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Sample records for anaerobic interval training

  1. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Foster, Courtney V. Farland, Flavia Guidotti, Michelle Harbin, Brianna Roberts, Jeff Schuette, Andrew Tuuri, Scott T. Doberstein, John P. Porcari

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ...

  2. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T; Porcari, John P

    2015-12-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. There were significant (p Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key pointsSteady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained studentsMild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state trainingHIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval trainingEnjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program.

  3. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Foster, Courtney V. Farland, Flavia Guidotti, Michelle Harbin, Brianna Roberts, Jeff Schuette, Andrew Tuuri, Scott T. Doberstein, John P. Porcari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly. Steady-state (n = 19 exercised (cycle ergometer 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT. Tabata (n = 21 completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15 completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05 increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18% and PPO (+17, +24 and +14% for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5% & mean (+4, +7 and +6% power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05 than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05 across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults.

  4. Effect of High Intensity Interval Training with Blood Restriction on Anaerobic Performance

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    Amir Behi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Limiting venous blood flow restriction is a new approach of  training aims to improving high level of performance among athletes, which has shown prominent results at muscle hypotrophy and strength. KAATSU[1] is a training system including pressure belt imposed on the proximal part of the upper and lower bodies. The present study aims to investigate the effect of HIIT Kaatsu trainings on anaerobic performance among young athletes. The present quasi experimental research was conducted through a pre-test and post-test and three groups including KAATSU intensive interval exercises (n=11, intense interval exercise (n=9 and a control group (n=10. The exercises included running distances of 20 and 40 meters. In the beginning of the protocol most of the exercises was in short distances and as the sessions proceeded, the number of the sets and repetitions increased and it reached to its highest intensity in the last session. During the exercise protocol, intensity of training was considered to be the highest running speed and based on their abilities each individual tried to run as fast as possible. The exercise load was defined based on repetitions and the sets. In the 20 meters distances, the participants took a ten second rest after each repetition and a one minute rest after each set and in 40 meters distances; Subjects took a 20 second rest after each repetition and 2 minute rest between sets. The control group did not performed any of the mentioned exercises. Moreover, before and after four weeks of training the individuals were given RAST and Anaerobic Biking Wingate Test. Statistical result has been shown, there is a significant change between the maximum anaerobic power in Wingate biking test after four weeks within KAATSU intensive interval (P≥ 0.05 and intensive interval (P≥ 0.05 groups, but no significant change was detected in the control group (P> 0.05.  The statistical analysis of this research has been shown that there is

  5. Effects of Glycolytic-Based Interval Training on Anaerobic Capacity in Soccer Players

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    Polczyk Michał

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of changes in anaerobic endurance in response to a training protocol targeting glycolytic capacity. Methods. The study involved 24 soccer players from two U-18 teams. One team served as an experimental (E group the other a control (C. Besides standard soccer practice performed by both groups, an interval training protocol was administered to the experimental group twice a week (15 sessions. One training repetition involved running a soccerspecific course. Repetition time was equal to 15 s interspersed with 45 s passive recovery. Total number of repetitions was determined by the ability to maintain target time (power in subsequent repetitions. A 5% reduction in the distance covered (m compared with the first repetition ended a set. The number of sets was based on the ability of player to maintain target time per repetition. Rest interval between sets was 15 min. Anaerobic performance was assessed before and after the 8-week protocol by the Wingate test in which arterial blood gases, blood lactate concentration, and respiratory variables on a breath-by-breath basis were measured. Results. Distance covered in group E in the first training session was 470.38 ± 77.82 m and 1182.31 ± 164.44 m in the last session. Post-intervention total work (273.63 ± 18.32 to 284.98 ± 15.76 J/kg and maximum power (13.28 ± 1.43 to 14.14 ± 1.25 W/kg significantly increased in the Wingate test. Statistically significant increases in lactate concentration (10.64 ± 1.54 and 12.72 ± 1.59 mmol/l and lower blood pH (7.21 ± 0.03 and 7.19 ± 0.02 were also observed. No significant changes in any of the above variables were observed in group C. Conclusions. Interval training develops glycolytic capacity but with large inter-individual variability.

  6. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas L.; Björklund, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT). A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT) was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period. Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P 0.05). Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002) and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023) with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group. Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT) had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes. PMID:28824457

  7. Effects of Sprint Interval Training With Active Recovery vs. Endurance Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Power, Muscular Strength, and Sprint Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sökmen, Bülent; Witchey, Ronald L; Adams, Gene M; Beam, William C

    2018-03-01

    Sökmen, B, Witchey, RL, Adams, GM, and Beam, WC. Effects of sprint interval training with active recovery vs. endurance training on aerobic and anaerobic power, muscular strength, and sprint ability. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 624-631, 2018-This study compared sprint interval training with active recovery (SITAR) to moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) in aerobic and anaerobic power, muscular strength, and sprint time results. Forty-two recreationally active adults were randomly assigned to a SITAR or ET group. Both groups trained 3× per week for 10 weeks at 75% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for 30 minutes weeks 1-4, with duration increasing to 35 minutes weeks 5-7 and 40 minutes weeks 8-10. While ET ran on a 400-m track without rest for the full training session, SITAR sprinted until the 200-m mark and recovered with fast walking or light jogging the second 200 m to the finish line in 3× original sprint time. Maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), anaerobic treadmill run to exhaustion at 12.5 km·h at 20% incline, isokinetic leg extension and flexion strength at 60 and 300°·s, and 50 m sprint time were determined before and after training. Results showed a significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) in absolute and relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, anaerobic treadmill run, and sprint time in both groups. Only SITAR showed significant improvements in isokinetic leg extension and flexion at 300°·s and decreases in body mass (p ≤ 0.05). SITAR also showed significantly greater improvement (p ≤ 0.05) over ET in anaerobic treadmill run and 50 m sprint time. These data suggest that SITAR is a time-efficient strategy to induce rapid adaptations in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max comparable to ET with added improvements in anaerobic power, isokinetic strength, and sprint time not observed with ET.

  8. Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're overdoing it, slow down. As your stamina improves, challenge yourself to vary the pace. You ... exercise training modes in young and old humans. Cell Metabolism. 2017;25:581. Xie B, et al. ...

  9. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Stöggl

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33 and female (n = 3 runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT. A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period.Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P < 0.001 and peak lactate (P = 0.001 during the MART/MACT, while, unexpectedly, in none of the groups the performance at the established lactate concentrations (4, 6, 10 mmol·L−1 was changed (P > 0.05. Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002 and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023 with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group.Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes.

  10. The effect of extensive interval training at altitude on the physiological, aerobic, anaerobic and various blood parameters of athletes

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    Kaya Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to compare the physiological performances of athletes at sea level, at high altitude and 8 days after returning back to sea level on the basis of certain blood parameters, pulse and blood pressure. 12 male athletes between the ages of 19 and 23 voluntarily participated in the research. The subjects were exposed to endurance training at high altitude and at sea level between 09.00 and 11.00 in the morning. The subjects’ erythrocyte (RBC, leucocyte (WBC, haemoglobin (Hb, haematocrit (HCT, systolic blood pressure at rest (SBPR and diastolic blood pressure at rest (DBPR, heart rate at rest (HRR, aerobic (20m shuttle run test and anaerobic capacity (vertical jump levels were tested at sea level, on the 15th day at high altitude (3120m and 8 days after returning back to sea level. Statistical analysis comprised of t-test and the significance level of the results was accepted at (P<0.05. As a result of the research the following were determined: It can be said that high altitude trainings for fifteen days included in the annual training program of athletes can improve their performance.

  11. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas L. Stöggl; Glenn Björklund; Glenn Björklund

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high ...

  12. Effects of aerobic interval training versus continuous moderate exercise programme on aerobic and anaerobic capacity, somatic features and blood lipid profile in collegate females

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    Krzystof Mazurek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Regular physical activity has many positive health benefits, including reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases and some cancers, as well as improving the quality of life. objectives. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of 8-week aerobic interval cycle exercise training (AIT compared to continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity, somatic features and lipid profile. material and methods. The research was conducted in 88 volunteers aged 19.5±0.6 years, who were randomized to three groups of organized physical activity (OPA, who exercised 3 times per week in 47 min sessions: (I AIT (n=24 comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active rest pedalling with intensity 65%–75% HRmax, (II CME (n=22 corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax, (III regular collegiate physical education classes of programmed exercises (CON; n=42. Before and after OPA anthropometrics, aero- and anaerobic capacity and lipid profile indices were measured. results. In AIT, a significantly greater decrease of waist circumference and WHR was noted when compared to CON, and a significantly greater reduction of sum of skinfolds than in CON and CME. Improvement in relative and absolute VO2max (L/min and ml/kg/min was significantly higher in AIT than CON. Work output and peak power output in the anaerobic test improved significantly in AIT, CME and CON, but independently of training type. OPA was effective only in reducing triglyceride concentrations in CME and CON groups, without interaction effects in relation to training type. conclusion. It was found that 8 weeks of OPA was beneficial in improving somatic and aerobic capacity indices, but AIT resulted in the greatest improvement in somatic indices (waist circumference, WHR, sum of skinfolds and in VO[sub]2[/sub]max, compared to CME and CON programmes.

  13. Effects of Heart Rate vs. Speed-Based High Intensity Interval Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity of Female Soccer Players

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    Hamid Arazi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two types of high-intensity interval training (HIIT programs on aerobic and anaerobic capacity of female soccer players. Regional-level female athletes were randomly divided into heart rate-based HIIT (n = 8; age 23.4 ± 1.1 year and speed-based HIIT groups (n = 8; age 23.4 ± 1.3 year. Athletes trained three days per week for six weeks. Before and after training, each athlete’s performance was assessed directly through the Hoff test, 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (VIFT, and repeated-sprint ability test (RAST; maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, power and fatigue were estimated indirectly. Both experimental groups improved power, fatigue index and VO2max after training (p < 0.05. It was noteworthy that the speed-based group had greater gains in minimal power (effect size (ES: 3.99 vs. 0.75, average power (ES: 2.23 vs. 0.33, and fatigue index (ES: 2.53 vs. 0.17 compared to heart rate-based group (p < 0.05. In conclusion, both heart rate-based and speed-based HIIT induced meaningful improvements in power, VO2max, and fatigue index in female soccer players, although the speed-based HIIT group achieved greater gains in power and fatigue index compared to the heart rate-based group.

  14. Effects of high-intensity interval training on body composition, aerobic and anaerobic performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese and normal-weight young men

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    Nejmeddine Ouerghi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of short high-intensity interval training (HIIT on body composition, physical performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese compared to normal-weight young men. Nine overweight/ obese and nine normal-weight men (control group aged 17 to 20 years underwent a HIIT programme three times per week for eight weeks. Body composition, indices of aerobic [maximal aerobic velocity (MAV and maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ] and anaerobic [squat jump (SJ, counter-movement jump (CMJ, five-jump test (FJT, 10-m and 30-m sprint] performances, as well as fasting plasma lipids, were assessed in the two groups at PRE and POST HIIT. The HIIT programme resulted in significant reductions in body mass (-1.62%, P=0.016, ES=0.11 and fat mass (-1.59%, P=0.021, ES=0.23 in obese, but not in normal-weight subjects. MAV (+5.55%, P=0.005, ES=0.60 and +2.96%, P=0.009, ES=0.82, VO 2max (+5.27%, P=0.006, ES=0.63 and +2.88%, P=0.009, ES=0.41, FJT (+3.63%, P=0.005, ES=0.28 and +2.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.52, SJ (+4.92%, P=0.009, ES=0.25 and +6.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.70 and CMJ (+6.84%, P=0.014, ES=0.30 and +6.69%, P=0.002, ES=0.64 significantly increased in overweight/obese and normal-weight groups, respectively. 30-m sprint time significantly decreased in both groups (-1.77%, P=0.038, ES=0.12 and -0.72%, P=0.030, ES=0.16. Plasma total cholesterol (-11.8%, P=0.026, ES=0.96, LDL cholesterol (-11.9%, P=0.050, ES=0.77 and triglycerides (-21.3%, P=0.023, ES=1.08 significantly decreased in the obese group, but not in the normalweight group. The eight-week HIIT programme resulted in a slight improvement in physical fitness and a significant decrease in plasma lipids in the obese. Short duration HIIT may contribute to an improved cardiometabolic profile in the obese.

  15. Effects of high-intensity interval training on body composition, aerobic and anaerobic performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese and normal-weight young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Fradj, Mohamed Kacem Ben; Bezrati, Ikram; Khammassi, Marwa; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha; Bouassida, Anissa

    2017-12-01

    To examine the effects of short high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition, physical performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese compared to normal-weight young men. Nine overweight/obese and nine normal-weight men (control group) aged 17 to 20 years underwent a HIIT programme three times per week for eight weeks. Body composition, indices of aerobic [maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max )] and anaerobic [squat jump (SJ), counter-movement jump (CMJ), five-jump test (FJT), 10-m and 30-m sprint] performances, as well as fasting plasma lipids, were assessed in the two groups at PRE and POST HIIT. The HIIT programme resulted in significant reductions in body mass (-1.62%, P=0.016, ES=0.11) and fat mass (-1.59%, P=0.021, ES=0.23) in obese, but not in normal-weight subjects. MAV (+5.55%, P=0.005, ES=0.60 and +2.96%, P=0.009, ES=0.82), VO 2max (+5.27%, P=0.006, ES=0.63 and +2.88%, P=0.009, ES=0.41), FJT (+3.63%, P=0.005, ES=0.28 and +2.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.52), SJ (+4.92%, P=0.009, ES=0.25 and +6.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.70) and CMJ (+6.84%, P=0.014, ES=0.30 and +6.69%, P=0.002, ES=0.64) significantly increased in overweight/obese and normal-weight groups, respectively. 30-m sprint time significantly decreased in both groups (-1.77%, P=0.038, ES=0.12 and -0.72%, P=0.030, ES=0.16). Plasma total cholesterol (-11.8%, P=0.026, ES=0.96), LDL cholesterol (-11.9%, P=0.050, ES=0.77) and triglycerides (-21.3%, P=0.023, ES=1.08) significantly decreased in the obese group, but not in the normal-weight group. The eight-week HIIT programme resulted in a slight improvement in physical fitness and a significant decrease in plasma lipids in the obese. Short duration HIIT may contribute to an improved cardiometabolic profile in the obese.

  16. The effect of four-week high-intensity interval training with beta-alanine supplementation on aerobic and anaerobic performance and some blood parameters in girls basketball players

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    bahareh ketabdar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of four-week high-intensity interval training with beta-alanine supplementation on aerobic and anaerobic performance and some blood parameters in girls basketball players. Materials & Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. Twenty female basketball players, with the mean age of 24.65 ± 4.81 years, height of 166.97 ± 4.12 cm, weight of 59.15 ± 5.23 kg and body mass index of 21.5 ± 1.23 kg/m2, were divided into two groups, including intervention (exercise + supplement and control groups. Two days before and after the intervention, the subjects performed Wingate test (to estimate the average aerobic power and Bruce test (to estimate VO2max.The subjects attended basketball training two sessions per week; Intervention group performed high-intensity interval training in addition to the basketball training in every session. The dose of beta-alanine supplementation was 2.4, 3.6, 4.8 g per day. After four weeks, creatine kinase and lactate levels and performance tests were reevaluated. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 21, with a significance level of P0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that high-intensity interval training with beta-alanine supplementation resulted in delay in the fatigue threshold, stabilization of PH and hydrogen ions balance, increased aerobic-anaerobic capacity and exercise performance in female basketball players.

  17. High-intensity interval training and athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes.

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    Monks, Lynne; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun C; Song, Jong K

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes. Thirty-three male and female collegiate Taekwondo athletes were randomly divided into a HIIT group (N.=16) or a high-intensity continuous running (HICR) group (N.=17). The HIIT group undertook training of high-intensity sprints interspersed with active rest periods whilst the HICR group participated in high-intensity running for a continuous period. Both groups completed 11 sessions over 4 weeks. Physique, body composition, Wingate anaerobic test and VO2max test were measured. The vertical jump test, agility T-test and sit-ups were used to assess physical fitness. Repeated measures ANCOVAs with sex as a covariate were applied and significant level was set at 0.05. Following 11 sessions of training, significant improvements in anaerobic peak power (Ptraining, specifically the influence of training intensity on anaerobic capacity.

  18. Effect of interval training programme on pulse pressure in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences ... The exercise (work: rest ratio of 1:1) groups involved in an 8-weeks interval training programs of ... Conclusion: Moderate intensity interval training programs is effective in the non-pharmacological management of

  19. The different effects of high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training for weightlessness countermeasures

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    Wang, Lin-Jie; Cheng, Tan; Zhi-Li, Li; Hui-juan, Wang; Wen-juan, Chen; Jianfeng, Zhang; Desheng, Wang; Dongbin, Niu; Qi, Zhao; Chengjia, Yang; Yanqing, Wang

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. But the difference between high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training (MIIT) in simulated weightlessness still has not been well studied. This study sought to characterize the difference between 6 weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training under reduced weight (RW) gait training device and zero-gravity locomotion system (ZLS). Twenty-three subjects (14M/4F, 32.5±4.5 years) volunteered to participate. They were divided into three groups, that were MITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 60% VO _{2} peak for 30min, five days per week) RW group (n=8), HITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 90% VO _{2} peak for 30min, three days per week) RW group (n=8) and HITT ZLS group (n=7). The Z-axis load used in RW group was 80% body weight (BW) and in ZLS was 100% BW. Cardiopulmonary function was measured before, after 4-week training and after 6-week training. Isokinetic knee extension-flexion test at 60(°) deg/s and 180(°) deg/s were performed before and after the 6-week training, and isometric knee extension-flexion test at 180(°) deg/s was also examined at the same time. It was found that the VO _{2} peaks, metabolic equivalent (MET), Speedmax and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly increased after 4 and 6-week training in all three groups and no significant group difference were detected. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion were significantly increased after 6 week-training in all three groups, and only in HITT RW group the total power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion enhanced. The total power and average power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension decreased significantly after 6-week training in all three groups. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension in MIIT RW group was

  20. A PRACTICAL MODEL OF LOW-VOLUME HIGH-INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING INDUCES PERFORMANCE AND METABOLIC ADAPTATIONS THAT RESEMBLE 'ALL-OUT' SPRINT INTERVAL TRAINING

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    Mahdi Bayati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a novel type of high-intensity interval training known as sprint interval training has demonstrated increases in aerobic and anaerobic performance with very low time commitment. However, this type of training program is unpractical for general populations. The present study compared the impact of a low-volume high-intensity interval training to a "all-out" sprint interval training. Twenty-four active young males were recruited and randomized into three groups: (G1: 3-5 cycling bouts × 30-s all-out with 4 min recovery; G2: 6- 10 cycling bouts × 125% Pmax with 2 min recovery and a non-trained control group. They all performed a VO2max test, a time to exhaustion at Pmax (Tmax and a Wingate test before and after the intervention. Capillary blood lactate was taken at rest, 3, and 20 min after the Wingate trial. Training was performed 3 sessions per week for 4 weeks. In G1, significant improvements (p < 0.05 following training were found in VO2max (9.6%, power at VO2max (12.8%, Tmax (48.4%, peak power output (10.3% and mean power output (17.1%. In G2, significant improvements following training were found in VO2max (9.7%, power at VO2max (16.1%, Tmax (54.2%, peak power output (7.4%; p < 0.05, but mean power output did not change significantly. Blood lactate recovery (20th min significantly decreased in G1 and G2 when compared with pre-testing and the CON group (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the results of the current study agree with earlier work demonstrating the effectiveness of 30-s all-out training program to aerobic and anaerobic adaptations. Of substantial interest is that the low volume high intensity training provides similar results but involves only half the intensity with double the repetitions

  1. Adaptive Changes After 2 Weeks of 10-s Sprint Interval Training With Various Recovery Times

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    Robert A. Olek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of applying two different rest recovery times in a 10-s sprint interval training session on aerobic and anaerobic capacities as well as skeletal muscle enzyme activities.Methods: Fourteen physically active but not highly trained male subjects (mean maximal oxygen uptake 50.5 ± 1.0 mlO2·kg−1·min−1 participated in the study. The training protocol involved a series of 10-s sprints separated by either 1-min (SIT10:1 or 4-min (SIT10:4 of recovery. The number of sprints progressed from four to six over six sessions separated by 1–2 days rest. Pre and post intervention anthropometric measurements, assessment of aerobic, anaerobic capacity and muscle biopsy were performed. In the muscle samples maximal activities of citrate synthase (CS, 3-hydroxyacylCoA dehydrogenase (HADH, carnitine palmitoyl-transferase (CPT, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, and its mitochondrial form (mMDH, as well as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were determined. Analysis of variance was performed to determine changes between conditions.Results: Maximal oxygen uptake improved significantly in both training groups, by 13.6% in SIT10:1 and 11.9% in SIT10:4, with no difference between groups. Wingate anaerobic test results indicated main effect of time for total work, peak power output and mean power output, which increased significantly and similarly in both groups. Significant differences between training groups were observed for end power output, which increased by 10.8% in SIT10:1, but remained unchanged in SIT10:4. Both training protocols induced similar increase in CS activity (main effect of time p < 0.05, but no other enzymes.Conclusion: Sprint interval training protocols induce metabolic adaptation over a short period of time, and the reduced recovery between bouts may attenuate fatigue during maximal exercise.

  2. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health.

  3. Active Recovery After High-Intensity Interval-Training Does Not Attenuate Training Adaptation

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    Thimo Wiewelhove

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: High-intensity interval training (HIIT can be extremely demanding and can consequently produce high blood lactate levels. Previous studies have shown that lactate is a potent metabolic stimulus, which is important for adaptation. Active recovery (ACT after intensive exercise, however, enhances blood lactate removal in comparison with passive recovery (PAS and, consequently, may attenuate endurance performance improvements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of regular ACT on training adaptations during a HIIT mesocycle.Methods: Twenty-six well-trained male intermittent sport athletes (age: 23.5 ± 2.5 years; O2max: 55.36 ± 3.69 ml min kg-1 participated in a randomized controlled trial consisting of 4 weeks of a running-based HIIT mesocycle with a total of 12 HIIT sessions. After each training session, participants completed 15 min of either moderate jogging (ACT or PAS. Subjects were matched to the ACT or PAS groups according to age and performance. Before the HIIT program and 1 week after the last training session, the athletes performed a progressive incremental exercise test on a motor-driven treadmill to determine O2max, maximum running velocity (vmax, the running velocity at which O2max occurs (vO2max, and anaerobic lactate threshold (AT. Furthermore, repeated sprint ability (RSA were determined.Results: In the whole group the HIIT mesocycle induced significant or small to moderate changes in vmax (p < 0.001, effect size [ES] = 0.65,, vO2max (p < 0.001, ES = 0.62, and AT (p < 0.001, ES = 0.56 compared with the values before the intervention. O2max and RSA remained unchanged throughout the study. In addition, no significant differences in the changes were noted in any of the parameters between ACT and PAS except for AT (p < 0.05, ES = 0.57.Conclusion: Regular use of individualized ACT did not attenuate training adaptations during a HIIT mesocycle compared to PAS. Interestingly, we found that the ACT

  4. High-intensity interval training has positive effects on performance in ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimo, M A; de Souza, E O; Wilson, J M; Carpenter, A L; Gilchrist, P; Lowery, R P; Averbuch, B; White, T M; Joy, J

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the well-known benefits that have been shown, few studies have looked at the practical applications of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance. This study investigated the effects of a HIIT program compared to traditional continuous endurance exercise training. 24 hockey players were randomly assigned to either a continuous or high-intensity interval group during a 4-week training program. The interval group (IG) was involved in a periodized HIIT program. The continuous group (CG) performed moderate intensity cycling for 45-60 min at an intensity that was 65% of their calculated heart rate reserve. Body composition, muscle thickness, anaerobic power, and on-ice measures were assessed pre- and post-training. Muscle thickness was significantly greater in IG (p=0.01) when compared to CG. The IG had greater values for both ∆ peak power (p<0.003) and ∆ mean power (p<0.02). Additionally, IG demonstrated a faster ∆ sprint (p<0.02) and a trend (p=0.08) for faster ∆ endurance test time to completion for IG. These results indicate that hockey players may utilize short-term HIIT to elicit positive effects in muscle thickness, power and on-ice performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Multimodal high-intensity interval training increases muscle function and metabolic performance in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Stephanie; Knapp, Kelly; Lackie, Amy; Lewry, Colin; Horvey, Karla; Benko, Chad; Trinh, Jason; Butcher, Scotty

    2015-11-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient method of improving aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity. In most individuals, however, HIIT using modalities such as cycling, running, and rowing does not typically result in increased muscle strength, power, or endurance. The purpose of this study is to compare the physiological outcomes of traditional HIIT using rowing (Row-HIIT) with a novel multimodal HIIT (MM-HIIT) circuit incorporating multiple modalities, including strength exercises, within an interval. Twenty-eight recreationally active women (age 24.7 ± 5.4 years) completed 6 weeks of either Row-HIIT or MM-HIIT and were tested on multiple fitness parameters. MM-HIIT and Row-HIIT resulted in similar improvements (p HIIT group had significant (p HIIT group had no increase in any muscle performance variable (p values 0.33-0.90). Post-training, 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat (64.2 ± 13.6 vs. 45.8 ± 16.2 kg, p = 0.02), 1RM press (33.2 ± 3.8 vs. 26.0 ± 9.6 kg, p = 0.01), and squat endurance (23.9 ± 12.3 vs. 10.2 ± 5.6 reps, p HIIT group than in the Row-HIIT group. MM-HIIT resulted in similar aerobic and anaerobic adaptations but greater muscle performance increases than Row-HIIT in recreationally active women.

  6. Five Weeks of Sprint and High-Intensity Interval Training Improves Paddling Performance in Adolescent Surfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Oliver R L; Secomb, Josh L; Parsonage, Joanna R; Lundgren, Lina E; Abbiss, Chris R; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-09-01

    Farley, ORL, Secomb, JL, Parsonage, JR, Lundgren, LE, Abbiss, CR, and Sheppard, JM. Five weeks of sprint and high-intensity interval training improves paddling performance in adolescent surfers. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2446-2452, 2016-The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of sprint interval training (SIT; 10 seconds) and high-intensity interval training (HIT; 30 seconds) on surfing athletes paddling performance (400-m time trial and repeat-sprint paddle performance). Twenty-four competitive adolescent surfers (19 male, 5 female; age = 14.4 ± 1.3 years, mass: 50.1 ± 10.7 kg, and stature: 159.9 ± 10.3 cm) were assigned to perform either 5 weeks of SIT and HIT. Participants completed a repeated-sprint paddle ability test (RSPT, 15-m surfboard sprint paddle initiated every 40 seconds × 10 bouts) and 400-m endurance surfboard paddle time trial before and after training. High-intensity interval training decreased the total time to complete the 400 m by 15.8 ± 16.1 seconds (p = 0.03), and SIT decreased the total time to complete the RSPT by 6.5 ± 4.3 seconds (p = 0.02). Fatigue index during the RSPT (first-slowest effort) was lower after HIT and SIT (p ≤ 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). There were no significant differences in performance changes in the 400 m (total time) and RSPT (total time, fastest 15 m time, and peak velocity) between HIT and SIT. Our study indicates that HIT and SIT may be implemented to the training program of surfers to improve aerobic and repeat-sprint paddle ability, both of which are identified as key aspects of the sport. In addition, these findings indicate that 400-m paddle and RSPT can discriminate between aerobic and anaerobic training adaptations, with aerobic gains likely from HIT and anaerobic gains from SIT.

  7. Audiovisual Interval Size Estimation Is Associated with Early Musical Training.

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    Mary Kathryn Abel

    Full Text Available Although pitch is a fundamental attribute of auditory perception, substantial individual differences exist in our ability to perceive differences in pitch. Little is known about how these individual differences in the auditory modality might affect crossmodal processes such as audiovisual perception. In this study, we asked whether individual differences in pitch perception might affect audiovisual perception, as it relates to age of onset and number of years of musical training. Fifty-seven subjects made subjective ratings of interval size when given point-light displays of audio, visual, and audiovisual stimuli of sung intervals. Audiovisual stimuli were divided into congruent and incongruent (audiovisual-mismatched stimuli. Participants' ratings correlated strongly with interval size in audio-only, visual-only, and audiovisual-congruent conditions. In the audiovisual-incongruent condition, ratings correlated more with audio than with visual stimuli, particularly for subjects who had better pitch perception abilities and higher nonverbal IQ scores. To further investigate the effects of age of onset and length of musical training, subjects were divided into musically trained and untrained groups. Results showed that among subjects with musical training, the degree to which participants' ratings correlated with auditory interval size during incongruent audiovisual perception was correlated with both nonverbal IQ and age of onset of musical training. After partialing out nonverbal IQ, pitch discrimination thresholds were no longer associated with incongruent audio scores, whereas age of onset of musical training remained associated with incongruent audio scores. These findings invite future research on the developmental effects of musical training, particularly those relating to the process of audiovisual perception.

  8. Audiovisual Interval Size Estimation Is Associated with Early Musical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Mary Kathryn; Li, H Charles; Russo, Frank A; Schlaug, Gottfried; Loui, Psyche

    2016-01-01

    Although pitch is a fundamental attribute of auditory perception, substantial individual differences exist in our ability to perceive differences in pitch. Little is known about how these individual differences in the auditory modality might affect crossmodal processes such as audiovisual perception. In this study, we asked whether individual differences in pitch perception might affect audiovisual perception, as it relates to age of onset and number of years of musical training. Fifty-seven subjects made subjective ratings of interval size when given point-light displays of audio, visual, and audiovisual stimuli of sung intervals. Audiovisual stimuli were divided into congruent and incongruent (audiovisual-mismatched) stimuli. Participants' ratings correlated strongly with interval size in audio-only, visual-only, and audiovisual-congruent conditions. In the audiovisual-incongruent condition, ratings correlated more with audio than with visual stimuli, particularly for subjects who had better pitch perception abilities and higher nonverbal IQ scores. To further investigate the effects of age of onset and length of musical training, subjects were divided into musically trained and untrained groups. Results showed that among subjects with musical training, the degree to which participants' ratings correlated with auditory interval size during incongruent audiovisual perception was correlated with both nonverbal IQ and age of onset of musical training. After partialing out nonverbal IQ, pitch discrimination thresholds were no longer associated with incongruent audio scores, whereas age of onset of musical training remained associated with incongruent audio scores. These findings invite future research on the developmental effects of musical training, particularly those relating to the process of audiovisual perception.

  9. High-Intensity Interval Training for Improving Postprandial Hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jonathan P.; Francois, Monique E.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has garnered attention in recent years as a time-efficient exercise option for improving cardiovascular and metabolic health. New research demonstrates that HIIT may be particularly effective for improving postprandial hyperglycemia in individuals with, or at risk for, type 2 diabetes (T2D). These findings…

  10. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Palumbo, Elyse; Seay, Rebekah F; Spain, Katie K; Clarke, Holly E

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE). This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI) and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA). We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training. Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography) and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100%) and low (high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  11. High-intensity interval training: Modulating interval duration in overweight/obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Melvin, Malia N; Wingfield, Hailee L

    2015-05-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy shown to induce various cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations. Little is known about the optimal tolerable combination of intensity and volume necessary for adaptations, especially in clinical populations. In a randomized controlled pilot design, we evaluated the effects of two types of interval training protocols, varying in intensity and interval duration, on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese men. Twenty-five men [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg · m(2)] completed baseline body composition measures: fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and percent body fat (%BF) and fasting blood glucose, lipids and insulin (IN). A graded exercise cycling test was completed for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and power output (PO). Participants were randomly assigned to high-intensity short interval (1MIN-HIIT), high-intensity interval (2MIN-HIIT) or control groups. 1MIN-HIIT and 2MIN-HIIT completed 3 weeks of cycling interval training, 3 days/week, consisting of either 10 × 1 min bouts at 90% PO with 1 min rests (1MIN-HIIT) or 5 × 2 min bouts with 1 min rests at undulating intensities (80%-100%) (2MIN-HIIT). There were no significant training effects on FM (Δ1.06 ± 1.25 kg) or %BF (Δ1.13% ± 1.88%), compared to CON. Increases in LM were not significant but increased by 1.7 kg and 2.1 kg for 1MIN and 2MIN-HIIT groups, respectively. Increases in VO2peak were also not significant for 1MIN (3.4 ml·kg(-1) · min(-1)) or 2MIN groups (2.7 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)). IN sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved for both training groups (Δ-2.78 ± 3.48 units; p < 0.05) compared to CON. HIIT may be an effective short-term strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and IN sensitivity in overweight males.

  12. High intensity interval exercise training in overweight young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijie, T; Hainai, Y; Fengying, Y; Jianxiong, W

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was intended to evaluate the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) program on the body composition, cardiac function and aerobic capacity in overweight young women. Sixty female university students (aged 19-20, BMI≥25kg/m2 and percentage body fat ≥ 30%) were chosen and then randomly assigned to each of the HIIT group, the moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) group and the non-training control group. The subjects in both the HIIT and MICT groups underwent exercise training five times per week for 12 weeks. In each of the training sessions, the HIIT group performed interval exercises at the individualized heart rate (HR) of 85% of VO2max and separated by brief periods of low intensity activity (HR at 50% of VO2max), while the MICT group did continuous walking and/or jogging at the individualized HR of 50% of VO2max. Both of these exercise training programs produced significant improvements in the subjects' body composition, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart rate at rest, maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold. However, the HIIT group achieved better results than those in the MICT group, as it was evaluated by the amount of the effect size. The control group did not achieve any change in all of the measured variables. The tangible results achieved by our relatively large groups of homogeneous subjects have demonstrated that the HIIT program is an effective measure for the treatment of young women who are overweight.

  13. High Intensity Interval Training for Maximizing Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Trine; Aamot, Inger-Lise; Haykowsky, Mark; Rognmo, Øivind

    Regular physical activity and exercise training are important actions to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and maintain health throughout life. There is solid evidence that exercise is an effective preventative strategy against at least 25 medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon and breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Traditionally, endurance exercise training (ET) to improve health related outcomes has consisted of low- to moderate ET intensity. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that higher exercise intensities may be superior to moderate intensity for maximizing health outcomes. The primary objective of this review is to discuss how aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIIT) as compared to moderate continuous training may maximize outcomes, and to provide practical advices for successful clinical and home-based HIIT. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Physiological and performance changes from the addition of a sprint interval program to wrestling training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzad, Babak; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid; Curby, David G; Bayati, Mahdi; Bahraminejad, Morteza; Mäestu, Jarek

    2011-09-01

    Increasing the level of physical fitness for competition is the primary goal of any conditioning program for wrestlers. Wrestlers often need to peak for competitions several times over an annual training cycle. Additionally, the scheduling of these competitions does not always match an ideal periodization plan and may require a modified training program to achieve a high level of competitive fitness in a short-time frame. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 4 weeks of sprint-interval training (SIT) program, on selected aerobic and anaerobic performance indices, and hormonal and hematological adaptations, when added to the traditional Iranian training of wrestlers in their preseason phase. Fifteen trained wrestlers were assigned to either an experimental (EXP) or a control (CON) group. Both groups followed a traditional preparation phase consisting of learning and drilling technique, live wrestling and weight training for 4 weeks. In addition, the EXP group performed a running-based SIT protocol. The SIT consisted of 6 35-m sprints at maximum effort with a 10-second recovery between each sprint. The SIT protocol was performed in 2 sessions per week, for the 4 weeks of the study. Before and after the 4-week training program, pre and posttesting was performed on each subject on the following: a graded exercise test (GXT) to determine VO(2)max, the velocity associated with V(2)max (νVO(2)max), maximal ventilation, and peak oxygen pulse; a time to exhaustion test (T(max)) at their νVO(2)max; and 4 successive Wingate tests with a 4-minute recovery between each trial for the determination of peak and mean power output (PPO, MPO). Resting blood samples were also collected at the beginning of each pre and posttesting period, before and after the 4-week training program. The EXP group showed significant improvements in VO(2)max (+5.4%), peak oxygen pulse (+7.7%) and T(max) (+32.2%) compared with pretesting. The EXP group produced significant increases

  15. Four weeks of running sprint interval training improves cardiorespiratory fitness in young and middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Taura N; Thomas, Matthew P L; Schmale, Matthew S; Copeland, Jennifer L; Hazell, Tom J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 4-week running sprint interval training protocol to improve both aerobic and anaerobic fitness in middle-aged adults (40-50 years) as well as compare the adaptations to younger adults (20-30 years). Twenty-eight inactive participants - 14 young 20-30-year-olds (n = 7 males) and 14 middle-aged 40-50-year-olds (n = 5 males) - completed 4 weeks of running sprint interval training (4 to 6, 30-s "all-out" sprints on a curved, self-propelled treadmill separated by 4 min active recovery performed 3 times per week). Before and after training, all participants were assessed for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), 2000 m time trial performance, and anaerobic performance on a single 30-s sprint. There were no interactions between group and time for any tested variable, although training improved relative VO2max (young = 3.9, middle-aged = 5.2%; P < 0.04), time trial performance (young = 5.9, middle-aged = 8.2%; P < 0.001), peak sprint speed (young = 9.3, middle-aged = 2.2%; P < 0.001), and average sprint speed (young = 6.8, middle-aged = 11.6%; P < 0.001) in both young and middle-aged groups from pre- to post-training on the 30-s sprint test. The current study demonstrates that a 4-week running sprint interval training programme is equally effective at improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness in younger and middle-aged adults.

