 stage was much higher than that in T1 stage. The result suggested that positive expression of iNOS was related to bad clinical prognosis because of promoting tumor growth and metastasis.

  10. Ski prevents TGF-β-induced EMT and cell invasion by repressing SMAD-dependent signaling in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiping; Zhan, Lei; Yang, Tianjie; Wang, Longqiang; Li, Chang; Zhao, Jun; Lei, Zhe; Li, Xiangdong; Zhang, Hong-Tao

    2015-07-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key event in cancer metastasis, which confers cancer cells with increased motility and invasiveness, and EMT is characterized by loss of epithelial marker E-cadherin and gain of mesenchymal marker N-cadherin. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is a crucial inducer of EMT in various types of cancer. Ski is an important negative regulator of TGF-β signaling, which interacts with SMADs to repress TGF-β signaling activity. Although there is accumulating evidence that Ski functions as a promoter or suppressor in human types of cancer, the molecular mechanisms by which Ski affects TGF-β-induced EMT and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are not largely elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the mechanistic role of Ski in NSCLC metastasis. Ski was significantly reduced in metastatic NSCLC cells or tissues when compared with non-metastatic NSCLC cells or tissues. Moreover, following TGF-β stimulation Ski-silenced A549 cells had more significant features of EMT and a higher invasive activity when compared with A549 cells overexpressing Ski. Mechanistically, Ski-silenced and overexpressed A549 cells showed an increase and a reduction in the SMAD3 phosphorylation level, respectively. This was supported by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) promoter activity obtained in Ski-silenced and overexpressed A549 cells. However, after treatment of SIS3 (inhibitor of SMAD3 phosphorylation) followed by TGF-β1 stimulation, we did not observe any effect of Ski on TGF-β-induced EMT, and invasion in Ski-silenced and overexpressed A549 cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that Ski represses TGF-β-induced EMT and invasion by inhibiting SMAD-dependent signaling in NSCLC.

  11. Small RNA sequencing-microarray analyses in Parkinson leukocytes reveal deep brain stimulation-induced and splicing changes that classify brain region transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilach eSoreq

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are key post transcriptional regulators of their multiple target genes. However, the detailed profile of miRNA expression in Parkinson's disease, the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide and the first motor disorder has not been charted yet. Here, we report comprehensive miRNA profiling by next-generation small-RNA sequencing, combined with targets inspection by splice-junction and exon arrays interrogating leukocyte RNA in Parkinson’s disease patients before and after deep brain stimulation (DBS treatment and of matched healthy control volunteers (HC. RNA-Seq analysis identified 254 miRNAs and 79 passenger strand forms as expressed in blood leukocytes, 16 of which were modified in patients pre treatment as compared to HC. 11 miRNAs were modified following brain stimulation, 5 of which were changed inversely to the disease induced changes. Stimulation cessation further induced changes in 11 miRNAs. Transcript isoform abundance analysis yielded 332 changed isoforms in patients compared to HC, which classified brain transcriptomes of 47 PD and control independent microarrays. Functional enrichment analysis highlighted mitochondrion organization. DBS induced 155 splice changes, enriched in ubiquitin homeostasis. Cellular composition analysis revealed immune cell activity pre and post treatment. Overall, 217 disease and 74 treatment alternative isoforms were predictably targeted by modified miRNAs within both 3’ and 5’ untranslated ends and coding sequence sites. The stimulation-induced network sustained 4 miRNAs and 7 transcripts of the disease network. We believe that the presented dynamic networks provide a novel avenue for identifying disease and treatment-related therapeutic targets. Furthermore, the identification of these networks is a major step forward in the road for understanding the molecular basis for neurological and neurodegenerative diseases and assessment of the impact of brain stimulation

  12. The impact of metformin and salinomycin on transforming growth factor β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOECK, STEFAN; AMANN, ARNO; HUBER, JULIA M.; GAMERITH, GABRIELE; HILBE, WOLFGANG; ZWIERZINA, HEINZ

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is highly involved in the development of metastases. EMT transforms epithelial carcinoma cells into mesenchymal-like cells, characterized by increased cell migration and invasiveness. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) appears to be crucial in this process. Metformin and salinomycin have demonstrated an EMT inhibitory effect. The current experiments indicate that these substances specifically inhibit TGFβ-induced EMT in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. The NSCLC cell lines A549 and HCC4006 were stimulated with TGFβ for 48 h to induce EMT. Metformin or salinomycin was added simultaneously with TGFβ to inhibit TGFβ-induced EMT. Western blot analyses of E-cadherin and vimentin were performed to detect changes in EMT marker expression, and a wound healing assay was conducted to determine the potential effects on cell migration. The effects of the two drugs on cell viability were also investigated using MTS tetrazolium dye assays. The results revealed that cells undergoing EMT by application of TGFβ exhibited a downregulation of E-cadherin and an upregulation of vimentin protein expression on western blot analyses, and an increased capacity for cell migration. Simultaneous application of TGFβ and metformin specifically inhibited EMT and increased E-cadherin expression. At the higher dose tested, salinomycin also inhibited EMT, despite an increase in vimentin expression in the two cell lines. Furthermore, metformin and salinomycin, at the two concentrations tested, inhibited cell migration. These findings demonstrate that metformin and salinomycin are able to block EMT and inhibit EMT-induced cell migration. Thus, these two substances are novel EMT inhibiting drugs that have the potential to specifically control EMT and metastatic spread in NSCLC. PMID:27073581

  13. Can Body Condition and Somatic Indices be Used to Evaluate Metal-Induced Stress in Wild Small Mammals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Tête

    Full Text Available Wildlife is exposed to natural (e.g., food availability and quality, parasitism and anthropogenic stressors (e.g., habitat fragmentation, toxicants. Individual variables (e.g., age, gender affect behaviour and physiology of animals. Together, these parameters can create both great inter-individual variations in health indicators and interpretation difficulties. We investigated the relevance of body condition and somatic indices (liver, kidneys as indicators of health status in wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus, n = 560 captured along a metal pollution gradient in four landscape types (30 sampling squares 500-m sided. The indices were calculated using a recently proposed standard major axis regression instead of an ordinary least square regression. After considering age and gender for the body condition index, no landscape type influence was detected in the indices. However, important index variability was observed between sampling squares; this effect was included as a random effect in linear models. After integrating all individual and environmental variables that may affect the indices, cadmium (Cd concentrations in both the liver and kidneys were negatively related to body condition and liver indices only for individuals from highly contaminated sites. Lead in the liver was negatively related to the liver index, and Cd in kidneys was positively linked to the kidney index, potentially suggesting metal-induced stress. However, interpretation of these indices as a wildlife ecotoxicology tool should be performed with caution due to the sensitivity of potentially confounding variables (e.g., individual factors and environmental parameters.

  14. Involvement of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling in the development of small cell lung cancer induced by HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossini Mara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancers consist of four major types that and for clinical-pathological reasons are often divided into two broad categories: small cell lung cancer (SCLC and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. All major histological types of lung cancer are associated with smoking, although the association is stronger for SCLC and squamous cell carcinoma than adenocarcinoma. To date, epidemiological studies have identified several environmental, genetic, hormonal and viral factors associated with lung cancer risk. It has been estimated that 15-25% of human cancers may have a viral etiology. The human papillomavirus (HPV is a proven cause of most human cervical cancers, and might have a role in other malignancies including vulva, skin, oesophagus, head and neck cancer. HPV has also been speculated to have a role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. To validate the hypothesis of HPV involvement in small cell lung cancer pathogenesis we performed a gene expression profile of transgenic mouse model of SCLC induced by HPV-16 E6/E7 oncoproteins. Methods Gene expression profile of SCLC has been performed using Agilent whole mouse genome (4 × 44k representing ~ 41000 genes and mouse transcripts. Samples were obtained from two HPV16-E6/E7 transgenic mouse models and from littermate's normal lung. Data analyses were performed using GeneSpring 10 and the functional classification of deregulated genes was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (Ingenuity® Systems, http://www.ingenuity.com. Results Analysis of deregulated genes induced by the expression of E6/E7 oncoproteins supports the hypothesis of a linkage between HPV infection and SCLC development. As a matter of fact, comparison of deregulated genes in our system and those in human SCLC showed that many of them are located in the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Signal transduction pathway. Conclusions In this study, the global gene expression of transgenic mouse model of SCLC induced by HPV-16 E

  15. Alpha5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mediates nicotine-induced HIF-1α and VEGF expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), nicotine induces the proliferation and apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previous studies have indicated that α5-nAChR is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. However, the mechanisms through which α5-nAChRs may influence lung carcinogenesis are far from clear. In the present study, we investigated the roles of α5-nAChR in the nicotine-induced expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of α5-nAChR and HIF-1α in 60 specimens of lung cancer and para-carcinoma tissue. The correlations between the expression levels of α5-nAChR and HIF-1α and other clinicopathological data were analyzed. In a cell line that highly expressed α5-nAChR, the loss of α5-nAChR function by siRNA was used to study whether α5-nAChR is involved in the nicotine-induced expression of HIF-1α and VEGF through the activation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Cell growth was detected using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). α5-nAChR (78.3%) and HIF-1α (88.3%) were both overexpressed in NSCLC, and their expression levels were found to be correlated with each other (P < 0.05). In the A549 cell line, α5-nAChR and HIF-1α were found to be expressed under normal conditions, and their expression levels were significantly increased in response to nicotine treatment. The silencing of α5-nAChR significantly inhibited the nicotine-induced cell proliferation compared with the control group and attenuated the nicotine-induced upregulation of HIF-1α and VEGF, and these effects required the cooperation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These results show that the α5-nAChR/HIF-1α/VEGF axis is involved in nicotine-induced tumor cell proliferation, which suggests that α5-nAChR may serve as a potential anticancer target in nicotine-associated lung cancer. - Highlights

  16. Alpha5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mediates nicotine-induced HIF-1α and VEGF expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiaoli; Jia, Yanfei; Zu, Shanshan [Central Laboratory, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250013 (China); Li, Ruisheng [Institute of Infectious Diseases, 302 Military Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China); Jia, Ying; Zhao, Yun; Xiao, Dongjie [Central Laboratory, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250013 (China); Dang, Ningning [Department of Dermatology, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250013 (China); Wang, Yunshan [Central Laboratory, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250013 (China)

    2014-07-15

    By binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), nicotine induces the proliferation and apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previous studies have indicated that α5-nAChR is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. However, the mechanisms through which α5-nAChRs may influence lung carcinogenesis are far from clear. In the present study, we investigated the roles of α5-nAChR in the nicotine-induced expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of α5-nAChR and HIF-1α in 60 specimens of lung cancer and para-carcinoma tissue. The correlations between the expression levels of α5-nAChR and HIF-1α and other clinicopathological data were analyzed. In a cell line that highly expressed α5-nAChR, the loss of α5-nAChR function by siRNA was used to study whether α5-nAChR is involved in the nicotine-induced expression of HIF-1α and VEGF through the activation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Cell growth was detected using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). α5-nAChR (78.3%) and HIF-1α (88.3%) were both overexpressed in NSCLC, and their expression levels were found to be correlated with each other (P < 0.05). In the A549 cell line, α5-nAChR and HIF-1α were found to be expressed under normal conditions, and their expression levels were significantly increased in response to nicotine treatment. The silencing of α5-nAChR significantly inhibited the nicotine-induced cell proliferation compared with the control group and attenuated the nicotine-induced upregulation of HIF-1α and VEGF, and these effects required the cooperation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These results show that the α5-nAChR/HIF-1α/VEGF axis is involved in nicotine-induced tumor cell proliferation, which suggests that α5-nAChR may serve as a potential anticancer target in nicotine-associated lung cancer. - Highlights

  17. Effects of lactadherin on plasma D-lactic acid and small intestinal MUC2 and claudin-1 expression levels in rats with rotavirus-induced diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, RUI; LEI, YI-HUI; SHI, JUN; ZHOU, YI-JUN; CHEN, YING-WEI; HE, ZHEN-JUAN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of lactadherin on plasma D-lactic acid and small intestinal mucin (MUC) 2 and claudin-1 expression levels in rats with diarrhea induced by rotavirus (RV) infection. A total of 75 seven-day-old healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following five groups: Control (C), RV infection (RVI), lactadherin before rotavirus infection (LBRI), lactadherin after rotavirus infection (LARI), and blank (B). On day 4 of artificial feeding, the rats in groups RVI, LBRI and LARI were intragastric administered 1×106 PFU RV; whereas the rats in groups C and B were intragastrically administered an equal volume of maintenance solution from the RV supernatant and normal saline, respectively. In the LBRI and LARI groups, rats received daily intragastric administration of 0.25 mg lactadherin for three days prior to and following infection with RV, respectively. The course of diarrheal symptoms was observed in each group and samples were collected on days 1, 4, and 7 post-infection in order to determine the mucosal morphology, plasma D-lactic acid levels and the expression levels of MUC2 and the intracellular junction protein, claudin-1, in the small intestine. On day 4 post-infection, the rats in group RVI demonstrated severely damaged small intestines and typical diarrheal characteristics, as detected by light microscopy; whereas rats in groups LBRI and LARI demonstrated intact small intestinal villi with partial vacuolation of epithelial cells and changes in the position of their nuclei. Electron microscopy demonstrated that the rats in the RVI group had sparse, shortened, disordered intestinal microvilli and widened intercellular junctions; whereas those in groups LBRI and LARI had long intestinal microvilli sparser compared with groups B and C and slightly widened intercellular junctions. Plasma D-lactic acid levels were increased in groups RVI, LBRI and LARI, as compared with groups B and C, and the

  18. Environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and the use of anaerobic residues as soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, F.E. [VFA Services Ltd., Herts (United Kingdom)

    1996-01-01

    This paper defines the environmental role of anaerobic digestion within the overall objective of recovering energy from renewable biomass resources. Examples and opportunities for incorporating anaerobic digestion into biomass-to-energy schemes are discussed, together with environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion plants. These include visual, public amenity, pathogens and public health, odor control, and gaseous emissions. Digestate disposal and the benefits of restrictions on recycling organic wastes and biomass residues back to the land are discussed, particularly as they relate to American and European codes of practice and environmental legislation. The paper concludes that anaerobic digestion, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, is an environmentally benign process that can enhance energy recovery and aid the beneficial land use of plant residues in many biomass-to-energy schemes.

