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Sample records for anaerobic marine protistan

  1. Massively parallel tag sequencing reveals the complexity of anaerobic marine protistan communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chistoserdov Andrei

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in sequencing strategies make possible unprecedented depth and scale of sampling for molecular detection of microbial diversity. Two major paradigm-shifting discoveries include the detection of bacterial diversity that is one to two orders of magnitude greater than previous estimates, and the discovery of an exciting 'rare biosphere' of molecular signatures ('species' of poorly understood ecological significance. We applied a high-throughput parallel tag sequencing (454 sequencing protocol adopted for eukaryotes to investigate protistan community complexity in two contrasting anoxic marine ecosystems (Framvaren Fjord, Norway; Cariaco deep-sea basin, Venezuela. Both sampling sites have previously been scrutinized for protistan diversity by traditional clone library construction and Sanger sequencing. By comparing these clone library data with 454 amplicon library data, we assess the efficiency of high-throughput tag sequencing strategies. We here present a novel, highly conservative bioinformatic analysis pipeline for the processing of large tag sequence data sets. Results The analyses of ca. 250,000 sequence reads revealed that the number of detected Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs far exceeded previous richness estimates from the same sites based on clone libraries and Sanger sequencing. More than 90% of this diversity was represented by OTUs with less than 10 sequence tags. We detected a substantial number of taxonomic groups like Apusozoa, Chrysomerophytes, Centroheliozoa, Eustigmatophytes, hyphochytriomycetes, Ichthyosporea, Oikomonads, Phaeothamniophytes, and rhodophytes which remained undetected by previous clone library-based diversity surveys of the sampling sites. The most important innovations in our newly developed bioinformatics pipeline employ (i BLASTN with query parameters adjusted for highly variable domains and a complete database of public ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene sequences for taxonomic

  2. Comparisons of the fungal and protistan communities among different marine sponge holobionts by pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liming; Liu, Fang; Karuppiah, Valliappan; Ren, Yi; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    To date, the knowledge of eukaryotic communities associated with sponges remains limited compared with prokaryotic communities. In a manner similar to prokaryotes, it could be hypothesized that sponge holobionts have phylogenetically diverse eukaryotic symbionts, and the eukaryotic community structures in different sponge holobionts were probably different. In order to test this hypothesis, the communities of eukaryota associated with 11 species of South China Sea sponges were compared with the V4 region of 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Consequently, 135 and 721 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi and protists were obtained at 97 % sequence similarity, respectively. These sequences were assigned to 2 phyla of fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) and 9 phyla of protists including 5 algal phyla (Chlorophyta, Haptophyta, Streptophyta, Rhodophyta, and Stramenopiles) and 4 protozoal phyla (Alveolata, Cercozoa, Haplosporidia, and Radiolaria) including 47 orders (12 fungi, 35 protists). Entorrhizales of fungi and 18 orders of protists were detected in marine sponges for the first time. Particularly, Tilletiales of fungi and Chlorocystidales of protists were detected for the first time in marine habitats. Though Ascomycota, Alveolata, and Radiolaria were detected in all the 11 sponge species, sponge holobionts have different fungi and protistan communities according to OTU comparison and principal component analysis at the order level. This study provided the first insights into the fungal and protistan communities associated with different marine sponge holobionts using pyrosequencing, thus further extending the knowledge on sponge-associated eukaryotic diversity.

  3. Protistan entomopathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protists, eukaryotes of mainly unicellular organization, are perhaps the most diverse and numerous of insect pathogens. As a group, protists exhibit the full range of symbiotic associations with insects, from mutualism and commensalism to parasitism and pathogenicity. However, most protistan etiolog...

  4. A marine microbial consortium apparently mediating anaerobic oxidation of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boetius, A.; Ravenschlag, K.; Schubert, CJ;

    2000-01-01

    A large fraction of globally produced methane is converted to CO2 by anaerobic oxidation in marine sediments(1). Strong geochemical evidence for net methane consumption in anoxic sediments is based on methane profiles(2), radiotracer experiments(3) and stable carbon isotope data(4). But the elusive...

  5. Enrichment culture of marine anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Yong-jie

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the enrichment of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria in the marine environment using sediment samples obtained from the East China Sea and discusses the nitrogen removal efficiency of marine anammox bioreactor. Enrichment of anammox bacteria with simultaneous removal of nitrite and ammonium ions was observed in the Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor under a total nitrogen loading rate of 0.37kg-N m-3day-1. In this study, The nitrogen removal efficiency was up to 80% and the molar-reaction ratio of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate was 1.0:1.22:0.22 which was a little different from a previously reported ratio of 1.0:1.32:0.26 in a freshwater system.

  6. Anaerobic degradation of benzene by marine sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musat, Florin; Wilkes, Heinz; Musat, Niculina; Kuypers, Marcel; Widdel, Friedrich

    2010-05-01

    Benzene, the archetypal aromatic hydrocarbon is a common constituent of crude oil and oil-refined products. As such, it can enter the biosphere through natural oil seeps or as a consequence of exploitation of fossil fuel reservoirs. Benzene is chemically very stable, due to the stabilizing aromatic electron system and to the lack of functional groups. Although the anaerobic degradation of benzene has been reported under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions, the microorganisms involved and the initial biochemical steps of degradation remain insufficiently understood. Using marine sediment from a Mediterranean lagoon a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with benzene as the sole organic substrate was obtained. Application of 16S rRNA gene-based methods showed that the enrichment was dominated (more than 85% of total cells) by a distinct phylotype affiliated with a clade of Deltaproteobacteria that include degraders of other aromatic hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, ethylbenzene and m-xylene. Using benzoate as a soluble substrate in agar dilution series, several pure cultures closely related to Desulfotignum spp. and Desulfosarcina spp. were isolated. None of these strains was able to utilize benzene as a substrate and hybridizations with specific oligonucleotide probes showed that they accounted for as much as 6% of the total cells. Incubations with 13C-labeled benzene followed by Halogen in situ Hybridization - Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (HISH-SIMS) analysis showed that cells of the dominant phylotype were highly enriched in 13C, while the accompanying bacteria had little or no 13C incorporation. These results demonstrate that the dominant phylotype was indeed the apparent benzene degrader. Dense-cell suspensions of the enrichment culture did not show metabolic activity toward added phenol or toluene, suggesting that benzene degradation did not proceed through anaerobic hydroxylation or methylation. Instead, benzoate was identified in

  7. Thermodynamic and kinetic control on anaerobic oxidation of methane in marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knab, Nina J.; Dale, Andrew W.; Lettmann, Karsten;

    2008-01-01

    The free energy yield of microbial respiration reactions in anaerobic marine sediments must be sufficient to be conserved as biologically usable energy in the form of ATP. Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction (SRR) has a very low standard free energy yield of ΔG  = -3...

  8. A new phylogeny and environmental DNA insight into paramyxids: an increasingly important but enigmatic clade of protistan parasites of marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Georgia M; Bennett, Martyn; Bateman, Kelly; Stentiford, Grant D; Kerr, Rose; Feist, Stephen W; Williams, Suzanne T; Berney, Cedric; Bass, David

    2016-09-01

    Paramyxida is an order of rhizarian protists that parasitise marine molluscs, annelids and crustaceans. They include notifiable pathogens (Marteilia spp.) of bivalves and other taxa of economic significance for shellfish production. The diversity of paramyxids is poorly known, particularly outside of commercially important hosts, and their phylogenetic position is unclear due to their extremely divergent 18S rDNA sequences. However, novel paramyxean lineages are increasingly being detected in a wide range of invertebrate hosts, and interest in the group is growing, marked by the first 'Paramyxean Working Group' Meeting held in Spain in February 2015. We review the diversity, host affiliations, and geographical ranges of all known paramyxids, present a comprehensive phylogeny of the order and clarify its taxonomy. Our phylogenetic analyses confirm the separate status of four genera: Paramarteilia, Marteilioides, Paramyxa and Marteilia. Further, as including M. granula in Marteilia would make the genus paraphyletic we suggest transferring this species to a new genus, Eomarteilia. We present sequence data for Paramyxa nephtys comb. n., a parasite of polychaete worms, providing morphological data for a clade of otherwise environmental sequences, sister to Marteilioides. Light and electron microscopy analyses show strong similarities with both Paramyxa and Paramyxoides, and we further discuss the validity of those two genera. We provide histological and electron microscopic data for Paramarteilia orchestiae, the type species of that genus originally described from the amphipod Orchestia; in situ hybridisation shows that Paramarteilia also infects crab species. We present, to our knowledge, the first known results of a paramyxid-specific environmental DNA survey of environmental (filtered water, sediment, etc.) and organismally-derived samples, revealing new lineages and showing that paramyxids are associated with a wider range of hosts and habitat types than previously

  9. Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Bacteria and Associated Activity in Fixed-Film Biofilters of a Marine Recirculating Aquaculture System†

    OpenAIRE

    Tal, Yossi; Joy E M Watts; Schreier, Harold J.

    2006-01-01

    Microbial communities in the biological filter and waste sludge compartments of a marine recirculating aquaculture system were examined to determine the presence and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Community DNA was extracted from aerobic and anaerobic fixed-film biofilters and the anaerobic sludge waste collection tank and was analyzed by amplifying 16S rRNA genes by PCR using anammox-selective and universal GC-clamped primers. Separation of amplified PCR product...

  10. Extracellular enzyme activity in anaerobic bacterial cultures: evidence of pullulanase activity among mesophilic marine bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    C. Arnosti; Repeta, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    The extracellular enzymatic activity of a mixed culture of anaerobic marine bacteria enriched on pullulan [alpha(1,6)-linked maltotriose units] was directly assessed with a combination of gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Hydrolysis products of pullulan were separated by GPC into three fractions with molecular weights of > or = 10,000, approximately 5,000, and < or = 1,200. NMR spectra of these fractions demonstrated that pullulan was rapid...

  11. Methane production from the anaerobic digestion of some marine macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habig, C.; Ryther, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Recently, considerable interest has developed concerning the use of biomass as an alternative fuel source. Among the possible substrates, marine plant biomass has frequently been mentioned, primarily due to the fact that such plants do not have competing, more valuable uses for food or fiber and their cultivation does not compete for valuable agricultural lands. Also, recent research has demonstrated that at least one potential marine energy crop, the red alga Graciliaria tikvahiae, is capable of extremely high production rates that equal or exceed those of terrestrial plants, and are rivaled by the productivity of another possible aquatic energy crop, the water hyacinth. To date, seaweed energy research has emphasized cultivation, while a marked paucity of information exists regarding the comparative performance of these algae as a methanogenic substrate. Only two species, the giant kelp, Macrocystic pyrifera and Gracilaria tikvahiae, have been tested in fermentation trials. The relative merits of a red, a green, and a brown alga, run vis a vis at four different loading rates, are discussed in this report. In addition, two loading procedures were utilized to assess what if any, effect they might have on digester performance. (Refs. 14).

  12. Methane production from the Anaerobic digestion of some Marine Macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habig, C.; Ryther, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Recently, considerable interest has developed concerning the use of biomass as an alternative fuel source. Among the possible substrates, marine plant biomass has frequently been mentioned, primarily due to the fact that such plants do not have competing, more valuable uses for food or fiber and their cultivation does not compete for valuable agricultural lands (1,2). Also, recent research has demonstrated that at least one potential marine energy crop, the red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae, is capable of extremely high production rates that equal or exceed those of terrestrial plants, and are rivaled by the productivity of another possible aquatic energy crop, the water hyacinth. To date, seaweed energy research has emphasized cultivation, while a marked paucity of information exists regarding the comparative performance of these algae as a methanogenic substrate. Only two species, the giant kelp, Macrocystic pyrifera and Gracilaria tikvahiae, have been tested in fermentation trials. The relative merits of a red, a green, and a brown alga, run vis a vis at four different loading rates are discussed in this report. In addition, two loading procedures were utilized to assess what if any, effect they might have on digester performance.

  13. Anaerobic digestibility of marine microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum in a lab-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamalloa, Carlos; De Vrieze, Jo; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy

    2012-01-01

    The biomass of industrially grown Phaeodactylum tricornutum was subjected in a novel way to bio-methanation at 33°C, i.e., in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) at a hydraulic retention time of 2.5 days, at solid retention times of 20 to 10 days and at loading rates in the range of 2.6-5.9 g biomass-COD L(-1) day(-1) with membrane fluxes ranging from 1 to 0.8 L m(-2) h(-1). The total COD recovered as biogas was in the order of 52%. The input suspension was converted to a clear effluent rich in total ammonium nitrogen (546 mg TAN L(-1)) and phosphate (141 mg PO(4)-P L(-1)) usable as liquid fertilizer. The microbial community richness, dynamics, and organization in the reactor were interpreted using the microbial resource management approach. The AnMBR communities were found to be moderate in species richness and low in dynamics and community organization relative to UASB and conventional CSTR sludges. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that Methanosaeta sp. was the dominant acetoclastic methanogen species followed by Methanosarcina sp. This work demonstrated that the use of AnMBR for the digestion of algal biomass is possible. The fact that some 50% of the organic matter is not liquefied means that the algal particulates in the digestate constitute a considerable fraction which should be valorized properly, for instance as slow release organic fertilizer. Overall, 1 kg of algae dry matter (DM) could be valorized in the form of biogas ( euro 2.07), N and P in the effluent (euro 0.02) and N and P in the digestate (euro 0.04), thus totaling about euro 2.13 per kilogram algae DM. PMID:22005739

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) anaerobic degradation in marine sediments: microcosm study and role of autochthonous microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matturro, Bruna; Ubaldi, Carla; Grenni, Paola; Caracciolo, Anna Barra; Rossetti, Simona

    2016-07-01

    Polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) biodegradation was followed for 1 year in microcosms containing marine sediments collected from Mar Piccolo (Taranto, Italy) chronically contaminated by this class of hazardous compounds. The microcosms were performed under strictly anaerobic conditions with or without the addition of Dehalococcoides mccartyi, the main microorganism known to degrade PCBs through the anaerobic reductive dechlorination process. Thirty PCB congeners were monitored during the experiments revealing that the biodegradation occurred in all microcosms with a decrease in hepta-, hexa-, and penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) and a parallel increase in low chlorinated PCBs (tri-CBs and tetra-CBs). The concentrations of the most representative congeners detected in the original sediment, such as 245-245-CB and 2345-245-CB, and of the mixture 2356-34-CB+234-245-CB, decreased by 32.5, 23.8, and 46.7 %, respectively, after only 70 days of anaerobic incubation without any bioaugmentation treatment. Additionally, the structure and population dynamics of the microbial key players involved in the biodegradative process and of the entire mixed microbial community were accurately defined by Catalyzed Reporter Deposition Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (CARD-FISH) in both the original sediment and during the operation of the microcosm. The reductive dehalogenase genes of D. mccartyi, specifically involved in PCB dechlorination, were also quantified using real-time PCR (qPCR). Our results demonstrated that the autochthonous microbial community living in the marine sediment, including D. mccartyi (6.32E+06 16S rRNA gene copy numbers g(-1) sediment), was able to efficiently sustain the biodegradation of PCBs when controlled anaerobic conditions were imposed. PMID:26162439

  15. Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane Coupled to Nitrite Reduction by Halophilic Marine NC10 Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhanfei; Geng, Sha; Cai, Chaoyang; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Yan; Pan, Yawei; Lou, Liping; Zheng, Ping; Xu, Xinhua; Hu, Baolan

    2015-08-15

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to nitrite reduction is a novel AOM process that is mediated by denitrifying methanotrophs. To date, enrichments of these denitrifying methanotrophs have been confined to freshwater systems; however, the recent findings of 16S rRNA and pmoA gene sequences in marine sediments suggest a possible occurrence of AOM coupled to nitrite reduction in marine systems. In this research, a marine denitrifying methanotrophic culture was obtained after 20 months of enrichment. Activity testing and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis were then conducted and showed that the methane oxidation activity and the number of NC10 bacteria increased correlatively during the enrichment period. 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that only bacteria in group A of the NC10 phylum were enriched and responsible for the resulting methane oxidation activity, although a diverse community of NC10 bacteria was harbored in the inoculum. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that NC10 bacteria were dominant in the enrichment culture after 20 months. The effect of salinity on the marine denitrifying methanotrophic culture was investigated, and the apparent optimal salinity was 20.5‰, which suggested that halophilic bacterial AOM coupled to nitrite reduction was obtained. Moreover, the apparent substrate affinity coefficients of the halophilic denitrifying methanotrophs were determined to be 9.8 ± 2.2 μM for methane and 8.7 ± 1.5 μM for nitrite. PMID:26048927

  16. Respiration and respiratory enzyme activity in aerobic and anaerobic cultures of the marine denitrifying bacterium, Pseudomonas perfectomarinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, T. T.; Garfield, P. C.; Martinez, R.

    1983-03-01

    Oxygen consumption, nitrate reduction, respiratory electron transport activity, and nitrate reductase activity were measured in aerobic and anaerobic cultures of the marine bacterium, Pseudomonas perfectomarinus. The respiratory electron transport activity was closely correlated with oxygen consumption ( r = 0.98) in aerobic cultures and nearly as well correlated with nitrate reductase activity ( r = 0.91) and nitrate reduction ( r = 0.85) in anaerobic cultures. It was also well correlated with biomass in both aerobic ( r = 0.99) and anaerobic ( r = 0.94) cultures supporting the use of tetrazolium reduction as an index of living biomass. Time courses of nitrate and nitrate in the anaerobic cultures demonstrated that at nitrate concentrations above 1 mM, denitrification proceeds stepwise. Time courses of pH in anaerobic cultures revealed a rise from 7 to 8.5 during nitrite reduction indicating net proton utilization. This proton utilization is predicted by the stoichiometry of denitrification. Although the experiments were not under 'simulated in situ' conditions, the results are relevant to studies of denitrification, to bacterial ATP production, and to the respiratory activity of marine plankton in the ocean.

  17. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria and associated activity in fixed-film biofilters of a marine recirculating aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Yossi; Watts, Joy E M; Schreier, Harold J

    2006-04-01

    Microbial communities in the biological filter and waste sludge compartments of a marine recirculating aquaculture system were examined to determine the presence and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Community DNA was extracted from aerobic and anaerobic fixed-film biofilters and the anaerobic sludge waste collection tank and was analyzed by amplifying 16S rRNA genes by PCR using anammox-selective and universal GC-clamped primers. Separation of amplified PCR products by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of the different phylotypes revealed a diverse biofilter microbial community. While Planctomycetales were found in all three communities, the anaerobic denitrifying biofilters contained one clone that exhibited high levels of sequence similarity to known anammox bacteria. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies using an anammox-specific probe confirmed the presence of anammox Planctomycetales in the microbial biofilm from the denitrifying biofilters, and anammox activity was observed in these biofilters, as detected by the ability to simultaneously consume ammonia and nitrite. To our knowledge, this is the first identification of anammox-related sequences in a marine recirculating aquaculture filtration system, and our findings provide a foundation for incorporating this important pathway for complete nitrogen removal in such systems.

  18. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria and associated activity in fixed-film biofilters of a marine recirculating aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Yossi; Watts, Joy E M; Schreier, Harold J

    2006-04-01

    Microbial communities in the biological filter and waste sludge compartments of a marine recirculating aquaculture system were examined to determine the presence and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Community DNA was extracted from aerobic and anaerobic fixed-film biofilters and the anaerobic sludge waste collection tank and was analyzed by amplifying 16S rRNA genes by PCR using anammox-selective and universal GC-clamped primers. Separation of amplified PCR products by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of the different phylotypes revealed a diverse biofilter microbial community. While Planctomycetales were found in all three communities, the anaerobic denitrifying biofilters contained one clone that exhibited high levels of sequence similarity to known anammox bacteria. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies using an anammox-specific probe confirmed the presence of anammox Planctomycetales in the microbial biofilm from the denitrifying biofilters, and anammox activity was observed in these biofilters, as detected by the ability to simultaneously consume ammonia and nitrite. To our knowledge, this is the first identification of anammox-related sequences in a marine recirculating aquaculture filtration system, and our findings provide a foundation for incorporating this important pathway for complete nitrogen removal in such systems. PMID:16597996

  19. Evaluation of marine algae as a source of biogas in a two-stage anaerobic reactor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergara-Fernandez, Alberto; Vargas, Gisela [Escuela de Ingenieria Ambiental, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Catolica de Temuco, Manuel Montt 56, Casilla 15-D, Temuco (Chile); Alarcon, Nelson [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Geologicas, Universidad Catolica del Norte (Chile); Velasco, Antonio [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental del Instituto Nacional de Ecologia (CENICA-INE), Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Del. Iztapalapa, 09340, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2008-04-15

    The marine algae are considered an important biomass source; however, their utilization as energy source is still low around the world. The technical feasibility of marine algae utilization as a source of renewable energy was studied to laboratory scale. The anaerobic digestion of Macrocystis pyrifera, Durvillea antarctica and their blend 1:1 (w/w) was evaluated in a two-phase anaerobic digestion system, which consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) and an upflow anaerobic filter (UAF). The results show that 70% of the total biogas produced in the system was generated in the UAF, and both algae species have similar biogas productions of 180.4({+-}1.5) mL g{sup -1} dry algae d{sup -1}, with a methane concentration around 65%. The same methane content was observed in biogas yield of algae blend; however, a lower biogas yield was obtained. In conclusion, either algae species or their blend can be utilized to produce methane gas in a two-phase digestion system. (author)

  20. Evaluation of marine algae as a source of biogas in a two-stage anaerobic reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The marine algae are considered an important biomass source; however, their utilization as energy source is still low around the world. The technical feasibility of marine algae utilization as a source of renewable energy was studied to laboratory scale. The anaerobic digestion of Macrocystis pyrifera, Durvillea antarctica and their blend 1:1 (w/w) was evaluated in a two-phase anaerobic digestion system, which consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) and an upflow anaerobic filter (UAF). The results show that 70% of the total biogas produced in the system was generated in the UAF, and both algae species have similar biogas productions of 180.4(±1.5) mL g-1 dry algae d-1, with a methane concentration around 65%. The same methane content was observed in biogas yield of algae blend; however, a lower biogas yield was obtained. In conclusion, either algae species or their blend can be utilized to produce methane gas in a two-phase digestion system

  1. Enrichment and hydrogen production by marine anaerobic hydrogen-producing microflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI JinLing; WANG GuangCe; LI YanChuan; ZHU DaLing; PAN GuangHua

    2009-01-01

    Acid,alkali,heat-shock,KNO3 and control pretreatment methods applied to anaerobic sludge were evaluated for their ability to selectively enrich the marine hydrogen-producing mixed microflora.Seawater culture medium was used as the substrate.The hydrogen yield of pretreated microflora was higher than that of the un-pretreated control (P<0.05).Among the pretreatment methods studied,heat-shock pretreatment yielded the greatest hydrogen production,which was 14.6 times that of the control.When the effect of initial pH on hydrogen production of heat-shock pretreated samples was studied,hydrogen was produced over the entire pH range (pH 4-10).The hydrogen yield peaked at initial pH 8 (79 mL/g sucrose) and then steadily decreased as the initial pH increased.Sucrose consumption was high at neutral initial pH.During the process of hydrogen production,pH decreased gradually,which indicated that the acquired microflora consisted of acidogenic bacteria.

  2. Anaerobic digestibility of marine microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum in a lab-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Zamalloa, C.; De Vrieze, J.; Boon, N.; Verstraete, W.

    2012-01-01

    The biomass of industrially grown Phaeodactylum tricornutum was subjected in a novel way to bio-methanation at 33°C, i.e., in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) at a hydraulic retention time of 2.5 days, at solid retention times of 20 to 10 days and at loading rates in the range of 2.6–5.9 g biomass-COD L-1 day-1 with membrane fluxes ranging from 1 to 0.8 L m-2 h-1. The total COD recovered as biogas was in the order of 52%. The input suspension was converted to a clear effluent rich in ...

  3. Metatranscriptome of the protistan community in Reticulitermes flaviceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Che, Min; Xie, Lei; Zhan, Shuai; Zhou, Zhi-Hua; Huang, Yong-Ping; Wang, Qian

    2016-08-01

    The hindgut of lower termites harbors various symbiotic protists, which perform varied functions in lignocellulose decomposition. As termites are social insects, the species and numbers of these flagellated protists in the termite gut vary among the different castes. Juvenile hormones (JHs) can regulate caste differentiation in termites. In this study, we used the juvenile hormone analog fenoxycarb to induce termite workers (Reticulitermes flaviceps) to differentiate into pre-soldiers. A metatranscriptomic investigation of the protistan community was then performed by 454 pyrosequencing. From a thorough analysis based on 597 312 generated reads, we found that the starch and sucrose metabolism pathway was the most abundant pathway across the metatranscriptome. The current study demonstrates that the metatranscriptome of the protistan community in termites contains an abundance of lignocellulase, which plays a vital role in termite nutrition. PMID:27234337

  4. Elemental sulfur and thiosulfate disproportionation by Desulfocapsa sulfoexigens sp. nov., a new anaerobic bacterium isolated from marine surface sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai; Liesack, Werner; Thamdrup, Bo

    1998-01-01

    A mesophilic, anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium, strain SB164P1, was enriched and isolated from oxidized marine surface sediment with elemental sulfur as the sole energy substrate in the presence of ferrihydrite. Elemental sulfur was disproportionated to hydrogen sulfide and sulfate. Growth...... chemolithoautotrophically exclusively by the disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds. Comparative 16S rDNA sequencing analysis placed strain SB164P1 into the delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Its closest relative is Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes, and slightly more distantly related are Desulfofustis...

  5. Amplicon-Based Pyrosequencing Reveals High Diversity of Protistan Parasites in Ships' Ballast Water: Implications for Biogeography and Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagenkopp Lohan, K M; Fleischer, R C; Carney, K J; Holzer, K K; Ruiz, G M

    2016-04-01

    Ships' ballast water (BW) commonly moves macroorganisms and microorganisms across the world's oceans and along coasts; however, the majority of these microbial transfers have gone undetected. We applied high-throughput sequencing methods to identify microbial eukaryotes, specifically emphasizing the protistan parasites, in ships' BW collected from vessels calling to the Chesapeake Bay (Virginia and Maryland, USA) from European and Eastern Canadian ports. We utilized tagged-amplicon 454 pyrosequencing with two general primer sets, amplifying either the V4 or V9 domain of the small subunit (SSU) of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene complex, from total DNA extracted from water samples collected from the ballast tanks of bulk cargo vessels. We detected a diverse group of protistan taxa, with some known to contain important parasites in marine systems, including Apicomplexa (unidentified apicomplexans, unidentified gregarines, Cryptosporidium spp.), Dinophyta (Blastodinium spp., Euduboscquella sp., unidentified syndinids, Karlodinium spp., Syndinium spp.), Perkinsea (Parvilucifera sp.), Opisthokonta (Ichthyosporea sp., Pseudoperkinsidae, unidentified ichthyosporeans), and Stramenopiles (Labyrinthulomycetes). Further characterization of groups with parasitic taxa, consisting of phylogenetic analyses for four taxa (Cryptosporidium spp., Parvilucifera spp., Labyrinthulomycetes, and Ichthyosporea), revealed that sequences were obtained from both known and novel lineages. This study demonstrates that high-throughput sequencing is a viable and sensitive method for detecting parasitic protists when present and transported in the ballast water of ships. These data also underscore the potential importance of human-aided dispersal in the biogeography of these microbes and emerging diseases in the world's oceans. PMID:26476551

  6. Anaerobic denitrification in fungi from the coastal marine sediments off Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathrine, Sumathi J; Raghukumar, Chandralata

    2009-01-01

    Denitrification is a microbial process during which nitrate or nitrite is reduced under anaerobic condition to gaseous nitrogen. The Arabian Sea contains one of the major pelagic denitrification zones and in addition to this, denitrification also takes places along the continental shelf. Prokaryotic microorganisms were considered to be the only players in this process. However recent studies have shown that higher microeukaryotes such as fungi can also adapt to anaerobic mode of respiration and reduce nitrate to harmful green house gases such as NO and N2O. In this study we examined the distribution and biomass of fungi in the sediments of the seasonal anoxic region off Goa from two stations. The sampling was carried out in five different periods from October 2005, when dissolved oxygen levels were near zero in bottom waters to March 2006. We isolated mycelial fungi, thraustochytrids and yeasts. Species of Aspergillus and thraustochytrids were dominant. Fungi were isolated under aerobic, as well as anaerobic conditions from different seasons. Four isolates were examined for their denitrification activity. Two cultures obtained from the anoxic sediments showed better growth under anaerobic condition than the other two cultures that were isolated from oxic sediments. Our preliminary results suggest that several species of fungi can grow under oxygen deficient conditions and participate in denitrification processes. PMID:18834939

  7. Thermophilic anaerobes in arctic marine sediments induced to mineralize complex organic matter at high temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubert, Casey; Arnosti, Carol; Brüchert, Volker;

    2010-01-01

    Marine sediments harbour diverse populations of dormant thermophilic bacterial spores that become active in sediment incubation experiments at much higher than in situ temperature. This response was investigated in the presence of natural complex organic matter in sediments of two Arctic fjords, ...

  8. Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments from the Skagerrak (Denmark): II. Reaction-transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, A. W.; Regnier, P.; Knab, N. J.; Jørgensen, B. B.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2008-06-01

    A steady-state reaction-transport model is applied to sediments retrieved by gravity core from two stations (S10 and S13) in the Skagerrak to determine the main kinetic and thermodynamic controls on anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The model considers an extended biomass-implicit reaction network for organic carbon degradation, which includes extracellular hydrolysis of macromolecular organic matter, fermentation, sulfate reduction, methanogenesis, AOM, acetogenesis and acetotrophy. Catabolic reaction rates are determined using a modified Monod rate expression that explicitly accounts for limitation by the in situ catabolic energy yields. The fraction of total sulfate reduction due to AOM in the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) at each site is calculated. The model provides an explanation for the methane tailing phenomenon which is observed here and in other marine sediments, whereby methane diffuses up from the SMTZ to the top of the core without being consumed. The tailing is due to bioenergetic limitation of AOM in the sulfate reduction zone, because the methane concentration is too low to engender favorable thermodynamic drive. AOM is also bioenergetically inhibited below the SMTZ at both sites because of high hydrogen concentrations (∼3-6 nM). The model results imply there is no straightforward relationship between pore water concentrations and the minimum catabolic energy needed to support life because of the highly coupled nature of the reaction network. Best model fits are obtained with a minimum energy for AOM of ∼11 kJ mol-1, which is within the range reported in the literature for anaerobic processes.

  9. Anaerobic degradation of cyclohexane by sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eJaekel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fate of cyclohexane, often used as a model compound for the biodegradation of cyclic alkanes due to its abundance in crude oils, in anoxic marine sediments has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we obtained an enrichment culture of cyclohexane-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated intertidal marine sediments. Microscopic analyses showed an apparent dominance by oval cells of 1.5×0.8 m. Analysis of a 16S rRNA gene library, followed by whole-cell hybridization with group- and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that these cells belonged to a single phylotype, and were accounting for more than 80% of the total cell number. The dominant phylotype, affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster of the Deltaproteobacteria, is proposed to be responsible for the degradation of cyclohexane. Quantitative growth experiments showed that cyclohexane degradation was coupled with the stoichiometric reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Substrate response tests corroborated with hybridization with a sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe suggested that the dominant phylotype apparently was able to degrade other cyclic and n-alkanes, including the gaseous alkanes propane and n-butane. Based on GC-MS analyses of culture extracts cyclohexylsuccinate was identified as a metabolite, indicating an activation of cyclohexane by addition to fumarate. Other metabolites detected were 3-cyclohexylpropionate and cyclohexanecarboxylate providing evidence that the overall degradation pathway of cyclohexane under anoxic conditions is analogous to that of n-alkanes.

  10. Physical and biological control of protistan community composition, distribution and abundance in the seasonal ice zone of the Southern Ocean between 30 and 80°E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Andrew T.; Scott, Fiona J.; Nash, Geraldine V.; Wright, Simon W.; Raymond, Ben

    2010-05-01

    Protists are critical components of the Antarctic marine ecosystem as they comprise most of the living carbon and are the base of the Antarctic food web. They are also key determinants of vertical carbon flux and mediate draw-down of atmospheric CO 2 by the ocean. The community composition, abundance and distribution of marine protists (phytoplankton and protozoa) was studied during the Baseline Research on Oceanography, Krill and the Environment-West (BROKE-West) survey, in the seasonal ice zone during the 2005-2006 austral summer between 30°E and 80°E. Light and electron microscopy were used to determine the protistan composition and abundance in samples obtained at 30 sites from surface waters and at 26 sites from the depth of the maximum in situ chlorophyll fluorescence (Chl max). Cluster analysis was used to identify 5 groups of sample sites at the surface and 5 at the Chl max that were of similar protist composition and abundance. The physical characteristics, taxonomic composition, indicator taxa, and taxonomic diversity were determined for each group. In the southwest, a bloom of colonial Phaeocystis antarctica dominated the protistan community composition and biomass amongst the receding ice, but this was replaced by the flagellate life stage/s of this haptophyte in waters to the north. In the southeast, a diatom bloom had the highest diversity of protist taxa observed during the survey and centric diatoms dominated the biomass. Outside these blooms, grazing by krill probably reduced the composition and abundance of large diatoms and autotrophic dinoflagellates in coastal to mid-inshore waters. Only in offshore waters did large diatoms and dinoflagellates increase in abundance and diversity, despite low concentrations of iron and silicate at many of these sites. This increase was probably due to reduced top-down control by krill and other large zooplankton. Large diatoms dominated in offshore waters, despite other coincident studies showing that the

  11. Anodes Stimulate Anaerobic Toluene Degradation via Sulfur Cycling in Marine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghio, Matteo; Vaiopoulou, Eleni; Patil, Sunil A.; Suárez-Suárez, Ana; Head, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocarbons released during oil spills are persistent in marine sediments due to the absence of suitable electron acceptors below the oxic zone. Here, we investigated an alternative bioremediation strategy to remove toluene, a model monoaromatic hydrocarbon, using a bioanode. Bioelectrochemical reactors were inoculated with sediment collected from a hydrocarbon-contaminated marine site, and anodes were polarized at 0 mV and +300 mV (versus an Ag/AgCl [3 M KCl] reference electrode). The degradation of toluene was directly linked to current generation of up to 301 mA m−2 and 431 mA m−2 for the bioanodes polarized at 0 mV and +300 mV, respectively. Peak currents decreased over time even after periodic spiking with toluene. The monitoring of sulfate concentrations during bioelectrochemical experiments suggested that sulfur metabolism was involved in toluene degradation at bioanodes. 16S rRNA gene-based Illumina sequencing of the bulk anolyte and anode samples revealed enrichment with electrocatalytically active microorganisms, toluene degraders, and sulfate-reducing microorganisms. Quantitative PCR targeting the α-subunit of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (encoded by dsrA) and the α-subunit of the benzylsuccinate synthase (encoded by bssA) confirmed these findings. In particular, members of the family Desulfobulbaceae were enriched concomitantly with current production and toluene degradation. Based on these observations, we propose two mechanisms for bioelectrochemical toluene degradation: (i) direct electron transfer to the anode and/or (ii) sulfide-mediated electron transfer. PMID:26497463

  12. Algal and archaeal polyisoprenoids in a recent marine sediment: Molecular isotopic evidence for anaerobic oxidation of methane RID C-7675-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bian, LQ; Hinrichs, KU; Xie, TM;

    2001-01-01

    Analyses of C-13 contents of individual organic molecules in a marine sediment show that crocetane, 2,6,11,15-tetramethylhexadecane, an isomer of phytane, is produced by microorganisms that use methane as their main source of carbon. The sediments lie at a water depth of 68 m in the Kattegat......-consuming member of the microbial consortium responsible for the anaerobic oxidation of methane [Hoehler et al., 1994], in which, as first demonstrated quantitatively in these sediments [Iversen and Jørgensen, 1985], electrons are transferred from methane to sulfate. The presence of archaeal biomass throughout...

  13. Ribosomal RNA gene sequences confirm that protistan endoparasite of larval cod Gadus morhua is Ichthyodinium sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Alf; Meyer, Stefan; Overton, Julia Lynne;

    2010-01-01

    An enigmatic protistan endoparasite found in eggs and larvae of cod Gadus morhua and turbot Psetta maxima was isolated from Baltic cod larvae, and DNA was extracted for sequencing of the parasite's small Subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. The endoparasite has previously been suggested...

  14. Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane at a Marine Methane Seep in a Forearc Sediment Basin off Sumatra, Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Siegert, Michael; Krüger, Martin; Teichert, Barbara; Wiedicke, Michael; Schippers, Axel

    2011-01-01

    A cold methane seep was discovered in a forearc sediment basin off the island Sumatra, exhibiting a methane-seep adapted microbial community. A defined seep center of activity, like in mud volcanoes, was not discovered. The seep area was rather characterized by a patchy distribution of active spots. The relevance of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) was reflected by 13C-depleted isotopic signatures of dissolved inorganic carbon. The anaerobic conversion of methane to CO2 was confirmed in a...

  15. Anaerobes beyond anaerobic digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, D. Z.; Pereira, M A; Alves, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms are widespread in nature. Sediments, gastrointestinal tracks, volcanic vents, geothermal sources are examples of habitats where anaerobic metabolism prevail, in some cases at extreme temperature, pH and pressure conditions. In such microbial ecosystems waste of some is food for others in a true integrated structure. Anaerobic microorganisms are able to use a wide variety of organic and inorganic compounds. Recalcitrant compounds, such as hydrocarbons, a...

  16. Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments from the Skagerrak (Denmark): II. Reaction-transport modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, A.W.; Regnier, P.; Knab, N.J.;

    2008-01-01

    A steady-state reaction-transport model is applied to sediments retrieved by gravity core from two stations (S10 and S13) in the Skagerrak to determine the main kinetic and thermodynamic controls on anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The model considers an extended biomass-implicit reaction...... methane diffuses up from the SMTZ to the top of the core without being consumed. The tailing is due to bioenergetic limitation of AOM in the sulfate reduction zone, because the methane concentration is too low to engender favorable thermodynamic drive. AOM is also bioenergetically inhibited below the SMTZ...... at both sites because of high hydrogen concentrations ( 3-6 nM). The model results imply there is no straightforward relationship between pore water concentrations and the minimum catabolic energy needed to support life because of the highly coupled nature of the reaction network. Best model fits...

  17. Anaerobic oxidation of methane at a marine methane seep in a forearc sediment basin off Sumatra, Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eSiegert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A cold methane-seep was discovered in a forearc sediment basin off the island Sumatra, exhibiting a methane-seep adapted microbial community. A defined seep centre of activity, like in mud volcanoes, was not discovered. The seep area was rather characterized by a patchy distribution of active spots. The relevance of AOM was reflected by 13C depleted isotopic signatures of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC. The anaerobic conversion of methane to CO2 was confirmed in a 13C-labelling experiment. Methane fuelled a vital microbial and invertebrate community which was reflected in cell numbers of up to 4 x 109 cells cm 3 sediment and 13C depleted guts of crabs populating the seep area. The microbial community was analysed by total cell counting, catalyzed reporter deposition – fluorescence in situ hybridisation (CARD-FISH, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. CARD-FISH cell counts and qPCR measurements showed the presence of Bacteria and Archaea, but only small numbers of Eukarya. The archaeal community comprised largely members of ANME-1 and ANME-2. Furthermore, members of the Crenarchaeota were frequently detected in the DGGE analysis. Three major bacterial phylogenetic groups (δ-Proteobacteria, candidate division OP9 and Anaerolineaceae were abundant across the study area. Several of these sequences were closely related to the genus Desulfococcus of the family Desulfobacteraceae, which is in good agreement with previously described AOM sites. In conclusion, the majority of the microbial community at the seep consisted of AOM related microorganisms, while the relevance of higher hydrocarbons as microbial substrates was negligible.