  16. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Schubert

    Full Text Available Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE. This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA. We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training.Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1 completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100% and low (< 100% levels of energy compensation were assessed. Linear regressions were utilized to determine associations between energy compensation and ΔVO2max, ΔEI, ΔNEPA, and Δresting metabolic rate.Very large individual differences in energy compensation were noted. In comparison to individuals with low levels of compensation, individuals with high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p < 0.001 and ΔNEPA (p < 0.001.Considerable variation exists in response to short-term, low dose interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  17. Intermittent hypoxic training improves anaerobic performance in competitive swimmers when implemented into a direct competition mesocycle.

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    Miłosz Czuba

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT on anaerobic and aerobic capacity and swimming performance in well-trained swimmers. Sixteen male swimmers were randomly divided into a hypoxia (H group (n = 8, which trained in a normobaric hypoxia environment, and a control (C group (n = 8, which exercised under normoxic conditions. However, one participant left the study without explanation. During the experiment group H trained on land twice per week in simulated hypoxia (FiO2 = 15.5%, corresponding to 2,500 m a.s.l; however, they conducted swim training in normoxic conditions. Group C performed the same training program under normoxic conditions. The training program included four weekly microcyles, followed by three days of recovery. During practice sessions on land, the swimmers performed 30 second sprints on an arm-ergometer, alternating with two minute high intensity intervals on a lower limb cycle ergometer. The results showed that the training on land caused a significant (p<0.05 increase in absolute maximal workload (WRmax by 7.4% in group H and by 3.2% in group C and relative values of VO2max by 6.9% in group H and 3.7% in group C. However, absolute values of VO2max were not significantly changed. Additionally, a significant (p<0.05 increase in mean power (Pmean during the first (11.7% and second (11.9% Wingate tests was only observed in group H. The delta values of lactate concentration (ΔLA after both Wingate tests were significantly (p<0.05 higher in comparison to baseline levels by 28.8% in group H. Opposite changes were observed in delta values of blood pH (ΔpH after both Wingate tests in group H, with a significant decrease in values of ΔpH by 33.3%. The IHT caused a significant (p<0.05 improvement in 100m and 200m swimming performance, by 2.1% and 1.8%, respectively in group H. Training in normoxia (group C, resulted in a significant (p<0.05 improvement of swimming

  18. The Effects of Sprint Interval vs. Continuous Endurance Training on Physiological and Metabolic Adaptations in Young Healthy Adults

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    Nalcakan Gulbin Rudarli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of sprint interval training (SIT and continuous endurance training (CET on selected anthropometric, aerobic, and anaerobic performance indices as well as the blood lipid profile, inflammatory and muscle damage markers in healthy young males. Fifteen recreationally active male volunteers (age: 21.7 ±2.2 years, body mass: 83.0 ±8.0 kg, body height: 1.82 ±0.05 m were divided into two groups according to their initial VO2max levels. Training programs were conducted 3 times per week for 7 weeks. The SIT program consisted of 4-6 Wingate anaerobic sprints with a 4.5 min recovery, while CET consisted of 30-50 min cycling at 60% VO2max. Biochemical, anthropometric and fitness assessments were performed both pre and post-intervention. Significant improvements in VO2max, anaerobic power and capacity, and VO2 utilization during the submaximal workout and significant decreases in body fat and in waist circumference after the intervention occurred in both SIT and CET groups. Significantly greater gross efficiency was measured in the CET group. No differences in the lipid profile or serum levels of inflammatory, myocardial and skeletal muscle damage markers were observed after the training period. The study results agree with the effectiveness of a 30 s all-out training program with a reduced time commitment for anthropometric, aerobic and anaerobic adaptation and eliminate doubts about its safety as a model.

  19. High-Intensity Interval Training in Heart Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

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    Raphael José Perrier-Melo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heart transplantation (HTx is considered an efficient and gold-standard procedure for patients with end-stage heart failure. After surgery, patients have lower aerobic power (VO2max and compensatory hemodynamic responses. The aim of the present study was to assess through a systematic review with meta-analysis whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT can provide benefits for those parameters. This is a systematic review with meta-analysis, which searched the databases and data portals PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct and Wiley until December 2016 (pairs. The following terms and descriptors were used: “heart recipient” OR “heart transplant recipient” OR ”heart transplant” OR “cardiac transplant” OR “heart graft”. Descriptors via DeCS and Mesh were: “heart transplantation’’ OR “cardiac transplantation”. The words used in combination (AND were: “exercise training” OR “interval training” OR “high intensity interval training” OR “high intensity training” OR “anaerobic training” OR “intermittent training” OR “sprint training”. The initial search identified 1064 studies. Then, only those studies assessing the influence of HIIT on the post-HTx period were added, resulting in three studies analyzed. The significance level adopted was 0.05. Heart transplant recipients showed significant improvement in VO2peak, heart rate and peak blood pressure in 8 to 12 weeks of intervention.

  20. Evidence based exercise - clinical benefits of high intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, Tim; Barclay, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Aerobic exercise has a marked impact on cardiovascular disease risk. Benefits include improved serum lipid profiles, blood pressure and inflammatory markers as well as reduced risk of stroke, acute coronary syndrome and overall cardiovascular mortality. Most exercise programs prescribed for fat reduction involve continuous, moderate aerobic exercise, as per Australian Heart Foundation clinical guidelines. This article describes the benefits of exercise for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease and details the numerous benefits of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in particular. Aerobic exercise has numerous benefits for high-risk populations and such benefits, especially weight loss, are amplified with HIIT. High intensity interval training involves repeatedly exercising at a high intensity for 30 seconds to several minutes, separated by 1-5 minutes of recovery (either no or low intensity exercise). HIT is associated with increased patient compliance and improved cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes and is suitable for implementation in both healthy and 'at risk' populations. Importantly, as some types of exercise are contraindicated in certain patient populations and HIIT is a complex concept for those unfamiliar to exercise, some patients may require specific assessment or instruction before commencing a HIIT program.

  1. Effect of high-intensity interval training on body composition and bioenergetic indices in boys - futsal players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbasi Fatemeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-intensity interval trainings (HIIT can result in the best improvement of body fitness among athletes in the shortest possible time. The impact of HIIT on bioenergetic factors of futsal players has not been studied extensively. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of 3-week HIIT on body composition indices, maximum aerobic power, and maximum anaerobic power, anaerobic power among boys - futsal players. Material: 30 boys - futsal players (mean± SD age, 13.49±1.03 years; BMI, 20.95±1.78 kg/m2 participated in the study voluntarily. They were randomly assigned to experimental (n=15 and control (n=15 groups. HIIT lasted for three weeks, three sessions a week for 12-36 minutes on treadmill. Weight, body mass index (BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR, thickness of body fat, maximal aerobic power, and maximum anaerobic power were recorded before intervention and 48 hours after the final training session. Aerobic power was measured with 20-m shuttle run, and maximum anaerobic power was measured with RAST test. Paired sample t-test was used to determine pretest-posttest differences, and independent t-test was used to determine between-group differences. The significance level was set to P < 0.05. Results: Significant differences were found in weight, BMI, thickness of body fat, maximum aerobic power and maximum anaerobic power in experimental group (P = 0.001 before and after training intervention, but the change in WHR was not significant (P < 0.05. No significant differences were observed in selected body composition between experimental and control groups, but they exhibited significant differences in maximum aerobic power and maximum anaerobic power (P = 0.001. Conclusion: According to the results, HIIT can be an effective training program for improving the performance of bioenergetic indices of futsal players. Also, it is recommended to study the effect of similar trainings with longer durations on other

  2. Antioxidant status of interval-trained athletes in various sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dékány, M; Nemeskéri, V; Györe, I; Harbula, I; Malomsoki, J; Pucsok, J

    2006-02-01

    Muscular exercise results in an increased production of free radicals and other forms of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Further, developing evidence implicates cytotoxins as an underlying etiology of exercise-induced stimuli in muscle redox status, which could result in muscle fatigue and/or injury. Two major classes of endogenous protective mechanisms (enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants) work together to reduce the harmful effects of oxidants in the cell. This study examined the effects of acute physical exercise on the enzymatic antioxidant systems of different athletes and comparison was made to the mechanism of action of three main antioxidant enzymes in the blood. Handball players (n = 6), water-polo players (n = 20), hockey players (n = 22), basketball players (n = 24), and a sedentary control group (n = 10 female and n = 9 male) served as the subjects of this study. The athletes were divided into two groups according to the observed changes of activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme. The antioxidant enzyme systems were characterized by catalase (CAT), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX), and superoxide-dismutase (SOD) and measured by spectrophotometry. An important finding in the present investigation is that when the activities of SOD increased, the activities of GPX and CAT increased also and this finding related to the physical status of interval-trained athletes. Positive correlation between SOD and GPX activities was observed (r = 0.38 females, r = 0.56 males; p antioxidant enzyme systems of athletes are sport specific, and different from control subjects. Presumably, with interval-trained athletes, hydrogen-peroxide is significantly eliminated by glutathione-peroxidase. From these results it can be concluded that the blood redox status should be taken into consideration when establishing a fitness level for individual athletes.

  3. Six Sessions of Sprint Interval Training Improves Running Performance in Trained Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koral, Jerome; Oranchuk, Dustin J; Herrera, Roberto; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2018-03-01

    Koral, J, Oranchuk, DJ, Herrera, R, and Millet, GY. Six sessions of sprint interval training improves running performance in trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 617-623, 2018-Sprint interval training (SIT) is gaining popularity with endurance athletes. Various studies have shown that SIT allows for similar or greater endurance, strength, and power performance improvements than traditional endurance training but demands less time and volume. One of the main limitations in SIT research is that most studies were performed in a laboratory using expensive treadmills or ergometers. The aim of this study was to assess the performance effects of a novel short-term and highly accessible training protocol based on maximal shuttle runs in the field (SIT-F). Sixteen (12 male, 4 female) trained trail runners completed a 2-week procedure consisting of 4-7 bouts of 30 seconds at maximal intensity interspersed by 4 minutes of recovery, 3 times a week. Maximal aerobic speed (MAS), time to exhaustion at 90% of MAS before test (Tmax at 90% MAS), and 3,000-m time trial (TT3000m) were evaluated before and after training. Data were analyzed using a paired samples t-test, and Cohen's (d) effect sizes were calculated. Maximal aerobic speed improved by 2.3% (p = 0.01, d = 0.22), whereas peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) increased by 2.4% (p = 0.009, d = 0.33) and 2.8% (p = 0.002, d = 0.41), respectively. TT3000m was 6% shorter (p training in the field significantly improved the 3,000-m run, time to exhaustion, PP, and MP in trained trail runners. Sprint interval training in the field is a time-efficient and cost-free means of improving both endurance and power performance in trained athletes.

  4. Efficacy of a Ventilatory Training Mask to Improve Anaerobic and Aerobic Capacity in Reserve Officers' Training Corps Cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, John H; Monaghan, Taylor P; Schnaiter, Jessica A; Jacobson, Bert H; Pope, Zachary K

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a ventilatory training mask to improve anaerobic and aerobic fitness in reserve officers' training corps (ROTC) cadets. Seventeen ROTC cadets from a Midwest university completed pre- and postassessments consisting of anthropometry, a 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT), and a maximal aerobic capacity test (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). A 6-week intervention training period was used during which time participants completed their mandatory physical training (PT) sessions. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (MASK; n = 9) or the control group (CON; n = 8). The ventilatory training masks were adjusted to simulate an altitude of 2,750 m. There was no significant effect (p ≤ 0.05) between groups on fatigue index, anaerobic capacity, peak power, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, or time to exhaustion. These results suggest that the use of the ventilatory training mask during mandatory PT did not elicit superior aerobic or anaerobic adaptations in ROTC cadets. Therefore, it is recommended that more established simulated altitude training methods be used when incorporating intermittent hypoxic training.

  5. Effects of sprint interval training and body weight reduction on power to weight ratio in experienced cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, William R; Finn, Joan A; Axtell, Robert S

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supramaximal sprint interval training (SIT), body weight reduction, and a combination of both treatments on peak and average anaerobic power to weight ratio (PPOan:Wt, APOan:Wt) by manipulating peak and average anaerobic power output (PPOan, APOan) and body weight (BW) in experienced cyclists. Participants (N = 34, age = 38.0 +/- 7.1 years) were assigned to 4 groups for a 10-week study. One group performed twice-weekly SIT sessions on a cycle ergometer while maintaining body weight (SIT). A second group did not perform SIT but intentionally reduced body weight (WR). A third group simultaneously performed SIT sessions and reduced body weight (SIT+WR). A control group cycled in their normal routine and maintained body weight (CON). The 30-second Wingate Test assessed pretest and posttest POan:Wt scores. There was a significant mean increase (p weight (kg) decreased significantly in WR and SIT + WR (80.3 +/- 13.7 to 75.3 +/- 11.9 and 78.9 +/- 10.8 to 73.4 +/- 10.8, respectively). The results demonstrate that cyclists can use SIT sessions and body weight reduction as singular training interventions to effect significant increases in anaerobic power to weight ratio, which has been correlated to enhanced aerobic cycling performance. However, the treatments were not effective as combined interventions, as there was no significant change in either PPOan:Wt or APOan:Wt in SIT + WR.

  6. High Intensity Interval Training in Handcycling : The Effects of a 7 Week Training Intervention in Able-bodied Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Patrick; Reed, Kate; Van Der Woude, Luc; Hettinga, Florentina J.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In lower body endurance training, quantities of both moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) can lead to an improved physiological capacity and performance. Limited research is available regarding the endurance and muscular capacity of

  7. Effect of Eight Weeks High Intensity Interval Training and Medium Intensity Interval Training and Aloe vera Intake on Serum Vaspin and Insulin Resistance in Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Asgari Hazaveh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The use of herbal supplements and exercise training for the treatment of diabetic has increased.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training and Aloe vera intake on serum vaspin and insulin resistance in diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods: During this experimental study, 32 diabetic rats with STZ Wistar were randomly divided into four groups including the control, high intensity interval training +supplement, moderate intensity interval training + supplement and supplement. Training program was planned for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week. Each session consisted of 6 to 12 periods of 2-minute activity with the intensity of 90% and 60% with one minute rest (speed: 10m/min. In the supplement groups, 300milligrams Aloe vera solution per kilogram of body weight Gavage was given 5 sessions per week for 8 weeks. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: The results showed that high and moderate intensity interval training with supplement has no significant effect on the of serum vaspin (p=0.112. High intensity interval training with supplement had significant effects on insulin in diabetic male rats (0.000. Conclusion: .Based on the findings of this study, it seems that supplementation of Aloe vera with high intensity interval training can have better effects on serum insulin in diabetic rats.

  8. Anaerobic Digestion Analysis. Training Module 5.120.2.77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with alkalinity, volatile acids and carbon dioxide determinations for an anaerobic sludge digester. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers total and bicarbonate…

  9. High-intensity interval training improves obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Trine; Nes, Bjarne Martens; Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Engstrøm, Morten; Støylen, Asbjørn; Steinshamn, Sigurd

    2016-01-01

    Three hours per week of vigorous physical activity is found to be associated with reduced odds of sleep-disordered breathing. To investigate whether 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) reduced the apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) in obese subjects with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnoea. In a prospective randomised controlled exercise study, 30 (body mass index 37±6 kg/m 2 , age 51±9 years) patients with sleep apnoea (AHI 41.5±25.3 events/hour) were randomised 1:1 to control or 12 weeks of supervised HIIT (4×4 min of treadmill running or walking at 90%-95% of maximal heart rate two times per week). In the HIIT group, the AHI was reduced by 7.5±11.6 events/hour (within-group pHIIT improved the AHI and self-reported daytime sleepiness in subjects with obese sleep apnoea without any change in the desaturation index and body weight.

  10. A review of adolescent high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Greig R M; Harris, Nigel; Duncan, Scott; Schofield, Grant

    2014-08-01

    Despite the promising evidence supporting positive effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the metabolic profile in adults, there is limited research targeting adolescents. Given the rising burden of chronic disease, it is essential to implement strategies to improve the cardiometabolic health in adolescence, as this is a key stage in the development of healthy lifestyle behaviours. This narrative review summarises evidence of the relative efficacy of HIIT regarding the metabolic health of adolescents. Methodological inconsistencies confound our ability to draw conclusions; however, there is meaningful evidence supporting HIIT as a potentially efficacious exercise modality for use in the adolescent cohort. Future research must examine the effects of various HIIT protocols to determine the optimum strategy to deliver cardiometabolic health benefits. Researchers should explicitly show between-group differences for HIIT intervention and steady-state exercise or control groups, as the magnitude of difference between HIIT and other exercise modalities is of key interest to public health. There is scope for research to examine the palatability of HIIT as an exercise modality for adolescents through investigating perceived enjoyment during and after HIIT, and consequent long-term exercise adherence.

  11. Short and Long Term Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Hormones, Metabolites, Antioxidant System, Glycogen Concentration, and Aerobic Performance Adaptations in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    de Araujo, Gustavo G.; Papoti, Marcelo; dos Reis, Ivan Gustavo Masselli; de Mello, Maria A. R.; Gobatto, Claudio A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of short and long term High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on anaerobic and aerobic performance, creatinine, uric acid, urea, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, testosterone, corticosterone, and glycogen concentration (liver, soleus, and gastrocnemius). The Wistar rats were separated in two groups: HIIT and sedentary/control (CT). The lactate minimum (LM) was used to evaluate the aerobic and anaer...

  12. Continuous and high-intensity interval training: which promotes higher pleasure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno R R Oliveira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare the psychological responses to continuous (CT and high-intensity interval training (HIT sessions. METHODS: Fifteen men attended one CT session and one HIT session. During the first visit, the maximum heart rate, VO2Peak and respiratory compensation point (RCP were determined through a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. The HIT stimulus intensity corresponded to 100% of VO2Peak, and the average intensity of both sessions was maintained at 15% below the RCP. The order of the sessions was randomized. Psychological and physiological variables were recorded before, during and after each session. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the average percentages of VO2 during the two exercise sessions (HIT: 73.3% vs. CT: 71.8%; p = 0.779. Lower responses on the feeling scale (p≤0.01 and higher responses on the felt arousal scale (p≤0.001 and the rating of perceived exertion were obtained during the HIT session. Despite the more negative feeling scale responses observed during HIT and a greater feeling of fatigue (measured by Profile of Mood States afterwards (p<0.01, the physical activity enjoyment scale was not significantly different between the two conditions (p = 0.779. CONCLUSION: Despite the same average intensity for both conditions, similar psychological responses under HIT and CT conditions were not observed, suggesting that the higher dependence on anaerobic metabolism during HIT negatively influenced the feeling scale responses.

  13. Combined Interval Training and Post-exercise Nutrition in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Control Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Francois, Monique E.; Durrer, Cody; Pistawka, Kevin J.; Halperin, Frank A.; Chang, Courtney; Little, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) can improve several aspects of cardiometabolic health. Previous studies have suggested that adaptations to exercise training can be augmented with post-exercise milk or protein consumption, but whether this nutritional strategy can impact the cardiometabolic adaptations to HIIT in type 2 diabetes is unknown. Objective: To determine if the addition of a post-exercise milk or protein beverage to a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) interv...

  14. Investigating Aerobic, Anaerobic Combine Technical Trainings' Effects on Performance in Tennis Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suna, Gürhan; Kumartasli, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate eight-week aerobic, anaerobic combine technical trainings' effects on developments of performance. 21 athletes of tennis proficiency students from Sports Sciences Department were joined to the study voluntarily. Participated in the research athletes' ages' mean was 22,2 ± 0,3 year, lengths' mean was 177,3 ±…

  15. Menstrual Cycle Effects on Anaerobic Power, Muscular Strength, and Muscular Endurance in Trained and Untrained Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenburg, Beth S.; And Others

    A study determined if anaerobic power, isometric strength, and isometric endurance are affected by the menstrual cycle and if endurance trained females and untrained females are affected in the same manner on these performance parameters. Subjects were healthy, normally menstruating females, ages 18-34 years who were classified as either trained…

  16. Effects of Interval Training Programme on Resting Heart Rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DATONYE ALASIA

    Subjects with Hypertension: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Type of Article: Original ... Resting Heart Rate in Subjects with Hypertension — Lamina S. et al investigate the effect of interval .... changes in VO max) of interest. In the t-test. 2.

  17. Similar inflammatory responses following sprint interval training performed in hypoxia and normoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan James Richardson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sprint interval training (SIT is an efficient intervention capable of improving aerobic capacity and exercise performance. This experiment aimed to determine differences in training adaptations and the inflammatory responses following 2 weeks of SIT (30s maximal work, 4 min recovery; 4-7 repetitions performed in normoxia or hypoxia. Forty-two untrained participants [(mean ± SD, age 21 ±1 yrs, body mass 72.1 ±11.4 kg and height 173 ±10 cm] were equally and randomly assigned to one of three groups; control (CONT; no training, n = 14, normoxic (NORM; SIT in FiO2: 0.21, n = 14 and normobaric hypoxic (HYP; SIT in FiO2: 0.15, n = 14. Participants completed a V̇O2peak test, a time to exhaustion (TTE trial (power = 80% V̇O2peak and had haematological [haemoglobin (Hb, haematocrit (Hct] and inflammatory markers [interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα] measured in a resting state, pre and post SIT. V̇O2peak (mL.kg-1.min-1 improved in HYP (+11.9% and NORM (+9.8%, but not CON (+0.9%. Similarly TTE improved in HYP (+32.2% and NORM (+33.0%, but not CON (+3.4% whilst the power at the anaerobic threshold (AT; W.kg-1 also improved in HYP (+13.3% and NORM (+8.0%, but not CON (-0.3%. AT (mL.kg-1.min-1 improved in HYP (+9.5%, but not NORM (+5% or CON (-0.3%. No between group change occurred in 30 s sprint performance or Hb and Hct. IL-6 increased in HYP (+17.4% and NORM (+20.1%, but not CON (+1.2% respectively. TNF-α increased in HYP (+10.8% NORM (+12.9% and CON (+3.4%.SIT in HYP and NORM increased VO2peak, power at AT and TTE performance in untrained individuals, improvements in AT occurred only when SIT was performed in HYP. Increases in IL-6 and TNFα reflect a training induced inflammatory response to SIT; hypoxic conditions do not exacerbate this.

  18. Short-Term (<8 Weeks) High-Intensity Interval Training in Diseased Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, James E M; Doleman, Brett; Herrod, Philip J J; Ricketts, Samuel; Phillips, Bethan E; Lund, Jonathan N; Williams, John P

    2018-04-21

    Exercise training regimes can lead to improvements in measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), improved general health, and reduced morbidity and overall mortality risk. High intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a time-efficient approach to improve CRF in healthy individuals, but the relative benefits of HIIT compared to traditional training methods are unknown in across different disease cohorts. This systematic review and meta-analysis compares CRF gains in randomised controlled trials of short-term (HIIT vs. either no exercise control (CON) or moderate continuous exercise training (MCT) within diseased cohorts. Literature searches of the following databases were performed: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, and PubMed (all from inception to 1st December 2017), with further searches of Clinicaltrials.gov and citations via Google Scholar. Primary outcomes were effect upon CRF variables; VO2peak and Anaerobic Threshold (AT). Thirty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. HIIT resulted in a clinically significant increase in VO2peak compared with CON (mean difference (MD) 3.32 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min; 95% CI 2.56 to 2.08). Overall HIIT provided added benefit to VO2peak over MCT (MD 0.79 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min; 95% CI 0.20 to 1.39). The benefit of HIIT was most marked in patients with cardiovascular disease when compared to MCT (VO2peak (MD 1.66 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min; 95% CI 0.60 to 2.73); AT (MD 1.61 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min; 95% CI 0.33 to 2.90)). HIIT elicits improvements in objective measures of CRF within 8 weeks in diseased cohorts compared to no intervention. When compared to MCT, HIIT imparts statistically significant additional improvements in measures of CRF, with clinically important additional improvements in VO2peak in cardiovascular patients. Comparative efficacy of HIIT vs MCT combined with an often reduced time commitment may warrant HIIT's promotion as a viable clinical

  19. High Intensity Interval Training for Maximizing Health Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Trine; Aamot, Inger Lise; Haykowsky, Mark; Rognmo, Øivind

    2017-01-01

    Author's accepted version (post-print). Regular physical activity and exercise training are important actions to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and maintain health throughout life. There is solid evidence that exercise is an effective preventative strategy against at least 25 medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon and breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Traditionally, endurance exercise training (ET) to improve health related outcomes has consi...

  20. Effects of intermittent training on anaerobic performance and MCT transporters in athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoire Millet

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT on skeletal muscle monocarboxylate lactate transporter (MCT expression and anaerobic performance in trained athletes. Cyclists were assigned to two interventions, either normoxic (N; n = 8; 150 mmHg PIO2 or hypoxic (H; n = 10; ∼3000 m, 100 mmHg PIO2 over a three week training (5×1 h-1h30 x week(-1 period. Prior to and after training, an incremental exercise test to exhaustion (EXT was performed in normoxia together with a 2 min time trial (TT. Biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis were analyzed for MCT1 and MCT4 using immuno-blotting techniques. The peak power output (PPO increased (p<0.05 after training (7.2% and 6.6% for N and H, respectively, but VO2max showed no significant change. The average power output in the TT improved significantly (7.3% and 6.4% for N and H, respectively. No differences were found in MCT1 and MCT4 protein content, before and after the training in either the N or H group. These results indicate there are no additional benefits of IHT when compared to similar normoxic training. Hence, the addition of the hypoxic stimulus on anaerobic performance or MCT expression after a three-week training period is ineffective.

  1. Effect of the interval of training course on understanding of radiation safety and an improvement of re-training course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Yasuyo; Adachi, Akio

    2005-01-01

    Radiation safety training courses are indispensable educational programs for radiation workers. We have two kinds of courses, which are held before use of radioisotope (beginner's training course) and held annually (re-training course). The interval between two courses was found to give some effects for radiation worker's recognition and knowledge on radiation safety through the result of examination and questionnaire on the radiation safety after training. The average scores of participants indicated that the short interval (3 months) was better than the long interval (almost one year). Furthermore, the average scores of participants in the 2003 training course were higher than those in the 2002 and 2001 training courses. Several participants were found to lack in the basic radiation safety attitude and knowledge. In order to improve these results, the practical training should be given additionally for workers, who lacked in understanding. (author)

  2. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Leads to Greater Body Fat Loss in Overweight/Obese Women than High-Intensity Interval Training in Normoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Cardenosa, Alba; Camacho-Cardenosa, Marta; Burtscher, Martin; Martínez-Guardado, Ismael; Timon, Rafael; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Olcina, Guillermo

    2018-01-01

    A moderate hypoxic stimulus is considered a promising therapeutic modality for several pathological states including obesity. There is scientific evidence suggesting that when hypoxia and physical activity are combined, they could provide benefits for the obese population. The aim of the present study was to investigate if exposure to hypoxia combined with two different protocols of high-intensity interval exercise in overweight/obese women was more effective compared with exercise in normoxia. Study participants included 82 overweight/obese women, who started a 12 week program of 36 sessions, and were randomly divided into four groups: (1) aerobic interval training in hypoxia (AitH; FiO 2 = 17.2%; n = 13), (2) aerobic interval training in normoxia (AitN; n = 15), (3) sprint interval training in hypoxia (SitH; n = 15), and (4) sprint interval training in normoxia (SitN; n = 18). Body mass, body mass index, percentage of total fat mass, muscle mass, basal metabolic rate, fat, and carbohydrate oxidation, and fat and carbohydrate energy were assessed. Outcomes were measured at baseline (T1), after 18 training sessions (T2), 7 days after the last session (T3), and 4 weeks after the last session (T4). The fat mass in the SitH group was significantly reduced compared with the SitN group from T1 to T3 ( p Fat mass in the AitH group decreased significantly ( p fat mass, with a statistically significant reduction in the hypoxia groups ( p fat oxidation tended to increase and oxidation of carbohydrates tended to decrease in both hypoxia groups, the tendency was reversed in the normoxia groups. Thus, high-intensity interval training under normobaric intermittent hypoxia for 12 weeks in overweight/obese women seems to be promising for reducing body fat content with a concomitant increase in muscle mass.

  3. Interval training attenuates the metabolic disturbances in type 1 diabetes rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Ricelli Endrigo Ruppel; Coelho, Isabela; Pequito, Daniela Cristina T; Yamagushi, Adriana; Borghetti, Gina; Yamazaki, Ricardo Key; Brito, Gleisson Alisson Pereira de; Machado, Juliano; Kryczyk, Marcelo; Nunes, Everson Araújo; Venera, Graciela; Fernandes, Luiz Claudio

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of interval training on blood biochemistry and immune parameters in type 1 diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary (SE, n = 15), interval training (IT, n = 17), diabetic sedentary (DSE, n = 17), diabetic interval training (DIT, n = 17). Diabetes was induced by i.v. injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Swimming Interval Training consisted of 30-s exercise with 30-s rest, for 30 minutes, during 6 weeks, four times a week, with an overload of 15% of body mass. Plasma glucose, lactate, triacylglycerol and total cholesterol concentrations, phagocytic capacity, cationic vesicle content, and superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide production by blood neutrophils and peritoneal macrophages were evaluated. Proliferation of mesenteric lymphocytes was also estimated. Interval training resulted in attenuation of the resting hyperglycemic state and decreased blood lipids in the DIT group. Diabetes increased the functionality of blood neutrophils and peritoneal macrophages in the DSE group. Interval training increased all functionality parameters of peritoneal macrophages in the IT group. Interval training also led to a twofold increase in the proliferation of mesenteric lymphocytes after 6 weeks of exercise in the DIT group. Low-volume high-intensity physical exercise attenuates hyperglycemia and dislipidemia induced by type 1 diabetes, and induces changes in the functionality of innate and acquired immunity.

  4. High-Intensity Interval vs. Continuous Endurance Training: Preventive Effects on Hormonal Changes and Physiological Adaptations in Prediabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarimosavi, Saleh; Mohebbi, Hamid; Rohani, Hadi

    2018-06-22

    Safarimosavi, S, Mohebbi, H, and Rohani, H. High-intensity interval vs. continuous endurance training: Preventive effects on hormonal changes and physiological adaptations in prediabetes patients. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervention, or an isocaloric continuous endurance training (CET) intervention on insulin resistance indices and change in irisin and preptin in patients with prediabetes. Thirty-two prediabetic male patients (age = 38.7 ± 4; body mass index = 26.9 ± 1.4 kg·m; and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak = 2.49 ± 0.22 L·min) were randomly assigned into 3 training groups (N = 8). These groups were matched based on the required energy expenditure (EE) for completing each protocol: (a) HIIT (10 × 60 seconds at 90% peak oxygen uptake [V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak], 1: 1 work to recovery at 50 W), (b) CET at an intensity equivalent to maximal fat oxidation (Fatmax) (CETFAT) (pedaling for a duration that expends an equivalent EE to an HIIT session [E ≈ HIIT]), (c) CET at an intensity equivalent to anaerobic threshold (CETAT) (E ≈ HIIT), and (d) the control group (CON): continued to perform their daily activities. After intervention, blood glucose levels were significantly (p HIIT group compared with CETAT group. Exercise training improved the insulin resistance index by 35, 28, and 37% in CETFAT, CETAT, and HIIT groups, respectively. Irisin concentrations in the HIIT and CETAT groups was significantly (p HIIT and CETFAT resulted in significant (p HIIT and CETFAT protocols had similar effects on the insulin resistance index of prediabetic patients. Also, the intensity and type of exercise were effective factors in changing irisin and preptin concentrations.

  5. EXERCISE PERFORMANCE AND MUSCLE CONTRACTILE PROPERTIES AFTER CREATINE MONOHYDRATE SUPPLEMENTATION IN AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC TRAINING RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolay Boyadjiev

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on exercise performance and contractile variables in aerobic-anaerobic training rats. Twenty 90-day-old male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups - creatine (Cr and controls (K. The creatine group received creatine monohydrate as a nutritional supplement, whereas the control group was given placebo. Both groups were trained 5 days a week on a treadmill for 20 days in a mixed (aerobic-anaerobic metabolic working regimen (27 m·min-1, 15% elevation for 40 min. The exercise performance (sprint-test, contractile properties (m. tibialis anterior, oxidative enzyme activity (SDH, LDH, NADH2 in m. soleus and blood hematological and chemical variables were assessed in the groups at the end of the experiment. It was found out that creatine supplementation improved the exercise performance after 20 days of administration in a dose of 60 mg per day on the background of a mixed (aerobic-anaerobic exercise training. At the end of the trial the Cr-group demonstrated better values for the variables which characterize the contractile properties of m. tibialis anterior containing predominantly types IIA and IIB muscle fibers. On the other hand, a higher oxidative capacity was found out in m. soleus (type I muscle fibers as a result of 20-day creatine supplementation. No side effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation were assessed by the hematological and blood biochemical indices measured in this study

  6. Influence of two high-intensity intermittent training programmes on anaerobic capacity in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Buśko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the influence of a maximal effort training programme with variation of the pedalling rate on the anaerobic capacity, post-exercise maximal concentration of lactic acid (LA and acid-alkali balance changes in the capillary blood. Identification of the dependence between the lactic acid concentration and the anaerobic capacity produced in the Wingate test was also the goal. The hypothesis that cycloergometer training consisting of maximal efforts with a load equal to 10% of body weight (BW will elicit bigger changes of measured values in comparison to training with a load of 5% BW was verified. Twenty non-athletes, students of UPE took part in the study. They were divided into 2 groups. The first group (M10; n=9 performed maximal efforts with a load equal to 10% of body weight (BW. The second group (M5; n=11 performed maximal efforts with a load of 5% BW. Control measurements of anaerobic capacity (Wingate test were taken every Monday: before the test (0, during 4 weeks of training (1-4 and for 2 weeks after the test (5-6. Blood for the determination of lactic acid concentration and acid-alkali balance was taken from the fingertip before performing the Wingate test – in the 5th, 7th, 9th and 30th resting minute. Changes of maximal power (Pmax were not statistically significant in either group. Significant differences were found between the two groups after the second week of rest. For mean power (Pm the most important changes were noted in the first week from training (M10 – 6.5%; M5 – 11.0% No significant differences were found between groups. Average values of the individual LA concentration peak (the highest LA concentration occurring after the Wingate test for each individual changed significantly in group M10 from 15.233±2.367 mmol/l in the measurement made before training to 12.340±2.353 mmol/l in the measurement taken 2 weeks after training. Group M5 is characterised by a change of this factor

  7. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) for patients with chronic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Leanna M.; Porter, Ryan R.; Durstine, J. Larry

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training provides physiological benefits for both improving athletic performance and maintaining good health. Different exercise training modalities and strategies exist. Two common exercise strategies are high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MCT). HIIT was first used early in the 20th century and popularized later that century for improving performance of Olympic athletes. The primary premise underlying HIIT is that, compared t...