  19. Microbial aggregates in anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaric, N; Blaszczyk, R

    1990-01-01

    The phenomenon aggregation of anaerobic bacteria gives an opportunity to speed up the digestion rate during methanogenesis. The aggregates are mainly composed of methanogenic bacteria which convert acetate and H2/CO2 into methane. Other bacteria are also included in the aggregates but their concentration is rather small. The aggregates may also be formed during acetogenesis or even hydrolysis but such aggregates are not stable and disrupt quickly when not fed. A two stage process seems to be suitable when high concentrated solid waste must be treated. Special conditions are necessary to promote aggregate formation from methanogenic bacteria but aggregates once formed are stable without feeding even for a few years. The structure, texture and activity of bacterial aggregates depend on several parameters: (1)--temperature and pH, (2)--wastewater composition and (3)--hydrodynamic conditions within the reactor. The common influence of all these parameters is still rather unknown but some recommendations may be given. Temperature and pH should be maintained in the range which is optimal for methanogenic bacteria e.g. a temperature between 32 and 50 degrees C and a value pH between 6.5 and 7.5. Wastewaters should contain soluble wastes and the specific loading rate should be around one kgCOD(kgVSS)-1 d-1. The concentration of the elements influences aggregate composition and probably structure and texture. At high calcium concentration a change in the colour of the granules has been observed. Research is necessary to investigate the influence of other elements and organic toxicants on maintenance of the aggregates. Hydrodynamic conditions seem to influence the stability of the granules over long time periods. At low liquid stream rates, aggregates may starve and lysis within the aggregates is possible which results in hollowing of aggregates and their floating. At high liquid stream rates the aggregates may be disrupted and washed out of the reactor as a flocculent

  20. A simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tage; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of a strict anaerobic atmosphere is essential for the culture of strict anaerobic bacteria. We describe a simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere, based on the measurement of the zone diameter around a 5-μg metronidazole disk when testing an...

  1. Anaerobic effluent disinfection using ozone: Byproducts formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, G.H.R.; Daniel, L.A.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This research was aimed at studying oxidation processes, coliform inactivation effectiveness and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) associated with the disinfection of anaerobic sanitary wastewater effluent with ozone applied at doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for contact times of 5, 10 and 15 mi

  2. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the occurrenc

  3. Anaerobic work capacity in elite wheelchair athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Bakker, W H; Elkhuizen, J W; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Gwinn, T

    1997-01-01

    To study the anaerobic work capacity in wheelchair athletes, 67 elite wheelchair athletes (50 male) were studied in a 30-second sprint test on a computer-controlled wheelchair ergometer during the World Championships and Games for the Disabled in Assen (1990). The experimental set-up (ergometer, pro

  4. Anaerobic Pre-treatment of Strong Sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halalsheh, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of applying low cost anaerobic technology for the treatment of relatively high strength sewage of Jordan using two-stage and one-stage UASB reactors operated at ambient temperatures. The wastewater produced in Jordan is characterised

  5. Anaerobic Digestion in a Flooded Densified Leachbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, David P.; Teixeira, Arthur A.; Owens, John M.; Haley, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses the adaptation of a patented biomass-digesting process, denoted sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC), to recycling of wastes aboard a spacecraft. In SEBAC, high-solids-content biomass wastes are converted into methane, carbon dioxide, and compost.

  6. Comparative activity of ciprofloxacin against anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Sutter, V L; Kwok, Y Y; Bulkacz, J

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin was assessed against 362 strains of anaerobic bacteria and compared with that of cefoxitin, clindamycin, metronidazole, and mezlocillin. Only 31% of the strains tested were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. The other agents were active against most of the strains tested.

  7. Essential metal depletion in an anaerobic reactor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osuna, M.B.; Iza, J.M.; Zandvoort, M.H.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of the absence of trace elements on the conversion of a mixture of volatile fatty acids by a distillery anaerobic granular sludge was investigated. Two UASB reactors were operated under identical operational conditions except for the influent trace metal concentrations, during 140 days. E

  8. Anaerobic Digestion: Mass Balances and Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Jansen, Jes la Cour

    2011-01-01

    While the basic processes involved in anaerobic digestion of waste are described in Chapter 9.4 and the main digestion technologies are presented in Chapter 9.5, this chapter focuses on mass balances, gas production and energy aspects, environmental emissions and unit process inventories...

  9. The fate of methanol in anaerobic bioreactors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florencio, L.

    1994-01-01

    Methanol is an important component of certain industrial wastewaters. In anaerobic environments, methanol can be utilized by methanogens and acetogens. In wastewater treatment plants, the conversion of methanol into methane is preferred because this conversion is responsible for chemical oxygen dema

  10. Enhanced anaerobic biological treatment of phenolic wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindzierski, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    The combined treatment requirements for a high strength phenolic wastewater were examined in batch and semicontinuous anaerobic methanogenic bioassays. Solvent extraction pretreatment and in-situ addition of activated carbon during anaerobic treatment were effective in removing phenol from a coal liquefaction wastewater from the H-coal process. The selective pH adjustment of high strength phenolic wastewater followed by diisopropyl ether extraction reduced the phenolic concentration to non-inhibitory levels, and removed non-phenolic inhibitory compounds. The weakly acid nature of phenol and substituted phenols allows for their selective removal by solvent extraction. Anaerobic bacteria were able to degrade phenol in the solvent extracted wastwater, however, the bacteria exhibited instability under semicontinuous feeding conditions. The addition of activated carbon to the stressed phenol-degrading cultures improved their ability to remove phenol from solution. Further investigation into the role activated carbon performed during anaerobic phenol treatment demonstrated its importance as a biological support, in addition to providing adsorptive capacity for organic (including inhibitory) compounds. The similar study of other support materials (ion exchange resins) which did not possess an adsorptive capacity for organic compounds supported these findings. Excellent agreement was demonstrated among physical evaluation methods, performance bioassays, radiolabelled cell adsorption studies, and scanning electron microscopy observations in judging the value of the materials as biological supports.

  11. Anaerobic digestion in sustainable biomass chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pabon Pereira, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the potential contribution of anaerobic digestion (AD) to the sustainability of biomass chains. Results provide insights in the technological potential to recover energy and valuable by-products from energy crops and residues, and evaluate biomass cascades involving AD technolo

  12. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Are membranes really necessary?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila, M.; Kassab, G.; Klapwijk, A.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Membranes themselves represent a significant cost for the full scale application of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). The possibility of operating an AnMBR with a self-forming dynamic membrane generated by the substances present in the reactor liquor would translate into an important saving. A

  13. Anaerobic microbial LCFA degradation in bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, D.Z.; Pereira, M.A.; Alves, J.I.; Smidt, H.; Stams, A.J.M.; Alves, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews recent results obtained on long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) anaerobic degradation. Two LCFA were used as model substrates: oleate, a mono-unsaturated LCFA, and palmitate, a saturated LCFA, both abundant in LCFA-rich wastewaters. 16S rRNA gene analysis of sludge samples submitted to c

  14. Anaerobic hydrolysis during digestion of complex substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Complex waste(water) such as, raw sewage, dairy wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, fish processing wastewater, primary sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste have been proven to be degradable under anaerobic conditions. However, during the digestion process the conversion of th

  15. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag+ under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged p...

  16. Early Microbial Evolution: The Age of Anaerobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William F; Sousa, Filipa L

    2016-02-01

    In this article, the term "early microbial evolution" refers to the phase of biological history from the emergence of life to the diversification of the first microbial lineages. In the modern era (since we knew about archaea), three debates have emerged on the subject that deserve discussion: (1) thermophilic origins versus mesophilic origins, (2) autotrophic origins versus heterotrophic origins, and (3) how do eukaryotes figure into early evolution. Here, we revisit those debates from the standpoint of newer data. We also consider the perhaps more pressing issue that molecular phylogenies need to recover anaerobic lineages at the base of prokaryotic trees, because O2 is a product of biological evolution; hence, the first microbes had to be anaerobes. If molecular phylogenies do not recover anaerobes basal, something is wrong. Among the anaerobes, hydrogen-dependent autotrophs--acetogens and methanogens--look like good candidates for the ancestral state of physiology in the bacteria and archaea, respectively. New trees tend to indicate that eukaryote cytosolic ribosomes branch within their archaeal homologs, not as sisters to them and, furthermore tend to root archaea within the methanogens. These are major changes in the tree of life, and open up new avenues of thought. Geochemical methane synthesis occurs as a spontaneous, abiotic exergonic reaction at hydrothermal vents. The overall similarity between that reaction and biological methanogenesis fits well with the concept of a methanogenic root for archaea and an autotrophic origin of microbial physiology. PMID:26684184

  17. Biodegradability of leathers through anaerobic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhayalan, K; Fathima, N Nishad; Gnanamani, A; Rao, J Raghava; Nair, B Unni; Ramasami, T

    2007-01-01

    Leather processing generates huge amounts of both solid and liquid wastes. The management of solid wastes, especially tanned leather waste, is a challenging problem faced by tanners. Hence, studies on biodegradability of leather become imperative. In this present work, biodegradability of untanned, chrome tanned and vegetable tanned leather under anaerobic conditions has been addressed. Two different sources of anaerobes have been used for this purpose. The effect of detanning as a pretreatment method before subjecting the leather to biodegradation has also been studied. It has been found that vegetable tanned leather leads to more gas production than chrome tanned leather. Mixed anaerobic isolates when employed as an inoculum are able to degrade the soluble organics of vegetable tanned material and thus exhibit an increased level of gas production during the initial days, compared to the results of the treatments that received the anaerobic sludge. With chrome tanned materials, there was not much change in the volume of the gas produced from the two different sources. It has been found that detanning tends to improve the biodegradability of both types of leathers. PMID:16740383

  18. An anaerobic mitochondrion that produces hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, B.; Graaf, de R.M.; Staay, van der G.W.M.; Alen, T.A.; Richard, G.; Gabalon, T.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Moon - van der Staay, S.Y.; Koopman, W.J.H.; Hellemond, van J.J.; Tielens, A.G.M.; Friedrich, T.; Veenhuis, M.; Huynen, M.A.; Hackstein, J.H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes are organelles that produce ATP and hydrogen(1), and are found in various unrelated eukaryotes, such as anaerobic flagellates, chytridiomycete fungi and ciliates(2). Although all of these organelles generate hydrogen, the hydrogenosomes from these organisms are structurally and metabo

  19. Pectinase Activity of Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria Associated with Soft Rot of Yam (Diascorea rotundata)

    OpenAIRE

    Obi, Samuel K. C.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria associated with soft rot of yam (Diascorea rotundata) were isolated by the looping-out method and found to consist of Clostridium (three isolates), Corynebacterium (three isolates), Vibrio (one isolate), and Bacillus lentus (one isolate). Enzyme assay for hydrolase, lyase, and pectinesterase activities by the cup-plate method showed that except for Vibrio sp., B. lentus, and two isolates of Corynebacterium no pectinase activity could be detected ...

  20. Thermal phenomena induced in a small tungsten sample during irradiation with a few MeV electron beam: Experiment versus simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Relativistic electron. •Beam–metal interaction. •Heat equation. •W and C. -- Abstract: We present an experimental and theoretical semi-analytical study of thermal fields induced in a small cylindrical sample made of tungsten and irradiated by an electron beam with energy of 6 MeV and average power of 62 W, obtained from a linear accelerator (LINAC). The sample has a diameter comparable with that of the electron beam, of about 10 mm, and a length of 10 cm. Calorimetric measurements of the sample temperature were compared with simulations obtained by solving the heat equation and by taking into account the range of mono-energetic electrons in the W target. We based our assumptions on the fact that for an incident laser or electron beam on a metallic target the heat transfer formalism is the same, obeying the heat equation

  1. A systematic study of nuclear interactome of C-terminal domain small phosphatase-like 2 using inducible expression system and shotgun proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, NaNa; Koo, JaeHyung; Wang, Sen; Hur, Sun Jin; Bahk, Young Yil

    2016-06-01

    RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain phosphatases are newly emerging family of phosphatases that contain FCPH domain with Mg+2-binding DXDX(T/V) signature motif. Its subfamily includes small CTD phosphatases (SCPs). Recently, we identified several interacting partners of human SCP1 with appearance of dephosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation. In this study, using an established cell line with inducible CTDSPL2 protein (a member of the new phosphatase family), proteomic screening was conducted to identify binding partners of CTDSPL2 in nuclear extract through immunoprecipitation of CTDSPL2 with its associated. This approach led to the identification of several interacting partners of CTDSPL2. This will provide a better understanding on CTDSPL2. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(6): 319-324]. PMID:26674342

  2. Combinatorial treatment using targeted MEK and SRC inhibitors synergistically abrogates tumor cell growth and induces mesenchymal-epithelial transition in non-small-cell lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kian Ngiap; Kong, Li Ren; Sim, Wen Jing; Ng, Hsien Chun; Ong, Weijie Richard; Thiery, Jean Paul; Huynh, Hung; Goh, Boon Cher

    2015-10-01

    Oncogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is regulated by a complex signal transduction network. Single-agent targeted therapy fails frequently due to treatment insensitivity and acquired resistance. In this study, we demonstrate that co-inhibition of the MAPK and SRC pathways using a PD0325901 and Saracatinib kinase inhibitor combination can abrogate tumor growth in NSCLC. PD0325901/Saracatinib at 0.25:1 combination was screened against a panel of 28 NSCLC cell lines and 68% of cell lines were found to be sensitive (IC50 cell migration and matrigel invasion. The co-inhibition of MAPK and SRC induced strong G1/G0 cell cycle arrest in the NSCLC lines, inhibited anchorage independent growth and delayed tumor growth in H460 and H358 mouse xenografts. These data provide rationale for further investigating the combination of MAPK and SRC pathway inhibitors in advanced stage NSCLC.