  18. Advances in Studies of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation in the Marine Environment%海洋环境中的厌氧铵氧化研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋国栋; 刘素美

    2012-01-01

    As a new pathway to remove fixed nitrogen from marine ecosystem, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) widely occurs in various marine environments including the oxygen minimum zones, sediment, sea ice, even the deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Anammox is a key pathway for accurately estimating nitrogen budget and plays a significant role in the marine nitrogen cycle, which has an important impact on the global climate change. The history of anammox study is discussed. In addition, the distribution of anammox rates in oceanic OMZs and sediments and its significance is also discussed. The major environmental factors affecting the anammox rate are also summarized, including temperature, oxygen, sulfide, NO~/NO~,NH~ and organic matter. Finally, the problems and challenges in present and future studies are suggested as follows : the relative contribution of ana- mmox and denitrification in nitrogen loss in the OMZs; anammox in coastal hypoxic waters; further study of anam- mox in continental shelf and deep oceanic sediments; reevaluation of marine nitrogen budget.%海洋环境中的厌氧铵氧化过程作为实现固定态氮从海洋生态系统中移除的一个新途径,广泛地存在于各种海洋环境中,包括永久性缺氧水体、沉积物、海冰甚至海底热液,是海洋氮循环过程中一个非常重要的环节。开展海洋环境中厌氧铵氧化过程的研究可以更好地量化海洋氮循环过程中的收支,而这一收支在很大程度上影响着全球的气候变化。介绍了海洋环境中厌氧铵氧化过程研究历史,并分别讨论了在大洋缺氧水体和沉积物中厌氧铵氧化速率的分布情况,同时还总结了海洋环境因子如温度、氧气、硫化氢、NO3-/NO2-、NH4+以及有机物等对厌氧铵氧化的影响。最后探讨了该领域研究中所存在的问题并指出了亟待开展的工作:特定大洋缺氧水体中厌氧铵氧化与反硝化的争议以及近岸缺氧水体中厌氧铵

  19. Effect of anaerobic contributions to the uranium content in marine sediments; Efecto de aportes anaerobios en el contenido de uranio en sedimentos marinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez R, E. [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ruiz F, A. C. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Unidad Academica Mazatlan, Cap. Joel Montes Camarena, Cerro del Vigia, 82040 Mazatlan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Jimenez D, E.; Guerrero J, M., E-mail: eduardo.ordonez@inin.gob.mx [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Planeacion Urbana y Regional, Paseo Tollocan esq. Mariano Matamoros, 50130 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this work a sediment group obtained in the seabed near the mouth of the Santiago River, physical analyzes show that there is little activity of microscopic marine life, revealed by exoskeletons of foraminifera. Although the amount of organic matter occurs normally, around 20%, is assumed that this contribution is due to the large amount of organic waste scattered by the effluent of the river, causing an abnormally high anaerobic activity, clearly shown by the large amount of pyrite specific framboids found along the nucleus profile of 23 cm of sediment. In the analyzed fractions the uranium concentration and its isotope ratio was studied: which vary from 3.19 Bq/kg for the more superficial fractions down gradually to less than 1 Bq/kg for deeper fractions. An outstanding fact is that the surface fractions have an isotope ratio {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U unusually low for fractions 1-4 cm of deep, close to 0.4, indicating a strong reaction of few years ago on the radiogenic descendants of {sup 238}U, leaching essentially the {sup 234}Th and causing this abnormal radioactive imbalance. The plutonium has become an element found commonly in the surface layers of the sea and coastlines, finding in the top layer an activity of 2.78 Bq/kg ({sup 239}Pu + {sup 240}Pu). The high contamination of the mouth of Santiago River has changed the conditions of the micro fauna as well as of the chemical equilibrium of the natural elements. (Author)

  20. 青岛沿岸水体原生生物群落与水质状况的关系%The relationship between protistan community and water quality along the coast of Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金鹏; 姜勇; 胡晓钟

    2012-01-01

    于2007年9-10月间利用改良的PFU( polyurethane foam unit)法——BPFU( bottled PFU)法对青岛沿岸水体中原生生物群落的结构和功能参数进行了快速观测,进而分析了原生生物群落与水质状况间的相互关系,并结合理化指标对水体的水质状况进行了评价.期间共观测到原生生物263种:其中硅藻83种,鞭毛虫59种,肉足虫31种,纤毛虫90种.结果表明:用BPFU法测定和计算的原生生物群落的结构参数(种类数、丰度、多样性指数)和功能参数(Seq、G、T90%)所反映的水质状况和理化指标所反映的基本一致,证明BPFU法适用于海洋近岸水体的快速监测.同时将通过原生生物群落所得的结构参数和功能参数与通过原生动物群落所得的进行了比较,发现由原生生物群落计算的结构参数和功能参数能更有效、更准确地反映水质的状况.%Protistan communities are characterized by high ecological and species diversity due to their short life cycles and by a quick response to environmental changes. Many species respond rapidly to pollutants and often inhabit environments that are unfavorable to most of metazoans and some can even tolerate extremes of environmental conditions to macrofauna. As predominant components of protistan communities, ciliates and flagellates may react more quickly to environmental changes than any other eukaryotic organisms because of their rapid growth and delicate external membranes and can thus serve as bioindicators of water pollution. Polyurethane foam unit (PFU) is an artificial substrate able to host planktonic, periphytic and benthic protistan assemblages. The PFU method has been widely and successfully employed to evaluate freshwater quality all over the world. However, as far as we know, this method has not been used in marine habitats as effective as in freshwater biotopes because of the influence of tidal current and circulation in near-shore area. In order to evaluate the

  1. Anaerobic Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Ju, Mei-Ting; Li, Wei-Zun; Liu, Le; Wang, Yan-Nan; Chang, Chein-Chi

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on the focus of Anaerobic Process. It is divided into the following sections. Pretreatment Organic waste Multiple-stage co-digestion Process Methodology and Technology. PMID:27620085

  2. Anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook I, Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 297. Stedman's Online ...

  3. Anaerobic workout

    OpenAIRE

    McAdam, Ewan J.

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic technology cannot directly replace current wastewater treatment processes exclusively. The UASB reactor configuration removes slightly less organic carbon by comparison as the process relies on lamella separation for passive clarification rather than using fine pores like anMBR. By contrast, whilst anMBR can operate as a single unit process for organic carbon removal, the membrane surface has to be cleaned using gas sparging to limit surface deposition, which requires extra energy. ...

  4. Anaerobic biodegradability of macropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    A variety of test procedures for determination of anaerobic biodegradability has been reported. This paper reviews the methods developed for determination of anaerobic biodegradability of macro-pollutants. Anaerobic biodegradability of micro-pollutants is not included. Furthermore, factors import...

  5. Anaerobic thermophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    The term "extremophile" was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of "extreme" environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally "hot environments" on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has definitely

  6. Anaerobic Thermophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Canganella

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong

  7. Gender comparisons in anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity tests.

    OpenAIRE

    Maud, P. J.; Shultz, B B

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity test scores between young active men and women. Three performance measures of anaerobic power and two of anaerobic capacity were administered to a sample comprising 52 male and 50 female college students (means age = 21.4 yrs). Results indicated significant differences between men and women in body height, weight and per cent fat, in fat free mass (FFM), anaerobic power, and anaerobic capacity when recorded as gros...

  8. Growth and Methane Oxidation Rates of Anaerobic Methanotrophic Archaea in a Continuous-Flow Bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Peter R. Girguis; Orphan, Victoria J; Hallam, Steven J.; DeLong, Edward F

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic methanotrophic archaea have recently been identified in anoxic marine sediments, but have not yet been recovered in pure culture. Physiological studies on freshly collected samples containing archaea and their sulfate-reducing syntrophic partners have been conducted, but sample availability and viability can limit the scope of these experiments. To better study microbial anaerobic methane oxidation, we developed a novel continuous-flow anaerobic methane incubation system (AMIS) that...

  9. Exploring the ecophysiology of anaerobic communities of methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, P.H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction (SR) is a widespread occurring process in anoxic marine sediments. The process is performed by ANaerobic MEthane oxidizing archaea (ANME) and associated sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The ANME presumably oxidize methane through reve

  10. 舟山群岛海域沉积物厌氧氨氧化细菌多样性%Diversity of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria in marine sediments from the Zhoushan Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东声; 刘镇盛; 张海峰; 王小谷; 王春生

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation ( anammox) is an important process regulating the balance of marine nitrogen and ecosystem health, particularly under anoxic conditions. The Zhoushan Islands are located east of the Changjiang river estuary, and collect a high load of anthropogenic nitrogen, which leads to severe eutrophication and seasonal hypoxia. Therefore, bacteria that mediate the anammox process are of major interest in this area. Although the importance of anammox-mediating bacteria is known, few studies on these bacteria have been conducted in the East China Sea. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report the diversity, community composition, and distribution of anammox bacteria in the Zhoushan Islands. Field surveys were conducted in June 2012; triplicate surface sediment samples were collected at each site and stored in sterile plastic bags at-80℃ for subsequent DNA extraction and molecular analysis. Total genomic DNA was extracted using the Fast DNA SPIN Kit for soil. Environmental DNA extracted from sediment samples was used as the template for PCR amplification of anammox 16S rRNA genes using primers Amx368f—Amx820r. The purified fragments were cloned and sequenced for phylogenetic and statistical analyses. In total, 297 sequences belonging to 16 operational taxonomic units ( OTUs) were obtained from five 16S rRNA gene libraries. The biodiversity of anammox bacteria was examined using rarefaction analysis of the 16S rRNA genes, the Chao1 estimator, and Shannon index calculations. EZ3-1, EZ3-3, and EZ1-5 exhibited higher diversity than EZ1-3 and EZ3-5. A significant positive correlation between Shannon index and organic carbon content indicate that sediment organic carbon content plays an important role in modulating anammox bacterial diversity in the Zhoushan Island area. Weighted UniFrac PCoA analysis of the 16S rRNA genes demonstrated spatial heterogeneity in the community composition of anammox bacteria; the anammox bacteria in

  11. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9...

  12. Anaerobic sludge granulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Castro Lopes, de S.I.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews different theories on anaerobic sludge granulation in UASB-reactors that have been proposed during the past two decades
    This paper reviews different theories on anaerobic sludge granulation in UASB-reactors that have been proposed during the past two decades. The initial stage

  13. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  14. Anaerobic bacteria in otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulghum, R S; Daniel, H J; Yarborough, J G

    1977-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria, Peptostrepotococcus intermedius and Propionibacterium acnes, were found in mixed culture specimens from four to ten tested cases of chronic secretory otitis media. These anaerobic bacteria were in a mixed infection flora with aerobic bacteria most often Staphylococcus epidermidis and Cornybacterium sp. which do not fit any established species. The findings of anaerobic bacteria in otitis media is consistent with the sporadic report of the involvement of anaerobic bacteria in otitis media in the literature since 1898.

  15. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  16. Anaerobic biotransformation of estrogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czajka, Cynthia P. [Department of Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Londry, Kathleen L. [Department of Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada)]. E-mail: londryk@cc.umanitoba.ca

    2006-08-31

    Estrogens are important environmental contaminants that disrupt endocrine systems and feminize male fish. We investigated the potential for anaerobic biodegradation of the estrogens 17-{alpha}-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and 17-{beta}-estradiol (E2) in order to understand their fate in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Cultures were established using lake water and sediment under methanogenic, sulfate-, iron-, and nitrate-reducing conditions. Anaerobic degradation of EE2 (added at 5 mg/L) was not observed in multiple trials over long incubation periods (over three years). E2 (added at 5 mg/L) was transformed to estrone (E1) under all four anaerobic conditions (99-176 {mu}g L{sup -1} day{sup -1}), but the extent of conversion was different for each electron acceptor. The oxidation of E2 to E1 was not inhibited by E1. Under some conditions, reversible inter-conversion of E2 and E1 was observed, and the final steady state concentration of E2 depended on the electron-accepting condition but was independent of the total amount of estrogens added. In addition, racemization occurred and E1 was also transformed to 17-{alpha}-estradiol under all but nitrate-reducing conditions. Although E2 could be readily transformed to E1 and in many cases 17-{alpha}-estradiol under anaerobic conditions, the complete degradation of estrogens under these conditions was minimal, suggesting that they would accumulate in anoxic environments.

  17. Anaerobic biological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Enso-Fenox process has been very successfully used to remove chlorinated phenolic compounds from pulp bleaching effluents. It is a two-stage anaerobic/aerobic process consisting of a nonmethanogenic anaerobic fluidized bed followed by a trickling filter. Studies have been conducted on reductive dechlorination of chlorinated aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions with chlorinated phenols as the sole carbon and energy source. Approximately 40% of the added chlorophenols was converted to CH4 and CO2. Substrate loading rates were 20 mg/L/d at hydraulic detention times of 2-4 days with 90% substrate conversion efficiency. Reductive dechlorination of mono, di-, tri-, and pentachlorophenols has been demonstrated in anaerobic sewage sludge. The following constituents were tested in the laboratory at their approximate concentrations in coal conversion wastewater (CCWW) and were anaerobically degraded in serum bottles: 1,000 mg/L phenol; 500 mg/L resorcinol; 1,000 mg/L benzoic acid; 500 mg/L p-cresol; 200 mg/L pyridine; 2,000 mg/L benzoic acid; 250 mg/L 40 methylcatechol; 500 mg/L 4-ethylpyridine; and 2,000 mg/L hexanoic acid. A petrochemical may initially exhibit toxicity to an unacclimated population of methane-fermenting bacteria, but with acclimation the toxicity may be greatly reduced or disappear. In addition, the microorganisms may develop the capacity to actually degrade compounds which showed initial toxicity. Since biomass digestion requires a complete consortium of bacteria, it is relevant to study the effect of a given process as well as to individual steps within the process. A toxicant can inhibit the rate-limiting step and/or change the step that is rate-limiting. Both manifestations of toxicity can severely affect the overall process

  18. Cobalt and marine redox evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Swanner, Elizabeth D.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Lalonde, Stefan; Robbins, Leslie J.; Bekker, Andrey; Rouxel, Olivier; Saito, Mak A.; Kappler, Andreas; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2014-01-01

    Cobalt (Co) is a bio-essential trace element and limiting nutrient in some regions of the modern oceans. It has been proposed that Co was more abundant in poorly ventilated Precambrian oceans based on the greater utilization of Co by anaerobic microbes relative to plants and animals. However, there are few empirical or theoretical constraints on the history of seawater Co concentrations. Herein, we present a survey of authigenic Co in marine sediments (iron formations, authigenic pyrite and b...

  19. Metabolic Capabilities of Microorganisms Involved in and Associated with the Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane

    OpenAIRE

    Wegener, Gunter; Krukenberg, Viola; Ruff, S. Emil; Kellermann, Matthias Y.; Knittel, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    In marine sediments the anaerobic oxidation of methane with sulfate as electron acceptor (AOM) is responsible for the removal of a major part of the greenhouse gas methane. AOM is performed by consortia of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and their specific partner bacteria. The physiology of these organisms is poorly understood, which is due to their slow growth with doubling times in the order of months and the phylogenetic diversity in natural and in vitro AOM enrichments. Here w...

  20. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Zee, van der, KG Kristoffer

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many azo dyes and their breakdown products are toxic and/or mutagenic to life. To remove azo dyes from wastewater, a biological treatment strategy based on anaerobic reduction of the azo dyes, followed by aerobic transfo...

  1. Methane production from marine microalgae Isochrysis galbana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nathalia O; Oliveira, Suzana M; Alves, Larissa C; Cammarota, Magali C

    2014-04-01

    Methane production from marine microalgae Isochrysis galbana was assessed before and after mechanical and chemical pretreatments. Mechanical pretreatment resulted in a 61.7% increase in soluble Chemical Oxygen Demand. Different hydrolysis conditions were evaluated by varying temperature - T, sulfuric acid concentration - AC and biomass suspension concentration (measured as particulate COD - CODp) using an experimental design. The most significant interaction occurred between AC and T and the hydrolysis condition that showed the best result in the anaerobic digestion step was the condition at 40°C with addition of 0.2% (v/v) acid for 16h (9.27LCH4/kgVS). The low methane yields were attributed to inhibitory sodium concentrations for anaerobic digestion. Eliminating inhibitory sodium in the anaerobic digestion by biomass prewashing, there was a 71.5% increase in methane yield for biomass after acid hydrolysis, demonstrating the need for pretreatment and reduction in sodium concentration in the anaerobic digestion.

  2. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2001-01-01

    requirements. In fact, most advances were achieved during the last three decades, when high-rate reactor systems were developed and a profound insight was obtained in the microbiology of the anaerobic communities. This insight led to a better understanding of anaerobic treatment and, subsequently, to a broader......The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern...

  3. Anaerobic wastewater treatment using anaerobic baffled bioreactor: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Siti; Dahlan, Irvan

    2013-09-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is receiving renewed interest because it offers a means to treat wastewater with lower energy investment. Because the microorganisms involved grow more slowly, such systems require clever design so that the microbes have sufficient time with the substrate to complete treatment without requiring enormous reactor volumes. The anaerobic baffled reactor has inherent advantages over single compartment reactors due to its circulation pattern that approaches a plug flow reactor. The physical configuration of the anaerobic baffled reactor enables significant modifications to be made; resulting in a reactor which is proficient of treating complex wastewaters which presently require only one unit, ultimately significant reducing capital costs. This paper also concerns about mechanism, kinetic and hydrodynamic studies of anaerobic digestion for future application of the anaerobic baffled reactor for wastewater treatment.

  4. Growth and Population Dynamics of Anaerobic Methane-Oxidizing Archaea and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in a Continuous-Flow Bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Peter R. Girguis; Cozen, Aaron E.; DeLong, Edward F

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of methane in anoxic marine sediments is a biogeochemical phenomenon mediated by two archaeal groups (ANME-1 and ANME-2) that exist syntrophically with sulfate-reducing bacteria. These anaerobic methanotrophs have yet to be recovered in pure culture, and key aspects of their ecology and physiology remain poorly understood. To characterize the growth and physiology of these anaerobic methanotrophs and the syntrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria, we incubated marine sediments using...

  5. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  6. Anaerobic Digestion of Piggery Waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsen, van A.F.M.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process by which organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide by microbes in the absence of air (oxygen). In nature, anaerobic conversions occur at all places where organic material accumulates and the supply of oxygen is deficient, e.g. in marshes an

  7. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew D.; Kupczok, Anne;

    2016-01-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag...

  8. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

    2003-12-01

    Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and organic matter. Molecular oxygen diffuses about 104 times more slowly through water than air, and organic matter supports a large biotic O2 demand that consumes the supply faster than it is replaced by diffusion. Such conditions exist in wetlands, rivers, estuaries, coastal marine sediments, aquifers, anoxic water columns, sewage digesters, landfills, the intestinal tracts of animals, and the rumen of herbivores. Anaerobic microsites are also embedded in oxic environments such as upland soils and marine water columns. Appreciable rates of aerobic respiration are restricted to areas that are in direct contact with air or those inhabited by organisms that produce O2.Rising atmospheric O2 reduced the global area of anaerobic habitat, but enhanced the overall rate of anaerobic metabolism (at least on an area basis) by increasing the supply of electron donors and acceptors. Organic carbon production increased dramatically, as did oxidized forms of nitrogen, manganese, iron, sulfur, and many other elements. In contemporary anaerobic ecosystems, nearly all of the reducing power is derived from photosynthesis, and most of it eventually returns to O2, the most electronegative electron acceptor that is abundant. This photosynthetically driven redox gradient has been thoroughly exploited by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for metabolism. The same is true of hydrothermal vents (Tunnicliffe, 1992) and some deep subsurface environments ( Chapelle et al., 2002), where thermal energy is the ultimate source of the reducing power.Although anaerobic habitats are currently a small fraction of Earth

  9. Anaerobic oxidation of fatty acids by Clostridium bryantii sp. nov. : a sporeforming, obligately syntrophic bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Stieb, Marion; Schink, Bernhard

    1985-01-01

    From marine and freshwater mud samples strictly anaerobic, Gram-positive, sporeforming bacteria were isolated which oxidized fatty acids in obligately syntrophic association with H2-utilizing bacteria. Even-numbered fatty acids with up to 10 carbon atoms were degraded to acetate and Hz, odd-numbered fatty acids with up to 11 carbon atoms including 2-methylbutyrate were degraded to acetate, propionate and H2. Neither fumarate, sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfur, nor nitrate were reduced. A marine is...

  10. Anaerobic fungal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of molecular techniques has greatly broadened our view of microbial diversity and enabled a more complete detection and description of microbial communities. The application of these techniques provides a simple means of following community changes, for example, Ishii et al. described transient and more stable inhabitants in another dynamic microbial system, compost. Our present knowledge of anaerobic gut fungal population diversity within the gastrointestinal tract is based upon isolation, cultivation and observations in vivo. It is likely that there are many species yet to be described, some of which may be non-culturable. We have observed a distinct difference in the ease of cultivation between the different genera, for example, Caecomyes isolates are especially difficult to isolate and maintain in vitro, a feature that is likely to result in the under representation of this genera in culture-based enumerations. The anaerobic gut fungi are the only known obligately anaerobic fungi. For the majority of their life cycles, they are found tightly associated with solid digesta in the rumen and/or hindgut. They produce potent fibrolytic enzymes and grow invasively on and into the plant material they are digesting making them important contributors to fibre digestion. This close association with intestinal digesta has made it difficult to accurately determine the amount of fungal biomass present in the rumen, with Orpin suggesting 8% contribution to the total microbial biomass, whereas Rezaeian et al. more recently gave a value of approximately 20%. It is clear that the rumen microbial complement is affected by dietary changes, and that the fungi are more important in digestion in the rumens of animals fed with high-fibre diets. It seems likely that the gut fungi play an important role within the rumen as primary colonizers of plant fibre, and so we are particularly interested in being able to measure the appearance and diversity of fungi on the plant

  11. Cobalt and marine redox evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanner, Elizabeth D.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Robbins, Leslie J.; Bekker, Andrey; Rouxel, Olivier J.; Saito, Mak A.; Kappler, Andreas; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2014-03-01

    Cobalt (Co) is a bio-essential trace element and limiting nutrient in some regions of the modern oceans. It has been proposed that Co was more abundant in poorly ventilated Precambrian oceans based on the greater utilization of Co by anaerobic microbes relative to plants and animals. However, there are few empirical or theoretical constraints on the history of seawater Co concentrations. Herein, we present a survey of authigenic Co in marine sediments (iron formations, authigenic pyrite and bulk euxinic shales) with the goal of tracking changes in the marine Co reservoir throughout Earth's history. We further provide an overview of the modern marine Co cycle, which we use as a platform to evaluate how changes in the redox state of Earth's surface were likely to have affected marine Co concentrations. Based on sedimentary Co contents and our understanding of marine Co sources and sinks, we propose that from ca. 2.8 to 1.8 Ga the large volume of hydrothermal fluids circulating through abundant submarine ultramafic rocks along with a predominantly anoxic ocean with a low capacity for Co burial resulted in a large dissolved marine Co reservoir. We tentatively propose that there was a decrease in marine Co concentrations after ca. 1.8 Ga resulting from waning hydrothermal Co sources and the expansion of sulfide Co burial flux. Changes in the Co reservoir due to deep-water ventilation in the Neoproterozoic, if they occurred, are not resolvable with the current dataset. Rather, Co enrichments in Phanerozoic euxinic shales deposited during ocean anoxic events (OAE) indicate Co mobilization from expanded anoxic sediments and enhanced hydrothermal sources. A new record of marine Co concentrations provides a platform from which we can reevaluate the role that environmental Co concentrations played in shaping biological Co utilization throughout Earth's history.

  12. Anaerobic oxidation of methane in grassland soils used for cattle husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bannert

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available While the importance of anaerobic methane oxidation has been reported for marine ecosystems, the role of this process in soils is still questionable. Grasslands used as pastures for cattle-overwintering show an increase in anaerobic soil micro-sites caused by animal treading and excrement deposition. Therefore anaerobic potential methane oxidation activity of severely impacted soil from a cattle winter pasture was investigated in an incubation experiment under anaerobic conditions using 13C-labeled methane. We were able to detect a high microbial activity utilizing CH4 as nutrient source shown by the respiration of 13CO2. Measurements of possible terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic oxidation of methane were carried out. Soil sulfate concentrations were too low to explain the oxidation of the amount of methane added, but enough nitrate and iron(III were detected. However, only nitrate was consumed during the experiment. 13C-PLFA analyses clearly showed the utilization of CH4 as nutrient source mainly by organisms harbouring 16:1ω7 PLFAs. These lipids were found in Gram-negative microorganisms and anaerobes. The fact that these lipids are also typical for type I methanotrophs, known as aerobic methane oxidizers, might indicate a link between aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidation.

  13. Anaerobic methanotrophy in tidal wetland: Effects of electron acceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Hung; Yu, Zih-Huei; Wang, Pei-Ling

    2016-04-01

    consumption, suggesting that unlike the consensus derived from marine sediments, anaerobic methanotrophy might not be necessarily coupled with sulfate reduction. The regeneration of Fe-oxyhydroxide during cyclic tidal recession provides an alternative pathway to maintain methanotrophic activity. The ultimate control on methane oxidation and emission is, however, complicated by the interplay between oxygen penetration, organotrophic sulfate reduction, methanogenesis, methanotrophy, and anaerobic sulfate production modulated by tidal influence.

  14. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  15. Marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  16. Marine Biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  17. Visualization of Microfloral Metabolism for Marine Waste Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuki Ogura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine biomass including fishery products are precious protein resources for human foods and are an alternative to livestock animals in order to reduce the virtual water problem. However, a large amount of marine waste can be generated from fishery products and it is not currently recycled. We evaluated the metabolism of digested marine waste using integrated analytical methods, under anaerobic conditions and the fertilization of abandoned agricultural soils. Dynamics of fish waste digestion revealed that samples of meat and bony parts had similar dynamics under anaerobic conditions in spite of large chemical variations in input marine wastes. Abandoned agricultural soils fertilized with fish waste accumulated some amino acids derived from fish waste, and accumulation of l-arginine and l-glutamine were higher in plant seedlings. Therefore, we have proposed an analytical method to visualize metabolic dynamics for recycling of fishery waste processes.

  18. Marine biomass system: anaerobic digestion and production of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haven, K.F.; Henriquez, M.; Ritschard, R.L.

    1979-04-01

    Two approaches to kelp conversion to methane are described. First, a large (10.56 mi/sup 2/) oceanic farm using an artificial substrate and an upwelling system to deliver nutrient-rich deep ocean water to the kelp bed is described. This system can yield as much as 50 tons of kelp (dry ash free - DAF) per acre-year. Kelp are harvested by a specially designed 30,000 DWT ship and delivered to an onshore processing plant as a ground kelp slurry. The second system involves the use of a natrual coastal kelp bed. Growth rates in this bed are stimulated by a nutrient rich sewer outfall. A conceptual model is presented for calculation of the growth rate of kelp in this natural bed which can reach 15 tons (DAF) per acre-year. The harvest activity and processing plant are similar to those for oceanic farm system. In the next section of this report, the overall concept of kelp production and conversion to methane is discussed. In Section III the general design of the ocean farm system is presented and discussed while Section IV contains a similar description for the natural bed system. Section V presents the capital requirements and operational labor, resources and material requirements. Section VI describes the environmental residuals created by the operation of either system and, to the extent possible, quantifies the rate at which these residuals are generated. In addition to the technical data reported herein, cost data have been generated for the various processes and components utilized in each solar technology. The requirements for costing information basically arise from the need to compute parameters such as investment demands, employment patterns, material demands and residual levels associated with each technology for each of several national and regional scenarios.

  19. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOILTECH ANAEROBIC THERMAL PROCESSOR: OUTBOARD MARINE CORPORATION SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ATP system is designed to desorb, collect, and recondense contaminants. The kiln contains four separate internal thermal zones: preheat, retort, combustion, and cooling. In the preheat zone, water and volatile organic compounds are vaporized. Hot solids and heavy hydrocarbons...

  20. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa

  1. Anaerobic Digestion of Piggery Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Velsen, van, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process by which organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide by microbes in the absence of air (oxygen). In nature, anaerobic conversions occur at all places where organic material accumulates and the supply of oxygen is deficient, e.g. in marshes and lake sediments. Microbial formation of methane also plays a role in the ruminant digestion.In digestion units, the external conditions acting upon the process can be regulated to speed it up as c...

  2. Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria have lagged behind similar studies in aerobes. However, the current interest in biotechnology, the involvement of anaerobes in disease and the emergence of antibioticresistant strains have focused attention on the genetics of anaerobes. This article reviews molecular genetic studies in Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and methanogens. Certain genetic systems in some anaerobes differ from those in aerobes and illustrate the genetic diversity among bacteria

  3. Anaerobes unleashed: Aerobic fuel cells of Geobacter sulfurreducens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Kelly P.; Zhang, Pei; Franks, Ashley E.; Woodard, Trevor L.; Lovley, Derek R.

    One of the limitations of power generation with microbial fuel cells is that the anode must typically be maintained under anaerobic conditions. When oxygen is present in the anode chamber microorganisms oxidize the fuel with the reduction of oxygen rather than electron transfer to the anode. A system in which fuel is provided from within a graphite anode and diffuses out to the outer surface of the anode was designed to overcome these limitations. A biofilm of Geobacter sulfurreducens strain KN400, pregrown on the surface of a graphite electrode in a traditional two-chambered system with an anaerobic anode chamber and acetate as an external fuel source, produced current just as well under aerobic conditions when acetate was provided via diffusion from an internal concentrated acetate solution. No acetate was detectable in the external medium. In contrast, aerobic systems in which acetate was provided in the external medium completely failed within 48 h. Internally fed anodes colonized by a strain of KN400 adapted to grow at marine salinities produced current in aerobic seawater as well as an anaerobic anode system. The ability to generate current with an anode under aerobic conditions increases the potential applications and design options for microbial fuel cells.

  4. The phenomenon of granulation of anaerobic sludge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshoff Pol, L.W.

    1989-01-01

    Successful high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment can only be accomplished when the slowgrowing anaerobic biomass is efficiently held back in the anaerobic treatment system. This biomass retention can be achieved in various ways including immobilization of the organisms on fixed materials and immo

  5. Viscosity evolution of anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.; Baudu, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the apparent viscosity at steady shear rate of sieved anaerobic granular sludge (20¿315 ¿m diameter) sampled from different full-scale anaerobic reactors was recorded using rotation tests. The ¿limit viscosity¿ of sieved anaerobic granular sludge was determined from the apparent vis

  6. Kinetics and modeling of anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion modeling started in the early 1970s when the need for design and efficient operation of anaerobic systems became evident. At that time not only was the knowledge about the complex process of anaerobic digestion inadequate but also there were computational limitations. Thus, th...

  7. Comparative analysis of eukaryotic marine microbial assemblages from 18S rRNA gene and gene transcript clone libraries by using different methods of extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koid, Amy; Nelson, William C; Mraz, Amy; Heidelberg, Karla B

    2012-06-01

    Eukaryotic marine microbes play pivotal roles in biogeochemical nutrient cycling and ecosystem function, but studies that focus on the protistan biogeography and genetic diversity lag-behind studies of other microbes. 18S rRNA PCR amplification and clone library sequencing are commonly used to assess diversity that is culture independent. However, molecular methods are not without potential biases and artifacts. In this study, we compare the community composition of clone libraries generated from the same water sample collected at the San Pedro Ocean Time Series (SPOTs) station in the northwest Pacific Ocean. Community composition was assessed using different cell lysis methods (chemical and mechanical) and the extraction of different nucleic acids (DNA and RNA reverse transcribed to cDNA) to build Sanger ABI clone libraries. We describe specific biases for ecologically important phylogenetic groups resulting from differences in nucleic acid extraction methods that will inform future designs of eukaryotic diversity studies, regardless of the target sequencing platform planned.

  8. Oxygen Effects in Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshai Botheju

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of free oxygen in bio-gasification is a sparsely studied area, apart from the common argument of oxygen being toxic and inhibitory for anaerobic micro-cultures. Some studies have, however, revealed increased solubilisation of organic matter in the presence of some free oxygen in anaerobic digestion. This article analyses these counterbalancing phenomena with a mathematical modelling approach using the widely accepted biochemical model ADM 1. Aerobic oxidation of soluble carbon and inhibition of obligatory anaerobic organisms are modelled using standard saturation type kinetics. Biomass dependent first order hydrolysis kinetics is used to relate the increased hydrolysis rate with oxygen induced increase in biomass growth. The amended model, ADM 1-Ox (oxygen, has 25 state variables and 22 biochemical processes, presented in matrix form. The computer aided simulation tool AQUASIM 2.1 is used to simulate the developed model. Simulation predictions are evaluated against experimental data obtained using a laboratory batch test array comprising miniature anaerobic bio-reactors of 100 ml total volume each, operated under different initial air headspaces giving rise to the different oxygen loading conditions. The reactors were initially fed with a glucose solution and incubated at 35 Celsius, for 563 hours. Under the oxygen load conditions of 22, 44 and 88 mg/L, the ADM1-Ox model simulations predicted the experimental methane potentials quite adequately. Both the experimental data and the simulations suggest a linear reduction of methane potential with respect to the increase in oxygen load within this range.

  9. Anaerobic Treatment of Methanolic Wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettinga, G.; Geest, van der A.Th.; Hobma, S.W.; Laan, van der J.B.R.

    1979-01-01

    Although it is well known that methanol can be fermented directly by a specific species of methane bacteria, viz. Methanosarcina barkeri, until now little information was available about the effect of important environmental factors on the anaerobic fermentation of methanol. As methanol can be the m

  10. Anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye;

    2003-01-01

    by the immobilization of the biomass, which forms static biofilms, particle-supported biofilms, or granules depending on the reactor's operational conditions. The advantages of the high-rate anaerobic digestion over the conventional aerobic wastewater treatment methods has created a clear trend for the change......-rate anaerobic treatment systems based on anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm are described in this chapter. Emphasis is given to a) the Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems, b) the main characteristics of the anaerobic granular sludge, and c) the factors that control the granulation process...

  11. Archaeal lipids and anaerobic oxidation of methane : A comparative study of the euxinic Black Sea and Cariaco Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Wakeham, S.G.; Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Black Sea and the Cariaco Basin are both large, euxinic marine basins in which methane concentrations are high and where anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is an important part of the carbon cycle. AOM can be recognized by lipid biomarkers that are specific to methanotrophic archaea involved a

  12. Biomarker evidence for widespread anaerobic methane oxidation in Mediterranean sediments by a consortium of methanogenic archae and bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Pancost, R.D.; Lint, S. de; Maarel, M.J.E.C. van der; Gottschal, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Although abundant geochemical data indicate that anaerobic methane oxidation occurs in marine sediments, the linkage to specific microorganisms remains unclear. In order to examine processes of methane consumption and oxidation, sediment samples from mud volcanoes at two distinct sites on the Medite

  13. Improving methane production and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of particulate saline sludge from a brackish aquaculture recirculation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuedong; Ferreira, Rui B; Hu, Jianmei; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

    2014-06-01

    In this study, batch tests were conducted to examine the effects of trehalose and glycine betaine as well as potassium on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), acid and alkaline phosphatase activity of anaerobic biomass and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of saline sludge from a brackish recirculation aquaculture system. The results of ANOVA and Tukey's HSD (honestly significant difference) tests showed that glycine betaine and trehalose enhanced SMA of anaerobic biomass and reactive phosphorus release from the particulate waste. Moreover, SMA tests revealed that methanogenic sludge, which was long-term acclimatized to a salinity level of 17 g/L was severely affected by the increase in salinity to values exceeding 35 g/L. Addition of compatible solutes, such as glycine betaine and trehalose, could be used to enhance the specific methane production rate and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion from particulate organic waste produced in marine or brackish aquaculture recirculation systems.

  14. Effect of incubation conditions on anaerobic susceptibility testing results.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, P R; Niles, A C

    1982-01-01

    We determined the effect of performing antimicrobial susceptibility tests in five different anaerobic incubation systems: GasPak jar, large GasPak jar, evacuated-gassed anaerobic jar, anaerobic chamber, and Bio-Bag. Growth of the anaerobes was equivalent in all five incubation systems. The results of testing 38 anaerobes against 11 antimicrobial agents were comparable for the anaerobic jars and anaerobic chamber. However, discordant results were observed for metronidazole and cefamandole test...

  15. Tracing the Paleo sulfate-methane transition zones and H2S seepage events in marine sediments: An application of C-S-Mo systematics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peketi, A.; Mazumdar, A.; Joshi, R.K.; Patil, D.J.; Srinivas, P.L.; Dayal, A.M.

    Microbially mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled with sulfate consumption within the sulfate methane transition zone (SMTZ) in marine sediments is a widely recorded biogeochemical reaction and has profound influence...

  16. Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  17. Marine localities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar Hummelinck, P.

    1977-01-01

    Some twenty-five years have passed since short descriptions were published of marine and saltpond habitats sampled in the Caribbean during three zoological collecting trips made by the author in 1930, 1936/37 and 1948/49 (these Studies, vol. 4, no. 17, 1953). Sampling of the shallow coastal waters o

  18. Anaerobic digestion of solid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavilin, V.A.; Lokshina, L.Y.; Flotats, X.;

    2007-01-01

    A new multidimensional (3 and 2D) anaerobic digestion model for cylindrical reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions was developed to study the way in which mixing intensity affects the efficiency of continuous-flow anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments reported and simulated...... earlier by Vavilin and Angelidaki (2005) were used to modernize a kinetic scheme and to obtain the corresponding kinetic coefficients. In the new models, hydrolytic microorganisms were included using Contois kinetics for the hydrolysis/acidogenesis degradation of municipal solid waste (MSW). Monod...... kinetics was applied for description of methanogenesis. Both hydrolytic and methanogenic microorganisms were assumed to be inhibited by high volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration. According to the new distributed models, the mixing level reduction expressed by increasing dimensionless Peclet number may...

  19. Iron-mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane in brackish coastal sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, Matthias; Rasigraf, Olivia; Sapart, Célia J.; Jilbert, Tom; Mike S.M. Jetten; Röckmann, Thomas; van der Veen, Carina; Bândă, Narcisa; Kartal, Boran; Ettwig, Katharina F.; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2015-01-01

    Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and its biological conversion in marine sediments, largely controlled by anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), is a crucial part of the global carbon cycle. However, little is known about the role of iron oxides as an oxidant for AOM. Here we provide the first field evidence for iron-dependent AOM in brackish coastal surface sediments and show that methane produced in Bothnian Sea sediments is oxidized in distinct zones of iron- and sulfate-dependent AOM. ...

  20. Anaerobic procedures of wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zupančič, Tadeja

    2013-01-01

    Highly polluted wastewater is formed in dairies, pig farms and slaughterhouses. Before released into watercourses, wastewater should be properly processed with different treatment procedures in wastewater treatment plants. The thesis deals with the descriptions of mechanical, physical and chemical, and biological wastewater treatment procedures and the description of the factors which affect the reactions in wastewater treatment plants. I give special emphasis on anaerobic wastewater treatmen...

  1. Anaerobic digestion of aliphatic polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmejkalová, Pavla; Kužníková, Veronika; Merna, Jan; Hermanová, Soňa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic processes for the treatment of plastic materials waste represent versatile and effective approach in environmental protection and solid waste management. In this work, anaerobic biodegradability of model aliphatic polyesters, poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), in the form of powder and melt-pressed films with varying molar mass, was studied. Biogas production was explored in batch laboratory trials at 55 ± 1°C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The inoculum used was thermophilic digested sludge (total solids concentration of 2.9%) from operating digesters at the Central Waste Water Treatment Plant in Prague, Czech Republic. Methanogenic biodegradation of PCLs typically yielded from 54 to 60% of the theoretical biogas yield. The biodegradability of PLAs achieved from 56 to 84% of the theoretical value. High biogas yield (up to 677 mL/g TS) with high methane content (more than 60%), comparable with conventionally processed materials, confirmed the potential of polyester samples for anaerobic treatment in the case of their exploitation in agriculture or as a packaging material in the food industry. PMID:27191559

  2. Anaerobic oxidation of methane in grassland soils used for cattle husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bannert

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available While the importance of anaerobic methane oxidation has been reported for marine ecosystems, the role of this process in soils is still questionable. Grasslands used as pastures for cattle overwintering show an increase in anaerobic soil micro-sites caused by animal treading and excrement deposition. Therefore, anaerobic potential methane oxidation activity of severely impacted soil from a cattle winter pasture was investigated in an incubation experiment under anaerobic conditions using 13C-labelled methane. We were able to detect a high microbial activity utilizing CH4 as nutrient source shown by the respiration of 13CO2. Measurements of possible terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic oxidation of methane were carried out. Soil sulfate concentrations were too low to explain the oxidation of the amount of methane added, but enough nitrate and iron(III were detected. However, only nitrate was consumed during the experiment. 13C-PLFA analyses clearly showed the utilization of CH4 as nutrient source mainly by organisms harbouring 16:1ω7 PLFAs. These lipids were also found as most 13C-enriched fatty acids by Raghoebarsing et al. (2006 after addition of 13CH4 to an enrichment culture coupling denitrification of nitrate to anaerobic oxidation of methane. This might be an indication for anaerobic oxidation of methane by relatives of "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera" in the investigated grassland soil under the conditions of the incubation experiment.

  3. Potential for anaerobic conversion of xenobiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Dolfing, J.; Haagensen, Frank;

    2003-01-01

    This review covers the latest research on the anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic xenobiotic compounds, with emphasis on surfactants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalate esters, polychlorinated biphenyls, halogenated phenols, and pesticides. The versatility of anaerobic reactor systems...... regarding the treatment of xenobiotics is shown with the focus on the UASB reactor, but the applicability of other reactor designs for treatment of hazardous waste is also included. Bioaugmentation has proved to be a viable technique to enhance a specific activity in anaerobic reactors and recent research...

  4. Molecular ecology of anaerobic reactor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H. Jacob Peider; Zheng, D.; Westermann, Peter;

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic reactor systems are essential for the treatment of solid and liquid wastes and constitute a core facility in many waste treatment plants. Although much is known about the basic metabolism in different types of anaerobic reactors, little is known about the microbes responsible...... to the abundance of each microbe in anaerobic reactor systems by rRNA probing. This chapter focuses on various molecular techniques employed and problems encountered when elucidating the microbial ecology of anaerobic reactor systems. Methods such as quantitative dot blot/fluorescence in-situ probing using various...

  5. Anaerobic digestion of coffee waste

    OpenAIRE

    L. Neves; Ribeiro, R.; Oliveira, Rosário; Alves, M. M.

    2005-01-01

    The anaerobic co-digestion of five different by-products from instant coffee substitutes production was studied in mesophilic conditions. The co-substrate was the excess of sewage sludge from the wastewater treatment plant located in the same coffee factory. Four of the tested wastes produced methane in the range of 0.24-0.28 m³CH4(STP)/kgVSinitial . Reduction of 50-73% in total solids and 75-80% in volatile solids were obtained and the hydrolysis rate constants were in the ran...

  6. Anaerobic digestion of biomass for methane production: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunaseelan, V.N. [PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Zoology

    1997-12-31

    Biological conversion of biomass to methane has received increasing attention in recent years. Hand- and mechanically-sorted municipal solid waste and nearly 100 genera of fruit and vegetable solid wastes, leaves, grasses, woods, weeds, marine and freshwater biomass have been explored for their anaerobic digestion potential to methane. In this review, the extensive literature data have been tabulated and ranked under various categories and the influence of several parameters on the methane potential of the feedstocks are presented. Almost all the land- and water-based species examined to date either have good digestion characteristics or can be pre-treated to promote digestion. This review emphasizes the urgent need for evaluating the inumerable unexplored genera of plants as potential sources for methane production. (author)

  7. Instrumentation in anaerobic treatment - research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, H.; Lier, van J.B.

    2006-01-01

    High rate anaerobic treatment reactors are able to uncouple solids and liquid retention time, resulting in high biomass concentrations. Principal advantages of anaerobic treatment include: energy efficiency, low biomass yield, low nutrient requirement and high volumetric organic loadings. In order t

  8. Carbon monoxide conversion by anaerobic bioreactor sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and 55degreesC
    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and

  9. Anaerobic critical velocity in four swimming techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, H P; Fernandes, R J; Vilas-Boas, J P

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess critical velocity in order to control and evaluate anaerobic swimming training. 51 highly trained male swimmers performed maximal 15, 25, 37.5 and 50 m in the 4 swimming techniques to determine critical velocity from the distance-time relationship. Anaerobic critical velocity was compared with 100 m swimming performance and corresponding partials. Complementarily, 9 swimmers performed a 6×50 m (4 min interval) training series at front crawl individual anaerobic critical velocity, capillary blood lactate concentrations being assessed after each repetition. The mean±SD values of anaerobic critical velocity and its relationship with the 100 m event were: 1.61±0.07 (r=0.60, p=0.037), 1.53±0.05 (r=0.81, p=0.015), 1.33±0.05 (r=0.83, p=0.002), and 1.75±0.05 (r=0.74, p=0.001), for butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke and front crawl, respectively. However, differences between anaerobic critical velocity and performance were observed (with exception of the second half of the 100 m swimming events in breaststroke and butterfly). Lactate concentration values at the end of the series were 14.52±1.06 mmol.l (-1), which suggests that it was indeed an anaerobic training set. In this sense, anaerobic critical velocity can be used to prescribe anaerobic training intensities.