  8. Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2016-04-01

    Exercise mediates an excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress (OS). The body has natural antioxidant systems that help decrease OS, and these systems may be enhanced with exercise training. However, only a few studies have investigated the differences in resting OS and antioxidant capacity (AOC) between aerobically trained athletes (ET), anaerobically trained athletes (RT), and untrained individuals (UT). Therefore, this study sought to investigate the resting and postexercise OS and AOC in ET, RT, and UT. Sixty healthy young males (26.6±0.8 yr) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups, ET, RT, and UT by distinct training background. Resting plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) were not significantly different in ET, RT, and UT. However, MDA and PC were significantly increased following a graded exercise test (GXT) in UT but not in ET and RT. Resting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and TAC were not different in ET, RT, and UT. Interestingly, TAC levels significantly decreased after the GXT in all groups. Additionally, UT showed lower post-exercise TAC levels compared to ET and RT. These results showed that ET, RT, and UT have similar OS and AOC at rest. However, both ET and RT have greater AOC against exercise mediated OS compared to UT. These findings may explain, at least in part, why both aerobic and anaerobic types of exercise training improve redox balance. However, it appears there is no specific exercise type effect in terms of redox balance.

  9. The effects of chronic sodium bicarbonate ingestion and interval training in highly trained rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driller, Matthew W; Gregory, John R; Williams, Andrew D; Fell, James W

    2013-02-01

    Recent research has reported performance improvements after chronic NaHCO3 ingestion in conjunction with high-intensity interval training (HIT) in moderately trained athletes. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of altering plasma H+ concentration during HIT through NaHCO3 ingestion over 4 wk (2 HIT sessions/wk) in 12 Australian representative rowers (M ± SD; age 22 ± 3 yr, mass 76.4 ± 4.2 kg, VO(2peak) 65.50 ± 2.74 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)). Baseline testing included a 2,000-m time trial and an incremental exercise test. After baseline testing, rowers were allocated to either a chronic NaHCO3 (ALK) or placebo (PLA) group. Starting 90 min before each HIT session, subjects ingested a 0.3-g/kg body mass dose of NaHCO3 or a placebo substance. Fingertip blood samples were taken throughout the study to analyze bicarbonate and pH levels. The ALK group did not produce any additional improvements in 2,000-m rowing performance time compared with PLA (p > .05). Magnitude-based inferential analysis indicated an unclear or trivial effect on 2,000-m power, 2,000-m time, peak power output, and power at 4 mmol/L lactate threshold in the ALK group compared with the PLA group. Although there was no difference between groups, during the study there was a significant mean (± SD) 2,000-m power improvement in both the ALK and PLA groups of 17.8 ± 14.5 and 15.2 ± 18.3 W, respectively. In conclusion, despite overall improvements in rowing performance after 4 wk of HIT, the addition of chronic NaHCO3 supplementation during the training period did not significantly enhance performance further.

  10. Remote Sensing Tertiary Education Meets High Intensity Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, K. E.; White, B.

    2015-04-01

    Enduring a traditional lecture is the tertiary education equivalent of a long, slow, jog. There are certainly some educational benefits if the student is able to maintain concentration, but they are just as likely to get caught napping and fall off the back end of the treadmill. Alternatively, a pre-choreographed interactive workshop style class requires students to continually engage with the materials. Appropriately timed breaks or intervals allow students to recover briefly before being increasingly challenged throughout the class. Using an introductory remote sensing class at Charles Darwin University, this case study presents a transition from the traditional stand and deliver style lecture to an active student-led learning experience. The class is taught at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, with both on-campus as well as online distance learning students. Based on the concept that active engagement in learning materials promotes 'stickiness' of subject matter, the remote sensing class was re-designed to encourage an active style of learning. Critically, class content was reviewed to identify the key learning outcomes for the students. This resulted in a necessary sacrifice of topic range for depth of understanding. Graduates of the class reported high levels of enthusiasm for the materials, and the style in which the class was taught. This paper details a number of techniques that were used to engage students in active and problem based learning throughout the semester. It suggests a number of freely available tools that academics in remote sensing and related fields can readily incorporate into their teaching portfolios. Moreover, it shows how simple it can be to provide a far more enjoyable and effective learning experience for students than the one dimensional lecture.

  11. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Leads to Greater Body Fat Loss in Overweight/Obese Women than High-Intensity Interval Training in Normoxia

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    Alba Camacho-Cardenosa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A moderate hypoxic stimulus is considered a promising therapeutic modality for several pathological states including obesity. There is scientific evidence suggesting that when hypoxia and physical activity are combined, they could provide benefits for the obese population. The aim of the present study was to investigate if exposure to hypoxia combined with two different protocols of high-intensity interval exercise in overweight/obese women was more effective compared with exercise in normoxia. Study participants included 82 overweight/obese women, who started a 12 week program of 36 sessions, and were randomly divided into four groups: (1 aerobic interval training in hypoxia (AitH; FiO2 = 17.2%; n = 13, (2 aerobic interval training in normoxia (AitN; n = 15, (3 sprint interval training in hypoxia (SitH; n = 15, and (4 sprint interval training in normoxia (SitN; n = 18. Body mass, body mass index, percentage of total fat mass, muscle mass, basal metabolic rate, fat, and carbohydrate oxidation, and fat and carbohydrate energy were assessed. Outcomes were measured at baseline (T1, after 18 training sessions (T2, 7 days after the last session (T3, and 4 weeks after the last session (T4. The fat mass in the SitH group was significantly reduced compared with the SitN group from T1 to T3 (p < 0.05 and from T1 to T4 (p < 0.05 and muscle mass increased significantly from T1 to T4 (p < 0.05. Fat mass in the AitH group decreased significantly (p < 0.01 and muscle mass increased (p = 0.022 compared with the AitN group from T1 to T4. All training groups showed a reduction in the percentage of fat mass, with a statistically significant reduction in the hypoxia groups (p < 0.05. Muscle mass increased significantly in the hypoxia groups (p < 0.05, especially at T4. While fat oxidation tended to increase and oxidation of carbohydrates tended to decrease in both hypoxia groups, the tendency was reversed in the normoxia groups. Thus, high-intensity interval

  12. INTERVAL TRAINING IS INSUFFICIENT TO ATTENUATE METABOLIC DISTURBANCES IN DIABETIC RATS

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    Ricelli Endrigo Ruppel da Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Type 1 diabetes is a metabolic disease associated to blood disturbances and disorder of the innate immune system functionality. Objective: This study investigated the effect of two weeks interval training on blood biochemistry and immunological parameters in rats with type 1 diabetes. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sedentary (SE, n = 10, diabetic sedentary (DI, n = 10, diabetic interval training (DIT, n = 10. IV injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg induced diabetes. Interval training consisted of swimming exercise for 30 seconds with 30 seconds of rest for 30 minutes three times a week during two weeks, with an overload of 15% of the total body mass. The evaluations performed were fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol concentrations, phagocytic capacity, cationic vesicles content, superoxide anion, and production of hydrogen peroxide of blood neutrophils and peritoneal macrophages. Results: The results showed that two weeks interval training did not attenuate the hyperglycemic state at rest and did not decrease blood lipids in the DIT group. Diabetes increased the functionality of blood neutrophils and peritoneal macrophages in the DI group. Interval training increased the content of cationic vesicles and the phagocytic capacity of blood neutrophils and peritoneal macrophages in the DIT group. Conclusion: It was found that two weeks of interval training increased the functionality parameters of innate immune cells, although this has been insufficient to attenuate the biochemical disorders caused by diabetes.

  13. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients.

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    Nathalie M M Benda

    Full Text Available Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF. To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT. We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT in HF patients NYHA II-III on physical fitness, cardiovascular function and structure, and quality of life, and hypothesize that HIT leads to superior improvements compared to CT.Twenty HF patients (male:female 19:1, 64±8 yrs, ejection fraction 38±6% were allocated to 12-weeks of HIT (10*1-minute at 90% maximal workload-alternated by 2.5 minutes at 30% maximal workload or CT (30 minutes at 60-75% of maximal workload. Before and after intervention, we examined physical fitness (incremental cycling test, cardiac function and structure (echocardiography, vascular function and structure (ultrasound and quality of life (SF-36, Minnesota living with HF questionnaire (MLHFQ.Training improved maximal workload, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak related to the predicted VO2peak, oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold, and maximal oxygen pulse (all P<0.05, whilst no differences were present between HIT and CT (N.S.. We found no major changes in resting cardiovascular function and structure. SF-36 physical function score improved after training (P<0.05, whilst SF-36 total score and MLHFQ did not change after training (N.S..Training induced significant improvements in parameters of physical fitness, although no evidence for superiority of HIT over CT was demonstrated. No major effect of training was found on cardiovascular structure and function or quality of life in HF patients NYHA II-III.Nederlands Trial Register NTR3671.

  14. EFFECT OF HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING ON ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

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    Mona Mohamed Taha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postmenopausal hypertension is the most common risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As the exercises training conveys benefits of the setting of secondary prevention of hypertension. High intensity interval training (HIIT emerged as a new form of physical training and presents as therapeutic alternative to patients and health care professionals. This study aimed to investigate the effect of high intensity interval training on endothelial function in postmenopausal hypertension. Methods: Forty six mildly hypertensive postmenopausal women, their ages ranged from (45-55 years old, were randomly allocated to two groups: HIIT group (group-I; n=23 performed a high intensity interval training 3 times a week for 10 weeks at an intensity of (80-85% HR max for 40 minutes and control group (group-II; n=23 remains sedentary during this period. Serum nitric oxide (NO, vascular endothelial growth factor levels (VEGF and blood pressures were measured before and after intervention. Results: A significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values by 9.5% and 7 % respectively, was seen after high intensity interval training which was accompanied by increase in NO and VEGF levels by 43.3% and 15.2 % respectively, while no significant change observed in the control group. Conclusion: High intensity interval training had obvious benefits in improving plasma No, VEGF concentrations and controlling hypertension in postmenopausal women.

  15. Effects of self-paced interval and continuous training on health markers in women

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Luke J; Bailey, Stephen J; Krustrup, Peter; Fulford, Jonathan; Smietanka, Chris; Jones, Andrew M

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the effects of self-paced high-intensity interval and continuous cycle training on health markers in premenopausal women.METHODS: Forty-five inactive females were randomised to a high-intensity interval training (HIIT; n = 15), continuous training (CT; n = 15) or an inactive control (CON; n = 15) group. HIIT performed 5 × 5 min sets comprising repetitions of 30-s low-, 20-s moderate- and 10-s high-intensity cycling with 2 min rest between sets. CT completed 50 min of conti...

  16. Circulating adiponectin concentration and body composition are altered in response to high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shing, Cecilia M; Webb, Jessica J; Driller, Matthew W; Williams, Andrew D; Fell, James W

    2013-08-01

    Adiponectin influences metabolic adaptations that would prove beneficial to endurance athletes, and yet to date there is little known about the response of adiponectin concentrations to exercise, and, in particular, the response of this hormone to training in an athlete population. This study aimed to determine the response of plasma adiponectin concentrations to acute exercise after 2 different training programs and to determine the influence of the training on body composition. Seven state-level representative rowers (age: 19 ± 1.2 years [mean ± SD], height: 1.77 ± 0.10 m, body mass: 74.0 ± 10.7 kg, VO2peak 62.1 ± 7.0 ml·kg·min) participated in the double-blind, randomized crossover investigation. Rowers performed an incremental graded exercise test before and after completing 4 weeks of high-intensity interval ergometer training and 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training. Rowers' body composition was assessed at baseline and after each training program. Significant increases in plasma adiponectin concentration occurred in response to maximal exercise after completion of the high-intensity interval training (p = 0.016) but not after traditional ergometer rowing training (p = 0.69). The high-intensity interval training also resulted in significant increases in mean 4-minute power output (p = 0.002) and VO2peak (p = 0.05), and a decrease in body fat percentage (p = 0.022). Mean 4-minute power output, VO2peak, and body fat percentage were not significantly different after 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training (p > 0.05). Four weeks of high-intensity interval training is associated with an increase in adiponectin concentration in response to maximal exercise and a reduction in body fat percentage. The potential for changes in adiponectin concentration to reflect positive training adaptations and athlete performance level should be further explored.

  17. Physiological adaptations to interval training and the role of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnis, Martin J; Gibala, Martin J

    2017-05-01

    Interval exercise typically involves repeated bouts of relatively intense exercise interspersed by short periods of recovery. A common classification scheme subdivides this method into high-intensity interval training (HIIT; 'near maximal' efforts) and sprint interval training (SIT; 'supramaximal' efforts). Both forms of interval training induce the classic physiological adaptations characteristic of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) such as increased aerobic capacity (V̇O2 max ) and mitochondrial content. This brief review considers the role of exercise intensity in mediating physiological adaptations to training, with a focus on the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism. With respect to skeletal muscle adaptations, cellular stress and the resultant metabolic signals for mitochondrial biogenesis depend largely on exercise intensity, with limited work suggesting that increases in mitochondrial content are superior after HIIT compared to MICT, at least when matched-work comparisons are made within the same individual. It is well established that SIT increases mitochondrial content to a similar extent to MICT despite a reduced exercise volume. At the whole-body level, V̇O2 max is generally increased more by HIIT than MICT for a given training volume, whereas SIT and MICT similarly improve V̇O2 max despite differences in training volume. There is less evidence available regarding the role of exercise intensity in mediating changes in skeletal muscle capillary density, maximum stroke volume and cardiac output, and blood volume. Furthermore, the interactions between intensity and duration and frequency have not been thoroughly explored. While interval training is clearly a potent stimulus for physiological remodelling in humans, the integrative response to this type of exercise warrants further attention, especially in comparison to traditional endurance training. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  18. Effect of interval training on cognitive functioning and cerebral oxygenation in obese patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drigny, Joffrey; Gremeaux, Vincent; Dupuy, Olivier; Gayda, Mathieu; Bherer, Louis; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2014-11-01

    To assess the effect of a 4-month high-intensity interval training programme on cognitive functioning, cerebral oxygenation, central haemodynamic and cardiometabolic parameters and aerobic capacity in obese patients. Cognitive functioning, cerebral oxygenation, central haemodynamic, cardiometabolic and exercise para-meters were measured before and after a 4-month high-intensity interval training programme in 6 obese patients (mean age 49 years (standard deviation 8), fat mass percentage 31 ± 7%). Body composition (body mass, total and trunk fat mass, waist circumference) and fasting insulin were improved after the programme (p attention and processing speed, was significantly improved after training (p training (p training programme in obese patients improved both cognitive functioning and cere-bral oxygen extraction, in association with improved exercise capacity and body composition.

  19. Microvascular anastomosis simulation using a chicken thigh model: Interval versus massed training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeff, Stephen; Hernandez, Brian; Robinson, Derek J; Jameson, Mark J; Shonka, David C

    2017-11-01

    To compare the effectiveness of massed versus interval training when teaching otolaryngology residents microvascular suturing on a validated microsurgical model. Otolaryngology residents were placed into interval (n = 7) or massed (n = 7) training groups. The interval group performed three separate 30-minute practice sessions separated by at least 1 week, and the massed group performed a single 90-minute practice session. Both groups viewed a video demonstration and recorded a pretest prior to the first training session. A post-test was administered following the last practice session. At an academic medical center, 14 otolaryngology residents were assigned using stratified randomization to interval or massed training. Blinded evaluators graded performance using a validated microvascular Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill tool. The tool is comprised of two major components: task-specific score (TSS) and global rating scale (GRS). Participants also received pre- and poststudy surveys to compare subjective confidence in multiple aspects of microvascular skill acquisition. Overall, all residents showed increased TSS and GRS on post- versus pretest. After completion of training, the interval group had a statistically significant increase in both TSS and GRS, whereas the massed group's increase was not significant. Residents in both groups reported significantly increased levels of confidence after completion of the study. Self-directed learning using a chicken thigh artery model may benefit microsurgical skills, competence, and confidence for resident surgeons. Interval training results in significant improvement in early development of microvascular anastomosis skills, whereas massed training does not. NA. Laryngoscope, 127:2490-2494, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. The effects of high intensity interval training in normobaric hypoxia on aerobic capacity in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Miłosz; Zając, Adam; Maszczyk, Adam; Roczniok, Robert; Poprzęcki, Stanisław; Garbaciak, Wiesław; Zając, Tomasz

    2013-12-18

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of 3-week high intensity interval training in normobaric hypoxia (IHT) on aerobic capacity in basketball players. Twelve male well trained basketball players, randomly divided into a hypoxia (H) group (n=6; age: 22±1.6 years; VO2max: 52.6±3.9 ml/kg/min; body height - BH: 188.8±6.1 cm; body mass - BM: 83.9±7.2 kg; % of body fat - FAT%: 11.2±3.1%), and a control (C) group (n=6; age: 22±2.4 years; VO2max: 53.0±5.2 ml/kg/min; BH: 194.3 ± 6.6 cm; BM: 99.9±11.1 kg; FAT% 11.0±2.8 %) took part in the study. The training program applied during the study was the same for both groups, but with different environmental conditions during the selected interval training sessions. For 3 weeks, all subjects performed three high intensity interval training sessions per week. During the interval training sessions, the H group trained in a normobaric hypoxic chamber at a simulated altitude of 2500 m, while the group C performed interval training sessions under normoxia conditions also inside the chamber. Each interval running training sessions consisted of four to five 4 min bouts at 90% of VO2max velocity determined in hypoxia (vVO2max-hyp) for the H group and 90% of velocity at VO2max determined in normoxia for the group C. The statistical post-hoc analysis showed that the training in hypoxia caused a significant (ptraining in normoxia caused an increase (ptraining protocol with high intensity intervals (4 to 5 × 4 min bouts at 90% of vVO2max-hyp) is an effective training means for improving aerobic capacity at sea level in basketball players.

  1. High-intensity cycle interval training improves cycling and running performance in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxebarria, Naroa; Anson, Judith M; Pyne, David B; Ferguson, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Effective cycle training for triathlon is a challenge for coaches. We compared the effects of two variants of cycle high-intensity interval training (HIT) on triathlon-specific cycling and running. Fourteen moderately-trained male triathletes ([Formula: see text]O2peak 58.7 ± 8.1 mL kg(-1) min(-1); mean ± SD) completed on separate occasions a maximal incremental test ([Formula: see text]O2peak and maximal aerobic power), 16 × 20 s cycle sprints and a 1-h triathlon-specific cycle followed immediately by a 5 km run time trial. Participants were then pair-matched and assigned randomly to either a long high-intensity interval training (LONG) (6-8 × 5 min efforts) or short high-intensity interval training (SHORT) (9-11 × 10, 20 and 40 s efforts) HIT cycle training intervention. Six training sessions were completed over 3 weeks before participants repeated the baseline testing. Both groups had an ∼7% increase in [Formula: see text]O2peak (SHORT 7.3%, ±4.6%; mean, ±90% confidence limits; LONG 7.5%, ±1.7%). There was a moderate improvement in mean power for both the SHORT (10.3%, ±4.4%) and LONG (10.7%, ±6.8%) groups during the last eight 20-s sprints. There was a small to moderate decrease in heart rate, blood lactate and perceived exertion in both groups during the 1-h triathlon-specific cycling but only the LONG group had a substantial decrease in the subsequent 5-km run time (64, ±59 s). Moderately-trained triathletes should use both short and long high-intensity intervals to improve cycling physiology and performance. Longer 5-min intervals on the bike are more likely to benefit 5 km running performance.

  2. Musical training generalises across modalities and reveals efficient and adaptive mechanisms for reproducing temporal intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagten-Murphy, David; Cappagli, Giulia; Burr, David

    2014-03-01

    Expert musicians are able to time their actions accurately and consistently during a musical performance. We investigated how musical expertise influences the ability to reproduce auditory intervals and how this generalises across different techniques and sensory modalities. We first compared various reproduction strategies and interval length, to examine the effects in general and to optimise experimental conditions for testing the effect of music, and found that the effects were robust and consistent across different paradigms. Focussing on a 'ready-set-go' paradigm subjects reproduced time intervals drawn from distributions varying in total length (176, 352 or 704 ms) or in the number of discrete intervals within the total length (3, 5, 11 or 21 discrete intervals). Overall, Musicians performed more veridical than Non-Musicians, and all subjects reproduced auditory-defined intervals more accurately than visually-defined intervals. However, Non-Musicians, particularly with visual stimuli, consistently exhibited a substantial and systematic regression towards the mean interval. When subjects judged intervals from distributions of longer total length they tended to regress more towards the mean, while the ability to discriminate between discrete intervals within the distribution had little influence on subject error. These results are consistent with a Bayesian model that minimizes reproduction errors by incorporating a central tendency prior weighted by the subject's own temporal precision relative to the current distribution of intervals. Finally a strong correlation was observed between all durations of formal musical training and total reproduction errors in both modalities (accounting for 30% of the variance). Taken together these results demonstrate that formal musical training improves temporal reproduction, and that this improvement transfers from audition to vision. They further demonstrate the flexibility of sensorimotor mechanisms in adapting to

  3. High intensity aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen consumption in patients with metabolic syndrome: CAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Espinoza Salinas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A number of cardiovascular risk factors characterizes the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance (IR, low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides. The aforementioned risk factors lead to elevated levels of abdominal adipose tissue, resulting in oxygen consumption deficiency. Purpose To verify the validity and applicability of using high intensity interval training (HIIT in subjects with metabolic syndrome and to answer the following question: Can HIIT improve peak oxygen consumption? Method The systematic review "Effects of aerobic interval training on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in individuals with cardiometabolic disorders" was analyzed. Results Data suggests high intensity aerobic interval training increases peak oxygen consumption by a standardized mean difference of 3.60 mL/kg-1/min-1 (95% confidence interval, 0.28-4.91. Conclusion In spite of the methodological shortcomings of the primary studies included in the systematic review, we reasonably conclude that implementation of high intensity aerobic interval training in subjects with metabolic syndrome, leads to increases in peak oxygen consumption.

  4. Strength and hypertrophy responses to constant and decreasing rest intervals in trained men using creatine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Junior, Tácito P; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Bloomer, Richard; Leite, Richard D; Fleck, Steven J; Oliveira, Paulo R; Simão, Roberto

    2011-10-27

    The purpose of the current study was to compare strength and hypertrophy responses to resistance training programs that instituted constant rest intervals (CI) and decreasing rest intervals (DI) between sets over the course of eight weeks by trained men who supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CR). Twenty-two recreationally trained men were randomly assigned to a CI group (n = 11; 22.3 ± 1 years; 77.7 ± 5.4 kg; 180 ± 2.2 cm) or a DI group (n = 11; 22 ± 2.5 years; 75.8 ± 4.9 kg; 178.8 ± 3.4 cm). Subjects in both groups supplemented with CR; the only difference between groups was the rest interval instituted between sets; the CI group used 2 minutes rest intervals between sets and exercises for the entire 8-weeks of training, while the DI group started with a 2 minute rest interval the first two weeks; after which the rest interval between sets was decreased 15 seconds per week (i.e. 2 minutes decreasing to 30 seconds between sets). Pre- and post-intervention maximal strength for the free weight back squat and bench press exercises and isokinetic peak torque were assessed for the knee extensors and flexors. Additionally, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the right thigh and upper arm was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Both groups demonstrated significant increases in back squat and bench press maximal strength, knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torque, and upper arm and right thigh CSA from pre- to post-training (p ≤ 0.0001); however, there were no significant differences between groups for any of these variables. The total volume for the bench press and back squat were significantly greater for CI group versus the DI group. We report that the combination of CR supplementation and resistance training can increase muscular strength, isokinetic peak torque, and muscle CSA, irrespective of the rest interval length between sets. Because the volume of training was greater for the CI group versus the DI group, yet strength gains were

  5. Strength and hypertrophy responses to constant and decreasing rest intervals in trained men using creatine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleck Steven J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the current study was to compare strength and hypertrophy responses to resistance training programs that instituted constant rest intervals (CI and decreasing rest intervals (DI between sets over the course of eight weeks by trained men who supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CR. Methods Twenty-two recreationally trained men were randomly assigned to a CI group (n = 11; 22.3 ± 1 years; 77.7 ± 5.4 kg; 180 ± 2.2 cm or a DI group (n = 11; 22 ± 2.5 years; 75.8 ± 4.9 kg; 178.8 ± 3.4 cm. Subjects in both groups supplemented with CR; the only difference between groups was the rest interval instituted between sets; the CI group used 2 minutes rest intervals between sets and exercises for the entire 8-weeks of training, while the DI group started with a 2 minute rest interval the first two weeks; after which the rest interval between sets was decreased 15 seconds per week (i.e. 2 minutes decreasing to 30 seconds between sets. Pre- and post-intervention maximal strength for the free weight back squat and bench press exercises and isokinetic peak torque were assessed for the knee extensors and flexors. Additionally, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA of the right thigh and upper arm was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Results Both groups demonstrated significant increases in back squat and bench press maximal strength, knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torque, and upper arm and right thigh CSA from pre- to post-training (p ≤ 0.0001; however, there were no significant differences between groups for any of these variables. The total volume for the bench press and back squat were significantly greater for CI group versus the DI group. Conclusions We report that the combination of CR supplementation and resistance training can increase muscular strength, isokinetic peak torque, and muscle CSA, irrespective of the rest interval length between sets. Because the volume of training was greater for the

  6. High-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous training in the prevention/management of cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, S; Macaluso, A; Pearson, S

    2016-01-01

    Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has long been considered the most effective exercise treatment modality for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease, but more recently high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged into the clinical environment has been viewed as a potential alternative to MICT in accruing such benefits. HIIT was initially found to induce significant improvements in numerous physiological and health-related indices, to a similar if not superi...

  7. The effect of ratio and interval training on Pavlovian-instrumental transfer in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Wiltgen

    Full Text Available Conditional stimuli (CS that are paired with reward can be used to motivate instrumental responses. This process is called Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT. A recent study in rats suggested that habitual responses are particularly sensitive to the motivational effects of reward cues. The current experiments examined this idea using ratio and interval training in mice. Two groups of animals were trained to lever press for food pellets that were delivered on random ratio or random interval schedules. Devaluation tests revealed that interval training led to habitual responding while ratio training produced goal-directed actions. The presentation of CSs paired with reward led to positive transfer in both groups, however, the size of this effect was much larger in mice that were trained on interval schedules. This result suggests that habitual responses are more sensitive to the motivational influence of reward cues than goal-directed actions. The implications for neurobiological models of motivation and drug seeking behaviors are discussed.

  8. Effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren

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    Sergio Galdames-Maliqueo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The low levels of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max evaluated in Chilean schoolchildren suggest the startup of trainings that improve the aerobic capacity. Objective: To analyze the effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren. Materials and methods: Thirty-two high school students from the eighth grade, who were divided into two groups, were part of the study (experimental group = 16 students and control group = 16 students. The main analyzed variable was the maximum oxygen consumption through the Course Navette Test. A High-intensity Interval training method was applied based on the maximum aerobic speed obtained through the Test. A mixed ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results: The experimental group showed a significant increase in the Maximum Oxygen Consumption between the pretest and posttest when compared with the control group (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: The results of the study showed a positive effect of the High-intensity Interval Training on the maximum consumption of oxygen. At the end of the study, it is concluded that High-intensity Interval Training is a good stimulation methodology for Chilean schoolchildren.

  9. Effects of self-paced interval and continuous training on health markers in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Luke J; Bailey, Stephen J; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the effects of self-paced high-intensity interval and continuous cycle training on health markers in premenopausal women. METHODS: Forty-five inactive females were randomised to a high-intensity interval training (HIIT; n = 15), continuous training (CT; n = 15) or an inactive...... control (CON; n = 15) group. HIIT performed 5 × 5 min sets comprising repetitions of 30-s low-, 20-s moderate- and 10-s high-intensity cycling with 2 min rest between sets. CT completed 50 min of continuous cycling. Training was completed self-paced, 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. RESULTS: Peak oxygen...... uptake (16 ± 8 and 21 ± 12%), resting heart rate (HR) (-5 ± 9 and -4 ± 7 bpm) and visual and verbal learning improved following HIIT and CT compared to CON (P HIIT (P 

  10. Longer Work/Rest Intervals During High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) Lead to Elevated Levels of miR-222 and miR-29c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Boris; Rolfes, Florian; Schelleckes, Katrin; Mewes, Mirja; Thorwesten, Lothar; Krüger, Michael; Klose, Andreas; Brand, Stefan-Martin

    2018-01-01

    Aim: MicroRNA-222 (miR-222) and miR-29c have been identified as important modulators of cardiac growth and may protect against pathological cardiac remodeling. miR-222 and -29c may thus serve as functional biomarkers for exercise-induced cardiac adaptations. This investigation compared the effect of two workload-matched high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols with different recovery periods on miR-222 and -29c levels. Methods: Sixty-three moderately trained females and males (22.0 ± 1.7 years) fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were randomized into two HIIT groups using sex and exercise capacity. During a controlled 4-week intervention (two sessions/week) a 4 × 30 HIIT group performed 4 × 30 s runs (all-out, 30 s active recovery) and a 8 × 15 HIIT group performed 8 × 15 s runs (all-out, 15 s active recovery). miR-222 and -29c as well as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA levels were determined during high-intensity running as well as aerobic exercise using capillary blood from earlobes. Performance parameters were assessed using an incremental continuous running test (ICRT) protocol with blood lactate diagnostic and heart rate (HR) monitoring to determine HR recovery and power output at individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). Results: At baseline, acute exercise miR-222 and -29c levels were increased only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group (both p HIIT group (p HIIT group again no acute effect was observed. However, both HIIT interventions resulted in elevated resting miR-222 and -29c levels (all p 24% in both HIIT groups (both p ≤ 0.0002) speed at IAT was improved by 3.6% only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group (p HIIT can induce increased circulating levels of cardiac growth-associated miR-222 and -29c. miR-222 and miR-29c could be useful markers to monitor HIIT response in general and to identify optimal work/rest combinations. PMID:29719514

  11. Longer Work/Rest Intervals During High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) Lead to Elevated Levels of miR-222 and miR-29c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Boris; Rolfes, Florian; Schelleckes, Katrin; Mewes, Mirja; Thorwesten, Lothar; Krüger, Michael; Klose, Andreas; Brand, Stefan-Martin

    2018-01-01

    Aim: MicroRNA-222 (miR-222) and miR-29c have been identified as important modulators of cardiac growth and may protect against pathological cardiac remodeling. miR-222 and -29c may thus serve as functional biomarkers for exercise-induced cardiac adaptations. This investigation compared the effect of two workload-matched high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols with different recovery periods on miR-222 and -29c levels. Methods: Sixty-three moderately trained females and males (22.0 ± 1.7 years) fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were randomized into two HIIT groups using sex and exercise capacity. During a controlled 4-week intervention (two sessions/week) a 4 × 30 HIIT group performed 4 × 30 s runs (all-out, 30 s active recovery) and a 8 × 15 HIIT group performed 8 × 15 s runs (all-out, 15 s active recovery). miR-222 and -29c as well as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA levels were determined during high-intensity running as well as aerobic exercise using capillary blood from earlobes. Performance parameters were assessed using an incremental continuous running test (ICRT) protocol with blood lactate diagnostic and heart rate (HR) monitoring to determine HR recovery and power output at individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). Results: At baseline, acute exercise miR-222 and -29c levels were increased only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group (both p HIIT group ( p HIIT group again no acute effect was observed. However, both HIIT interventions resulted in elevated resting miR-222 and -29c levels (all p 24% in both HIIT groups (both p ≤ 0.0002) speed at IAT was improved by 3.6% only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group ( p HIIT can induce increased circulating levels of cardiac growth-associated miR-222 and -29c. miR-222 and miR-29c could be useful markers to monitor HIIT response in general and to identify optimal work/rest combinations.

  12. Interval-walking training for the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Winding, Kamilla; Knudsen, Sine H.

    Formål: To evaluate the feasibility of free-living walking training in type 2 diabetes patients, and to investigate the effects of interval-walking training (IWT) versus continuous-walking training (CWT) upon self reported health, physical fitness, body composition and glycemic control. Metoder...... alternated 3-min repetitions at low and high intensity. Before and after the 4-month intervention, the following variables were measured: Self-reported health, Physical fitness (VO2max), body composition, and glycemic control (fasting glucose, HbA1c, oral glucose tolerance test, continuous glucose monitoring...... [CGM]). Resultater: Training adherence was high (89 + 4%), and training energy expenditure and mean intensity were comparable between training groups. Nine and four of the subjects reported “Improved Health” in the IWT and CWT group, respectively. VO2max increased 16.1 + 3.7% in the IWT group (P

  13. High-intensity interval training (HIIT for patients with chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanna M. Ross

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training provides physiological benefits for both improving athletic performance and maintaining good health. Different exercise training modalities and strategies exist. Two common exercise strategies are high-intensity interval training (HIIT and moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MCT. HIIT was first used early in the 20th century and popularized later that century for improving performance of Olympic athletes. The primary premise underlying HIIT is that, compared to energy expenditure-matched MCT, a greater amount of work is performed at a higher intensity during a single exercise session which is achieved by alternating high-intensity exercise intervals with low-intensity exercise or rest intervals. Emerging research suggests that this same training method can provide beneficial effects for patients with a chronic disease and should be included in the comprehensive medical management plan. Accordingly, a major consideration in developing an individual exercise prescription for a patient with a chronic disease is the selection of an appropriate exercise strategy. In order to maximize exercise training benefits, this strategy should be tailored to the individual's need. The focus of this paper is to provide a brief summary of the current literature regarding the use of HIIT to enhance the functional capacity of individuals with cardiovascular, pulmonary, and diabetes diseases.

  14. Effects of high-intensity interval cycling performed after resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitkanou, S; Spengos, K; Stasinaki, A-N; Zaras, N; Bogdanis, G; Papadimas, G; Terzis, G

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week). Muscle strength and quadriceps CSA were significantly and similarly increased after both interventions. Fiber CSA increased significantly and similarly after both RE (type I: 13.6 ± 3.7%, type IIA: 17.6 ± 4.4%, type IIX: 23.2 ± 5.7%, P high-intensity interval cycling performed after heavy-resistance exercise may not inhibit resistance exercise-induced muscle strength/hypertrophy after 2 months of training, while it prompts aerobic capacity and muscle capillarization. The addition of high-intensity cycling after heavy-resistance exercise may decrease RFD partly due to muscle architectural changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. HORMONAL RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT REST INTERVALS DURING RESISTANCE TRAINING WITH LIGHT LOADS

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    Payam Mohamad-Panahi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to determine the appropriate rest time between sets during weight training with light load. Material: Seventeen cadet wrestlers (age =16.7В±0.6 yrs.; height =169.2В±8.2 cm; and weight =51.4В±7.9 kg were recruited from wrestling clubs in the Iranian province of Kurdistan and served as subjects in this study. This study was conducted over seven sessions with 48 hours recovery between sessions. In the first session, the characteristic features of subjects were recorded and the one repetition maximum in the bench press test was determined for each subject. On 6 separate occasions, subjects performed a 4 set of bench press at 60% 1RM with a 90 and 240 seconds rest interval until volitional fatigue. The numbers of repetition performed by the subjects, and also, cortisol and testosterone levels and 1RM were recorded. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the sustainability of repetitions during 4 sets bench press with 60 % load between 90 and 240 seconds rest intervals (rest interval effect (p<0.05 as well as with 90% load. Results: Additionally, there was a significant difference in the sustainability of repetitions during 4 sets bench press in 90 and 240 seconds rest intervals, both, between light and heavy loads (load effect. Plasma cortisol concentrations significantly increased after all bench press trials. Also, the rest interval effect was statistically significant in both 60 % and 90% load trials. But, the load effect was only statistically significant in 90 seconds rest interval trial (p<0.05. In contrast, plasma testosterone concentrations significantly increased after 4 sets bench press only in 90 seconds rest interval with heavy load and 240 seconds rest interval with light load (p<0.05. Accordingly, testosterone to cortisol (T:C ratio were significantly decreased after 4 sets bench press in 90 seconds rest interval with light load and 240 seconds rest interval with

  16. HORMONAL RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT REST INTERVALS DURING RESISTANCE TRAINING WITH LIGHT LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Mohamad-Panahi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to determine the appropriate rest time between sets during weight training with light load. Material: Seventeen cadet wrestlers (age =16.7±0.6 yrs.; height =169.2±8.2 cm; and weight =51.4±7.9 kg were recruited from wrestling clubs in the Iranian province of Kurdistan and served as subjects in this study. This study was conducted over seven sessions with 48 hours recovery between sessions. In the first session, the characteristic features of subjects were recorded and the one repetition maximum in the bench press test was determined for each subject. On 6 separate occasions, subjects performed a 4 set of bench press at 60% 1RM with a 90 and 240 seconds rest interval until volitional fatigue. The numbers of repetition performed by the subjects, and also, cortisol and testosterone levels and 1RM were recorded. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the sustainability of repetitions during 4 sets bench press with 60 % load between 90 and 240 seconds rest intervals (rest interval effect (p<0.05 as well as with 90% load. Results: Additionally, there was a significant difference in the sustainability of repetitions during 4 sets bench press in 90 and 240 seconds rest intervals, both, between light and heavy loads (load effect. Plasma cortisol concentrations significantly increased after all bench press trials. Also, the rest interval effect was statistically significant in both 60 % and 90% load trials. But, the load effect was only statistically significant in 90 seconds rest interval trial (p<0.05. In contrast, plasma testosterone concentrations significantly increased after 4 sets bench press only in 90 seconds rest interval with heavy load and 240 seconds rest interval with light load (p<0.05. Accordingly, testosterone to cortisol (T:C ratio were significantly decreased after 4 sets bench press in 90 seconds rest interval with light load and 240 seconds rest interval with heavy

  17. Comparison of Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Responses in Kettlebell High-Intensity Interval Training Versus Sprint Interval Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian M; Kraemer, Robert R

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a novel exercise protocol we developed for kettlebell high-intensity interval training (KB-HIIT) by comparing the cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to a standard sprint interval cycling (SIC) exercise protocol. Eight men volunteered for the study and completed 2 preliminary sessions, followed by two 12-minute sessions of KB-HIIT and SIC in a counterbalanced fashion. In the KB-HITT session, 3 circuits of 4 exercises were performed using a Tabata regimen. In the SIC session, three 30-second sprints were performed, with 4 minutes of recovery in between the first 2 sprints and 2.5 minutes of recovery after the last sprint. A within-subjects' design over multiple time points was used to compare oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), tidal volume (TV), breathing frequency (f), minute ventilation (VE), caloric expenditure rate (kcal·min), and heart rate (HR) between the exercise protocols. Additionally, total caloric expenditure was compared. A significant group effect, time effect, and group × time interaction were found for V[Combining Dot Above]O2, RER, and TV, with V[Combining Dot Above]O2 being higher and TV and RER being lower in the KB-HIIT compared with the SIC. Only a significant time effect and group × time interaction were found for f, VE, kcal·min, and HR. Additionally, total caloric expenditure was found to be significantly higher during the KB-HIIT. The results of this study suggest that KB-HIIT may be more attractive and sustainable than SIC and can be effective in stimulating cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses that could improve health and aerobic performance.