  3. Risk factors of radiation-induced acute esophagitis in non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the clinical and dosimetric risk factors of acute esophagitis (AE) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy. Seventy-six NSCLC patients treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Forty-one patients received concomitant chemoradiotherapy with vinorelbine/cisplatin (VC), 35 with docetaxel/cisplatin (DC). AE was graded according to criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). The following clinical and dosimetric parameters were analyzed: gender, age, clinical stage, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), pretreatment weight loss, concomitant chemotherapy agents (CCA) (VC vs. DC), percentage of esophagus volume treated to ≥20 (V20), ≥30 (V30), ≥40 (V40), ≥50 (V50) and ≥60 Gy (V60), and the maximum (Dmax) and mean doses (Dmean) delivered to esophagus. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to test the association between the different factors and AE. Seventy patients developed AE (Grade 1, 19 patients; Grade 2, 36 patients; and Grade 3, 15 patients). By multivariate logistic regression analysis, V40 was the only statistically significant factor associated with Grade ≥2 AE (p<0.001, OR = 1.159). A V40 of <23% had a 33.3% (10/30) risk of Grade ≥2 AE, which increased to 89.1% (41/46) with a V40 of ≥23% (p<0.001). CCA (p =0.01; OR = 9.686) and V50 (p<0.001; OR = 1.122) were most significantly correlated with grade 3 AE. A V50 of <26.5% had a 6.7% (3/45) risk of Grade 3 AE, which increased to 38.7% (12/31) with a V50 of ≥26.5% (p = 0.001). On the linear regression analysis, V50 and CCA were significant independent factors affecting AE duration. Patients who received concomitant chemotherapy with VC had a decreased risk of grade 3 AE and shorter duration compared with DC. Concomitant chemotherapy agents have potential influence on AE. Concomitant chemotherapy with VC led to lower risk of AE compared with that using DC. V40 and V50

  4. A phenotypic screen in zebrafish identifies a novel small-molecule inducer of ectopic tail formation suggestive of alterations in non-canonical Wnt/PCP signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Gebruers

    Full Text Available Zebrafish have recently emerged as an attractive model for the in vivo bioassay-guided isolation and characterization of pharmacologically active small molecules of natural origin. We carried out a zebrafish-based phenotypic screen of over 3000 plant-derived secondary metabolite extracts with the goal of identifying novel small-molecule modulators of the BMP and Wnt signaling pathways. One of the bioactive plant extracts identified in this screen - Jasminum gilgianum, an Oleaceae species native to Papua New Guinea - induced ectopic tails during zebrafish embryonic development. As ectopic tail formation occurs when BMP or non-canonical Wnt signaling is inhibited during the tail protrusion process, we suspected a constituent of this extract to act as a modulator of these pathways. A bioassay-guided isolation was carried out on the basis of this zebrafish phenotype, identifying para-coumaric acid methyl ester (pCAME as the active compound. We then performed an in-depth phenotypic analysis of pCAME-treated zebrafish embryos, including a tissue-specific marker analysis of the secondary tails. We found pCAME to synergize with the BMP-inhibitors dorsomorphin and LDN-193189 in inducing ectopic tails, and causing convergence-extension defects in compound-treated embryos. These results indicate that pCAME may interfere with non-canonical Wnt signaling. Inhibition of Jnk, a downstream target of Wnt/PCP signaling (via morpholino antisense knockdown and pharmacological inhibition with the kinase inhibitor SP600125 phenocopied pCAME-treated embryos. However, immunoblotting experiments revealed pCAME to not directly inhibit Jnk-mediated phosphorylation of c-Jun, suggesting additional targets of SP600125, and/or other pathways, as possibly being involved in the ectopic tail formation activity of pCAME. Further investigation of pCAME's mechanism of action will help determine this compound's pharmacological utility.

  5. Investigating combinatorial approaches in virtual screening on human inducible 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFKFB3): a case study for small molecule kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, Robert B; Cavalier, Michael C; Seo, Minsuh; Kim, Jeong Do; Yim, Young-Sun; Park, Seung-Jong; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2011-11-01

    Efforts toward improving the predictiveness in tier-based approaches to virtual screening (VS) have mainly focused on protein kinases. Despite their significance as drug targets, small molecule kinases have been rarely tested with these approaches. In this paper, we investigate the efficacy of a pharmacophore screening-combined structure-based docking approach on the human inducible 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, an emerging target for cancer chemotherapy. Six out of a total 1364 compounds from NCI's Diversity Set II were selected as true actives via throughput screening. Using a database constructed from these compounds, five programs were tested for structure-based docking (SBD) performance, the MOE of which showed the highest enrichments and second highest screening rates. Separately, using the same database, pharmacophore screening was performed, reducing 1364 compounds to 287 with no loss in true actives, yielding an enrichment of 4.75. When SBD was retested with the pharmacophore filtered database, 4 of the 5 SBD programs showed significant improvements to enrichment rates at only 2.5% of the database, with a 7-fold decrease in an average VS time. Our results altogether suggest that combinatorial approaches of VS technologies are easily applicable to small molecule kinases and, moreover, that such methods can decrease the variability associated with single-method SBD approaches.

  6. MiR-95 induces proliferation and chemo- or radioresistance through directly targeting sorting nexin1 (SNX1) in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochun; Chen, Shaomu; Hang, Weijie; Huang, Haitao; Ma, Haitao

    2014-06-01

    MicroRNAs are emerging as a class of small regulatory RNAs whose specific roles and significant functions in the majority of carcinomas have yet to be entirely illustrated. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of miR-95 and determine whether miR-95 could be a potential therapeutic target for human non-small cell lung cancer. First of all, our study showed that miR-95 was highly expressed in both NSCLC cell lines (compared with normal cells) and tumor tissues (compared with corresponding normal tissues), whereas the protein level of SNX1 was downregulated in NSCLC cell lines. Next, we found that ectopic overexpression of miR-95 in A549 or H226 contributed to tumor growth in xenograft mouse models. In addition, the results also indicated that upregulation of miR-95 could significantly enhance the susceptibilities of NSCLC cells to chemo- or radiotherapy. Furthermore, using the luciferase reporter, we demonstrated that SNX1 is a direct target of miR-95. Meanwhile, overexpression of SNX1 could abrogate the growth of NSCLC cells induced by miR-95. Taken together, these results suggest that miR-95 functions as an oncogene role in NSCLC cells by directly targeting SNX1. PMID:24835695

  7. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V.; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T.; Porcari, John P.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ...

  8. Laboratory-scale bioaugmentation relieves acetate accumulation and stimulates methane production in stalled anaerobic digesters

    OpenAIRE

    Town, Jennifer R.; Dumonceaux, Tim J.

    2015-01-01

    An imbalance between acidogenic and methanogenic organisms during anaerobic digestion can result in increased accumulation of volatile fatty acids, decreased reactor pH, and inhibition of methane-producing Archaea. Most commonly the result of organic input overload or poor inoculum selection, these microbiological and biochemical changes severely hamper reactor performance, and there are a few tools available to facilitate reactor recovery. A small, stable consortium capable of catabolizing a...

  9. Matrine induces mitochondrial apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells via suppression of β-catenin/survivin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan-Qin; Jin, Jian-Jun; Wang, Jing

    2015-05-01

    Matrine is an alkaloid isolated from Sophora flavescens and shows anticancer activities. The present study was carried out to determine the cytotoxic effects of matrine on cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and the associated molecular mechanisms. Parental and cisplatin-resistant A549 and H460 NSCLC cells were treated with 1 or 2 g/l of matrine for 48 h, and cell viability and apoptosis were assessed. β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) changes, activation of caspases, and survivin expression were examined. The effect of overexpression of survivin on the anticancer activity of matrine was investigated. Compared to the parental cells, cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cells showed increased β-catenin transcriptional activity. Matrine treatment resulted in a significant reduction in β-catenin activation and survivin expression in the cisplatin-resistant cells. Matrine caused apoptotic death in the cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cells, coupled with loss of ΔΨm and activation of caspase-9 and -3. Matrine-induced apoptosis of the cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cells was significantly reversed by overexpression of survivin. In conclusion, matrine exposure induces mitochondrial apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cells, which is largely mediated through inactivation of β-catenin/survivin signaling. Further investigation of the therapeutic benefit of matrine in overcoming cisplatin resistance in NSCLC is warranted.

  10. Inflammation-induced radioresistance is mediated by ROS-dependent inactivation of protein phosphatase 1 in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wanyeon; Youn, HyeSook; Kang, ChulHee; Youn, BuHyun

    2015-09-01

    Inflammation plays a pivotal role in modulating the radiation responsiveness of tumors. We determined that an inflammation response prior to irradiation contributes to radiotherapy resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. In the clonogenic survival assay, activation of the inflammation response by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) decreased the degree of radiosensitivity in NCI-H460 cells (relatively radiosensitive cells), but had no effect in A549 cells (relatively radioresistant cells). LPS-induced radioresistance of NCI-H460 cells was also confirmed with a xenograft mouse model. The radioresistant effect observed in NCI-H460 cells was correlated with inhibition of apoptotic cell death due to reduced Caspase 3/7 activity. Moreover, we found that the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were synergistically elevated in NCI-H460 cells by treatment with LPS and radiation. Increased ROS generation negatively affected the activity of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). Decreased PP1 activity did not lead to Bad dephosphorylation, consequently resulting in the inhibition of irradiation-induced mitochondrial membrane potential loss and apoptosis. We confirmed that pre-treatment with a PP1 activator and LPS sensitized NCI-H460 cells to radiation. Taken together, our findings provided evidence that PP1 activity is critical for radiosensitization in NSCLC cells and PP1 activators can serve as promising radiosensitizers to improve therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26033480

  11. Study on apoptosis of human non-small cell pulmonary carcinoma A549 cells induced by 32P-chromium phosphates in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the phasic change and apoptosis of A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells induced by 32P-chromium phosphate in vitro, and establish the dose-response and time-response relationship. Methods: Internal irradiation was conducted by adding 32P-colloid into A549 cell culture system. The initial radioactivities were 0, 93, 180, 278, 370, 463 MBq/L, respectively. Giemsa stain, transmission electron microscopy and TUNEL were used in assessing morphologic, ultra structural pathologic and biochemical characteristics, and the phasic changes and apoptotic rates of cells were studied by flow cytometry. Results: After irradiation of A549 cells, the cell ratio of S + G2-M phase tended to increase within 96 h, then decreased gradually. At 72 h after irradiation the A549 cells showed excited manifestation, and in each irradiation group apoptosis began from 96 h of irradiation, and attained the peak at 120 h. Conclusion: In the lower dosage range, 32P internal irradiation may induce human NSCLC A549 cells to present delayed onset of apoptosis, and the rate of cell apoptosis is positively correlated to the initial radioactivity concentration. (authors)

  12. Development and utilization of a Walker 256 tumor-induced osteogenic small animal model for study of (Tc-99m)diphosphonate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this research was to develop and utilize a Walker 256 tumor induced osteogenic small animal model to study /sup 99m/Tc(NaBH4)HEDP complexes. A solid tumor was induced in muscles adjacent to the tibia of Fischer-344 rats by the implantation of Walker 256 carcinoma cells. Histopathological studies confirmed the induction of discrete osteogenesis on the periosteal surface of the tibia. The biodistribution of [/sup 99m/Tc]HMDP and [/sup 99m/Tc]MDP was determined in 18 tumor bearing animals and in the same number of normal animals. The results of the study were found to be comparable with clinical findings in humans. The model was proved to be valid for studying bone imaging agents. Seven /sup 99m/Tc(NaBH4)HEDP complexes were obtained from the separation of a reaction mixture by anion exchange HPLC. Two complexes were treated as a single entity. Six biodistribution studies of /sup 99m/Tc(NaBH4)HEDP complexes were conducted. Results indicated that each complex had a distinct biodistribution pattern

  13. Next-generation RNA-based fluorescent biosensors enable anaerobic detection of cyclic di-GMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin C; Wilson, Stephen C; Hammond, Ming C

    2016-09-30

    Bacteria occupy a diverse set of environmental niches with differing oxygen availability. Anaerobic environments such as mammalian digestive tracts and industrial reactors harbor an abundance of both obligate and facultative anaerobes, many of which play significant roles in human health and biomanufacturing. Studying bacterial function under partial or fully anaerobic conditions, however, is challenging given the paucity of suitable live-cell imaging tools. Here, we introduce a series of RNA-based fluorescent biosensors that respond selectively to cyclic di-GMP, an intracellular bacterial second messenger that controls cellular motility and biofilm formation. We demonstrate the utility of these biosensors in vivo under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and we show that biosensor expression does not interfere with the native motility phenotype. Together, our results attest to the effectiveness and versatility of RNA-based fluorescent biosensors, priming further development and application of these and other analogous sensors to study host-microbial and microbial-microbial interactions through small molecule signals. PMID:27382070

  14. Preparation of volatile fatty acid (VFA) calcium salts by anaerobic digestion of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofen; Swan, Janis E; Nair, Giridhar R; Langdon, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Many potentially useful intermediates such as hydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are formed during the complex anaerobic digestion processes that produce methane from biomass. This study recovers VFAs from an anaerobic digester by a combination of gas stripping and absorption with calcium carbonate slurry. Glucose was used as the model substrate because it is readily available, inexpensive, and easily digested. Sludge from a meatworks anaerobic digester produced methane and carbon dioxide (and sometimes a small amount of hydrogen) when batch-fed with glucose. Conditioning the neutral anaerobic sludge to an acidic pH (below 4.8) was achieved using repeated 1 g L(-1) doses of glucose. After conditioning, mainly VFAs and hydrogen were produced. The intermediate VFAs could be stripped using headspace gas. In subsequent fed-batch digestion/stripping cycles, the pH decreased when glucose was added and then increased when the VFA was gas stripped. The predominant acids formed at low pH values were lactic, butyric, and acetic acids. Lactic acid was converted to VFAs during stripping. The VFA calcium salts recovered were 80% butyrate and 20% acetate with minor quantities of propionate and valerate. PMID:25274086