  10. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  11. Prospects of Anaerobic Digestion Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As the world's largest developing country, China must face the problem of managing municipal solid waste, and the challenge of organic waste disposal is even more serious. Considering the characteristics of traditional waste disposal technologies and the subsequent secondary pollution, anaerobic digestion has various advantages such as reduction in the land needed for disposal and preservation of environmental quality. In light of the energy crisis, this paper focuses on the potential production of biogas from biowaste through anaerobic digestion processes, the problems incurred by the waste collection system, and the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. Use of biogas in a combined heat and power cogeneration system is also discussed. Finally, the advantages of anaerobic digestion technology for the Chinese market are summarized. The anaerobic digestion is suggested to be a promising treating technology for the organic wastes in China.

  12. Anaerobic biorefinery: Current status, challenges, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdeenarunat, Chayanon; Nguyen, Duc; Surendra, K C; Shrestha, Shilva; Rajendran, Karthik; Oechsner, Hans; Xie, Li; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been in use for many decades. To date, it has been primarily aimed at treating organic wastes, mainly manures and wastewater sludge, and industrial wastewaters. However, with the current advancements, a more open mind is required to look beyond these somewhat restricted original applications of AD. Biorefineries are such concepts, where multiple products including chemicals, fuels, polymers etc. are produced from organic feedstocks. The anaerobic biorefinery concept is now gaining increased attention, utilizing AD as the final disposal step. This review aims at evaluating the potential significance of anaerobic biorefineries, including types of feedstocks, uses for the produced energy, as well as sustainable applications of the generated residual digestate. A comprehensive analysis of various types of anaerobic biorefineries has been developed, including both large-scale and household level applications. Finally, future directives are highlighted showing how anaerobic biorefinery concept could impact the bioeconomy in the near future. PMID:27005786

  13. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  14. Marine fungi: A critique

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    Obligate marine fungi, those which grow and sporulate exclusively under marine conditions, have received all the attention from marine mycologists. Fungi originating from freshwater, or terrestrial environment and capable of growth and sporulation...

  15. Marine Lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  16. Polyketide Synthases in the Microbiome of the Marine Sponge Plakortis halichondrioides: A Metagenomic Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Della Sala

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sponge-associated microorganisms are able to assemble the complex machinery for the production of secondary metabolites such as polyketides, the most important class of marine natural products from a drug discovery perspective. A comprehensive overview of polyketide biosynthetic genes of the sponge Plakortis halichondrioides and its symbionts was obtained in the present study by massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing of complex and heterogeneous PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction products amplified from the metagenomic DNA of a specimen of P. halichondrioides collected in the Caribbean Sea. This was accompanied by a survey of the bacterial diversity within the sponge. In line with previous studies, sequences belonging to supA and swfA, two widespread sponge-specific groups of polyketide synthase (PKS genes were dominant. While they have been previously reported as belonging to Poribacteria (a novel bacterial phylum found exclusively in sponges, re-examination of current genomic sequencing data showed supA and swfA not to be present in the poribacterial genome. Several non-supA, non-swfA type-I PKS fragments were also identified. A significant portion of these fragments resembled type-I PKSs from protists, suggesting that bacteria may not be the only source of polyketides from P. halichondrioides, and that protistan PKSs should receive further investigation as a source of novel polyketides.

  17. Protist communities in a marine oxygen minimum zone off Costa Rica by 454 pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, H.; Rocke, E.; Kong, L.; Xia, X.; Liu, H.; Landry, M. R.

    2015-08-01

    Marine planktonic protists, including microalgae and protistan grazers, are an important contributor to global primary production and carbon and mineral cycles, however, little is known about their population shifts along the oxic-anoxic gradient in the water column. We used 454 pyrosequencing of the 18S rRNA gene and gene transcripts to study the community composition of whole and active protists throughout a water column in the Costa Rica Dome, where a stable oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) exists at a depth of 400~700 m. A clear shift of protist composition from photosynthetic Dinoflagellates in the surface to potential parasitic Dinoflagellates and Ciliates in the deeper water was revealed along the vertical profile at both rRNA and rDNA levels. Those protist groups recovered only at the rDNA level represent either lysed aggregates sinking from the upper waters or potential hosts for parasitic groups. UPGMA clustering demonstrated that total and active protists in the anoxic core of OMZ (550 m) were distinct from those in other water depths. The reduced community diversity and presence of a parasitic/symbiotic trophic lifestyle in the OMZ, especially the anoxic core, suggests that OMZs can exert a selective pressure on protist communities. Such changes in community structure and a shift in trophic lifestyle could result in a modulation of the microbial loop and associated biogeochemical cycling.

  18. Biosynthesis Of Gold Nanoparticles By Marine Purple Non Sulphur Bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas Sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Abirami. G; Asmathunisha. N; Kathiresan. K

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes for the first time that an anaerobic marine bacterium is capable of producing gold nanoparticles. A marine purple non-sulphur bacterium was isolated from mangrove sediment and identified as Rhodopseudomonas sp. . The bacterial culture was tested for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles by using aqueous HAuCl4 solution as substrate in darkness. The gold nanoparticles synthesized were found to be of cubical structure in the size range of 10–20 nm.

  19. Effect of music on anaerobic exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atan, T

    2013-03-01

    For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to "slow rhythm music", "fast rhythm music" or "no music". 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN) tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music) was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p > 0.05). On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise. PMID:24744463

  20. Biomarker evidence for widespread anaerobic methane oxidation in Mediterranean sediments by a consortium of methanogenic archaea and bacteria : The Medinaut Shipboard Scientific Party

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pancost, Richard D.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; de Lint, Saskia; van der Maarel, Marc J.E.C.; Gottschal, JC

    2000-01-01

    Although abundant geochemical data indicate that anaerobic methane oxidation occurs in marine sediments, the linkage to specific microorganisms remains unclear, In order to examine processes of methane consumption and oxidation, sediment samples from mud volcanoes at two distinct sites on the Medite

  1. Marine lakes of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, Leontine Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to obtain insight into the processes that play a role in biodiversity patterns of tropical marine species by using marine lakes as a model. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea. Two

  2. Antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Audrey N

    2014-09-01

    Infections due to anaerobic bacteria can be severe and life-threatening. Susceptibility testing of anaerobes is not frequently performed in laboratories, but such testing is important to direct appropriate therapy. Anaerobic resistance is increasing globally, and resistance trends vary by geographic region. An overview of a variety of susceptibility testing methods for anaerobes is provided, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are reviewed. Specific clinical situations warranting anaerobic susceptibility testing are discussed.

  3. Characterizing the Anaerobic Response of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Quantitative Proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Terashima, Mia; Specht, Michael; Naumann, Bianca; Hippler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The versatile metabolism of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is reflected in its complex response to anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic response is also remarkable in the context of renewable energy because C. reinhardtii is able to produce hydrogen under anaerobic conditions. To identify proteins involved during anaerobic acclimation as well as to localize proteins and pathways to the powerhouses of the cell, chloroplasts and mitochondria from C. reinhardtii in aerobic and anaerobic...

  4. Anaerobe Tolerance to Oxygen and the Potentials of Anaerobic and Aerobic Cocultures for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Kato

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic treatment processes are considered to be well-established methods for the elimination of easily biodegradable organic matter from wastewaters. Some difficulties concerning certain wastewaters are related to the possible presence of dissolved oxygen. The common belief is that anaerobes are oxygen intolerant. Therefore, the common practice is to use sequencing anaerobic and aerobic steps in separate tanks. Enhanced treatment by polishing off the residual biodegradable oxygen demand from effluents of anaerobic reactors, or the biodegradation of recalcitrant wastewater pollutants, usually requires sequenced anaerobic and aerobic bacteria activities. However, the combined activity of both bacteria can also be obtained in a single reactor. Previous experiments with either pure or mixed cultures showed that anaerobes can tolerate oxygen to a certain extent. The oxygen toxicity to methanogens in anaerobic sludges was quantified in batch experiments, as well as in anaerobic reactors. The results showed that methanogens have a high tolerance to oxygen. In practice, it was confirmed that dissolved oxygen does not constitute any detrimental effect on reactor treatment performance. This means that the coexistence of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in one single reactor is feasible and increases the potentials of new applications in wastewater treatment

  5. Multivariate monitoring of anaerobic co-digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    Anaerobic digestion processes for production of renewable energy in the form of biogas, and in the future hydrogen, are becoming increasingly important worldwide. Sustainable solutions for renewable energy production systems are given high political priority, amongst other things due to global...... warming and environmental concerns. Anaerobic digestion applied in agriculture can simultaneously convert heterogeneous biomasses and wastes from the primary agricultural sector and from the bio processing industries, for instance food processing, pharma, and biofuel production, into valuable organic...... distinct scales. The aim was to investigate, whether changes in the chemical environment in the anaerobic digesters could be monitored by NIRS enabling biogas plant operators to respond to the process dynamics. Results show that several key intermediates suitable for control of the anaerobic digestion...

  6. Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Eekert, van M.H.A.; Dolfing, J.; Schraa, G.

    2006-01-01

    Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory

  7. An anaerobic mitochondrion that produces hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, Brigitte; Graaf, Rob M. de; Staay, Georg W.M. van der; Alen, Theo A. van; Ricard, Guenola; Gabaldón, Toni; Hoek, Angela H.A.M. van; Moon-van der Staay, Seung Yeo; Koopman, Werner J.H.; Hellemond, Jaap J. van; Tielens, Aloysius G.M.; Friedrich, Thorsten; Veenhuis, Marten; Huynen, Martijn A.; Hackstein, Johannes H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes are organelles that produce ATP and hydrogen, and are found in various unrelated eukaryotes, such as anaerobic flagellates, chytridiomycete fungi and ciliates. Although all of these organelles generate hydrogen, the hydrogenosomes from these organisms are structurally and metabolicall

  8. Chemoautotrophic Carbon Fixation Rates and Active Bacterial Communities in Intertidal Marine Sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; Vasquez-Cardenas, D.; Bolhuis, H.; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Moodley, L.

    2014-01-01

    Chemoautotrophy has been little studied in typical coastal marine sediments, but may be an important component ofcarbon recycling as intense anaerobic mineralization processes in these sediments lead to accumulation of high amounts ofreduced compounds, such as sulfides and ammonium. We studied chemo

  9. Comparative Studies of Alternative Anaerobic Digestion Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Inman, David C.

    2004-01-01

    Washington D.C. Water and Sewage Authority is planning to construct a new anaerobic digestion facility at its Blue Plains WWTP by 2008. The research conducted in this study is to aid the designers of this facility by evaluating alternative digestion technologies. Alternative anaerobic digestion technologies include thermophilic, acid/gas phased, and temperature phased digestion. In order to evaluate the relative merits of each, a year long study evaluated the performance of bench scale dig...

  10. Anaerobic Digestion of Paper Mill Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan; Siti Baizura Mahat; Md. Fadjil Md. Din; A. Yuzir; Othman, N.

    2012-01-01

    In general, paper mill wastewater contains complex organic substances which could not be treated completely using conventional treatment processes, e.g. aerobic processes. As a result, anaerobic technology is a promising alternative for paper mill wastewater treatment due to its ability to degrade hard organic compounds. In the present study, treatment of paper mill wastewater using a stage anaerobic reactor was investigated. The more specific objectives of this study were to confirm whether ...

  11. Psychrophilic anaerobic treatment of low strength wastewaters.

    OpenAIRE

    Rebac, S.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to design a high-rate anaerobic system for the treatment low strength wastewaters under psychrophilic conditions.Psychrophilic (3 to 20 °C) anaerobic treatment of low strength synthetic and malting wastewater was investigated using a single and two stage expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor system. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies found in the experiments with synthetic wastewater exceeded 90 % in the single stage reactor at im...

  12. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Atan, T.

    2013-01-01

    For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-...

  13. Marine lakes of Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Becking, Leontine Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to obtain insight into the processes that play a role in biodiversity patterns of tropical marine species by using marine lakes as a model. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea. Two regions in Indonesia were studied: Berau (East Kalimantan) and Raja Ampat (West Papua). The following questions were addressed: 1. What are the different types of marine lakes in Indonesia? 2. Are ...

  14. Anaerobic Biodegradation of the Lignin and Polysaccharide Components of Lignocellulose and Synthetic Lignin by Sediment Microflora †

    OpenAIRE

    Benner, Ronald; Maccubbin, A. E.; Hodson, Robert E.

    1984-01-01

    Specifically radiolabeled [14C-lignin]lignocelluloses and [14C-polysaccharide]lignocelluloses were prepared from a variety of marine and freshwater wetland plants including a grass, a sedge, a rush, and a hardwood. These [14C]lignocellulose preparations and synthetic [14C]lignin were incubated anaerobically with anoxic sediments collected from a salt marsh, a freshwater marsh, and a mangrove swamp. During long-term incubations lasting up to 300 days, the lignin and polysaccharide components o...

  15. SLEEP DEPRIVATION INDUCED ANXIETY AND ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Arzu Vardar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation induced anxiety on anaerobic performance. Thirteen volunteer male physical education students completed the Turkish version of State Anxiety Inventory and performed Wingate anaerobic test for three times: (1 following a full-night of habitual sleep (baseline measurements, (2 following 30 hours of sleep deprivation, and (3 following partial-night sleep deprivation. Baseline measurements were performed the day before total sleep deprivation. Measurements following partial sleep deprivation were made 2 weeks later than total sleep deprivation measurements. State anxiety was measured prior to each Wingate test. The mean state anxiety following total sleep deprivation was higher than the baseline measurement (44.9 ± 12.9 vs. 27.6 ± 4.2, respectively, p = 0.02 whereas anaerobic performance parameters remained unchanged. Neither anaerobic parameters nor state anxiety levels were affected by one night partial sleep deprivation. Our results suggest that 30 hours continuous wakefulness may increase anxiety level without impairing anaerobic performance, whereas one night of partial sleep deprivation was ineffective on both state anxiety and anaerobic performance

  16. Potential environmental functions of widespread, abundant, uncultured marine archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, K. G.; Schreiber, L.; Petersen, D. G.; Schramm, A.; Jorgensen, B.

    2012-12-01

    The vast majority of marine subsurface microorganisms are uncultivated, and therefore have unknown metabolisms. Much of the prokaryotes present in the marine subsurface are archaea, and, in turn, much of the archaea fall into the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group. These organisms are widely distributed globally and are phylogenetically diverse, comprising 17 distinct subgroups, defined by 16S rRNA genes (Kubo et al. 2012). The subgroups do not seem to have any well-defined environmental distribution (i.e., they are all present in different types of marine and terrestrial environments). However, the abundance of sequences from a certain environment type differs among subgroups, and may provide clues to their role in these environments. We sequenced the genome of a single cell of MCG extracted directly from marine sediments. Although coverage was low (~30%), the data quality was high. Conserved genes show that MCG is deeply branching within the newly named "Thaumarchaeota", and contains a complete pathway for the degradation or extracellular proteins. A further search through metagenomic data shows that this process may be widespread in marine sediments. We hypothesize that MCG archaea may be important in anaerobic protein decomposition in marine sediments. Reference Kubo et al., 2012. Archaea of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (MCG) are abundant, diverse, and widespread in marine sediments. ISME Journal, in press, doi:10.1038/ismej.2012.37.

  17. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  18. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of low-level radioactive cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work has been completed using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale. Start-up and operating procedures have been developed, and effluent was generated for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and fed-batch conditions were made lasting 36, 90, and 423 d. Solids solubilization rates and gas production rates averaged approximately 1.8 g cellulose per L of reactor per d and 1.2 L of off-gas per L reactor per d. Greater than 80% destruction of the volatile suspended solids was obtained. A simple dynamic process model was constructed to aid in process design and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester

  19. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erşahin, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become m

  20. Impact of Sulfide on Nitrate Conversion in Eutrophic Nitrate-Rich Marine Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwermer, Carsten U.; Krieger, Bärbel; Lavik, Gaute;

    2006-01-01

    IMPACT OF SULFIDE ON NITRATE CONVERSION IN EUTROPHIC NITRATE-RICH MARINE SLUDGE C.U. Schwermer 1, B.U. Krieger 2, G. Lavik 1, A. Schramm 3, J. van Rijn 4, D. de Beer 1, D. Minz 5, E. Cytryn 4, M. Kuypers 1, A. Gieseke 1 1 Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany; 2 Dept...... and Environmental Sciences, Volcani Research Center, Bet-Dagan, Israel Multiple anaerobic processes are responsible for carbon mineralization in eutrophic nitrate-rich marine environments (e.g., upwelling areas, estuaries, and aquacultures), involving electron acceptors from both the nitrogen and sulfur cycle...

  1. The effect of outside conditions on anaerobic ammonia oxidation reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Min; WANG Shu-bo

    2016-01-01

    Organic carbon, inorganic carbon, temperature, pH and ORP are all to have a certain influence on the anaerobic ammonia oxidation reaction. We can draw some conclusions on the optimum conditions of anaerobic ammonia oxidation reaction. The optimum temperature of the anaerobic ammonia oxidation reaction is 30-35℃. And the optimum pH of the anaerobic ammonia reaction is 7.5-8.3. The presence of organic matters can affect the anaerobic ammonia reaction, and different organic matters have different influence on it. The concentration of the inorganic carbon also exist great influence on the reaction. High inorganic carbon concentration also can inhibit anaerobic ammonia oxidation reaction.

  2. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  3. Bacterial vaginosis with special reference to anaerobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumati A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and to estimate the prevalence of anaerobic organisms in vaginal discharge of women suffering from bacterial vaginosis. Settings and Design: Patients attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of a Medical College Hospital. A one year cross-sectional study. Methods and Materials: High vaginal swabs taken from 174 female patients complaining of abnormal vaginal discharge. BV was diagnosed by clinical composite criteria and by gram stain. Anaerobes were isolated and identified from the discharge. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square test, with level of significance set at a value of P< 0.05. Results: BV was diagnosed in 68.39% of the cases by using clinical composite criteria and in 58.4% of the cases by gram stain. Anaerobic culture isolation of vaginal swabs revealed that out of 174 cases 143 (82.65% were culture positive for anaerobes. Bacteroides were significantly raised in BV as compared with non bacterial vaginosis (NBV; < 0.05%. Conclusions: Anaerobic bacteria are important pathogens in the causation of bacterial vaginosis along with other aerobic organisms. Bacteroides and peptostreptococci are significantly raised in BV.

  4. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  5. Marine Jurisdiction Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NOAA Coastal Services Center's Marine Jurisdiction dataset was created to assist in marine spatial planning and offshore alternative energy sitting. This is a...

  6. Frontiers of marine science

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, T. J.; Poloczanska, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    On 9–13 October 2010 early career scientists from the UK and Australia across marine research fields were given the opportunity to come together in Perth, Australia to discuss the frontiers of marine research and exchange ideas.

  7. Mariner 10 Image Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mariner 10 Image Archive includes tools to view shaded relief maps of the surface of Mercury, a 3D globe, and all images acquired by NASA's Mariner 10 mission.

  8. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high...

  9. MarineCadastre.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MarineCadastre.gov is a marine information system that provides authoritative ocean data, offshore planning tools, and technical support to the offshore renewable...

  10. Tsunamis and marine life

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.V.S.; Ingole, B.S.; Tang, D.; Satyanarayan, B.; Zhao, H.

    The 26 December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean exerted far reaching temporal and spatial impacts on marine biota. Our synthesis was based on satellite data acquired by the Laboratory for Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics (LED) of the South...

  11. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  12. [Anaerobic-aerobic infection in acute appendicitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamchich, V I; Ulitovskiĭ, I V; Savich, E I; Znamenskiĭ, V A; Beliaeva, O A

    1998-01-01

    362 patients with acute appendicitis (AA) were examined. For microbiological diagnosis of aerobic and anaerobic nonclostridial microflora we used complex accelerated methods (including evaluation of gram-negative microorganisms in comparison with tinctorial-fermentative method of differential staining according to oxygen sensitivity of catalasopositive together with aerobic and cathalasonegative anaerobic microorganisms) as well as complete bacteriologic examination with determination of sensitivity of the above microorganism to antimicrobial remedies. High rate of aerobic-anaerobic microbial associations and substantial identity of microflora from appendicis and exudate from abdominal cavity was revealed, which evidenced the leading role of endogenous microorganisms in etiology and pathogenesis of AA and peritonitis i. e. autoinfection. In patients with destructive forms of AA, complicated by peritonitis it is recommended to use the accelerated method of examination of pathologic material as well as the complete scheme of examination with the identification of the isolated microorganisms and the correction of antibiotic treatment. PMID:9511291

  13. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, A. G.; Chen, Y. R.; Varel, V. H.

    1981-01-01

    The conversion of livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation is summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis are discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process is presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration to have significant effects on CH4 production rate. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter s by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost is presented.

  14. Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-18

    We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

  15. Biochar from anaerobically digested sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, Mandu; Gao, Bin; Pullammanappallil, Pratap; Ding, Wenchuan; Zimmerman, Andrew R

    2010-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of anaerobic digestion on biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse was anaerobically digested to produce methane. The digested residue and fresh bagasse was pyrolyzed separately into biochar at 600 degrees C in nitrogen environment. The digested bagasse biochar (DBC) and undigested bagasse biochar (BC) were characterized to determine their physicochemical properties. Although biochar was produced from the digested residue (18% by weight) and the raw bagasse (23%) at a similar rate, there were many physiochemical differences between them. Compared to BC, DBC had higher pH, surface area, cation exchange capacity (CEC), anion exchange capacity (AEC), hydrophobicity and more negative surface charge, all properties that are generally desirable for soil amelioration, contaminant remediation or wastewater treatment. Thus, these results suggest that the pyrolysis of anaerobic digestion residues to produce biochar may be an economically and environmentally beneficial use of agricultural wastes. PMID:20634061

  16. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  17. Metabolic interactions between methanogenic consortia and anaerobic respiring bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stams, A.J.; Oude Elferink, S.J.; Westermann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Most types of anaerobic respiration are able to outcompete methanogenic consortia for common substrates if the respective electron acceptors are present in sufficient amounts. Furthermore, several products or intermediate compounds formed by anaerobic respiring bacteria are toxic to methanogenic...

  18. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  19. The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the high sensi

  20. Succession of lignocellulolytic bacterial consortia bred anaerobically from lake sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korenblum, Elisa; Jiménez Avella, Diego; van Elsas, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria degrade lignocellulose in various anoxic and organically rich environments, often in a syntrophic process. Anaerobic enrichments of bacterial communities on a recalcitrant lignocellulose source were studied combining polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresi

  1. Biological cycling of elements and stable isotopes in marine environments. Progress report, April 1, 1972-May 1, 1973

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, I. R.

    1973-01-01

    Research effort was directed toward four projects: development of a rapid technique for the measurement of total uranium content in marine sediments; understanding of the quantitative aspects involved in the anaerobic degradation of organic matter on the sea floor; evaluation of the magnitude of ionic diffusion constants in marine sediments; and development of a rapid monitoring system for dissolved sulfate in sea water and sediments to determine pollution of the ocean floor.

  2. Main Factors Effecting Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-fei

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (ANAMMOX) drew more attentions because of its denitrification in wastewater with low carbon resource. The external conditions of ANAMMOX are relatively harsh,however this reaction does not require the participation of oxygen and organics. So the research and technology development of ANAMMOX has the significance of sustainable development.In this paper, the main influencing factors of ANAMMOX were summarized,Combined with recent research status of ANAMMOX technology, the development trend of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation technology was prospected.

  3. The Pasteur effect in facultative anaerobic metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H; Kamp, G

    1996-05-15

    The existence and the regulatory mechanisms of the Pasteur effect in facultative anaerobic metazoa are discussed. There are three reasons for the controversy surrounding this phenomenon. 1) The different definitions of the Pasteur effect, 2) the antagonistic effect of metabolic depression and its species specific response to hypoxia, as well as 3) the laboratory-specific differences in the experimental procedures for analyzing the Pasteur effect and its regulation. This review aims to clarify the confusion about the existence of the Pasteur effect in facultative anaerobic metazoa and to offer possible molecular mechanisms.

  4. Startup and stabilization of anaerobic membrane bioreactors at ambient temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Peña, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in wastewater treatment in last decades to reduce human footprint. Primarily, anaerobic technology focused on treatment and stabilization of sludge, but now the tendency is to give it a major role in low cost treatment of high/low strength wastewaters, since anaerobic digestion offers energy generation through gas production. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR) combine anaerobic digestion with membrane filtration. They are becoming a feasible opti...

  5. The Financial Feasibility of Anaerobic Digestion for Ontario's Livestock Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Weersink, Alfons; Mallon, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    This report is an investigation of the financial feasibility of farm based anaerobic digestion investments under Ontario's Standard Offer Contract electricity prices. Using Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) Agricultural Anaerobic Digestion Calculation Spreadsheet (AADCS) anaerobic digestion inputs, outputs, cost and revenues were estimated and used to conduct a financial analysis on the feasibility of four sized farm base anaerobic digestion investments. The res...

  6. The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Field, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the high sensitivity of the anaerobic bacteria (ie. methanogenic bacteria) to toxic compounds. The anaerobic technologies were initially developed for the treatment of non-toxic organic wastewaters. As the techn...

  7. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  8. Treatment of domestic sewage in a two-step system anaerobic filter/anaerobic hybrid reactor at low temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmitwalli, T.A.; Zeeman, G.; Oahn, K.L.T.; Lettinga, G.

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature of 13 degrees Celsius was investigated in a two-step system consisting of an anaerobic filter (AF) + an anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs)

  9. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  10. Techniques for controlling variability in gram staining of obligate anaerobes.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, M. J.; Thatcher, E; Cox, M E

    1995-01-01

    Identification of anaerobes recovered from clinical samples is complicated by the fact that certain gram-positive anaerobes routinely stain gram negative; Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus, Eubacterium plautii, Clostridium ramosum, Clostridium symbiosum, and Clostridium clostridiiforme are among the nonconformists with regard to conventional Gram-staining procedures. Accurate Gram staining of American Type Culture Collection strains of these anaerobic bacteria is possible by implementing fi...

  11. The Influence of Hydration on Anaerobic Performance: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Justin A.; Green, James M.; Bishop, Phillip A.; Richardson, Mark T.; Neggers, Yasmin H.; Leeper, James D.

    2012-01-01

    This review examines the influence of dehydration on muscular strength and endurance and on single and repeated anaerobic sprint bouts. Describing hydration effects on anaerobic performance is difficult because various exercise modes are dominated by anaerobic energy pathways, but still contain inherent physiological differences. The critical…

  12. Changing anaerobic spectrum in suppurative lung disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beena, V K; Kumari, G R; Rao, P V; Murty, M V; Shivananda, P G

    1996-01-01

    A spectrum of three different anaerobes were isolated from a debilitated patient with suppurative lung disease, within a two-year period. Repeated isolation from three consecutive samples and symptomatic relief with metronidazole provide clinical evidence of anaerobic lung infection. This case emphasizes the importance of anaerobic culture in cases of protracted pulmonary suppurative disease. PMID:8822645

  13. Marine Robot Autonomy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Autonomy for Marine Robots provides a timely and insightful overview of intelligent autonomy in marine robots. A brief history of this emerging field is provided, along with a discussion of the challenges unique to the underwater environment and their impact on the level of intelligent autonomy required.  Topics covered at length examine advanced frameworks, path-planning, fault tolerance, machine learning, and cooperation as relevant to marine robots that need intelligent autonomy.  This book also: Discusses and offers solutions for the unique challenges presented by more complex missions and the dynamic underwater environment when operating autonomous marine robots Includes case studies that demonstrate intelligent autonomy in marine robots to perform underwater simultaneous localization and mapping  Autonomy for Marine Robots is an ideal book for researchers and engineers interested in the field of marine robots.      

  14. Environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and the use of anaerobic residues as soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, F.E. [VFA Services Ltd., Herts (United Kingdom)

    1996-01-01

    This paper defines the environmental role of anaerobic digestion within the overall objective of recovering energy from renewable biomass resources. Examples and opportunities for incorporating anaerobic digestion into biomass-to-energy schemes are discussed, together with environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion plants. These include visual, public amenity, pathogens and public health, odor control, and gaseous emissions. Digestate disposal and the benefits of restrictions on recycling organic wastes and biomass residues back to the land are discussed, particularly as they relate to American and European codes of practice and environmental legislation. The paper concludes that anaerobic digestion, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, is an environmentally benign process that can enhance energy recovery and aid the beneficial land use of plant residues in many biomass-to-energy schemes.

  15. A simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tage; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of a strict anaerobic atmosphere is essential for the culture of strict anaerobic bacteria. We describe a simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere, based on the measurement of the zone diameter around a 5-μg metronidazole disk when testing an...

  16. Anaerobic effluent disinfection using ozone: Byproducts formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, G.H.R.; Daniel, L.A.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This research was aimed at studying oxidation processes, coliform inactivation effectiveness and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) associated with the disinfection of anaerobic sanitary wastewater effluent with ozone applied at doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for contact times of 5, 10 and 15 mi

  17. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the occurrenc

  18. Anaerobic work capacity in elite wheelchair athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Bakker, W H; Elkhuizen, J W; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Gwinn, T

    1997-01-01

    To study the anaerobic work capacity in wheelchair athletes, 67 elite wheelchair athletes (50 male) were studied in a 30-second sprint test on a computer-controlled wheelchair ergometer during the World Championships and Games for the Disabled in Assen (1990). The experimental set-up (ergometer, pro

  19. Anaerobic Pre-treatment of Strong Sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halalsheh, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of applying low cost anaerobic technology for the treatment of relatively high strength sewage of Jordan using two-stage and one-stage UASB reactors operated at ambient temperatures. The wastewater produced in Jordan is characterised

  20. Anaerobic Digestion in a Flooded Densified Leachbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, David P.; Teixeira, Arthur A.; Owens, John M.; Haley, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses the adaptation of a patented biomass-digesting process, denoted sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC), to recycling of wastes aboard a spacecraft. In SEBAC, high-solids-content biomass wastes are converted into methane, carbon dioxide, and compost.

  1. Comparative activity of ciprofloxacin against anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Sutter, V L; Kwok, Y Y; Bulkacz, J

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin was assessed against 362 strains of anaerobic bacteria and compared with that of cefoxitin, clindamycin, metronidazole, and mezlocillin. Only 31% of the strains tested were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. The other agents were active against most of the strains tested.

  2. Essential metal depletion in an anaerobic reactor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osuna, M.B.; Iza, J.M.; Zandvoort, M.H.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of the absence of trace elements on the conversion of a mixture of volatile fatty acids by a distillery anaerobic granular sludge was investigated. Two UASB reactors were operated under identical operational conditions except for the influent trace metal concentrations, during 140 days. E

  3. Anaerobic Digestion: Mass Balances and Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Jansen, Jes la Cour

    2011-01-01

    While the basic processes involved in anaerobic digestion of waste are described in Chapter 9.4 and the main digestion technologies are presented in Chapter 9.5, this chapter focuses on mass balances, gas production and energy aspects, environmental emissions and unit process inventories...

  4. The fate of methanol in anaerobic bioreactors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florencio, L.

    1994-01-01

    Methanol is an important component of certain industrial wastewaters. In anaerobic environments, methanol can be utilized by methanogens and acetogens. In wastewater treatment plants, the conversion of methanol into methane is preferred because this conversion is responsible for chemical oxygen dema

  5. Enhanced anaerobic biological treatment of phenolic wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindzierski, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    The combined treatment requirements for a high strength phenolic wastewater were examined in batch and semicontinuous anaerobic methanogenic bioassays. Solvent extraction pretreatment and in-situ addition of activated carbon during anaerobic treatment were effective in removing phenol from a coal liquefaction wastewater from the H-coal process. The selective pH adjustment of high strength phenolic wastewater followed by diisopropyl ether extraction reduced the phenolic concentration to non-inhibitory levels, and removed non-phenolic inhibitory compounds. The weakly acid nature of phenol and substituted phenols allows for their selective removal by solvent extraction. Anaerobic bacteria were able to degrade phenol in the solvent extracted wastwater, however, the bacteria exhibited instability under semicontinuous feeding conditions. The addition of activated carbon to the stressed phenol-degrading cultures improved their ability to remove phenol from solution. Further investigation into the role activated carbon performed during anaerobic phenol treatment demonstrated its importance as a biological support, in addition to providing adsorptive capacity for organic (including inhibitory) compounds. The similar study of other support materials (ion exchange resins) which did not possess an adsorptive capacity for organic compounds supported these findings. Excellent agreement was demonstrated among physical evaluation methods, performance bioassays, radiolabelled cell adsorption studies, and scanning electron microscopy observations in judging the value of the materials as biological supports.

  6. Anaerobic digestion in sustainable biomass chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pabon Pereira, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the potential contribution of anaerobic digestion (AD) to the sustainability of biomass chains. Results provide insights in the technological potential to recover energy and valuable by-products from energy crops and residues, and evaluate biomass cascades involving AD technolo

  7. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Are membranes really necessary?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila, M.; Kassab, G.; Klapwijk, A.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Membranes themselves represent a significant cost for the full scale application of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). The possibility of operating an AnMBR with a self-forming dynamic membrane generated by the substances present in the reactor liquor would translate into an important saving. A

  8. Anaerobic microbial LCFA degradation in bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, D.Z.; Pereira, M.A.; Alves, J.I.; Smidt, H.; Stams, A.J.M.; Alves, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews recent results obtained on long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) anaerobic degradation. Two LCFA were used as model substrates: oleate, a mono-unsaturated LCFA, and palmitate, a saturated LCFA, both abundant in LCFA-rich wastewaters. 16S rRNA gene analysis of sludge samples submitted to c

  9. Anaerobic hydrolysis during digestion of complex substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Complex waste(water) such as, raw sewage, dairy wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, fish processing wastewater, primary sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste have been proven to be degradable under anaerobic conditions. However, during the digestion process the conversion of th

  10. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag+ under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged p...

  11. Early Microbial Evolution: The Age of Anaerobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William F; Sousa, Filipa L

    2016-02-01

    In this article, the term "early microbial evolution" refers to the phase of biological history from the emergence of life to the diversification of the first microbial lineages. In the modern era (since we knew about archaea), three debates have emerged on the subject that deserve discussion: (1) thermophilic origins versus mesophilic origins, (2) autotrophic origins versus heterotrophic origins, and (3) how do eukaryotes figure into early evolution. Here, we revisit those debates from the standpoint of newer data. We also consider the perhaps more pressing issue that molecular phylogenies need to recover anaerobic lineages at the base of prokaryotic trees, because O2 is a product of biological evolution; hence, the first microbes had to be anaerobes. If molecular phylogenies do not recover anaerobes basal, something is wrong. Among the anaerobes, hydrogen-dependent autotrophs--acetogens and methanogens--look like good candidates for the ancestral state of physiology in the bacteria and archaea, respectively. New trees tend to indicate that eukaryote cytosolic ribosomes branch within their archaeal homologs, not as sisters to them and, furthermore tend to root archaea within the methanogens. These are major changes in the tree of life, and open up new avenues of thought. Geochemical methane synthesis occurs as a spontaneous, abiotic exergonic reaction at hydrothermal vents. The overall similarity between that reaction and biological methanogenesis fits well with the concept of a methanogenic root for archaea and an autotrophic origin of microbial physiology. PMID:26684184

  12. Biodegradability of leathers through anaerobic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhayalan, K; Fathima, N Nishad; Gnanamani, A; Rao, J Raghava; Nair, B Unni; Ramasami, T

    2007-01-01

    Leather processing generates huge amounts of both solid and liquid wastes. The management of solid wastes, especially tanned leather waste, is a challenging problem faced by tanners. Hence, studies on biodegradability of leather become imperative. In this present work, biodegradability of untanned, chrome tanned and vegetable tanned leather under anaerobic conditions has been addressed. Two different sources of anaerobes have been used for this purpose. The effect of detanning as a pretreatment method before subjecting the leather to biodegradation has also been studied. It has been found that vegetable tanned leather leads to more gas production than chrome tanned leather. Mixed anaerobic isolates when employed as an inoculum are able to degrade the soluble organics of vegetable tanned material and thus exhibit an increased level of gas production during the initial days, compared to the results of the treatments that received the anaerobic sludge. With chrome tanned materials, there was not much change in the volume of the gas produced from the two different sources. It has been found that detanning tends to improve the biodegradability of both types of leathers. PMID:16740383

  13. An anaerobic mitochondrion that produces hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, B.; Graaf, de R.M.; Staay, van der G.W.M.; Alen, T.A.; Richard, G.; Gabalon, T.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Moon - van der Staay, S.Y.; Koopman, W.J.H.; Hellemond, van J.J.; Tielens, A.G.M.; Friedrich, T.; Veenhuis, M.; Huynen, M.A.; Hackstein, J.H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes are organelles that produce ATP and hydrogen(1), and are found in various unrelated eukaryotes, such as anaerobic flagellates, chytridiomycete fungi and ciliates(2). Although all of these organelles generate hydrogen, the hydrogenosomes from these organisms are structurally and metabo

  14. Pectinase Activity of Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria Associated with Soft Rot of Yam (Diascorea rotundata)

    OpenAIRE

    Obi, Samuel K. C.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria associated with soft rot of yam (Diascorea rotundata) were isolated by the looping-out method and found to consist of Clostridium (three isolates), Corynebacterium (three isolates), Vibrio (one isolate), and Bacillus lentus (one isolate). Enzyme assay for hydrolase, lyase, and pectinesterase activities by the cup-plate method showed that except for Vibrio sp., B. lentus, and two isolates of Corynebacterium no pectinase activity could be detected ...

  15. Anaerobic biodegradation of the lignin and polysaccharide components of lignocellulose and synthetic lignin by sediment microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, R.; Maccubbin, A.E.; Hodson, R.E.

    1984-05-01

    Specifically radiolabeled (/sup 14/C-lignin)lignocelluloses and (/sup 14/C-polysaccharide)lignocelluloses were prepared from a variety of marine and freshwater wetland plants including a grass, a sedge, a rush, and a hardwood. These (/sup 14/C)lignocellulose preparations and synthetic (/sup 14/C)lignin were incubated anaerobically with anoxic sediments collected from a salt marsh, a freshwater marsh, and a mangrove swamp. During long-term incubations lasting up to 300 days, the lignin and polysaccharide components of the lignocelluloses were slowly degraded anaerobically to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and /sup 14/CH/sub 4/. Lignocelluloses derived from herbaceous plants were degraded more rapidly than lignocellulose derived from the hardwood. After 294 days, 16.9% of the lignin component and 30.0% of the polysaccharide component of lignocellulose derived from the grass used (Spartina alterniflora) were degraded to gaseous end products. In contrast, after 246 days, only 1.5% of the lignin component and 4.1% of the polysaccharide component of lignocellulose derived from the hardwood used (Rhizophora mangle) were degraded to gaseous end products. Synthetic (/sup 14/C) lignin was degraded anaerobically faster than the lignin component of the hardwood lignocellulose; after 276 days 3.7% of the synthetic lignin was degraded to gaseous end products. Contrary to previous reports, these results demonstrate that lignin and lignified plant tissues are biodegradable in the absence of oxygen. Although lignocelluloses are recalcitrant to anaerobic biodegradation, rates of degradation measured in aquatic sediments are significant and have important implications for the biospheric cycling of carbon from these abundant biopolymers. 31 references.

  16. ISOLATION OF ANAEROBES IN DEEP SEATED PRESSURE ULCERS USING A NOVEL INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUE OF ANAEROBE ISOLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalbiaktluangi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Isolation of an anaerobe is usually neglected in hospitals with limited resources due to the expensive and complicated technique of anaerobic isolation methods, which is difficult to arrange in such resource poor settings. Conventionally adopted anaerobic culture methods such as Anaerobic jar, Gas-Pak, Anoxomat or Automated glove-box systems are extremely costly and cumbersome for single unit testing, but not suitable for small scale laboratories. However, anaerobic bacteria are not to be overlooked as they have made a comeback in clinical settings and are even showing resistance to Metronidazole, once thought to be the gold standard bullet against anaerobes. Deep seated pressure ulcers are usually the site where anaerobe causes an infection in synergy with aerobes. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Isolation of anaerobes in deep seated pressure ulcers using a novel innovative technique and to study their antibiogram profile. MATERIALS AND METHODS Swabs taken from depth of deep seated pressure ulcers were immediately inoculated in Brucella blood agar at bedside and placed in polycarbonate airtight jar for anaerobic incubation using a novel innovative Modified Candle Jar technique. In this technique five grams of grease-free grade zero steel wool were dipped in 50ml freshly prepared acidified copper sulphate solution until the copper colour appeared. Excess solution was drained and the steel wool was moulded into a loose pad to fit on an open Petri plate placed on top of the inoculated Brucella blood agar plates. A white-wax candle was placed at the centre of this plate. A small test tube containing mixture of 0.5g sodium-bicarbonate and 0.5g magnesium carbonate was kept ready to be placed inside the jar, just after placing the inoculated plate and incubated for 48 hours. RESULTS Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and Bacteroides fragilis were successfully isolated from deep seated pressure ulcers by this method. Antibiogram studies were done using the

  17. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  18. Use of a marine microbial community as inoculum for biomethane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistarol, Giovana O; Rosato, Mario; Thompson, Fabiano L; do Valle, Rogerio de A B; Garcia-BlairsyReina, Guillermo; Salomon, Paulo S

    2016-01-01

    Marine substrates are prominent candidates for the production of biofuels, especially for biogas, which is a well-established technology that accepts different types of substrates for its production. However, the use of marine substrates in bioreactors may cause inhibition of methanogenic bacteria due to the addition of seasalts. Here, we explore a simple and economically viable way to circumvent the problem of inoculum inhibition. Based on the current knowledge of the diversity of microorganisms in marine sediments, we tested the direct use of methanogenic bacteria from an anoxic marine environment as inoculum for biomethane production. Both marine and freshwater substrates were added to this inoculum. No pretreatment (that may have enhanced methane production, but would have made the process more expensive) was applied either to the inoculum or to the substrates. For comparison, the same substrates were added to a standard inoculum (cow manure). Both the marine inoculum and cow manure produced methane by anaerobic digestion of the substrates added. The highest methane production (0.299 m(3) kg VS(-1)) was obtained by adding marine microalgae biomass (Chlorella sp. and Synechococcus sp.) to the marine inoculum. No inhibitory effects were observed due to differences in salinity between the inocula and substrates. Our results indicate the potential of using both marine inoculum and substrates for methane production. PMID:26227555

  19. Marine Indole Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Netz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine indole alkaloids comprise a large and steadily growing group of secondary metabolites. Their diverse biological activities make many compounds of this class attractive starting points for pharmaceutical development. Several marine-derived indoles were found to possess cytotoxic, antineoplastic, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, in addition to the action on human enzymes and receptors. The newly isolated indole alkaloids of marine origin since the last comprehensive review in 2003 are reported, and biological aspects will be discussed.