  18. Effects of Short-Interval and Long-Interval Swimming Protocols on Performance, Aerobic Adaptations, and Technical Parameters: A Training Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalamitros, Athanasios A; Zafeiridis, Andreas S; Toubekis, Argyris G; Tsalis, George A; Pelarigo, Jailton G; Manou, Vasiliki; Kellis, Spiridon

    2016-10-01

    Dalamitros, AA, Zafeiridis, AS, Toubekis, AG, Tsalis, GA, Pelarigo, JG, Manou, V, and Kellis, S. Effects of short-interval and long-interval swimming protocols on performance, aerobic adaptations, and technical parameters: A training study. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2871-2879, 2016-This study compared 2-interval swimming training programs of different work interval durations, matched for total distance and exercise intensity, on swimming performance, aerobic adaptations, and technical parameters. Twenty-four former swimmers were equally divided to short-interval training group (INT50, 12-16 × 50 m with 15 seconds rest), long-interval training group (INT100, 6-8 × 100 m with 30 seconds rest), and a control group (CON). The 2 experimental groups followed the specified swimming training program for 8 weeks. Before and after training, swimming performance, technical parameters, and indices of aerobic adaptations were assessed. ΙΝΤ50 and ΙΝΤ100 improved swimming performance in 100 and 400-m tests and the maximal aerobic speed (p ≤ 0.05); the performance in the 50-m swim did not change. Posttraining V[Combining Dot Above]O2max values were higher compared with pretraining values in both training groups (p ≤ 0.05), whereas peak aerobic power output increased only in INT100 (p ≤ 0.05). The 1-minute heart rate and blood lactate recovery values decreased after training in both groups (p training in both groups (p ≤ 0.05); no changes were observed in stroke rate after training. Comparisons between groups on posttraining mean values, after adjusting for pretraining values, revealed no significant differences between ΙΝΤ50 and ΙΝΤ100 for all variables; however, all measures were improved vs. the respective values in the CON (p training.

  19. Interval Running Training Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Aerobic Power of Young Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Solianik, Rima; Juodsnukis, Antanas; Streckis, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2016-08-01

    Venckunas, T, Snieckus, A, Trinkunas, E, Baranauskiene, N, Solianik, R, Juodsnukis, A, Streckis, V, and Kamandulis, S. Interval running training improves cognitive flexibility and aerobic power of young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2114-2121, 2016-The benefits of regular physical exercise may well extend beyond the reduction of chronic diseases risk and augmentation of working capacity, to many other aspects of human well-being, including improved cognitive functioning. Although the effects of moderate intensity continuous training on cognitive performance are relatively well studied, the benefits of interval training have not been investigated in this respect so far. The aim of the current study was to assess whether 7 weeks of interval running training is effective at improving both aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. For this purpose, 8 young dinghy sailors (6 boys and 2 girls) completed the interval running program with 200 m and 2,000 m running performance, cycling maximal oxygen uptake, and cognitive function was measured before and after the intervention. The control group consisted of healthy age-matched subjects (8 boys and 2 girls) who continued their active lifestyle and were tested in the same way as the experimental group, but did not complete any regular training. In the experimental group, 200 m and 2,000 m running performance and cycling maximal oxygen uptake increased together with improved results on cognitive flexibility tasks. No changes in the results of short-term and working memory tasks were observed in the experimental group, and no changes in any of the measured indices were evident in the controls. In conclusion, 7 weeks of interval running training improved running performance and cycling aerobic power, and were sufficient to improve the ability to adjust behavior to changing demands in young active individuals.

  20. Differential cardiac effects of aerobic interval training versus moderate continuous training in a patient with schizophrenia: a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eHerbsleb

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates for patients with schizophrenia are reported to contribute to their reduced life expectancy. Common reasons for increased cardiac mortality rates include cigarette smoking, obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes and poorer health behavior in general. The majority of excess mortality among people with schizophrenia is caused by cardiovascular complications. Reduced vagal activity might be one important mechanism leading to this increased cardiac mortality and has been consistently described in patients and their healthy first-degree relatives.In this case study, we compared two different aerobic exercise regimes in one patient with chronic schizophrenia to investigate their effects on cardiovascular regulation. The patient completed a 6-week period of moderate continuous training followed by a 6-week period of interval training, each regime 2 times per week, on a stationary bicycle. This was followed by a 6-week period of detraining. Primary outcome measures examined heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV at rest while secondary measures assessed fitness parameters such as the ventilatory threshold 1 (VT1. We observed that interval training was far more effective than moderate continuous training in increasing HRV, as indicated by RMSSD (improvement to baseline 27% vs. 18%, and reducing resting heart rate (-14% vs. 0%. Improvement in VT1 (21% vs. -1% was only observed after interval training. Our study provides preliminary data that the type of intervention is highly influential for improving cardiac function in patients with schizophrenia. While cardiovascular function might be influenced by continuous training to some degree, no such effect was present in this patient with schizophrenia. In addition, the beneficial effect of interval training on heart rate regulation vanished completely after a very short period of detraining after the intervention.

  1. High Intensity Interval Training in Handcycling: The Effects of a 7 Week Training Intervention in Able-bodied Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, Patrick; Reed, Kate; Van Der Woude, Luc; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In lower body endurance training, quantities of both moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) can lead to an improved physiological capacity and performance. Limited research is available regarding the endurance and muscular capacity of the upper body, and how training contributes to improvements in performance capacity is still unknown. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of HIIT and MICT on the physiological capacity and handcycling performance of able-bodied men in a well-controlled laboratory setting. Methods: Twenty four recreationally active men (22 ± 2 years; 1.84 ± 0.04 m; 79 ± 10 kg) were matched on incremental handcycling pre-test performance (peakPO) and then randomly assigned to HIIT, MICT, or a non-training control group (CON, 3 × n = 8). Participants in HIIT completed 14 interval training sessions, performing 4 × 4 min intervals at 85% heart rate reserve (%HRR), and seven continuous training sessions at 55 %HRR (every 2nd training session of the week). Participants in MICT performed 21 training sessions of 30 min at 55 %HRR. After the intervention, changes in peak oxygen uptake (peakVO 2 ) and peak power output (peakPO) were compared within and between HIIT, MICT and CON. Results: The average external training load per training session did not differ between MICT and HIIT ( p = 0.713). Improvements after HIIT in peakVO 2 (22.2 ± 8.1%) and peakPO (47.1 ± 20.7%) were significantly larger compared with MICT and CON ( p HIIT occurred despite training 22% less time than MICT. No significant changes were found in CON. Discussion: As in lower body endurance sports, HIIT proved to be very effective in improving the physiological and performance capacity of upper body exercise. Whilst physiological capacity in both training groups improved significantly compared with CON, the present study shows that peakVO 2 and peakPO improved more after HIIT than after MICT in able

  2. Salutary effects of high-intensity interval training in persons with elevated cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleg, Jerome L

    2016-01-01

    Although moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been the traditional model for aerobic exercise training for over four decades, a growing body of literature has demonstrated equal if not greater improvement in aerobic capacity and similar beneficial effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and quality of life from high-intensity interval training (HIIT). An advantage of HIIT over MICT is the shorter time required to perform the same amount of energy expenditure. The current brief review summarizes the effects of HIIT on peak aerobic capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults and those with various cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and post heart transplantation.

  3. CHANGES IN THE ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD IN AN ANNUAL CYCLE OF SPORT TRAINING OF YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Śliwowski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess changes in the anaerobic threshold of young soccer players in an annual training cycle. A group of highly trained 15-18 year old players of KKS Lech Poznań were tested. The tests included an annual training macrocycle, and its individual stages resulted from the time structure of the sports training. In order to assess the level of exercise capacities of the players, a field exercise test of increasing intensity was carried out on a soccer pitch. The test made it possible to determine the 4 millimolar lactate threshold (T LA 4 mmol · l-1 on the basis of the lactate concentration in blood [LA], to establish the threshold running speed and the threshold heart rate [HR]. The threshold running speed at the level of the 4 millimolar lactate threshold was established using the two-point form of the equation of a straight line. The obtained indicators of the threshold running speed allowed for precise establishment of effort intensity used in individual training in developing aerobic endurance. In order to test the significance of differences in mean values between four dates of tests, a non-parametric Friedman ANOVA test was used. The significance of differences between consecutive dates of tests was determined using a post-hoc Friedman ANOVA test. The tests showed significant differences in values of selected indicators determined at the anaerobic threshold in various stages of an annual training cycle of young soccer players. The most beneficial changes in terms of the threshold running speed were noted on the fourth date of tests, when the participants had the highest values of 4.01 m · s-1 for older juniors, and 3.80 m · s-1 for younger juniors. This may be indicative of effective application of an individualized programme of training loads and of good preparation of teams for competition in terms of players’ aerobic endurance.

  4. Effectiveness and Safety of High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Monique E.

    2015-01-01

    IN BRIEF Recent research has shown that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) can promote improvements in glucose control and cardiovascular health in individuals with type 2 diabetes. This article summarizes the evidence and highlights the ways in which HIIT might be safely implemented as an adjunct to more traditional exercise approaches. PMID:25717277

  5. Interval training by normobaric hypoxia accelerates the reinnervation of musculus extensor digitorum longus in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vardya, Irina; (Vard'ya); Mospanova, Svetlana V.

    2000-01-01

    Dokl Biol Sci. 2000 Mar-Apr;371:112-4. Interval training by normobaric hypoxia accelerates the reinnervation of musculus extensor digitorum longus in mice. Vard'ya IV , Mospanova SV , Portnov VV , Balezina OP , Koshelev VB . Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Moscow St...... State University, Russia. PMID: 10833635 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Udgivelsesdato: 2000...

  6. Effect of high-intensity interval and resistance training on cardiovascular risk factors in MS patients

    OpenAIRE

    Severijns, Tobias; Wijckmans, Ferdy

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of high-intensity interval plus resistance training (HIITR) on cardiovascular risk factors was studied through a quasi-experimental study. Outcome measures are: endurance capacity, body composition, physical activity level, isometric muscle strength, oral glucose tolerance, blood lipids and lipoprotein - cholesterol.

  7. Effect of endurance and high intensity interval swimming training on cardiac structure and Hand2 expression of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Gharaat

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: In the situation of the present study, both of Endurance and Interval training regimens increase Hand2 gene expression, heart weight and left ventricle weight. Because of the shorter training time, high intensity interval training can be more beneficial to be executed.

  8. Within-session responses to high-intensity interval training in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd Anthony; Thum, Jacob S

    2018-02-01

    Completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake and health status, yet its feasibility in persons with spinal cord injury is unknown. To compare changes in cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables between two interval training regimes and moderate intensity exercise. Nine adults with spinal cord injury (duration = 6.8 ± 6.2 year) initially underwent determination of peak oxygen uptake. During subsequent sessions, they completed moderate intensity exercise, HIIT, or sprint interval training. Oxygen uptake, heart rate, and blood lactate concentration were measured. Oxygen uptake and heart rate increased (p  0.05) to moderate intensity exercise. Peak oxygen uptake and heart rate were higher (p HIIT (90% peak oxygen uptake and 99% peak heart rate) and sprint interval training (80% peak oxygen uptake and 96% peak heart rate) versus moderate intensity exercise. Despite a higher intensity and peak cardiorespiratory strain, all participants preferred interval training versus moderate exercise. Examining long-term efficacy and feasibility of interval training in this population is merited, considering that exercise intensity is recognized as the most important variable factor of exercise programming to optimize maximal oxygen uptake. Implications for Rehabilitation Spinal cord injury (SCI) reduces locomotion which impairs voluntary physical activity, typically resulting in a reduction in peak oxygen uptake and enhanced chronic disease risk. In various able-bodied populations, completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been consistently reported to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and other health-related outcomes, although its efficacy in persons with SCI is poorly understood. Data from this study in 9 men and women with SCI show similar changes in oxygen uptake and heart in response to HIIT compared to a prolonged bout of aerobic exercise, although peak values were higher in response to HIIT. Due to

  9. Aerobic interval training reduces vascular resistances during submaximal exercise in obese metabolic syndrome individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Fernandez-Elias, V E; Morales-Palomo, F; Pallares, J G; Ramirez-Jimenez, M; Ortega, J F

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training (AIT) on exercise hemodynamics in metabolic syndrome (MetS) volunteers. Thirty-eight, MetS participants were randomly assigned to a training (TRAIN) or to a non-training control (CONT) group. TRAIN consisted of stationary interval cycling alternating bouts at 70-90% of maximal heart rate during 45 min day -1 for 6 months. CONT maintained baseline physical activity and no changes in cardiovascular function or MetS factors were detected. In contrast, TRAIN increased cardiorespiratory fitness (14% in VO 2PEAK ; 95% CI 9-18%) and improved metabolic syndrome (-42% in Z score; 95% CI 83-1%). After TRAIN, the workload that elicited a VO 2 of 1500 ml min -1 increased 15% (95% CI 5-25%; P exercise heart rate (109 ± 15-106 ± 13 beats min -1 ; P exercise in MetS patients. Specifically, it reduces diastolic blood pressure, systemic vascular resistances, and the double product. The reduction in double product, suggests decreased myocardial oxygen demands which could prevent the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events during exercise in this population. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT03019796.

  10. INFLUENCE OF TWO DIFFERENT REST INTERVAL LENGTHS IN RESISTANCE TRAINING SESSIONS FOR UPPER AND LOWER BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Senna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rest intervals between sets appear to be an important variable that can directly affect training volume and fatigue. The purpose of the present study was to compare the influence of two and five-minute rest intervals on the number of repetitions per set, per exercise and total repetitions in resistance training sessions. Fourteen trained men (23.0 ± 2. 2 yrs; 74.9 ± 4.1 kg; 1.75 ± 0.03 m completed three sets per exercise, with 10RM load in four training sessions. Two sessions involved lower body exercises (leg press, leg extension and leg curl, with two-minute (SEQA and with five-minute interval (SEQB. The other two sessions involved upper body exercises (bench press, pec-deck and triceps pulley, with two (SEQC and five-minute intervals (SEQD. For two-minute, five of six exercises presented reductions in the second set, compared with the first set, and for the third set compared with the first and second sets. For five-minute, three of the six exercises presented reductions in the third set, compared with the first sets, and two of the six for the third set, compared with the second sets. The total number of repetitions in SEQA (66.7 ± 4.9 was significantly smaller than in SEQB (80.9 ± 6.9. Similarly, the total repetitions was significantly lower in SEQC (71.1 ± 4.7 compared with SEQD (83.7 ± 6.1. The results indicate that the training session performance is reduced by shorter intervals, being the initial exercises less affected during the progression of the sets

  11. The effects of context and musical training on auditory temporal-interval discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banai, Karen; Fisher, Shirley; Ganot, Ron

    2012-02-01

    Non sensory factors such as stimulus context and musical experience are known to influence auditory frequency discrimination, but whether the context effect extends to auditory temporal processing remains unknown. Whether individual experiences such as musical training alter the context effect is also unknown. The goal of the present study was therefore to investigate the effects of stimulus context and musical experience on auditory temporal-interval discrimination. In experiment 1, temporal-interval discrimination was compared between fixed context conditions in which a single base temporal interval was presented repeatedly across all trials and variable context conditions in which one of two base intervals was randomly presented on each trial. Discrimination was significantly better in the fixed than in the variable context conditions. In experiment 2 temporal discrimination thresholds of musicians and non-musicians were compared across 3 conditions: a fixed context condition in which the target interval was presented repeatedly across trials, and two variable context conditions differing in the frequencies used for the tones marking the temporal intervals. Musicians outperformed non-musicians on all 3 conditions, but the effects of context were similar for the two groups. Overall, it appears that, like frequency discrimination, temporal-interval discrimination benefits from having a fixed reference. Musical experience, while improving performance, did not alter the context effect, suggesting that improved discrimination skills among musicians are probably not an outcome of more sensitive contextual facilitation or predictive coding mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise

  13. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Background Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. Objective The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Methods Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. Results The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. Conclusion In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise. PMID:24270864

  14. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira, E-mail: julipborges@gmail.com; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise.

  15. Changes in fat oxidation in response to various regimes of high intensity interval training (HIIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd Anthony; Schubert, Matthew M

    2018-01-01

    Increased whole-body fat oxidation (FOx) has been consistently demonstrated in response to moderate intensity continuous exercise training. Completion of high intensity interval training (HIIT) and its more intense form, sprint interval training (SIT), has also been reported to increase FOx in different populations. An explanation for this increase in FOx is primarily peripheral adaptations via improvements in mitochondrial content and function. However, studies examining changes in FOx are less common in response to HIIT or SIT than those determining increases in maximal oxygen uptake which is concerning, considering that FOx has been identified as a predictor of weight gain and glycemic control. In this review, we explored physiological and methodological issues underpinning existing literature concerning changes in FOx in response to HIIT and SIT. Our results show that completion of interval training increases FOx in approximately 50% of studies, with the frequency of increased FOx higher in response to studies using HIIT compared to SIT. Significant increases in β-HAD, citrate synthase, fatty acid binding protein, or FAT/CD36 are likely responsible for the greater FOx seen in these studies. We encourage scientists to adopt strict methodological procedures to attenuate day-to-day variability in FOx, which is dramatic, and develop standardized procedures for assessing FOx, which may improve detection of changes in FOx in response to HIIT.

  16. Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Trexler, Eric T; Wingfield, Hailee L; Blue, Malia N M

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate two practical interval training protocols on cardiorespiratory fitness, lipids and body composition in overweight/obese women. Thirty women (mean ± SD; weight: 88.1 ± 15.9 kg; BMI: 32.0 ± 6.0 kg · m(2)) were randomly assigned to ten 1-min high-intensity intervals (90%VO2 peak, 1 min recovery) or five 2-min high-intensity intervals (80-100% VO2 peak, 1 min recovery) or control. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), peak power output (PPO), body composition and fasting blood lipids were evaluated before and after 3 weeks of training, completed 3 days per week. Results from ANCOVA analyses demonstrated no significant training group differences for any primary variables (P > 0.05). When training groups were collapsed, 1MIN and 2MIN resulted in a significant increase in PPO (∆18.9 ± 8.5 watts; P = 0.014) and time to exhaustion (∆55.1 ± 16.4 s; P = 0.001); non-significant increase in VO2 peak (∆2.36 ± 1.34 ml · kg(-)(1) · min(-)(1); P = 0.185); and a significant decrease in fat mass (FM) (-∆1.96 ± 0.99 kg; P = 0.011). Short-term interval exercise training may be effective for decreasing FM and improving exercise tolerance in overweight and obese women.

  17. Long Term Effects of Different Training Modalities on Power, Speed, Skill and Anaerobic Capacity in Young Male Basketball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Balčiūnas, Mindaugas; Stonkus, Stanislovas; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of 4 months of different training modalities on power, speed, skill and anaerobic capacity in 15-16 year old male basketball players. Thirty five Lithuanian basketball players were randomly assigned into three groups: power endurance group (intermittent exercise, PE, n = 12), general endurance group (continuous exercise, GE, n = 11) and control group (regular basketball training, CG, n = 12). The power endurance model was based in basketbal...

  18. Concurrent fatigue and postactivation potentiation during extended interval training in long-distance runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ángel Latorre-Román

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze acute effect of running extended interval training(EIT on vertical jump (VJ and handgrip strength (HS performance in experienced endurance athletes. In order to analyze mechanical parameters of the VJ and HS between runs, sixteen experienced male athletes performed an EIT (4x3x400m. The results show that fatigue induced by EIT does not impair handgrip strength or VJ performance. A significant improvement (p< .05 was noted for VJ due to the postactivation potentiation (PAP phenomenon. A positive correlation (r= .619, p= .011 was found between VJ and lactate. The results suggest that experienced long-distance runners can maintain their strength levels and, consequently, work capacity, despite the induced fatigue by the field training demand. Therefore, VJ performance during EIT can be used as an indicator of muscular adaptations to training and, together, with handgrip strength, become indicators of fatigue. These indicators allow proper prescription training routines.

  19. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babraj, John A; Vollaard, Niels B J; Keast, Cameron

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function...... cycle sprints per session). Aerobic performance (250-kJ self-paced cycling time trial), and glucose, insulin and NEFA responses to a 75-g oral glucose load (oral glucose tolerance test; OGTT) were determined before and after training. RESULTS: Following 2 weeks of HIT, the area under the plasma glucose......, to substantially improve insulin action in young sedentary subjects is remarkable. This novel time-efficient training paradigm can be used as a strategy to reduce metabolic risk factors in young and middle aged sedentary populations who otherwise would not adhere to time consuming traditional aerobic exercise...

  20. Comparison between two types of anaerobic speed endurance training in competitive soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohr Magni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of additional in-season speed endurance production versus speed endurance maintenance training regimes on performance in competitive male soccer players. In a randomised controlled trial 18 male sub-elite players were exposed to additional speed endurance production (SEP or speed endurance maintenance (SEM training (two additional sessions/wk for 4 weeks during the competitive season. Players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test (YYIR2 and a repeated sprint test (RST pre- and post-intervention. Yo-Yo IR2 performance increased (p<0.001 by 50 ± 8% and 26 ± 5% in SEP and SEM, respectively, with greater (p=0.03 improvement in SEP. RST performance improved by 2.1 ± 0.3% and 1.3 ± 0.4% in SEP and SEM, respectively, while the RST fatigue index decreased (4.4 ± 0.8 to 3.4 ± 0.5%; p<0.04 in SEP only. Peak and average speed during training were higher (p<0.001 in SEP than in SEM (24.5 ± 0.3 vs 19.2 ± 0.3 and 15.5 ± 0.1 km·h-1 vs 9.4 ± 0.1 km·h-1. Additional in-season anaerobic speed endurance production and maintenance training improves high-intensity exercise performance in competitive soccer players with superior effects of speed endurance production training.

  1. IL-6, Antioxidant Capacity and Muscle Damage Markers Following High-Intensity Interval Training Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Cipryan, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate changes of interleukin-6 (IL-6), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and muscle damage markers (creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) in response to three different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols of identical external work. Twelve moderately-trained males participated in the three HIIT trials which consisted of a warm-up, followed by 12 min of 15 s, 30 s or 60 s HIIT sequences with the work/rest ratio...

  2. Effects of high-intensity strength interval training program on body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Juránková, Michaela; Bílý, Jiří; Hrazdíra, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine effects of 10-week high-intensity strength interval training (HIIT) program on body composition. Seven women (31.0 ± 6.0 years old, 65.7 ± 9.8 kg body weight, 23.6 ± 2.8 kg*m−2 BMI, 18.6 ± 5.8 kg body fat, 26.0 ± 3.4 kg muscle mass) completed intervention program. We performed an analyze of body composition before and after training program. We focused especially on body fat and muscle mass. Each session consisted of short term bouts (until 30 s duration) w...

  3. High-intensity interval training improves insulin sensitivity in older individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, D; Lund, M T; Scheuer, C M

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Metabolic health may deteriorate with age as a result of altered body composition and decreased physical activity. Endurance exercise is known to counter these changes delaying or even preventing onset of metabolic diseases. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time efficient...... alternative to regular endurance exercise, and the aim of this study was to investigate the metabolic benefit of HIIT in older subjects. METHODS: Twenty-two sedentary male (n = 11) and female (n = 11) subjects aged 63 ± 1 years performed HIIT training three times/week for 6 weeks on a bicycle ergometer. Each...... HIIT session consisted of five 1-minute intervals interspersed with 1½-minute rest. Prior to the first and after the last HIIT session whole-body insulin sensitivity, measured by a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, plasma lipid levels, HbA1c, glycaemic parameters, body composition and maximal oxygen...

  4. The effect of angiotensin converting enzyme genotype on aerobic capacity following high intensity interval training

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, N; Baker, M.D; Higgins, T; Cobbold, C

    2014-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Physical activity can reduce T2DM and CVD risk, and increase aerobic capacity, a significant predictor of all-cause mortality and morbidity. High intensity interval training (HIIT) produces similar improvements in aerobic capacity to continuous moderate exercise (CME). Different genotypes of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) have been implicated in improving aerobic capacity and theref...

  5. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Increasing Explosive Power, Speed, and Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajrin, F.; Kusnanik, N. W.; Wijono

    2018-01-01

    High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is a type of exercise that combines high-intensity exercise and low intensity exercise in a certain time interval. This type of training is very effective and efficient to improve the physical components. The process of improving athletes achievement related to how the process of improving the physical components, so the selection of a good practice method will be very helpful. This study aims to analyze how is the effects of HIIT on increasing explosive power, speed, and agility. This type of research is quantitative with quasi-experimental methods. The design of this study used the Matching-Only Design, with data analysis using the t-test (paired sample t-test). After being given the treatment for six weeks, the results showed there are significant increasing in explosive power, speed, and agility. HIIT in this study used a form of exercise plyometric as high-intensity exercise and jogging as mild or moderate intensity exercise. Increase was due to the improvement of neuromuscular characteristics that affect the increase in muscle strength and performance. From the data analysis, researchers concluded that, Exercises of High Intensity Interval Training significantly effect on the increase in Power Limbs, speed, and agility.

  6. The Chronic Effect of Interval Training on Energy Intake: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Taylor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Single bouts of acute exercise do not appear to increase subsequent energy intake (EI, even when energy deficit is large. However, studies have shown a compensatory effect on EI following chronic exercise, and it remains unclear whether this is affected by exercise intensity. We investigated the chronic effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT and sprint interval training (SIT on EI when compared with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT or no exercise (CON. Databases were searched until 13 March 2017 for studies measuring EI in response to chronic exercise (≥4 weeks of duration of a high-intensity interval nature. Meta-analysis was conducted for between-group comparisons on EI (kilojoules and bodyweight (kg. Results showed large heterogeneity, and therefore, metaregression analyses were conducted. There were no significant differences in EI between HIIT/SIT versus MICT (P=0.282, HIIT/SIT versus CON (P=0.398, or MICT versus CON (P=0.329. Although bodyweight was significantly reduced after HIIT/SIT versus CON but not HIIT/SIT versus MICT (in studies measuring EI, this was not clinically meaningful (<2% mean difference. In conclusion, there is no compensatory increase in EI following a period of HIIT/SIT compared to MICT or no exercise. However, this review highlights important methodological considerations for future studies.

  7. High-intensity interval training induces a modest systemic inflammatory response in active, young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwetsloot, Kevin A; John, Casey S; Lawrence, Marcus M; Battista, Rebecca A; Shanely, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine: 1) the extent to which an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases systemic inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and 2) whether 2 weeks of HIIT training alters the inflammatory response. Eight recreationally active males (aged 22±2 years) performed 2 weeks of HIIT on a cycle ergometer (six HIIT sessions at 8–12 intervals; 60-second intervals, 75-second active rest) at a power output equivalent to 100% of their predetermined peak oxygen uptake (VO2max). Serum samples were collected during the first and sixth HIIT sessions at rest and immediately, 15, 30, and 45 minutes post-exercise. An acute session of HIIT induced significant increases in interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared with rest. The concentrations of interferon-γ, granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, and IL-1β were unaltered with an acute session of HIIT Two weeks of training did not alter the inflammatory response to an acute bout of HIIT exercise. Maximal power achieved during a VO2max test significantly increased 4.6%, despite no improvements in VO2max after 2 weeks of HIIT. These data suggest that HIIT exercise induces a small inflammatory response in young, recreationally active men; however, 2 weeks of HIIT does not alter this response. PMID:24520199

  8. TO COMPARE THE EFFECTS OF SPRINT AND PLYOMETRIC TRAINING PROGRAM ON ANAEROBIC POWER AND AGILITY IN COLLEGIATE MALE FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vadivelan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Football is the world’s most popular game and is played by men, women and children of all ages and levels of ability. Success as a player requires an appropriate mixture of mental, physical, technical and tactical ability. Many decisive moments are defined by anaerobic activities such as sprinting, jumping & contests for the football. Agility is an ability of the neuromuscular system to coordinate explosive changes of direction of an individual and/or multiple body segments in all planes of motion. Plyometric Training has been advocated for sports that require the athletes to have explosive power and agility. Similarly previous sprint training studies have shown improvement in the dynamic athletic lower body performance. Advanced technique such as plyometric training protocol has proven more effective but not much studies have been done to assess its effectiveness over Plyometric Training, namely Lower Body Power and Agility Methods: A total of 30 collegiate football players were taken with a mean age of 21.5 with a standard deviation of one. They were randomized into two groups (Group A – Sprint Training & Group B – Plyometric Training. Each group consist of 15 players were selected based on their selection criteria. Informed consent was obtained from the subjects. The study was conducted for six weeks (12 sessions with both the Groups. Evolution parameters are vertical jump height, 40 yard dash, illinois agility Test. Results: Independent t test was used to analysis data. On comparing VJH, Plyometric Training shows (49.26 which have the higher mean value is more effective than Sprint Training (44.93.On comparing Anaerobic power Plyometric Training shows (4150.8 which has the higher Mean value is more effective than Sprint Training (3782.4, on comparing 40 yard dash Plyometric Training shows (5.335 which has the lower Mean value is more effective than Sprint Training (5.490. Illinois Agility Test Plyometric Training shows (15

  9. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT MODELS OF SWIMMING TRAINING (DEFINED IN RELATION TO ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD ON THE INCREASE OF SWIM SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available On the sample of 32 fourth grade students of some Belgrade highs schools, who had the physical education classes carried out at the city’s swimming pools, an attempt was made to evaluate the effects of the two different programmes of swimming training in different intensity zones, defi ned relative to the anaerobic threshold. The examinees were divided into two groups out of 15 i.e. 17 participants who were not (according to statistics signifi cantly different in terms of average time and heart frequency during the 400 m swimming test and heart frequency and time measured after 50 m in the moment of reaching the anaerobic threshold. The fi rst training model consisted of swimming at the intensity level within the zone below anaerobic threshold, while the second model involved occasional swimming at a higher intensity sometimes surpassing the anaerobic threshold. The experimentalprogramme with both sub-groups lasted 8 weeks with 3 training sessions per week, 2 ‘of which we’re identical for both experimental groups, with the third one differing regarding the swimming intensity, this in the fi rst group being still in the zone below, and in the second group occasionally in the zone above the anaerobic threshold. The amount of training and the duration were the same in both programmes. The aim of the research , was to evaluate and to compare the effects of the two training models, using as the basic criteria possible changes of average time and heart frequency during the 400 m swimming test and heart frequency and time measured after 50 m in the moment of reaching the anaerobic thereshold. On the basis of the statistical analysis of the obtained data, it is possible to conclude that in both experimental groups there were statistically signifi cant changes of average values concerning all the physiological variables. Although the difference in effi ciency of applied experimental programmes is not defi ned, we can claim that both of experimental

  10. High-Intensity Interval Training, Appetite, and Reward Value of Food in the Obese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia; Aschehoug, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Studies on the effect of chronic interval training on appetite in the obese population are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 wk of isocaloric programs of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT), or short......-duration HIIT on subjective feelings of appetite, appetite-related hormones, and reward value of food in sedentary obese individuals. METHODS: Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women and 16 men), with a body mass index of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg·m and age of 34.4 ± 8.8 yr, were randomly assigned to one...... of the three training groups: MICT (n = 14), HIIT (n = 16), or short-duration HIIT (n = 16). Exercise was performed three times per week for 12 wk. Subjective feelings of appetite and plasma levels of acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1 were measured before and after a standard...

  11. Light-intensity and high-intensity interval training improve cardiometabolic health in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Connolly, Kylie J; Fenning, Andrew S

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity has the potential to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors but evaluation of different intensities of physical activity and the mechanisms behind their health effects still need to be fully established. This study examined the effects of sedentary behaviour, light-intensity training, and high-intensity interval training on biometric indices, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats. Rats (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control (CTL; no exercise), sedentary (SED; no exercise and housed in small cages to reduce activity), light-intensity trained (LIT; four 30-min exercise bouts/day at 8 m/min separated by 2-h rest period, 5 days/week), and high-intensity interval trained (HIIT, four 2.5-min work bouts/day at 50 m/min separated by 3-min rest periods, 5 days/week). After 12 weeks of intervention, SED had greater visceral fat accumulation (p HIIT demonstrated beneficial changes in body weight, visceral and epididymal fat weight, glucose regulation, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and mesenteric vessel contractile response compared with the CTL group (p HIIT had significant improvements in systolic blood pressure and endothelium-independent vasodilation to aorta and mesenteric artery compared with the CTL group (p HIIT induce health benefits by improving traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. LIT improves cardiac health while HIIT promotes improvements in vascular health.

  12. High-intensity interval training improves inflammatory and adipokine profiles in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckling, Flávia Mariel; Farinha, Juliano Boufleur; Figueiredo, Felipe da Cunha; Santos, Daniela Lopes Dos; Bresciani, Guilherme; Kretzmann, Nélson Alexandre; Stefanello, Sílvio Terra; Courtes, Aline Alves; Beck, Maristela de Oliveira; Sangoi Cardoso, Manuela; Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura; Moresco, Rafael Noal; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes

    2018-02-12

    This study investigate the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on systemic levels of inflammatory and hormonal markers in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MS). Fifteen postmenopausal women with MS completed the training on treadmills. Functional, body composition parameters, maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max), and lipid profile were assessed before and after HIIT. Serum or plasma levels of cytokines and hormonal markers were measured along the intervention. The analysis of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of these cytokines was performed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). VO 2 max and some anthropometric parameters were improved after HIIT, while decreased levels of proinflammatory markers and increased levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) were also found. Adipokines were also modulated after 12 weeks or training. The mRNA expression of the studied genes was unchanged after HIIT. In conclusion, HIIT benefits inflammatory and hormonal axis on serum or plasma samples, without changes on PBMC of postmenopausal MS patients.