  15. Evaluation of brain SERT occupancy by resveratrol against MDMA-induced neurobiological and behavioral changes in rats: A 4-[¹⁸F]-ADAM/small-animal PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jui-Hu; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Chen, Chien-Fu F; Cheng, Cheng-Yi; Pao, Li-Heng; Weng, Shao-Ju; Huang, Yuahn-Sieh; Shiue, Chyng-Yann; Yeh, Ming-Kung; Li, I-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    The misuse of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has drawn a growing concern worldwide for its psychophysiological impacts on humans. MDMA abusers are often accompanied by long-term serotonergic neurotoxicity, which is associated with reduced density of cerebral serotonin transporters (SERT) and depressive disorders. Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural polyphenolic phytoalexin that has been known for its antidepressant and neuroprotective effects. However, biological targets of RSV as well as its neuroprotective effects against MDMA remained largely unknown. In this study, we examined binding potency of RSV and MDMA to SERT using small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) with the SERT radioligand, N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-[(18)F]fluorophenylthio)benzylamine (4-[(18)F]-ADAM) and investigated the protection of RSV against the acute and long-term adverse effects of MDMA. We found that RSV exhibit binding potentials to SERT in vivo in a dose-dependent manner with variation among brain regions. When the MDMA-treated rats (10mg/kg, s.c.) were co-injected with RSV (20mg/kg, i.p.) twice daily for 4 consecutive days, MDMA-induced acute elevation in plasma corticosterone was significantly reduced. Further, 4-[(18)F]-ADAM PET imaging revealed that RSV protected against the MDMA-induced decrease in SERT availability in the midbrain and the thalamus 2 weeks following the co-treatment. The PET data were comparable to the observation from the forced swim test that RSV sufficiently ameliorated the depressive-like behaviors of the MDMA-treated rats. Together, these findings suggest that RSV is a potential antidepressant and may confer protection against neurobiological and behavioral changes induced by MDMA. PMID:26612383

  16. Astaxanthin down-regulates Rad51 expression via inactivation of AKT kinase to enhance mitomycin C-induced cytotoxicity in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jen-Chung; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Wang, Tai-Jing; Zheng, Hao-Yu; Chen, Wen-Ching; Chang, Po-Yuan; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2016-04-01

    Astaxanthin has been demonstrated to exhibit a wide range of beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. However, the molecular mechanism of astaxanthin-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. Rad51 plays a central role in homologous recombination, and studies show that chemo-resistant carcinomas exhibit high levels of Rad51 expression. In this study, astaxanthin treatment inhibited cell viability and proliferation of two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1703. Astaxanthin treatment (2.5-20 μM) decreased Rad51 expression and phospho-AKT(Ser473) protein level in a time and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression of constitutively active AKT (AKT-CA) vector rescued the decreased Rad51 mRNA and protein levels in astaxanthin-treated NSCLC cells. Combined treatment with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors (LY294002 or wortmannin) further decreased the Rad51 expression in astaxanthin-exposed A549 and H1703 cells. Knockdown of Rad51 expression by transfection with si-Rad51 RNA or cotreatment with LY294002 further enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of astaxanthin. Additionally, mitomycin C (MMC) as an anti-tumor antibiotic is widely used in clinical NSCLC chemotherapy. Combination of MMC and astaxanthin synergistically resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition in NSCLC cells, accompanied with reduced phospho-AKT(Ser473) level and Rad51 expression. Overexpression of AKT-CA or Flag-tagged Rad51 reversed the astaxanthin and MMC-induced synergistic cytotoxicity. In contrast, pretreatment with LY294002 further decreased the cell viability in astaxanthin and MMC co-treated cells. In conclusion, astaxanthin enhances MMC-induced cytotoxicity by decreasing Rad51 expression and AKT activation. These findings may provide rationale to combine astaxanthin with MMC for the treatment of NSCLC.

  17. The Metabolome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii following Induction of Anaerobic H2 Production by Sulfur Depletion*

    OpenAIRE

    Timmins, Matthew; Zhou, Wenxu; Rupprecht, Jens; Lim, Lysha; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Doebbe, Anja; Kruse, Olaf; Hankamer, Ben; Marx, Ute C.; Smith, Steven M.; Schenk, Peer M.

    2009-01-01

    The metabolome of the model species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been analyzed during 120 h of sulfur depletion to induce anaerobic hydrogen (H2) production, using NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and TLC. The results indicate that these unicellular green algae consume freshly supplied acetate in the medium to accumulate energy reserves during the first 24 h of sulfur depletion. In addition to the previously reported accumulation of starch, large amounts of ...

  18. Effects of psychological priming, video, and music on anaerobic exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, G; Karageorghis, C I

    2015-12-01

    Peak performance videos accompanied by music can help athletes to optimize their pre-competition mindset and are often used. Priming techniques can be incorporated into such videos to influence athletes' motivational state. There has been limited empirical work investigating the combined effects of such stimuli on anaerobic performance. The present study examined the psychological and psychophysiological effects of video, music, and priming when used as a pre-performance intervention for an anaerobic endurance task. Psychological measures included the main axes of the circumplex model of affect and liking scores taken pre-task, and the Exercise-induced Feeling Inventory, which was administered post-task. Physiological measures comprised heart rate variability and heart rate recorded pre-task. Fifteen males (age = 26.3 ± 2.8 years) were exposed to four conditions prior to performing the Wingate Anaerobic Test: music-only, video and music, video with music and motivational primes, and a no-video/no-music control. Results indicate that the combined video, music, and primes condition was the most effective in terms of influencing participants' pre-task affect and subsequent anaerobic performance; this was followed by the music-only condition. The findings indicate the utility of such stimuli as a pre-performance technique to enhance athletes' or exercisers' psychological states.

  19. Cold tolerance is unaffected by oxygen availability despite changes in anaerobic metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Leigh; Sørensen, Jesper G.; Koštál, Vladimír; Šimek, Petr; Terblanche, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Insect cold tolerance depends on their ability to withstand or repair perturbations in cellular homeostasis caused by low temperature stress. Decreased oxygen availability (hypoxia) can interact with low temperature tolerance, often improving insect survival. One mechanism proposed for such responses is that whole-animal cold tolerance is set by a transition to anaerobic metabolism. Here, we provide a test of this hypothesis in an insect model system (Thaumatotibia leucotreta) by experimental manipulation of oxygen availability while measuring metabolic rate, critical thermal minimum (CTmin), supercooling point and changes in 43 metabolites in moth larvae at three key timepoints (before, during and after chill coma). Furthermore, we determined the critical oxygen partial pressure below which metabolic rate was suppressed (c. 4.5 kPa). Results showed that altering oxygen availability did not affect (non-lethal) CTmin nor (lethal) supercooling point. Metabolomic profiling revealed the upregulation of anaerobic metabolites and alterations in concentrations of citric acid cycle intermediates during and after chill coma exposure. Hypoxia exacerbated the anaerobic metabolite responses induced by low temperatures. These results suggest that cold tolerance of T. leucotreta larvae is not set by oxygen limitation, and that anaerobic metabolism in these larvae may contribute to their ability to survive in necrotic fruit. PMID:27619175

  20. Effects of psychological priming, video, and music on anaerobic exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, G; Karageorghis, C I

    2015-12-01

    Peak performance videos accompanied by music can help athletes to optimize their pre-competition mindset and are often used. Priming techniques can be incorporated into such videos to influence athletes' motivational state. There has been limited empirical work investigating the combined effects of such stimuli on anaerobic performance. The present study examined the psychological and psychophysiological effects of video, music, and priming when used as a pre-performance intervention for an anaerobic endurance task. Psychological measures included the main axes of the circumplex model of affect and liking scores taken pre-task, and the Exercise-induced Feeling Inventory, which was administered post-task. Physiological measures comprised heart rate variability and heart rate recorded pre-task. Fifteen males (age = 26.3 ± 2.8 years) were exposed to four conditions prior to performing the Wingate Anaerobic Test: music-only, video and music, video with music and motivational primes, and a no-video/no-music control. Results indicate that the combined video, music, and primes condition was the most effective in terms of influencing participants' pre-task affect and subsequent anaerobic performance; this was followed by the music-only condition. The findings indicate the utility of such stimuli as a pre-performance technique to enhance athletes' or exercisers' psychological states. PMID:25556962

  1. ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS AND POSTANOXIC RECOVERY OF RESPIRATION OF RAT CORTICAL SYNAPTOSOMES ARE REDUCED BY SYNAPTOSOMAL SODIUM LOAD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GLEITZ, J; BEILE, A; KHAN, S; WILFFERT, B; TEGTMEIER, F

    1993-01-01

    Synaptosomes of rat cerebral cortex were used to study the effect of veratridine-induced Na+ load on postanoxic recovery of respiration and on aerobic and anaerobic ATP turnover, calculated from rates of oxygen consumption and lactate production. Non-stimulated synaptosomes: after onset of anoxia la

  2. Cadmium removal by Euglena gracilis is enhanced under anaerobic growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Martínez, M Geovanni; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Encalada, Rusely; Pineda, Erika; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Zepeda-Rodriguez, Armando; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo

    2015-05-15

    The facultative protist Euglena gracilis, a heavy metal hyper-accumulator, was grown under photo-heterotrophic and extreme conditions (acidic pH, anaerobiosis and with Cd(2+)) and biochemically characterized. High biomass (8.5×10(6)cellsmL(-1)) was reached after 10 days of culture. Under anaerobiosis, photosynthetic activity built up a microaerophilic environment of 0.7% O₂, which was sufficient to allow mitochondrial respiratory activity: glutamate and malate were fully consumed, whereas 25-33% of the added glucose was consumed. In anaerobic cells, photosynthesis but not respiration was activated by Cd(2+) which induced higher oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were 20 times lower in control cells under anaerobiosis than in aerobiosis, although Cd(2+) induced a higher MDA production. Cd(2+) stress induced increased contents of chelating thiols (cysteine, glutathione and phytochelatins) and polyphosphate. Biosorption (90%) and intracellular accumulation (30%) were the mechanisms by which anaerobic cells removed Cd(2+) from medium, which was 36% higher versus aerobic cells. The present study indicated that E. gracilis has the ability to remove Cd(2+) under anaerobic conditions, which might be advantageous for metal removal in sediments from polluted water bodies or bioreactors, where the O₂ concentration is particularly low. PMID:25698571

  3. A small antigenic determinant of the Chikungunya virus E2 protein is sufficient to induce neutralizing antibodies which are partially protective in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Weber

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV causes high fever and severe joint pain in humans. It is expected to spread in the future to Europe and has recently reached the USA due to globalization, climate change and vector switch. Despite this, little is known about the virus life cycle and, so far, there is no specific treatment or vaccination against Chikungunya infections. We aimed here to identify small antigenic determinants of the CHIKV E2 protein able to induce neutralizing immune responses.E2 enables attachment of the virus to target cells and a humoral immune response against E2 should protect from CHIKV infections. Seven recombinant proteins derived from E2 and consisting of linear and/or structural antigens were created, and were expressed in and purified from E. coli. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with these recombinant proteins and the mouse sera were screened for neutralizing antibodies. Whereas a linear N-terminally exposed peptide (L and surface-exposed parts of the E2 domain A (sA alone did not induce neutralizing antibodies, a construct containing domain B and a part of the β-ribbon (called B+ was sufficient to induce neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, domain sA fused to B+ (sAB+ induced the highest amount of neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, the construct sAB+ was used to generate a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA, MVA-CHIKV-sAB+. Mice were vaccinated with MVA-CHIKV-sAB+ and/or the recombinant protein sAB+ and were subsequently challenged with wild-type CHIKV. Whereas four vaccinations with MVA-CHIKV-sAB+ were not sufficient to protect mice from a CHIKV infection, protein vaccination with sAB+ markedly reduced the viral titers of vaccinated mice.The recombinant protein sAB+ contains important structural antigens for a neutralizing antibody response in mice and its formulation with appropriate adjuvants might lead to a future CHIKV vaccine.

  4. Analysis of nano-sized irradiation-induced defects in Fe-base materials by means of small angle neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermonuclear fusion of light atoms is considered since decades as an unlimited, safe and reliable source of energy that could eventually replace classical sources based on fossil fuel or nuclear fuel. Fusion reactor technology and materials studies are important parts of the fusion energy development program. For the time being, the most promising materials for structural applications in the future fusion power reactors are the Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steels for which the greatest technology maturity has been achieved, i.e., qualified fabrication routes, welding technology and a general industrial experience are almost available. The most important issues concerning the future use of RAFM steels in fusion power reactors are derived from their irradiation by 14 MeV neutrons that are the product, together with 3.5 MeV helium ions, of the envisaged fusion reactions between deuterium and tritium nuclei. Indeed, exposure of metallic materials to intense fluxes of 14 MeV neutrons will result in the formation of severe displacement damage (about 20-30 dpa per year) and high amounts of helium, which are at the origin of significant changes in the physical and mechanical properties of materials, such as hardening and embrittlement effects. This PhD Thesis work was aimed at investigating how far the Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) technique could be used for detecting and characterizing nano-sized irradiation-induced defects in RAFM steels. Indeed, the resolution limit of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is about 1 nm in weak beam TEM imaging, and it is usually thought that a large number of irradiation-induced effects have a size below 1 nm in RAFM steels and that these very small defects actually contribute to the irradiation-induced hardening and embrittlement of RAFM steels occurring at irradiation temperatures below about 400 °C. The aim of this work was achieved by combining SANS experiments on unirradiated and irradiated specimens

  5. In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eGieg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contibuting to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more benefical technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments.

  6. Atrazine removal in Danish anaerobic aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Philip Grinder; Arildskov, N.P.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    The pesticide atrazine (6-chloro-N-2-ethyl-N-4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine -2,4-diamine) was removed from the water phase in anaerobic laboratory batch incubations with sediment and groundwater from a number of Danish anaerobic aquifers, but not in incubations from aerobic aquifers. The removal...... process was abiotic since atrazine was also removed from microbially inhibited autoclaved and chloroform amended controls, although in controls amended with mercury, atrazine removal was slowed down. (ring-U-C-14)- atrazine amended samples showed no mineralization to (CO2)-C-14 or transformation...... to soluble degradation products, indicating that a slow sorption process was responsible for the atrazine removal. Approximately 20% of the applied C-14-atrazine was present in a non-extractable residual sediment bound fraction, indicating the slow sorption process to be in part irreversible...