  20. Risks In Marine Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Grdinic

    2008-01-01

    The author of this paper elaborates risks in marine insurance. Firstly, the author primarily specifies the concept, types and basic characteristics of risks, emphasizing specifics of marine risk in relation to general risks. The author particularly considers determination of risk according to our legal regulations and English Marine Insurance Act, as the most important act in this matter. Special attention is paid to insured risk according to the most recent standard conditions for insurance ...

  1. Marine Current Energy Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Lundin, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    Marine currents, i.e. water currents in oceans and rivers, constitute a large renewable energy resource. This thesis presents research done on the subject of marine current energy conversion in a broad sense. A review of the tidal energy resource in Norway is presented, with the conclusion that tidal currents ought to be an interesting option for Norway in terms of renewable energy. The design of marine current energy conversion devices is studied. It is argued that turbine and generator cann...

  2. Marine electrical practice

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, G O

    1991-01-01

    Marine Engineering Series: Marine Electrical Practice, Sixth Edition focuses on changes in the marine industry, including the application of programmable electronic systems, generators, and motors. The publication first ponders on insulation and temperature ratings of equipment, protection and discrimination, and AC generators. Discussions focus on construction, shaft-drive generators, effect of unbalanced loading, subtransient and transient reactance, protection discrimination, fault current, measurement of ambient air temperature, and basis of machine ratings. The text then examines AC switc

  3. Coastal & Marine Issues Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sidman, Charles; Fik, Tim; Havens, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Florida Sea Grant management and extension specialists developed a questionnaire to solicit information regarding the recipient’s county of residence, occupation, and primary coastal activities. Survey recipients were also asked to select from a list the top five marine-related topics that defined prior strategic plan themes (i.e., marine bio-technology, fisheries, aquaculture, seafood safety, coastal communities, ecosystem health, coastal hazards, and marine education). In add...

  4. Marine Ecological Regions 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This shapefile was screen digitized from 'Calecoregions1.jpg' a georectified digital image of the original map of California's ecoregions, including the marine...

  5. Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of Marine Bacterial Communities

    KAUST Repository

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M.

    2016-05-23

    Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures.

  6. Characterization of specific membrane fatty acids as chemotaxonomic markers for sulfate-reducing bacteria involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvert, M.; Boetius, A.; Knittel, K.;

    2003-01-01

    and aggregate number in combination with pore water sulfate data provide further evidence of this finding. Using mass balance calculations we present a cell-specific fatty acid pattern most likely displaying a very close resemblance to the still uncultured Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus species involved in AOM.......Membrane fatty acids were extracted from a sediment core above marine gas hydrates at Hydrate Ridge, NE Pacific. Anaerobic sediments from this environment are characterized by high sulfate reduction rates driven by the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The assimilation of methane carbon...... into bacterial biomass is indicated by carbon isotope values of specific fatty acids as low as -103parts per thousand. Specific fatty acids released from bacterial membranes include C(16:1omega5c) , C(17:1omega6c) , and cyC(17:0omega5,6) , all of which have been fully characterized by mass spectrometry...

  7. In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eGieg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contibuting to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more benefical technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments.

  8. Atrazine removal in Danish anaerobic aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Philip Grinder; Arildskov, N.P.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    The pesticide atrazine (6-chloro-N-2-ethyl-N-4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine -2,4-diamine) was removed from the water phase in anaerobic laboratory batch incubations with sediment and groundwater from a number of Danish anaerobic aquifers, but not in incubations from aerobic aquifers. The removal...... process was abiotic since atrazine was also removed from microbially inhibited autoclaved and chloroform amended controls, although in controls amended with mercury, atrazine removal was slowed down. (ring-U-C-14)- atrazine amended samples showed no mineralization to (CO2)-C-14 or transformation...... to soluble degradation products, indicating that a slow sorption process was responsible for the atrazine removal. Approximately 20% of the applied C-14-atrazine was present in a non-extractable residual sediment bound fraction, indicating the slow sorption process to be in part irreversible...

  9. Cultivation of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria from spacecraft-associated clean rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglmeier, Michaela; Wirth, Reinhard; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2009-06-01

    In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a significant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough oxygen for fully aerobic microbial growth. A broad assortment of anaerobic media was used in our cultivation strategies, which focused on microorganisms with special metabolic skills. The majority of the isolated strains grew on anaerobic, complex, nutrient-rich media. Autotrophic microorganisms or microbes capable of fixing nitrogen were also cultivated. A broad range of facultatively anaerobic bacteria was detected during this study and also, for the first time, some strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium and Propionibacterium) were isolated from spacecraft-associated clean rooms. The multiassay cultivation approach was the basis for the detection of several bacteria that had not been cultivated from these special environments before and also led to the discovery of two novel microbial species of Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus.

  10. Anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing methanol in upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The direct conversion of methanol into methane is the main process in anaerobic treatment of methanol containing wastewater.However,acetic acid can also be produced from methanol theoretically,which may probably result in an abrupt pH drop and deteriorate the anaerobic process.Therefore,it is interesting to know what would really happen in an anaerobic reactor treating methanol wastewater.In this study,an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor treating methanol wastewater was operated.The chemical oxygen demand (COD),acetic acid and pH of the effluent were monitored at different loadings and influent alkalinity.The results showed that the anaerobic reactor could be operated steadily at as low as 119 mg/L of influent alkalinity and high organic loading rate with no obvious pH drops.Volatile fatty acids accumulation was not observed even at strong shock loadings.The microorganisms in the sludge at the end of the test became homogeneous in morphology,which were mainly spherical or spheroidal in shape.

  11. Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test as a Procedure to Evaluate Anaerobic Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, V L; Zagatto, A M; Kalva-Filho, C A; Mendes, O C; Gobatto, C A; Campos, E Z; Papoti, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the running anaerobic sprint test (RAST) as a predictor of anaerobic capacity, compare it to the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) and to compare the RAST's parameters with the parameters of 30-s all-out tethered running on a treadmill. 39 (17.0±1.4 years) soccer players participated in this study. The participants underwent an incremental test, 10 submaximal efforts [50-95% of velocity correspondent to VO(2MAX) (vVO(2MAX))] and one supramaximal effort at 110% of vVO(2MAX) for the determination of MAOD. Furthermore, the athletes performed the RAST. In the second stage the 30-s all-out tethered running was performed on a treadmill (30-s all-out), and compared with RAST. No significant correlation was observed between MAOD and RAST parameters. However, significant correlations were found between the power of the fifth effort (P5) of RAST with peak and mean power of 30-s all-out (r=0.73 and 0.50; p<0.05, respectively). In conclusion, the parameters from RAST do not have an association with MAOD, suggesting that this method should not be used to evaluate anaerobic capacity. Although the correlations between RAST parameters with 30-s all-out do reinforce the RAST as an evaluation method of anaerobic metabolism, such as anaerobic power. PMID:26422055

  12. Anaerobic digestion of food and vegetable waste

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Food and vegetable wastes contribute a large percentage of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), and anaerobic digestion potentially offers an ideal method for their management. Their chemical composition can, however, lead to unstable operation and in extreme cases complete process failure has been reported with this type of substrate. Semi-continuous trials on vegetable waste were carried out in laboratory-scale digesters with daily feed additions at different organic loadi...

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of organic wastes

    OpenAIRE

    L. Neves

    2009-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica Anaerobic digestion is an already established process but the increasing need of bio‐waste recovery has determined the emergence of new substrates, revamping the research in this field. Contrary to some other European countries, in Portugal this technology is still scarcely in use. Nonetheless, the current legislation endorses this application as a waste management and as an energy recovery process. The rapid growth of the ...

  14. Anaerobic microbial LCFA degradation in bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, D.Z.; Pereira, M.A.; Alves, J.I.; Smidt, Hauke; Stams, A.J.M.; Alves, M. M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews recent results obtained on long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) anaerobic degradation. Two LCFA were used as model substrates: oleate, a mono-unsaturated LCFA, and palmitate, a saturated LCFA, both abundant in LCFA-rich wastewaters. 16S rRNA gene analysis of sludge samples submitted to continuous oleate- and palmitate-feeding followed by batch degradation of the accumulated LCFA demonstrated that bacterial communities were dominated by members of the Clostridiaceae and Sy...

  15. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Are membranes really necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Davila, M.; Kassab, G.; Klapwijk, A.; Van, Lier, G

    2008-01-01

    Membranes themselves represent a significant cost for the full scale application of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). The possibility of operating an AnMBR with a self-forming dynamic membrane generated by the substances present in the reactor liquor would translate into an important saving. A self-forming dynamic membrane only requires a support material over which a cake layer is formed, which determines the rejection properties of the system. The present research studies the applicat...

  16. Anaerobic digestion in sustainable biomass chains

    OpenAIRE

    Pabon Pereira, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the potential contribution of anaerobic digestion (AD) to the sustainability of biomass chains. Results provide insights in the technological potential to recover energy and valuable by-products from energy crops and residues, and evaluate biomass cascades involving AD technology for their feasibility and desirability. Embedding AD in biomass chains addresses current constraints towards increased use of biomass for energy production considering land competition and envir...

  17. Evaluation of the anaerobe effort capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Anca M. Ionescu

    2008-01-01

    This article aims at presenting the main methods by which can be evaluated the effort anaerobe capacity, as well as their rolein conducting the physical training, depending on the performance level, sportsman’s preparation level, training stage, age andsex; depending on the above-mentioned criteria, are recommended certain tests, related mainly to the specificity (intensity,duration) of the practiced effort. Also, the concomitant appreciation of the aerobe capacity can direct us in evaluation...

  18. On the kinetics of anaerobic power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moxnes John F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated two different mathematical models for the kinetics of anaerobic power. Model 1 assumes that the work power is linear with the work rate, while Model 2 assumes a linear relationship between the alactic anaerobic power and the rate of change of the aerobic power. In order to test these models, a cross country skier ran with poles on a treadmill at different exercise intensities. The aerobic power, based on the measured oxygen uptake, was used as input to the models, whereas the simulated blood lactate concentration was compared with experimental results. Thereafter, the metabolic rate from phosphocreatine break down was calculated theoretically. Finally, the models were used to compare phosphocreatine break down during continuous and interval exercises. Results Good similarity was found between experimental and simulated blood lactate concentration during steady state exercise intensities. The measured blood lactate concentrations were lower than simulated for intensities above the lactate threshold, but higher than simulated during recovery after high intensity exercise when the simulated lactate concentration was averaged over the whole lactate space. This fit was improved when the simulated lactate concentration was separated into two compartments; muscles + internal organs and blood. Model 2 gave a better behavior of alactic energy than Model 1 when compared against invasive measurements presented in the literature. During continuous exercise, Model 2 showed that the alactic energy storage decreased with time, whereas Model 1 showed a minimum value when steady state aerobic conditions were achieved. During interval exercise the two models showed similar patterns of alactic energy. Conclusions The current study provides useful insight on the kinetics of anaerobic power. Overall, our data indicate that blood lactate levels can be accurately modeled during steady state, and suggests a linear

  19. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Haagensen, Frank; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) found in wastewater is removed in the wastewater treatment facilities by sorption and aerobic biodegradation. The anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge has not been shown to contribute to the removal. The concentration of LAS based on dry matter typically increa...... under thermophilic conditions was 37% with LAS as sole carbon source. Benzaldehyde was produced in the UASB reactor during LAS transformation....

  20. Some unique features of alkaliphilic anaerobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roof, Erin; Pikuta, Elena; Otto, Christopher; Williams, George; Hoover, Richard

    2013-09-01

    This article explores two topics involving the examination of four strains of alkaliphilic anaerobes. The first topic was dedicated to detection of the ability of microorganisms to metabolize alternative chirality substrates. Two saccharolytic anaerobic bacteria were chosen for the first experiment: Anaerovirgula multivorans strain SCAT, which is gram positive and spore-forming; and Spirochaeta dissipatitropha, strain ASpC2T, which is gram negative. It was found that both checked sugarlytics were able to use L-ribose and L-arabinose, as growth substrates. The second part was concerned of study a chemolithotrophy in two halo-alkaliphilic sulfate reducing bacteria: Desulfonatornum thiodismutans strain MLF1T and Desulfonatronum lacustre strain Z-7951T. The experiments with lithotrophs had demonstrated that strain MLF1T was capable to grow without any organic source of carbon, while strain Z-7951T had required at least 2 mM sodium acetate for growth. Anaerobic technique was used for preparation of the growth media and maintenance of these bacterial cultures. Standard methods for Gram, spore, and flagella staining were applied for characterization of cytomorphology. In this article, the results of the experiments performed on cytological, physiological, and biochemical levels are presented and discussed.

  1. Alternating Current Influences Anaerobic Electroactive Biofilm Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhou, Lean; Lu, Lu; Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Li, Nan; Wang, Heming; Park, Jaedo; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-09-01

    Alternating current (AC) is known to inactivate microbial growth in suspension, but how AC influences anaerobic biofilm activities has not been systematically investigated. Using a Geobacter dominated anaerobic biofilm growing on the electrodes of microbial electrochemical reactors, we found that high frequency AC ranging from 1 MHz to 1 kHz (amplitude of 5 V, 30 min) showed only temporary inhibition to the biofilm activity. However, lower frequency (100 Hz, 1.2 or 5 V) treatment led to 47 ± 19% permanent decrease in limiting current on the same biofilm, which is attributed to the action of electrohydrodynamic force that caused biofilm damage and loss of intercellular electron transfer network. Confocal microscopy images show such inactivation mainly occurred at the interface between the biofilm and the electrode. Reducing the frequency further to 1 Hz led to water electrolysis, which generated gas bubbles that flushed all attached cells out of the electrode. These findings provide new references on understanding and regulating biofilm growth, which has broader implications in biofouling control, anaerobic waste treatment, energy and product recovery, and general understanding of microbial ecology and physiology. PMID:27485403

  2. Microbial Aspects of Anaerobic BTEX Degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Combined with conventional methods, developments in both geochemical (delineation of redox processes) and molecular microbial methods (analysis of 16S rDNA genes and functional genes) have allowed us to study in details microorganisms and genes involved in the anaerobic degradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) under specific redox conditions. This review summarizes recent research in this field. The potential for anaerobic BTEX degradation is widely spread. Specific groups of microorganisms appear to be involved in degradation under different redox conditions. Members of the Azoarcus/Thauera cluster perform BTEX degradation under denitrifying conditions, Geobacteraceae under Fe (III) reducing conditions and Desulfobacteriaceae under sulfate reducing conditions. The information so far obtained on biochemistry and molecular genetics of BTEX degradation indicates that each BTEX compound is funneled into the central benzyol-CoA pathway by a different peripheral pathway. The peripheral pathways of per BTEX compound show similarities among different physiological groups of microorganisms. We also describe how knowledge obtained on the microbial aspects of BTEX degradation can be used to enhance and monitor anaerobic BTEX degradation.

  3. Vinasses treatment in anaerobic fludized bed reactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. C. Terán

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural use of vinasse produced by the sugar industry has gone through many changes over the years. Coupled with concern over the increased agronomic efficiency and optimizing the management of the use of such waste, you can highlight the major global ecological awareness, developed after 90s. This study aims at the construction and operation of a reactor anaerobic cracker (RALF on pilot scale to verify the burden of chemical demand of oxygen (DQO of vinasse, under mesophilic. The stillage used for feeding the reactor was from a sugar cane processing plant, located in the city of Regente Feijó, São Paulo State. The inoculum was anaerobic sludge from a reactor and upward flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB treating wastewater from a factory of soda. The concentrations of vinasse to be treated ranged 17,239 mg DQO L-1 up to 28,174 mg DQO L-1. The effluent pH was maintained between 6.4 and 8.6 during the research. The productivity of biogas in the reactor has not achieved the expected rates, reaching only 46 mL day-1. Maximum efficiency attained during operation was 51.1 %, corresponding to a 14-day operation time, vinasses organic loading of 19.5 kg DQO m-3 dia-1 and to an hydraulic detention time of one day.

  4. iMarine project

    OpenAIRE

    Castelli, Donatella; Ellebroek, Anton; Taconet, Narc; Pagano, Pasquale (ISTI-CNR)

    2012-01-01

    The state-of-art of the iMarine project is presented. The project aim is establishing and operating an e‐infrastructure contributing to the implementation of the principles of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management and Conservation of Marine Living Resources

  5. Cultivation of marine sponges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Yi; ZHANG Wei; LI Hua; YU Xingju; JIN Meifang

    2005-01-01

    Sponges are the most primitive of multicellular animals, and are major pharmaceutical sources of marine secondary metabolites. A wide variety of new compounds have been isolated from sponges. In order to produce sufficient amounts of the compounds of the needed, it is necessary to obtain large amount of sponges.The production of sponge biomass has become a focus of marine biotechnology.

  6. Marine functional food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luten, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    This book reviews the research on seafood and health, the use and quality aspects of marine lipids and seafood proteins as ingredients in functional foods and consumer acceptance of (marine) functional food. The first chapter covers novel merging areas where seafood may prevent disease and improve h

  7. Vertical profiles of community abundance and diversity of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and bacteria in a simple waste landfill in north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Ding, Linjie; Wang, Xu; Chi, Zifang; Lei, Jiansen

    2015-03-01

    Anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) is considered to be an important sink of CH4 in habitats as marine sediments. But, few studies focused on AMO in landfills which may be an important sink of CH4 derived from waste fermentation. To show evidence of AMO and to uncover function anaerobic methanotroph (ANME) community in landfill, different age waste samples were collected in Jinqianpu landfill located in north China. Through high-throughput sequencing, Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales archaea associated with ANME and reverse methanogenic archaea of Methanosarcina and Methanobacterium were detected. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) (Desulfobulbus and Desulfococcus) which could couple with ANME-conducting AMO were also found. But, the community structure of ANME had no significant difference with depths. From the results of investigation, we can come to a conclusion that sulfate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (SR-DAMO) would be the dominant AMO process in the landfill, while iron-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (M/IR-DAMO) process was weak though concentration of ferric iron was large in the landfill. Denitrification-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (NR-DAMO) was negative because of lack of nitrate and relevant function microorganisms in the landfill. Results also indicate that CH4 mitigation would have higher potential by increasing electron acceptor contents and promoting the growth of relevant function microorganisms. PMID:25561057

  8. Vertical profiles of community abundance and diversity of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and bacteria in a simple waste landfill in north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Ding, Linjie; Wang, Xu; Chi, Zifang; Lei, Jiansen

    2015-03-01

    Anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) is considered to be an important sink of CH4 in habitats as marine sediments. But, few studies focused on AMO in landfills which may be an important sink of CH4 derived from waste fermentation. To show evidence of AMO and to uncover function anaerobic methanotroph (ANME) community in landfill, different age waste samples were collected in Jinqianpu landfill located in north China. Through high-throughput sequencing, Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales archaea associated with ANME and reverse methanogenic archaea of Methanosarcina and Methanobacterium were detected. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) (Desulfobulbus and Desulfococcus) which could couple with ANME-conducting AMO were also found. But, the community structure of ANME had no significant difference with depths. From the results of investigation, we can come to a conclusion that sulfate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (SR-DAMO) would be the dominant AMO process in the landfill, while iron-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (M/IR-DAMO) process was weak though concentration of ferric iron was large in the landfill. Denitrification-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (NR-DAMO) was negative because of lack of nitrate and relevant function microorganisms in the landfill. Results also indicate that CH4 mitigation would have higher potential by increasing electron acceptor contents and promoting the growth of relevant function microorganisms.

  9. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  10. Marin Tsunami (video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. The Marin coast could be struck by a tsunami. Whether you live in Marin County, visit the beaches, or rent or own a home near the coast, it is vital to understand the tsunami threat and take preparation seriously. Marin Tsunami tells the story of what several West Marin communities are doing to be prepared. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Marin Office of Emergency Services.

  11. Atmospheric oxygen levels, anaerobic methane oxidation, and the coupling of the global COS cycles by sulfate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortmann, U. G.; Chernyavsky, B. M.

    2007-12-01

    Changes in the partitioning between the reduced and oxidized reservoirs of carbon and sulfur are the dominant control on atmospheric oxygen levels, and the partitioning itself depends to a large degree on microbial redox processes remineralizing organic matter (OM). However, the controls of organic matter preservation in marine sediments are one of the most complex and controversial issues in contemporary biochemistry. Knowledge how the transition from one electron acceptor to another affects OM remineralization rates is scant even for the transition from aerobic to anaerobic respiration. Much less is known about the transition from anaerobic respiration to fermentation. Although the individual pathways of methane generation are known, our understanding of the complex interactions between different bacterial groups remains limited, resulting in considerable difficulties to resolve these questions in microcosm experiments. Here we show that a dramatic drop in seawater sulfate concentrations during the Early Cretaceous (Wortmann & Chernyavsky, Nature 2007) resulted in a global breakdown of microbial sulfate reduction in the marine subsurface biosphere. This event resulted in a positive excursion of the global δ13C-value, suggesting that organic matter remineralization rates dropped by more than 50%. This implies that the methanogenic microbial community was unable to increase their metabolic rates, despite the increased supply of organic matter. the reduced availability of sulfate for anaerobic methane oxidation did not increase the flux of isotopically light carbon into the ocean/atmosphere system. We therefore speculate that the capacity of marine methanogenic ecosystems to synthesize extracellular enzymes to hydrolyze organic matter is specific to the prevailing type of organic matter. This results in a positive coupling of the metabolic activity of both ecosystems, which in turn is a necessary prerequisite to decouple reduced carbon and sulfur burial, a key

  12. In Vitro Assessment of Marine Bacillus for Use as Livestock Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luz Prieto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Six antimicrobial-producing seaweed-derived Bacillus strains were evaluated in vitro as animal probiotics, in comparison to two Bacillus from an EU-authorized animal probiotic product. Antimicrobial activity was demonstrated on solid media against porcine Salmonella and E. coli. The marine isolates were most active against the latter, had better activity than the commercial probiotics and Bacillus pumilus WIT 588 also reduced E. coli counts in broth. All of the marine Bacillus tolerated physiological concentrations of bile, with some as tolerant as one of the probiotics. Spore counts for all isolates remained almost constant during incubation in simulated gastric and ileum juices. All of the marine Bacillus grew anaerobically and the spores of all except one isolate germinated under anaerobic conditions. All were sensitive to a panel of antibiotics and none harbored Bacillus enterotoxin genes but all, except B. pumilus WIT 588, showed some degree of β-hemolysis. However, trypan blue dye exclusion and xCELLigence assays demonstrated a lack of toxicity in comparison to two pathogens; in fact, the commercial probiotics appeared more cytotoxic than the majority of the marine Bacillus. Overall, some of the marine-derived Bacillus, in particular B. pumilus WIT 588, demonstrate potential for use as livestock probiotics.

  13. Diversity of Heterotrophic Nitrogen Fixation Genes in a Marine Cyanobacterial Mat

    OpenAIRE

    J. P. Zehr; Mellon, M.; Braun, S.; Litaker, W; Steppe, T.; Paerl, H W

    1995-01-01

    The diversity of nitrogenase genes in a marine cyanobacterial mat was investigated through amplification of a fragment of nifH, which encodes the Fe protein of the nitrogenase complex. The amplified nifH products were characterized by DNA sequencing and were compared with the sequences of nitrogenase genes from cultivated organisms. Phylogenetic analysis showed that similar organisms clustered together, with the exception that anaerobic bacteria clustered together, even though they represente...

  14. Meta-omic signatures of microbial metal and nitrogen cycling in marine oxygen minimum zones

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, Jennifer B.; Cecilia Batmalle Kretz; Sangita eGanesh; Piyush eRanjan; Seston, Sherry L.; Kristen N Buck; Landing, William M.; Morton, Peter L.; Moffett, James W.; Giovannoni, Stephen J.; Vergin, Kevin L.; Stewart, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) are essential cofactors for microbial metalloenzymes, but little is known about the metalloenyzme inventory of anaerobic marine microbial communities despite their importance to the nitrogen cycle. We compared dissolved O2, NO3-, NO2-, Fe and Cu concentrations with nucleic acid sequences encoding Fe and Cu-binding proteins in 21 metagenomes and 9 metatranscriptomes from Eastern Tropical North and South Pacific oxygen minimum zones and 7 metagenomes from the Bermuda A...

  15. Meta-omic signatures of microbial metal and nitrogen cycling in marine oxygen minimum zones

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, Jennifer B.; Kretz, Cecilia B.; Ganesh, Sangita; Ranjan, Piyush; Seston, Sherry L.; Kristen N Buck; Landing, William M.; Morton, Peter L.; Moffett, James W.; Giovannoni, Stephen J.; Vergin, Kevin L.; Stewart, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) are essential cofactors for microbial metalloenzymes, but little is known about the metalloenyzme inventory of anaerobic marine microbial communities despite their importance to the nitrogen cycle. We compared dissolved O2, NO 3 − , NO 2 − , Fe and Cu concentrations with nucleic acid sequences encoding Fe and Cu-binding proteins in 21 metagenomes and 9 metatranscriptomes from Eastern Tropical North and South Pacific oxygen minimum zones and 7 metagenomes from the Ber...

  16. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of coffee wet wastewater: Effect of recycle on anaerobic process performance

    OpenAIRE

    Yans Guardia Puebla; Suyén Rodríguez Pérez; Yennys Cuscó Varona; Janet Jiménez Hernández; Víctor Sánchez Girón

    2014-01-01

    The present work shows the results of the two-phase anaerobic digestion assessment for the treatment of coffee wet wastewater. The effect of recycle on the anaerobic digestion process was studied. Twooverall organic loading rate (OLR) values of 4,2 and 5,7 kgCOD·m -3 ·d -1 , with same overall hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 21,5 h was evaluated.In a two-phase system wereapplied two recycle rate of 0,4 and 1,0, of the effluent of an UASB-UAF methanogenic hybrid reactor towards an UASB acidog...

  17. Bacterial ecology of abattoir wastewater treated by an anaerobic digestor

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Jabari; Hana Gannoun; Eltaief Khelifi; Jean-Luc Cayol; Jean-Jacques Godon; Moktar Hamdi; Marie-Laure Fardeau

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Wastewater from an anaerobic treatment plant at a slaughterhouse was analysed to determine the bacterial biodiversity present. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic sludge obtained from the treatment plant showed significant diversity, as 27 different phyla were identified. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota (methanogens), and msbl6 (candidate division) were the dominant phyla of the anaerobic treatment plant and represented 21.7%, 18.5%, 11.5%, 9.4%,...

  18. The anaerobic corrosion of carbon steel in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a 2 year programme aimed at (1) determining the rate of anaerobic corrosion of steel in concrete, (2) investigating the nature of the corrosion products formed on carbon steel embedded in cementitious material under anaerobic conditions and (3) evaluating the effect of hydrogen over-pressures on the rate of anaerobic corrosion. All experiments have been carried out at temperatures in the range 20-300C, ie ambient conditions. 4 refs.; 19 figs.; 6 tabs

  19. Control of calcium carbonate precipitation in anaerobic reactors.

    OpenAIRE

    Langerak, van, B.

    1998-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of waste waters with a high calcium content may lead to excessive precipitation of calcium carbonate. So far, no proper methods were available to predict or reduce the extent of precipitation in an anaerobic treatment system. Moreover, it also was not clear to what extent precipitation in an anaerobic reactor can be tolerated because adequate knowledge on the structure and quality of methanogenic sludges with high calcium carbonate content was lacking. In this thesis, the ...

  20. APPLICATION OF ANAEROBIC BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR PHARMACEUTICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan and Paul J. Sallis

    2011-01-01

    The wastewater generated from pharmaceutical industry generally contain high organic load and the treatment is primarily carried out using two major types of biological methods; aerobic and anaerobic. However, due to high strength, it is infeasible to treat some pharmaceutical wastewater using aerobic biological processes. As an alternative, an anaerobic process is preferred to remove high strength organic matter. Anaerobic wastewater treatment is considered as the most cost effective solutio...

  1. Anaerobic Metabolism and Bioremediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathy, Raj

    Nitroaromatic compounds pollute soil, water, and food via use of pesticides, plastics, pharmaceuticals, landfill dumping of industrial wastes, and the military use of explosives. Biotransformation of trinitrotoluene and other nitroaromatics by aerobic bacteria in the laboratory has been frequently reported, but the anaerobic bacterial metabolism of nitroaromatics has not been studied as extensively perhaps due to the difficulty in working with anaerobic cultures and the slow growth of anaerobes. Sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria can metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment.

  2. Marine fragrance chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hügel, Helmut M; Drevermann, Britta; Lingham, Anthony R; Marriott, Philip J

    2008-06-01

    The main marine message in perfumery is projected by Calone 1951 (7-methyl-2H-1,5-benzodioxepin-3(4H)-one). Kraft (Givaudan) and Gaudin (Firmenich) further maximized the marine fragrance molecular membership by extending the carbon chain of the 7-Me group. Our research targeted the polar group of the benzodioxepinone parent compound to investigate how this region of molecular makeup resonates with the dominant marine fragrance of the Calone 1951 structure. The olfactory evaluation of analogues prepared by chemical modification or removal of the CO group resulted in the introduction of aldehydic, sweet and floral-fruity notes with a diluted/diminished potency of the marine odor. To further analyze the olfactory properties of benzodioxepinones containing a diverse range of aromatic ring substituents, a novel synthesis route was developed. We found that a 7-alkyl group in Calone 1951 was essential for the maintenance of the significant marine odor characteristic, and our studies support the concept that the odorant structure occupying the hydrophobic binding pocket adjacent to the aromatic ring-binding site of the olfactory receptor is pivotal in the design and discovery of more potent and characteristic marine fragrances. How the structure of benzodioxepinones connects to marine sea-breeze fragrances is our continuing challenging research focus at the chemistry-biology interface. PMID:18618392

  3. High bacterial biodiversity increases degradation performance of hydrocarbons during bioremediation of contaminated harbor marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated changes of bacterial abundance and biodiversity during bioremediation experiments carried out on oxic and anoxic marine harbor sediments contaminated with hydrocarbons. Oxic sediments, supplied with inorganic nutrients, were incubated in aerobic conditions at 20 °C and 35 °C for 30 days, whereas anoxic sediments, amended with organic substrates, were incubated in anaerobic conditions at the same temperatures for 60 days. Results reported here indicate that temperature exerted the main effect on bacterial abundance, diversity and assemblage composition. At higher temperature bacterial diversity and evenness increased significantly in aerobic conditions, whilst decreased in anaerobic conditions. In both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, biodegradation efficiencies of hydrocarbons were significantly and positively related with bacterial richness and evenness. Overall results presented here suggest that bioremediation strategies, which can sustain high levels of bacterial diversity rather than the selection of specific taxa, may significantly increase the efficiency of hydrocarbon degradation in contaminated marine sediments. - Highlights: ► Bioremediation performance was investigated on hydrocarbon contaminated sediments. ► Major changes in bacterial diversity and assemblage composition were observed. ► Temperature exerted the major effect on bacterial assemblages. ► High bacterial diversity increased significantly biodegradation performance. This should be considered for sediment remediation by bio-treatments. - Bioremediation strategies which can sustain high levels of bacterial diversity may significantly increase the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in contaminated marine sediments.

  4. Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    of ocean water in relation to air–sea flux variable. 4. Persistent organic pollutants In view of the ever-increasing load of persistent organic contaminants in the marine environment, it is of great significance to assess the state of pollution due... problem of marine pollution, it is indeed a prime need of the hour to assess the state of pollution of the marine environment. environmental data off Cundapoor and Kasargod along the coast of Karnataka that can be utilized for comprehensive interpretation...

  5. LA POLLUTION MARINE

    OpenAIRE

    Goeury, David; Goeury, D

    2014-01-01

    National audience La pollution marine est définie comme l'introduction directe ou indirecte de déchets, de substances, ou d'énergie, y compris de sources sonores sous-marines d'origine humaine, qui entraîne ou qui est susceptible d'entraîner des effets nuisibles pour les ressources vivantes et les écosystèmes marins, avec pour conséquence, un appauvrissement de la biodiversité, des risques pour la santé humaine, des obstacles pour les activités maritimes, et notamment la pêche, le tourisme...

  6. Application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for simulating anaerobic mesophilic sludge digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Carlos, E-mail: carllosmendez@gmail.com; Esquerre, Karla, E-mail: karlaesquerre@ufba.br; Matos Queiroz, Luciano, E-mail: lmqueiroz@ufba.br

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The behavior of a anaerobic reactor was evaluated through modeling. • Parametric sensitivity analysis was used to select most sensitive of the ADM1. • The results indicate that the ADM1 was able to predict the experimental results. • Organic load rate above of 35 kg/m{sup 3} day affects the performance of the process. - Abstract: Improving anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge by monitoring common indicators such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), gas composition and pH is a suitable solution for better sludge management. Modeling is an important tool to assess and to predict process performance. The present study focuses on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to simulate the dynamic behavior of a reactor fed with sewage sludge under mesophilic conditions. Parametric sensitivity analysis is used to select the most sensitive ADM1 parameters for estimation using a numerical procedure while other parameters are applied without any modification to the original values presented in the ADM1 report. The results indicate that the ADM1 model after parameter estimation was able to predict the experimental results of effluent acetate, propionate, composites and biogas flows and pH with reasonable accuracy. The simulation of the effect of organic shock loading clearly showed that an organic shock loading rate above of 35 kg/m{sup 3} day affects the performance of the reactor. The results demonstrate that simulations can be helpful to support decisions on predicting the anaerobic digestion process of sewage sludge.

  7. [Distribution and removal of anaerobic antibiotic resistant bacteria during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juan; Wang, Yuan-Yue; Wei Yuan, Song

    2014-10-01

    Sewage sludge is one of the major sources that releasing antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) into the environment since it contains large amount of ARB, but there is little information about the fate of the anaerobic ARB in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. Therefore, the distribution, removal and seasonal changes of tetracycline and β-lactam antibiotics resistant bacteria in the mesophilic egg-shaped digesters of a municipal wastewater treatment plant were investigated for one year in this study. Results showed that there were higher amounts of ARB and higher resistance rate of β-lactam antibiotics than that of tetracycline antibiotics in the sewage sludge. All ARB could be significantly reduced during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion process by 1.48-1.64 log unit (P < 0.05). Notably, the ampicillin and cephalothin resistance rates were significantly increased after anaerobic digestion by 12.0% and 14.3%, respectively (P < 0.05). The distribution of ARB in the sewage sludge had seasonal change characteristics. Except for chlorotetracycline resistant bacteria, there were more ARB in the sewage sludge in cold season than in warm season (P < 0.05). PMID:25693388

  8. A bio-electrochemical system for removing inhibitors of anaerobic digestion processes from anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    reactor to recover ammonia from anaerobic digestion reactor, and thereby alleviate or counteract ammonia inhibition and enhance the conversion of ammonia-rich wastes to biogas. The invention may further reduce overall cost, giving synergistic advantages for both ammonia recycling and biogas plants...

  9. Oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yao; Jost, Carsten; Mumme, Jan; Wang, Kaijun; Linke, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system, the effect of microaeration on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of maize straw was investigated under batch conditions and in the UASS with AF system. Aeration intensities of 0-431mL O2/gvs were conducted as pretreatment under batch conditions. Aeration pretreatment obviously enhanced anaerobic digestion and an aeration intensity of 431mL O2/gvs increased the methane yield by 82.2%. Aeration intensities of 0-355mL O2/gvs were conducted in the process liquor circulation of the UASS with AF system. Dissolved oxygen (DO) of UASS and AF reactors kept around 1.39±0.27 and 0.99±0.38mg/L, respectively. pH was relatively stable around 7.11±0.04. Volatile fatty acids and soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration in UASS reactor were higher than those in AF reactor. Methane yield of the whole system was almost stable at 85±7mL/gvs as aeration intensity increased step by step. The UASS with AF system showed good oxygen tolerance capacity. PMID:27372134

  10. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of coffee wet wastewater: Effect of recycle on anaerobic process performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yans Guardia Puebla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows the results of the two-phase anaerobic digestion assessment for the treatment of coffee wet wastewater. The effect of recycle on the anaerobic digestion process was studied. Twooverall organic loading rate (OLR values of 4,2 and 5,7 kgCOD·m -3 ·d -1 , with same overall hydraulic retention time (HRT of 21,5 h was evaluated.In a two-phase system wereapplied two recycle rate of 0,4 and 1,0, of the effluent of an UASB-UAF methanogenic hybrid reactor towards an UASB acidogenic reactor. In the anaerobic system with a recycle rate of 1,0 the total chemical oxygen demand (COD removal was 90%. The introduction of the recycle decreased the concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA, but it did not affect their composition, suggesting that the degradation pattern did not change. The presence of the acidogenic reactor in the two-phase system improved the stability of the anaerobic digestion process and increased the efficiency of methanogenic digester.

  11. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine...; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et...

  12. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... Register (75 FR 39915) that a request for a permit to conduct research on gray whales (Eschrictius robustus... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Science Center, Newport, OR has been issued a permit to conduct research on marine...

  13. 77 FR 9627 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB005 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.../2\\ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals in... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as...

  14. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible.

  15. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. PMID:27396682

  16. Anaerobic wastewater treatment of concentrated sewage using a two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket- anaerobic filter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halalsheh, Maha M; Abu Rumman, Zainab M; Field, Jim A

    2010-01-01

    A two-stage pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket - anaerobic filter (UASB-AF) reactors system treating concentrated domestic sewage was operated at 23 degrees C and at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15 and 4 h, respectively. Excess sludge from the downstream AF stage was returned to the upstream UASB reactor. The aim was to obtain higher sludge retention time (SRT) in the UASB reactor for better methanization of suspended COD. The UASB-AF system removed 55% and 65% of the total COD (COD(tot)) and suspended COD (COD(ss)), respectively. The calculated SRT in the UASB reactor ranged from 20-35 days. The AF reactor removed the washed out sludge from the first stage reactor with average COD(ss) removal efficiency of 55%. The volatile fatty acids concentration in the effluent of the AF was 39 mg COD/L compared with 78 mg COD/L measured for the influent. The slightly higher COD(tot) removal efficiency obtained in this study compared with a single stage UASB reactor was achieved at 17% reduction in the total volume. PMID:20390881

  17. Anaerobic xylose fermentation by Spathaspora passalidarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaoru

    2012-01-01

    A cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into bioethanol requires that the xylose released from the hemicellulose fraction (20–40% of biomass) can be fermented. Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, efficiently ferments glucose but it lacks the ability to ferment xylose. Xylose......-fermenting yeast such as Pichia stipitis requires accurately controlled microaerophilic conditions during the xylose fermentation, rendering the process technically difficult and expensive. In this study, it is demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions Spathaspora passalidarum showed high ethanol production...

  18. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohanyos, Michael; Zabranska, Jana; Kutil, Josef; Jenicek, Pavel

    2003-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of process conditions is frequently used pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature. Thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, the high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, the higher effect of destroying pathogens and the improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in lysate centrifuge was proved in full-scale conditions causing increase of biogas production. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization. (author)

  19. The anaerobic digestion of sugar beet pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartini, Sri

    2014-01-01

    World-wide there are substantial quantities of sugar beet pulp, which arises as a residue after the processing of whole beet to extract sugar for refining as a foodstuff or for use in fermentation, in particular for the production of ethanol for the biofuel market. In both cases the resulting pulp residue is still rich in pentose sugars and fibre, and the research considered anaerobic digestion (AD) as a potential technology for the conversion of this material into renewable energy in the for...

  20. Anaerobic Pre-treatment of Strong Sewage

    OpenAIRE

    Halalsheh, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of applying low cost anaerobic technology for the treatment of relatively high strength sewage of Jordan using two-stage and one-stage UASB reactors operated at ambient temperatures. The wastewater produced in Jordan is characterised by a high concentration of COD tot with averages higher than 1200 mg/l and with a large fraction in the suspended form (65-70%). The average wastewater temperature fluctuates between 18 and 25 oC f...

  1. Monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2003-01-01

    measurements are reviewed in detail. In the sequel, possible manipulated variables, such as the hydraulic retention time, the organic loading rate, the sludge retention time, temperature, pH and alkalinity are evaluated with respect to the two main reactor types: high-rate and low-rate. Finally, the different......The current status in monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors is reviewed. The influence of reactor design and waste composition on the possible monitoring and control schemes is examined. After defining the overall control structure, and possible control objectives, the possible process...

  2. Marine turtle capture data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To estimate abundance, growth, and survival rate and to collect tissue samples, marine turtles are captured at nesting beaches and foraging grounds through various...

  3. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  4. Marine Natural Products Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Clifford W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Reports the chemistry of saxitoxin, a paralytic shellfish poison, and other toxins, including the structure of aplysiatoxins. Discusses the chemical signals and defense agents used in intra- and inter- species communication; anticancer agents; and organometallics in the marine environment. (MA)

  5. Marine prostanoids - a review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.

    The occurrence and structure of prostaglandins including clavulones, punaglandins and claviridenones in marine organisms is reviewEd. by comparison of the spectral data reported the identity of 20-acetoxy claviridenones b and c with 20 acetoxy...

  6. WMO Marine Final Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Final reports of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Marine Meteorology, Commission for Synoptic Meteorology, and Commission for Basic...

  7. Mariner Outreach Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset provides MARAD with the ability to determine available personnel and resources in a time of emergency. It also provides a portal for mariners to update...

  8. Marine meteorology and fisheries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshBabu, V.

    importance migrate in response to changes in sea temperature storms of shorter duration also influence the distribution of fish in shallow coastal waters as they set up turbulent conditions to which some species are unable to withstand. Therefore marine...

  9. The marine cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pade, N.; Compaoré, J.; Klähn, S.; Stal, L.J.; Hagemann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic molecules that are involved in the acclimation to various stresses such as temperature and salinity. Marine or moderate halotolerant cyanobacteria accumulate glucosylglycerol, while cyanobacteria with low salt tolerance (freshwater strains) usually accumulate suc

  10. LEGACY - EOP Marine Debris

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contains towed diver surveys of and weights of marine debris removed from the near shore environments of the NWHI.

  11. Exopolysaccharides from Marine Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Zhenming; FANG Yan

    2005-01-01

    Microbial polysaccharides represent a class of important products of growing interest for many sectors of industry. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in isolating new exopolysaccharides (EPSs)-producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from various extreme marine environments. Many new marine microbial EPSs with novel chemical compositions, properties and structures have been found to have potential applications in fields such as adhesives,textiles, pharmaceuticals and medicine for anti-cancer, food additives, oil recovery and metal removal in mining and industrial waste treatments, etc This paper gives a brief summary of the information about the EPSs produced by marine bacteria,including their chemical compositions, properties and structures, together with their potential applications in industry.