  13. Longer Work/Rest Intervals During High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT Lead to Elevated Levels of miR-222 and miR-29c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Schmitz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: MicroRNA-222 (miR-222 and miR-29c have been identified as important modulators of cardiac growth and may protect against pathological cardiac remodeling. miR-222 and -29c may thus serve as functional biomarkers for exercise-induced cardiac adaptations. This investigation compared the effect of two workload-matched high-intensity interval training (HIIT protocols with different recovery periods on miR-222 and -29c levels.Methods: Sixty-three moderately trained females and males (22.0 ± 1.7 years fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were randomized into two HIIT groups using sex and exercise capacity. During a controlled 4-week intervention (two sessions/week a 4 × 30 HIIT group performed 4 × 30 s runs (all-out, 30 s active recovery and a 8 × 15 HIIT group performed 8 × 15 s runs (all-out, 15 s active recovery. miR-222 and -29c as well as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1 mRNA levels were determined during high-intensity running as well as aerobic exercise using capillary blood from earlobes. Performance parameters were assessed using an incremental continuous running test (ICRT protocol with blood lactate diagnostic and heart rate (HR monitoring to determine HR recovery and power output at individual anaerobic threshold (IAT.Results: At baseline, acute exercise miR-222 and -29c levels were increased only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group (both p < 0.01, pre- vs. post-exercise. After the intervention, acute exercise miR-222 levels were still increased in the 4 × 30 HIIT group (p < 0.01, pre- vs. post-exercise while in the 8 × 15 HIIT group again no acute effect was observed. However, both HIIT interventions resulted in elevated resting miR-222 and -29c levels (all p < 0.001, pre- vs. post-intervention. Neither of the two miRNAs were elevated at any ICRT speed level at baseline nor follow-up. While HR recovery was improved by >24% in both HIIT groups (both p ≤ 0.0002 speed at IAT was improved by 3.6% only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group

  14. High-Intensity Interval Training Increases Cardiac Output and V˙O2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Edmunds, Ross M; Clark, Amy; King, Leesa; Gallant, Rachael A; Namm, Samantha; Fischer, Anthony; Wood, Kimi M

    2017-02-01

    Increases in maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) frequently occur with high-intensity interval training (HIIT), yet the specific adaptation explaining this result remains elusive. This study examined changes in V˙O2max and cardiac output (CO) in response to periodized HIIT. Thirty-nine active men and women (mean age and V˙O2max = 22.9 ± 5.4 yr and 39.6 ± 5.6 mL·kg·min) performed HIIT and 32 men and women (age and V˙O2max = 25.7 ± 4.5 yr and 40.7 ± 5.2 mL·kg·min) were nonexercising controls (CON). The first 10 sessions of HIIT required eight to ten 60 s bouts of cycling at 90%-110% percent peak power output interspersed with 75 s recovery, followed by randomization to one of three regimes (sprint interval training (SIT), high-volume interval training (HIITHI), or periodized interval training (PER) for the subsequent 10 sessions. Before, midway, and at the end of training, progressive cycling to exhaustion was completed during which V˙O2max and maximal CO were estimated. Compared with CON, significant (P HIIT + SIT (39.8 ± 7.3 mL·kg·min to 43.6 ± 6.1 mL·kg·min), HIIT + HIITHI (41.1 ± 4.9 mL·kg·min to 44.6 ± 7.0 mL·kg·min), and HIIT + PER (39.5 ± 5.6 mL·kg·min to 44.1 ± 5.4 mL·kg·min) occurred which were mediated by significant increases in maximal CO (20.0 ± 3.1 L·min to 21.7 ± 3.2 L·min, P = 0.04). Maximal stroke volume was increased with HIIT (P = 0.04), although there was no change in maximal HR (P = 0.88) or arteriovenous O2 difference (P = 0.36). These CO data are accurate and represent the mean changes from pre- to post-HIIT across all three training groups. Increases in V˙O2max exhibited in response to different HIIT regimes are due to improvements in oxygen delivery.

  15. Effects of self-paced interval and continuous training on health markers in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Luke J; Bailey, Stephen J; Krustrup, Peter; Fulford, Jonathan; Smietanka, Chris; Jones, Andrew M

    2017-11-01

    To compare the effects of self-paced high-intensity interval and continuous cycle training on health markers in premenopausal women. Forty-five inactive females were randomised to a high-intensity interval training (HIIT; n = 15), continuous training (CT; n = 15) or an inactive control (CON; n = 15) group. HIIT performed 5 × 5 min sets comprising repetitions of 30-s low-, 20-s moderate- and 10-s high-intensity cycling with 2 min rest between sets. CT completed 50 min of continuous cycling. Training was completed self-paced, 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. Peak oxygen uptake (16 ± 8 and 21 ± 12%), resting heart rate (HR) (-5 ± 9 and -4 ± 7 bpm) and visual and verbal learning improved following HIIT and CT compared to CON (P HIIT (P HIIT and CT, and there were no changes in fasting serum lipids, fasting blood [glucose] or [glucose] during an oral glucose tolerance test following either HIIT or CT (P > 0.05). No outcome variable changed in the CON group (P > 0.05). Twelve weeks of self-paced HIIT and CT were similarly effective at improving cardiorespiratory fitness, resting HR and cognitive function in inactive premenopausal women, whereas blood pressure, submaximal HR, well-being and body mass adaptations were training-type-specific. Both training methods improved established health markers, but the adaptations to HIIT were evoked for a lower time commitment.

  16. High-intensity interval training using whole-body exercises: training recommendations and methodological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Alexandre F; Baker, Julien S; Figueira Junior, Aylton J; Bocalini, Danilo S

    2017-05-04

    HIIT whole body (HWB)-based exercise is a new calisthenics exercise programme approach that can be considered an effective and safe method to improve physical fitness and body composition. HWB is a method that can be applied to different populations and ages. The purpose of this study was to describe possible methodologies for performing physical training based on whole-body exercise in healthy subjects. The HWB sessions consist of a repeated stimulus based on high-intensity exercise that also include monitoring time to effort, time to recuperation and session time. The exercise intensity is related to the maximal number of movements possible in a given time; therefore, the exercise sessions can be characterized as maximal. The intensity can be recorded using ratings of perceived exertion. Weekly training frequency and exercise selection should be structured according to individual subject functional fitness. Using this simple method, there is potential for greater adherence to physical activity which can promote health benefits to all members of society. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effect of Jump Interval Training on Kinematics of the Lower Limbs and Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ache-Dias, Jonathan; Pupo, Juliano Dal; Dellagrana, Rodolfo A; Teixeira, Anderson S; Mochizuki, Luis; Moro, Antônio R P

    2018-02-01

    Ache-Dias, J, Pupo, JD, Dellagrana, RA, Teixeira, AS, Mochizuki, L, and Moro, ARP. Effect of jump interval training on kinematics of the lower limbs and running economy. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 416-422, 2017-This study analyzed the effects of the addition of jump interval training (JIT) to continuous endurance training (40-minute running at 70% of peak aerobic velocity, 3 times per week for 4 weeks) on kinematic variables and running economy (RE) during submaximal constant-load running. Eighteen recreational runners, randomized into control group (CG) or experimental group (EG) performed the endurance training. In addition, the EG performed the JIT twice per week, which consisted of 4-6 bouts of continuous vertical jumping (30 seconds) with 5-minute intervals. The oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) during the submaximal test (performed at 9 km·h) was similar before (EG: 38.48 ± 2.75 ml·kg·min; CG: 36.45 ± 2.70 ml·kg·min) and after training (EG: 37.42 ± 2.54 ml·kg·min; CG: 35.81 ± 3.10 ml·kg·min). No effect of training, group, or interaction (p > 0.05) was found for RE. There was no interaction or group effect for the kinematic variables (p > 0.05). Most of the kinematic variables had a training effect for both groups (support time [p ≤ 0.05]; step rate [SR; p ≤ 0.05]; and step length [SL; p ≤ 0.05]). In addition, according to the practical significance analysis (percentage chances of a better/trivial/worse effect), important effects in leg stiffness (73/25/2), vertical stiffness (73/25/2), SR (71/27/2), and SL (64/33/3) were found for the EG. No significant relationship between RE and stiffness were found for EG and CG. In conclusion, the results suggest that JIT induces important changes in the kinematics of the lower limbs of recreational runners, but the changes do not affect RE.

  18. [Effect of high-intensity interval training on the reduction of glycosylated hemoglobin in type-2 diabetic adult patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera Eguía, Raúl Alberto; Russell Guzmán, Javier Antonio; Soto Muñoz, Marcelo Enrique; Villegas González, Bastián Eduardo; Poblete Aro, Carlos Emilio; Ibacache Palma, Alejandro

    2015-03-05

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the major non-communicable chronic diseases in the world. Its prevalence in Chile is significant, and complications associated with this disease involve great costs, which is why prevention and treatment of this condition are essential. Physical exercise is an effective means for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The emergence of new forms of physical training, such as "high intensity interval training", presents novel therapeutic alternatives for patients and health care professionals. To assess the validity and applicability of the results regarding the effectiveness of high intensity interval training in reducing glycosylated hemoglobin in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and answer the following question: In subjects with type 2 diabetes, can the method of high intensity interval training compared to moderate intensity exercise decrease glycosylated hemoglobin? We performed a critical analysis of the article "Feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of high intensity interval training in type 2 diabetes". We found no significant differences in the amount of glycosylated hemoglobin between groups of high intensity interval training and moderate-intensity exercise upon completion of the study (p>0.05). In adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, high intensity interval training does not significantly improve glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Despite this, the high intensity interval training method shows as much improvement in body composition and physical condition as the moderate intensity exercise program.

  19. Combined Interval Training and Post-exercise Nutrition in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique E. Francois

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-intensity interval training (HIIT can improve several aspects of cardiometabolic health. Previous studies have suggested that adaptations to exercise training can be augmented with post-exercise milk or protein consumption, but whether this nutritional strategy can impact the cardiometabolic adaptations to HIIT in type 2 diabetes is unknown.Objective: To determine if the addition of a post-exercise milk or protein beverage to a high-intensity interval training (HIIT intervention improves cardiometabolic health in individuals with type 2 diabetes.Design: In a proof-of-concept, double-blind clinical trial 53 adults with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes were randomized to one of three nutritional beverages (500 mL skim-milk, macronutrient control, or flavored water placebo consumed after exercise (3 days/week during a 12 week low-volume HIIT intervention. HIIT involved 10 X 1-min high-intensity intervals separated by 1-min low-intensity recovery periods. Two sessions per week were cardio-based (at ~90% of heart rate max and one session involved resistance-based exercises (at RPE of 5–6; CR-10 scale in the same interval pattern. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, cardiorespiratory fitness (V˙O2peak, blood pressure, and endothelial function (%FMD were measured before and after the intervention.Results: There were significant main effects of time (all p < 0.05 but no difference between groups (Interaction: all p > 0.71 for CGM 24-h mean glucose (−0.5 ± 1.1 mmol/L, HbA1c (−0.2 ± 0.4%, percent body fat (−0.8 ± 1.6%, and lean mass (+1.1 ± 2.8 kg. Similarly, V˙O2peak (+2.5 ± 1.6 mL/kg/min and %FMD (+1.4 ± 1.9% were increased, and mean arterial blood pressure reduced (−6 ± 7 mmHg, after 12 weeks of HIIT (all p < 0.01 with no difference between beverage groups (Interaction: all p > 0.11.Conclusion: High-intensity interval training is a

  20. Combined Interval Training and Post-exercise Nutrition in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Monique E; Durrer, Cody; Pistawka, Kevin J; Halperin, Frank A; Chang, Courtney; Little, Jonathan P

    2017-01-01

    Background: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) can improve several aspects of cardiometabolic health. Previous studies have suggested that adaptations to exercise training can be augmented with post-exercise milk or protein consumption, but whether this nutritional strategy can impact the cardiometabolic adaptations to HIIT in type 2 diabetes is unknown. Objective: To determine if the addition of a post-exercise milk or protein beverage to a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervention improves cardiometabolic health in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Design: In a proof-of-concept, double-blind clinical trial 53 adults with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes were randomized to one of three nutritional beverages (500 mL skim-milk, macronutrient control, or flavored water placebo) consumed after exercise (3 days/week) during a 12 week low-volume HIIT intervention. HIIT involved 10 X 1-min high-intensity intervals separated by 1-min low-intensity recovery periods. Two sessions per week were cardio-based (at ~90% of heart rate max) and one session involved resistance-based exercises (at RPE of 5-6; CR-10 scale) in the same interval pattern. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), cardiorespiratory fitness ([Formula: see text]), blood pressure, and endothelial function (%FMD) were measured before and after the intervention. Results: There were significant main effects of time (all p 0.71) for CGM 24-h mean glucose (-0.5 ± 1.1 mmol/L), HbA 1c (-0.2 ± 0.4%), percent body fat (-0.8 ± 1.6%), and lean mass (+1.1 ± 2.8 kg). Similarly, [Formula: see text] (+2.5 ± 1.6 mL/kg/min) and %FMD (+1.4 ± 1.9%) were increased, and mean arterial blood pressure reduced (-6 ± 7 mmHg), after 12 weeks of HIIT (all p 0.11). Conclusion: High-intensity interval training is a potent stimulus for improving several important metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes. The benefits

  1. Physiological, Perceptual, and Affective Responses to Six High-Intensity Interval Training Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follador, Lucio; Alves, Ragami C; Ferreira, Sandro Dos S; Buzzachera, Cosme F; Andrade, Vinicius F Dos S; Garcia, Erick D S de A; Osiecki, Raul; Barbosa, Sara C; de Oliveira, Letícia M; da Silva, Sergio G

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the extent to which different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) protocols could influence psychophysiological responses in moderately active young men. Fourteen participants completed, in a randomized order, three cycling protocols (SIT: 4 × 30-second all-out sprints; Tabata: 7 × 20 seconds at 170% ⋮O 2max ; and HIIT: 10 × 60 seconds at 90% HR max ) and three running HIIT protocols (4 × 4 minutes at 90%-95% HR max , 5 × at v⋮O 2max , and 4 × 1,000 meters at a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 8, from the OMNI-Walk/Run scale). Oxygen uptake (⋮O 2 ), heart rate, and RPE were recorded during each interval. Affective responses were assessed before and after each trial. The Tabata protocol elicited the highest ⋮O 2 and RPE responses, and the least pleasant session-affect among the cycling trials. The v⋮O 2max elicited the highest ⋮O 2 and RPE responses and the lowest mean session-affect among the running trials. Findings highlight the limited application of SIT and some HIIT protocols to individuals with low fitness levels.

  2. Short- or long-rest intervals during repeated-sprint training in soccer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaia, F. Marcello; Fiorenza, Matteo; Larghi, Luca; Alberti, Giampietro; Millet, Grégoire P.; Girard, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of two repeated-sprint training (RST) programs, differing in duration of the between-sprint rest intervals, on various soccer-related exercise performances. For 5 weeks during the competitive season, twenty-nine young trained male soccer players either replaced two of their habitual fitness conditioning sessions with RST characterized by short (5–15; n = 9) or long (5–30; n = 10) rest intervals, or served as control (n = 10). The 5–15 and 5–30 protocols consisted of 6 repetitions of 30-m (~5 s) straight-line sprints interspersed with 15 s or 30 s of passive recovery, respectively. 5–15 improved 200-m sprint time (2.0±1.5%; pRecovery Test Level 2 increased following 5–15 (11.4±5.0%; psoccer players, RST over a 5-week in-season period is an efficient means to simultaneously develop different components of fitness relevant to match performance, with different benefits induced by shorter compared to longer rest intervals. PMID:28199402

  3. Detection of bursts in neuronal spike trains by the mean inter-spike interval method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Chen; Yong Deng; Weihua Luo; Zhen Wang; Shaoqun Zeng

    2009-01-01

    Bursts are electrical spikes firing with a high frequency, which are the most important property in synaptic plasticity and information processing in the central nervous system. However, bursts are difficult to identify because bursting activities or patterns vary with phys-iological conditions or external stimuli. In this paper, a simple method automatically to detect bursts in spike trains is described. This method auto-adaptively sets a parameter (mean inter-spike interval) according to intrinsic properties of the detected burst spike trains, without any arbitrary choices or any operator judgrnent. When the mean value of several successive inter-spike intervals is not larger than the parameter, a burst is identified. By this method, bursts can be automatically extracted from different bursting patterns of cultured neurons on multi-electrode arrays, as accurately as by visual inspection. Furthermore, significant changes of burst variables caused by electrical stimulus have been found in spontaneous activity of neuronal network. These suggest that the mean inter-spike interval method is robust for detecting changes in burst patterns and characteristics induced by environmental alterations.

  4. A combined continuous and interval aerobic training improves metabolic syndrome risk factors in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari-Sarraf V

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vahid Sari-Sarraf,1 Akbar Aliasgarzadeh,2 Mohammad-Mahdi Naderali,3 Hamid Esmaeili,1 Ebrahim K Naderali4 1Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tabriz, 2Bone Research Centre, Endocrine Unit, Department of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3The School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, 4Faculty of Science, Liverpool Hope University, Liverpool, UK Abstract: Individuals with metabolic syndrome have significantly higher risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes leading to premature death mortality. Metabolic syndrome has a complex etiology; thus, it may require a combined and multi-targeted aerobic exercise regimen to improve risk factors associated with it. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined continuous and interval aerobic training on patients with metabolic syndrome. Thirty adult male with metabolic syndrome (54±8 years were randomly divided into two groups: test training group (TTG; n=15 and control group (CG; n=15. Subjects in TTG performed combined continuous and interval aerobic training using a motorized treadmill three times per week for 16 weeks. Subjects in CG were advised to continue with their normal activities of life. Twenty-two men completed the study (eleven men in each group. At the end of the study, in TTG, there were significant (for all, P<0.05 reductions in total body weight (-3.2%, waist circumference (-3.43 cm, blood pressure (up to -12.7 mmHg, and plasma insulin, glucose, and triacylglyceride levels. Moreover, there were significant (for all, P<0.05 increases VO2max (-15.3% and isometric strength of thigh muscle (28.1% and high-density lipoprotein in TTG. None of the above indices were changed in CG at the end of 16-week study period. Our study suggests that adoption of a 16-week combined continuous and interval aerobic training regimen in men

  5. Affective Responses to Repeated Sessions of High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saanijoki, Tiina; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Savolainen, Anna M; Vahlberg, Tero; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2015-12-01

    Vigorous exercise feels unpleasant, and negative emotions may discourage adherence to regular exercise. We quantified the subjective affective responses to short-term high-intensity interval training (HIT) in comparison with moderate-intensity continuous training (MIT). Twenty-six healthy middle-age (mean age, 47 ± 5 yr; mean VO2peak, 34.2 ± 4.1 mL·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) sedentary men were randomized into HIT (n = 13, 4-6 × 30 s of all-out cycling efforts at approximately 180% of peak workload with 4-min recovery) or MIT (n = 13, 40- to 60-min continuous cycling at 60% of peak workload) groups, performing six sessions within two weeks. Perceived exertion, stress, and affective state were recorded before, during, and after each session. Perceived exertion and arousal were higher, and affective state, more negative during the HIT than that during MIT sessions (P training. Peak oxygen consumption increased (P training). Short-term HIT and MIT are equally effective in improving aerobic fitness, but HIT increases experience of negative emotions and exertion in sedentary middle-age men. This may limit the adherence to this time-effective training mode, even though displeasure lessens over time and suggests similar mental adaptations to both MIT and HIT.

  6. High Intensity Interval Training Reduces the Levels of Serum Inflammatory Cytokine on Women with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckling, F M; Farinha, J B; Santos, D L D; Bresciani, G; Mortari, J A; Stefanello, S T; Courtes, A A; Duarte, T; Duarte, M M M F; Moresco, R N; Cardoso, M S; Soares, F A A

    2016-11-01

    Objectives: This study investigate the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) and 2 weeks of detraining in functional and body composition parameters, lipoproteins, glucose metabolismand inflammation markers in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MS). Design: 17 untrained women with MS underwent a HIIT program for 12 weeks. Methods: The training was performed in treadmills, 3 days per week, with intensity ranging from 70-90% of the maximum heart rate (HR max ) and 2 weeks untrained (inactive). Functional and body composition parameters were evaluated before and after the training, while maximal oxygen uptake, lipoprotein and inflammation markers were analyzed before, after training and also in detraining. Results: The HITT program resulted in changesparameters as glucose, HbA1cand NOx after training. In addition, a reduction in pro-inflammatory interleukins and an increase in IL-10 after the HIIT program were found. However, an increase in plasma levels of lipoprotein was found and body composition parameters remain unaltered.Besides, only 2 weeks of detraining are able to revert the effects on inflammatory parameters afforded by the HIIT program. Conclusions: The HIIT program used here positively affected inflammatory profile and other parameters, as glucose, HbA1cand NOx, on postmenopausal women with MS. Moreover, 2 weeks of detraining can reverse the beneficial effects of HIIT program. Our results point out the necessity to aply acontinuous HITT program, in order maintain the benefits detected, to post menopausal women with MS. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Effects of 6-month aerobic interval training on skeletal muscle metabolism in middle-aged metabolic syndrome patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guadalupe-Grau, A; Fernández-Elías, V E; Ortega, J F

    2018-01-01

    Aerobic interval training (AIT) improves the health of metabolic syndrome patients (MetS) more than moderate intensity continuous training. However, AIT has not been shown to reverse all metabolic syndrome risk factors, possibly due to the limited duration of the training programs. Thus, we...

  8. Neuromuscular and blood lactate responses to squat power training with different rest intervals between sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorelli, André; Bottaro, Martim; Vieira, Amilton; Rocha-Júnior, Valdinar; Cadore, Eduardo; Prestes, Jonato; Wagner, Dale; Martorelli, Saulo

    2015-06-01

    Studies investigating the effect of rest interval length (RI) between sets on neuromuscular performance and metabolic response during power training are scarce. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare maximal power output, muscular activity and blood lactate concentration following 1, 2 or 3 minutes RI between sets during a squat power training protocol. Twelve resistance-trained men (22.7 ± 3.2 years; 1.79 ± 0.08 cm; 81.8 ± 11.3 kg) performed 6 sets of 6 repetitions of squat exercise at 60% of their 1 repetition maximum. Peak and average power were obtained for each repetition and set using a linear position transducer. Muscular activity and blood lactate were measured pre and post-exercise session. There was no significant difference between RI on peak power and average power. However, peak power decreased 5.6%, 1.9%, and 5.9% after 6 sets using 1, 2 and 3 minutes of RI, respectively. Average power also decreased 10.5% (1 min), 2.6% (2 min), and 4.3% (3 min) after 6 sets. Blood lactate increased similarly during the three training sessions (1-min: 5.5 mMol, 2-min: 4.3 mMol, and 3-min: 4.0 mMol) and no significant changes were observed in the muscle activity after multiple sets, independent of RI length (pooled ES for 1-min: 0.47, 2-min: 0.65, and 3-min: 1.39). From a practical point of view, the results suggest that 1 to 2 minute of RI between sets during squat exercise may be sufficient to recover power output in a designed power training protocol. However, if training duration is malleable, we recommend 2 min of RI for optimal recovery and power output maintenance during the subsequent exercise sets. Key pointsThis study demonstrates that 1 minute of RI between sets is sufficient to maintain maximal power output during multiple sets of a power-based exercise when it is composed of few repetitions and the sets are not performed until failure. Therefore, a short RI should be considered when designing training programs for the development of

  9. Interval training elicits higher enjoyment versus moderate exercise in persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Thum, Jacob S

    2018-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) is a robust and time-efficient approach to improve multiple health indices including maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max). Despite the intense nature of HIIT, data in untrained adults report greater enjoyment of HIIT versus continuous exercise (CEX). However, this has yet to be investigated in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). To examine differences in enjoyment in response to CEX and HIIT in persons with SCI. Repeated measures, within-subjects design. University laboratory in San Diego, CA. Nine habitually active men and women (age = 33.3 ± 10.5 years) with chronic SCI. Participants performed progressive arm ergometry to volitional exhaustion to determine VO 2 peak. During subsequent sessions, they completed CEX, sprint interval training (SIT), or HIIT in randomized order. Physical activity enjoyment (PACES), affect, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), VO 2 , and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Despite a higher VO 2 , RPE, and BLa consequent with HIIT and SIT (P HIIT (107.4 ± 13.4) and SIT (103.7 ± 12.5) compared to CEX (81.6 ± 25.4). Fifty-five percent of participants preferred HIIT and 45% preferred SIT, with none identifying CEX as their preferred exercise mode. Compared to CEX, brief sessions of submaximal or supramaximal interval training elicit higher enjoyment despite higher metabolic strain. The long-term efficacy and feasibility of HIIT in this population should be explored considering that it is not viewed as more aversive than CEX.

  10. The Effects of Aerobic and Anaerobic Training Programs Applied to Elite Wrestlers on Body Mass Index (BMI) and Blood Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Nurcan; Özbay, Serhat; Kaya, Fatih

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the effects of aerobic and anaerobic training programs applied to elite wrestlers on body mass index (BMI) and blood lipids. 20 elite wrestlers, whose average age is (experimental group; 15.20 ± 4.61, n = 10), control group; 15.90 ± 2.08, n = 10), participated in the study and they were randomly divided into…

  11. Implementation of interval walking training in patients with type 2 diabetes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Thomsen, Reimar W; Berencsi, Klara

    2016-01-01

    Promoting physical activity is a first-line choice of treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, there is a need for more effective tools and technologies to facilitate structured lifestyle interventions and to ensure a better compliance, sustainability, and health benefits...... of exercise training in patients with T2D. The InterWalk initiative and its innovative application (app) for smartphones described in this study were developed by the Danish Centre for Strategic Research in T2D aiming at implementing, testing, and validating interval walking in patients with T2D in Denmark...

  12. High-Intensity Interval Training as a Tool for Counteracting Dyslipidemia in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Cristian; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Martinez-Salazar, Cristian; Castillo, Angélica; Gallardo, Francisco; Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes

    2018-05-01

    Sedentary overweight or obese adult (agehigh-intensity interval training (HIIT) program. Triglycerides reduced significantly ( P high-density lipoprotein increased ( P body composition improved ( P <0.05) in all groups. The HIIT program was effective for restoring lipid profile of DYS and DYSHG, and fasting glucose of DYSHG to levels similar to those of CON, with a weekly time commitment 25% to 56% lower than the minimum recommended in current exercise guidelines. These findings suggest that HIIT may be a time-efficient intervention for counteracting dyslipidemia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Influence of taekwondo as security martial arts training on anaerobic threshold, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lactate recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Young; Seo, Byoung-Do; Choi, Pan-Am

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to determine the influence of Taekwondo as security martial arts training on anaerobic threshold, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lactate recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen healthy university students were recruited and divided into an exercise group and a control group (n = 7 in each group). The subjects who participated in the experiment were subjected to an exercise loading test in which anaerobic threshold, value of ventilation, oxygen uptake, maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate were measured during the exercise, immediately after maximum exercise loading, and at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 min of recovery. [Results] At the anaerobic threshold time point, the exercise group showed a significantly longer time to reach anaerobic threshold. The exercise group showed significantly higher values for the time to reach VO2max, maximal values of ventilation, maximal oxygen uptake and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate. Significant changes were observed in the value of ventilation volumes at the 1- and 5-min recovery time points within the exercise group; oxygen uptake and maximal oxygen uptake were significantly different at the 5- and 10-min time points; heart rate was significantly different at the 1- and 3-min time points; and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate was significantly different at the 5-min time point. The exercise group showed significant decreases in blood lactate levels at the 15- and 30-min recovery time points. [Conclusion] The study results revealed that Taekwondo as a security martial arts training increases the maximal oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold and accelerates an individual's recovery to the normal state of cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate level. These results are expected to contribute to the execution of more effective security services in emergencies in which violence can occur.

  14. High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Øyvind; Halle, Martin; Conraads, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    Background: Small studies have suggested that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is superior to moderate continuous training (MCT) in reversing cardiac remodeling and increasing aerobic capacity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The present multicenter trial...... compared 12 weeks of supervised interventions of HIIT, MCT, or a recommendation of regular exercise (RRE). Methods: Two hundred sixty-one patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% and New York Heart Association class II to III were randomly assigned to HIIT at 90% to 95% of maximal heart rate...... ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks. Results: Groups did not differ in age (median, 60 years), sex (19% women), ischemic pathogenesis (59%), or medication. Change in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks was not different between HIIT and MCT (P=0.45); left...

  15. High-Intensity Interval Training, Appetite, and Reward Value of Food in the Obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catia; Aschehoug, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit; Holst, Jens; Finlayson, Graham; Wisloff, Ulrik; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil; Kulseng, Bård

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the effect of chronic interval training on appetite in the obese population are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 wk of isocaloric programs of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT), or short-duration HIIT on subjective feelings of appetite, appetite-related hormones, and reward value of food in sedentary obese individuals. Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women and 16 men), with a body mass index of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg·m and age of 34.4 ± 8.8 yr, were randomly assigned to one of the three training groups: MICT (n = 14), HIIT (n = 16), or short-duration HIIT (n = 16). Exercise was performed three times per week for 12 wk. Subjective feelings of appetite and plasma levels of acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1 were measured before and after a standard breakfast (every 30 min up to 3 h), before and after the exercise intervention. Fat and sweet taste preferences and food reward were measured using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. A significant increase in fasting and postprandial feelings of hunger was observed with the exercise intervention (P = 0.01 and P = 0.048, respectively), but no effect of group and no interaction. No significant effect of exercise intervention, group, or interaction was found on fasting or postprandial subjective feelings of fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption or plasma concentration of acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1. No changes in food preference or reward over time, differences between groups, or interactions were found. This study suggests that chronic HIIT has no independent effect on appetite or food reward when compared with an isocaloric program of MICT in obese individuals.

  16. High-Intensity Interval Training Attenuates Insulin Resistance Induced by Sleep Deprivation in Healthy Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jorge F T; Dáttilo, Murilo; de Mello, Marco T; Tufik, Sergio; Antunes, Hanna K M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep deprivation can impair several physiological systems and recently, new evidence has pointed to the relationship between a lack of sleep and carbohydrate metabolism, consequently resulting in insulin resistance. To minimize this effect, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is emerging as a potential strategy. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HIIT on insulin resistance induced by sleep deprivation. Method: Eleven healthy male volunteers were recruited, aged 18-35 years, who declared taking 7-8 h sleep per night. All volunteers were submitted to four different conditions: a single night of regular sleep (RS condition), 24 h of total sleep deprivation ( SD condition), HIIT training followed by regular sleep (HIIT+RS condition), and HIIT training followed by 24 h of total sleep deprivation (HIIT+ SD condition). They performed six training sessions over 2 weeks and each session consisted of 8-12 × 60 s intervals at 100% of peak power output. In each experimental condition, tests for glucose, insulin, cortisol, free fatty acids, and insulin sensitivity, measured by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), were performed. Results: Sleep deprivation increased glycaemia and insulin levels, as well as the area under the curve. Furthermore, an increase in free fatty acids concentrations and basal metabolism was observed. There were no differences in the concentrations of cortisol. However, HIIT before 24 h of sleep deprivation attenuated the increase of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids. Conclusion: Twenty-four hours of sleep deprivation resulted in acute insulin resistance. However, HIIT is an effective strategy to minimize the deleterious effects promoted by this condition.

  17. High-Intensity Interval Training Attenuates Insulin Resistance Induced by Sleep Deprivation in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F. T. de Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep deprivation can impair several physiological systems and recently, new evidence has pointed to the relationship between a lack of sleep and carbohydrate metabolism, consequently resulting in insulin resistance. To minimize this effect, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT is emerging as a potential strategy.Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HIIT on insulin resistance induced by sleep deprivation.Method: Eleven healthy male volunteers were recruited, aged 18–35 years, who declared taking 7–8 h sleep per night. All volunteers were submitted to four different conditions: a single night of regular sleep (RS condition, 24 h of total sleep deprivation (SD condition, HIIT training followed by regular sleep (HIIT+RS condition, and HIIT training followed by 24 h of total sleep deprivation (HIIT+SD condition. They performed six training sessions over 2 weeks and each session consisted of 8–12 × 60 s intervals at 100% of peak power output. In each experimental condition, tests for glucose, insulin, cortisol, free fatty acids, and insulin sensitivity, measured by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, were performed.Results: Sleep deprivation increased glycaemia and insulin levels, as well as the area under the curve. Furthermore, an increase in free fatty acids concentrations and basal metabolism was observed. There were no differences in the concentrations of cortisol. However, HIIT before 24 h of sleep deprivation attenuated the increase of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids.Conclusion: Twenty-four hours of sleep deprivation resulted in acute insulin resistance. However, HIIT is an effective strategy to minimize the deleterious effects promoted by this condition.

  18. Differential Motor Unit Changes after Endurance or High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Valdes, Eduardo; Falla, Deborah; Negro, Francesco; Mayer, Frank; Farina, Dario

    2017-06-01

    Using a novel technique of high-density surface EMG decomposition and motor unit (MU) tracking, we compared changes in the properties of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis MU after endurance (END) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Sixteen men were assigned to the END or the HIIT group (n = 8 each) and performed six training sessions for 14 d. Each session consisted of 8-12 × 60-s intervals at 100% peak power output separated by 75 s of recovery (HIIT) or 90-120 min continuous cycling at ~65% V˙O2peak (END). Pre- and postintervention, participants performed 1) incremental cycling to determine V˙O2peak and peak power output and 2) maximal, submaximal (10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% maximum voluntary contraction [MVC]), and sustained (until task failure at 30% MVC) isometric knee extensions while high-density surface EMG signals were recorded from the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis. EMG signals were decomposed (submaximal contractions) into individual MU by convolutive blind source separation. Finally, MU were tracked across sessions by semiblind source separation. After training, END and HIIT improved V˙O2peak similarly (by 5.0% and 6.7%, respectively). The HIIT group showed enhanced maximal knee extension torque by ~7% (P = 0.02) and was accompanied by an increase in discharge rate for high-threshold MU (≥50% knee extension MVC) (P 0.05). HIIT and END induce different adjustments in MU discharge rate despite similar improvements in cardiopulmonary fitness. Moreover, the changes induced by HIIT are specific for high-threshold MU. For the first time, we show that HIIT and END induce specific neuromuscular adaptations, possibly related to differences in exercise load intensity and training volume.