  7. Cultivation of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria from spacecraft-associated clean rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglmeier, Michaela; Wirth, Reinhard; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2009-06-01

    In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a significant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough oxygen for fully aerobic microbial growth. A broad assortment of anaerobic media was used in our cultivation strategies, which focused on microorganisms with special metabolic skills. The majority of the isolated strains grew on anaerobic, complex, nutrient-rich media. Autotrophic microorganisms or microbes capable of fixing nitrogen were also cultivated. A broad range of facultatively anaerobic bacteria was detected during this study and also, for the first time, some strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium and Propionibacterium) were isolated from spacecraft-associated clean rooms. The multiassay cultivation approach was the basis for the detection of several bacteria that had not been cultivated from these special environments before and also led to the discovery of two novel microbial species of Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus.

  8. Anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing methanol in upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The direct conversion of methanol into methane is the main process in anaerobic treatment of methanol containing wastewater.However,acetic acid can also be produced from methanol theoretically,which may probably result in an abrupt pH drop and deteriorate the anaerobic process.Therefore,it is interesting to know what would really happen in an anaerobic reactor treating methanol wastewater.In this study,an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor treating methanol wastewater was operated.The chemical oxygen demand (COD),acetic acid and pH of the effluent were monitored at different loadings and influent alkalinity.The results showed that the anaerobic reactor could be operated steadily at as low as 119 mg/L of influent alkalinity and high organic loading rate with no obvious pH drops.Volatile fatty acids accumulation was not observed even at strong shock loadings.The microorganisms in the sludge at the end of the test became homogeneous in morphology,which were mainly spherical or spheroidal in shape.

  9. Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test as a Procedure to Evaluate Anaerobic Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, V L; Zagatto, A M; Kalva-Filho, C A; Mendes, O C; Gobatto, C A; Campos, E Z; Papoti, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the running anaerobic sprint test (RAST) as a predictor of anaerobic capacity, compare it to the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) and to compare the RAST's parameters with the parameters of 30-s all-out tethered running on a treadmill. 39 (17.0±1.4 years) soccer players participated in this study. The participants underwent an incremental test, 10 submaximal efforts [50-95% of velocity correspondent to VO(2MAX) (vVO(2MAX))] and one supramaximal effort at 110% of vVO(2MAX) for the determination of MAOD. Furthermore, the athletes performed the RAST. In the second stage the 30-s all-out tethered running was performed on a treadmill (30-s all-out), and compared with RAST. No significant correlation was observed between MAOD and RAST parameters. However, significant correlations were found between the power of the fifth effort (P5) of RAST with peak and mean power of 30-s all-out (r=0.73 and 0.50; p<0.05, respectively). In conclusion, the parameters from RAST do not have an association with MAOD, suggesting that this method should not be used to evaluate anaerobic capacity. Although the correlations between RAST parameters with 30-s all-out do reinforce the RAST as an evaluation method of anaerobic metabolism, such as anaerobic power. PMID:26422055

  10. Anaerobic digestion of food and vegetable waste

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Food and vegetable wastes contribute a large percentage of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), and anaerobic digestion potentially offers an ideal method for their management. Their chemical composition can, however, lead to unstable operation and in extreme cases complete process failure has been reported with this type of substrate. Semi-continuous trials on vegetable waste were carried out in laboratory-scale digesters with daily feed additions at different organic loadi...

  11. Anaerobic co-digestion of organic wastes

    OpenAIRE

    L. Neves

    2009-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica Anaerobic digestion is an already established process but the increasing need of bio‐waste recovery has determined the emergence of new substrates, revamping the research in this field. Contrary to some other European countries, in Portugal this technology is still scarcely in use. Nonetheless, the current legislation endorses this application as a waste management and as an energy recovery process. The rapid growth of the ...

  12. Anaerobic microbial LCFA degradation in bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, D.Z.; Pereira, M.A.; Alves, J.I.; Smidt, Hauke; Stams, A.J.M.; Alves, M. M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews recent results obtained on long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) anaerobic degradation. Two LCFA were used as model substrates: oleate, a mono-unsaturated LCFA, and palmitate, a saturated LCFA, both abundant in LCFA-rich wastewaters. 16S rRNA gene analysis of sludge samples submitted to continuous oleate- and palmitate-feeding followed by batch degradation of the accumulated LCFA demonstrated that bacterial communities were dominated by members of the Clostridiaceae and Sy...

  13. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Are membranes really necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Davila, M.; Kassab, G.; Klapwijk, A.; Van, Lier, G

    2008-01-01

    Membranes themselves represent a significant cost for the full scale application of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). The possibility of operating an AnMBR with a self-forming dynamic membrane generated by the substances present in the reactor liquor would translate into an important saving. A self-forming dynamic membrane only requires a support material over which a cake layer is formed, which determines the rejection properties of the system. The present research studies the applicat...

  14. Anaerobic digestion in sustainable biomass chains

    OpenAIRE

    Pabon Pereira, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the potential contribution of anaerobic digestion (AD) to the sustainability of biomass chains. Results provide insights in the technological potential to recover energy and valuable by-products from energy crops and residues, and evaluate biomass cascades involving AD technology for their feasibility and desirability. Embedding AD in biomass chains addresses current constraints towards increased use of biomass for energy production considering land competition and envir...

  15. Evaluation of the anaerobe effort capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Anca M. Ionescu

    2008-01-01

    This article aims at presenting the main methods by which can be evaluated the effort anaerobe capacity, as well as their rolein conducting the physical training, depending on the performance level, sportsman’s preparation level, training stage, age andsex; depending on the above-mentioned criteria, are recommended certain tests, related mainly to the specificity (intensity,duration) of the practiced effort. Also, the concomitant appreciation of the aerobe capacity can direct us in evaluation...

  16. On the kinetics of anaerobic power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moxnes John F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated two different mathematical models for the kinetics of anaerobic power. Model 1 assumes that the work power is linear with the work rate, while Model 2 assumes a linear relationship between the alactic anaerobic power and the rate of change of the aerobic power. In order to test these models, a cross country skier ran with poles on a treadmill at different exercise intensities. The aerobic power, based on the measured oxygen uptake, was used as input to the models, whereas the simulated blood lactate concentration was compared with experimental results. Thereafter, the metabolic rate from phosphocreatine break down was calculated theoretically. Finally, the models were used to compare phosphocreatine break down during continuous and interval exercises. Results Good similarity was found between experimental and simulated blood lactate concentration during steady state exercise intensities. The measured blood lactate concentrations were lower than simulated for intensities above the lactate threshold, but higher than simulated during recovery after high intensity exercise when the simulated lactate concentration was averaged over the whole lactate space. This fit was improved when the simulated lactate concentration was separated into two compartments; muscles + internal organs and blood. Model 2 gave a better behavior of alactic energy than Model 1 when compared against invasive measurements presented in the literature. During continuous exercise, Model 2 showed that the alactic energy storage decreased with time, whereas Model 1 showed a minimum value when steady state aerobic conditions were achieved. During interval exercise the two models showed similar patterns of alactic energy. Conclusions The current study provides useful insight on the kinetics of anaerobic power. Overall, our data indicate that blood lactate levels can be accurately modeled during steady state, and suggests a linear

  17. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Haagensen, Frank; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) found in wastewater is removed in the wastewater treatment facilities by sorption and aerobic biodegradation. The anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge has not been shown to contribute to the removal. The concentration of LAS based on dry matter typically increa...... under thermophilic conditions was 37% with LAS as sole carbon source. Benzaldehyde was produced in the UASB reactor during LAS transformation....

  18. Vulnerability of individual fish to capture by trawling is influenced by capacity for anaerobic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Shaun S; Nati, Julie J H; Suski, Cory D

    2015-08-22

    The harvest of animals by humans may constitute one of the strongest evolutionary forces affecting wild populations. Vulnerability to harvest varies among individuals within species according to behavioural phenotypes, but we lack fundamental information regarding the physiological mechanisms underlying harvest-induced selection. It is unknown, for example, what physiological traits make some individual fish more susceptible to capture by commercial fisheries. Active fishing methods such as trawling pursue fish during harvest attempts, causing fish to use both aerobic steady-state swimming and anaerobic burst-type swimming to evade capture. Using simulated trawling procedures with schools of wild minnows Phoxinus phoxinus, we investigate two key questions to the study of fisheries-induced evolution that have been impossible to address using large-scale trawls: (i) are some individuals within a fish shoal consistently more susceptible to capture by trawling than others?; and (ii) if so, is this related to individual differences in swimming performance and metabolism? Results provide the first evidence of repeatable variation in susceptibility to trawling that is strongly related to anaerobic capacity and swimming ability. Maximum aerobic swim speed was also negatively correlated with vulnerability to trawling. Standard metabolic rate was highest among fish that were least vulnerable to trawling, but this relationship probably arose through correlations with anaerobic capacity. These results indicate that vulnerability to trawling is linked to anaerobic swimming performance and metabolic demand, drawing parallels with factors influencing susceptibility to natural predators. Selection on these traits by fisheries could induce shifts in the fundamental physiological makeup and function of descendent populations.

  19. Biocompatible micro-sized cell culture chamber for the detection of nanoparticle-induced IL8 promoter activity on a small cell population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oostingh Gertie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In most conventional in vitro toxicological assays, the response of a complete cell population is averaged, and therefore, single-cell responses are not detectable. Such averaging might result in misinterpretations when only individual cells within a population respond to a certain stimulus. Therefore, there is a need for non-invasive in vitro systems to verify the toxicity of nanoscale materials. In the present study, a micro-sized cell culture chamber with a silicon nitride membrane (0.16 mm2 was produced for cell cultivation and the detection of specific cell responses. The biocompatibility of the microcavity chip (MCC was verified by studying adipogenic and neuronal differentiation. Thereafter, the suitability of the MCC to study the effects of nanoparticles on a small cell population was determined by using a green fluorescence protein-based reporter cell line. Interleukin-8 promoter (pIL8 induction, a marker of an inflammatory response, was used to monitor immune activation. The validation of the MCC-based method was performed using well-characterized gold and silver nanoparticles. The sensitivity of the new method was verified comparing the quantified pIL8 activation via MCC-based and standard techniques. The results proved the biocompatibility and the sensitivity of the microculture chamber, as well as a high optical quality due to the properties of Si3N4. The MCC-based method is suited for threshold- and time-dependent analysis of nanoparticle-induced IL8 promoter activity. This novel system can give dynamic information at the level of adherent single cells of a small cell population and presents a new non-invasive in vitro test method to assess the toxicity of nanomaterials and other compounds. PACS: 85.35.Be, 81.16.Nd, 87.18.Mp

  20. Biocompatible micro-sized cell culture chamber for the detection of nanoparticle-induced IL8 promoter activity on a small cell population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Yvonne; Oostingh, Gertie J.; Sossalla, Adam; Duschl, Albert; von Briesen, Hagen; Thielecke, Hagen

    2011-08-01

    In most conventional in vitro toxicological assays, the response of a complete cell population is averaged, and therefore, single-cell responses are not detectable. Such averaging might result in misinterpretations when only individual cells within a population respond to a certain stimulus. Therefore, there is a need for non-invasive in vitro systems to verify the toxicity of nanoscale materials. In the present study, a micro-sized cell culture chamber with a silicon nitride membrane (0.16 mm2) was produced for cell cultivation and the detection of specific cell responses. The biocompatibility of the microcavity chip (MCC) was verified by studying adipogenic and neuronal differentiation. Thereafter, the suitability of the MCC to study the effects of nanoparticles on a small cell population was determined by using a green fluorescence protein-based reporter cell line. Interleukin-8 promoter (pIL8) induction, a marker of an inflammatory response, was used to monitor immune activation. The validation of the MCC-based method was performed using well-characterized gold and silver nanoparticles. The sensitivity of the new method was verified comparing the quantified pIL8 activation via MCC-based and standard techniques. The results proved the biocompatibility and the sensitivity of the microculture chamber, as well as a high optical quality due to the properties of Si3N4. The MCC-based method is suited for threshold- and time-dependent analysis of nanoparticle-induced IL8 promoter activity. This novel system can give dynamic information at the level of adherent single cells of a small cell population and presents a new non-invasive in vitro test method to assess the toxicity of nanomaterials and other compounds. PACS: 85.35.Be, 81.16.Nd, 87.18.Mp

  1. Some unique features of alkaliphilic anaerobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roof, Erin; Pikuta, Elena; Otto, Christopher; Williams, George; Hoover, Richard

    2013-09-01

    This article explores two topics involving the examination of four strains of alkaliphilic anaerobes. The first topic was dedicated to detection of the ability of microorganisms to metabolize alternative chirality substrates. Two saccharolytic anaerobic bacteria were chosen for the first experiment: Anaerovirgula multivorans strain SCAT, which is gram positive and spore-forming; and Spirochaeta dissipatitropha, strain ASpC2T, which is gram negative. It was found that both checked sugarlytics were able to use L-ribose and L-arabinose, as growth substrates. The second part was concerned of study a chemolithotrophy in two halo-alkaliphilic sulfate reducing bacteria: Desulfonatornum thiodismutans strain MLF1T and Desulfonatronum lacustre strain Z-7951T. The experiments with lithotrophs had demonstrated that strain MLF1T was capable to grow without any organic source of carbon, while strain Z-7951T had required at least 2 mM sodium acetate for growth. Anaerobic technique was used for preparation of the growth media and maintenance of these bacterial cultures. Standard methods for Gram, spore, and flagella staining were applied for characterization of cytomorphology. In this article, the results of the experiments performed on cytological, physiological, and biochemical levels are presented and discussed.