  12. Marine Reference Materials

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various publications and other instructions for taking marine weather observations. includes Weather Service Observing Handbook No. 1, Weather Bureau Circular M,...

  13. Marine & hydrokinetic technology development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LiVecchi, Al (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Jepsen, Richard Alan

    2010-06-01

    The Wind and Water Power Program supports the development of marine and hydrokinetic devices, which capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, the natural flow of water in rivers, and marine thermal gradients, without building new dams or diversions. The program works closely with industry and the Department of Energy's national laboratories to advance the development and testing of marine and hydrokinetic devices. In 2008, the program funded projects to develop and test point absorber, oscillating wave column, and tidal turbine technologies. The program also funds component design, such as techniques for manufacturing and installing coldwater pipes critical for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems. Rigorous device testing is necessary to validate and optimize prototypes before beginning full-scale demonstration and deployment. The program supports device testing by providing technology developers with information on testing facilities. Technology developers require access to facilities capable of simulating open-water conditions in order to refine and validate device operability. The program has identified more than 20 tank testing operators in the United States with capabilities suited to the marine and hydrokinetic technology industry. This information is available to the public in the program's Hydrodynamic Testing Facilities Database. The program also supports the development of open-water, grid-connected testing facilities, as well as resource assessments that will improve simulations done in dry-dock and closed-water testing facilities. The program has established two university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers to be used for device testing. These centers are located on coasts and will have open-water testing berths, allowing researchers to investigate marine and estuary conditions. Optimal array design, development, modeling and testing are needed to maximize efficiency and electricity generation at marine and

  14. Marine Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Ahtiainen, Heini; Hasselström, Linus;

    MARECOS (Marine Ecosystem Services) er et tværfagligt studie, der har haft til formål at tilvejebringe information vedrørende kortlægning og værdisætning af økosystemtjenester, som kan anvendes i forbindelse med udformning af regulering på det marine område såvel nationalt, som regionalt og...

  15. Marine Energy in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Levy

    2012-01-01

    This is the first issue of a new series dedicated to deliver concise information on energy innovation published by the Energy Innovation Center at the IDB. This issue offers a primer on the potential for marine energy in Chile. The ocean is increasingly recognized as a viable source of renewable energy, and Chile, with its long coastline, powerful waves and tidal currents, has captured the attention of marine energy proponents. While harvesting this source of energy would increase sustainabil...

  16. Marine Anthropogenic Litter

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Melanie; Gutow, Lars; Klages, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how manmade litter, primarily plastic, has spread into the remotest parts of the oceans and covers all aspects of this pollution problem from the impacts on wildlife and human health to socio-economic and political issues. Marine litter is a prime threat to marine wildlife, habitats and food webs worldwide. The book illustrates how advanced technologies from deep-sea research, microbiology and mathematic modelling as well as classic beach litter counts by volunteers co...

  17. A Marine Traffic Flow Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tsz Leung Yip

    2013-01-01

    A model is developed for studying marine traffic flow through classical traffic flow theories, which can provide us with a better understanding of the phenomenon of traffic flow of ships. On one hand, marine traffic has its special features and is fundamentally different from highway, air and pedestrian traffic. The existing traffic models cannot be simply extended to marine traffic without addressing marine traffic features. On the other hand, existing literature on marine traffic focuses on...

  18. Differential production of slime under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, L P; Simpson, W A; Christensen, G D

    1990-01-01

    A series of 37 clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci previously identified as negative for slime production by the tube test were reexamined by the tissue culture plate test under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. None of the strains produced slime under anaerobic conditions; however, five strains (13%) produced slime under aerobic conditions.

  19. TEST RESULTS FOR FUEL CELL OPERATION ON ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA, in conjunction with ONSI Corp., embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the proce...

  20. Anaerobic infections in the head and neck region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaqchali, S

    1988-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria form the predominant flora of the oral cavity, outnumbering facultative organisms by 10-1,000: 1. The type of anaerobic bacteria and their concentration depend on the anatomical site and the degree of anaerobiosis in the different sites in the mouth. Three groups of anaerobic bacteria inhabit the oral cavity; the strict anaerobes, the moderate anaerobes, and the microaerophilic group of organisms. The majority of anaerobic bacterial infections occurring in the region of the mouth, head and neck are caused by the commensal flora. These infections include dental and periodontal disease where the predominant organisms are Bacteroides species, Veillonella, Bifidobacteria, Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus and Propionibacterium species. More recently, Bacteroides endontalis has been isolated from a periapical abscess of endodontal origin and B. gingivalis, B. intermedius, Haemophilus actinomycetemcomitans and Wollinella species in chronic periodontal disease. Treponema species and other strict anaerobes are seen in smears of severe periodontal disease and acute necrotising gingivitis, but have not yet been isolated in pure culture. Until such time, their role in disease remains uncertain. Fusobacterium nucleatum is specially associated with severe orofacial infections which may extend into the mediastinum. Other anaerobic infections include chronic otitis media, chronic sinusitis and mastoiditis, and brain abscess. Treatment of these conditions should include the use of beta-lactamase resistant antimicrobials, such as clindamycin or one of the nitroimidazoles with penicillin.

  1. A fuzzy logic approach to control anaerobic digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domnanovich, A.M.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Pfeiffer, B.; Karlovits, M.; Zani, L.; Braun, R.; Holubar, P.

    2003-01-01

    One of the goals of the EU-Project AMONCO (Advanced Prediction, Monitoring and Controlling of Anaerobic Digestion Process Behaviour towards Biogas Usage in Fuel Cells) is to create a control tool for the anaerobic digestion process, which predicts the volumetric organic loading rate (Bv) for the nex

  2. Solids removal in upflow anaerobic reactors, a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.; Zeeman, G.; Gijzen, H.J.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    This desk study deals with the mechanisms and parameters affecting particles separation from wastewater in mainly upflow anaerobic reactors. Despite the fact that the functioning of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) systems depends on both physical parameters and biological processes, the physi

  3. Anaerobic digestion: biodegradability and biogas production of model wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Lausund, Erlend

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a desirable treatment practice in terms of minimizing volume, treating of pollutants and biogas production. In this thesis model wastes have been investigated with respect to biogas and methane production in order to find out what wastes are suitable for anaerobic digestion, and discussing ways to further the research to optimize the production of renewable energy.

  4. Control of calcium carbonate precipitation in anaerobic reactors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, van E.P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of waste waters with a high calcium content may lead to excessive precipitation of calcium carbonate. So far, no proper methods were available to predict or reduce the extent of precipitation in an anaerobic treatment system. Moreover, it also was not clear to what extent precipi

  5. Anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds: a genetic and genomic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Manuel; Zamarro, María Teresa; Blázquez, Blas; Durante-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Juárez, Javier F; Valderrama, J Andrés; Barragán, María J L; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo

    2009-03-01

    Aromatic compounds belong to one of the most widely distributed classes of organic compounds in nature, and a significant number of xenobiotics belong to this family of compounds. Since many habitats containing large amounts of aromatic compounds are often anoxic, the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds by microorganisms becomes crucial in biogeochemical cycles and in the sustainable development of the biosphere. The mineralization of aromatic compounds by facultative or obligate anaerobic bacteria can be coupled to anaerobic respiration with a variety of electron acceptors as well as to fermentation and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Since the redox potential of the electron-accepting system dictates the degradative strategy, there is wide biochemical diversity among anaerobic aromatic degraders. However, the genetic determinants of all these processes and the mechanisms involved in their regulation are much less studied. This review focuses on the recent findings that standard molecular biology approaches together with new high-throughput technologies (e.g., genome sequencing, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metagenomics) have provided regarding the genetics, regulation, ecophysiology, and evolution of anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways. These studies revealed that the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds is more diverse and widespread than previously thought, and the complex metabolic and stress programs associated with the use of aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions are starting to be unraveled. Anaerobic biotransformation processes based on unprecedented enzymes and pathways with novel metabolic capabilities, as well as the design of novel regulatory circuits and catabolic networks of great biotechnological potential in synthetic biology, are now feasible to approach.

  6. Molecular AND logic gate based on bacterial anaerobic respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arugula, Mary Anitha; Shroff, Namita; Katz, Evgeny; He, Zhen

    2012-10-21

    Enzyme coding genes that integrate information for anaerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were used as input for constructing an AND logic gate. The absence of one or both genes inhibited electrochemically-controlled anaerobic respiration, while wild type bacteria were capable of accepting electrons from an electrode for DMSO reduction.

  7. Thermophillic Sidestream Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors: The Shear Rate Dilemma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeison, D.A.; Telkamp, P.; Lier, van J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic biomass retention under thermophilic conditions has proven difficult. Membrane filtration can be used as alternative way to achieve high sludge concentrations. This research studied the feasibility of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) under thermophilic conditions. A sidestream MBR w

  8. Methanol conversion in high-rate anaerobic reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    An overview on methanol conversion in high-rate anaerobic reactors is presented, with the focus on technological as well as microbiological aspects. The simple C1-compound methanol can be degraded anaerobically in a complex way, in which methanogens, sulfate reducing bacteria and homoacetogens inter

  9. Anaerobic digestion of pot-ale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, F.E.

    1990-12-01

    In the production of whisky, the fermented wash is distilled twice and each bushel of grain yields about 15.5 gallons of pot-ale, 6.0 gallons of spent lees and 2.7 gallons of proof spirit. Disposal of pot-ale, the strong residue from the first distillation, containing all the non-volatile and unfermented components of the wash, will always be difficult. Anaerobic digestion provides a possible option. By destroying most of the biodegradable solids and converting them to biogas, it provides an intermediate effluent which conventional treatment technology can purify to river discharge standards. Pilot-scale trials confirm that pot-ale can be treated by anaerobic digestion. The most severe problems are the high purification efficiencies required to achieve UK river discharge standards and the quality and settling properties of the biological sludges produced. To achieved these standards, the design and operation of the entire treatment chain is dominated by the need to capture and concentrate suspended solids (SS) produced by the biological fermentations. Overall performance targets are 99.95% removal of biological oxygen demand (BOD), 99% removal of ammonia and a surplus sludge production of less than 20% of the incoming flow. (author).

  10. The anaerobic digestion of solid organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Azeem; Arshad, Muhammad; Anjum, Muzammil; Mahmood, Tariq; Dawson, Lorna

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of solid organic waste is thought to be reaching critical levels in almost all regions of the world. These organic wastes require to be managed in a sustainable way to avoid depletion of natural resources, minimize risk to human health, reduce environmental burdens and maintain an overall balance in the ecosystem. A number of methods are currently applied to the treatment and management of solid organic waste. This review focuses on the process of anaerobic digestion which is considered to be one of the most viable options for recycling the organic fraction of solid waste. This manuscript provides a broad overview of the digestibility and energy production (biogas) yield of a range of substrates and the digester configurations that achieve these yields. The involvement of a diverse array of microorganisms and effects of co-substrates and environmental factors on the efficiency of the process has been comprehensively addressed. The recent literature indicates that anaerobic digestion could be an appealing option for converting raw solid organic wastes into useful products such as biogas and other energy-rich compounds, which may play a critical role in meeting the world's ever-increasing energy requirements in the future. PMID:21530224

  11. Anaerobic microbial degradation of organochlorine insecticides Aldrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, T.C.; Yen, J.H.; Wang, Y.S. [National Taiwan Univ. (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Aldrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-1,4,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydro-1,4-endo-exo-5,8-dimethanonnaphthalene), a cyclodiene organochlorine insecticide, was banned by nations and classified as B2 carcinogen by United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Because of its chemical stability and lipophilicity, aldrin is regarded as a persistent and recalcitrant compound. Aldrin is easily adsorbed to soil and sediment after spreading to the environments, furthermore, it may be accumulated in animal's tissue or milk and then cause adverse effects by food-chain. The dissipation process of aldrin in environments has continuously been paid much attention by researchers. In general, the dissipation of aldrin has been thought as relating to three mechanisms: photo-degradation, chemical hydrolysis, and microbial degradation. And it has been well known that microbial degradation is the most important agent for breakdown of organochlorine pesticides. There has been shown that aldrin could be transformed to its metabolites, such as dieldrin or photo-dieldrin, by microorganisms under aerobic conditions, however, limited information has been shown under anaerobic conditions. For this reason, the degradation potential of aldrin by anaerobic microorganisms obtained from indigenous river sediment was evaluated, and the effect of environmental factors such as temperatures and nutrients on the aldrin degradation was also investigated in this study.

  12. Correlation of anaerobic ammonium oxidation and denitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of the nitrous organic wastewater treated was studied in seven anaerobic sequencing batch reactors(ASBRs)(0 #-6 #) which had been run under stable anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox). By means of monitoring and data analysis of COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N and pH, and of microbial test, the results revealed that the optimal Anammox performance was achieved from 2# reactor in which COD/NH4+-N was 1.65, Anammox bacteria and denitrification bacteria could coexist, and Anammox reaction and denitrification reaction could occur simultaneously in the reactors. The ratio of NH4+-N consumed: NO2--N consumed: NO3--N produced was 1:1.38:0.19 in 0# reactor which was not added glucose in the wastewater. When different ratio of COD and NH4+-N was fed for the reactors, the ratio of NO2--N consumed: NH4+-N consumed was in the range of 1.51-2.29 and the ratio of NO3-N produced: NH4+-N consumed in the range of 0-0.05.

  13. Comparative economic analysis: Anaerobic digester case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An economic guide is developed to assess the value of anaerobic digesters used on dairy farms. Two varieties of anaerobic digesters, a conventional mixed-tank mesophilic and an innovative earthen psychrophilic, are comparatively evaluated using a cost-effectiveness index. The two case study examples are also evaluated using three other investment merit statistics: simple payback period, net present value, and internal rate of return. Life-cycle savings are estimated for both varieties, with sensitivities considered for investment risk. The conclusion is that an earthen psychrophilic digester can have a significant economic advantage over a mixed-tank mesophilic digester because of lower capital cost and reduced operation and maintenance expenses. Because of this economic advantage, additional projects are being conducted in North Carolina to increase the rate of biogas utilization. The initial step includes using biogas for milk cooling at the dairy farm where the existing psychrophilic digester is located. Further, a new project is being initiated for electricity production with thermal reclaim at a swine operation

  14. Anaerobic performances of sedentary and trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serresse, O; Ama, P F; Simoneau, J A; Lortie, G; Bouchard, C; Boulay, M R

    1989-03-01

    The objective of this report was to compare the performance of sedentary individuals, physical education students, and athletes of various disciplines in 10 s and 90 s maximal cycle ergometer tests. The 10 s power was the highest power output in one second from the 10 s test, while capacities were defined as the total work output during the best 10 s trial and the 90 s test. ANOVA and Duncan multiple range test indicated that the mean values of the 10 S power and capacity and the 90 S capacity tests were significantly higher in sprinter than in sedentary groups. Sprinters performed significantly better than marathon runners only in the 10 s capacity and power. Bodybuilders and sedentary subjects had similar results in the 90 s capacity test. Mean performance values per kilogram of body weight in sedentary females reached about 60% of sedentary males while marathon runners, physical education students and sprinter females reached about 80% of the male performances for the three indicators. When expressed per kilogram of fat-free mass, females reached a higher proportion of the male values for all performances. These results indicate that: a) there are differences for the power and capacity measured in predominantly anaerobic tests between athletes from different disciplines and sedentary individuals, and b) gender differences exist for these anaerobic performance indicators, but they appear attenuated in trained subjects.

  15. Performance of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammo-nium oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; ZHENG Ping; HE YuHui; JIN RenCun

    2009-01-01

    The performance of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation was studied. The results showed that both SO42- and NH4+ were chemically stable under anaerobic conditions. They did not react with each other in the absence of biological catalyst (sludge). The anaerobic digested sludge cultivated in an anaerobic reactor for three years took on the ability of oxidizing ammonium with sulfate anaero-bically. The average reduction of sulfate and ammonium was 71.67 mg.L-1 and 56.82 mg.L-1 at high concentrations.The reaction between SO42- and NH4+ was difficult, though feasible, due to its low standard Gibbs free energy change. The experiment demonstrated that high substrate concentrations and low oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) may be favourable for the biological reaction.

  16. APPLICATION OF ANAEROBIC BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR PHARMACEUTICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan and Paul J. Sallis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater generated from pharmaceutical industry generally contain high organic load and the treatment is primarily carried out using two major types of biological methods; aerobic and anaerobic. However, due to high strength, it is infeasible to treat some pharmaceutical wastewater using aerobic biological processes. As an alternative, an anaerobic process is preferred to remove high strength organic matter. Anaerobic wastewater treatment is considered as the most cost effective solution for organically polluted industrial waste streams. In particular the development of high rate systems, in which hydraulic retention times (HRT are uncoupled from solids retention times (SRT, has led to a worldwide acceptance of anaerobic wastewater treatment. In this paper, literature on anaerobic digestion, anaerobic reactor technology and existing anaerobic treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater are presented. In addition, fate of pharmaceuticals in the environment was also discussed in brief. A case study of a laboratory investigation into the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater containing the antibiotic Tylosin in an anaerobic reactor was also given. Specifically, it was determined whether the anaerobic reactor could be used as a pre-treatment system at an existing pharmaceutical production plant. The performance of the reactor treating real pharmaceutical wastewater at various organic loading rate (OLR was investigated and showed efficient substrate removal at low OLRs (0.43 – 1.86 kg COD.m-3.d-1 by promoting efficient chemical oxygen demand (COD reduction (70 – 75%. Under these conditions, an average of 95% Tylosin reduction was achieved in the UASR. However, increasing the OLRs to 3.73 kg COD.m-3.d-1 by reducing the hydraulic retention time (HRT (4 – 2 d reduced the COD removal efficiency (45%. Changes in the organic loading affected the treatment performance of the anaerobic reactor, and at high OLRs, it was not able to withstand the short

  17. Validity of the Pediatric Running-Based Anaerobic Sprint Test to Determine Anaerobic Performance in Healthy Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Bart C.; Werkman, Maarten S.; Blokland, Donna; Eijsermans, Maria J. C.; van der Torre, Patrick; Bartels, Bart; Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine criterion validity of the pediatric running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST) as a nonsophisticated field test for evaluating anaerobic performance in healthy children and adolescents. Methods: Data from 65. healthy children (28 boys and 37 girls between 6 and 18 years of age,

  18. Bioprospecting marine plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris

    2013-11-01

    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics. PMID:24240981

  19. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bowler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics.

  20. Anaerobic denitrification in fungi from the coastal marine sediments off Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manohar, C.S.; Raghukumar, C.

    periods from October 2005, when dissolved oxygen levels were near zero in bottom waters to March 2006. We isolated mycelial fungi, thraustochytrids and yeasts. Species of Aspergillus and thraustochytrids were dominant. Fungi were isolated under aerobic...

  1. Biohythane production from marine macroalgae Sargassum sp. coupling dark fermentation and anaerobic digestion

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Costa; J.V. Oliveira; M. A. PEREIRA; Alves, M. M.; Abreu, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Potential biohythane production from Sargassum sp. was evaluated in a two stage process. In the first stage, hydrogen dark fermentation was performed by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus. Sargassum sp. concentrations (VS) of 2.5, 4.9 and 7.4 g L−1 and initial inoculum concentrations (CDW) of 0.04 and 0.09 g L−1 of C. saccharolyticus were used in substrate/inoculum ratios ranging from 28 to 123. The end products from hydrogen production process were subsequently used for biogas production. ...

  2. Biohythane production from marine macroalgae Sargassum sp. coupling dark fermentation and anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, José C; Oliveira, João V; Pereira, Maria A; Alves, Maria M; Abreu, Angela A

    2015-08-01

    Potential biohythane production from Sargassum sp. was evaluated in a two stage process. In the first stage, hydrogen dark fermentation was performed by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus. Sargassum sp. concentrations (VS) of 2.5, 4.9 and 7.4gL(-1) and initial inoculum concentrations (CDW) of 0.04 and 0.09gL(-1) of C. saccharolyticus were used in substrate/inoculum ratios ranging from 28 to 123. The end products from hydrogen production process were subsequently used for biogas production. The highest hydrogen and methane production yields, 91.3±3.3Lkg(-1) and 541±10Lkg(-1), respectively, were achieved with 2.5gL(-1) of Sargassum sp. (VS) and 0.09gL(-1)of inoculum (CDW). The biogas produced contained 14-20% of hydrogen. Potential energy production from Sargassum sp. in two stage process was estimated in 242GJha(-1)yr(-1). A maximum energy supply of 600EJyr(-1) could be obtained from the ocean potential area for macroalgae production. PMID:25958149

  3. Anaerobic sulfide-oxidation in marine colorless sulfur-oxidizing bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    50 degrees C decreased cell viability and consequently sulfide oxidation was negligible. Cell viability as estimated by the colony-forming ability decreased 100-fold after the exposure to 100 kg/cm sup(2) pressure for 1 h. Both viability and sulfide...

  4. Marine biodiversity in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One decade ago, the seas and oceans were considered biologically less diverse that the terrestrial environment. Now it is known that it is on the contrary; 33 of the 34 categories of animals (phylum), they are represented in the sea, compared with those solely 15 that exist in earth. The investigation about the diversity of life in the sea has been relatively scorned, but there are big benefits that we can wait if this is protected. The captures of fish depend on it; the species captured by the fisheries are sustained of the biodiversity of their trophic chains and habitats. The marine species are probably the biggest reservoir of chemical substances that can be used in pharmaceutical products. The genetic material of some species can be useful in biotechnical applications. The paper treats topics like the current state of the knowledge in marine biodiversity and it is done a diagnostic of the marine biodiversity in Colombia

  5. Marine-Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Birmingham, R.; Sortland, B.;

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses Marine-Design Education in view of present and forecasted demands of the maritime industry, determined by a drastically transforming economic and technological maritime environment. In this framework, this report discusses in depth IT-based Marine Design education (par. 4......) and reveals innovative educational concepts and initiatives, such as the EiT (Experts in a Team) concept (par. 3), the SFS (Student Friendly Software) initiative (par. 5), Education Driven Research (EDR, par. 6) and Research Based Education (RBE, par. 6). Nevertheless, the paper stresses the need...... for continuity between traditional and modern ways of teaching (par. 4) and points out that Marine Design education is not only about Design, but should also address project/business administration and decision making issues (par. 7)....

  6. Marine biosurfaces research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Naval Research (ONR) of the U.S. Navy is starting a basic research program to address the initial events that control colonization of surfaces by organisms in marine environments. The program “arises from the Navy's need to understand and ultimately control biofouling and biocorrosion in marine environments,” according to a Navy announcement.The program, “Biological Processes Controlling Surface Modification in the Marine Environment,” will emphasize the application of in situ techniques and modern molecular biological, biochemical, and biophysical approaches; it will also encourage the development of interdisciplinary projects. Specific areas of interest include sensing and response to environmental surface (physiology/physical chemistry), factors controlling movement to and retention at surfaces (behavior/hydrodynamics), genetic regulation of attachment (molecular genetics), and mechanisms of attachment (biochemistry/surface chemistry).

  7. Trace metal speciation and bioavailability in anaerobic digestion: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Pham Minh; Ketheesan, Balachandran; Yan, Zhou; Stuckey, David

    2016-01-01

    Trace metals are essential for the growth of anaerobic microorganisms, however, in practice they are often added to anaerobic digesters in excessive amounts, which can lead to inhibition. The concept of bioavailability of metals in anaerobic digestion has been poorly understood in the past, and a lack of deep understanding of the relationship between trace metal speciation and bioavailability can result in ineffective metal dosing strategies for anaerobic digesters. Sequential extraction schemes are useful for fractionating trace metals into their different forms, and metal sulfides can serve as a store and source for trace metals during anaerobic digestion, while natural/synthetic chelating agents (soluble microbial products-SMPs, extracellular polysaccharides-EPS, and EDTA/NTA) are capable of controlling trace metal bioavailability. Nevertheless, more work is needed to: investigate the speciation and bioavailability of Ca, Mg, Mn, W, and Se; compare the bioavailability of different forms of trace metals e.g. carbonates, sulfides, phosphates to different anaerobic trophic groups; determine what factors influence metal sulfide dissolution; investigate whether chelating agents can increase trace metal bioavailability; develop and adapt specialized analytical techniques, and; determine how trace metal dynamics change in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). PMID:26707985

  8. [Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, José E; García-Sánchez, Enrique; García-García, María Inmaculada

    2014-02-01

    The anaerobic bacteria resistance to antibiotics is increasing, and even has appeared against the most active of those, like metronidazol and carbapenems. This fact forces to make and periodical sensibility tests -at least in the most aggressive and virulent species, in cases that they are isolated from life locations and in the absence of therapeutic response- to check the local sensibility and to establish suitable empiric therapies, all based on multicentric studies carried out in order to this or well to check the activity of new antibiotics. For the laboratory routine, the easiest sensibility method is the E-test/MIC evaluator. Another alternative is microdilution, that's only normalized for Bacteroides. There are preliminary facts that allow the use of disc diffusion method in some species of Bacteroides and Clostridium. For the temporal and multicentric studies, the procedure is dilution in agar plate, the reference method.

  9. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co......Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 degrees C and for some experiments also at 37 degrees C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone...... giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm(-3) and 7 gN dm(-3) respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 degrees C, sterilization: 133 degrees C, and alkali...

  10. Monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2003-01-01

    The current status in monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors is reviewed. The influence of reactor design and waste composition on the possible monitoring and control schemes is examined. After defining the overall control structure, and possible control objectives, the possible process...... measurements are reviewed in detail. In the sequel, possible manipulated variables, such as the hydraulic retention time, the organic loading rate, the sludge retention time, temperature, pH and alkalinity are evaluated with respect to the two main reactor types: high-rate and low-rate. Finally, the different...... control approaches that have been used are comprehensively described. These include simple and adaptive controllers, as well as more recent developments such as fuzzy controllers, knowledge-based controllers and controllers based on neural networks....

  11. Kinetics of biogas production in Anaerobic Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krümpel, Johannes; Schäufele, Friedrich; Schneider, Johannes; Jungbluth, Thomas; Zielonka, Simon; Lemmer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates methane production kinetics from individual volatile fatty acids (VFA) in an Upflow Anaerobic Filter (AF). 1gCOD in the form of acetic (HAc), propionic (HPr) or butyric acid (HBu) was injected into the AF while operating at an organic loading rate (OLRCOD) of 3.5gL(-1)d(-1). A new method is introduced to separate gas production of the baseload from the product formation of VFA degradation after the injection. The lag phase, fractional rate of gas production and half-life has been determined for the methane production of the three VFAs. The half-lives were in the order HAcgas production from the C3 acid than from the C4 acid. The results can be used for prediction models for on-demand biogas production, a vital approach that provides the transforming energy market with balancing power. PMID:26492176

  12. Hydrogen production from glucose by anaerobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Hiroyasu; Miura, Takashi; Ishimi, Kosaku; Seki, Minoru; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    Various anaerobes were cultivated in media containing glucose. When 100 mL of thioglycollate medium containing 2.0% (w/v) glucose was used, Clostridium butyricum ATCC 859, NBRC 3315, and NBRC 13949 evolved 227-243 mL of biogas containing about 180 mL of hydrogen in 1 day. Although some strains had some resistance against oxygen, C. butyricum ATCC 859 and 860 did not have it. C. butyricum NBRC 3315 and Enterobacter aerogenes NBRC 13534 produced hydrogen in the presence of glucose or pyruvic acid, and E. aerogenes NBRC 13534 produced hydrogen by not only glucose and pyruvic acid but also dextrin, sucrose, maltose, galactose, fructose, mannose, and mannitol. When a medium containing 0.5% (w/v) yeast extract and 2.0% (w/v) glucose was used, E. aerogenes NBRC 13534 evolved more biogas and hydrogen than C. butyricum NBRC 3315 in the absence of reducing agent.

  13. CFD simulation of mixing in anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Mitsuharu; Goel, Rajeev; Komatsu, Kazuya; Yasui, Hidenari; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Li, Y Y; Noike, Tatsuya

    2009-04-01

    A three-dimensional CFD model incorporating the rheological properties of sludge was developed and applied to quantify mixing in a full-scale anaerobic digester. The results of the model were found to be in good agreement with experimental tracer response curve. In order to predict the dynamics of mixing, a new parameter, UI (uniformity index) was defined. The visual patterns of tracer mixing in simulation were well reflected in the dynamic variation in the value of UI. The developed model and methods were applied to determine the required time for complete mixing in a full-scale digester at different solid concentrations. This information on mixing time is considered to be useful in optimizing the feeding cycles for better digester performance. PMID:19081247

  14. Photochemistry of hypocrellin derivatives under anaerobic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To improve the red absorption and solubility of hypocrellin, we have synthesized a series of hypocrellin B derivatives. The photochemistry of these new compounds in anaerobic media has been investigated by using electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and spectrophotometric methods. The semiquinone anion radicals can be produced by self-electron transfer on irradiation, with the formation efficiency and EPR hyperfine structures of the semiquinone anion radicals dependent on the structures of the derivatives. When an electron donor is present, the electron transfer from electron donor to hypocrellin B derivatives enhanced the production of the corresponding semiquinone anion radical; in addition, the semiquinone anion radical and hydroquinone can be detected spectrophotometrically. Structural modifications exert little effect on the absorption position of semiquinone anion radical and hydroquinone, but influence their formation efficiency significantly.

  15. Determining anaerobic degradation kinetics from batch tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreda, Iván López

    2016-01-01

    Data obtained from a biomethane potential (BMP) test were used in order to obtain the parameters of a kinetic model of solid wastes anaerobic degradation. The proposed model considers a hydrolysis step with a first order kinetic, a Monod kinetic for the soluble organic substrate degradation and a first order decay of microorganisms. The instantaneous release of methane was assumed. The parameters of the model are determined following a direct search optimization procedure. A 'multiple-shooting' technique was used as a first step of the optimization process. The confidence interval of the parameters was determined by using Monte Carlo simulations. Also, the distribution functions of the parameters were determined. Only the hydrolysis first order constant shows a normal distribution. PMID:27191569

  16. Degradation of methyl bromide in anaerobic sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R.S.; Miller, L.G.; Strohmaler, F.E.

    1994-01-01

    Methyl bromide (MeBr) was anaerobically degraded in saltmarsh sediments after reaction with sulfide. The product of this nucleophilic substitution reaction was methanethiol, which underwent further chemical and bacterial reactions to form dimethyl sulfide. These two gases appeared transiently during sediment incubations because they were metabolized by methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria. A second, less significant reaction of MeBr was the exchange with chloride, forming methyl chloride, which was also susceptible to attack by sulfide. Incubation of 14C-labeled methyl iodide as an analogue of MeBr resulted in the formation of 14CH4 and 14CO2 and also indicated that sulfate-reducing bacteria as well as methanogens metabolized the methylated sulfur intermediates. These results suggest that exposed sediments with abundant free sulfide, such as coastal salt-marshes, may constitute a sink for atmospheric MeBr.

  17. Instrumentation and Control in Anaerobic Digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anaerobic digestion is a multistep process, and is most applied to solids destruction and wastewater treatment for energy production. Despite wide application, and long-term industrial proof of application, some industries are still reluctant to apply this technology. One of the classical reasons...... has been lack of process control handles, instruments, and developed control algorithms. This has improved dramatically in the past 10 years, and all of these areas have now been addressed. The main gap in instrumentation technology has been a rapid intermediate sensor to detect overload conditions....... There are now a number of sensors that can measure total or individual organic acids, and some are in commercial production. Control has also been widely applied, with a wide variety of controllers, for direct beneficial results, and one application has been shown in this paper. Available control handles...

  18. Short-term changes in anaerobic oxidation of methane in response to varying methane and sulfate fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wegener

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A major role in global methane fluxes has been attributed to the process of anaerobic oxidation of methane, which is performed by consortia of methanotrophic archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria. An important question remains how these very slow growing microorganisms with generation times of 3–7 months respond to natural variations in methane fluxes at cold seeps. Here, we used an experimental flow-through column system filled with cold seep sediments naturally enriched in methanotrophic communities, to test their response to short-term variations in methane and sulfate fluxes. At stable methane and sulfate concentrations of ~2 mM and 28 mM, respectively, we measured constant rates of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM and sulfide production (SR for up to 160 days of incubation. When percolated with methane-free medium, the anaerobic methanotrophs ceased to oxidize methane and to produce sulfide. After a starvation phase of 40 days, the addition of methane restored former AOM and SR rates immediately. At methane concentrations between 0–2.3 mM we measured a linear correlation between methane availability, AOM and SR. At constant fluid flow rates of 30 m yr−1, ca. 50% of the methane was consumed by the ANME population at all concentrations tested. Reducing the sulfate concentration from 28 to 1 mM, a decrease in AOM and SR by 35% was observed. Hence, the marine anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME are capable to consume substantial amounts of methane rising from the subsurface seabed to the hydrosphere over a wide range of fluxes of methane and sulfate.

  19. Characterization of Spartina alterniflora as feedstock for anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), a saltmarsh plant with high production, was characterized for its potential for use as feedstock for anaerobic digestion processes. The anaerobic digestibility and biogas yield of S. alterniflora were evaluated by anaerobic batch digestion experiments performed at 35 ± 1 C at initial volatile solids (VS) of 6%. The nutrient content analysis indicated that S. alterniflora contained the required nutrition for anaerobic microorganisms, but its high C/N of 58.8, high K and Na contents of 8.1, 22.7 g kg-1, respectively, may be disadvantageous to its anaerobic digestion. The cumulative biogas yield was determined to be 358 L kg-1 VS and the biodegradation efficiency was 45% after 60 days of digestion. The methane content of biogas increased from 53% on day 3 to around 62% after 13 days of digestion. The changes of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) indicated that the acidification of S. alterniflora was propionate-type fermentation with proportion of acetate and propionate ranging from 54.8% to 98.4%, and the hydrolysis of lignocellulose was the rate-limiting step for its anaerobic digestion. The analysis of cations suggested that K+ and Mg2+, with the maximum concentration of 1.35 and 0.43 g L-1 in fermentation liquor, respectively, could be inhibitory to the anaerobic digestion of S. alterniflora. It is concluded that S. alterniflora can be transformed into clean energy by anaerobic digestion and the high contents of K, Na, Ca and Mg may be the inhibitory factors when S. alterniflora is digested by continuous or semi-continuous anaerobic process. (author)

  20. Marine nitrogen cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    and particulate organic forms, respectively) and atmospheric deposition (~50 Tg N a -1 ), a substantial fraction of which is believed to be of anthropogenic (human-made) origin. Of the various loss terms of combined nitrogen from the ocean, emission of N 2 O... and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?, Sci. Mar., 65, 85-105, 2001. Page 2 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www.eoearth.org/article/Marine_nitrogen_cycle square6 Gruber, N.: The dynamics...

  1. Electron beam/biological processing of anaerobic and aerobic sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuba, V.; Pospíšil, M.; Múčka, V.; Jeníček, P.; Dohányos, M.; Zábranská, J.

    2003-01-01

    Besides common chemical and biological methods, the radiation technology is a promising way of sludge treatment. The paper describes possibilities of combined accelerated electrons/biological processing of both anaerobic and aerobic sludge. Besides one-shot experiments, experimental reactors for the simulation of anaerobic processes have been used. Main effort has been aimed to decrease organic compounds concentration and overall volume of solids, to improve some physico-chemical parameters of sludge, to validate hygienisation effects of the ionising radiation, and in the case of anaerobic sludge, to increase the volume of the produced biogas. Positive effects of the electron beam processing have been observed on all previously named parameters.

  2. Electron beam/biological processing of anaerobic and aerobic sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besides common chemical and biological methods, the radiation technology is a promising way of sludge treatment. The paper describes possibilities of combined accelerated electrons/biological processing of both anaerobic and aerobic sludge. Besides one-shot experiments, experimental reactors for the simulation of anaerobic processes have been used. Main effort has been aimed to decrease organic compounds concentration and overall volume of solids, to improve some physico-chemical parameters of sludge, to validate hygienisation effects of the ionising radiation, and in the case of anaerobic sludge, to increase the volume of the produced biogas. Positive effects of the electron beam processing have been observed on all previously named parameters. (author)

  3. Clostridium difficile: the anaerobe that made the grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazier, Jon S

    2012-04-01

    Unlike other anaerobic bacteria of clinical importance, Clostridium difficile has managed to enter into the realm of public awareness. Following the trail blazed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), C. difficile has made the transition from being an obscure anaerobic bacterium, mainly of interest to specialist anaerobic microbiologists, to that of an infamous "superbug" responsible for outbreaks of hospital-acquired infection that commonly result in serious disease and death. This report picks out key moments, particularly in the UK, which tracked the rise in both the public and political awareness of this organism. PMID:22293217

  4. Combined Anaerobic-Aerobic Bacterial Degradation of Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    R. Wilfred Sugumar; Sandhya Sadanandan

    2010-01-01

    Wastewaters from the dye baths of a non-formal textile-dyeing unit containing C.I. Acid Orange 7 and C.I. Reactive Red 2 were subjected to degradation in a sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment process based on mixed culture of bacteria. The technical samples of the dyestuffs and the dye bath wastes were treated in an anaerobic reactor, using an adapted mixed culture of anaerobic microorganisms. The dyestuffs were biotransformed into colourless substituted amine metabolites in the reactor. T...

  5. Methane and hydrogen production by human intestinal anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, L F; Holbrook, W P; Eastwood, M A

    1982-06-01

    The gas above liquid cultures of a variety of human intestinal anaerobic bacteria was sampled and analysed by headspace gas chromatography. Hydrogen production was greatest with strains of the genus Clostridium, intermediate with anaerobic cocci and least with Bacteroides sp. Very few strains produced methane although small amounts were detected with one strain of B. thetaiotaomicron, C. perfringens and C. histolyticum. There may be a relationship between these anaerobic bacteria and several gastrointestinal disorders in which there is a build up of hydrogen or methane in the intestines.

  6. ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs for domestic wastewaters treatment was studied in laboratory scale, with the objective to define sustainable filtration conditions of the suspensions along the process. During continuous experiments, the organic matter degradation by anaerobic way showed an average DQOT removal of 85% and 93%. Indeed, the degradation generated biogas after 12 days of operation and its relative methane composition was of 60% after 25 days of operation. Additionally, the comparison between membrane bioreactors (MBRs performance in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in filterability terms, reported that both systems behave similarly once reached the stationary state.

  7. Microbial colonization and degradation of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic bags in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauendorf, Alice; Krause, Stefan; Bigalke, Nikolaus K; Gorb, Elena V; Gorb, Stanislav N; Haeckel, Matthias; Wahl, Martin; Treude, Tina

    2016-02-15

    To date, the longevity of plastic litter at the sea floor is poorly constrained. The present study compares colonization and biodegradation of plastic bags by aerobic and anaerobic benthic microbes in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments. Samples of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic carrier bags were incubated in natural oxic and anoxic sediments from Eckernförde Bay (Western Baltic Sea) for 98 days. Analyses included (1) microbial colonization rates on the bags, (2) examination of the surface structure, wettability, and chemistry, and (3) mass loss of the samples during incubation. On average, biodegradable plastic bags were colonized five times higher by aerobic and eight times higher by anaerobic microbes than polyethylene bags. Both types of bags showed no sign of biodegradation during this study. Therefore, marine sediment in temperate coastal zones may represent a long-term sink for plastic litter and also supposedly compostable material. PMID:26790603

  8. The Danish Marine Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ærtebjerg, G.

    1997-01-01

    Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996.......Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996....

  9. Empowering marine science through genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volckaert, F.A M J; Barbier, M.; Canario, A; Olsen, J.L.; Wesnigk, J; Clark, M; Boyen, C

    2008-01-01

    Marine scientists in Europe summarize their successes with genome technologies in the marine sciences and make a plea for a concerted international effort to raise greater public education for support. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Achievement of Sulfate-Reducing Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation Reactor Started with Nitrate-Reducting Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng-chuan; Yuan, Lin-jiang; Zhou, Guo-biao; Li, Jing

    2015-09-01

    The transformation of nitrite-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation to sulfate-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation in an UASB was performed and the changes in microbial community were studied. The result showed that the sulfate reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation process was successfully accomplished after 177 days' operation. The removal rate of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate were up to 58. 9% and 15. 7%, the removing load of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate were 74. 3 mg.(L.d)-1 and 77. 5 mg.(L.d)-1 while concentration of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate of influent were 130 mg.(L.d)-1 and 500 mg.(L.d)-1, respectively. The lost nitrogen and sulphur was around 2 in molar ratio. The pH value of the effluent was lower than that of the influent. Instead of Candidatus brocadia in nitrite reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation granular sludge, Bacillus benzoevorans became the dominant species in sulfate reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation sludge. The dominant bacterium in the two kinds of anaerobic ammonium oxidation process is different. Our results imply that the two anaerobic ammonium oxidation processes are carried out by different kind of bacterium. PMID:26717697

  11. Marin miljøhistorie

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main ...

  12. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Se-Kwon Kim; Ratih Pangestuti

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, choline...

  13. Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment to increase the anaerobic hydrolysis rate of waste activated sludge during anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment for improving sludge anaerobic digestion was proposed. • Combined process enhanced the cell lysis, biopolymers releases, and thus sludge disintegration. • Increased solubilization of sludge increased the anaerobic hydrolysis rate. • Increased solubilization does not always induce an improved anaerobic digestion efficiency. - Abstract: Pretreatment can be used prior to anaerobic digestion to improve the efficiency of waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion. In this study, electrolysis and a commonly used pretreatment method of alkaline (NaOH) solubilization were integrated as a pretreatment method for promoting WAS anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment effectiveness of combined process were investigated in terms of disintegration degree (DDSCOD), suspended solids (TSS and VSS) removals, the releases of protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS), and subsequent anaerobic digestion as well as dewaterability after digestion. Electrolysis was able to crack the microbial cells trapped in sludge gels and release the biopolymers (PN and PS) due to the cooperation of alkaline solubilization, enhancing the sludge floc disintegration/solubilization, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays showed the highest methane yield was achieved with 5 V plus pH 9.2 pretreatment with up to 20.3% improvement over the non-pretreated sludge after 42 days of mesophilic operation. In contrast, no discernible improvements on anaerobic degradability were observed for the rest of pretreated sludges, probably due to the overmuch leakage of refractory soluble organics, partial chemical mineralization of solubilized compounds and sodium inhibition. The statistical analysis further indicated that increased solubilization induced by electrical-alkali pretreatment increased the first-order anaerobic hydrolysis rate (khyd), but had no, or very slight enhancement on WAS ultimate

  14. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit No. 14534, issued on July 2, 2010 (75 FR 39665... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...