  19. High-Intensity Interval Training Attenuates Insulin Resistance Induced by Sleep Deprivation in Healthy Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jorge F. T.; Dáttilo, Murilo; de Mello, Marco T.; Tufik, Sergio; Antunes, Hanna K. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep deprivation can impair several physiological systems and recently, new evidence has pointed to the relationship between a lack of sleep and carbohydrate metabolism, consequently resulting in insulin resistance. To minimize this effect, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is emerging as a potential strategy. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HIIT on insulin resistance induced by sleep deprivation. Method: Eleven healthy male volunteers were recruited, aged 18–35 years, who declared taking 7–8 h sleep per night. All volunteers were submitted to four different conditions: a single night of regular sleep (RS condition), 24 h of total sleep deprivation (SD condition), HIIT training followed by regular sleep (HIIT+RS condition), and HIIT training followed by 24 h of total sleep deprivation (HIIT+SD condition). They performed six training sessions over 2 weeks and each session consisted of 8–12 × 60 s intervals at 100% of peak power output. In each experimental condition, tests for glucose, insulin, cortisol, free fatty acids, and insulin sensitivity, measured by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), were performed. Results: Sleep deprivation increased glycaemia and insulin levels, as well as the area under the curve. Furthermore, an increase in free fatty acids concentrations and basal metabolism was observed. There were no differences in the concentrations of cortisol. However, HIIT before 24 h of sleep deprivation attenuated the increase of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids. Conclusion: Twenty-four hours of sleep deprivation resulted in acute insulin resistance. However, HIIT is an effective strategy to minimize the deleterious effects promoted by this condition. PMID:29270126

  20. Long Term Effects of Different Training Modalities on Power, Speed, Skill and Anaerobic Capacity in Young Male Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balčiūnas, Mindaugas; Stonkus, Stanislovas; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of 4 months of different training modalities on power, speed, skill and anaerobic capacity in 15-16 year old male basketball players. Thirty five Lithuanian basketball players were randomly assigned into three groups: power endurance group (intermittent exercise, PE, n = 12), general endurance group (continuous exercise, GE, n = 11) and control group (regular basketball training, CG, n = 12). The power endurance model was based in basketball game external structure whereas the general endurance model was based in continuous actions that frequently occur during the basketball game. The training models were used for 16 weeks in sessions conducted 3 times a week during 90 minutes each in the competition period. The following tests were performed: 20 m speed run, Squat jump, Countermovement jump, Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST), 2 min. shooting test and the Shuttle ball-dribbling test. A 3×2 repeated measures ANOVA revealed no statistically significant differences in the 20 m speed run, Squat jump and Countermovement jump (p > 0.05). On the other hand, RAST showed significant increases in PE, with greater increases during the 5th and 6th runs. The PE training model also produced a significant improvement in the shuttle ball-dribbling test (48.7 ± 1.5 in the pretest, 45.5 ± 1.3 in the posttest, p training modalities were able to maintain initial values of speed and power, however, the anaerobic capacity and skill increased only in the players from the power endurance group. Therefore, the power endurance training (intermittent high intensity exercise) may be more beneficial to prepare junior players according to the game cardiovascular and metabolic specific determinants. Key Points Power endurance training produced significant increases in anaerobic capacity during the competition period. Power endurance training did not have a detrimental effect on power or speed performance during the competition

  1. Long term effects of different training modalities on power, speed, skill and anaerobic capacity in young male basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balčiūnas, Mindaugas; Stonkus, Stanislovas; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of 4 months of different training modalities on power, speed, skill and anaerobic capacity in 15-16 year old male basketball players. Thirty five Lithuanian basketball players were randomly assigned into three groups: power endurance group (intermittent exercise, PE, n = 12), general endurance group (continuous exercise, GE, n = 11) and control group (regular basketball training, CG, n = 12). The power endurance model was based in basketball game external structure whereas the general endurance model was based in continuous actions that frequently occur during the basketball game. The training models were used for 16 weeks in sessions conducted 3 times a week during 90 minutes each in the competition period. The following tests were performed: 20 m speed run, Squat jump, Countermovement jump, Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST), 2 min. shooting test and the Shuttle ball-dribbling test. A 3×2 repeated measures ANOVA revealed no statistically significant differences in the 20 m speed run, Squat jump and Countermovement jump (p > 0.05). On the other hand, RAST showed significant increases in PE, with greater increases during the 5(th) and 6(th) runs. The PE training model also produced a significant improvement in the shuttle ball-dribbling test (48.7 ± 1.5 in the pretest, 45.5 ± 1.3 in the posttest, p training modalities were able to maintain initial values of speed and power, however, the anaerobic capacity and skill increased only in the players from the power endurance group. Therefore, the power endurance training (intermittent high intensity exercise) may be more beneficial to prepare junior players according to the game cardiovascular and metabolic specific determinants. Key PointsPower endurance training produced significant increases in anaerobic capacity during the competition period.Power endurance training did not have a detrimental effect on power or speed performance during the competition

  2. A HEMATOBIOCHEMICAL EVALUATION TO COMPARE THE EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING AND AEROBIC EXERCISE TO CONTROL DIABETES MALLITIS AND ITS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneeb Iqbal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes has become a very common disease all over the world since last few decades and is now perceived as a global health disorder. Diabetes mellitus is identified on the basis of constant high concentration of blood glucose level and it mainly occurs due to deficiency of the pancreatic hormone insulin. High-intensity interval training (HIIT is an improved form of interval trainings, and exercise strategies which alternate the periods of small intense anaerobic exercise by less-intense regaining periods. The study aimed to compare the hematological parameters associated with diabetes and muscle activity between healthy humans and diabetic type-1 patients when subjected to HIIT and regular aerobic exercises. Methods: A convenience sample of total 60 participants was taken it comprised of thirty healthy individuals taken from the department of Physical Therapy, University of Sargodha, Lahore campus and thirty diabetic type-1 individuals of age 15-30 years taken from Akhuwat health services clinic Township, Lahore. Participants were divided into four groups of fifteen individuals each. Group one was the diabetic HIIT (DH group with diabetic type-1 patients subjected to HIIT. Group two was the diabetic aerobic (DA group with diabetic type-1 patients subjected to regular aerobic exercises. Group three was control High intensity interval training (HH that consisted of fifteen healthy individuals to be subjected to High intensity interval training exercises (HIIT. Group four (HA was the control aerobic group with fifteen healthy individuals of average lifestyles subjected to regular aerobic exercises. Results: Aerobic exercise was found to be more effective in reducing glucose level, lowering exogenous insulin and glycated hemoglobin, however HIIT proved to be more effective in lowering blood cholesterol level and decrease LDL level and increase HDL level. Conclusion: It was concluded that aerobic exercise program in comparison to high

  3. Rest Interval Required for Power Training With Power Load in the Bench Press Throw Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Davó, Jose L; Solana, Rafael Sabido; Sarabia Marín, Jose M; Fernández Fernández, Jaime; Moya Ramón, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to test the influence of various rest interval (RI) durations used between sets on power output performance and physiological and perceptual variables during a strength training session using 40% of the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press throw exercise. Thirty-one college students (18 males and 13 females) took part in the study. The experimental protocol consists of 5 sets of 8 repetitions of the bench press throw exercise with a load representing 40% of 1RM. Subjects performed the experimental protocol on 3 different occasions, differing by the RI between sets (1, 2, or 3 minutes). During the sessions, power data (mean power and peak power), physiological (lactate concentration [La]) and perceptual (rating of perceived exertion) variables were measured. In addition, delayed onset muscular soreness was reported 24 and 48 hours after the training session. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that 1-minute RI entailed higher power decreases and greater increases in values of physiological and perceptual variables compared with both 2- and 3-minute RIs. Nevertheless, no differences were found between 2- and 3-minute RIs. Therefore, this study showed that, when training with 40% of 1RM in the bench press throw exercise, a 2-minute RI between sets can be enough to avoid significant decreases in power output. Consequently, training sessions' duration could be reduced without causing excessive fatigue, allowing additional time to focus on other conditioning priorities.

  4. Potential Universal Application of High-intensity Interval Training from Athletes and Sports Lovers to Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2017-06-25

    Recently, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has received much attention as a promising exercise option not only to improve aerobic fitness, but also to prevent and improve lifestyle-related diseases. Epidemiological studies have shown that the exercise volume, as determined by the product of exercise intensity, duration, and frequency, has been shown to be important for improvements in muscle mitochondrial activity and subsequent improvements in aerobic fitness, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic variables. Therefore, continuous moderate-intensity training has been widely recommended. On the other hand, the main contributor of HIIT to improvements in aerobic fitness and metabolic variables is its high-intensity nature, and many recent studies have shown results favoring HIIT when compared with conventional continuous training, despite its shorter exercise duration and smaller exercise volume. In this review, we aim to show the possible universal application of HIIT in a hospital setting, where athletes, sports lovers, and patients have sought medical advice and have the opportunity to undergo detailed evaluations, including an exercise stress test. For athletes, HIIT is mandatory to achieve further improvements in aerobic fitness. For patients, though higher levels of motivation and careful evaluation are required, the time constraints of HIIT are smaller and both aerobic and resistance training can be expected to yield favorable results because of the high-intensity nature of HIIT.

  5. Interval training does not modulate diastolic function in heart transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monk-Hansen, Tea; Dall, Christian; Christensen, Stefan B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigates the effect of aerobic interval training on diastolic function at rest and during exercise in stable heart transplant (HTx) recipients. Design: 23 stable HTx recipients (74% males, mean age 50 ±14.9 years) were recruited to a training programme. Intervention was 8...... weeks intensive training or control in a randomized controlled design. Results: At baseline participants had normal or mild diastolic dysfunction at rest. During exercise, mean E/e´ increased from 9.0 (±2.8) to 12.8 (±7.7) (p= 0.09), E/A increased from 2.1 (±0.6) to 2.6 (±0.7) (p=0.02), and deceleration...... time decreased by over 50ms, all markers of increased filling pressure. There were no correlations between diastolic function and VO2peak at baseline. After intervention VO2peak increased from 23.9 (±4.5) to 28.3(±6) ml/kg/min in the training group (difference between groups p=0.0018). No consistent...

  6. High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients with Substance Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grete Flemmen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with substance use disorder (SUD suffer a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and other lifestyle diseases compared to the general population. High intensity training has been shown to effectively reduce this risk, and therefore we aimed to examine the feasibility and effect of such training in SUD patients in clinical treatment in the present study. 17 males and 7 females (32 ± 8 yr in treatment were randomized to either a training group (TG, treadmill interval training in 4 × 4 minutes at 90–95% of maximal heart rate, 3 days a week for 8 weeks, or a conventional rehabilitation control group (CG. Baseline values for both groups combined at inclusion were 44 ± 8 (males and 34 ± 9 (females mL · min−1 · kg−1, respectively. 9/12 and 7/12 patients completed the TG and CG, respectively. Only the TG significantly improved (15 ± 7% their maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, from 42.3 ± 7.2 mL · min−1 · kg−1 at pretest to 48.7 ± 9.2 mL · min−1 · kg−1 at posttest. No between-group differences were observed in work economy, and level of insomnia (ISI or anxiety and depression (HAD, but a significant within-group improvement in depression was apparent for the TG. High intensity training was feasible for SUD patients in treatment. This training form should be implemented as a part of the rehabilitation since it, in contrast to the conventional treatment, represents a risk reduction for cardiovascular disease and premature death.

  7. LONG TERM EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT TRAINING MODALITIES ON POWER, SPEED, SKILL AND ANAEROBIC CAPACITY IN YOUNG MALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Balciunas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of 4 months of different training modalities on power, speed, skill and anaerobic capacity in 15-16 year old male basketball players. Thirty five Lithuanian basketball players were randomly assigned into three groups: power endurance group (intermittent exercise, PE, n = 12, general endurance group (continuous exercise, GE, n = 11 and control group (regular basketball training, CG, n = 12. The power endurance model was based in basketball game external structure whereas the general endurance model was based in continuous actions that frequently occur during the basketball game. The training models were used for 16 weeks in sessions conducted 3 times a week during 90 minutes each in the competition period. The following tests were performed: 20 m speed run, Squat jump, Countermovement jump, Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST, 2 min. shooting test and the Shuttle ball-dribbling test. A 3×2 repeated measures ANOVA revealed no statistically significant differences in the 20 m speed run, Squat jump and Countermovement jump (p > 0.05. On the other hand, RAST showed significant increases in PE, with greater increases during the 5th and 6th runs. The PE training model also produced a significant improvement in the shuttle ball-dribbling test (48.7 ± 1.5 in the pretest, 45.5 ± 1.3 in the posttest, p < 0.05. Globally, our results suggest that both training modalities were able to maintain initial values of speed and power, however, the anaerobic capacity and skill increased only in the players from the power endurance group. Therefore, the power endurance training (intermittent high intensity exercise may be more beneficial to prepare junior players according to the game cardiovascular and metabolic specific determinants

  8. Plyometric exercise combined with high-intensity interval training improves metabolic abnormalities in young obese females more so than interval training alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racil, Ghazi; Zouhal, Hassane; Elmontassar, Wassim; Ben Abderrahmane, Abderraouf; De Sousa, Maysa Vieira; Chamari, Karim; Amri, Mohamed; Coquart, Jeremy B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with the effects of 12 weeks of plyometric exercise combined with HIIT (P+HIIT) on anthropometric, biochemical, and physical fitness data in young obese females. Sixty-eight participants (age, 16.6 ± 1.3 y; body mass, 82.8 ± 5.0 kg; body fat, 39.4% ± 3.3%; body mass index z score, 2.9 ± 0.4) were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: HIIT (2 blocks per session of 6-8 bouts of 30-s runs at 100% velocity at peak oxygen uptake, with 30-s active recovery between bouts at 50%velocity at peak oxygen uptake (n = 23)); P+HIIT (2 blocks per session of 3 different 15-s plyometric exercises with 15-s passive recoveries, totaling 2 min for each plyometric exercise + the same HIIT program (n = 26)); or control (no exercise (n = 19)). Anthropometric (body mass, body mass index z score, body fat, lean body mass, and waist circumference), biochemical (plasma glucose, insulin, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, leptin/adiponectin ratio, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)), physical fitness (peak oxygen uptake, velocity at peak oxygen uptake, squat jump, and countermovement jump performances), and energy intake data were collected. Both training programs improved the anthropometric, biochemical, and physical fitness variables. However, the P+HIIT program induced greater improvements than did the HIIT program in lean body mass (+3.0% ± 1.7%), plasma glucose and leptin concentrations (-11.0% ± 4.7% and -23.8% ± 5.8%, respectively), plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio (-40.9% ± 10.9%), HOMA-IR (-37.3% ± 6.2%), and squat jump performance (22.2% ± 7.5%). Taken together, these findings suggest that adding plyometric exercises to a HIIT program may be more beneficial than HIIT alone in obese female adolescents.

  9. Effects of saddle height on economy and anaerobic power in well-trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peveler, Willard W; Green, James M

    2011-03-01

    In cycling, saddle height adjustment is critical for optimal performance and injury prevention. A 25-35° knee angle is recommended for injury prevention, whereas 109% of inseam, measured from floor to ischium, is recommended for optimal performance. Previous research has demonstrated that these 2 methods produce significantly different saddle heights and may influence cycling performance. This study compared performance between these 2 methods for determining saddle height. Subjects consisted of 11 well-trained (VO2max = 61.55 ± 4.72 ml·kg·min) male cyclists. Subjects completed a total of 8 performance trials consisting of a graded maximal protocol, three 15-minute economy trials, and 4 anaerobic power trials. Dependent measures for economy (VO2, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion) and anaerobic power (peak power and mean power) were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (α = 0.05). VO2 was significantly lower (reflecting greater economy) at a 25° knee angle (44.77 ± 6.40 ml·kg·min) in comparison to a 35° knee angle (45.22 ± 6.79 ml·kg·min) and 109% of inseam (45.98 ± 5.33 ml·kg·min). Peak power at a 25° knee angle (1,041.55 ± 168.72 W) was significantly higher in relation to 109% of inseam (1,002.05 ± 147.65 W). Mean power at a 25° knee angle (672.37 ± 90.21 W) was significantly higher in relation to a 35° knee angle (654.71 ± 80.67 W). Mean power was significantly higher at 109% of inseam (662.86 ± 79.72 W) in relation to a 35° knee angle (654.71 ± 80.67 W). Use of 109% of inseam fell outside the recommended 25-35° range 73% of the time. Use of 25° knee angle appears to provide optimal performance while keeping knee angle within the recommended range for injury prevention.

  10. Acute effects of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training sessions on cardiorespiratory parameters in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaun, Gustavo Zaccaria; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Ribeiro, Diego Oliveira; Pinto, Stephanie Santana

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the energy expenditure (EE) during and after two treadmill protocols, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate continuous training (CONT), in young adult men. The sample was comprised by 26 physically active men aged between 18 and 35 years engaged in aerobic training programs. They were divided into two groups: HIIT (n = 14) which performed eight 20 s bouts at 130% of the velocity associated with the maximal oxygen consumption on a treadmill with 10 s of passive rest, or CONT (n = 12) which performed 30 min running on a treadmill at a submaximal velocity equivalent to 90-95% of the heart rate associated with the anaerobic threshold. Data related to oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) and EE were measured during the protocols and the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was calculated for both sessions. No difference was found between groups for mean [Formula: see text] (HIIT: 2.84 ± 0.46 L min -1 ; CONT: 2.72 ± 0.43 L min -1 ) and EE per minute (HIIT: 14.36 ± 2.34 kcal min -1 ; CONT: 13.21 ± 2.08 kcal min -1 ) during protocols. Regarding total EE during session, CONT resulted in higher values compared to HIIT (390.45 ± 65.15; 55.20 ± 9.33 kcal, respectively). However, post-exercise EE and EPOC values were higher after HIIT (69.31 ± 10.88; 26.27 ± 2.28 kcal, respectively) compared to CONT (55.99 ± 10.20; 13.43 ± 10.45 kcal, respectively). These data suggest that supramaximal HIIT has a higher impact on EE and EPOC in the early phase of recovery when compared to CONT.

  11. High-intensity interval training prevents oxidant-mediated diaphragm muscle weakness in hypertensive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, T Scott; Eisenkolb, Sophia; Drobner, Juliane; Fischer, Tina; Werner, Sarah; Linke, Axel; Mangner, Norman; Schuler, Gerhard; Adams, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a key risk factor for heart failure, with the latter characterized by diaphragm muscle weakness that is mediated in part by increased oxidative stress. In the present study, we used a deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt mouse model to determine whether hypertension could independently induce diaphragm dysfunction and further investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Sham-treated (n = 11), DOCA-salt-treated (n = 11), and DOCA-salt+HIIT-treated (n = 15) mice were studied over 4 wk. Diaphragm contractile function, protein expression, enzyme activity, and fiber cross-sectional area and type were subsequently determined. Elevated blood pressure confirmed hypertension in DOCA-salt mice independent of HIIT (P HIIT. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) protein expression tended to decrease (∼30%; P = 0.06) in DOCA-salt vs. sham- and DOCA-salt+HIIT mice, whereas oxidative stress increased (P HIIT further prevented direct oxidant-mediated diaphragm contractile dysfunction (P hypertension induces diaphragm contractile dysfunction via an oxidant-mediated mechanism that is prevented by HIIT.-Bowen, T. S., Eisenkolb, S., Drobner, J., Fischer, T., Werner, S., Linke, A., Mangner, N., Schuler, G., Adams, V. High-intensity interval training prevents oxidant-mediated diaphragm muscle weakness in hypertensive mice. © FASEB.

  12. Active Recovery between Interval Bouts Reduces Blood Lactate While Improving Subsequent Exercise Performance in Trained Men

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    Harutiun M. Nalbandian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the blood lactate and blood pH kinetics during high-intensity interval training. Seventeen well-trained athletes exercised on two different occasions. Exercises consisted of three 30 s bouts at a constant intensity (90% of peak power with 4 min recovery between bouts followed by a Wingate test (WT. The recoveries were either active recovery (at 60% of the lactate threshold intensity or passive recovery (resting at sitting position. During the exercise, blood samples were taken to determine blood gasses, blood lactate, and blood pH, and peak and average power were calculated for the WT. When performing the active recovery trials, blood pH was significantly higher (p < 0.01 and blood lactate was significantly lower (p < 0.01 compared with the passive recovery trials. WT performance was significantly higher in the active recovery trials: peak power was 671 ± 88 and 715 ± 108 watts, and average power was 510 ± 70 and 548 ± 73 watts (passive and active respectively; p < 0.01. However, no statistically significant correlations were found between the increased pH and the increased performance in the active recovery trials. These results suggest that active recovery performed during high-intensity interval exercise favors the performance in a following WT. Moreover, the blood pH variations associated with active recovery did not explain the enhanced performance.

  13. A single bout of high-intensity interval training reduces awareness of subsequent hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijackers, H.M.M.; Wiegers, E.C.; Graaf, M. van der; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Tack, C.J.J.; Galan, B.E. de

    2017-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) gains increasing popularity in patients with diabetes. HIIT acutely increases plasma lactate levels. This may be important, since administration of lactate during hypoglycemia suppresses symptoms and counterregulation, whilst preserving cognitive function. We

  14. Vertical jump, anaerobic power, and shooting accuracy are not altered 6 hours after strength training in collegiate women basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolstenhulme, Mandy T; Bailey, Brooke Kerbs; Allsen, Philip E

    2004-08-01

    We measured vertical jump, anaerobic power, and shooting accuracy in 18 Division I women basketball players (age 18-22 years) 6 hours following a morning strength training routine called a lift day (LD) and on a control day in which no strength training was performed. Subjects had been strength trained for 4 weeks prior to testing. The strength training session on lift day was a full-body workout and included 7 exercises performed in 3-6 sets at loads ranging from a 5 to 12 repetition maximum (RM). There were no significant differences in jump height with 2 legs (49.5 +/- 4.8 cm and 49.0 +/- 4.8 cm, LD and control, respectively), relative mean power output over 30 seconds on a Wingate bicycle test (6.4 +/- 0.8 W.kg(-1) and 6.6 +/- 0.7 W.kg(-1), LD and control, respectively), or shooting accuracy over 60 seconds (21.5 +/- 3.8 points/min and 21.3 +/- 4.1 points/min, LD and control, respectively). These data suggest that in collegiate women basketball players, a previous bout of strength training has no negative effect on vertical jump height, anaerobic power, or shooting accuracy.

  15. Whole-Body High-Intensity Interval Training Induce Similar Cardiorespiratory Adaptations Compared With Traditional High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaun, Gustavo Z; Pinto, Stephanie S; Silva, Mariana R; Dolinski, Davi B; Alberton, Cristine L

    2018-05-07

    Schaun, GZ, Pinto, SS, Silva, MR, Dolinski, DB, and Alberton, CL. Sixteen weeks of whole-body high-intensity interval training induce similar cardiorespiratory responses compared with traditional high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training in healthy men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols that use the body weight as resistance could be an interesting and inexpensive alternative to traditional ergometer-based high-intensity interval training (HIIT-T) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). Therefore, our aim was to compare the effects of 16 weeks of whole-body HIIT (HIIT-WB), HIIT-T, and MICT on maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), second ventilatory threshold (VT2), and running economy (RE) outcomes. Fifty-five healthy men (23.7 ± 0.7 years, 1.79 ± 0.01 m, 78.5 ± 1.7 kg) were randomized into 3 training groups (HIIT-T = 17; HIIT-WB = 19; MICT = 19) for 16 weeks (3× per week). The HIIT-T group performed eight 20-second bouts at 130% of the velocity associated to V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max) interspersed by 10-second passive recovery on a treadmill, whereas HIIT-WB group performed the same protocol but used calisthenics exercises at an all-out intensity instead of treadmill running. Finally, MICT group exercised for 30 minutes at 90-95% of the heart rate (HR) associated to VT2. After the intervention, all groups improved V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, time to exhaustion (Tmax), VT2, velocity associated with VT2 (vVT2), and time to reach VT2 (tVT2) significantly (p HIIT-T compared with HIIT-WB (p HIIT-WB can be as effective as traditional HIIT while also being time-efficient compared with MICT to improve health-related outcomes after 16 weeks of training. However, HIIT-T and MICT seem preferable to enhance performance-related outcomes compared with HIIT-WB.

  16. Muscle oxygen changes following Sprint Interval Cycling training in elite field hockey players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Jones

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of Sprint Interval Cycling (SIT on muscle oxygenation kinetics and performance during the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (IFT. Twenty-five women hockey players of Olympic standard were randomly selected into an experimental group (EXP and a control group (CON. The EXP group performed six additional SIT sessions over six weeks in addition to their normal training program. To explore the potential training-induced change, EXP subjects additionally completed 5 x 30s maximal intensity cycle testing before and after training. During these tests near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS measured parameters; oxyhaemoglobin + oxymyoglobin (HbO2+ MbO2, tissue deoxyhaemoglobin + deoxymyoglobin (HHb+HMb, total tissue haemoglobin (tHb and tissue oxygenation (TSI % were taken. In the EXP group (5.34 ± 0.14 to 5.50 ± 0.14 m.s(-1 but not the CON group (pre = 5.37 ± 0.27 to 5.39 ± 0.30 m.s(-1 significant changes were seen in the 30-15 IFT performance. EXP group also displayed significant post-training increases during the sprint cycling: ΔTSI (-7.59 ± 0.91 to -12.16 ± 2.70%; ΔHHb+HMb (35.68 ± 6.67 to 69.44 ± 26.48 μM.cm; and ΔHbO2+ MbO2 (-74.29 ± 13.82 to -109.36 ± 22.61 μM.cm. No significant differences were seen in ΔtHb (-45.81 ± 15.23 to -42.93 ± 16.24. NIRS is able to detect positive peripheral muscle oxygenation changes when used during a SIT protocol which has been shown to be an effective training modality within elite athletes.

  17. Cardioprotective Effect of High Intensity Interval Training and Nitric Oxide Metabolites (NO2 (-), NO3 (-)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Aliasghar; Gaeini, Abbasali; Shekarfroush, Shahnaz; Khoshbaten, Ali

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on nitric oxide metabolites (NO2(-), NO3(-)) and myocardial infarct size after Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) injury in healthy male rats. A total of 44 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups including HIIT (n=8), HIIT + IR protocol (n=14), control (n=8), and control + IR (n=14). Each training session of HIIT consisted of 1 hour of exercise in three stages: 6-minute running at 50-60% VO2max for warm-up; 7 intervals of 7-minute running on treadmill with a slope of 5° to 20° (4 minutes with an intensity of 80-100% VO2max and 3 minutes at 50-60% VO2max); and 5-minute running at 50-60% VO2max for cool-down. The control group did not participate in any exercise program. Nitric Oxide (NO) and its metabolites were measured by using Griess reaction test. The results showed that eight weeks of exercise training exerted a significantly increasing effect on nitrite (8.55 μmol per liter, equivalent to 34.79%), nitrate (62.02 μmol per liter, equivalent to 149.48%), and NOx (66 μmol per liter, equivalent to 98.11%) in the HIIT group compared with the control group. The results showed myocardial infract size (IS) was significantly smaller (23.2%, PHIIT program can protect the heart from I/R injury and decrease myocardial infarction.

  18. IL-6, Antioxidant Capacity and Muscle Damage Markers Following High-Intensity Interval Training Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipryan, Lukas

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes of interleukin-6 (IL-6), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and muscle damage markers (creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) in response to three different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols of identical external work. Twelve moderately-trained males participated in the three HIIT trials which consisted of a warm-up, followed by 12 min of 15 s, 30 s or 60 s HIIT sequences with the work/rest ratio 1. The biochemical markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and muscle damage were analysed POST, 3 h and 24 h after the exercise. All HIIT protocols caused an immediate increase in IL-6, TAC, CK, myoglobin and LDH. The most pronounced between-trials differences were found for the POST-exercise changes in IL-6 (Effect size ± 90% confidence interval: 1.51 ± 0.63, 0.84 ± 0.34 and 1.80 ± 0.60 for the 15s/15s, 30s/30s and 60s/60s protocol, respectively) and myoglobin (1.11 ± 0.29, 0.45 ± 0.48 and 1.09 ± 0.22 for the 15s/15s, 30s/30s and 60s/60s protocol, respectively). There were no substantial between-trial differences in other biochemical variables. In conclusion, the 15s/15s and 60s/60s protocols might be preferred to the 30s/30s protocols in order to maximize the training stimulus.

  19. Effects of small-sided games and high-intensity interval training on aerobic and repeated sprint performance and peripheral muscle oxygenation changes in elite junior basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delextrat, A; Gruet, M; Bieuzen, F

    2018-03-06

    The aim of the current study was to compare the effects of 6 weeks of small-sided game (SSG) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on aerobic fitness and muscle oxygenation during a repeated sprint (RS) sequence in elite male junior basketball players. Twenty participants (14.3 ± 0.5 years; 176.8 ± 12.5 cm; 74.5 ± 9.8 kg) performed pre- and post-tests interspersed by 6-weeks of SSG or HIIT training. Testing sessions consisted of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test and a RS sequence (two bouts of 15-s). During RS, muscle oxygenation parameters (tissue saturation index (TSI, %), post-sprint muscle reoxygenation rate) were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The results showed that both training interventions similarly improved maximal aerobic speed (VIFT, 3.4 and 4.1%, respectively for HIIT and SSG, Ptraining interventions also resulted in a greater ΔTSI during the second sprint (47.8% to 114%, Ptrainings are applicable methodologies to improve in-season aerobic and anaerobic fitness capacities in junior basketball players.

  20. Interspike Interval Based Filtering of Directional Selective Retinal Ganglion Cells Spike Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Vasile Martiniuc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The information regarding visual stimulus is encoded in spike trains at the output of retina by retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. Among these, the directional selective cells (DSRGC are signaling the direction of stimulus motion. DSRGCs' spike trains show accentuated periods of short interspike intervals (ISIs framed by periods of isolated spikes. Here we use two types of visual stimulus, white noise and drifting bars, and show that short ISI spikes of DSRGCs spike trains are more often correlated to their preferred stimulus feature (that is, the direction of stimulus motion and carry more information than longer ISI spikes. Firstly, our results show that correlation between stimulus and recorded neuronal response is best at short ISI spiking activity and decrease as ISI becomes larger. We then used grating bars stimulus and found that as ISI becomes shorter the directional selectivity is better and information rates are higher. Interestingly, for the less encountered type of DSRGC, known as ON-DSRGC, short ISI distribution and information rates revealed consistent differences when compared with the other directional selective cell type, the ON-OFF DSRGC. However, these findings suggest that ISI-based temporal filtering integrates a mechanism for visual information processing at the output of retina toward higher stages within early visual system.

  1. Is the combination of interval and resistance training more effective on physical fitness? A systematic review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José de Menezes Júnior

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Interval training (HIIT / SIT combined with resistance training (RT has been highlighted as a strategy for the improvement of health-related physical fitness markers (HRPF in adults. Thus, the aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy of combined training (HIIT / SIT + RT with other exercise protocols on HRPF markers in adults. A systematic search was performed in MEDLINE via PebMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL, SPORTDiscus, LILACS, SCIELO and Scopus databases between January and March 2017, using the following keywords in English and Portuguese: physical fitness, high-intensity interval training, sprint interval training, resistance training and adults. The quality of studies was evaluated using the PEDro scale. After applying both inclusion and exclusion criteria, nine articles were selected (n = 231. The extraction of means and standard deviations from studies was performed independently by two authors and the RevMan software was used to perform the meta-analysis. Combined training interventions lasted from 6 to 12 weeks and generated greater increase in maximal oxygen uptake than other forms of exercise. The combination of interval training and strength training may be considered more effective to improve aerobic capacity levels in adults.

  2. Oxidative stress in response to aerobic and anaerobic power testing: influence of exercise training and carnitine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Smith, Webb A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the oxidative stress response to aerobic and anaerobic power testing, and to determine the impact of exercise training with or without glycine propionyl-L-carnitine (GPLC) in attenuating the oxidative stress response. Thirty-two subjects were assigned (double blind) to placebo, GPLC-1 (1g PLC/d), GPLC-3 (3g PLC/d) for 8 weeks, plus aerobic exercise. Aerobic (graded exercise test: GXT) and anaerobic (Wingate cycle) power tests were performed before and following the intervention. Blood was taken before and immediately following exercise tests and analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and xanthine oxidase activity (XO). No interaction effects were noted. MDA was minimally effected by exercise but lower at rest for both GPLC groups following the intervention (p = 0.044). A time main effect was noted for H2O2 (p = 0.05) and XO (p = 0.003), with values increasing from pre- to postexercise. Both aerobic and anaerobic power testing increase oxidative stress to a similar extent. Exercise training plus GPLC can decrease resting MDA, but it has little impact on exercise-induced oxidative stress biomarkers.

  3. A single bout of high-intensity interval training improves motor skill retention in individuals with stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nepveu, Jean-Francois; Thiel, Alexander; Tang, Ada

    2017-01-01

    imbalances in GABAA-mediated short-interval intracortical inhibition but changes in other markers of excitability were not statistically significant. The group that performed high-intensity interval training showed a better retention of the motor skill. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of a maximal graded...

  4. High-Intensity Interval Training as an Efficacious Alternative to Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training for Adults with Prediabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. High-intensity interval training (HIIT leads to improvements in various markers of cardiometabolic health but adherence to HIIT following a supervised laboratory intervention has yet to be tested. We compared self-report and objective measures of physical activity after one month of independent exercise in individuals with prediabetes who were randomized to HIIT (n=15 or traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT, n=17. Method. After completing 10 sessions of supervised training participants were asked to perform HIIT or MICT three times per week for four weeks. Results. Individuals in HIIT (89 ± 11% adhered to their prescribed protocol to a greater extent than individuals in MICT (71 ± 31% as determined by training logs completed over one-month follow-up (P = 0.05, Cohen’s d = 0.75. Minutes spent in vigorous physical activity per week measured by accelerometer were higher in HIIT (24 ± 18 as compared to MICT (11 ± 10 at one-month follow-up (P = 0.049, Cohen’s d = 0.92. Cardiorespiratory fitness and systolic blood pressure assessed at one-month follow-up were equally improved (P’s < 0.05. Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that individuals with prediabetes can adhere to HIIT over the short-term and do so at a level that is greater than MICT.

  5. SPRINT-INTERVAL TRAINING INDUCES HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 72 IN RAT SKELETAL MUSCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Ogura

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that endurance exercise training increases the level of heat shock proteins (HSPs in skeletal muscles. However, little attention has been drawn to the effects of high intensity-short duration exercise, or sprint- interval training (SIT on HSP72 level in rat skeletal muscles. This study performed to test the hypothesis that the SIT would induce the HSP72 in fast and slow skeletal muscles of rats. Young male Wistar rats (8 weeks old were randomly assigned to a control (CON or a SIT group (n = 8/group. Animals in the SIT group were trained (1 min/sprint, 6~10 sets/day and 5~6 days/week on a treadmill for 9 weeks. After the training period, HSP72 levels in the plantaris (fast and soleus (slow muscles were analyzed by Western blotting method. Enzyme activities (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and citrate synthase and histochemical properties (muscle fiber type compositions and cross sectional area in both muscles were also determined. The SIT resulted in significantly (p < 0.05 higher levels of HSP72 in both the plantaris and soleus muscles compared to the CON group, with the plantaris producing a greater HSP72 increase than the soleus (plantaris; 550 ± 116%, soleus; 26 ± 8%, p < 0.05. Further, there were bioenergetic improvements, fast-to-slow shift of muscle fiber composition and hypertrophy in the type IIA fiber only in the plantaris muscle. These findings indicate that the SIT program increases HSP72 level of the rat hindlimb muscles, and the SIT-induced accumulation of HSP72 differs between fast and slow muscles

  6. High-intensity interval training reduces abdominal fat mass in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, F; Rousset, S; Pereira, B; Traore, A; de Pradel Del Amaze, P; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Boisseau, N

    2016-12-01

    This study compared the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) for 16 weeks on whole-body and abdominal fat mass (FM) in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Seventeen women (69±1 years; BMI: 31±1kg.m -2 ) were randomly assigned to either a HIIT [60×(8s at 77-85% HR max , 12s of active recovery)] or MICT (40min at 55-60% of their individual HRR) cycling program for 16 weeks, 2 days/week. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure whole-body and regional FM content, including abdominal adiposity and visceral adipose tissue. Plasma cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, glucose and HbA 1c levels were measured. Levels of nutritional intake and physical activity were evaluated by 7-day self-reports. Dietary energy (caloric) intake, physical activity level and total body mass did not vary in either group from the beginning to the end of the training intervention. Overall, total FM decreased and total fat-free mass significantly increased over time (by around 2-3%). Total FM reduction at the end of the intervention was not significantly different between groups. However, significant loss of total abdominal (-8.3±2.2%) and visceral (-24.2±7.7%) FM was observed only with HIIT. Time effects were noted for HbA 1c and total cholesterol/HDL ratio. With no concomitant caloric restriction, an HIIT program in postmenopausal women with T2D (twice a week for 16 weeks) appeared to be more effective for reducing central obesity than MICT, and could be proposed as an alternative exercise training program for this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Similar health benefits of endurance and high-intensity interval training in obese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Corte de Araujo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare two modalities of exercise training (i.e., Endurance Training [ET] and High-Intensity Interval Training [HIT] on health-related parameters in obese children aged between 8 and 12 years. METHODS: Thirty obese children were randomly allocated into either the ET or HIT group. The ET group performed a 30 to 60-minute continuous exercise at 80% of the peak heart rate (HR. The HIT group training performed 3 to 6 sets of 60-s sprint at 100% of the peak velocity interspersed by a 3-min active recovery period at 50% of the exercise velocity. HIT sessions last ~70% less than ET sessions. At baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention, aerobic fitness, body composition and metabolic parameters were assessed. RESULTS: BOTH THE ABSOLUTE (ET: 26.0%; HIT: 19.0% and the relative VO(2 peak (ET: 13.1%; HIT: 14.6% were significantly increased in both groups after the intervention. Additionally, the total time of exercise (ET: 19.5%; HIT: 16.4% and the peak velocity during the maximal graded cardiorespiratory test (ET: 16.9%; HIT: 13.4% were significantly improved across interventions. Insulinemia (ET: 29.4%; HIT: 30.5% and HOMA-index (ET: 42.8%; HIT: 37.0% were significantly lower for both groups at POST when compared to PRE. Body mass was significantly reduced in the HIT (2.6%, but not in the ET group (1.2%. A significant reduction in BMI was observed for both groups after the intervention (ET: 3.0%; HIT: 5.0%. The responsiveness analysis revealed a very similar pattern of the most responsive variables among groups. CONCLUSION: HIT and ET were equally effective in improving important health related parameters in obese youth.

  8. Carbohydrate-Restriction with High-Intensity Interval Training: An Optimal Combination for Treating Metabolic Diseases?