  2. Alternating Current Influences Anaerobic Electroactive Biofilm Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhou, Lean; Lu, Lu; Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Li, Nan; Wang, Heming; Park, Jaedo; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-09-01

    Alternating current (AC) is known to inactivate microbial growth in suspension, but how AC influences anaerobic biofilm activities has not been systematically investigated. Using a Geobacter dominated anaerobic biofilm growing on the electrodes of microbial electrochemical reactors, we found that high frequency AC ranging from 1 MHz to 1 kHz (amplitude of 5 V, 30 min) showed only temporary inhibition to the biofilm activity. However, lower frequency (100 Hz, 1.2 or 5 V) treatment led to 47 ± 19% permanent decrease in limiting current on the same biofilm, which is attributed to the action of electrohydrodynamic force that caused biofilm damage and loss of intercellular electron transfer network. Confocal microscopy images show such inactivation mainly occurred at the interface between the biofilm and the electrode. Reducing the frequency further to 1 Hz led to water electrolysis, which generated gas bubbles that flushed all attached cells out of the electrode. These findings provide new references on understanding and regulating biofilm growth, which has broader implications in biofouling control, anaerobic waste treatment, energy and product recovery, and general understanding of microbial ecology and physiology. PMID:27485403

  3. Microbial Aspects of Anaerobic BTEX Degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Combined with conventional methods, developments in both geochemical (delineation of redox processes) and molecular microbial methods (analysis of 16S rDNA genes and functional genes) have allowed us to study in details microorganisms and genes involved in the anaerobic degradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) under specific redox conditions. This review summarizes recent research in this field. The potential for anaerobic BTEX degradation is widely spread. Specific groups of microorganisms appear to be involved in degradation under different redox conditions. Members of the Azoarcus/Thauera cluster perform BTEX degradation under denitrifying conditions, Geobacteraceae under Fe (III) reducing conditions and Desulfobacteriaceae under sulfate reducing conditions. The information so far obtained on biochemistry and molecular genetics of BTEX degradation indicates that each BTEX compound is funneled into the central benzyol-CoA pathway by a different peripheral pathway. The peripheral pathways of per BTEX compound show similarities among different physiological groups of microorganisms. We also describe how knowledge obtained on the microbial aspects of BTEX degradation can be used to enhance and monitor anaerobic BTEX degradation.

  4. Vinasses treatment in anaerobic fludized bed reactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. C. Terán

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural use of vinasse produced by the sugar industry has gone through many changes over the years. Coupled with concern over the increased agronomic efficiency and optimizing the management of the use of such waste, you can highlight the major global ecological awareness, developed after 90s. This study aims at the construction and operation of a reactor anaerobic cracker (RALF on pilot scale to verify the burden of chemical demand of oxygen (DQO of vinasse, under mesophilic. The stillage used for feeding the reactor was from a sugar cane processing plant, located in the city of Regente Feijó, São Paulo State. The inoculum was anaerobic sludge from a reactor and upward flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB treating wastewater from a factory of soda. The concentrations of vinasse to be treated ranged 17,239 mg DQO L-1 up to 28,174 mg DQO L-1. The effluent pH was maintained between 6.4 and 8.6 during the research. The productivity of biogas in the reactor has not achieved the expected rates, reaching only 46 mL day-1. Maximum efficiency attained during operation was 51.1 %, corresponding to a 14-day operation time, vinasses organic loading of 19.5 kg DQO m-3 dia-1 and to an hydraulic detention time of one day.

  5. Role of the Na+/H+ exchanger 3 in angiotensin II-induced hypertension in NHE3-deficient mice with transgenic rescue of NHE3 in small intestines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao C; Shull, Gary E; Miguel-Qin, Elisa; Chen, Fang; Zhuo, Jia L

    2015-11-01

    The role of Na(+/)H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3) in the kidney in angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension remains unknown. The present study used global NHE3-deficient mice with transgenic rescue of the Nhe3 gene in small intestines (tgNhe3(-/-)) to test the hypothesis that genetic deletion of NHE3 selectively in the kidney attenuates ANG II-induced hypertension. Six groups of wild-type (tgNhe3(+/+)) and tgNhe3(-/-) mice were infused with either vehicle or ANG II (1.5 mg/kg/day, i.p., 2 weeks, or 10 nmol/min, i.v., 30 min), treated with or without losartan (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 2 weeks. Basal systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mean intra-arterial blood pressure (MAP) were significantly lower in tgNhe3(-/-) mice (P excretion, urinary Na(+) excretion, urinary K(+) excretion, and urinary Cl(-) excretion were significantly lower in tgNhe3(-/-) mice (P < 0.01). These responses were associated with significantly elevated plasma ANG II and aldosterone levels, and marked upregulation in aquaporin 1, the Na(+)/HCO3 cotransporter, the α1 subunit isoform of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, protein kinase Cα, MAP kinases ERK1/2, and glycogen synthase kinase 3 α/β in the renal cortex of tgNhe3(-/-) mice (P < 0.01). ANG II infusion markedly increased SBP and MAP and renal cortical transporter and signaling proteins in tgNhe3(+/+), as expected, but all of these responses to ANG II were attenuated in tgNhe3(-/-) mice (P < 0.01). These results suggest that NHE3 in the kidney is necessary for maintaining normal blood pressure and fully developing ANG II-dependent hypertension.

  6. Investigation of radiation-induced transcriptome profile of radioresistant non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells using RNA-seq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jung Yang

    Full Text Available Radioresistance is a main impediment to effective radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Despite several experimental and clinical studies of resistance to radiation, the precise mechanism of radioresistance in NSCLC cells and tissues still remains unclear. This result could be explained by limitation of previous researches such as a partial understanding of the cellular radioresistance mechanism at a single molecule level. In this study, we aimed to investigate extensive radiation responses in radioresistant NSCLC cells and to identify radioresistance-associating factors. For the first time, using RNA-seq, a massive sequencing-based approach, we examined whole-transcriptome alteration in radioresistant NSCLC A549 cells under irradiation, and verified significant radiation-altered genes and their chromosome distribution patterns. Also, bioinformatic approaches (GO analysis and IPA were performed to characterize the radiation responses in radioresistant A549 cells. We found that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, migration and inflammatory processes could be meaningfully related to regulation of radiation responses in radioresistant A549 cells. Based on the results of bioinformatic analysis for the radiation-induced transcriptome alteration, we selected seven significant radiation-altered genes (SESN2, FN1, TRAF4, CDKN1A, COX-2, DDB2 and FDXR and then compared radiation effects in two types of NSCLC cells with different radiosensitivity (radioresistant A549 cells and radiosensitive NCI-H460 cells. Interestingly, under irradiation, COX-2 showed the most significant difference in mRNA and protein expression between A549 and NCI-H460 cells. IR-induced increase of COX-2 expression was appeared only in radioresistant A549 cells. Collectively, we suggest that COX-2 (also known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2 could have possibility as a putative biomarker for radioresistance in NSCLC cells.

  7. MgATP-induced conformational changes in the iron protein from Azotobacter vinelandii, as studied by small-angle x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Gavini, N; Tsuruta, H; Eliezer, D; Burgess, B K; Doniach, S; Hodgson, K O

    1994-02-01

    Small angle x-ray scattering experiments have been carried out on the purified iron proteins of nitrogenase from wild-type Azotobacter vinelandii and from a Nif- mutant strain, A. vinelandii UW91 (which has an A157S mutation). This study was designed to investigate the influence of MgATP and MgADP binding on the protein structure in solution. For the wild-type protein, the binding of MgATP induces a significant conformational change that is observed as a decrease of about 2.0 A in the radius of gyration. In contrast, the binding of MgADP to the wild-type iron protein does not detectably affect the radius of gyration. In the absence of nucleotides, the radius of gyration for the UW91 mutant is indistinguishable from that of the wild-type. However, unlike for the wild-type protein, the radius of gyration of the UW91 iron protein is unaffected by the addition of MgATP. We have previously shown that the UW91 iron protein has a normal [4Fe-4S] cluster and MgATP binding ability but that it is completely blocked for electron transfer and MgATP hydrolysis (Gavini, N., and Burgess, B. K. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 21179-21186). These x-ray scattering measurements suggest that a conformation different from that of the native state is therefore required for the iron protein to perform electron transfer to the MoFe protein. These results also support the hypothesis that Ala-157 is crucial for the iron protein to establish the electron-transfer-favored conformation induced by MgATP binding. PMID:8106367

  8. Andrographolide down-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In our previous study, Andro had been shown to inhibit non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell migration and invasion via down-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Here we demonstrated that Andro inhibited the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in A549 cells. HIF-1α plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. The Andro-induced decrease of cellular protein level of HIF-1α was correlated with a rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation of HIF-1α, and was accompanied by increased expressions of hydroxyl-HIF-1α and prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2), and a later decrease of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon the treatment of Andro. The Andro-inhibited VEGF expression appeared to be a consequence of HIF-1α inactivation, because its DNA binding activity was suppressed by Andro. Molecular data showed that all these effects of Andro might be mediated via TGFβ1/PHD2/HIF-1α pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of TGFβ1 overexpression vector and PHD2 siRNA, and the usage of a pharmacological MG132 inhibitor. Furthermore, we elucidated the involvement of Andro in HIF-1α transduced VEGF expression in A549 cells and other NSCLC cell lines. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which may be developed as a chemotherapeutic or an anti-angiogenesis agent for NSCLC in the future.

  9. miR-146a inhibits cell growth, cell migration and induces apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    Full Text Available Aberrant expression of microRNA-146a (miR-146a has been reported to be involved in the development and progression of various types of cancers. However, its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of miR-146a to various aspects of the malignant phenotype of human NSCLCs. In functional experiments, miR-146a suppressed cell growth, induced cellular apoptosis and inhibited EGFR downstream signaling in five NSCLC cell lines (H358, H1650, H1975, HCC827 and H292. miR-146a also inhibited the migratory capacity of these NSCLC cells. On the other hand, miR-146a enhanced the inhibition of cell proliferation by drugs targeting EGFR, including both TKIs (gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib and a monoclonal antibody (cetuximab. These effects were independent of the EGFR mutation status (wild type, sensitizing mutation or resistance mutation, but were less potent compared to the effects of siRNA targeting of EGFR. Our results suggest that these effects of miR-146a are due to its targeting of EGFR and NF-κB signaling. We also found, in clinical formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE lung cancer samples, that low expression of miR-146a was correlated with advanced clinical TNM stages and distant metastasis in NSCLC (P<0.05. The patients with high miR-146a expression in their tumors showed longer progression-free survival (25.6 weeks in miR-146a high patients vs. 4.8 weeks in miR-146a low patients, P<0.05. miR-146a is therefore a strong candidate prognostic biomarker in NSCLC. Thus inducing miR-146a might be a therapeutic strategy for NSCLC.

  10. Corneal Confocal Microscopy Detects Small Fibre Neuropathy in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer and Nerve Regeneration in Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ferdousi

    Full Text Available There are multiple neurological complications of cancer and its treatment. This study assessed the utility of the novel non-invasive ophthalmic technique of corneal confocal microscopy in identifying neuropathy in patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer before and after platinum based chemotherapy. In this study, 21 subjects with upper gastrointestinal (oesophageal or gastric cancer and 21 healthy control subjects underwent assessment of neuropathy using the neuropathy disability score, quantitative sensory testing for vibration perception threshold, warm and cold sensation thresholds, cold and heat induced pain thresholds, nerve conduction studies and corneal confocal microscopy. Patients with gastro-oesophageal cancer had higher heat induced pain (P = 0.04 and warm sensation (P = 0.03 thresholds with a significantly reduced sural sensory (P<0.01 and peroneal motor (P<0.01 nerve conduction velocity, corneal nerve fibre density (CNFD, nerve branch density (CNBD and nerve fibre length (CNFL (P<0.0001. Furthermore, CNFD correlated significantly with the time from presentation with symptoms to commencing chemotherapy (r = -0.54, P = 0.02, and CNFL (r = -0.8, P<0.0001 and CNBD (r = 0.63, P = 0.003 were related to the severity of lymph node involvement. After the 3rd cycle of chemotherapy, there was no change in any measure of neuropathy, except for a significant increase in CNFL (P = 0.003. Corneal confocal microscopy detects a small fibre neuropathy in this cohort of patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer, which was related to disease severity. Furthermore, the increase in CNFL after the chemotherapy may indicate nerve regeneration.