  15. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permit No. 14334, issued on August 17, 2009 (74 FR... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XP18 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...

  16. 76 FR 72680 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... December 9, 2010, notice was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 76703) that a request for a permit... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA078 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.... Environmental Research and Services, Fairbanks, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals in Alaska....

  17. 77 FR 14352 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... published in the Federal Register (76 FR 30919) that a request for a permit to conduct research on humpback... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB065 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16...

  18. 76 FR 25308 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... in the Federal Register (76 FR 4091) that Dr. Burns had requested a permit to collect/receive, import... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA165 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... ] scientific research on marine mammal parts. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available...

  19. Marine Science Sourcebook, First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimist, Roger J.

    This manual was prepared for a teacher workshop in marine science. It includes information on when, where, and how to collect marine mollusks, and how to prepare a shell collection; a partial key to the classes, subclasses, and orders of the mollusca; notes on the ecology and physiology of marine bivalves and snails, and recipes for solutions…

  20. Mafia marine resources in peril

    OpenAIRE

    Mndeme, Y.E.S.

    1995-01-01

    The rich marine resource of the Mafia District, Tanzania, especially its coral reefs and mangroves, are in danger of collapse. The proposed marine park faces chronic problems of dynamite fishing and coral mining. The Mafia fisheries resources and the importance of coral reefs are presented together with proposed measures to rescue the Mafia marine environment.

  1. Cultivation of marine sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, R.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    There is increasing interest in biotechnological production of marine sponge biomass owing to the discovery of many commercially important secondary metabolites in this group of animals. In this article, different approaches to producing sponge biomass are reviewed, and several factors that possibly

  2. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The past 20 years have seen extensive marine exploration work by the major industrialized countries. Studies have, in part, been concentrated on Pacific manganese nodule occurrences and on massive sulfides on mid-oceanic ridges. An international jurisdictional framework of the sea-bed mineral...

  3. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  4. Safety of Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    1990-01-01

    of a "future safe" design code for exposed marine structures like breakwaters should be different from the ones usually applied in modern design standards for conventional structures within civil engineering. Moreover, results from ongoing development of a design code for rubble mound breakwaters are presented....

  5. Marine Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Conley, Daniel; Vicinanza, Diego;

    2013-01-01

    Countries with coastlines may have valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves, and offshorewind.The potential to gather energy from the sea has recently gained interest in several nations, so Marine Renewable Energy Installations (hereinafter MREIs) will likely beco...

  6. Thai marine fungal diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattaket Choeyklin

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungal diversity of Thailand was investigated and 116 Ascomycota, 3 Basidiomycota, 28 anamorphic fungi, 7 Stramenopiles recorded, with 30 tentatively identified. These species have primarily been collected from driftwood and attached decayed wood of mangrove trees. The holotype number of 15 taxa is from Thailand and 33 are new records from the country.

  7. Influence of marine engine simulator training to marine engineer's competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Cheng, Xiangxin; Ma, Qiang; Song, Xiufu; Liu, Xinjian; Wang, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Marine engine simulator is broadly used in maritime education and training. Maritime education and training institutions usually use this facility to cultivate the hands-on ability and fault-treat ability of marine engineers and students. In this study, the structure and main function of DMS-2005 marine engine simulator is briefly introduced, several teaching methods are discussed. By using Delphi method and AHP method, a comprehensive evaluation system is built and the competence of marine engineers is assessed. After analyzing the calculating data, some conclusions can be drawn: comprehensive evaluation system could be used to assess marine engineer's competence; the training of marine engine simulator is propitious to enhance marine engineers' integrated ability, especially on the aspect of judgment of abnormal situation capacity, emergency treatment ability and safe operation ability.

  8. Sequential anaerobic-adsorption treatment of chemical industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, Kailash; Pallavi, V; Patel, Dharmendra

    2011-10-01

    Treatment technologies needed to reduce the pollutant load of chemical industry effluent have been found to involve exorbitantly high costs. The present investigation aimed to treat the wastewater from chemical industry by cost effective sequential anaerobic-adsorption treatment. Wastewaters from chemical industry that are rich in biodegradable organics are tested for anaerobic treatability. The efficiency of anaerobic reactor is relatively lower 79.3%, and therefore post treatment of effluent was done by adsorption using Poly vinyl alcohol coated Datura stramonium (PVAC-DS) as an adsorbent. An overall COD removal of 93.8 % was achieved after sequential Anaerobic-Adsorption treatment, which lead to a better final effluent and a more economical treatment system.

  9. Performance of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The performance of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation was studied.The results showed that both SO42-and NH4+ were chemically stable under anaerobic conditions.They did not react with each other in the absence of biological catalyst(sludge).The anaerobic digested sludge cultivated in an anaerobic reactor for three years took on the ability of oxidizing ammonium with sulfate anaero-bically.The average reduction of sulfate and ammonium was 71.67 mg.L-1 and 56.82 mg.L-1 at high concentrations.The reaction between SO42-and NH4+ was difficult,though feasible,due to its low standard Gibbs free energy change.The experiment demonstrated that high substrate concentrations and low oxidation-reduction potential(ORP) may be favourable for the biological reaction.

  10. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion for waste and wastewater treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegant, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with thermophilic anaerobic waste and wastewater treatment. A literature survey is presented, in which the thermophilic treatment processes are evaluated with respect to the loading rates and treatment efficiencies, and some relevant theoretical considerations concerning thermophil

  11. Nitrification and denitrification gene abundances in swine wastewater anaerobic lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although anaerobic lagoons are used globally for livestock waste treatment, their detailed microbial cycling of nitrogen is only beginning to become understood. Within this cycling, nitrification can be performed by organisms which produce the enzyme ammonia monooxygenase (AMO). For denitrification,...

  12. HIGH-RATE ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF ALCOHOLIC WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment processes are rapidly becoming popular for industrial wastewater treatment. However, until recently stable process conditions could not be guaranteed for alcoholic wastewaters containing higher concentrations of methanol. Although methanol can be directly converted into methane by methanogens, under specific conditions it can also be converted into acetate and butyrate by acetogens. The accumulation of volatile fatty acids can lead to reactor instability in a weakly buffered reactor. Since this process was insufficiently understood, the application of high-rate anaerobic reactors was highly questionable. This research investigated the environmental factors that are of importance in the predominance of methylotrophic methanogens over acetogens in a natural mixed culture during anaerobic wastewater treatment in upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors. Technological and microbiological aspects were investigated. Additionally, the route by which methanol is converted into methane is also presented

  13. Characteristics, Process Parameters, and Inner Components of Anaerobic Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgadir, Awad; Chen, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jianshe; Xie, Xuehui; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Heng; Liu, Na

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic bioreactor applies the principles of biotechnology and microbiology, and nowadays it has been used widely in the wastewater treatment plants due to their high efficiency, low energy use, and green energy generation. Advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic process were shown, and three main characteristics of anaerobic bioreactor (AB), namely, inhomogeneous system, time instability, and space instability were also discussed in this work. For high efficiency of wastewater treatment, the process parameters of anaerobic digestion, such as temperature, pH, Hydraulic retention time (HRT), Organic Loading Rate (OLR), and sludge retention time (SRT) were introduced to take into account the optimum conditions for living, growth, and multiplication of bacteria. The inner components, which can improve SRT, and even enhance mass transfer, were also explained and have been divided into transverse inner components, longitudinal inner components, and biofilm-packing material. At last, the newly developed special inner components were discussed and found more efficient and productive. PMID:24672798

  14. Decolourisation of textile wastewater in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagni, Alessandro; Casu, Stefania; Grilli, Selene

    2012-08-01

    Azo dye decolourisation can be easily achieved by biological reduction under anaerobic conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAMBRs) for the decolourisation of dyeing wastewater containing azo dyes. The reactive orange 16 was used as model of an azo dye. The results demonstrated that very high decolourisation (higher than 99%) can be achieved by SAMBRs. Although decolourisation was not significantly influenced by the azo dye concentrations up to 3.2 g L(-1), methane production was greatly inhibited (up to 80-85%). Since volatile fatty acids accumulated in the treatment system with the azo dye concentration increase, methanogenes seem to be the most sensitive microbial populations of the anaerobic ecological community. The results demonstrated that anaerobic process combined with membrane filtration can deal with highly concentrated wastewaters that result from stream separation of industrial discharges.

  15. Marine Science, Back Ocean Exploring Marine Mysteries and Utilizing Marine Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Editorial Team

    2011-01-01

    Marine science, fusing biology, physics, chemistry, geology, and engineering together, has become a comprehensive and interdisciplinary sciences. Since the 1950's, many new technologies have bloomed along with the rapid development of marine science. In the twenty first century, human beings are facing severe challenges, such as food and energy shortages, climate warming, environmental degradation, and resource depletion, back to the ocean exploring marine mysteries and utilizing marine resou...

  16. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Christopher B

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic heat production and, by inference, all energy expenditure – can be accounted for with a measurement of oxygen uptake as 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen. This manuscript incorporates contemporary bioenergetic interpretations of anaerobic and aerobic ATP turnover to promote the independence of these disparate types of metabolic energy transfer: each has different reactants and products, uses dissimilar enzymes, involves different types of biochemical reactions, takes place in separate cellular compartments, exploits different types of gradients and ultimately each operates with distinct efficiency. The 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen for carbohydrate oxidation includes a small anaerobic heat component as part of anaerobic energy transfer. Faster rates of ATP turnover that exceed mitochondrial respiration and that are supported by rapid glycolytic phosphorylation with lactate production result in heat production that is independent of oxygen uptake. Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry has revealed that this anaerobic heat does not disappear when lactate is later oxidized and so oxygen uptake does not adequately measure anaerobic efficiency or energy expenditure (as was suggested by the "oxygen debt" hypothesis. An estimate of anaerobic energy transfer supplements the measurement of oxygen uptake and may improve the interpretation of whole-body energy expenditure.

  17. Anaerobic Dehalogenation of Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegel, Juergen; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qingzhong

    1999-01-01

    Ten years after reports on the existence of anaerobic dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment slurries, we report here on the rapid reductive dehalogenation of para-hydroxylated PCBs (HO-PCBs), the excreted main metabolites of PCB in mammals, which can exhibit estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in humans. The anaerobic bacterium Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans completely dehalogenates all flanking chlorines (chlorines in ortho position to the para-hydroxyl group) ...

  18. Modeling for Anaerobic Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B. Y. M.; Pfeffer, J. T.

    1989-06-01

    The specific objectives of this research were: 1. to develop an equilibrium model for chemical aspects of anaerobic reactors; 2. to modify the equilibrium model for non-equilibrium conditions; 3. to incorporate the existing biofilm models into the models above to study the biological and chemical behavior of the fixed-film anaerobic reactors; 4. to experimentally verify the validity of these models; 5. to investigate the biomass-holding ability of difference packing materials for establishing reactor design criteria.

  19. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Christopher B

    2005-01-01

    Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production) although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic he...

  20. Anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste for energy production

    OpenAIRE

    Nayono, Satoto Endar

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to evaluate the performance of anaerobic reactors treating OFMSW (organic fraction of municipal solid waste), especially in terms of its energy recovery, either by investigating the maximum organic loading rate or by co-digestion with other types of wastes for energy recovery. In order to reach the research purpose, several experiments such as characteristics examination of different organic solid wastes, which are potential substrates for anaerobic digestion.

  1. Yield and Quality of Biogas from Anaerobic Fermentation of Grass

    OpenAIRE

    Poláček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Biogas is generally considered as a renewable source of energy. In fact, however, it is biodegradable organic material, that makes this source of energy renewable. Biogas is, then, the final product of anaerobic fermentation of these materials. Because energetically the most valuable component of biogas is methane (CH4) its relative volume stands as the measure of biogas quality. The process of anaerobic fermentation was characterized in the first part of this thesis. Organic materials ar...

  2. Fermentation and Anaerobic Respiration by Rhodospirillum rubrum and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, J E; Weaver, P. F.

    1982-01-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata were able to grow anaerobically in the dark either by a strict mixed-acid fermentation of sugars or, in the presence of an appropriate electron acceptor, by an energy-linked anaerobic respiration. Both species fermented fructose without the addition of accessory oxidants, but required the initial presence of bicarbonate before fermentative growth could begin. Major products of R. rubrum fermentation were succinate, acetate, propionate, form...

  3. Xylan degradation by the anaerobic bacterium Bacteroides xylanolyticus.

    OpenAIRE

    Schyns, P.J.Y.M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Plant cell walls are the major reservoir of fixed carbon in nature. The mineralization of the fiber material, the so called lignocellulosic complex, proceeds almost exclusively by microbial processes in both aerobic and anaerobic environments. In anaerobic microbial processes the energy of the plant polymers can be conserved in fermentation products. The valorization of agricultural waste plant materials can consist of low and high technological processes. These include the production of biog...

  4. Pretreatment of citrus peel press liquor before anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, A.G.

    1983-02-01

    Centrifugation and aeration were unsuitable pretreatments before anaerobic digestion of press liquors from citrus peel. Non-aerated fermentation without pH control resulted in conversion of sugars to acids and ethyl alcohol with reduction in pH to 2.8 - 3.5. These acidified liquors had a pleasant smell, were stable on storage and were satisfactory feedstock for anaerobic digestion. (Refs. 7).

  5. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Christopher B

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production) although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and a...

  6. Application of natural zeolites in anaerobic digestion processes: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Montalvo, Silvio; Borja Padilla, Rafael; Sánchez, Enrique; Milán, Zhenia; Cortés, Isel; Rubia, M. Ángeles de la

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the most relevant uses and applications of zeolites in anaerobic digestion processes. The feasibility of using natural zeolites as support media for the immobilization of microorganisms in different high-rate reactor configurations (fixed bed, fluidized bed, etc.) is also reviewed. Zeolite, with its favorable characteristics for microorganism adhesion, has also been widely used as an ion exchanger for the removal of ammonium in anaerobic digestion due to the presence of Na ...

  7. Design considerations and operational performance of Anaerobic Digester: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Muzaffar Ahmad Mir; Athar Hussain; Chanchal Verma

    2016-01-01

    Due to the decline in fossil fuel reservoirs, the researchers emphasized more on the production of biogas from organic waste. Producing the renewable energy from biodegradable waste helps to overcome the energy crisis and solid waste management, done by anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic digestion is controlled breakdown of organic matter into methane gas (60%), carbon dioxide (40%), trace components along with digested used as soil conditioner. However there is vast dearth of literature regardin...

  8. The Role of Benzoate in Anaerobic Degradation of Terephthalate

    OpenAIRE

    Kleerebezem, Robbert; Pol, Look W. Hulshoff; Lettinga, Gatze

    1999-01-01

    The effects of acetate, benzoate, and periods without substrate on the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate (1,4-benzene-dicarboxylate) by a syntrophic methanogenic culture were studied. The culture had been enriched on terephthalate and was capable of benzoate degradation without a lag phase. When incubated with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate, subsequent degradation with preference for benzoate was observed. Both benzoate and acetate inhibited the anaerobic degradation of terephth...

  9. Olive mill wastewater anaerobically digested : phenolic compounds with antiradical activity

    OpenAIRE

    La Cara, Francesco; Ionata, Elena; Del Monaco, Giovanni; Marcolongo, Loredana; Gonçalves, Marta R.; Marques, I. P.

    2012-01-01

    The recovery of phenolic compounds, present in the olive fruits and its by-products, has been intensively studied by the antioxidant properties. Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a phenolic-rich industrial effluent that can be advantageously valorized by the anaerobic digestion to the methane and agricultural fertilizer productions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antiradical activity of OMW after anaerobic digestion in order to maximize the valorization of this type o...

  10. Microbiological Hydrogen Production by Anaerobic Fermentation and Photosynthetic Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asada, Y.; Ohsawa, M.; Nagai, Y.; Fukatsu, M.; Ishimi, K.; Ichi-ishi, S.

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen gas is a clean and renewable energy carrier. Microbiological hydrogen production from glucose or starch by combination used of an anaerobic fermenter and a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter spheroides RV was studied. In 1984, the co-culture of Clostridium butyricum and RV strain to convert glucose to hydrogen was demonstrated by Miyake et al. Recently, we studied anaerobic fermentation of starch by a thermophilic archaea. (Author)

  11. Anaerobic-Aerobic Process for Microbial Degradation of Tetrabromobisphenol A

    OpenAIRE

    Ronen, Zeev; Abeliovich, Aharon

    2000-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a flame retardant that is used as an additive during manufacturing of plastic polymers and electronic circuit boards. Little is known about the fate of this compound in the environment. In the current study we investigated biodegradation of TBBPA, as well as 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP), in slurry of anaerobic sediment from a wet ephemeral desert stream bed contaminated with chemical industry waste. Anaerobic incubation of the sediment with TBBPA and peptone-try...

  12. SISTEM PENGENDALIAN TEMPERATUR PADA DINDING BIOREAKTOR ANAEROB SECARA REAL TIME

    OpenAIRE

    Ika Nurina Rachmawati; Rony Dwi Noriyati; Totok Soehartanto

    2013-01-01

    Temperatur merupakan salah satu faktor yang mempengaruhi proses anaerob pada bioreaktor. Dimana pertumbuhan mikroorganisme dipengaruhi oleh perubahan suhu. Maka dari itu akan dilakukan pengendalian temperatur secara real-time pada dinding tabung bioreaktor anaerob. Pengendalian temperatur berguna untuk menjaga suhu permukaan bioreaktor saat terjadi perubahan cuaca dari luar. Sebab jika temperatur dinding dijaga pada suhu 35 0C maka temperatur dalam tabung bioreaktor akan berada pada range ope...

  13. Anaerobic oxidation of methane in coastal sediment from Guishan Island (Pearl River Estuary), South China Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zijun Wu; Huaiyang Zhou; Xiaotong Peng; Nan Jia; Yuhong Wang; Linxi Yuan

    2008-12-01

    The concentrations of CH4, SO$^{2−}_{4}$, CO2 and the carbon isotope compositions of CO2 and CH4 in the pore-water of the GS sedimentary core collected from Guishan Island (Pearl River Estuary), South China Sea,were determined. The methane concentration in the pore-water shows dramatic changes and sulfate concentration gradients are linear at the base of the sulfate reduction zone for the station. The carbon isotope of methane becomes heavier at the sulfate-methane transition (SMT)likely because of the Raleigh distillation effect; 12CH4 was oxidized faster than 13CH4 and this caused the enrichment of residual methane 13C and 13C- CO2 minimum. The geochemical profiles of the pore-water support the existence of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), which is mainly controlled by the quality and quantity of the sedimentary organic matter. As inferred from the index of 13C-TOC value and TOC/TN ratio, the organic matter is a mix of mainly refractory terrestrial component plus some labile alga marine-derived in the study area. A large amount of labile organic matter (mainly labile alga marine-derived) is consumed via the process of sedimentary organic matter diagenesis, and this reduces the amount of labile organic matter incorporated into the base of the sulfate reduction zone. Due to the scarcity of labile organic matter, the sulfate will in turn be consumed by its reaction with methane and therefore AOM takes place.Based on a diffussion model, the portion of pore-water sulfate reduction via AOM is 58.6%,and the percentage of CO2 in the pore-water derived from AOM is 41.4%. Thus, AOM plays an important role in the carbon and sulfur cycling in the marine sediments of Pearl River Estuary.

  14. Identification of a conserved protein involved in anaerobic unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in Neiserria gonorrhoeae: implications for facultative and obligate anaerobes that lack FabA

    OpenAIRE

    Isabella, Vincent M.; Clark, Virginia L.

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis of the facultative anaerobe, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, revealed that many genes of unknown function were induced under anaerobic conditions. Mutation of one such gene, NGO1024, encoding a protein belonging to the 2-nitropropane dioxygenase-like superfamiliy of proteins, was found to result in an inability of gonococci to grow anaerobically. Anaerobic growth of an NG1024 mutant was restored upon supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), but not with the saturated ...

  15. Characterizing the anaerobic response of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Mia; Specht, Michael; Naumann, Bianca; Hippler, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The versatile metabolism of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is reflected in its complex response to anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic response is also remarkable in the context of renewable energy because C. reinhardtii is able to produce hydrogen under anaerobic conditions. To identify proteins involved during anaerobic acclimation as well as to localize proteins and pathways to the powerhouses of the cell, chloroplasts and mitochondria from C. reinhardtii in aerobic and anaerobic (induced by 8 h of argon bubbling) conditions were isolated and analyzed using comparative proteomics. A total of 2315 proteins were identified. Further analysis based on spectral counting clearly localized 606 of these proteins to the chloroplast, including many proteins of the fermentative metabolism. Comparative quantitative analyses were performed with the chloroplast-localized proteins using stable isotopic labeling of amino acids ([(13)C(6)]arginine/[(12)C(6)]arginine in an arginine auxotrophic strain). The quantitative data confirmed proteins previously characterized as induced at the transcript level as well as identified several new proteins of unknown function induced under anaerobic conditions. These proteins of unknown function provide new candidates for further investigation, which could bring insights for the engineering of hydrogen-producing alga strains. PMID:20190198

  16. Anaerobic bioventing of unsaturated zone contaminated with DDT and DNT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, J K; Sayles, G D; Suidan, M T; Mihopoulos, P; Kaskassian, S

    2001-01-01

    Initial degradation of highly chlorinated compounds and nitroaromatic compounds found in munition waste streams is accelerated under anaerobic conditions followed by aerobic treatment of the degradation products. The establishment of anaerobic environment in a vadose zone can be accomplished by feeding appropriate anaerobic gas mixture, i.e., "anaerobic bioventing". The gas mixture contains an electron donor for the reduction of these compounds. Lab scale study was conducted to evaluate potential of anaerobic bioventing for the treatment of an unsaturated zone contaminated with 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT). Hydrogen was used as the electron donor. Using the soil columns innoculate with anaerobic microorganisms, it was observed that by feeding a gas mixture of 1% hydrogen, 1% carbon dioxide and nitrogen, methanogenic conditions were established and DDT was reductively dechlorinated. 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD) accumulated as the intermediate product. The half life of DDT was calculated to be 8.5 months. DNT completely disappeared after six months of operation and no intermediates could be detected.

  17. Diversity of anaerobic microbes in spacecraft assembly clean rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Alexander; Vaishampayan, Parag; Osman, Shariff; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Andersen, Gary L; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2010-05-01

    Although the cultivable and noncultivable microbial diversity of spacecraft assembly clean rooms has been previously documented using conventional and state-of-the-art molecular techniques, the occurrence of obligate anaerobes within these clean rooms is still uncertain. Therefore, anaerobic bacterial communities of three clean-room facilities were analyzed during assembly of the Mars Science Laboratory rover. Anaerobic bacteria were cultured on several media, and DNA was extracted from suitable anaerobic enrichments and examined with conventional 16S rRNA gene clone library, as well as high-density phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene microarray (PhyloChip) technologies. The culture-dependent analyses predominantly showed the presence of clostridial and propionibacterial strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from clone libraries revealed distinct microbial populations associated with each clean-room facility, clustered exclusively within gram-positive organisms. PhyloChip analysis detected a greater microbial diversity, spanning many phyla of bacteria, and provided a deeper insight into the microbial community structure of the clean-room facilities. This study presents an integrated approach for assessing the anaerobic microbial population within clean-room facilities, using both molecular and cultivation-based analyses. The results reveal that highly diverse anaerobic bacterial populations persist in the clean rooms even after the imposition of rigorous maintenance programs and will pose a challenge to planetary protection implementation activities.

  18. [Anaerobic digestion of animal manure contaminated by tetracyclines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zi-Lin; Liu, Yuan-Lu; Hu, Zhen-Hu; Yuan, Shou-Jun

    2012-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion of pig manure spiked with tetracycline (TC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) and the degradation of the two antibiotics during the anaerobic digestion at 35 degrees C were investigated. The results indicate that propionate was the main volatile fatty acid produced during the anaerobic digestion followed by acetate. Compared with the CTC addition, TC + CTC addition showed obvious inhibitory effect on the hydrolysis and acidification of easily digestible organic components of pig manure. The cumulative methane production of TC, CTC, TC + CTC and CK2 during anaerobic digestion was 386.4 mL, 406.0 mL, 412.1 mL and 464.6 mL, respectively. Degradation of TC and CTC followed the first-order kinetic equation. The half-life of TC and CTC was 14-18 days and 10 days, respectively. After the treatment of 45-day anaerobic digestion, the degradation efficiency of TC was 88.6%-91.6% with 97.7%-98.2% of CTC. Therefore, anaerobic digestion shows the benefit on the management of animal manures contaminated by tetracyclines. PMID:22624404

  19. Application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for describing anaerobic digestion of grass, maize, green weed silage, and industrial glycerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, Piotr; Steinigeweg, Sven; Borchert, Axel; Uhlenhut, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic waste plays an important role for the development of sustainable energy supply based on renewable resources. For further process optimization of anaerobic digestion, biogas production with the commonly used substrates, grass, maize, and green weed silage, together with industrial glycerine, were analyzed by the Weender analysis/van Soest method, and a simulation study was performed, based on the International Water Association's (IWA) Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1). The simplex algorithm was applied to optimize kinetic constants for disintegration and hydrolysis steps for all examined substrates. Consequently, new parameters were determined for each evaluated substrate, tested against experimental cumulative biogas production results, and assessed against ADM1 default values for disintegration and hydrolysis kinetic constants, where the ADM1 values for mesophilic high rate and ADM1 values for solids were used. Results of the optimization lead to a precise prediction of the kinetics of anaerobic degradation of complex substrates.

  20. Anaerobic metabolism in the N-limited green alga Selenastrum minutum. 3. Alanine is the product of anaerobic ammonium assimilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have determined the flow of 15N into free amino acids of the N-limited green alga Selenastrum minutum (Naeg.) Collins after addition of 15NH4+ to aerobic or anaerobic cells. Under aerobic conditions, only a small proportion of the N assimilated was retained in the free amino acid pool. However, under anaerobic conditions almost all assimilated NH4+ accumulates in alanine. This is a unique feature of anaerobic NH4+ assimilation. The pathway of carbon flow to alanine results in the production of ATP and reductant which matches exactly the requirements of NH4+ assimilation. Alanine synthesis is therefore an excellent strategy to maintain energy and redox balance during anaerobic NH4+ assimilation

  1. ANAMMOX process start up and stabilization with an anaerobic seed in Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneethi, S; Joseph, Kurian

    2011-10-01

    ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation (ANAMMOX) process, an advanced biological nitrogen removal alternative to traditional nitrification--denitrification removes ammonia using nitrite as the electron acceptor without oxygen. The feasibility of enriching anammox bacteria from anaerobic seed culture to start up an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR) for N-removal is reported in this paper. The Anammox activity was established in the AnMBR with anaerobic digester seed culture from a Sewage Treatment Plant in batch mode with recirculation followed by semi continuous process and continuous modes of operation. The AnMBR performance under varying Nitrogen Loading Rates (NLR) and HRTs is reported for a year, in terms of nitrogen transformations to ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate along with hydrazine and hydroxylamine. Interestingly ANAMMOX process was evident from simultaneous Amm-N and nitrite reduction, consistent nitrate production, hydrazine and hydroxylamine presence, notable organic load reduction and bicarbonate consumption. PMID:21775136

  2. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Tetrachloroethylene with Acetic Acid as Cometabolism Substrate under Anaerobic Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ye; LIU Fei; CHEN Honghan; SHI Jinhua; WANG Yufan

    2008-01-01

    A series of batch-type experiments with acetate acid as the primary substrate wereperformed using enrichment cultures developed from the anaerobic sludge to investigate the effect ofacetate acid on tetrachloroethylene (PCE) biodegradation. Experimental results indicated that acetateacid was an efficient electron donor in affecting the biotransformability of PCE. Trichloroethylene(TCE) was the primary dehalogenation product, and small amounts of dichloroethylenes (DCEs) werealso detected. No significant further DCEs degradation was detected. PCE degradation rate in theexperiment was 36.6 times faster than background rate in natural groundwater.

  3. Effect of methanogenic substrates on anaerobic oxidation of methane and sulfate reduction by an anaerobic methanotrophic enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Meulepas, R.J.W.; Jagersma, C.G.; Khadem, A.F.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P. N. L.

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction (SR) is assumed to be a syntrophic process, in which methanotrophic archaea produce an interspecies electron carrier (IEC), which is subsequently utilized by sulfate-reducing bacteria. In this paper, six methanogenic substrates are tested as candidate-IECs by assessing their effect on AOM and SR by an anaerobic methanotrophic enrichment. The presence of acetate, formate or hydrogen enhanced SR, but did not inhibit AOM, nor did ...

  4. Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughen, K; Baille, M; Bard, E; Beck, J; Bertrand, C; Blackwell, P; Buck, C; Burr, G; Cutler, K; Damon, P; Edwards, R; Fairbanks, R; Friedrich, M; Guilderson, T; Kromer, B; McCormac, F; Manning, S; Bronk-Ramsey, C; Reimer, P; Reimer, R; Remmele, S; Southon, J; Stuiver, M; Talamo, S; Taylor, F; der Plicht, J v; Weyhenmeyer, C

    2004-11-01

    New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration datasets extend an additional 2000 years, from 0-26 ka cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box-diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0-10.5 ka cal BP. Beyond 10.5 ka cal BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific {sup 14}C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5-26.0 ka cal BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the radiocarbon age to calculate the underlying calibration curve. The marine datasets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring datasets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al.

  5. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-08-15

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 C and for some experiments also at 37 C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm{sup 3} kg{sup -1} respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm{sup -3} and 7 g N dm{sup -3} respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 C, sterilization: 133 C), and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone. (author)

  6. Treatment of Distillery Wastewater by Anaerobic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Patyal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental problems faced by the world is management of wastes. Industrial processes create a wide range of wastewater pollutants; which are not only difficult but costly to treat. Characteristics of wastewater and level of pollutants vary significantly from industry to industry. To control this problem today emphasis is laid on waste minimization and revenue generation through by-product and energy recovery. Pollution prevention focuses on preventing the harmful effect of generated wastewater on the environment, while waste minimization refers to reducing the volume or toxicity of hazardous wastes by water recycling and reuse, process modifications and by by-product recovery. Production of ethyl alcohol in distilleries based on cane sugar molasses constitutes a major industry in Asia and South America. The world’s total production of alcohol from cane molasses is more than13 million m3 /annum. The aqueous distillery effluent stream known as spent wash is a dark brown highly organic effluent and is approximately 12-15 times by volume of the product alcohol. This highly aqueous, organic soluble containing residue is considered a troublesome and potentially polluting waste due to its extremely high BOD and COD values. Because of the high concentration of organic load, distillery spent wash is a potential source of renewable energy. The paper reviews the possibility of anaerobic treatment of the distillery wastewater.

  7. Parasite ova in anaerobically digested sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arther, R.G.; Fitzgerald, P.R.; Fox, J.C.

    1981-08-01

    The Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago produces anaerobically digested wastewater sludge from a 14-day continuous-flow process maintained at 35 degrees Celcius. Some of the sludge is ultimately applied to strip-mined lands in Central Illinois (Fulton County) as a soil conditioner and fertilizer. Parasitic nematode ova were isolated from freshly processed samples, as well as from samples collected from storage lagoons, using a system of continuous sucrose solution gradients. The mean number of ova per 100 g of dry sludge was 203 Ascaris spp., 173 Toxocara spp., 48 Toxascaris leonina, and 36 Trichuris spp. An assessment of the viability of these ova was determined by subjecting the ova to conditions favorable for embryonation. Recovered ova were placed in 1.5% formalin and aerated at 22 degrees Celcius for 21 to 28 days. Development of ova isolated from freshly digested sludge occurred in 64% of the Ascaris spp., 53% of the Toxocara, 63% of the Toxascaris leonina, and 20% of the Trichuris spp. Viability was also demonstrated in ova recovered from sludge samples held in storage lagoons for a period of up to 5 years; embryonation occurred in 24% of the Ascaris spp., 10% of the Toxocara spp., 43% of the Toxascaris leonina, and 6% of the Trichuris spp. (Refs. 24).

  8. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes: laboratory tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 10 references, 17 figures, 4 tables

  9. Marine pollution: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentukevičienė, Marina; Brannvall, Evelina

    2008-01-01

    This overview of marine pollution follows the methodology as proposed below. Firstly, well-known databases (Science Direct, GeoRef, SpringerLINK, etc.) on technological research were studied. All collected references were divided into 27 sections following the key words associated with marine pollution, oil spills, alien species migration, etc. The most commercially promising research and development (R & D) activities seem to be market-oriented sections: detection of oil spills at sea, containment and recovery of floating oil at sea, detection of oil spills on land, disposal of oil and debris on land, alien species migration prevention from ballast water and underwater hull cleaning in water, NOx and SOx emissions, pollutions from ship-building and repair, and biogeochemical modelling. Great market demands for commercially patented innovations are very attractive for initiating new R & D projects.

  10. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110729 Bai Youcheng(Laboratory of Marine Ecosystem and Biogeochemistry,SOA,Second Institute of Oceanography,Hangzhou 310012,China);Chen Jianfang Biomarker Records in Sediment Core of R12a from the Chukchi Sea during the Last 500 Years(Acta Sedimentologica Sinica,ISSN1000-0550,CN62-1038/P,28(4),2010,p.768-775,6 illus.,40 refs.)Key words:biomarkers,marine sediments,paleoproductivity,Arctic region This paper used multi-biomarkers to study the R12a core’s top 40 cm samples’ phytoplankton and community sampled during the Second Chinese Arctic expedition from the Chukchi Sea in summer,2003,and to obtain the information of the phytoplankton production and community change since 500 a.The results indicate the total and individual primary productivity increased over the last 500 a.The phytoplankton community structure mostly shows the contributions of

  11. Marine Bacterial Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique

    For decades, terrestrial microorganisms have been used as sources of countless enzymes and chemical compounds that have been produced by pharmaceutical and biotech companies and used by mankind. There is a need for new chemical compounds, including antibiotics,new enzymatic activities and new...... microorganisms to be used as cell factories for production. Therefore exploitation of new microbial niches and use of different strategies is an opportunity to boost discoveries. Even though scientists have started to explore several habitats other than the terrestrial ones, the marine environment stands out...... as a hitherto under-explored niche. This thesis work uses high-throughput sequencing technologies on a collection of marine bacteria established during the Galathea 3 expedition, with the purpose of unraveling new biodiversity and new bioactivities. Several tools were used for genomic analysis in order...

  12. Marine cage fish farming

    OpenAIRE

    Espeut, P.; Harache, Yves; Lemarie, Gilles; Ricard, Jean-marc

    1993-01-01

    Les pêcheries de captage marin en Jamaïque sont principalement de nature artisanale et elles sont dirigées principalement par les pêcheurs qui travaillent depuis des canoës. Environ 95 % de ces pêcheurs travaillent sur la plaine côtière et ses bancs associés. Les espèces commerciales récoltées comprennent les espèces benthiques, les espèces de corail et les espèces de poisson marin de nage libre. D'autres ressources de pêcheries de valeur commerciale comprennent la crevette, la conque et le h...

  13. New marine community

    Science.gov (United States)

    While exploring the West Florida Escarpment, a steep slope in the Gulf of Mexico several hundred kilometers off the Florida coast, the deep submergence research vessel Alvin chanced upon a well-developed community of marine life akin to that found 7 years ago in the eastern Pacific Ocean.According to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, which operates the submersible and its new tender, the Atlantis II (Eos, November 1, 1983, p. 619), the marine community contains large clams, mussels, crabs, fish, and tube worms like those found at hydrothermal vents in the eastern Pacific. While the east Pacific communities exist at spreading centers, the newly discovered group, which may stretch for almost 2 km at a depth of roughly 3200 km, lies in a passive continental margin. Also, whereas the water around the Pacific hydrothermal vents is much warmer than the surrounding seawater, the water around the new found community is apparently the same temperature as the ambient waters.

  14. Marine Cloud Brightening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

    2012-09-07

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  15. Lipids in Marine Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher C Parrish

    2013-01-01

    Lipids provide the densest form of energy in marine ecosystems. They are also a solvent and absorption carrier for organic contaminants and thus can be drivers of pollutant bioaccumulation. Among the lipids, certain essential fatty acids and sterols are considered to be important determinants of ecosystem health and stability. Fatty acids and sterols are also susceptible to oxidative damage leading to cytotoxicity and a decrease in membrane fluidity. The physical characteristics of biological...

  16. Streptomyces avermitilis from marine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Li-xia; LI Jian-zhong; WANG Hui-li

    2005-01-01

    The insecticidal strain 173 was isolated from marine source and its activity was explored by the bioassay of brine shrimp and Helicoverpa armigera. Based on morphological, physiological and molecular properties, the insecticidal strain 173 was identified as Streptonycetes avermitilis, which is the best insecticidal microorganism found in the terrestrial environment. The taxonomy of the strain173, insecticidal spectrum and properties of the corresponding insecticidal antibiotics are reported.

  17. Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    doctrine: ?the role of infinitely small is infinitely great?, this branch of science was at its infancy. Though it rapidly expanded its repertoire in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, its marine facet began to reveal in the late 1940s with Claude E... contamination and their adverse effects on commerce and trade. For example, presence of infectious agents in seafood results in rejection of bulk consignments leading to major economic losses to exporting countries in general, and to seafood processing...

  18. Alkaloids in Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ekrem Sezik; Aline Percot; Kasım Cemal Güven

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review...

  19. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141271Chang Fengming(Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment,Institute of Oceanology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Qingdao 266071,China);Li Tiegang Progress in the Paleoceanography of the Western Pacific Warm Pool:A Review(Advances in Earth Science,ISSN1001-8166,CN62-1091/P,28(8),2013,p.847-858,3 illus.,108 refs.)Key words:paleooceanography,West Pacific

  20. Marine botany. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawes, C.J. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Marine plants are a diverse group that include unicellular algae, seaweeds, seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangrove forests. They carry out a variety of ecological functions and serve as the primary producers in coastal wetlands and oceanic waters. The theme that connects such a wide variety of plants is their ecology, which was also emphasized in the 1981 edition. The goal of this revision is to present taxonomic, physiological, chemical, and ecological aspects of marine plants, their adaptations, and how abiotic and biotic factors interact in their communities. The data are presented in a concise, comparative manner in order to identify similarities and differences between communities such as salt marsh and mangroves or subtidal seaweeds and seagrasses. To accomplish this, the text is organized into five chapters that introduce the marine habitats, consider abiotic and biotic factors, and anthropogenic influences on the communities followed by seven chapters that deal with microalgae, seaweeds, salt marshes, mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs. Two appendixes are included; one presents simple field techniques and the other is a summary of seaweed uses.

  1. Anaerobic treatment of waste waters from soybean protein production. Anaerobe Aufbereitung von Abwaessern aus der Sojaproteinherstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkel, H. (Institut fuer Biotechnologie, Potsdam (German Democratic Republic))

    1989-01-01

    The waste waters obtained from soybean protein are readily accessible by anaerobic methods of treatment, as they contain utilisable C compounds. Acidification of the substrate offers kinetic advantages and is followed by a two-step procedure as the obvious mehtod of biogas production. The process of acidogenesis, which takes place under defined conditions in the acidification reactor, leads to the formation of lactic acid and, to a lesser extent, of acetic acid. The ratios of lactic acid to acetic acid are determined by retention times. As the pH values are low during the preacidification phase (< 4.0), some adjustment is necessary prior to the methane phase. For the process of methanogenesis it is possible to use either packed-bed or fluidized-bed reactors. Quite a number of filling materials were tested. A retention time of 2.0 d allowed a biogas production rate of 6.5 l/lxd to be attained. The methane yield determined in the biogas from the two-stage procedure was on average 10-20% higher than that obtained by one-stage anaerobic treatment. Laboratory analyses permitted the most important constituents to be ascertained on a quantitative basis. (orig.).

  2. Retention and transport of an anaerobic trichloroethene dechlorinating microbial culture in anaerobic porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huixin; Ulrich, Ania C; Liu, Yang

    2015-06-01

    The influence of solution chemistry on microbial transport was examined using the strictly anaerobic trichloroethene (TCE) bioaugmentation culture KB-1(®). A column was employed to determine transport behaviors and deposition kinetics of three distinct functional species in KB-1(®), Dehalococcoides, Geobacter, and Methanomethylovorans, over a range of ionic strengths under a well-controlled anaerobic condition. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was utilized to enumerate cell concentration and complementary techniques were implemented to evaluate cell surface electrokinetic potentials. Solution chemistry was found to positively affect the deposition rates, which was consistent with calculated Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) interaction energies. Retained microbial profiles showed spatially constant colloid deposition rate coefficients, in agreement with classical colloid filtration theory (CFT). It was interesting to note that the three KB-1(®) species displayed similar transport and retention behaviors under the defined experimental conditions despite their different cell electrokinetic properties. A deeper analysis of cell characteristics showed that factors, such as cell size and shape, concentration, and motility were involved in determining adhesion behavior. PMID:25935560

  3. Anaerobic fitness assessment in taekwondo athletes. A new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rocha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We intended to determine the concurrent validity of a taekwondo specific anaerobic test (TSAT to assess anaerobic fitness in taekwondo athletes. Seventeen elite male subjects (17.59 ± 4.34 years of age; 1.72 m ± .07 m in height; 61.3 kg ± 8.7 kg in weight and 15.6% ± 8.5% in body fat performed a TSAT, which consisted of kicking a punching bag for 30 seconds. The standard test was the Wingate Anaerobic Test. Two trials were made for both tests and the agreement between both was tested. The variables analysed and compared were: peak power; relative peak power; mean anaerobic power; relative mean anaerobic power; fatigue index and anaerobic capacity. The number of kicks performed in the TSAT protocol and the maximum height of the counter movement jump (CMJ were also registered. Trial I and II had significant ICC results in all variables (P = .000 ranged between 0.56 and 0.97. Both protocols were significantly correlated (r = 0.55 to 0.88; P = .000 to .05. CMJ strongly correlated with the number of techniques (r=0.59; P = .013 and the mean power (r = 0.56; P = .019 of the TSAT. The variables between the two methods correlate and are consistent, except for the anaerobic capacity that although correlated, is not consistent with constant bias, P = 0.001; CI]-705.1;-370.2[. TSAT has a level of agreement with the Wingate, and assigns specificity in the evaluation of these variables.