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    Monique E. Francois

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle interventions incorporating both diet and exercise strategies remain cornerstone therapies for treating metabolic disease. Carbohydrate-restriction and high-intensity interval training (HIIT have independently been shown to improve cardiovascular and metabolic health. Carbohydrate-restriction reduces postprandial hyperglycemia, thereby limiting potential deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of excessive glucose excursions. Additionally, carbohydrate-restriction has been shown to improve body composition and blood lipids. The benefits of exercise for improving insulin sensitivity are well known. In this regard, HIIT has been shown to rapidly improve glucose control, endothelial function, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Here, we report the available evidence for each strategy and speculate that the combination of carbohydrate-restriction and HIIT will synergistically maximize the benefits of both approaches. We hypothesize that this lifestyle strategy represents an optimal intervention to treat metabolic disease; however, further research is warranted in order to harness the potential benefits of carbohydrate-restriction and HIIT for improving cardiometabolic health.

  9. Carbohydrate-Restriction with High-Intensity Interval Training: An Optimal Combination for Treating Metabolic Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Monique E; Gillen, Jenna B; Little, Jonathan P

    2017-01-01

    Lifestyle interventions incorporating both diet and exercise strategies remain cornerstone therapies for treating metabolic disease. Carbohydrate-restriction and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have independently been shown to improve cardiovascular and metabolic health. Carbohydrate-restriction reduces postprandial hyperglycemia, thereby limiting potential deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of excessive glucose excursions. Additionally, carbohydrate-restriction has been shown to improve body composition and blood lipids. The benefits of exercise for improving insulin sensitivity are well known. In this regard, HIIT has been shown to rapidly improve glucose control, endothelial function, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Here, we report the available evidence for each strategy and speculate that the combination of carbohydrate-restriction and HIIT will synergistically maximize the benefits of both approaches. We hypothesize that this lifestyle strategy represents an optimal intervention to treat metabolic disease; however, further research is warranted in order to harness the potential benefits of carbohydrate-restriction and HIIT for improving cardiometabolic health.

  10. High-intensity interval training improves insulin sensitivity in older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, D; Lund, M T; Scheuer, C M; Dehlbaek, M S; Dideriksen, S G; Abildskov, C V; Christensen, K K; Dohlmann, T L; Larsen, S; Vigelsø, A H; Dela, F; Helge, J W

    2018-04-01

    Metabolic health may deteriorate with age as a result of altered body composition and decreased physical activity. Endurance exercise is known to counter these changes delaying or even preventing onset of metabolic diseases. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time efficient alternative to regular endurance exercise, and the aim of this study was to investigate the metabolic benefit of HIIT in older subjects. Twenty-two sedentary male (n = 11) and female (n = 11) subjects aged 63 ± 1 years performed HIIT training three times/week for 6 weeks on a bicycle ergometer. Each HIIT session consisted of five 1-minute intervals interspersed with 1½-minute rest. Prior to the first and after the last HIIT session whole-body insulin sensitivity, measured by a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, plasma lipid levels, HbA1c, glycaemic parameters, body composition and maximal oxygen uptake were assessed. Muscle biopsies were obtained wherefrom content of glycogen and proteins involved in muscle glucose handling were determined. Insulin sensitivity (P = .011) and maximal oxygen uptake increased (P body fat (P < .05) decreased after 6 weeks of HIIT. HbA1c decreased only in males (P = .001). Muscle glycogen content increased in both genders (P = .001) and in line GLUT4 (P < .05), glycogen synthase (P = .001) and hexokinase II (P < .05) content all increased. Six weeks of HIIT significantly improves metabolic health in older males and females by reducing age-related risk factors for cardiometabolic disease. © 2017 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The effects of high intensity interval training in women with rheumatic disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstad, Janne; Stensvold, Dorthe; Hoff, Mari; Nes, Bjarne M; Arbo, Ingerid; Bye, Anja

    2015-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are inflammatory diseases which involve increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). High intensity interval training (HIIT) is known to be effective in improving cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 10 weeks of HIIT at 85-95% of HRmax would improve important risk factors of CVD in rheumatic patients, and if these patients would tolerate exercise intensities above today's recommendations. Seven women with RA and eleven with adult-JIA, 20-50 years, were recruited to this cross-over study. Participants performed HIIT, consisting of 4 × 4 min intervals at 85-95% of HRmax twice a week for 10 weeks on spinning bikes. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), heart rate recovery, blood pressure, body composition, and blood variables were measured before and after the exercise and control period. Disease activity was determined and questionnaire data were collected. HIIT resulted in 12.2% increase in VO2max and 2.9% improvement in heart rate recovery (p HIIT (p = 0.08). No changes were detected in disease activity or pain. Despite rigorous high intensity exercise, no increase was detected in disease activity or pain, indicating that HIIT was well tolerated by these patients. Furthermore, HIIT had positive effects on several CVD risk factors. In light of this pilot study, HIIT seems like a promising non-pharmacological treatment strategy for patients with RA and adult-JIA.

  12. Impact of sampling interval in training data acquisition on intrafractional predictive accuracy of indirect dynamic tumor-tracking radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukumoto, Nobutaka; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Akimoto, Mami; Miyabe, Yuki; Yokota, Kenji; Matsuo, Yukinori; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2017-08-01

    To explore the effect of sampling interval of training data acquisition on the intrafractional prediction error of surrogate signal-based dynamic tumor-tracking using a gimbal-mounted linac. Twenty pairs of respiratory motions were acquired from 20 patients (ten lung, five liver, and five pancreatic cancer patients) who underwent dynamic tumor-tracking with the Vero4DRT. First, respiratory motions were acquired as training data for an initial construction of the prediction model before the irradiation. Next, additional respiratory motions were acquired for an update of the prediction model due to the change of the respiratory pattern during the irradiation. The time elapsed prior to the second acquisition of the respiratory motion was 12.6 ± 3.1 min. A four-axis moving phantom reproduced patients' three dimensional (3D) target motions and one dimensional surrogate motions. To predict the future internal target motion from the external surrogate motion, prediction models were constructed by minimizing residual prediction errors for training data acquired at 80 and 320 ms sampling intervals for 20 s, and at 500, 1,000, and 2,000 ms sampling intervals for 60 s using orthogonal kV x-ray imaging systems. The accuracies of prediction models trained with various sampling intervals were estimated based on training data with each sampling interval during the training process. The intrafractional prediction errors for various prediction models were then calculated on intrafractional monitoring images taken for 30 s at the constant sampling interval of a 500 ms fairly to evaluate the prediction accuracy for the same motion pattern. In addition, the first respiratory motion was used for the training and the second respiratory motion was used for the evaluation of the intrafractional prediction errors for the changed respiratory motion to evaluate the robustness of the prediction models. The training error of the prediction model was 1.7 ± 0.7 mm in 3D for all sampling

  13. High-Intensity Interval Training Versus Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in the Prevention/Management of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed R; Macaluso, Andrea; Pearson, Stephen J

    Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has long been considered the most effective exercise treatment modality for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but more recently high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been viewed as a potential alternative to MICT in accruing such benefits. HIIT was initially found to induce significant improvements in numerous physiological and health-related indices, to a similar if not superior extent to MICT. Since then, many studies have attempted to explore the potential clinical utility of HIIT, relative to MICT, with respect to treating numerous cardiovascular conditions, such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and hypertension. Despite this, however, the efficacy of HIIT in reversing the specific symptoms and risk factors of these cardiovascular pathologies is not well understood. HIIT is often perceived as very strenuous, which could render it unsafe for those at risk of or afflicted with CVD, but these issues are also yet to be reviewed. Furthermore, the optimal HIIT protocol for each of the CVD cohorts has not been established. Thus, the purpose of this review article is to (1) evaluate the efficacy of HIIT relative to MICT in the prevention and management of cardiovascular conditions, and (2) explore any potential safety issues surrounding the suitability and/or tolerability of HIIT for patients with CVD, and the potential optimal prescriptive variables of HIIT for application in the clinical environment.

  14. Ketogenic diet, high intensity interval training (HIIT) and memory training in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Kaitlyn; Gibas, Kelly J

    2018-04-11

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) deaths have increased by 89% since 2000. This alarming trajectory of neurological disease highlights the failure of current best practice. Deteriorating brain fuel supply is the nemesis of intact neurological health. Cerebral hypo-metabolism associated with AD occurs years before onset. Both the ketogenic diet and calorie restriction (fasting) lead to a compensatory rise in ketones to improve energy deficits in the brain derived from cerebral insulin resistance. Two forms of ketone bodies, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, fuel the brain during starvation, fasting and strenuous exercise. Ketones are neuroprotective agents that shelter the aging brain from memory loss and neurodegeneration. Induced ketone production has been shown to ameliorate mitochondrial function, reduce the expression of apoptotic and inflammatory mediators and provide neuroprotection to cells (Lange et al., 2017). This case study highlights an innovative research design aimed at attenuating memory decline in a 57 year old female previously diagnosed with comorbid mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Mild cognitive impairment is a predementia syndrome known to precede AD (Michaud et al, 2017). The 12-week intervention included ketogenic nutrition protocol, high intensity interval training (HIIT) and memory training using the PEAK brain training app. Memory function was assessed via the MoCA (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) pre/post intervention. Physiological biomarkers for MetS including HOMA-IR(homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance), triglyceride/HDL ratio, HgA1c, fasting triglycerides and HDL were measured pre/post intervention. MoCA baseline score was 22/30 (MCI); post intervention score: 30/30 (normal). MetS biomarker improvements also reflected statistical significance. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Effects of Interval Training-Based Glycolytic Capacity on Physical Fitness in Recreational Long-Distance Runners

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    Zatoń Marek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of 8-week-long interval training (targeting glycolytic capacity on selected markers of physical fitness in amateur long-distance runners. Methods. The study involved 17 amateur long-distance runners randomly divided into an experimental (n = 8 and control (n = 9 group. The control group performed three or four continuous training sessions per week whereas the experimental group performed two interval running training sessions and one continuous running training session. A graded treadmill exercise test and the 12-min Cooper test were performed pre- and post-training. Results. O2max and the rate of recovery increased in the experimental group. Relative oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, and heart rate speed decreased in low- (6 km/h and medium-intensity (12 km/h running. Conclusions. Both training modalities showed similar results. However, the significant differences in training volume (4-8 min interval training vs. 40-150 min continuous training indicates that the modalities targeting glycolytic capacity may be more efficient for amateur runners prepare for long-distance events.

  16. High Intensity Interval Training Improves Physical Performance and Frailty in Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldeen, Kenneth Ladd; Lasky, Ginger; Leiker, Merced Marie; Pang, Manhui; Personius, Kirkwood Ely; Troen, Bruce Robert

    2018-03-14

    Sarcopenia and frailty are highly prevalent in older individuals, increasing the risk of disability and loss of independence. High intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide a robust intervention for both sarcopenia and frailty by achieving both strength and endurance benefits with lower time commitments than other exercise regimens. To better understand the impacts of HIIT during aging, we compared 24-month-old C57BL/6J sedentary mice with those that were administered 10-minute uphill treadmill HIIT sessions three times per week over 16 weeks. Baseline and end point assessments included body composition, physical performance, and frailty based on criteria from the Fried physical frailty scale. HIIT-trained mice demonstrated dramatic improvement in grip strength (HIIT 10.9% vs -3.9% in sedentary mice), treadmill endurance (32.6% vs -2.0%), and gait speed (107.0% vs 39.0%). Muscles from HIIT mice also exhibited greater mass, larger fiber size, and an increase in mitochondrial biomass. Furthermore, HIIT exercise led to a dramatic reduction in frailty scores in five of six mice that were frail or prefrail at baseline, with four ultimately becoming nonfrail. The uphill treadmill HIIT exercise sessions were well tolerated by aged mice and led to performance gains, improvement in underlying muscle physiology, and reduction in frailty.

  17. [Effects of high intensity interval training on blood pressure in hypertensive subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, María Angélica; Mancilla, Rodrigo; Martínez, Sergio; Díaz, Erik

    2017-09-01

    Exercise training may reduce blood pressure. To determine the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise protocol on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. Eleven men and 27 women aged 46.4 ± 9.8 years were divided in two groups according to their blood pressure. Sixteen were classified as normotensive and 22 as hypertensive. All attended an exercise program with 3 sessions per week for a total of 24 sessions. Each session consisted of one minute of intense exercise performed on a stationary bike, followed by an inactive pause lasting two minutes. This cycle was repeated 10 times and it was thus called 1 * 2 * 10. Blood pressure, weight (kg) and body fat were assessed. In the hypertensive group, there was a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure from 145.4 ± 9.0 to 118.3 ± 15.6 mm Hg (p hypertension in a period of two months and 24 sessions.

  18. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Moderate Recovery Unnecessary to Sustain High Stroke Volume during Interval Training. A Brief Report

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    Jamie Stanley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the time spent at a high stroke volume (SV is important for improving maximal cardiac function. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of recovery intensity on cardiovascular parameters during a typical high-intensity interval training (HIIT session in fourteen well-trained cyclists. Oxygen consumption (VO2, heart rate (HR, SV, cardiac output (Qc, and oxygenation of vastus lateralis (TSI were measured during a HIIT (3×3-min work period, 2 min of recovery session on two occasions. VO2, HR and Qc were largely higher during moderate-intensity (60% compared with low-intensity (30% (VO2, effect size; ES = +2.6; HR, ES = +2.8; Qc, ES = +2.2 and passive (HR, ES = +2.2; Qc, ES = +1.7 recovery. By contrast, there was no clear difference in SV between the three recovery conditions, with the SV during the two active recovery periods not being substantially different than during exercise (60%, ES = −0.1; 30%, ES = −0.2. To conclude, moderate-intensity recovery may not be required to maintain a high SV during HIIT.

  20. High intensity interval training improves liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinko, Katarina; Sikkema, Sarah R.; Samaan, M. Constantine; Kemp, Bruce E.; Fullerton, Morgan D.; Steinberg, Gregory R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Endurance exercise training reduces insulin resistance, adipose tissue inflammation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), an effect often associated with modest weight loss. Recent studies have indicated that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) lowers blood glucose in individuals with type 2 diabetes independently of weight loss; however, the organs affected and mechanisms mediating the glucose lowering effects are not known. Intense exercise increases phosphorylation and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in muscle, adipose tissue and liver. AMPK and ACC are key enzymes regulating fatty acid metabolism, liver fat content, adipose tissue inflammation and insulin sensitivity but the importance of this pathway in regulating insulin sensitivity with HIIT is unknown. Methods In the current study, the effects of 6 weeks of HIIT were examined using obese mice with serine–alanine knock-in mutations on the AMPK phosphorylation sites of ACC1 and ACC2 (AccDKI) or wild-type (WT) controls. Results HIIT lowered blood glucose and increased exercise capacity, food intake, basal activity levels, carbohydrate oxidation and liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed WT and AccDKI mice. These changes occurred independently of weight loss or reductions in adiposity, inflammation and liver lipid content. Conclusions These data indicate that HIIT lowers blood glucose levels by improving adipose and liver insulin sensitivity independently of changes in adiposity, adipose tissue inflammation, liver lipid content or AMPK phosphorylation of ACC. PMID:26909307

  1. High-intensity Interval Training Frequency: Cardiometabolic Effects and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinou, Pinelopi S; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Giannaki, Christoforos D; Terzis, Gerasimos; Hadjicharalambous, Marios

    2018-02-01

    The effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) frequency on cardiometabolic health and quality of life were examined in 35 healthy inactive adults (age: 31.7±2.6 yrs, VO 2 peak: 32.7±7.4 ml·: kg -1 ·: min -1 ). Participants were randomly assigned to a control (CON) and two training groups, which performed 10×60-s cycling at ~83% of peak power, two (HIIT-2) or three times per week (HIIT-3) for eight weeks. Compared with CON, both training regimes resulted in similar improvements in VO 2 peak (HIIT-2: 10.8%, p=0.048, HIIT-3: 13.6%, p=0.017), waist circumference (HIIT-2: -1.4 cm, p=0.048, HIIT-3: -2.4 cm, p=0.028), thigh cross-sectional area (HIIT-2: 11.4 cm 2 , p=0.001, HIIT-3: 9.3 cm 2 , p=0.001) and the physical health component of quality of life (HIIT-2: 8.4, p=0.001, HIIT-3: 12.2, p=0.001). However, HIIT-3 conferred additional health-related benefits by reducing total body and trunk fat percentage (pHIIT only twice per week is effective in promoting cardiometabolic health-related adaptations and quality of life in inactive adults. However, higher HIIT frequency is required for an effect on fat deposits, cholesterol and mental component of well-being. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Continuous Exercise but Not High Intensity Interval Training Improves Fat Distribution in Overweight Adults

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    Shelley E. Keating

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT versus continuous aerobic exercise training (CONT or placebo (PLA on body composition by randomized controlled design. Methods. Work capacity and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention in 38 previously inactive overweight adults. Results. There was a significant group × time interaction for change in work capacity (P<0.001, which increased significantly in CONT (23.8±3.0% and HIIT (22.3±3.5% but not PLA (3.1±5.0%. There was a near-significant main effect for percentage trunk fat, with trunk fat reducing in CONT by 3.1±1.6% and in PLA by 1.1±0.4%, but not in HIIT (increase of 0.7±1.0% (P=0.07. There was a significant reduction in android fat percentage in CONT (2.7±1.3% and PLA (1.4±0.8% but not HIIT (increase of 0.8±0.7% (P=0.04. Conclusion. These data suggest that HIIT may be advocated as a time-efficient strategy for eliciting comparable fitness benefits to traditional continuous exercise in inactive, overweight adults. However, in this population HIIT does not confer the same benefit to body fat levels as continuous exercise training.

  3. Effect of vitamin E succinate on inflammatory cytokines induced by high-intensity interval training

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    Hadi Sarir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Scope: The anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin E under moderate exercises has been evaluated. However, the effect of vitamin E succinate, which has more potent anti-inflammatory effect than other isomers of vitamin E has not been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E succinate on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a and interleukin-6 (IL-6 production induced by high-intensity interval training (HIIT. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 24 rats were randomly divided into control (C, supplementation (S, HIIT, and HIIT + supplementation (HIIT+S groups. HIIT training protocol on a treadmill (at a speed of 40-54 m/min and vitamin E succinate supplementation (60 mg/kg/day was conducted for 6 weeks. Results: Serum IL-6 in the HIIT group significantly increased compared with the C group (350.42 ± 123.31 pg/mL vs 158.60 ± 41.96 pg/mL; P = 0.002. Also, serum TNF-a concentrations significantly enhanced (718.15 ± 133.42 pg/mL vs 350.87 ± 64.93 pg/mL; P = 0.001 in the HIIT group compared with the C group. Treatment of the training group with vitamin E numerically reduced IL-6 and TNF-a when compared with the HIIT group (217.31 ± 29.21 and 510.23 ± 217.88, respectively, P > 0.05. However, no significant changes were observed in serum TNF-a (P = 0.31 and IL-6 (P = 0.52 concentrations in the HIIT + S group compared with the C group. Conclusion: HIIT-induced IL-6 and TNF-α decreased by administration of Vitamin E succinate.

  4. Effect of vitamin E succinate on inflammatory cytokines induced by high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarir, Hadi; Emdadifard, Ghodsieh; Farhangfar, Homayoun; TaheriChadorneshin, Hossein

    2015-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin E under moderate exercises has been evaluated. However, the effect of vitamin E succinate, which has more potent anti-inflammatory effect than other isomers of vitamin E has not been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E succinate on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production induced by high-intensity interval training (HIIT). In the present study, 24 rats were randomly divided into control (C), supplementation (S), HIIT, and HIIT + supplementation (HIIT+S) groups. HIIT training protocol on a treadmill (at a speed of 40-54 m/min) and vitamin E succinate supplementation (60 mg/kg/day) was conducted for 6 weeks. Serum IL-6 in the HIIT group significantly increased compared with the C group (350.42 ± 123.31 pg/mL vs 158.60 ± 41.96 pg/mL; P = 0.002). Also, serum TNF-α concentrations significantly enhanced (718.15 ± 133.42 pg/mL vs 350.87 ± 64.93 pg/mL; P = 0.001) in the HIIT group compared with the C group. Treatment of the training group with vitamin E numerically reduced IL-6 and TNF-α when compared with the HIIT group (217.31 ± 29.21 and 510.23 ± 217.88, respectively, P > 0.05). However, no significant changes were observed in serum TNF-α (P = 0.31) and IL-6 (P = 0.52) concentrations in the HIIT + S group compared with the C group. HIIT-induced IL-6 and TNF-α decreased by administration of Vitamin E succinate.

  5. Acute effects of interval versus continuous endurance training on pulse wave reflection in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Henner; Nussbaumer, Monique; Moor, Christoph; Cordes, Mareike; Schindler, Christian; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2015-02-01

    Our aim was to investigate the acute and 24-hour (h) effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate continuous training (MCT) on arterial pulse wave reflection, an established marker of arterial stiffness and cardiovascular risk. In a randomized cross-over design, 21 young healthy male participants performed a HIIT or a MCT on separate visits. Before and 5 (t5), 20 (t20), 35 (t35), and 50 (t50) minutes after the acute exercise bouts, the crude augmentation index (AIx) and the AIx at a set heart rate (AIx@75) were analysed by applanation tonometry. Starting 1 h post-exercise, both indices were captured over 24-h with an oscillometric monitoring device. AIx did not change significantly after MCT but declined progressively after HIIT, reaching significantly lower values compared to MCT at t35 (P = 0.045) and t50 (P = 0.008). AIx@75 increased after both acute exercise types but was higher after HIIT at t5 (P HIIT (P = 0.007) but not after MCT (P = 0.813). Exercise intensity affects pulse wave reflection, with different time courses for AIx and AIx@75 post-exercise. Although initially higher after HIIT, AIx@75 declines in the 24-h recovery period indicating more favourable effects on pulse wave reflection compared to MCT. This may result in substantial positive chronic training effects on arterial stiffness in health and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Low-Active Male Adolescents: A Dose Response to High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Greig Robert Melrose; Harris, Nigel; Duncan, Scott; Plank, Lindsay D; Merien, Fabrice; Schofield, Grant

    2016-03-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a potential alternative to traditionally recommended steady state exercise for providing health benefits in adolescents, yet its dose-response relationship in this cohort remains unclear, as does its translatability to real-world, nonclinical settings. The present study adopts a novel dose-response design to investigate the effects of undertaking 8 wk of HIIT on the cardiometabolic health of low-active male adolescents. Twenty-six male adolescents (age 16 ± 1 yr), identified as low active by nonparticipation in structured sport and physical education classes, were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups. Corresponding with their group numbers (1-5), participants completed a number of HIIT "sets," which consisted of 4 repeated bouts of 20-s near-maximal exertion interspersed with 10-s passive recovery. Participants performed two HIIT sessions and one resistance training session each week for 8 wk. Baseline and follow-up health measures consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) with an incremental ramp test to volitional exhaustion; body composition (including visceral fat mass, body fat, and lean tissue mass) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; and lipid profile, glucose, insulin, and interleukin-6 from blood analysis. All health outcomes were analyzed as percentage changes, and data were modeled using a quadratic function to explore dose-response relationships. Significant improvements were observed for V˙O2peak (∼6%), body fat percentage (∼4%), visceral fat mass (∼10%), and waist circumference-to-height ratio (∼3%), but there was no clear effect of dose across groups. Low-active adolescent males performing a single HIIT set twice weekly, in addition to one resistance training session, gained meaningful improvements in fitness and body composition. Performing additional HIIT sets provided no additional improvements to those of the lowest dose in this study.

  7. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda, N.M.M.; Seeger, J.P.; Stevens, G.G.; Hijmans-Kersten, B.T.P.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Bellersen, L.; Lamfers, E.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF). To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT). We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT) in HF

  8. In-Hospital Basic Life Support: Major Differences in Duration, Retraining Intervals, and Training Methods - A Danish Nationwide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ditte K; Glerup Lauridsen, Kasper; Staerk, Mathilde

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: High-quality chest compressions and early defibrillation is essential to improve survival following in-hospital cardiac arrest. Efficient training in basic life support (BLS) for clinical staff is therefore important. This study aimed to investigate duration, training methods...... and retraining intervals for BLS training of clinical staff in Danish hospitals.Methods: We included all public, somatic hospitals in Denmark with a cardiac arrest team. Online questionnaires were distributed to resuscitation officers in each hospital. Questionnaires inquired information on: A) Course duration...... and retraining interval, and B) Training methods and setting.Results: In total, 44 hospitals replied (response rate: 96%). BLS training for clinical staff was conducted in 41 hospitals (93%). Median (Q1;Q3) course duration was 1.5 (1;2.5) hours. Retraining was conducted every year (17%), every second year (56...

  9. The effect of low-volume high-intensity interval training versus endurance training on glycemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Kamilla Munch; Munch, Gregers Winding; Iepsen, Ulrik Winning

    2018-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with a lower time commitment can be as effective as endurance training (END) on glycaemic control, physical fitness and body composition in individuals with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 29 individuals with type 2...... diabetes were allocated to control (CON; no training), END or HIIT groups. Training groups received 3 training sessions per week consisting of either 40 minutes of cycling at 50% of peak workload (END) or 10 1-minute intervals at 95% of peak workload interspersed with 1 minute of active recovery (HIIT...... in the HIIT group (20% ± 20%) compared with the END group (8% ± 9%) despite lower total energy expenditure and time usage during the training sessions. HIIT decreased whole body and android fat mass compared with the CON group. In addition, visceral fat mass, HbA1c, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose...

  10. [Secondary Full Title: Effects of high intensity interval training in plain and uphill regarding physical performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marterer, Natalie; Menz, Verena; Burtscher, Martin

    2018-04-05

     As the number of HIITs is increasing in competitive and non-competitive sports, the risk of injuries and overload is increasing. There are no scientific data to support specific recommendations in regard to intensity, duration, number of intervals and gradient for HIIT that result in improved muscular parameters in athletes. Therefore the aim of this study was to compare HIIT in plain and uphill exercise, with respect to exercise tolerance and improvements in performance (VO 2max and 800 m running time in the plain and uphill).  17 well-trained sport students (10 females, 7 males; Ø VO 2max : 53.7 ml/min/kg) were randomly assigned to the plain group (plain; GE) (n = 8) or the uphill group (hill, GB) (n = 9). In the four weeks of training, all subjects completed 14 HIIT sessions. Each session consisted of 8 × 2 min running at 90 - 95 % of the maximal heart rate (HR max ), separated by 2 min recovery periods (work/rest ratio: 1:1). Before the intervention phase, subjects performed treadmill spirometry, a 800 m field test in the plain, as well as an 800 m uphill field test to determine baseline performance. One week after the intervention period, all subjects completed a retest of all measurements and tests. After the intervention, all subjects completed a questionnaire by giving their level of perceived exertion during training, using the BORG scale.  In GE, three subjects dropped out of the study because of overtraining. In GB, two subjects did not complete the study because of time constraints. The evaluation of the perceived exertion of the training in flat terrain showed a trend (p = 0.08; t = - 1.96) towards being perceived as more exhausting then in hilly terrain. A four week HIIT showed significant improvements in VO 2max by 5.2 % (p = 0.02; t = - 2.76), and a reduction in the running time in the plain by 4.6 % (p = 0.01; t = 3.48) and uphill by 6.3 % (p = 0.02; t = 2.77). No

  11. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training and Strength Training on Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Hormonal Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Almenning

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women, and associates with insulin resistance. Exercise is advocated in this disorder, but little knowledge exists on the optimal exercise regimes. We assessed the effects of high intensity interval training and strength training on metabolic, cardiovascular, and hormonal outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Three-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Thirty-one women with polycystic ovary syndrome (age 27.2 ± 5.5 years; body mass index 26.7 ± 6.0 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to high intensity interval training, strength training, or a control group. The exercise groups exercised three times weekly for 10 weeks.The main outcome measure was change in homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. HOMA-IR improved significantly only after high intensity interval training, by -0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.45, -0.20, equal to 17%, with between-group difference (p = 0.014. After high intensity interval training, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 0.2 (95% CI, 0.02, 0.5 mmol/L, with between group difference (p = 0.04. Endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, increased significantly after high intensity interval training, by 2.0 (95% CI, 0.1, 4.0 %, between-group difference (p = 0.08. Fat percentage decreased significantly after both exercise regimes, without changes in body weight. After strength training, anti-Müllarian hormone was significantly reduced, by -14.8 (95% CI, -21.2, -8.4 pmol/L, between-group difference (p = 0.04. There were no significant changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin or leptin in any group.High intensity interval training for ten weeks improved insulin resistance, without weight loss, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Body composition improved significantly after both strength training and high intensity interval training. This pilot

  12. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training and Strength Training on Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Hormonal Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenning, Ida; Rieber-Mohn, Astrid; Lundgren, Kari Margrethe; Shetelig Løvvik, Tone; Garnæs, Kirsti Krohn; Moholdt, Trine

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women, and associates with insulin resistance. Exercise is advocated in this disorder, but little knowledge exists on the optimal exercise regimes. We assessed the effects of high intensity interval training and strength training on metabolic, cardiovascular, and hormonal outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Three-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Thirty-one women with polycystic ovary syndrome (age 27.2 ± 5.5 years; body mass index 26.7 ± 6.0 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to high intensity interval training, strength training, or a control group. The exercise groups exercised three times weekly for 10 weeks. The main outcome measure was change in homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). HOMA-IR improved significantly only after high intensity interval training, by -0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.45, -0.20), equal to 17%, with between-group difference (p = 0.014). After high intensity interval training, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 0.2 (95% CI, 0.02, 0.5) mmol/L, with between group difference (p = 0.04). Endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, increased significantly after high intensity interval training, by 2.0 (95% CI, 0.1, 4.0) %, between-group difference (p = 0.08). Fat percentage decreased significantly after both exercise regimes, without changes in body weight. After strength training, anti-Müllarian hormone was significantly reduced, by -14.8 (95% CI, -21.2, -8.4) pmol/L, between-group difference (p = 0.04). There were no significant changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin or leptin in any group. High intensity interval training for ten weeks improved insulin resistance, without weight loss, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Body composition improved significantly after both strength training and high intensity interval training. This pilot study

  13. Affective and enjoyment responses in high intensity interval training and continuous training: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ribeiro Ramalho Oliveira

    Full Text Available Previous studies investigating the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT and moderate intensity continuous training (MICT showed controversial results. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the literature on the effects of HIIT and MICT on affective and enjoyment responses. The PRISMA Statement and the Cochrane recommendation were used to perform this systematic review and the database search was performed using PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus. Eight studies investigating the acute affective and enjoyment responses on HIIT and MICT were included in the present systematic review. The standardized mean difference (SMD was calculated for Feeling Scale (FS, Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES and Exercise Enjoyment Scale (EES. The MICT was used as the reference condition. The overall results showed similar beneficial effects of HIIT on PACES and EES responses compared to MICT with SMDs classified as small (PACES-SMD = 0.49, I2 = 69.3%, p = 0.001; EES-SMD = 0.48, I2 = 24.1%, p = 0.245 while for FS, the overall result showed a trivial effect (FS-SMD = 0.19, I2 = 78.9%, p<0.001. Most of the comparisons performed presented positive effects for HIIT. For the FS, six of 12 comparisons showed beneficial effects for HIIT involving normal weight and overweight-to-obese populations. For PACES, six of 10 comparisons showed beneficial effects for HIIT involving normal weight and overweight-to-obese populations. For EES, six of seven comparisons showed beneficial effects for HIIT also involving normal weight and overweight-to-obese populations. Based on the results of the present study, it is possible to conclude that HIIT exercise may be a viable strategy for obtaining positive psychological responses. Although HIIT exercise may be recommended for obtaining positive psychological responses, chronic studies should clarify the applicability of HIIT for exercise adherence.

  14. Affective and enjoyment responses in high intensity interval training and continuous training: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bruno Ribeiro Ramalho; Santos, Tony Meireles; Kilpatrick, Marcus; Pires, Flávio Oliveira; Deslandes, Andréa Camaz

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) showed controversial results. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the literature on the effects of HIIT and MICT on affective and enjoyment responses. The PRISMA Statement and the Cochrane recommendation were used to perform this systematic review and the database search was performed using PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus. Eight studies investigating the acute affective and enjoyment responses on HIIT and MICT were included in the present systematic review. The standardized mean difference (SMD) was calculated for Feeling Scale (FS), Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) and Exercise Enjoyment Scale (EES). The MICT was used as the reference condition. The overall results showed similar beneficial effects of HIIT on PACES and EES responses compared to MICT with SMDs classified as small (PACES-SMD = 0.49, I2 = 69.3%, p = 0.001; EES-SMD = 0.48, I2 = 24.1%, p = 0.245) while for FS, the overall result showed a trivial effect (FS-SMD = 0.19, I2 = 78.9%, pHIIT. For the FS, six of 12 comparisons showed beneficial effects for HIIT involving normal weight and overweight-to-obese populations. For PACES, six of 10 comparisons showed beneficial effects for HIIT involving normal weight and overweight-to-obese populations. For EES, six of seven comparisons showed beneficial effects for HIIT also involving normal weight and overweight-to-obese populations. Based on the results of the present study, it is possible to conclude that HIIT exercise may be a viable strategy for obtaining positive psychological responses. Although HIIT exercise may be recommended for obtaining positive psychological responses, chronic studies should clarify the applicability of HIIT for exercise adherence.

  15. Interval hypoxic training in complex treatment of fractures of trochanteric area of the femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Василь Михайлович Шимон

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The method of interval hypoxic training (IHT is used to increase physical endurance of athletes and for treatment of certain systemic diseases, due to the ability of IHT affect metabolism, homeostasis and the immune system. The aims of the article are improving the results of treatment and rehabilitation of patients with fractures of the trochanteric area of the femur by the method of interval hypoxic training and study its influence on bone metabolism.Materials and methods. 17 patients who were hospitalized in the clinic of general surgery UzhNU with fractures of the trochanteric area of the femur are examined in the period from 2012 to 2015.The first group consisted of 6 patients who from day-patient treatment is conducted IHT by gas mixture of 12 % oxygen. The second group consisted of 4 patients with thyrotoxicosis who are also receiving IHT by gas mixture of 12% oxygen.The control group consisted of 7 patients with fractures of the trochanteric area of the femur who refused from IHT.Results and its discussion. The best physical activity is observed in the first group. Starting physical activity is the lowest in the second group, but its development is faster. Slowly increase the duration of physical activity compared with the first two groups is observed in the control group.In the control study after 1 month it is noted that calcium level increased in all three groups. Increase in the second group is biggest. The level of phosphorus decreased in the first and the control group and increased in the second group.The levels of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase increased. Rates were higher and increase was substantial in the first two groups in comparison with the control group.Conclusions.• Intensive growth of length of one-time physical activity most notably in patients with thyrotoxicosis is observed in patients who are receiving IHT.• Improvement of the activity of bone metabolism is observed in patients after IHT

  16. Sex Comparison of Knee Extensor Size, Strength and Fatigue Adaptation to Sprint Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Liam; Al-Shanti, Nasser; Bradburn, Steven; Baig, Osamah; Slevin, Mark; McPhee, Jamie S

    2018-03-12

    Regular sprint interval training (SIT) improves whole-body aerobic capacity and muscle oxidative potential, but very little is known about knee extensor anabolic or fatigue resistance adaptations, or whether effects are similar for males and females. The purpose of this study was to compare sex-related differences in knee extensor size, torque-velocity relationship and fatigability adaptations to 12 weeks SIT. Sixteen males and fifteen females (mean (SEM) age: 41 (±2.5) yrs) completed measurements of total body composition assessed by DXA, quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSAQ) assessed by MRI, the knee extensor torque-velocity relationship (covering 0 - 240°·sec) and fatigue resistance, which was measured as the decline in torque from the first to the last of 60 repeated concentric knee extensions performed at 180°·sec. SIT consisted of 4 x 20 second sprints on a cycle ergometer set at an initial power output of 175% of power at VO2max, three times per week for 12 weeks. CSAQ increased by 5% (p=0.023) and fatigue resistance improved 4.8% (p=0.048), with no sex differences in these adaptations (sex comparisons: p=0.140 and p=0.282, respectively). Knee extensor isometric and concentric torque was unaffected by SIT in both males and females (p>0.05 for all velocities). 12 weeks SIT, totalling 4 minutes very intense cycling per week, significantly increased fatigue resistance and CSAQ similarly in males and females, but did not significantly increase torque in males or females. These results suggest that SIT is a time-effective training modality for males and females to increase leg muscle size and fatigue resistance.