  11. Anaerobic and Aerobic Performances in Elite Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes de Araujo Gustavo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to propose a specific lactate minimum test for elite basketball players considering the: Running Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST as a hyperlactatemia inductor, short distances (specific distance, 20 m during progressive intensity and mathematical analysis to interpret aerobic and anaerobic variables. The basketball players were assigned to four groups: All positions (n=26, Guard (n= 7, Forward (n=11 and Center (n=8. The hyperlactatemia elevation (RAST method consisted of 6 maximum sprints over 35 m separated by 10 s of recovery. The progressive phase of the lactate minimum test consisted of 5 stages controlled by an electronic metronome (8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0 and 12.0 km/h over a 20 m distance. The RAST variables and the lactate values were analyzed using visual and mathematical models. The intensity of the lactate minimum test, determined by a visual method, reduced in relation to polynomial fits (2nd degree for the Small Forward positions and General groups. The Power and Fatigue Index values, determined by both methods, visual and 3rd degree polynomial, were not significantly different between the groups. In conclusion, the RAST is an excellent hyperlactatemia inductor and the progressive intensity of lactate minimum test using short distances (20 m can be specifically used to evaluate the aerobic capacity of basketball players. In addition, no differences were observed between the visual and polynomial methods for RAST variables, but lactate minimum intensity was influenced by the method of analysis

  12. Tumor response and survival in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: the predictive value of chemotherapy-induced changes in fibrinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperfibrinogenemia is a common problem associated with various carcinomas, and is accompanied by hypercoagulablity. In advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) it remains unclear whether or not chemotherapy-induced changes in fibrinogen level relate to chemotherapeutic response and prognosis. The purposes of this study were to: 1) analyze the association between chemotherapy-induced changes in plasma fibrinogen level and the chemotherapeutic response after the first two courses of standard first-line platinum-based chemotherapy; and 2) evaluate the prognostic significance of the basal plasma fibrinogen level in patients with advanced NSCLC. In this retrospective study, the data from 160 patients with advanced NSCLC were collected. The association between the changes in fibrinogen and the response to chemotherapy, or between the pre-and post-chemotherapy fibrinogen levels and patient clinical characteristics, were analyzed using SPSS software. In addition, the prognostic value of pre-chemotherapy fibrinogen levels was assessed. The median pre-chemotherapy plasma fibrinogen level was 4.4 g/L. Pre-chemotherapy plasma fibrinogen levels correlated significantly with gender (p = 0.041). Post-chemotherapy plasma fibrinogen levels correlated with gender (p = 0.023), age (p = 0.018), ECOG (p = 0.002) and tumor response (p = 0.049). Plasma fibrinogen levels markedly decreased after chemotherapy in 98 (61.25 %) patients with pre-chemotherapy hyperfibrinogenemia (p = 0.008); and in this population there was a significant link between the decrease in fibrinogen level, and initial partial response (PR; p = 0.017) and stable disease (SD; p = 0.031). Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that higher levels of fibrinogen (≥4.4 g/L) and ECOG 1 were positively associated with shorter overall survival (OS). CEA and CA125 also decreased significantly (p =0.015, p =0.000) in DCR group after chemotherapy. This study showed that the reduction in plasma fibrinogen levels

  13. Shock-induced poration, cholesterol flip-flop and small interfering RNA transfection in a phospholipid membrane: Multimillion atom, microsecond molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Amit

    performing a 15 mus all-atom MD simulation of a DPPC-CHOL bilayer. We find that the CHOL flip-flop rates are on the sub microsecond timescale. These results are verified by performing various independent parallel replica (PR) simulations. Our PR simulations provide significant boost in sampling of the flip-flop events. We observe that the CHOL flip-flop can induce membrane order, regulate membrane-bending energy, and facilitate membrane relaxation. The rapid flip-flop rates reported here have important implications for the role of CHOL in mechanical properties of cell membranes, formation of domains, and maintaining CHOL concentration asymmetry in plasma membrane. Our PR approach can reach submillisecond time scales and bridge the gap between MD simulations and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments on CHOL flip-flop dynamics in membranes. The last project deals with transfection barriers encountered by a bare small interfering RNA (siRNA) in a phospholipid bilayer. SiRNA molecules play a pivotal role in therapeutic applications. A key limitation to the widespread implementation of siRNA-based therapeutics is the difficulty of delivering siRNA-based drugs to cells. We have examined structural and mechanical barriers to siRNA passage across a phospholipid bilayer using all-atom MD simulations. We find that the electrostatic interaction between the anionic siRNA and head groups of phospholipid molecules induces a phase transformation from the liquid crystalline to ripple phase. Steered MD simulations reveal that the siRNA transfection through the ripple phase requires a force of ˜ 1.5 nN.

  14. Temozolomide-perillyl alcohol conjugate induced reactive oxygen species accumulation contributes to its cytotoxicity against non-small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xingguo; Xie, Li; Wang, Xingwu; Zeng, Qian; Chen, Thomas C.; Wang, Weijun; Song, Xianrang

    2016-01-01

    Temozolomide-perillyl alcohol conjugate (TMZ − POH), a novel temozolomide analog, was reported to play a cytotoxic role in triple-negative breast cancer and TMZ-resistant gliomas. In a current study we had demonstrated how TMZ − POH also exhibited its cytotoxicity against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most common type of lung cancer, as evidence from cell/tumor proliferation inhibition, G2/M arrest, DNA damage and mitochondrial apoptosis. Importantly, TMZ − POH’s cytotoxicity is closely related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation because it can be reversed by two ROS scavengers, catalase (CAT) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). TMZ − POH induces mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) decrease and ROS accumulation, in turn activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) signaling and mitochondrial apoptosis, and then exerts its cytotoxicity, thus proposing TMZ − POH as a potential therapeutic candidate for NSCLC. PMID:26949038

  15. A new anti-angiogenic small molecule, G0811, inhibits angiogenesis via targeting hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α signal transduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Jung, Hye Jin; Kwon, Ho Jeong, E-mail: kwonhj@yonsei.ac.kr

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •G0811 suppresses HIF-1α expression without cell toxicity. •G0811 exhibits anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. •G0811 provides a new molecular scaffold for the development of therapeutics targeting angiogenesis. -- Abstract: Regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α stabilization, which in turn contributes to adaptation of tumor cells to hypoxia has been highlighted as a promising therapeutic target in angiogenesis-related diseases. We have identified a new small molecule, G0811, as a potent angiogenesis inhibitor that targets HIF-1α signal transduction. G0811 suppressed HIF-1α stability in cancer cells and inhibited in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis, as validated by tube formation, chemoinvasion, and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. In addition, G0811 effectively decreased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is one of target genes of HIF-1α. However, G0811 did not exhibit anti-proliferative activities or toxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at effective doses. These results demonstrate that G0811 could be a new angiogenesis inhibitor that acts by targeting HIF-1α signal transduction pathway.

  16. Farnesiferol c induces apoptosis via regulation of L11 and c-Myc with combinational potential with anticancer drugs in non-small-cell lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Hoon; Kim, Moon Joon; Lee, Hyemin; Lee, Jihyun; Kim, Jaekwang; Lee, Hyun Joo; Shin, Eun Ah; Kim, Yoon Hyeon; Kim, Bonglee; Shim, Bum Sang; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Though Farnesiferol c (FC) has been reported to have anti-angiogenic and antitumor activity, the underlying antitumor mechanism of FC still remains unclear. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the apoptotic mechanism of FC in human H1299 and H596 non-small lung cancer cells (NSCLCs). FC significantly showed cytotoxicity, increased sub-G1 accumulation, and attenuated the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Survivin and procaspase 3 in H1299 and H596 cells. Furthermore, FC effectively suppressed the mRNA expression of G1 arrest related genes such as Cyclin D1, E2F1 transcription factor and CDC25A by RT-PCR. Interestingly, FC inhibited the expression of c-Myc, ribosomal protein L11 (L11) and nucleolin (NCL) in H1299 and H596 cells. Of note, silencing of L11 by siRNA transfection enhanced the expression of c-Myc through a negative feedback mechanism, while c-Myc knockdown downregulated L11 in H1299 cells. Additionally, combined treatment of FC and puromycin/doxorubicin promoted the activation of caspase 9/3, and attenuated the expression of c-Myc, Cyclin D1 and CDK4 in H1299 cells compared to single treatment. Taken together, our findings suggest that FC induces apoptosis and G1 arrest via regulation of ribosomal protein L11 and c-Myc and also enhances antitumor effect of puromycin or doxorubicin in NSCLCs. PMID:27231235

  17. Sulphur alters NFκB-p300 cross-talk in favour of p53-p300 to induce apoptosis in non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shilpi; Bhattacharjee, Pushpak; Guha, Deblina; Kajal, Kirti; Khan, Poulami; Chakraborty, Sreeparna; Mukherjee, Shravanti; Paul, Shrutarshi; Manchanda, Rajkumar; Khurana, Anil; Nayak, Debadatta; Chakrabarty, Rathin; Sa, Gaurisankar; Das, Tanya

    2015-08-01

    Adverse side effects of chemotherapy during cancer treatment have shifted considerable focus towards therapies that are not only targeted but are also devoid of toxic side effects. We evaluated the antitumorigenic activity of sulphur, and delineated the molecular mechanisms underlying sulphur-induced apoptosis in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells. A search for the underlying mechanism revealed that the choice between the two cellular processes, NFκBp65-mediated survival and p53-mediated apoptosis, was decided by the competition for a limited pool of transcriptional coactivator protein p300 in NSCLC cells. In contrast, sulphur inhibited otherwise upregulated survival signaling in NSCLC cells by perturbing the nuclear translocation of p65NFκB, its association with p300 histone acetylase, and subsequent transcription of Bcl-2. Under such anti-survival condition, induction of p53-p300 cross-talk enhanced the transcriptional activity of p53 and intrinsic mitochondrial death cascade. Overall, the findings of this preclinical study clearly delineated the molecular mechanism underlying the apoptogenic effect of the non-toxic homeopathic remedy, sulphur, in NSCLC cells.

  18. Kinetics of the urea-induced dissociation of human plasma alpha-2-macroglobulin as measured by small-angle neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöberg, B.; Pap, S.; Järnberg, S.-E.;

    1991-01-01

    the forward scattering of neutrons as a function of time. All these kinetic data can be explained by a reaction that is first-order with respect to the concentration of undissociated alpha-2-macroglobulin. The velocity constant is a function of urea concentration and it varies within wide limits. For instance......The kinetics of the urea-induced dissociation of human plasma alpha-2-macroglobulin into two half-molecular fragments was investigated at 21.0-degrees-C by using small-angle neutron scattering. The relative change in molecular mass that occurs upon dissociation was monitored by recording......, the half-life of the reaction at the lowest concentration of [H-2]urea studied (2.70 M) is 328 h, whereas the same value at the highest concentration of [H-2]urea (6.24 M) is only 8 min. Measurements were made both with [H-1]urea in (H2O)-H-1 and with [H-2]urea in 99% (H2O)-H-2, and it was found...

  19. Design of small molecules that target metal-A{beta} species and regulate metal-induced A{beta} aggregation and neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Suk; Braymer, Joseph J; Nanga, Ravi P R; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Lim, Mi Hee

    2010-12-21

    The accumulation of metal ions and amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates found in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been suggested to be involved in AD pathogenesis. To investigate metal-Aβ-associated pathways in AD, development of chemical tools to target metal-Aβ species is desired. Only a few efforts, however, have been reported. Here, we report bifunctional small molecules, N-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)aniline (L2-a) and N(1),N(1)-dimethyl-N(4)-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)benzene-1,4-diamine (L2-b) that can interact with both metal ions and Aβ species, as determined by spectroscopic methods including high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. Using the bifunctional compound L2-b, metal-induced Aβ aggregation and neurotoxicity were modulated in vitro as well as in human neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, treatment of human AD brain tissue homogenates containing metal ions and Aβ species with L2-b showed disassembly of Aβ aggregates. Therefore, our studies presented herein demonstrate the value of bifunctional compounds as chemical tools for investigating metal-Aβ-associated events and their mechanisms in the development and pathogenesis of AD and as potential therapeutics.

  20. Impaired epithelial differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells from ectodermal dysplasia-related patients is rescued by the small compound APR-246/PRIMA-1MET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalom-Feuerstein, Ruby; Serror, Laura; Aberdam, Edith; Müller, Franz-Josef; van Bokhoven, Hans; Wiman, Klas G; Zhou, Huiqing; Aberdam, Daniel; Petit, Isabelle

    2013-02-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia is a group of congenital syndromes affecting a variety of ectodermal derivatives. Among them, ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate (EEC) syndrome is caused by single point mutations in the p63 gene, which controls epidermal development and homeostasis. Phenotypic defects of the EEC syndrome include skin defects and limbal stem-cell deficiency. In this study, we designed a unique cellular model that recapitulated major embryonic defects related to EEC. Fibroblasts from healthy donors and EEC patients carrying two different point mutations in the DNA binding domain of p63 were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines. EEC-iPSC from both patients showed early ectodermal commitment into K18(+) cells but failed to further differentiate into K14(+) cells (epidermis/limbus) or K3/K12(+) cells (corneal epithelium). APR-246 (PRIMA-1(MET)), a small compound that restores functionality of mutant p53 in human tumor cells, could revert corneal epithelial lineage commitment and reinstate a normal p63-related signaling pathway. This study illustrates the relevance of iPSC for p63 related disorders and paves the way for future therapy of EEC. PMID:23355677

  1. miR-146a inhibits cell growth, cell migration and induces apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Umelo, Ijeoma Adaku; Lv, Shasha; Teugels, Erik; Fostier, Karel; Kronenberger, Peter; Dewaele, Alex; Sadones, Jan; Geers, Caroline; De Grève, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant expression of microRNA-146a (miR-146a) has been reported to be involved in the development and progression of various types of cancers. However, its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of miR-146a to various aspects of the malignant phenotype of human NSCLCs. In functional experiments, miR-146a suppressed cell growth, induced cellular apoptosis and inhibited EGFR downstream signaling in five NSCLC cell lines (H358, H1650, H1975, HCC827 and H292). miR-146a also inhibited the migratory capacity of these NSCLC cells. On the other hand, miR-146a enhanced the inhibition of cell proliferation by drugs targeting EGFR, including both TKIs (gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib) and a monoclonal antibody (cetuximab). These effects were independent of the EGFR mutation status (wild type, sensitizing mutation or resistance mutation), but were less potent compared to the effects of siRNA targeting of EGFR. Our results suggest that these effects of miR-146a are due to its targeting of EGFR and NF-κB signaling. We also found, in clinical formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) lung cancer samples, that low expression of miR-146a was correlated with advanced clinical TNM stages and distant metastasis in NSCLC (Pstrategy for NSCLC.

  2. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of coffee wet wastewater: Effect of recycle on anaerobic process performance

    OpenAIRE

    Yans Guardia Puebla; Suyén Rodríguez Pérez; Yennys Cuscó Varona; Janet Jiménez Hernández; Víctor Sánchez Girón

    2014-01-01

    The present work shows the results of the two-phase anaerobic digestion assessment for the treatment of coffee wet wastewater. The effect of recycle on the anaerobic digestion process was studied. Twooverall organic loading rate (OLR) values of 4,2 and 5,7 kgCOD·m -3 ·d -1 , with same overall hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 21,5 h was evaluated.In a two-phase system wereapplied two recycle rate of 0,4 and 1,0, of the effluent of an UASB-UAF methanogenic hybrid reactor towards an UASB acidog...

  3. Bacterial ecology of abattoir wastewater treated by an anaerobic digestor

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Jabari; Hana Gannoun; Eltaief Khelifi; Jean-Luc Cayol; Jean-Jacques Godon; Moktar Hamdi; Marie-Laure Fardeau

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Wastewater from an anaerobic treatment plant at a slaughterhouse was analysed to determine the bacterial biodiversity present. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic sludge obtained from the treatment plant showed significant diversity, as 27 different phyla were identified. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota (methanogens), and msbl6 (candidate division) were the dominant phyla of the anaerobic treatment plant and represented 21.7%, 18.5%, 11.5%, 9.4%,...