  4. Anaerobic bacteria colonizing the lower airways in lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Malm

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobes comprise most of the endogenous oropharyngeal microflora, and can cause infections of airways in lung cancer patients who are at high risk for respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and species diversity of anaerobes in specimens from the lower airways of lung cancer patients. Sensitivity of the isolates to conventional antimicrobial agents used in anaerobe therapy was assessed. Respiratory secretions obtained by bronchoscopy from 30 lung cancer patients were cultured onto Wilkins- -Chalgren agar in anaerobic conditions at 37°C for 72–96 hours. The isolates were identified using microtest Api 20A. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for penicillin G, amoxicillin/clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoxitin, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole were determined by E-test. A total of 47 isolates of anaerobic bacteria were detected in 22 (73.3% specimens. More than one species of anaerobe was found in 16 (53.3% samples. The most frequently isolated were Actinomyces spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp., followed by Eubacterium lentum, Veillonella parvula, Prevotella spp., Bacteroides spp., Lactobacillus jensenii. Among antibiotics used in the study amoxicillin/clavulanate and imipenem were the most active in vitro (0% and 2% resistant strains, respectively. The highest resistance rate was found for penicillin G and metronidazole (36% and 38% resistant strains, respectively. The results obtained confirm the need to conduct analyses of anaerobic microflora colonizing the lower respiratory tract in patients with lung cancer to monitor potential etiologic factors of airways infections, as well as to propose efficient, empirical therapy. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 263–266

  5. Redesigning Escherichia coli metabolism for anaerobic production of isobutanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Cong T; Li, Johnny; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S

    2011-07-01

    Fermentation enables the production of reduced metabolites, such as the biofuels ethanol and butanol, from fermentable sugars. This work demonstrates a general approach for designing and constructing a production host that uses a heterologous pathway as an obligately fermentative pathway to produce reduced metabolites, specifically, the biofuel isobutanol. Elementary mode analysis was applied to design an Escherichia coli strain optimized for isobutanol production under strictly anaerobic conditions. The central metabolism of E. coli was decomposed into 38,219 functional, unique, and elementary modes (EMs). The model predictions revealed that during anaerobic growth E. coli cannot produce isobutanol as the sole fermentative product. By deleting 7 chromosomal genes, the total 38,219 EMs were constrained to 12 EMs, 6 of which can produce high yields of isobutanol in a range from 0.29 to 0.41 g isobutanol/g glucose under anaerobic conditions. The remaining 6 EMs rely primarily on the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDHC) and are typically inhibited under anaerobic conditions. The redesigned E. coli strain was constrained to employ the anaerobic isobutanol pathways through deletion of 7 chromosomal genes, addition of 2 heterologous genes, and overexpression of 5 genes. Here we present the design, construction, and characterization of an isobutanol-producing E. coli strain to illustrate the approach. The model predictions are evaluated in relation to experimental data and strategies proposed to improve anaerobic isobutanol production. We also show that the endogenous alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase AdhE is the key enzyme responsible for the production of isobutanol and ethanol under anaerobic conditions. The glycolytic flux can be controlled to regulate the ratio of isobutanol to ethanol production.

  6. Marine natural products sourced from marine-derived Penicillium fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-Guang; Liu, Qiang; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Liu, Hai-Shan; Zhu, Wei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Marine micro-organisms have been proven to be a major source of marine natural products (MNPs) in recent years, in which filamentous fungi are a vital source of bioactive natural products for their large metagenomes and more complex genetic backgrounds. This review highlights the 390 new MNPs from marine-derived Penicillium fungi during 1991 to 2014. These new MNPs are categorized based on the environment sources of the fungal hosts and their bioactivities are summarized.

  7. Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Electricity from Biogas Produced by Anaerobic Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Alessandra; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate life cycle environmental impacts associated with the generation of electricity from biogas produced by the anaerobic digestion (AD) of agricultural products and waste. Five real plants in Italy were considered, using maize silage, slurry, and tomato waste as feedstocks and cogenerating electricity and heat; the latter is not utilized. The results suggest that maize silage and the operation of anaerobic digesters, including open storage of digestate, are the main contributors to the impacts of biogas electricity. The system that uses animal slurry is the best option, except for the marine and terrestrial ecotoxicity. The results also suggest that it is environmentally better to have smaller plants using slurry and waste rather than bigger installations, which require maize silage to operate efficiently. Electricity from biogas is environmentally more sustainable than grid electricity for seven out of 11 impacts considered. However, in comparison with natural gas, biogas electricity is worse for seven out of 11 impacts. It also has mostly higher impacts than other renewables, with a few exceptions, notably solar photovoltaics. Thus, for the AD systems and mesophilic operating conditions considered in this study, biogas electricity can help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to a fossil-intensive electricity mix; however, some other impacts increase. If mitigation of climate change is the main aim, other renewables have a greater potential to reduce GHG emissions. If, in addition to this, other impacts are considered, then hydro, wind, and geothermal power are better alternatives to biogas electricity. However, utilization of heat would improve significantly its environmental sustainability, particularly global warming potential, summer smog, and the depletion of abiotic resources and the ozone layer. Further improvements can be achieved by banning open digestate storage to prevent methane emissions and regulating

  8. Life cycle environmental impacts of electricity from biogas produced by anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eFusi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate life cycle environmental impacts associated with the generation of electricity from biogas produced by the anaerobic digestion of agricultural products and waste. Five real plants in Italy were considered, using maize silage, slurry and tomato waste as feedstocks and co-generating electricity and heat; the latter is not utilized. The results suggest that maize silage and the operation of anaerobic digesters, including open storage of digestate, are the main contributors to the impacts of biogas electricity. The system which uses animal slurry is the best option, except for the marine and terrestrial eco-toxicity. The results also suggest that it is environmentally better to have smaller plants using slurry and waste rather than bigger installations which require maize silage to operate efficiently. Electricity from biogas is environmentally more sustainable than grid electricity for seven out of 11 impacts considered. However, in comparison with natural gas, biogas electricity is worse for seven out of 11 impacts. It also has mostly higher impacts than other renewables, with a few exceptions, notably solar photovoltaics. Thus, for the AD systems and mesophilic operating conditions considered in this study, biogas electricity can help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions relative to a fossil-intensive electricity mix; however, some other impacts increase. If mitigation of climate change is the main aim, other renewables have a greater potential to reduce GHG emissions. If, in addition to this, other impacts are considered, then hydro, wind and geothermal power are better alternatives to biogas electricity. However, utilization of heat would improve significantly its environmental sustainability, particularly global warming potential, summer smog and the depletion of abiotic resources and the ozone layer. Further improvements can be achieved by banning open digestate storage to prevent methane emissions and

  9. The Evolution of Marine Reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Motani, Ryosuke

    2009-01-01

    Reptiles have repeatedly invaded marine environments despite their physiological constraints as air breathers. Marine reptiles were especially successful in the Mesozoic as major predators in the sea. There were more than a dozen groups of marine reptiles in the Mesozoic, of which four had more than 30 genera, namely sauropterygians (including plesiosaurs), ichthyopterygians, mosasaurs, and sea turtles. Medium-sized groups, such as Thalattosauria and Thalattosuchia, had about ten genera, wher...

  10. BIOESTABILIZATION ANAEROBIC SOLID WASTE ORGANIC:QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Brazil, the municipal solid waste produced are constituted on average 55% of fermentable organic solid waste and that this quantity can be applied in aerobic or anaerobic stabilization process. Anaerobic digestion is an important alternative for the treatment of different types of potentially fermentable waste, considering providing an alternative source of energy that can be used to replace fossil fuels. To perform the experimental part of this work was constructed and monitored an experimental system consisting of an anaerobic batch reactor, shredding unit of fermentable organic wastes and additional devices. Fermentable organic wastes consisted of leftover fruits and vegetables and were listed in EMPASA (Paraibana Company of Food and Agricultural Services, located in the city of Campina Grande- PB. The residues were collected and transported to the Experimental Station Biological Sewage Treatment (EXTRABES where they were processed and used for substrate preparation. The substrate consisted of a mixture of fermentable organic waste, more anaerobic sewage sludge in the proportion of 80 and 20 % respectively. In the specific case of this study, it was found that 1m3 of substrate concentration of total COD equal to 169 g L-1, considering the reactor efficiency equal to 80 %, the production of CH4 would be approximately 47.25 Nm3 CH4. Therefore, fermentable organic waste, when subjected to anaerobic treatment process produces a quantity of methane gas in addition to the partially biostabilized compound may be applied as a soil conditioning agent.

  11. Anaerobic Co-Digestion of the Microalgae Scenedesmus Sp.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Suarez, J. L.; Carreras, N.

    2011-06-07

    Microalgae biomass has been widely studied for biogas production over the last years and results show that anaerobic digestion is often limited by the low C/N ratio of this type of biomass. Therefore, codigestion with substrates of high C/N ratio is necessary. The objectives of this study are to set up an experimental method that ease reproducibility and control of anaerobic digestion processes in laboratory conditions and to determine the biodegradability and biogas production potential of the co-digestion process of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. and energy crop Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Miller. Results obtained showed that higher C/N ratios are preferred in order to maximize methane production. Highest methane yield obtained was 0.252m3CH4/Kg VS and degradability expressed as percentage COD reduced is around 30% for the ideal mixture found, made up of 75% O. ficus-indica and 25% Scenedesmus sp. in VS basis. A laboratory setup using MicroOxymax respirometer, after its adaptation to work under anaerobic conditions, can be used for the monitoring of anaerobic digestion processes. Scenedesmus sp. as sole substrate for anaerobic digestion does not give good results due to low C/N ratio. However, when codigesting it with O. ficus-indica methane production is satisfactory. Best mixture was made up of 75% O. ficus-indica and 25% Scenedesmus sp. in VS basis. (Author)

  12. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulepas, Roel J W; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Teshager, Fitfety Melese; Witharana, Ayoma; Saikaly, Pascal E; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342 μg g(-1) of copper, 487 μg g(-1) of lead, 793 μg g(-1) of zinc, 27 μg g(-1) of nickel and 2.3 μg g(-1) of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3 gdry weight L(-1) waste activated sludge, 80-85% of the copper, 66-69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94-99% of the nickel and 73-83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead. PMID:25659306

  13. The effect of motivational music on wingate anaerobic test performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Işık

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effect of the motivational music on the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT performance. 16 male students who studied at School of Physical Education and Sports, Kocatepe University participated in the study voluntarily. After demographic characteristics of the voluntaries [age, height, body weight (BW, body mass index (BMI] were measured without music (pre-test and with motivational music [>120 bpm (beats per minute] conditions (post-test. For the analyses of the data; Wilcoxon Rank Test was used in order to detect the difference among the variables. As a result of the measurements taken in with and without music conditions; it was found out that there was a statistically significant difference on behalf of condition with music in terms of maximum anaerobic power (MaxAP, maximum anaerobic capacity (MAC, relative anaerobic power (RAP, relative anaerobic capacity (RAC and fatigue index (FI values (p0,05. It was determined that the motivational music has positive effects on the WAnT performance. However; although it was seen that motivational music increased the WAnT performance, we were of the opinion that this effect emerged thanks to the increased psycho-physiological factors caused by music.

  14. Biochemical reaction engineering and process development in anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aivasidis, Alexander; Diamantis, Vasileios

    2005-01-01

    Developments in production technology have frequently resulted in the concentrated local accumulation of highly organic-laden wastewaters. Anaerobic wastewater treatment, in industrial applications, constitutes an advanced method of synthesis by which inexpensive substrates are converted into valuable disproportionate products. A critical discussion of certain fundamental principles of biochemical reaction engineering relevant to the anaerobic mode of operation is made here, with special emphasis on the roles of thermodynamics, kinetics, mass and heat transfer, reactor design, biomass retention and recycling. The applications of the anaerobic processes are discussed, introducing the principles of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor and a fixed-bed loop reactor. The merits of staging reactor systems are presented using selected examples based on two decades of research in the field of anaerobic fermentation and wastewater treatment at the Forschungszentrum Julich (Julich Research Center, Germany). Wastewater treatment is an industrial process associated with one of the largest levels of mass throughput known, and for this reason it provides a major impetus to further developments in bioprocess technology in general.

  15. Characterization of food waste as feedstock for anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruihong Zhang; El-Mashad, H.M.; Hartman, K.; Fengyu Wang; Guangqing Liu [University of California (United States). Biological and Agricultural Engineering; Choate, C.; Gamble, P. [Norcal Waste Systems, Inc., Dixon, CA (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Food waste collected in the City of San Francisco, California, was characterized for its potential for use as a feedstock for anaerobic digestion processes. The daily and weekly variations of food waste composition over a two-month period were measured. The anaerobic digestibility and biogas and methane yields of the food waste were evaluated using batch anaerobic digestion tests performed at 50 {sup o}C. The daily average moisture content (MC) and the ratio of volatile solids to total solids (VS/TS) determined from a week-long sampling were 70% and 83%, respectively. The nutrient content analysis showed that the food waste contained well balanced nutrients for anaerobic microorganisms. The methane yield was determined to be 348 and 435 mL/g VS, respectively, after 10 and 28 days of digestion. The average methane content of biogas was 73%. The average VS destruction was 81% at the end of the 28-day digestion test. The results of this study indicate that the food waste is a highly desirable substrate for anaerobic digester with regards to its high biodegradability and methane yield. (author)

  16. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge

    KAUST Repository

    Meulepas, Roel J W

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342μgg-1 of copper, 487μgg-1 of lead, 793μgg-1 of zinc, 27μgg-1 of nickel and 2.3μgg-1 of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3gdry weightL-1 waste activated sludge, 80-85% of the copper, 66-69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94-99% of the nickel and 73-83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead.

  17. Anticancer agents from marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianjun; Zhou, Feng; Al-Kareef, Ammar M Q; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of anticancer active compounds found in the marine ecosystems. More than 5300 different known metabolites are from sponges and their associated microorganisms. To survive in the complicated marine environment, most of the sponge species have evolved chemical means to defend against predation. Such chemical adaptation produces many biologically active secondary metabolites including anticancer agents. This review highlights novel secondary metabolites in sponges which inhibited diverse cancer species in the recent 5 years. These natural products of marine sponges are categorized based on various chemical characteristics. PMID:25402340

  18. Guidance Value of Marine Functional Zoning System to Allocation of China’s Marine Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingzhi; CAO; Guanshun; HE

    2015-01-01

    The issue of marine resources is receiving closer and closer attention of national marine management authorities. For this issue,it is necessary to seek basis from legal institutions of marine functional zoning system. This paper analyzed basic connotation,development process and basic characteristics of marine functional zoning system,discussed internal relation between marine functional zoning system and marine resource allocation,and studied guidance value of marine functional zoning system to allocation of marine resources.

  19. Marine Science, Back Ocean Exploring Marine Mysteries and Utilizing Marine Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Team

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine science, fusing biology, physics, chemistry, geology, and engineering together, has become a comprehensive and interdisciplinary sciences. Since the 1950's, many new technologies have bloomed along with the rapid development of marine science. In the twenty first century, human beings are facing severe challenges, such as food and energy shortages, climate warming, environmental degradation, and resource depletion, back to the ocean exploring marine mysteries and utilizing marine resources is an option to solve human dilemma. This launched journal, International Journal of Marine Science, is an open access, peer reviewed journal published online by BioPublisher in British Columbia of Canada. The aim of this journal is to be a platform for the marine science community to share knowledge as well as to disseminate discoveries in this field to help human benefitting from the ocean.

  20. Biotechnology of marine fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.; Singh, P.; Raghukumar, S.

    of the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase was found to increase as a defensive mechanism against high concentration of CuSO 4 in Cryptococcus sp., isolated from deep-sea sediments of 13    the Japan Trench (Abe et al. 2001).  Marine fungi deserve... different. All 14    the three polysaccharides showed good antioxidant properties, especially scavenging abilities on superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radicals.   *5.1 Production of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty...

  1. My Lifelong Passion for Biochemistry and Anaerobic Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thauer, Rudolf Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Early parental influence led me first to medical school, but after developing a passion for biochemistry and sensing the need for a deeper foundation, I changed to chemistry. During breaks between semesters, I worked in various biochemistry labs to acquire a feeling for the different areas of investigation. The scientific puzzle that fascinated me most was the metabolism of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium kluyveri, which I took on in 1965 in Karl Decker's lab in Freiburg, Germany. I quickly realized that little was known about the biochemistry of strict anaerobes such as clostridia, methanogens, acetogens, and sulfate-reducing bacteria and that these were ideal model organisms to study fundamental questions of energy conservation, CO2 fixation, and the evolution of metabolic pathways. My passion for anaerobes was born then and is unabated even after 50 years of study.

  2. Model selection, identification and validation in anaerobic digestion: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso-Bravo, Andres; Mailier, Johan; Martin, Cristina; Rodríguez, Jorge; Aceves-Lara, César Arturo; Vande Wouwer, Alain

    2011-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion enables waste (water) treatment and energy production in the form of biogas. The successful implementation of this process has lead to an increasing interest worldwide. However, anaerobic digestion is a complex biological process, where hundreds of microbial populations are involved, and whose start-up and operation are delicate issues. In order to better understand the process dynamics and to optimize the operating conditions, the availability of dynamic models is of paramount importance. Such models have to be inferred from prior knowledge and experimental data collected from real plants. Modeling and parameter identification are vast subjects, offering a realm of approaches and methods, which can be difficult to fully understand by scientists and engineers dedicated to the plant operation and improvements. This review article discusses existing modeling frameworks and methodologies for parameter estimation and model validation in the field of anaerobic digestion processes. The point of view is pragmatic, intentionally focusing on simple but efficient methods. PMID:21920578

  3. Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste-recycling Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gyuseong; Shin, Seung Gu; Lim, Juntaek; Jo, Minho; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2010-11-01

    Food waste-recycling (FWR) wastewater was evaluated as feedstock for two-stage anaerobic digestion at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The FWR wastewater tested contained high concentrations of organic materials and had chemical oxygen demand (COD) >130 g/L and volatile solids (VS) >55 g/L. Two identical two-stage anaerobic digesters were operated to investigate the performance at six HRTs ranging from 10-25 days. In the acidogenic reactor, the total carbohydrate reduction efficiency and volatile fatty acid production dramatically decreased when acidogenic HRT was two-stage HRT = 15 days). High organic removal ratios of 75.5-85.9% for COD and 68.8-83.6% for VS were achieved throughout the two-stage process. Methane production rate of 1.7-3.6 L-gas/L-reactorṡd was observed. These results suggested that two-stage anaerobic process was successful at the laboratory scale with FWR wastewater as feedstock.

  4. Effect of respiratory warm-up on anaerobic power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdal, Mustafa; Bostanci, Özgür; Dağlioğlu, Önder; Ağaoğlu, Seydi Ahmet; Kabadayi, Menderes

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of respiratory muscle warm-up on anaerobic power. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty male field hockey players (age, 20.5 ± 2.0 years) each participated in a control (CAN) trial and an experimental (EAN) trial. The EAN trial involved respiratory muscle warm-up, while the CAN trial did not. Anaerobic power was measured using the Wingate protocol. Paired sample t-tests were used to compare the EAN and CAN trials. [Results] There were significant increases in peak power and relative peak power, and decreases in the time to peak after the EAN trial by 8.9%, 9.6%, and 28.8% respectively. [Conclusion] Respiratory muscle warm-up may positively affect anaerobic power due to faster attainment of peak power. PMID:27512273

  5. Inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process by linear alkylbenzene sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    it is important to investigate the effect of these xenobiotic compounds on an anaerobic environment. The inhibitory effect of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) on the acetogenic and methanogenic step of the anaerobic digestion process was studied. LAS inhibit both acetogenesis from propionate...... and methanogenesis from acetate and hydrogen and it is shown that the propionate-utilising bacteria are more sensitive to the presence of LAS than the acetoclastic methanogens. It has been proven that the inhibition intensity depends on the solids concentration and thus the term "biomass specific LAS concentration......" has been introduced in order to describe the phenomenon better. Conclusively, it is believed that the inhibitory effect of LAS is the main reason that anaerobic microbial enrichments on LAS have not been succeeded yet. Also, the inhibition caused by LAS on the acetogenic and methanogenic step...

  6. Defining Anaerobic Digestion Stability-Full Scale Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitry, M. E., Sr.

    2014-12-01

    A full-scale anaerobic digester receiving a mixture of primary and secondary sludge was monitored for one hundred days. A chemical oxygen demand, COD, and a volatile solids, VS, mass balance was conducted to evaluate the stability of the digester and its capability of producing methane gas. The COD mass balance could account for nearly 90% of the methane gas produced while the VS mass balance showed that 91% of the organic matter removed resulted in biogas formation. Other parameters monitored included: pH, alkalinity, VFA, and propionic acid. The values of these parameters showed that steady state had occurred. Finally, at mesophilic temperature and at steady state performance, the anaerobic digester stability was defined as a constant ratio of methane produced per substrate of ΔVS (average ratio=0.404 l/g). This ratio can be used as universal metric to determine the anaerobic digester stability in an easy and inexpensive way.

  7. Effect of respiratory warm-up on anaerobic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdal, Mustafa; Bostanci, Özgür; Dağlioğlu, Önder; Ağaoğlu, Seydi Ahmet; Kabadayi, Menderes

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of respiratory muscle warm-up on anaerobic power. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty male field hockey players (age, 20.5 ± 2.0 years) each participated in a control (CAN) trial and an experimental (EAN) trial. The EAN trial involved respiratory muscle warm-up, while the CAN trial did not. Anaerobic power was measured using the Wingate protocol. Paired sample t-tests were used to compare the EAN and CAN trials. [Results] There were significant increases in peak power and relative peak power, and decreases in the time to peak after the EAN trial by 8.9%, 9.6%, and 28.8% respectively. [Conclusion] Respiratory muscle warm-up may positively affect anaerobic power due to faster attainment of peak power. PMID:27512273

  8. Anaerobic biotransformation of organoarsenical pesticides monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Yenal, U.; Feld, J.A.; Kopplin, M.; Gandolfi, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) are extensively utilized as pesticides, introducing large quantities of arsenic into the environment. Once released into the environment, these organoarsenicals are subject to microbial reactions. Aerobic biodegradation of MMAV and DMAV has been evaluated, but little is known about their fate in anaerobic environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biotransformation of MMAV and DMAV in anaerobic sludge. Biologically mediated conversion occurred under methanogenic or sulfate-reducing conditions but not in the presence of nitrate. Monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) was consistently observed as an important metabolite of MMAV degradation, and it was recovered in molar yields ranging from 5 to 47%. The main biotransformation product identified from DMAV metabolism was MMAV, which was recovered in molar yields ranging from 8 to 65%. The metabolites indicate that reduction and demethylation are important steps in the anaerobic bioconversion of MMAV and DMAV, respectively. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  9. Evaluation of system performance and microbial communities of a bioaugmented anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating pharmaceutical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kok Kwang; Shi, Xueqing; Ng, How Yong

    2015-09-15

    In this study, a control anaerobic membrane bioreactor (C-AnMBR) and a bioaugmented anaerobic membrane bioreactor (B-AnMBR) were operated for 210 d to treat pharmaceutical wastewater. Both the bioreactors were fed with the pharmaceutical wastewater containing TCOD of 16,249 ± 714 mg/L and total dissolved solids (TDS) of 29,450 ± 2209 mg/L with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 13.0 ± 0.6 kgCOD/m(3)d. Under steady-state condition, an average total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency of 46.1 ± 2.9% and 60.3 ± 2.8% was achieved by the C-AnMBR and the B-AnMBR, respectively. The conventional anaerobes in the C-AnMBR cannot tolerate the hypersaline conditions well, resulting in lower TCOD removal efficiency, biogas production and methane yield than the B-AnMBR seeded from the coastal shore. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated that marine bacterial species (Oliephilus sp.) and halophilic bacterial species (Thermohalobacter sp.) were only present in the B-AnMBR; these species could possibly degrade complex and recalcitrant organic matter and withstand hypersaline environments. Two different dominant archaeal communities, genus Methanosaeta (43.4%) and Methanolobus (61.7%), were identified as the dominant methanogens in the C-AnMBR and the B-AnMBR, respectively. The species of genus Methanolobus was reported resistant to penicillin and required sodium and magnesium for growth, which could enable it to thrive in the hypersaline environment. PMID:26086149

  10. Evaluation of system performance and microbial communities of a bioaugmented anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating pharmaceutical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kok Kwang; Shi, Xueqing; Ng, How Yong

    2015-09-15

    In this study, a control anaerobic membrane bioreactor (C-AnMBR) and a bioaugmented anaerobic membrane bioreactor (B-AnMBR) were operated for 210 d to treat pharmaceutical wastewater. Both the bioreactors were fed with the pharmaceutical wastewater containing TCOD of 16,249 ± 714 mg/L and total dissolved solids (TDS) of 29,450 ± 2209 mg/L with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 13.0 ± 0.6 kgCOD/m(3)d. Under steady-state condition, an average total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency of 46.1 ± 2.9% and 60.3 ± 2.8% was achieved by the C-AnMBR and the B-AnMBR, respectively. The conventional anaerobes in the C-AnMBR cannot tolerate the hypersaline conditions well, resulting in lower TCOD removal efficiency, biogas production and methane yield than the B-AnMBR seeded from the coastal shore. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated that marine bacterial species (Oliephilus sp.) and halophilic bacterial species (Thermohalobacter sp.) were only present in the B-AnMBR; these species could possibly degrade complex and recalcitrant organic matter and withstand hypersaline environments. Two different dominant archaeal communities, genus Methanosaeta (43.4%) and Methanolobus (61.7%), were identified as the dominant methanogens in the C-AnMBR and the B-AnMBR, respectively. The species of genus Methanolobus was reported resistant to penicillin and required sodium and magnesium for growth, which could enable it to thrive in the hypersaline environment.

  11. Anaerobic treatment in decentralised and source-separation-based sanitation concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Zeeman, G.

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of wastewater should be a core technology employed in decentralised sanitation systems especially when their objective is also resource conservation and reuse. The most efficient system involves separate collection and anaerobic digestion of the most concentrated domestic wastewa

  12. Microbial reefs in the Black Sea fueled by anaerobic oxidation of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelis, W.; Seifert, R.; Nauhaus, K.;

    2002-01-01

    of densely aggregated archaea ( phylogenetic ANME-1 cluster) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus group). If incubated in vitro, these mats perform anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate reduction. Obviously, anaerobic microbial consortia can generate both carbonate...

  13. Anaerobic membrane bio-reactors for severe industrial effluents and urban spill waters: The AMBROSIUS project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lier, J.B.; Ozgun, H.; Ersahin, M.E.; Dereli, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors, combination of membrane and anaerobic processes become more and more attractive and feasible. In anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs), biomass and particulate organic matter are physically retained inside the reactor, providi

  14. Subsurface aeration of anaerobic groundwater : iron colloid formation and the nitrification process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthoorn, A.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Iron, anaerobic groundwater, groundwater purification, heterogeneous oxidation, iron colloid formation, electron microscopy, nitrification In anaerobic groundwater iron and ammonium can be found in relatively high concentrations. These substances need to be removed when groundwater is used

  15. Volatile organic sulfur compounds in anaerobic sludge and sediments: biodegradation and toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerdam, van R.C.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Lomans, B.P.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    A variety of environmental samples was screened for anaerobic degradation of methanethiol, ethanethiol, propanethiol, dimethylsulfide, and dimethyldisulfide. All sludge and sediment samples degraded methanethiol, dimethylsulfide, and dimethyldisulfide anaerobically. In contrast, ethanethiol and prop

  16. One step beyond a ribosome: The ancient anaerobic core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Filipa L; Nelson-Sathi, Shijulal; Martin, William F

    2016-08-01

    Life arose in a world without oxygen and the first organisms were anaerobes. Here we investigate the gene repertoire of the prokaryote common ancestor, estimating which genes it contained and to which lineages of modern prokaryotes it was most similar in terms of gene content. Using a phylogenetic approach we found that among trees for all 8779 protein families shared between 134 archaea and 1847 bacterial genomes, only 1045 have sequences from at least two bacterial and two archaeal groups and retain the ancestral archaeal-bacterial split. Among those, the genes shared by anaerobes were identified as candidate genes for the prokaryote common ancestor, which lived in anaerobic environments. We find that these anaerobic prokaryote common ancestor genes are today most frequently distributed among methanogens and clostridia, strict anaerobes that live from low free energy changes near the thermodynamic limit of life. The anaerobic families encompass genes for bifunctional acetyl-CoA-synthase/CO-dehydrogenase, heterodisulfide reductase subunits C and A, ferredoxins, and several subunits of the Mrp-antiporter/hydrogenase family, in addition to numerous S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) dependent methyltransferases. The data indicate a major role for methyl groups in the metabolism of the prokaryote common ancestor. The data furthermore indicate that the prokaryote ancestor possessed a rotor stator ATP synthase, but lacked cytochromes and quinones as well as identifiable redox-dependent ion pumping complexes. The prokaryote ancestor did possess, however, an Mrp-type H(+)/Na(+) antiporter complex, capable of transducing geochemical pH gradients into biologically more stable Na(+)-gradients. The findings implicate a hydrothermal, autotrophic, and methyl-dependent origin of life. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:27150504

  17. Myocardial damage after continuous aerobic and anaerobic exercise in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostika Flora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular physical activity is highly recommended in preventive, curative, and rehabilitative programs in order to promote health, especially cardiovascular health. However, physical activity can also cause sudden death. In athletes, sudden death may occur during sport competitions, with myocardial infarction as the most common etiology. It is suspected that continuous training without any rest-day play a role in cardiac muscle damage and sudden death during competition. Our study was aimed to learn about cardiac muscle adaptation on continuous aerobic and anaerobic physical activity without any rest-day. Methods: The specimens in our study were cardiac muscle tissue obtained from rats that had performed aerobic and anaerobic physical activity on treadmill for 1, 3, 7, and 10 days without any rest-day. Blood gas analysis and hematological assessment were used as parameters of systemic adaptation to hypoxia during physical activity. Moreover, histopathology of cardiac muscle tissue was performed as parameter for cardiac muscle damage.Results: The results showed that aerobic and anaerobic physical activity caused a systemic hypoxic condition and triggered adaptation responses. Cardiac muscle damage occurred on the 10th day in both treatment groups, with more severe damage observed in the group with anaerobic physical activity. The tissue protein level in the anaerobic group increased progressively on the 10th day.Conclusion: Physical activity may result in hypoxia and systemic adaptation. Aerobic and anaerobic physical activities performed for 10 days without any rest-day may cause cardiac muscle damage. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:209-14. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i4.601Keywords: Cardiac muscle, cardiac muscle damage, histopathology, physical activity

  18. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulepas, Roel J.W., E-mail: roel.meulepas@wetsus.nl [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Water Desalination and Reuse Center, Thuwal 13955-69000 (Saudi Arabia); Teshager, Fitfety Melese; Witharana, Ayoma [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); Saikaly, Pascal E. [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Water Desalination and Reuse Center, Thuwal 13955-69000 (Saudi Arabia); Lens, Piet N.L. [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342 μg g{sup −1} of copper, 487 μg g{sup −1} of lead, 793 μg g{sup −1} of zinc, 27 μg g{sup −1} of nickel and 2.3 μg g{sup −1} of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3 g{sub dry} {sub weight} L{sup −1} waste activated sludge, 80–85% of the copper, 66–69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94–99% of the nickel and 73–83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead. - Highlights: • Heavy metals were leached during anaerobic acidification of waste activated sludge. • The process does not require the addition of chelating or oxidizing agents. • The metal leaching efficiencies (66 to 99%) were comparable to chemical leaching. • The produced leachate may be used for metal recovery and biogas production. • The produced digested sludge may be used as soil conditioner.

  19. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342 μg g−1 of copper, 487 μg g−1 of lead, 793 μg g−1 of zinc, 27 μg g−1 of nickel and 2.3 μg g−1 of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3 gdry weight L−1 waste activated sludge, 80–85% of the copper, 66–69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94–99% of the nickel and 73–83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead. - Highlights: • Heavy metals were leached during anaerobic acidification of waste activated sludge. • The process does not require the addition of chelating or oxidizing agents. • The metal leaching efficiencies (66 to 99%) were comparable to chemical leaching. • The produced leachate may be used for metal recovery and biogas production. • The produced digested sludge may be used as soil conditioner

  20. Potential Application of Anaerobic Extremophiles for Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    During substrate fermentation many anaerobes produce the hydrogen as a waste product, which often regulates the growth of the cultures as an inhibitor. In nature the hydrogen is usually removed from the ecosystem due to its physical properties or by consumption of hydrogen by secondary anaerobes, which sometimes behave as competitors for electron donors as is seen in the classical example in anaerobic microbial communities via the interaction between methanogens and sulfate- or sulfur- reducers. It was demonstrated previously on mixed cultures of anaerobes at neutral pH that bacterial hydrogen production could provide an alternative energy source. But at neutral pH the original cultures can easily be contaminated by methanogens, a most unpleasant side effect of these conditions is the development of pathogenic bacteria. In both cases the rate of hydrogen production was dramatically decreased since some part of the hydrogen was transformed to methane, and the cultivation of human pathogens on a global scale is very dangerous. In our laboratory, experiments with obligately alkaliphilic bacteria that excrete hydrogen as the end metabolic product were performed at different temperature regimes. Mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacterial cultures have been studied and compared for the most effective hydrogen production. For high-mineralized media with pH 9.5-10.0 not many methanogens are known to exist. Furthermore, the development of pathogenic contaminant microorganisms is virtually impossible: carbonate-saturated solutions are used as antiseptics in medicine. Therefore the cultivation of alkaliphilic hydrogen producing bacteria could be considered as most safe process for global Scale industry in future. Here we present experimental data on the rates of hydrogen productivity for mesophilic, alkaliphilic, obligately anaerobic bacterium Spirocheta americana ASpG1 and moderately thermophilic, alkaliphilic, facultative anaerobe Anoxybacillus pushchinoensis K1 and

  1. Anaerobic digestion of biowastes; Biojaetteen anaerobinen hajottaminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymaelaeinen, M. [Haeme Polytechnic, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    Caused by the demand for potential treatment options for biowastes, an interest on anaerobic digestion (AD) technology, i.e. biogasification, has clearly being increasing in Finland. There has been a need to increase knowledge and offer research facilities for the companies and other parties concerned. In this project, first, research and analytical facilities for AD studies were set up and tested. A mixture of a nitrogen rich waste (poultry slaughterhouse waste, PSHW) and a carbon rich waste (modified potato starch waste, PSW) was selected for the codigestion studies with sewage sludge (SS). The codigestion was studied in thermophilic lab-scale digesters (2x10 and 30 liters), and the startup of thermophilic digestion was clarified, in general. Typically, the PSHW must be treated at low load and long retention time due to the high concentration of lipids and proteins and their potential toxic degradation products such as long-chained fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia. The codigestion can help in lowering the effects of these toxic compounds. In this work, based on the experiments in 10 liters reactors fed with a fixed mixture of 2% PSHW, 8% PSW and 90% of SS, high loads of 2-4 kgVS/m3d and SRTs of 30 to 15 days could be applied. Good VS destruction could be achieved with 30 d SRT (76%) and 20 d SRT (55%). Based on the tests in 30 liters reactor fed with a varied mixture of the above mentioned wastes, high load of 4,8 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and SRT of 22 days with a mixture of 10% PSHW, 14% PSW and 76% of SS was also successfully applied. This resulted in the biogas production of about 0,7 Nm3/kgVSfed and VS reduction of around 70%. The critical process parameters were monitored in order to avoid the overloading of these digestion processes. The startup of thermophilic reactors with mesophilic digested sludge as inocula was successfully demonstrated. The findings increased the understanding and learned to control the startup and loading of AD processes thus encouraging the

  2. Microbial aggregates in anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaric, N; Blaszczyk, R

    1990-01-01

    The phenomenon aggregation of anaerobic bacteria gives an opportunity to speed up the digestion rate during methanogenesis. The aggregates are mainly composed of methanogenic bacteria which convert acetate and H2/CO2 into methane. Other bacteria are also included in the aggregates but their concentration is rather small. The aggregates may also be formed during acetogenesis or even hydrolysis but such aggregates are not stable and disrupt quickly when not fed. A two stage process seems to be suitable when high concentrated solid waste must be treated. Special conditions are necessary to promote aggregate formation from methanogenic bacteria but aggregates once formed are stable without feeding even for a few years. The structure, texture and activity of bacterial aggregates depend on several parameters: (1)--temperature and pH, (2)--wastewater composition and (3)--hydrodynamic conditions within the reactor. The common influence of all these parameters is still rather unknown but some recommendations may be given. Temperature and pH should be maintained in the range which is optimal for methanogenic bacteria e.g. a temperature between 32 and 50 degrees C and a value pH between 6.5 and 7.5. Wastewaters should contain soluble wastes and the specific loading rate should be around one kgCOD(kgVSS)-1 d-1. The concentration of the elements influences aggregate composition and probably structure and texture. At high calcium concentration a change in the colour of the granules has been observed. Research is necessary to investigate the influence of other elements and organic toxicants on maintenance of the aggregates. Hydrodynamic conditions seem to influence the stability of the granules over long time periods. At low liquid stream rates, aggregates may starve and lysis within the aggregates is possible which results in hollowing of aggregates and their floating. At high liquid stream rates the aggregates may be disrupted and washed out of the reactor as a flocculent

  3. Methane production from marine biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chynoweth, D. P.; Srivastava, V. J.

    1980-01-01

    The overall concept of the giant brown kelp farm and conversion system, the integrated research program engaged in its study, and IGT's work on biogasification process development are discussed. A summary of results to date on anaerobic digestion will be emphasized. (MHR)

  4. Factors controlling the rate of DDE dechlorination to DDMU in Palos Verdes margin sediments under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quensen, J F; Tiedje, J M; Jain, M K; Mueller, S A

    2001-01-15

    Marine sediments off the coast of the Palos Verdes Peninsula in California have been designated a Superfund site primarily because of the presence of DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethene]. For decades, it was believed that DDE was not microbially transformed, but anaerobic bacteria in the Palos Verdes sediments reductively dechlorinate DDEto DDMU [1-chloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethene], which is also found in the sediments. The effects of electron donor to sulfate ratio, available carbon, sampling sites, sediment depth, and temperature on the rate and extent of DDE dechlorination in anaerobic Palos Verdes sediment microcosms were investigated. Dechlorination rates varied, depending on the site and depth from which the sediments were collected, but DDE dechlorination occurred with sediments from all locations studied. Sulfate and low temperatures slowed dechlorination, but in the presence of sulfate and at in situ temperature, the dechlorination rates observed in the microcosms agree well with the observed rate of DDE disappearance from the Palos Verdes margin sediments. PMID:11347599

  5. 75 FR 19670 - Marine Highway Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Marine Highway Projects ACTION: Solicitation of applications for Marine highway projects. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is soliciting applications for Marine Highway...

  6. A global census of marine microbes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amaral-Zettler, L.; Artigas, L.F.; Baross, J.; LokaBharathi, P.A; Boetius, A; Chandramohan, D.; Herndl, G.; Kogure, K.; Neal, P.; Pedros-Alio, C.; Ramette, A; Schouten, S.; Stal, L.; Thessen, A; De Leeuw, J.; Sogin, M.

    In this chapter we provide a brief history of what is known about marine microbial diversity, summarize our achievements in performing a global census of marine microbes, and reflect on the questions and priorities for the future of the marine...

  7. A novel marine silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberger, Katrin; Dicko, Cedric; Vollrath, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of a novel silk production system in a marine amphipod provides insights into the wider potential of natural silks. The tube-building corophioid amphipod Crassicorophium bonellii produces from its legs fibrous, adhesive underwater threads that combine barnacle cement biology with aspects of spider silk thread extrusion spinning. We characterised the filamentous silk as a mixture of mucopolysaccharides and protein deriving from glands representing two distinct types. The carbohydrate and protein silk secretion is dominated by complex β-sheet structures and a high content of charged amino acid residues. The filamentous secretion product exits the gland through a pore near the tip of the secretory leg after having moved through a duct, which subdivides into several small ductules all terminating in a spindle-shaped chamber. This chamber communicates with the exterior and may be considered the silk reservoir and processing/mixing space, in which the silk is mechanically and potentially chemically altered and becomes fibrous. We assert that further study of this probably independently evolved, marine arthropod silk processing and secretion system can provide not only important insights into the more complex arachnid and insect silks but also into crustacean adhesion cements.

  8. Modelling anaerobic codigestion of manure with olive oil mill effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the combined anaerobic degradation of complex organic material, such as manure, and a lipid containing additive, such as olive oil mill effluents, has been developed based on a model previously described (Angelidaki et al. 1993). The model has been used to simulate...... anaerobic codigestion of cattle manure together with olive oil mill effluent (OME) and the simulations were compared with experimental data. Simulation data indicated that lack of ammonia, needed as nitrogen source for synthesis of bacterial biomass and as an important pH buffer, could be responsible...

  9. Biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment under tetracycline antibiotic pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Meiqing Lu; Xiaojun Niu; Wei Liu; Jun Zhang; Jie Wang; Jia Yang; Wenqi Wang; Zhiquan Yang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic on biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment was studied. A lab-scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) with three compartments was used. The reactor was operated with synthetic wastewater in the absence of TC and in the presence of 250 μg/L TC for 90 days, respectively. The removal rate of TC, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), biogas compositions (hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2)), and total biogas production in each compartment...

  10. Anaerobic digestion: technology transfer, engineering performance and efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchi, F.; Traverso, P.G.; Ganapini, W.

    1987-10-01

    The chemical, technological and process aspects of anaerobic digestion process are analysed on the basis of the Authors' experience and of scientific literature. Emphasis is put on the necessity of integrating the presentation of experimental data and some suggestions are common to those of the EEC to improve the knowledge of the process. An analysis of the types of full-scale digesters used in Europe and in the USA is supplied and suggestions are proposed on the future development of anaerobic technology with the aim of improving performance and efficiency.

  11. Inhibitory effect of Citrus unshu peel on anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuki, E.; Akao, T.; Saruwatari, T. (Fukushima Industrial Research Int. of Fukuoka Prefecture (JP))

    1990-01-01

    A significant inhibition of methane fermentation was observed in anaerobic digestion of Citrus unshu peel at loadings above 2g/litre per day. This inhibitory effect was mainly due to peel oil, but in part to other substances present in the peel. The limiting load of peel oil to anaerobic digestion was about 65 {mu}l/litre per day. Addition of peel oil below this limit load resulted in a change in the microbial flora and in gas production greater than that of digestion with no peel oil. Citrus unshu peel did not inhibit methane fermentation after removal of peel oil by steam distillation or aeration. (author).

  12. DECOLORIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL DEGRADATION OF AZO DYE REACTIVE RED2 BY ANAEROBIC/AEROBIC SEQUENTIAL PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Naimabadi ، H. Movahedian Attar ، A. Shahsavani

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the anaerobic treatability of reactive Red2 in an anaerobic/aerobic sequential process. Laboratory scale anaerobic baffled reactor and fixed activated sludge reactor were operated at different organic loadings and hydraulic retention times. The effects of shock dye concentration on the chemical oxygen demand and color removal efficiencies were investigated in the anaerobic baffled reactor. The effect of hydraulic retention time on the color and chemical oxygen demand r...

  13. Evidence for PAH Removal Coupled to the First Steps of Anaerobic Digestion in Sewage Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Glenda Cea-Barcia; Hélène Carrère; Jean Philippe Steyer; Dominique Patureau

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has been brought to the fore, but information on removal kinetics and anaerobic degrading bacteria is still lacking. In order to explore the organic micropollutants removal kinetics under anaerobic conditions in regard to the methane production kinetics, the removal rate of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was measured in two anaerobic batch reactors series fed with a highly loaded secondary sludge as growth substrate. The results u...

  14. Sustainable Agro-Food Industrial Wastewater Treatment Using High Rate Anaerobic Process

    OpenAIRE

    Yung-Tse Hung; Michel Torrijos; Cata Saady, Noori M.; Rajinikanth Rajagopal; Joseph V. Thanikal

    2013-01-01

    This review article compiles the various advances made since 2008 in sustainable high-rate anaerobic technologies with emphasis on their performance enhancement when treating agro-food industrial wastewater. The review explores the generation and characteristics of different agro-food industrial wastewaters; the need for and the performance of high rate anaerobic reactors, such as an upflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, hybrid systems etc.; op...

  15. Study of marine magnetic field

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.

    of presenting marine magnetic data. The Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) software package (Wessel, P. and Smith, W. H. F.,1995), which can be downloaded over the internet is a very useful software package for presentation of marine magnetic data. This software...

  16. 76 FR 72681 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... (75 FR 27300), authorizes the permit holder to take ribbon seals (Phoca fasciata), spotted seals (P... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU87 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Mammal Laboratory, (Responsible Party: Dr. John Bengtson, Director), Seattle, WA, has applied for...

  17. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio;

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...

  18. Ancient DNA from marine mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    Marine mammals have long generation times and broad, difficult to sample distributions, which makes inferring evolutionary and demographic changes using field studies of extant populations challenging. However, molecular analyses from sub-fossil or historical materials of marine mammals such as b...

  19. Regulation of anaerobic methane oxidation in sediments of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Knab

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM and sulfate reduction (SRR were investigated in sediments of the western Black Sea, where upward methane transport is controlled by diffusion. To understand the regulation and dynamics of methane production and oxidation in the Black Sea, rates of methanogenesis, AOM, and SRR were determined using radiotracers in combination with pore water chemistry and stable isotopes. In the Danube Canyon and the Dnjepr palaeo-delta AOM did not consume methane effectively and upwards diffusing methane created an extended sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ that spread over more than 2.5 m and was located in brackish and limnic sediment. Measurable AOM rates occurred mainly in the lower part of the SMTZ, sometimes even at depths where sulfate seemed to be unavailable. The inefficiency of methane oxidation appears to be linked to the paleoceanographic history of the sediment, since in all cores methane was completely oxidized at the transition from the formerly oxic brackish clays to marine anoxic sediments. The upward tailing of methane was less pronounced in a core from the deep sea in the area of the Dnjepr Canyon, the only station with a SMTZ close to the marine deposits. Sub-surface sulfate reduction rates were mostly extremely low, and in the SMTZ were even lower than AOM rates. Rates of bicarbonate-based methanogenesis were below detection limit in two of the cores, but δ13C values of methane indicate a biogenic origin. The most δ13C- depleted isotopic signal of methane was found in the SMTZ of the core from the deep sea, most likely as a result of carbon recycling between AOM and methanogenesis.

  20. Regulation of anaerobic methane oxidation in sediments of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Knab

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM and sulfate reduction (SRR were investigated in sediments of the western Black Sea, where methane transport is controlled by diffusion. To understand the regulation and dynamics of methane production and oxidation in the Black Sea, rates of methanogenesis, AOM, and SRR were determined using radiotracers in combination with pore water chemistry and stable isotopes. On the shelf of the Danube paleo-delta and the Dnjepr Canyon, AOM did not consume methane effectively and upwards diffusing methane created an extended sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ that spread over more than 2.5 m and was located in formerly limnic sediment. Measurable AOM rates occurred mainly in the lower part of the SMTZ, sometimes even at depths where sulfate seemed to be unavailable. The inefficiency of methane oxidation appears to be linked to the limnic history of the sediment, since in all cores methane was completely oxidized at the limnic-marine transition. The upward tailing of methane was less pronounced in a core from the deep sea in the area of the Dnjepr Canyon, the only station with a SMTZ close to the marine deposits. Sulfate reduction rates were mostly extremely low, and in the SMTZ were even lower than AOM rates. Rates of bicarbonate-based methanogenesis were below detection limit in two of the cores, but δ13C values of methane indicate a biogenic origin. The most depleted δ13C-signal was found in the SMTZ of the core from the deep sea, most likely as a result of carbon recycling between AOM and methanogenesis.

  1. Anaerobic hydrocarbon and fatty acid metabolism by syntrophic bacteria and their impact on carbon steel corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Neil Lyles

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The microbial metabolism of hydrocarbons is increasingly associated with the corrosion of carbon steel in sulfate-rich marine waters. However, how such transformations influence metal biocorrosion in the absence of an electron acceptor is not fully recognized. We grew a marine alkane-utilizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfoglaeba alkanexedens, with either sulfate or Methanospirillum hungatei as electron acceptors, and tested the ability of the cultures to catalyze metal corrosion. Axenically, D. alkanexedens had a higher instantaneous corrosion rate and produced more pits in carbon steel coupons than when the same organism was grown in syntrophic co-culture with the methanogen. Since anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation pathways converge on fatty acid intermediates, the corrosive ability of a known fatty acid-oxidizing syntrophic bacterium, Syntrophus aciditrophicus was compared when grown in pure culture or in co-culture with a H2-utilizing sulfate-reducing bacterium (Desulfovibrio sp., strain G11 or a methanogen (M. hungatei. The instantaneous corrosion rates in the cultures were not substantially different, but the syntrophic, sulfate-reducing co-culture produced more pits in coupons than other combinations of microorganisms. Lactate-grown cultures of strain G11 had higher instantaneous corrosion rates and coupon pitting compared to the same organism cultured with hydrogen as an electron donor. Thus, if sulfate is available as an electron acceptor, the same microbial assemblages produce sulfide and low molecular weight organic acids that exacerbated biocorrosion. Despite these trends, a surprisingly high degree of variation was encountered with the corrosion assessments. Differences in biomass, initial substrate concentration, rates of microbial activity or the degree of end product formation did not account for the variations. We are forced to ascribe such differences to the metallurgical properties of the coupons.

  2. Anaerobic hydrocarbon and fatty acid metabolism by syntrophic bacteria and their impact on carbon steel corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Christopher N; Le, Huynh M; Beasley, William Howard; McInerney, Michael J; Suflita, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The microbial metabolism of hydrocarbons is increasingly associated with the corrosion of carbon steel in sulfate-rich marine waters. However, how such transformations influence metal biocorrosion in the absence of an electron acceptor is not fully recognized. We grew a marine alkane-utilizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfoglaeba alkanexedens, with either sulfate or Methanospirillum hungatei as electron acceptors, and tested the ability of the cultures to catalyze metal corrosion. Axenically, D. alkanexedens had a higher instantaneous corrosion rate and produced more pits in carbon steel coupons than when the same organism was grown in syntrophic co-culture with the methanogen. Since anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation pathways converge on fatty acid intermediates, the corrosive ability of a known fatty acid-oxidizing syntrophic bacterium, Syntrophus aciditrophicus was compared when grown in pure culture or in co-culture with a H2-utilizing sulfate-reducing bacterium (Desulfovibrio sp., strain G11) or a methanogen (M. hungatei). The instantaneous corrosion rates in the cultures were not substantially different, but the syntrophic, sulfate-reducing co-culture produced more pits in coupons than other combinations of microorganisms. Lactate-grown cultures of strain G11 had higher instantaneous corrosion rates and coupon pitting compared to the same organism cultured with hydrogen as an electron donor. Thus, if sulfate is available as an electron acceptor, the same microbial assemblages produce sulfide and low molecular weight organic acids that exacerbated biocorrosion. Despite these trends, a surprisingly high degree of variation was encountered with the corrosion assessments. Differences in biomass, initial substrate concentration, rates of microbial activity or the degree of end product formation did not account for the variations. We are forced to ascribe such differences to the metallurgical properties of the coupons.

  3. Bacterial diversity in oil-polluted marine coastal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-González, Alejandro; Marqués, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    Marine environments harbour a persistent microbial seed which can be shaped by changes of the environmental conditions such as contamination by petroleum components. Oil spills, together with small but continuous discharges of oil from transportation and recreational activities, are important sources of hydrocarbon pollution within the marine realm. Consequently, prokaryotic communities have become well pre-adapted toward oil pollution, and many microorganisms that are exposed to its presence develop an active degradative response. The natural attenuation of oil pollutants, as has been demonstrated in many sites, is modulated according to the intrinsic environmental properties such as the availability of terminal electron acceptors and elemental nutrients, together with the degree of pollution and the type of hydrocarbon fractions present. Whilst dynamics in the bacterial communities in the aerobic zones of coastal sediments are well characterized and the key players in hydrocarbon biodegradation have been identified, the subtidal ecology of the anaerobic community is still not well understood. However, current data suggest common patterns of response in these ecosystems.

  4. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and their roles in marine ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) are characterized by the following physiological and ecological features. A mother AAPB cell can unusually divide into 3 daughter cells and looks like a "Y" during the division. AAPB cells sometimes adhere together forming a free-floating population. Most of the known AAPB species are obligately aerobic. Bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) is the only photosynthetic pigment in AAPB, and the number of BChl a molecules in an AAPB cell is much less than that in an anaerobic phototrophic bacterial cell, while the accessorial pigments carotenoids in AAPB are abundant in concentration and diverse in species. In addition to the common magnesium containing BChl a, a zinc-containing BChla was also seen in AAPB. AAPB have light harvesting complexⅠbut usually lack light harvesting complexⅡ. Although AAPB featur in photosynthesis, their growth is not necessarily light- dependent. There is a mechanism controlling the photosynthesis approach. AAPB are widely distributed in marine environments especially in oligotrophic oceans accounting for a substantial portion of the total biomass and playing a unique role in the cycle of carbon and other biogenic elements. Besides the contribution to primary production, AAPB also have great potentials in bioremediation of polluted environments. Studies on AAPB would be of great value in understanding the evolution of photosynthesis and the structure and function of marine ecosystems.

  5. Magnet-Facilitated Selection of Electrogenic Bacteria from Marine Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Kiseleva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some bacteria can carry out anaerobic respiration by depositing electrons on external materials, such as electrodes, thereby creating an electrical current. Into the anode chamber of microbial fuel cells (MFCs having abiotic air-cathodes we inoculated microorganisms cultured from a magnetic particle-enriched portion of a marine tidal sediment, reasoning that since some external electron acceptors are ferromagnetic, electrogenic bacteria should be found in their vicinity. Two MFCs, one inoculated with a mixed bacterial culture and the other with an axenic culture of a helical bacterium isolated from the magnetic particle enrichment, termed strain HJ, were operated for 65 d. Both MFCs produced power, with production from the mixed culture MFC exceeding that of strain HJ. Strain HJ was identified as a Thalassospira sp. by transmission electron microscopic analysis and 16S rRNA gene comparisons. An MFC inoculated with strain HJ and operated in open circuit produced 47% and 57% of the maximal power produced from MFCs inoculated with the known electrogen Geobacter daltonii and the magnetotactic bacterium Desulfamplus magnetomortis, respectively. Further investigation will be needed to determine whether bacterial populations associated with magnetic particles within marine sediments are enriched for electrogens.

  6. Ultraviolet radiation is feasible alternative for desinfeting of aerobic and anaerobic treatment systems sewage in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This works shows desinfecting results employing ultraviolet radiation to wastes of sewage treatment station on true scales. Wastes of anaerobic, facultative and maturation pools, septic tank and anaerobic reactor were disinfected. It was found a inactive efficiency to coliforms higher than 99.9%. Safe ultraviolet desinfecting is technically applicable to wastes of sewage treatment station applying aerobic or anaerobic process

  7. Wet and Dry Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste and of Co-substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chaoran

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of municipal solid waste by anaerobic digestion can solve the environmental problems caused by this organic solid waste and also supply biogas as renewable energy for a sustainable development. In this study the improvement of wet anaerobic digestion by addition of co-substrates and the effect of moisture on dry anaerobic digestion were investigated.

  8. Drug discovery from marine microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwick, William H; Fenner, Amanda M

    2013-05-01

    The marine environment has been a source of more than 20,000 inspirational natural products discovered over the past 50 years. From these efforts, 9 approved drugs and 12 current clinical trial agents have been discovered, either as natural products or as molecules inspired from the natural product structure. To a significant degree, these have come from collections of marine invertebrates largely obtained from shallow-water tropical ecosystems. However, there is a growing recognition that marine invertebrates are oftentimes populated with enormous quantities of "associated" or symbiotic microorganisms and that microorganisms are the true metabolic sources of these most valuable of marine natural products. Also, because of the inherently multidisciplinary nature of this field, a high degree of innovation is characteristic of marine natural product drug discovery efforts.

  9. Marine Casualty and Pollution Data for Researchers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  10. An overview of 2D DIGE analysis of marine (environmental) bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabus, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Microbes are the "unseen majority" of living organisms on Earth and main drivers of the biogeochemical cycles in marine and most other environments. Their significance for an intact biosphere is bringing environmental bacteria increasingly into the focus of genome-based science. Proteomics is playing a prominent role for providing a molecular understanding of how these microbes work and for identifying the key biocatalysts involved in the major biogeochemical processes. This overview describes the major insights obtained from two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) analyses of specific degradation pathways, complex metabolic networks, cellular processes, and regulatory patterns in the marine aerobic heterotrophs Rhodopirellula baltica SH1 (Planctomycetes) and Phaeobacter gallaeciensis DSM 17395 (Roseobacter clade) and the anaerobic aromatic compound degrader Aromatoleum aromaticum EbN1 (Betaproteobacteria). PMID:22311773

  11. Acetic acid production from marine algae. Progress report No. 2, September 30 to December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, J E; Wise, D L

    1978-03-10

    Preliminary results on the production of acetic acid from marine algae by anaerobic fermentation indicates that the rate is quite fast. First order rate constants of 0.77 day/sup -1/ have been observed. This rate constant gives a half-life of less than one day. In other words, with a properly designed product removal system a five day retention time would yield 98% of theoretical conversion. Determination of the theoretical conversion of marine algae to acetic acid is the subject of much experimentation. The production of one acetic acid molecule (or equivalent in higher organic acids) for each three carbon atoms in the substrate has been achieved; but it is possible that with a mixed culture more than one acetic acid molecule may be produced for each three carbons in the substrate.

  12. Nitrogenase gene amplicons from global marine surface waters are dominated by genes of non-cyanobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farnelid, Hanna; Andersson, Anders F.; Bertilsson, Stefan;

    2011-01-01

    analysis of 79,090 nitrogenase (nifH) PCR amplicons encoding 7,468 unique proteins from surface samples (ten DNA samples and two RNA samples) collected at ten marine locations world-wide provides the first in-depth survey of a functional bacterial gene and yield insights into the composition and diversity...... of the nifH gene pool in marine waters. Great divergence in nifH composition was observed between sites. Cyanobacteria-like genes were most frequent among amplicons from the warmest waters, but overall the data set was dominated by nifH sequences most closely related to non-cyanobacteria. Clusters related...... to Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, and Delta-Proteobacteria were most common and showed distinct geographic distributions. Sequences related to anaerobic bacteria (nifH Cluster III) were generally rare, but preponderant in cold waters, especially in the Arctic. Although the two transcript samples were dominated...

  13. Long distance electron transport in marine sediments: Microbial and geochemical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Larsen, Steffen; Pfeffer, Christian;

    and promotes the formation of Mg-calcite and iron oxides in the oxic zone. Oxygen seems to be the major electron acceptor, and more than 40% of the oxygen consumption in sediments can be driven by long distance electron transfer from distant electron donors. The major e-donor is sulfide, which is oxidized......Anaerobic oxidation of organic matter in marine sediment is traditionally considered to be coupled to oxygen reduction via a cascade of redox processes and transport of intermittent electron donors and acceptors. Electric currents have been found to shortcut this cascade and directly couple...... to sulfate, and iron sulphides are the major sources for sulfide in the system. Procaryotes with the ability to perform long distance electron transmission may flourishes in marine sediments exposed to transient oxygen depletion, leaving distinct signatures of such events in the geological record....

  14. Maximum swimming speeds of sailfish and three other large marine predatory fish species based on muscle contraction time and stride length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten B S; Domenici, Paolo; Marras, Stefano;

    2016-01-01

    , and three other large marine pelagic predatory fish species, by measuring the twitch contraction time of anaerobic swimming muscle. The highest estimated maximum swimming speeds were found in sailfish (8.3±1.4 m s(-1)), followed by barracuda (6.2±1.0 m s(-1)), little tunny (5.6±0.2 m s(-1)) and dorado (4...

  15. Comparing environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy--a life cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, J W; Vinken, T M W J; Hamelin, L; De Boer, I J M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy, from a life cycle perspective. This included assessing environmental impacts and land use change emissions (LUC) required to replace used co-substrates for anaerobic digestion. Environmental impact categories considered were climate change, terrestrial acidification, marine and freshwater eutrophication, particulate matter formation, land use, and fossil fuel depletion. Six scenarios were evaluated: mono-digestion of manure, co-digestion with: maize silage, maize silage and glycerin, beet tails, wheat yeast concentrate (WYC), and roadside grass. Mono-digestion reduced most impacts, but represented a limited source for bio-energy. Co-digestion with maize silage, beet tails, and WYC (competing with animal feed), and glycerin increased bio-energy production (up to 568%), but at expense of increasing climate change (through LUC), marine eutrophication, and land use. Co-digestion with wastes or residues like roadside grass gave the best environmental performance. PMID:23026340

  16. On China's Marine Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianglin

    2010-01-01

    @@ The rising incidence of Somalian and Malaccan piracy has sounded an alarm bell for countries around the world.In order to ensure the safety of global shipping lanes,at least in the short term,it is necessary for countries to unite to combat these pirates.However,dealing with pirate activities is not easy.All countries know that competition for maritime rights and interests between various international powers lay behind the piracy.As a major developing country,China should understand the Somalian and Malaccan piracy from a national security perspective,while at the same time combating piracy and safeguarding world peace.In order to protect China's legitimate maritime rights,we should enact a long-term strategy for marine safety.By so doing,national security,as well as the uninterrupted use of the international sea lanes can be guaranteed.

  17. Why marine phytoplankton calcify.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fanny M; Bach, Lennart T; Brownlee, Colin; Bown, Paul; Rickaby, Rosalind E M; Poulton, Alex J; Tyrrell, Toby; Beaufort, Luc; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Gibbs, Samantha; Gutowska, Magdalena A; Lee, Renee; Riebesell, Ulf; Young, Jeremy; Ridgwell, Andy

    2016-07-01

    Calcifying marine phytoplankton-coccolithophores- are some of the most successful yet enigmatic organisms in the ocean and are at risk from global change. To better understand how they will be affected, we need to know "why" coccolithophores calcify. We review coccolithophorid evolutionary history and cell biology as well as insights from recent experiments to provide a critical assessment of the costs and benefits of calcification. We conclude that calcification has high energy demands and that coccolithophores might have calcified initially to reduce grazing pressure but that additional benefits such as protection from photodamage and viral/bacterial attack further explain their high diversity and broad spectrum ecology. The cost-benefit aspect of these traits is illustrated by novel ecosystem modeling, although conclusive observations remain limited. In the future ocean, the trade-off between changing ecological and physiological costs of calcification and their benefits will ultimately decide how this important group is affected by ocean acidification and global warming. PMID:27453937

  18. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102130 A.M.Gorodnitskiy(Shirshov Institute of Oceanology,Moscow);A.M.Filin Southern Barents Sea Anomalous Magnetic Field and Its Correlation with Bottom Geological Structure(Earth Science Frontiers,ISSN1005-2321,CN11-3370/P,16(6),2009,p.240-247,12 illus.,10 refs.)Key words:magnetic anomaly,submarine fracture zones,Barents Sea The results of data processing of marine magnetic surveys in a southern part of Barents Sea,executed from 1986 to 2001 are considered.The geomagnetic investigation of Southern Barents Sea bottom points on its complicated many-stage geologic-tectonic structures in which two disjunctive structures prevail:Riphean-Vendian inherited rift structures with north-west s

  19. Anaerobic digestion of solid biomass and biowaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the International Trade Fair for Biogas Plant Technology from 23rd to 24th February, 2012 in Berlin, the following lectures were held: (1) Presentation and results of the EU project 24biomass'' (Claudia Lutsyuk); (2) The Polish biogas market (Tomasz Surowiec); (3) Presence and future of the biogas sector in Poland - EBE project (Eugeniusz Jedrysik); (4) Modern biogas generation in Poland - Case studies of the company Poldanor (Jens Bo Holm-Nielsen); (5) Low space requirement - The challenge in the integration of biogas plants in existing composting facilities - examples from real life (Michael Oertig); (6) Integration of biogas plants in composting facilities by partial-flow fermentation (Bruno Mattheeuws); (7) The significance of an efficient removal of foreign matter from biomass before fermentation in a waste incinerator for municipal wastes (Stephan Schulte); (8) Sustainable enhancement of the anaerobic degradation and increase of the biogas production by means of ultrasonic treatment - examples from real life (Silvana Velten); (9) Cultivation of energy plants on sandy soils in the northeastern part of Germany (Gunter Ebel); (10) Topinambur, a new sustainable energy crop for biogas generation (Vito Pignatelli); (11) Potential of biogas generation from reed (Vilis Dubrovskis); (12) Biogas generation from maize straw - a new procedure of harvesting and processing (Thomas Amon); (13) Generation of biogas by cofermentation of pig manure and grass silage: a pilot study (Ximmin Zhan); (14) Thermophilic dry fermentation of poultry litter and energy crops for the generation of biogas, organic fertilizer and protection of water resources from environmental damages in the Mid-Atlantic region of the USA (John Intersoll); (15) Energetic utilisation of horse manure (Saskia Oldenburg); (16) Realization of the greatest and most modern Hungarian biogas plant in Szarvas (Ludwig Dinkloh); (16) Biogas in Russia - The investment program of the cooperation &apos

  20. iMarine - iMarine Data Management Software

    OpenAIRE

    Coro, Gianpaolo; Lelii, Lucio; Manzi, Andrea; Drakopoulos, Nikolaos; Marioli, Valentina; Cirillo, Roberto; Simeoni, Fabio; Antoniadis, Alexandros; Brito, Fabrice; Caumont, Herve

    2014-01-01

    The iMarine Data Management Software comprises a number of components and subsystems offering facilities for accessing, transferring and harmonising a rich array of data typologies. This document describes the novelties within the iMarine Data Management Software from M12 (Oct.'12) to M27 (Jan.'14). It complements D9.2 [10] which describes iMarine Data Management Software up to M11 (Sept.'12). This deliverable is intended for documentation purposes only. The actual deliverable is represented ...

  1. iMarine - iMarine Data Management Software

    OpenAIRE

    Coro, Gianpaolo; De Faveri, Federico; Lelii, Lucio; Manzi, Andrea; Drakopoulos, Nikolaos; Marioli, Valentina; Simeoni, Fabio; Antoniadis, Alexandros

    2012-01-01

    The iMarine Data Management Software comprises a number of components and subsystems offering facilities for accessing, transferring and harmonising a rich array of data typologies. This document describes the novelties within the iMarine Data Management Software from M7 (May.'12) to M11 (Sept.'12). It complements D9.1 [10] which describes iMarine Data Management Software up to M6 (Apr.'12). This deliverable is intended for documentation purposes only. The actual deliverable is represented by...

  2. Reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene in marine sediments: Biodiversity and dehalorespiring capabilities of the indigenous microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matturro, B; Presta, E; Rossetti, S

    2016-03-01

    Chlorinated compounds pose environmental concerns due to their toxicity and wide distribution in several matrices. Microorganisms specialized in leading anaerobic reductive dechlorination (RD) processes, including Dehalococcoides mccartyi (Dhc), are able to reduce chlorinated compounds to harmless products or to less toxic forms. Here we report the first detailed study dealing with the RD potential of heavy polluted marine sediment by evaluating the biodegradation kinetics together with the composition, dynamics and activity of indigenous microbial population. A microcosm study was conducted under strictly anaerobic conditions on marine sediment collected near the marine coast of Sarno river mouth, one of the most polluted river in Europe. Tetrachloroethene (PCE), used as model pollutant, was completely converted to ethene within 150 days at reductive dechlorination rate equal to 0.016 meq L(-1) d(-1). Consecutive spikes of PCE allowed increasing the degradation kinetics up to 0.1 meq L(-1)d(-1) within 20 days. Strictly anaerobiosis and repeated spikes of PCE stimulated the growth of indigenous Dhc cells (growth yield of ~7.0 E + 07 Dhc cells per μM Cl(-1) released). Dhc strains carrying the reductive dehalogenase genes tceA and vcrA were detected in the original marine sediment and their number increased during the treatment as demonstrated by the high level of tceA expression at the end of the microcosm study (2.41 E + 05 tceA gene transcripts g(-1)). Notably, the structure of the microbial communities was fully described by Catalysed Reporter Deposition Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (CARD-FISH) as wells as the dynamics of the dechlorinating bacteria during the microcosms operation. Interestingly, a direct role of Dhc cells was ascertained suggesting the existence of strains adapted at salinity conditions. Additionally, non-Dhc Chloroflexi were retrieved in the original sediment and were kept stable over time suggesting their likely flanking role of the RD

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Gram-Positive Piezophilic Bacteria from Deep Marine Subsurface Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runko, G. M.; Fang, J.; Kato, C.

    2014-12-01

    The marine deep biosphere remains as the least studied of all of Earth's habitats and is inadequately understood, but is extremely important to understand the impacts that microbes have on global biogeochemical cycles. Sediment samples were obtained during IODP Expedition 337 in the western Pacific Ocean, from 1,498 meters below the seafloor (mbsf; samples 6R3), 1,951-1,999 mbsf (19R1), and 2,406 mbsf (29R7). These samples were initially mixed with marine broth and cultivated under anaerobic conditions at pressure of 35 MPa (megapascal) and temperatures of 35° C, 45° C, and 55° C for 3 months on board the Chikyu. Single colonies were isolated via plating on marine broth. Then, six strains of bacteria were identified, 6R3-1, 6R3-15, 19R1-5, 29R7-12B, 29R7-12M, and 29R7-12S. The six strains were then examined for optimal growth temperature and pressure. These organisms are Gram-positive, spore-forming, facultative anaerobic piezophilic bacteria. Major fatty acids are anteiso-15:0, anteiso-17:0 and iso-15:0. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates are closely related to Virgibacillus pantothenticus, Robinsoniella peoriensis, and Bacillus subtilis. Because of their abundance in the deep marine subsurface, these microorganisms likely play an important role in sustaining the deep microbial ecosystem and influencing biogeochemical cycles in the deep biosphere.

  4. Reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene in marine sediments: Biodiversity and dehalorespiring capabilities of the indigenous microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matturro, B; Presta, E; Rossetti, S

    2016-03-01

    Chlorinated compounds pose environmental concerns due to their toxicity and wide distribution in several matrices. Microorganisms specialized in leading anaerobic reductive dechlorination (RD) processes, including Dehalococcoides mccartyi (Dhc), are able to reduce chlorinated compounds to harmless products or to less toxic forms. Here we report the first detailed study dealing with the RD potential of heavy polluted marine sediment by evaluating the biodegradation kinetics together with the composition, dynamics and activity of indigenous microbial population. A microcosm study was conducted under strictly anaerobic conditions on marine sediment collected near the marine coast of Sarno river mouth, one of the most polluted river in Europe. Tetrachloroethene (PCE), used as model pollutant, was completely converted to ethene within 150 days at reductive dechlorination rate equal to 0.016 meq L(-1) d(-1). Consecutive spikes of PCE allowed increasing the degradation kinetics up to 0.1 meq L(-1)d(-1) within 20 days. Strictly anaerobiosis and repeated spikes of PCE stimulated the growth of indigenous Dhc cells (growth yield of ~7.0 E + 07 Dhc cells per μM Cl(-1) released). Dhc strains carrying the reductive dehalogenase genes tceA and vcrA were detected in the original marine sediment and their number increased during the treatment as demonstrated by the high level of tceA expression at the end of the microcosm study (2.41 E + 05 tceA gene transcripts g(-1)). Notably, the structure of the microbial communities was fully described by Catalysed Reporter Deposition Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (CARD-FISH) as wells as the dynamics of the dechlorinating bacteria during the microcosms operation. Interestingly, a direct role of Dhc cells was ascertained suggesting the existence of strains adapted at salinity conditions. Additionally, non-Dhc Chloroflexi were retrieved in the original sediment and were kept stable over time suggesting their likely flanking role of the RD

  5. Comparison of digestate from solid anaerobic digesters and dewatered effluent from liquid anaerobic digesters as inocula for solid state anaerobic digestion of yard trimmings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuqing; Wang, Feng; Lin, Long; Li, Yebo

    2016-01-01

    To select a proper inoculum for the solid state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of yard trimmings, digestate from solid anaerobic digesters and dewatered effluent from liquid anaerobic digesters were compared at substrate-to-inoculum (S/I) ratios from 0.2 to 2 (dry basis), and total solids (TS) contents from 20% to 35%. The highest methane yield of around 244L/kg VSfeed was obtained at an S/I ratio of 0.2 and TS content of 20% for both types of inoculum. The highest volumetric methane productivity was obtained with dewatered effluent at an S/I ratio of 0.6 and TS content of 24%. The two types of inoculum were found comparable regarding methane yields and volumetric methane productivities at each S/I ratio, while using dewatered effluent as inoculum reduced the startup time. An S/I ratio of 1 was determined to be a critical level and should be set as the upper limit for mesophilic SS-AD of yard trimmings.

  6. Comparative Genomics Analysis and Phenotypic Characterization of Shewanella putrefaciens W3-18-1: Anaerobic Respiration, Bacterial Microcompartments, and Lateral Flagella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respiratory versatility and psychrophily are the hallmarks of Shewanella. The ability to utilize a wide range of electron acceptors for respiration is due to the large number of c-type cytochrome genes present in the genome of Shewanella strains. More recently the dissimilatory metal reduction of Shewanella species has been extensively and intensively studied for potential applications in the bioremediation of radioactive wastes of groundwater and subsurface environments. Multiple Shewanella genome sequences are now available in the public databases (Fredrickson et al., 2008). Most of the sequenced Shewanella strains were isolated from marine environments and this genus was believed to be of marine origin (Hau and Gralnick, 2007). However, the well-characterized model strain, S. oneidensis MR-1, was isolated from the freshwater lake sediment of Lake Oneida, New York (Myers and Nealson, 1988) and similar bacteria have also been isolated from other freshwater environments (Venkateswaran et al., 1999). Here we comparatively analyzed the genome sequence and physiological characteristics of S. putrefaciens W3-18-1 and S. oneidensis MR-1, isolated from the marine and freshwater lake sediments, respectively. The anaerobic respirations, carbon source utilization, and cell motility have been experimentally investigated. Large scale horizontal gene transfers have been revealed and the genetic divergence between these two strains was considered to be critical to the bacterial adaptation to specific habitats, freshwater or marine sediments.

  7. Comparative Genomics Analysis and Phenotypic Characterization of Shewanella putrefaciens W3-18-1: Anaerobic Respiration, Bacterial Microcompartments, and Lateral Flagella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, D.; Tu, Q.; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17

    Respiratory versatility and psychrophily are the hallmarks of Shewanella. The ability to utilize a wide range of electron acceptors for respiration is due to the large number of c-type cytochrome genes present in the genome of Shewanella strains. More recently the dissimilatory metal reduction of Shewanella species has been extensively and intensively studied for potential applications in the bioremediation of radioactive wastes of groundwater and subsurface environments. Multiple Shewanella genome sequences are now available in the public databases (Fredrickson et al., 2008). Most of the sequenced Shewanella strains were isolated from marine environments and this genus was believed to be of marine origin (Hau and Gralnick, 2007). However, the well-characterized model strain, S. oneidensis MR-1, was isolated from the freshwater lake sediment of Lake Oneida, New York (Myers and Nealson, 1988) and similar bacteria have also been isolated from other freshwater environments (Venkateswaran et al., 1999). Here we comparatively analyzed the genome sequence and physiological characteristics of S. putrefaciens W3-18-1 and S. oneidensis MR-1, isolated from the marine and freshwater lake sediments, respectively. The anaerobic respirations, carbon source utilization, and cell motility have been experimentally investigated. Large scale horizontal gene transfers have been revealed and the genetic divergence between these two strains was considered to be critical to the bacterial adaptation to specific habitats, freshwater or marine sediments.

  8. Comparison of microbial communities during the anaerobic digestion of Gracilaria under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Aqil; Kim, Wonduck; Lee, Jung Hyun

    2016-10-01

    Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digesters (MD and TD, respectively) utilizing Gracilaria and marine sediment as the substrate and inoculum, respectively, were compared by analyzing their performances and microbial community changes. During three successive transfers, the average cumulative methane yields in the MD and TD were 222.6 ± 17.3 mL CH4/g volatile solids (VS) and 246.1 ± 11 mL CH4/g VS, respectively. The higher hydrolysis rate and acidogenesis in the TD resulted in a several fold greater accumulation of volatile fatty acids (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) followed by a larger pH drop with a prolonged recovery than in the MD. However, the operational stability between both digesters remained comparable. Pyrosequencing analyses revealed that the MD had more complex microbial diversity indices and microbial community changes than the TD. Interestingly, Methanomassiliicoccales, the seventh methanogen order was the predominant archaeal order in the MD along with bacterial orders of Clostridiales, Bacteriodales, and Synergistales. Meanwhile, Coprothermobacter and Methanobacteriales dominated the bacterial and archaeal community in the TD, respectively. Although the methane yield is comparable, both MD and TD show a different profile of pH, VFA and the microbial communities.

  9. Immunological detection of enzymes for sulfate reduction in anaerobic methane-oxidizing consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milucka, Jana; Widdel, Friedrich; Shima, Seigo

    2013-05-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction (SR) at marine gas seeps is performed by archaeal-bacterial consortia that have so far not been cultivated in axenic binary or pure cultures. Knowledge about possible biochemical reactions in AOM consortia is based on metagenomic retrieval of genes related to those in archaeal methanogenesis and bacterial sulfate reduction, and identification of a few catabolic enzymes in protein extracts. Whereas the possible enzyme for methane activation (a variant of methyl-coenzyme M reductase, Mcr) was shown to be harboured by the archaea, enzymes for sulfate activation and reduction have not been localized so far. We adopted a novel approach of fluorescent immunolabelling on semi-thin (0.3-0.5 μm) cryosections to localize two enzymes of the SR pathway, adenylyl : sulfate transferase (Sat; ATP sulfurylase) and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr) in microbial consortia from Black Sea methane seeps. Both Sat and Dsr were exclusively found in an abundant microbial morphotype (c. 50% of all cells), which was tentatively identified as Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus-related bacteria. These results show that ANME-2 archaea in the Black Sea AOM consortia did not express bacterial enzymes of the canonical sulfate reduction pathway and thus, in contrast to previous suggestions, most likely cannot perform canonical sulfate reduction. Moreover, our results show that fluorescent immunolabelling on semi-thin cryosections which to our knowledge has been so far only applied on cell tissues, is a powerful tool for intracellular protein detection in natural microbial associations.

  10. Importance and controls of anaerobic ammonium oxidation influenced by riverbed geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdown, K.; McKew, B. A.; Whitby, C.; Heppell, C. M.; Dumbrell, A. J.; Binley, A.; Olde, L.; Trimmer, M.

    2016-05-01

    Rivers are an important global sink for excess bioavailable nitrogen: they convert approximately 40% of terrestrial N runoff per year (~47 Tg) to biologically unavailable N2 gas and return it to the atmosphere. At present, riverine N2 production is conceptualized and modelled as denitrification. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation, known as anammox, is an alternative pathway of N2 production important in marine environments, but its contribution to riverine N2 production is not well understood. Here we use in situ and laboratory measurements of anammox activity using 15N tracers and molecular analyses of microbial communities to evaluate anammox in clay-, sand- and chalk-dominated river beds in the Hampshire Avon catchment, UK during summer 2013. Abundance of the hzo gene, which encodes an enzyme central to anammox metabolism, varied across the contrasting geologies. Anammox rates were similar across geologies but contributed different proportions of N2 production because of variation in denitrification rates. In spite of requiring anoxic conditions, anammox, most likely coupled to partial nitrification, contributed up to 58% of in situ N2 production in oxic, permeable riverbeds. In contrast, denitrification dominated in low-permeability clay-bed rivers, where anammox contributes roughly 7% to the production of N2 gas. We conclude that anammox can represent an important nitrogen loss pathway in permeable river sediments.

  11. Roseimarinus sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic bacterium isolated from coastal sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Jie; Liu, Qian-Qian; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2015-07-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile and pink-pigmented bacterium, designated strain HF08(T), was isolated from marine sediment of the coast of Weihai, China. Cells were rod-shaped, and oxidase- and catalase-positive. The isolate grew optimally at 33 °C, at pH 7.5-8.0 and with 2-3% (w/v) NaCl. The dominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0. Menaquinone 7 (MK-7) was the major respiratory quinone and the DNA G+C content was 44.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolate was a member of the class Bacteroidia, and shared 88-90% sequence similarity with the closest genera Sunxiuqinia, Prolixibacter, Draconibacterium, Mariniphaga and Meniscus. Based on the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence presented, a novel species in a new genus of the family Prolixibacteraceae is proposed, with the name Roseimarinus sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Roseimarinus sediminis is HF08(T) ( = KCTC 42261(T) = CICC 10901(T)). PMID:25866024

  12. Assessment of the environmental fate of cycloxaprid in flooded and anaerobic soils by radioisotopic tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuanqi; Xu, Xiaoyong; Li, Chao; Zhang, Hanxue; Fu, Qiuguo; Shao, Xusheng; Ye, Qingfu; Li, Zhong

    2016-02-01

    Cycloxaprid (CYC) is a novel broad-spectrum neonicotinoid insecticide that has been developed for agricultural pest control. The fate of the (14)C-labeled racemic and enantio-pure CYC isomers in flooded and anaerobic soil was investigated using radioisotope tracing techniques. After 100 d of incubation, only a minor portion (radioactive CYC dissipated into the bound or non-extractable residues (BR) increases with increase in the length of the incubation period, reaching up to 53.0-81.6%. The dissipation of the CYC through mineralization or formation of BR is strongly influenced by soil properties, such as humic content, pH value, and retained microbial activity. Amongst the soils studied, the fluvio-marine yellow loamy soil displayed the highest tendency to mineralize CYC while the coastal saline soil exhibited the strongest tendency to form BR. The observation that the water phase retained the large portion(>60%) of the radioactivity attributed to the total extractable residue suggested that under the experimental condition, the initially applied (14)C-labeled CYC residues were readily available for leaching or offsite transport. Additionally, no enantiomer-specific behaviors are observed. The results from this study provide a framework for assessing the environmental impact resulting from the use of this pesticide. PMID:26580733

  13. Design of A solar Thermophilic Anaerobic Reactor for Small Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashad, El H.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Zeeman, G.; Bot, G.P.A.; Lettinga, G.

    2004-01-01

    A 10 m(3) completely stirred tank reactor has been designed for anaerobic treatment of liquid cow manure under thermophilic conditions (50degreesC), using a solar heating system mounted on the reactor roof. Simulation models for two systems have been developed. The first system consists of loose com

  14. Relating methanogen community structure and anaerobic digester function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocher, B T W; Cherukuri, K; Maki, J S; Johnson, M; Zitomer, D H

    2015-03-01

    Much remains unknown about the relationships between microbial community structure and anaerobic digester function. However, knowledge of links between community structure and function, such as specific methanogenic activity (SMA) and COD removal rate, are valuable to improve anaerobic bioprocesses. In this work, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) were developed using multiple linear regression (MLR) to predict SMA using methanogen community structure descriptors for 49 cultures. Community descriptors were DGGE demeaned standardized band intensities for amplicons of a methanogen functional gene (mcrA). First, predictive accuracy of MLR QSARs was assessed using cross validation with training (n = 30) and test sets (n = 19) for glucose and propionate SMA data. MLR equations correlating band intensities and SMA demonstrated good predictability for glucose (q(2) = 0.54) and propionate (q(2) = 0.53). Subsequently, data from all 49 cultures were used to develop QSARs to predict SMA values. Higher intensities of two bands were correlated with higher SMA values; high abundance of methanogens associated with these two bands should be encouraged to attain high SMA values. QSARs are helpful tools to identify key microorganisms or to study and improve many bioprocesses. Development of new, more robust QSARs is encouraged for anaerobic digestion or other bioprocesses, including nitrification, nitritation, denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation, and enhanced biological phosphorus removal. PMID:25562581

  15. Monitoring of anaerobic digestion processes: A review perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Esbensen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The versatility of anaerobic digestion (AD) as an effective technology for solving central challenges met in applied biotechnological industry and society has been documented in numerous publications over the past many decades. Reduction of sludge volume generated from wastewater treatment proces...

  16. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and downflow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh Tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The e...

  17. Reductive Decouloristation of Dyes by Thermophilic Anaerobic Granular Sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezerra Dos Santos, A.

    2005-01-01

    The colour removal achieved under anaerobic conditions is also called reductive decolourisation, which is composed of a biological part, i.e. the reducing equivalents are biologically generated, and a chemical part, i.e. the formed electrons reduce chemically the dyes. The overall objective of this

  18. Thermophilic anaerobic waste water treatment, temperature aspects and process stability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to assess the thermostability of thermophilic anaerobic wastewater treatment processes and the possibility to optimize the performance of thermophilic high-rate systems.Experiments were conducted to study the suitability of two types of seed material to start a

  19. Anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in subtropical regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seghezzo, L.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the application of upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors for the treatment of low-strength domestic sewage was studied for the city ofSalta

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ANAEROBIC FUNGUS FROM LLAMA FECES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARVINSIKKEMA, FD; LAHPOR, GA; KRAAK, MN; GOTTSCHAL, JC; PRINS, RA

    1992-01-01

    An anaerobic fungus was isolated from Hama faeces. Based on its morphological characteristics, polyflagellated zoospores, extensive rhizoid system and the formation of monocentric colonies, the fungus is assigned to the genus Neocallimastix. Neocallimastix sp. L2 is able to grow on several poly-, ol