  4. The anaerobic corrosion of carbon steel in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a 2 year programme aimed at (1) determining the rate of anaerobic corrosion of steel in concrete, (2) investigating the nature of the corrosion products formed on carbon steel embedded in cementitious material under anaerobic conditions and (3) evaluating the effect of hydrogen over-pressures on the rate of anaerobic corrosion. All experiments have been carried out at temperatures in the range 20-300C, ie ambient conditions. 4 refs.; 19 figs.; 6 tabs

  5. Control of calcium carbonate precipitation in anaerobic reactors.

    OpenAIRE

    Langerak, van, B.

    1998-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of waste waters with a high calcium content may lead to excessive precipitation of calcium carbonate. So far, no proper methods were available to predict or reduce the extent of precipitation in an anaerobic treatment system. Moreover, it also was not clear to what extent precipitation in an anaerobic reactor can be tolerated because adequate knowledge on the structure and quality of methanogenic sludges with high calcium carbonate content was lacking. In this thesis, the ...

  6. APPLICATION OF ANAEROBIC BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR PHARMACEUTICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan and Paul J. Sallis

    2011-01-01

    The wastewater generated from pharmaceutical industry generally contain high organic load and the treatment is primarily carried out using two major types of biological methods; aerobic and anaerobic. However, due to high strength, it is infeasible to treat some pharmaceutical wastewater using aerobic biological processes. As an alternative, an anaerobic process is preferred to remove high strength organic matter. Anaerobic wastewater treatment is considered as the most cost effective solutio...

  7. Anaerobic Metabolism and Bioremediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathy, Raj

    Nitroaromatic compounds pollute soil, water, and food via use of pesticides, plastics, pharmaceuticals, landfill dumping of industrial wastes, and the military use of explosives. Biotransformation of trinitrotoluene and other nitroaromatics by aerobic bacteria in the laboratory has been frequently reported, but the anaerobic bacterial metabolism of nitroaromatics has not been studied as extensively perhaps due to the difficulty in working with anaerobic cultures and the slow growth of anaerobes. Sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria can metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment.

  8. Saponification pretreatment and solids recirculation as a new anaerobic process for the treatment of slaughterhouse waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affes, R; Palatsi, J; Flotats, X; Carrère, H; Steyer, J P; Battimelli, A

    2013-03-01

    Different configurations of anaerobic process, adapted to the treatment of solid slaughterhouse fatty waste, were proposed and evaluated in this study. The tested configurations are based on the combination of anaerobic digestion with/without waste saponification pretreatment (70 °C during 60 min) and with/without recirculation of the digestate solid fraction (ratio=20% w/w). After an acclimation period of substrate pulses-feeding cycles, the reactors were operated in a semi-continuous feeding mode, increasing organic loading rates along experimental time. The degradation of the raw substrate was shown to be the bottleneck of the whole process, obtaining the best performance and process yields in the reactor equipped with waste pretreatment and solids recirculation. Saponification promoted the emulsification and bioavailability of solid fatty residues, while recirculation of solids minimized the substrate/biomass wash-out and induced microbial adaptation to the treatment of fatty substrates.

  9. Altered antibiotic tolerance in anaerobic digesters acclimated to triclosan or triclocarban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel E; McNamara, Patrick J

    2016-11-01

    Bench-scale anaerobic digesters were amended to elevated steady-state concentrations of triclosan (850 mg/kg) and triclocarban (150 mg/kg) using a synthetic feed. After more than 9 solids retention time (SRT) values of acclimatization, biomass from each digester (and a control digester that received no antimicrobials) was used to assess the toxicity of three antibiotics. Methane production rate was measured as a surrogate for activity in microcosms that received doses of antibiotics ranging from no-antibiotic to inhibitory concentrations. Biomass amended with triclocarban was more sensitive to tetracycline compared to the control indicating synergistic inhibitory effects between this antibiotic and triclocarban. In contrast, biomass amended with triclosan was able to tolerate statistically higher levels of ciprofloxacin indicating that triclosan can induce functional resistance to ciprofloxacin in an anaerobic digester community.

  10. Application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for simulating anaerobic mesophilic sludge digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Carlos, E-mail: carllosmendez@gmail.com; Esquerre, Karla, E-mail: karlaesquerre@ufba.br; Matos Queiroz, Luciano, E-mail: lmqueiroz@ufba.br

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The behavior of a anaerobic reactor was evaluated through modeling. • Parametric sensitivity analysis was used to select most sensitive of the ADM1. • The results indicate that the ADM1 was able to predict the experimental results. • Organic load rate above of 35 kg/m{sup 3} day affects the performance of the process. - Abstract: Improving anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge by monitoring common indicators such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), gas composition and pH is a suitable solution for better sludge management. Modeling is an important tool to assess and to predict process performance. The present study focuses on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to simulate the dynamic behavior of a reactor fed with sewage sludge under mesophilic conditions. Parametric sensitivity analysis is used to select the most sensitive ADM1 parameters for estimation using a numerical procedure while other parameters are applied without any modification to the original values presented in the ADM1 report. The results indicate that the ADM1 model after parameter estimation was able to predict the experimental results of effluent acetate, propionate, composites and biogas flows and pH with reasonable accuracy. The simulation of the effect of organic shock loading clearly showed that an organic shock loading rate above of 35 kg/m{sup 3} day affects the performance of the reactor. The results demonstrate that simulations can be helpful to support decisions on predicting the anaerobic digestion process of sewage sludge.

  11. [Distribution and removal of anaerobic antibiotic resistant bacteria during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juan; Wang, Yuan-Yue; Wei Yuan, Song

    2014-10-01

    Sewage sludge is one of the major sources that releasing antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) into the environment since it contains large amount of ARB, but there is little information about the fate of the anaerobic ARB in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. Therefore, the distribution, removal and seasonal changes of tetracycline and β-lactam antibiotics resistant bacteria in the mesophilic egg-shaped digesters of a municipal wastewater treatment plant were investigated for one year in this study. Results showed that there were higher amounts of ARB and higher resistance rate of β-lactam antibiotics than that of tetracycline antibiotics in the sewage sludge. All ARB could be significantly reduced during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion process by 1.48-1.64 log unit (P < 0.05). Notably, the ampicillin and cephalothin resistance rates were significantly increased after anaerobic digestion by 12.0% and 14.3%, respectively (P < 0.05). The distribution of ARB in the sewage sludge had seasonal change characteristics. Except for chlorotetracycline resistant bacteria, there were more ARB in the sewage sludge in cold season than in warm season (P < 0.05). PMID:25693388

  12. A bio-electrochemical system for removing inhibitors of anaerobic digestion processes from anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    reactor to recover ammonia from anaerobic digestion reactor, and thereby alleviate or counteract ammonia inhibition and enhance the conversion of ammonia-rich wastes to biogas. The invention may further reduce overall cost, giving synergistic advantages for both ammonia recycling and biogas plants...

  13. Oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yao; Jost, Carsten; Mumme, Jan; Wang, Kaijun; Linke, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system, the effect of microaeration on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of maize straw was investigated under batch conditions and in the UASS with AF system. Aeration intensities of 0-431mL O2/gvs were conducted as pretreatment under batch conditions. Aeration pretreatment obviously enhanced anaerobic digestion and an aeration intensity of 431mL O2/gvs increased the methane yield by 82.2%. Aeration intensities of 0-355mL O2/gvs were conducted in the process liquor circulation of the UASS with AF system. Dissolved oxygen (DO) of UASS and AF reactors kept around 1.39±0.27 and 0.99±0.38mg/L, respectively. pH was relatively stable around 7.11±0.04. Volatile fatty acids and soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration in UASS reactor were higher than those in AF reactor. Methane yield of the whole system was almost stable at 85±7mL/gvs as aeration intensity increased step by step. The UASS with AF system showed good oxygen tolerance capacity. PMID:27372134

  14. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of coffee wet wastewater: Effect of recycle on anaerobic process performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yans Guardia Puebla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows the results of the two-phase anaerobic digestion assessment for the treatment of coffee wet wastewater. The effect of recycle on the anaerobic digestion process was studied. Twooverall organic loading rate (OLR values of 4,2 and 5,7 kgCOD·m -3 ·d -1 , with same overall hydraulic retention time (HRT of 21,5 h was evaluated.In a two-phase system wereapplied two recycle rate of 0,4 and 1,0, of the effluent of an UASB-UAF methanogenic hybrid reactor towards an UASB acidogenic reactor. In the anaerobic system with a recycle rate of 1,0 the total chemical oxygen demand (COD removal was 90%. The introduction of the recycle decreased the concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA, but it did not affect their composition, suggesting that the degradation pattern did not change. The presence of the acidogenic reactor in the two-phase system improved the stability of the anaerobic digestion process and increased the efficiency of methanogenic digester.

  15. Pemetrexed induced thymidylate synthase inhibition in non-small cell lung cancer patients: a pilot study with 3'-deoxy-3'-[¹⁸F]fluorothymidine positron emission tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Frings

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Pemetrexed is a thymidylate synthase (TS inhibitor and is effective in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. 3'-deoxy-3'-[¹⁸F]fluorothymidine (¹⁸F-FLT, a proliferation marker, could potentially identify tumor specific TS-inhibition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pemetrexed-induced TS-inhibition on ¹⁸F-FLT uptake 4 hours after pemetrexed administration in metastatic NSCLC patients. METHODS: Fourteen NSCLC patients underwent dynamic ¹⁸F-FLT positron emission tomography (PET scans at baseline and 4 hours after the first dose of pemetrexed. Volumes of interest were defined with a 41%, 50% and 70% threshold of the maximum pixel. Kinetic analysis and simplified measures were performed. At one, two, four and six hours after pemetrexed, plasma deoxyuridine was measured as systemic indicator of TS-inhibition. Tumor response measured with response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST, time to progression (TTP and overall survival (OS were determined. RESULTS: Eleven patients had evaluable ¹⁸F-FLT PET scans at baseline and 4 hours after pemetrexed. Two patients had increased ¹⁸F-FLT uptake of 35% and 31% after pemetrexed, whereas two other patients had decreased uptake of 31%. In the remaining seven patients ¹⁸F-FLT uptake did not change beyond test-retest borders. In all patients deoxyuridine levels raised after administration of pemetrexed, implicating pemetrexed-induced TS-inhibition. ¹⁸F-FLT uptake in bone marrow was significantly increased 4 hours after pemetrexed administration. Six weeks after the start of treatment 5 patients had partial response, 4 stable disease and 2 progressive disease. Median TTP was 4.2 months (range 3.0-7.4 months; median OS was 13.0 months (range 5.1-30.8 months. Changes in ¹⁸F-FLT uptake were not predictive for tumor response, TTP or OS. CONCLUSIONS: Measuring TS-inhibition in a clinical setting 4 hours after pemetrexed revealed a non-systematic change in

  16. Natural disaster vulnerability and human-induced pressure assessment in small islands developing states: A case study in the Union of the Comoros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burak, S.; Meddeb, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Comoros Islands are part of the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) located in the Indian Ocean. SIDS are islands and low-lying coastal nations that face common barriers to sustainable development, including limited resources, poor economic resilience, and vulnerability to sea level rise and natural disasters. The Comoros Archipelago is made up of four islands but the present study was conducted on three islands, namely Mwali (Mohéli), Ngazidja (Grande Comore) and Dzwani (Anjouan) that are aligned in the Mozambique Channel and spread over a surface area of 1862 km2. These islands are exposed to natural disaster coupled with human-induced pressure on natural resources. The major natural disaster vulnerability has been identified by the National AdaptationProgramme of Action (NAPA, 2006) as climate change, whose likely adverse impacts on the Comoros Islands are: i) changes in rainfall patterns; ii) increases in temperature; iii) salinization of coastal aquifers as a result of salt water intrusion due to sea level rise; and iv) increased frequency of severe weather conditions (such as tropical cyclones, droughts, heavy rainfall and flooding). In addition, existing practices related to natural resources management (primarily land, forest and water management) are very poor and this failure is increasingly threatening water and food security, resulting in a decline of economic growth and standards of living within the Comoros. Human-induced pressure combined with climate change impact is the inherent vulnerabilities of these islands. The government of the Union of the Comoros is aware of the alarming nature of climate change impact and has put in place several projects aiming at implementing adaptation measures in order to help increase the resilience of the vulnerable population in the face of this threat. These projects involve strengthening institutions, policy and regulations so as to improve the management of natural resources, among other measures. The

  17. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible.

  18. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. PMID:27396682

  19. Anaerobic wastewater treatment of concentrated sewage using a two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket- anaerobic filter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halalsheh, Maha M; Abu Rumman, Zainab M; Field, Jim A

    2010-01-01

    A two-stage pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket - anaerobic filter (UASB-AF) reactors system treating concentrated domestic sewage was operated at 23 degrees C and at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15 and 4 h, respectively. Excess sludge from the downstream AF stage was returned to the upstream UASB reactor. The aim was to obtain higher sludge retention time (SRT) in the UASB reactor for better methanization of suspended COD. The UASB-AF system removed 55% and 65% of the total COD (COD(tot)) and suspended COD (COD(ss)), respectively. The calculated SRT in the UASB reactor ranged from 20-35 days. The AF reactor removed the washed out sludge from the first stage reactor with average COD(ss) removal efficiency of 55%. The volatile fatty acids concentration in the effluent of the AF was 39 mg COD/L compared with 78 mg COD/L measured for the influent. The slightly higher COD(tot) removal efficiency obtained in this study compared with a single stage UASB reactor was achieved at 17% reduction in the total volume. PMID:20390881

  20. Anaerobic xylose fermentation by Spathaspora passalidarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaoru

    2012-01-01

    A cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into bioethanol requires that the xylose released from the hemicellulose fraction (20–40% of biomass) can be fermented. Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, efficiently ferments glucose but it lacks the ability to ferment xylose. Xylose......-fermenting yeast such as Pichia stipitis requires accurately controlled microaerophilic conditions during the xylose fermentation, rendering the process technically difficult and expensive. In this study, it is demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions Spathaspora passalidarum showed high ethanol production...