  17. Preliminary safety analysis of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in persons with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Daniel L; Boyne, Pierce; Rockwell, Bradley; Gerson, Myron; Khoury, Jane; Kissela, Brett; Dunning, Kari

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess safety via electrocardiographic (ECG), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and orthopedic responses to 3 different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols in persons with stroke. Eighteen participants (10 male; 61.9 + 8.3 years of age; 5.8 + 4.2 years poststroke) completed a symptom-limited graded exercise test (GXT) with ECG monitoring to screen for eligibility and determine HR peak. The 3 HIIT protocols involved repeated 30 s bursts of treadmill walking at maximum speed alternated with rest periods of 30 s (P30), 1 min (P60), or 2 min (P120). Sessions were performed in random order and included 5 min warm up, 20 min HIIT, and 5 min cool down. Variables measured included ECG activity, BP, HR, signs and symptoms of cardiovascular intolerance, and orthopedic concerns. Generalized linear mixed models and Tukey-Kramer adjustment were used to compare protocols using p HIIT session. HIIT elicited HRs in excess of 88% of measured HR peak including 6 (P30), 8 (P60), and 2 (P120) participants eliciting a HR response above their GXT HR peak . Both maximum BP and HR were significantly higher in P30 and P60 relative to P120. Preliminary data indicate that persons with chronic stroke who have been prescreened with an ECG stress test, a symptom-limited GXT, and a harness for fall protection may safely participate in HIIT, generating substantially higher HRs than what is seen in traditional moderate intensity training.

  18. Complexity of heartbeat interval series in young healthy trained and untrained men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platisa, Mirjana M; Nestorovic, Zorica; Gal, Vera; Mazic, Sanja

    2008-01-01

    The origin of heart rate variability (HRV) is largely in parasympathetic activity. The direct influence of sympathetic activity and other control mechanisms, especially at an increased HR, is not well understood. The objectives of the study were to investigate the influence of increasing HR on the properties of heartbeat interval (RR) series in young healthy subjects. ECG was recorded in 9 trained and 11 untrained young men during supine rest, standing, incremental running exercise and relaxation. During exercise, a breath-to-breath gas exchange was monitored. The RR time series analysis included the spectral analysis, detrended fluctuations analysis method and sample entropy (SampEn) calculation. During exercise, spectral powers were reduced dramatically in both groups. The dependence of short-term scaling exponent (α 1 ) on the RR included a characteristic maximum, while SampEn for the same value of the RR had a minimum. The value of HR corresponding to the maximum of α 1 and minimum of SampEn (IHR) corresponded to the intrinsic HR obtained by an autonomic blockade. In trained subjects, the curves α 1 versus RR and SampEn versus RR were moved toward larger RR, compared with control. For HR values higher than IHR, α 1 decreased and SampEn increased. These results reveal that the complexity of the heart rhythm above intrinsic HR decreases with an increase in HR. We suggest that at the highest HR intrinsic heart control is reflected in the heart rhythm. We point out the possibility of developing a new non-invasive method for the determination of intrinsic HR from the curve α 1 versus RR

  19. Psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery from high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leighton; Tiller, Nicholas B; Karageorghis, Costas I

    2017-03-01

    Numerous studies have examined the multifarious effects of music applied during exercise but few have assessed the efficacy of music as an aid to recovery. Music might facilitate physiological recovery via the entrainment of respiratory rhythms with music tempo. High-intensity exercise training is not typically associated with positive affective responses, and thus ways of assuaging negative affect warrant further exploration. This study assessed the psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery and prevalence of entrainment in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. Thirteen male runners (M age =20.2±1.9years; BMI=21.7±1.7; V̇O 2 max=61.6±6.1mL·kg·min -1 ) completed three exercise sessions comprising 5×5-min bouts of high-intensity intervals interspersed with 3-min periods of passive recovery. During recovery, participants were administered positively-valenced music of a slow-tempo (55-65bpm), fast-tempo (125-135bpm), or a no-music control. A range of measures including affective responses, RPE, cardiorespiratory indices (gas exchange and pulmonary ventilation), and music tempo-respiratory entrainment were recorded during exercise and recovery. Fast-tempo, positively-valenced music resulted in higher Feeling Scale scores throughout recovery periods (pmusic-moderated differences in cardiorespiratory responses. In conclusion, fast-tempo, positively-valenced music applied during recovery periods engenders a more pleasant experience. However, there is limited evidence that music expedites cardiorespiratory recovery in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. These findings have implications for athletic training strategies and individuals seeking to make high-intensity exercise sessions more pleasant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Continuous and Interval Training on Running Economy, Maximal Aerobic Speed and Gait Kinematics in Recreational Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mohíno, Fernando; González-Ravé, José M; Juárez, Daniel; Fernández, Francisco A; Barragán Castellanos, Rubén; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on running economy (RE), V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, maximal aerobic speed (MAS), and gait kinematics (step length [SL] and frequency, flight and contact time [CT]) in recreational athletes, with 2 different training methods, Interval and Continuous (CON). Eleven participants were randomly distributed in an interval training group (INT; n = 6) or CON training group (CON; n = 5). Interval training and CON performed 2 different training programs (95-110% and 70-75% of MAS, respectively), which consisted of 3 sessions per week during 6 weeks with the same external workload (%MAS × duration). An incremental test to exhaustion was performed to obtain V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, MAS, RE, and gait variables (high speed camera) before and after the training intervention. There was a significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) in RE at 60 and 90% of MAS by the CON group; without changes in gait. The INT group significantly increased MAS and higher stride length at 80, 90, and 100% of MAS and lower CT at 100% of MAS. As expected, training adaptations are highly specific to the overload applied with CON producing improvements in RE at lower percentage of MAS whereas INT produces improvements in MAS. The significantly increased stride length and decreased CT for the INT group are an important outcome of favorable changes in running gait.

  1. Determining the anaerobic threshold in postpolio syndrome: comparison with current guidelines for training intensity prescription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, Eric L.; Gerrits, Karin H.; Koopman, Fieke S.; Nollet, Frans; Beelen, Anita

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether the anaerobic threshold (AT) can be identified in individuals with postpolio syndrome (PPS) using submaximal incremental exercise testing, and to compare current guidelines for intensity prescription in PPS with the AT. Cohort study. Research laboratory. Individuals with PPS

  2. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Cipryan, Lukas; Tschakert, Gerhard; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 �� 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval du...

  3. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval dur...

  4. High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Øyvind; Halle, Martin; Conraads, Viviane; Støylen, Asbjørn; Dalen, Håvard; Delagardelle, Charles; Larsen, Alf-Inge; Hole, Torstein; Mezzani, Alessandro; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M; Videm, Vibeke; Beckers, Paul; Christle, Jeffrey W; Winzer, Ephraim; Mangner, Norman; Woitek, Felix; Höllriegel, Robert; Pressler, Axel; Monk-Hansen, Tea; Snoer, Martin; Feiereisen, Patrick; Valborgland, Torstein; Kjekshus, John; Hambrecht, Rainer; Gielen, Stephan; Karlsen, Trine; Prescott, Eva; Linke, Axel

    2017-02-28

    Small studies have suggested that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is superior to moderate continuous training (MCT) in reversing cardiac remodeling and increasing aerobic capacity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The present multicenter trial compared 12 weeks of supervised interventions of HIIT, MCT, or a recommendation of regular exercise (RRE). Two hundred sixty-one patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% and New York Heart Association class II to III were randomly assigned to HIIT at 90% to 95% of maximal heart rate, MCT at 60% to 70% of maximal heart rate, or RRE. Thereafter, patients were encouraged to continue exercising on their own. Clinical assessments were performed at baseline, after the intervention, and at follow-up after 52 weeks. Primary end point was a between-group comparison of change in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks. Groups did not differ in age (median, 60 years), sex (19% women), ischemic pathogenesis (59%), or medication. Change in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks was not different between HIIT and MCT ( P =0.45); left ventricular end-diastolic diameter changes compared with RRE were -2.8 mm (-5.2 to -0.4 mm; P =0.02) in HIIT and -1.2 mm (-3.6 to 1.2 mm; P =0.34) in MCT. There was also no difference between HIIT and MCT in peak oxygen uptake ( P =0.70), but both were superior to RRE. However, none of these changes was maintained at follow-up after 52 weeks. Serious adverse events were not statistically different during supervised intervention or at follow-up at 52 weeks (HIIT, 39%; MCT, 25%; RRE, 34%; P =0.16). Training records showed that 51% of patients exercised below prescribed target during supervised HIIT and 80% above target in MCT. HIIT was not superior to MCT in changing left ventricular remodeling or aerobic capacity, and its feasibility remains unresolved in patients with heart failure. URL: http

  5. [Oxidative stress in Masters swimmers following high-intensity (interval) training (HI(I)T)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Janina; Masoud, Magd; Brixius, Klara; Brinkmann, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Increased oxidative stress (OS) can promote diseases in the long term, but it can also trigger cellular adaptations in the short term. The present study aims to analyze whether a 3-month high-intensity (interval) training (HI(I)T) affects OS in 24 Masters swimmers (22-67 years) before (= basal) and after an all-out performance (swimming step-test). Data were analyzed for the entire group and differentiated according to sex and age (under 50 years (U50) and over 50 years (O50)). Prior to the HI(I)T intervention, a significant increase in OS from the basal to the all-out value was observed among the entire group and in the O50-subjects (subgroup analysis). Furthermore, significant increases in basal OS were evident for the entire group post-HI(I)T, but OS was only significantly increased in men in the subgroup analysis. No significant results were observed for women and U50-subjects. The response by Masters swimmers to HI(I)T depends on age and sex.

  6. Transcriptional changes in blood after aerobic interval training in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Anja; Tjønna, Arnt E; Stølen, Tomas O; Røsbjørgen, Ragnhild E N; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2009-02-01

    Regular physical activity has beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome. Eleven metabolic syndrome patients performing 16 weeks of aerobic interval training, significantly reduced their risk of cardiovascular disease, in terms of improved VO2max, endothelial function, blood pressure, insulin signaling, and plasma lipid composition. The knowledge on underlying mechanism of exercise-induced improvements is sparse, and a broad spectrum of methods is needed to gain more insight. The aim was, for the first time, to determine whether transcriptional changes occur in blood cells of metabolic syndrome patients after participating in an exercise program. Blood was collected in PAXgene and EDTA tubes before and after 16 weeks of exercise. RNA was extracted and run on microarrays. Eleven biological processes and molecular functions were upregulated after exercise, whereas seven were downregulated. Blood clotting, cell adhesion, and steroid metabolism were among the downregulated processes, whereas steroid hormone-mediated signaling was upregulated. Downregulated protein levels of arginase 1 and von Willebrand factor confirmed microarray results. Increased transcription of genes involved in steroid hormone-mediated signaling, decreased levels of arginase 1, and reduced transcription of genes involved in cell adhesion, and blood clotting are likely to be involved in exercise-induced improvements of endothelial function, and improved cardiovascular risk profile of metabolic syndrome patients. These findings have provided new insights on exercise-induced improvement of cardiovascular health.

  7. High-intensity interval training programme for obese youth (HIP4YOUTH): A pilot feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, SoJung; Spector, Jenna; Reilly, Stephanie

    2017-09-01

    Recently, there has been growing interest in high-intensity interval training (HIT) as a strategy to improve health. In this pilot study, we examined the feasibility of a 4-week low-volume HIT and its effects on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), blood pressure (BP) and enjoyment in overweight and obese youth. Twelve adolescents (body mass index (BMI): 34.8 ± 3.9 kg · m ‒ 2 , 14.9 ± 1.5 years) participated in 12 sessions of HIT (10 × 60 s cycling bouts eliciting ~90% maximal heart rate, interspersed with 90 s recovery, 30 min/session, 3 sessions/week) over ~4 weeks. All the participants completed the study and exercise attendance averaged 92%. Despite no changes in body weight and total fat, HIT resulted in significant (P HIT and more than half of the participants (58%) reported that HIT is a more enjoyable form of exercise compared to other types of exercises. Low-volume HIT is a useful strategy to promote exercise participation and improve cardiovascular health in overweight and obese youth.

  8. The Comparison of Two Methods of Exercise (intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on Fasting Sugar, Insulin and Insulin Resistance in Women with Mellitus Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bazyar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise is an important component of health and an integral approach to the management of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on fasting sugar, insulin and insulin resistance in women with mellitus diabetes.   Methods: Fifty-two overweight female diabetic type 2 patients (aged 45-60 years old with fasting blood glucose≥ 126 mg/dl were selected to participate in the present study. Participants were assigned to intense interval training group (N=17, concurrent resistance- endurance training group (N=17 and control group (N=18. The exercises incorporated 10 weeks of concurrent resistance- endurance training and intense interval training. Fasting blood sugar, serum insulin concentrations levels were measured. Concurrent training group trained eight weeks, three times a week of endurance training at 60% of maximum heart rate (MHR and two resistance training sessions per week with 70% of one repetition maximum (1-RM. Intense interval training group trained for eight weeks, three sessions per week for 4 to 10 repeats Wingate test on the ergometer 30s performed with maximum effort. The control group did no systematic exercise. At the end of experiment 42 subjects were succeed and completed the study period, and 10 subjects were removed due to illness and absence in the exercise sessions. Fasting blood sugar and insulin levels 24 hours before and 48 hours after the last training session was measured.   Results: The findings indicated that in periodic fasting, the blood sugar in intensive training group had a marked decrease (p= 0.000 however, the fasting blood sugar of exercise and power stamina groups reduced significantly (p=0.062. The results showed no significant difference between the groups (171/0 p =0.171. Fasting insulin (p <0.001 and insulin resistance (0001/0 = p=0.001 in periodic intensive training group were

  9. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio-Metabolic and Psychological Health

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, Sam O.; Wilson, Oliver J.; Taylor, Alexandra S.; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Adlan, Ahmed M.; Wagenmakers, Anton J. M.; Shaw, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Background\\ud Within a controlled laboratory environment, high-intensity interval training (HIT) elicits similar cardiovascular and metabolic benefits as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). It is currently unclear how HIT can be applied effectively in a real-world environment.\\ud Purpose\\ud To investigate the hypothesis that 10 weeks of HIT, performed in an instructor-led, group-based gym setting, elicits improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2max), cardio-metabolic risk ...

  10. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 ? 8?s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption ( V ? O 2 p e a k ) interspersed with 12?s recovery, whereas MI...

  11. The influence of 2 weeks of low-volume high-intensity interval training on health outcomes in adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Alan R; Day, Josephine; Smith, Aaron; Bond, Bert; Williams, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to establish whether 2 weeks of high-intensity interval training would have a beneficial effect on aerobic fitness, fat oxidation, blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) in healthy adolescent boys. Ten adolescent boys (15.1 ± 0.3 years, 1.3 ± 0.2 years post-estimated peak height velocity) completed six sessions of Wingate-style high-intensity interval training over a 2-week period. The first session consisted of four sprints with training progressed to seven sprints in the final session. High-intensity interval training had a beneficial effect on maximal O2 uptake (mean change, ±90% confidence intervals: 0.19 L · min(-1), ±0.19, respectively), on the O2 uptake at the gas exchange threshold (0.09 L · min(-1), ±0.13) and on the O2 cost of sub-maximal exercise (-0.04 L · min(-1), ±0.04). A beneficial effect on the contribution of lipid (0.06 g · min(-1), ±0.06) and carbohydrate (-0.23 g · min(-1), ±0.14) oxidation was observed during sub-maximal exercise, but not for the maximal rate of fat oxidation (0.04 g · min(-1), ±0.08). Systolic blood pressure (1 mmHg, ±4) and BMI (0.1 kg · m2, ±0.1) were not altered following training. These data demonstrate that meaningful changes in health outcomes are possible in healthy adolescent boys after just six sessions of high-intensity interval training over a 2-week period.

  12. Adding high-intensity interval training to conventional training modalities: optimizing health-related outcomes during chemotherapy for breast cancer: the OptiTrain randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijwel, Sara; Backman, Malin; Bolam, Kate A; Jervaeus, Anna; Sundberg, Carl Johan; Margolin, Sara; Browall, Maria; Rundqvist, Helene; Wengström, Yvonne

    2018-02-01

    Exercise training is an effective and safe way to counteract cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and to improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL). High-intensity interval training has proven beneficial for the health of clinical populations. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of resistance and high-intensity interval training (RT-HIIT), and moderate-intensity aerobic and high-intensity interval training (AT-HIIT) to usual care (UC) in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was CRF and the secondary endpoints were HRQoL and cancer treatment-related symptoms. Two hundred and forty women planned to undergo chemotherapy were randomized to supervised RT-HIIT, AT-HIIT, or UC. Measurements were performed at baseline and at 16 weeks. Questionnaires included Piper Fatigue Scale, EORTC-QLQ-C30, and Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. The RT-HIIT group was superior to UC for CRF: total CRF (p = 0.02), behavior/daily life (p = 0.01), and sensory/physical (p = 0.03) CRF. Role functioning significantly improved while cognitive functioning was unchanged for RT-HIIT compared to declines shown in the UC group (p = 0.04). AT-HIIT significantly improved emotional functioning versus UC (p = 0.01) and was superior to UC for pain symptoms (p = 0.03). RT-HIIT reported a reduced symptom burden, while AT-HIIT remained stable compared to deteriorations shown by UC (p HIIT was superior to UC for total symptoms (p HIIT was effective in preventing increases in CRF and in reducing symptom burden for patients during chemotherapy for breast cancer. These findings add to a growing body of evidence supporting the inclusion of structured exercise prescriptions, including HIIT, as a vital component of cancer rehabilitation. Clinicaltrials.gov Registration Number: NCT02522260.

  13. Effect of interval training intensity on fat oxidation, blood lactate and the rate of perceived exertion in obese men

    OpenAIRE

    Alkahtani, Shaea A; King, Neil A; Hills, Andrew P; Byrne, Nuala M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of 4-week moderate- and high-intensity interval training (MIIT and HIIT) on fat oxidation and the responses of blood lactate (BLa) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Methods Ten overweight/obese men (age?=?29 ?3.7?years, BMI?=?30.7 ?3.4?kg/m2) participated in a cross-over study of 4-week MIIT and HIIT training. The MIIT training sessions consisted of 5-min cycling stages at mechanical workloads 20% above and 20% below 45%VO2...

  14. The Physiological Mechanisms of Performance Enhancement with Sprint Interval Training Differ between the Upper and Lower Extremities in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner, Christoph; Morales-Alamo, David; Ørtenblad, Niels

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differences in adaptation of arm and leg muscles to sprint training, over a period of 11 days 16 untrained men performed six sessions of 4-6 × 30-s all-out sprints (SIT) with the legs and arms, separately, with a 1-h interval of recovery. Limb-specific V...

  15. Effects of Strength Training Sessions Performed with Different Exercise Orders and Intervals on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Sandro; Figueiredo, Tiago; Marques, Silvio; Leite, Thalita; Cardozo, Diogo; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Simão, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    This study compared the effect of a strength training session performed at different exercise orders and rest intervals on blood pressure and heart rate variability (HRV). Fifteen trained men performed different upper body exercise sequences [large to small muscle mass (SEQA) and small to large muscle mass (SEQB)] in randomized order with rest intervals between sets and exercises of 40 or 90 seconds. Fifteen repetition maximum loads were tested to control the training intensity and the total volume load. The results showed, significant reductions for systolic blood pressure (SBP) for all sequences compared to baseline and, post-exercise: SEQA90 at 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes; SEQA40 and SEQB40 at 20 minutes and SEQB90 at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes. For diastolic blood pressure (DBP), significant reductions were found for three sequences compared to baseline and, post-exercise: SEQA90 and SEQA40 at 50 and 60 minutes; SEQB40 at 10, 30 and 60 minutes. For HRV, there were significant differences in frequency domain for all sequences compared to baseline. In conclusion, when performing upper body strength training sessions, it is suggested that 90 second rest intervals between sets and exercises promotes a post-exercise hypotensive response in SBP. The 40 second rest interval between sets and exercises was associated with greater cardiac stress, and might be contraindicated when working with individuals that exhibit symptoms of cardiovascular disease.

  16. Cardiovascular benefits of combined interval training and post-exercise nutrition in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Monique E; Pistawka, Kevin J; Halperin, Frank A; Little, Jonathan P

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the combination of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and post-exercise protein supplementation would improve cardiovascular outcomes in individuals with T2D. In a double-blind controlled trial, fifty-three adults with T2D (free of CVD and not on exogenous insulin) were randomized to 12weeks of cardio and resistance-based HIIT (4-10×1min at 90% maximal heart rate) with post-exercise milk, milk-protein, or placebo supplementation, thrice weekly. Before and after, carotid and femoral artery intima media thickness (IMT) and femoral flow profiles were assessed using high-resolution ultrasound. Central and peripheral arterial stiffness were assessed by pulse wave velocity (PWV), and resting and maximal heart rate rates were measured. After 12weeks of HIIT femoral IMT (Pre: 0.84±0.21mm vs. Post: 0.81±0.16mm, p=0.03), carotid-femoral PWV (Pre: 10.1±3.2m/s vs. Post: 8.6±1.8m/s, pHIIT reduces femoral IMT, arterial stiffness and resting heart rate in individuals with T2D. The addition of post-exercise milk or protein to HIIT did not have additive effects for improving cardiovascular outcomes in the present study. Taken together, HIIT alone may be an effective means to reduce the burden of cardiovascular complications in T2D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L Mair

    Full Text Available Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14 and middle-aged (n = 14 females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1 and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm. Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool.

  18. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thum, Jacob S.; Parsons, Gregory; Whittle, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2) initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax) with 1 min of active recovery between bouts) or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax) in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013) in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4) versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1). Eleven of 12 participants (92%) preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (pHIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus. Trial Registration: NCT:02981667. PMID:28076352

  19. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob S Thum

    Full Text Available Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2 initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax with 1 min of active recovery between bouts or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013 in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4 versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1. Eleven of 12 participants (92% preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (p<0.05 and HR, RPE, and BLa were higher (p<0.05 in HIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus.NCT:02981667.

  20. [Effects of high-intensity interval training and nutritional education in patients with type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiamarchi, Pedro; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Cárdenas, Patricio; Morales, Sylvana; Cano-Montoya, Johnattan; Bresciani, Guilherme; Álvarez, Cristian

    2017-07-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves cardiometabolic markers, but its effects on the quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is not well known. To determine the effects of a 12-week HIIT exercise program on cardiometabolic and quality of life variables of T2D patients. Nine T2D women were assigned to a HIIT + nutritional education (GE) and 10, to a nutritional education alone group (GC). At baseline and after each intervention, anthropometric and body composition parameters using bio-impedance were assessed, and a blood sample was obtained to measure serum lipid levels, blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Quality of life was assessed using the SF-12 questionnaire adapted for the Chilean population. There were no significant changes on the lipid profile variables in the GE group, although HDL cholesterol was increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the GC group. Total fat mass was decreased in the GE group from 43.5 ± 1.5 to 41.9 ± 1.5%, p < 0.01. Fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin decreased in the GE group. There was a significant correlation between the decrease in total fat mass and that of glycated hemoglobin. There were significant increases in quality of life parameters; physical function, physical role, pain, general health, vitality, emotional role, mental health, and social function in the GE but not in the GC group. A 12-week program of HIIT plus nutritional education improves cardiometabolic and quality of life parameters on type 2 diabetics.

  1. High-intensity interval training, but not continuous training, reverses right ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction in a rat model of pulmonary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Mary Beth; Neves, Evandro; Long, Gary; Graber, Jeremy; Gladish, Brett; Wiseman, Andrew; Owens, Matthew; Fisher, Amanda J.; Presson, Robert G.; Petrache, Irina; Kline, Jeffrey; Lahm, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is beneficial in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), although studies to date indicate little effect on the elevated pulmonary pressures or maladaptive right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy associated with the disease. For chronic left ventricle failure, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) promotes greater endothelial stimulation and superior benefit than customary continuous exercise training (CExT); however, HIIT has not been tested for PAH. Therefore, here we investigated acute ...

  2. Visual Impairment does not Limit Training Effects in Development of Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity in Tandem Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malwina Kamelska Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the differences in the effects of 7-month training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity in tandem cycling athletes with and without visual impairment. In this study, Polish elite (n=13 and sub-elite (n=13 visually impaired (VI (n=13; 40.8 ±12.8 years and properly sighted (PS (n=13; 36.7 ±12.2 years tandem-cycling athletes participated voluntarily in 7-month routine training. The following pre-/post-training measurements were conducted on separate days: maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max was estimated with age correction using the Physical Working Capacity test on a bicycle ergometer according to the Astrand-Ryhming method. Maximal power output (Pmax was evaluated using the Quebec test on a bicycle ergometer. At baseline, VO2max (47.8 ±14.1 vs 42.0 ±8.3 ml/kg/min, respectively and Pmax (11.5 ±1.5 vs 11.5 ±1.0 W/kg did not differ significantly between PS and VI cyclists. However, differences in aerobic capacity were considered as clinically significant. Two-way ANOVA revealed that after 7 month training, there were statistically significant increases in VO2max (p=0.003 and Pmax (p=0.009 among VI (VO2max, +9.1%; Pmax, +6.3% and PS (VO2max, +9.1%; Pmax, +11.7% cyclists, however, no time x visual impairment interaction effect was found (VO2max, p=0.467; Pmax, p=0.364. After training, VO2max (p=0.03, but not Pmax (p=0.13, was significantly greater in elite compared to sub-elite tandem cyclists. VI and PS tandem cyclists showed similar rates of improvement in VO2max and Pmax after 7-month training. VO2max was a significant determinant of success in tandem cycling. This is one of the first studies providing reference values for aerobic and anaerobic capacity in visually impaired cyclists.

  3. High-intensity interval exercise training for public health: a big HIT or shall we HIT it on the head?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Stuart J H; Batterham, Alan M

    2015-07-18

    The efficacy of high-intensity interval training for a broad spectrum of cardio-metabolic health outcomes is not in question. Rather, the effectiveness of this form of exercise is at stake. In this paper we debate the issues concerning the likely success or failure of high-intensity interval training interventions for population-level health promotion. Biddle maintains that high-intensity interval training cannot be a viable public health strategy as it will not be adopted or maintained by many people. This conclusion is based on an analysis of perceptions of competence, the psychologically aversive nature of high-intensity exercise, the affective component of attitudes, the less conscious elements of motivated behaviour that reflect our likes and dislikes, and analysis using the RE-AIM framework. Batterham argues that this appraisal is based on a constrained and outmoded definition of high-intensity interval training and that truly practical and scalable protocols have been - and continue to be - developed. He contends that the purported displeasure associated with this type of exercise has been overstated. Biddle suggests that the way forward is to help the least active become more active rather than the already active to do more. Batterham claims that traditional physical activity promotion has been a spectacular failure. He proposes that, within an evolutionary health promotion framework, high-intensity interval training could be a successful population strategy for producing rapid physiological adaptations benefiting public health, independent of changes in total physical activity energy expenditure. Biddle recommends that we focus our attention elsewhere if we want population-level gains in physical activity impacting public health. His conclusion is based on his belief that high-intensity interval training interventions will have limited reach, effectiveness, and adoption, and poor implementation and maintenance. In contrast, Batterham maintains that there

  4. Significant variations in Weber fraction for changes in inter-onset interval of a click train over the range of intervals between 5 and 300 ms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungan, Pekcan; Yagcioglu, Suha

    2014-01-01

    It is a common psychophysical experience that a train of clicks faster than ca. 30/s is heard as one steady sound, whereas temporal patterns occurring on a slower time scale are perceptually resolved as individual auditory events. This phenomenon suggests the existence of two different neural mechanisms for processing of auditory sequences with fast and slow repetition rates. To test this hypothesis we used Weber's law, which is known to be valid for perception of time intervals. Discrimination thresholds and Weber fractions (WFs) for 12 base inter-click intervals (ICIs) between 5 and 300 ms were measured from 10 normal hearing subjects by using an "up-down staircase" algorithm. The mean WF, which is supposed to be constant for any perceptual mechanism according to Weber's law, displayed significant variation with click rate. WFs decreased sharply from an average value of around 5% at repetition rates below 20 Hz to about 0.5% at rates above 67 Hz. Parallel to this steep transition, subjects reported that at rates below 20 Hz they perceived periodicity as a fast tapping rhythm, whereas at rates above 50 Hz the perceived quality was a pitch. Such a dramatic change in WF indicated the existence of two separate mechanisms for processing the click rate for long and short ICIs, based on temporal and spectral features, respectively. A range of rates between 20 and 33 Hz, in which the rate discrimination threshold was maximum, appears to be a region where both of the presumed time and pitch mechanisms are relatively insensitive to rate alterations. Based on this finding, we speculate that the interval-based perception mechanism ceases to function at around 20 Hz and the spectrum-based mechanism takes over at around 33 Hz; leaving a transitional gap in between, where neither of the two mechanisms is as sensitive. Another notable finding was a significant drop in WF for ICI = 100 ms, suggesting a connection of time perception to the electroencephalography alpha rhythm.

  5. Tribulus terrestris extracts alleviate muscle damage and promote anaerobic performance of trained male boxers and its mechanisms: Roles of androgen, IGF-1, and IGF binding protein-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Ma

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Taking 1250 mg capsules containing TT extracts did not change muscle mass and plasma levels of testosterone, DHT, and IGF-1 but significantly alleviated muscle damage and promoted anaerobic performance of trained male boxers, which may be related to the decrease of plasma IGFBP-3 rather than androgen in plasma.

  6. The Effect of Eight Weeks Plyometric Training on Anaerobic Power, Counter Movement Jumping and Isokinetic Strength in 15-18 Years Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adigüzel, Niyazi Sidki; Günay, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks plyometric training on anaerobic power, counter movement jumping and isokinetic strength in 15-18 years aged basketball players. This study was including 30 male Basketball players. The subjects were divided into two groups as: the experimental group (n = 15) and the control…

  7. Effects of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on pacing during 5-km running trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the influence of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on the pacing strategy adopted by runners during a 5-km running trial. Sixteen male recreational long-distance runners were randomly assigned to a control group (CON, n=8 or a high-intensity interval training group (HIIT, n=8. The HIIT group performed high-intensity interval-training twice per week, while the CON group maintained their regular training program. Before and after the training period, the runners performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion to measure the onset of blood lactate accumulation, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, and peak treadmill speed (PTS. A submaximal constant-speed test to measure the running economy (RE and a 5-km running trial on an outdoor track to establish pacing strategy and performance were also done. During the 5-km running trial, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE and time to cover the 5-km trial (T5 were registered. After the training period, there were significant improvements in the HIIT group of ∼7 and 5% for RE (P=0.012 and PTS (P=0.019, respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups for VO2max (P=0.495 or onset of blood lactate accumulation (P=0.101. No difference was found in the parameters measured during the 5-km trial before the training period between HIIT and CON (P>0.05. These findings suggest that 4 weeks of HIIT can improve some traditional physiological variables related to endurance performance (RE and PTS, but it does not alter the perception of effort, pacing strategy, or overall performance during a 5-km running trial.

  8. High-Intensity Interval Training for Cognitive and Mental Health in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, Sarah A; Eather, Narelle; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Hillman, Charles H; Lubans, David R

    2016-10-01

    Emerging literature suggests that physical activity and fitness may have a positive effect on cognitive and mental health in adolescents. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of two high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols for improving cognitive and mental health outcomes (executive function, psychological well-being, psychological distress, and physical self-concept) in adolescents. Participants (n = 65; mean age = 15.8 ± 0.6 yr) were randomized to three conditions: aerobic exercise program (AEP; n = 21), resistance and aerobic program (RAP; n = 22), and control (n = 22). HIIT sessions (8-10 min per session) were delivered during physical education lessons or at lunchtime three times per week for 8 wk. Assessments were conducted at baseline and immediately postintervention to detect changes in executive function (trail making test), psychological well-being, psychological distress, and physical self-description by researchers blinded to treatment allocation. Intervention effects were examined using linear mixed models. Cohen's d effect sizes and clinical inference were also calculated. While results were not significant, small improvements in executive function (mean change (95% CI) -6.69 (-22.03, 8.64), d = -0.32) and psychological well-being (mean change (95% CI) 2.81 (-2.06, 7.68), d = 0.34) were evident in the AEP group; and moderate improvements in executive function (mean change (95% CI) -10.73 (-26.22, 4.76), d = -0.51), and small improvements in well-being (mean change (95% CI) 2.96 (-1.82, 7.75), d = 0.36) and perceived appearance (mean change (95% CI) 0.32 (-0.25, 0.86), d = 0.35), were observed for the RAP group. Mean feeling state scores improved from preworkout to postworkout in both HIIT conditions, with significant results for the AEP (P = 0.001). This study highlights the potential of embedding HIIT within the school day for improving cognitive and mental health among adolescents.

  9. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Improves Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Chinese Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Shi, Qingde; Nie, Jinlei; Tong, Tomas K; Song, Lili; Yi, Longyan; Hu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in overweight populations. However, the additive effect of HIIT and hypoxia on health parameters is not clear. This study compared the effects of HIIT under hypoxic conditions on cardiometabolic function with that under normoxia in overweight Chinese young women. Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled experimental design was applied. Twenty-four sedentary overweight Chinese young women (weight: 68.8 ± 7.0 kg, BMI: 25.8 ± 2.3 kg·m -2 ) participated in the HIIT under either normoxia (NORM, n = 13, PIO 2 : 150 mmHg, FIO 2 : 0.21) or normobaric hypoxia (HYP, n = 11, PIO 2 : 117 mmHg, FIO 2 : 0.15) for 5 weeks. HIIT was composed of 60 repetitions of 8 s maximal cycling effort interspersed with 12-s recovery per day, for 4 days per week. Cardiorespiratory fitness [peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O 2peak ), and peak oxygen pulse (peak O 2 pulse)], serum lipid profile [triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and body composition (regional and whole-body), were assessed at pre- and post-intervention during the days beyond the self-reported menstrual phase of the participants. Habitual physical activity and diary behavior were maintained during the intervention period. Results: With similar daily energy intake and physical activity, the increases in [Formula: see text]O 2peak [NORM: 0.26 ± 0.37 L·min -1 (+11.8%) vs. HYP: 0.54 ± 0.34 L·min -1 (+26.1%)] and peak O 2 pulse (NORM: +13.4% vs. HYP: +25.9%) for HYP were twice-larger than for NORM ( p body composition or serum fasting leptin were observed in either group. Conclusion: 5-wk of HIIT improved cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lipids in overweight Chinese young females, while the additive effect of the HIIT under normobaric hypoxia solely enhanced

  10. Effect of tapering after a period of high-volume sprint interval training on running performance and muscular adaptations in moderately trained runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Almquist, Nicki Winfield; Kvorning, Thue

    2018-01-01

    The effect of tapering following a period of high-volume sprint interval training (SIT) and a basic volume of aerobic training on performance and muscle adaptations in moderately trained runners was examined. Eleven (8 males, 3 females) runners (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2-max): 56.8±2.9 mL·min(-1...... running test at 90% of vVO2-max to exhaustion (RRT). In addition, a biopsy from m. vastus lateralis was obtained at rest. Performance during RRT was better (P... at 60% of vVO2-max was lower (P

  11. High-intensity interval training lowers blood pressure and improves apelin and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghardashi Afousi, Alireza; Asvadi Fard, Maryam; Babaee Bigi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-02-01

    Hypertension is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Apelin levels and NO bioavailability are impaired in older hypertensive patients. Exercise is an effective intervention for treating hypertension. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval training on blood pressure, apelin, and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals. Thirty treated hypertensive subjects (61.70 ± 5.78 years, 17 males, 13 females) were randomly divided into 6 weeks of high-intensity interval training (n = 15) and control (n = 15). The exercise training was conducted for three 35-min sessions a week (1.5-min interval at 85-90% of heart rate reserve [HRR] and 2 min active phase at 50-55% of HRR). Assessment of plasma apelin, nitrite/nitrate (NOx), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) was performed before and after the intervention. At the end of the study, apelin, and NOx plasma levels increased significantly in the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) group (P = 0.021, P = 0.003, respectively). Conversely, ET-1 plasma levels significantly decreased in the training group after the intervention (P = 0.015). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the change of plasma apelin and change of plasma NOx (r = 0. 771, P = 0.0008). In addition, there was a negative correlation between the change of plasma ET-1, change of plasma apelin (r = - 0.595, P = 0.019), and variation of NOx (r = - 0.572, P = 0.025). This study indicates that, by increasing of apelin and NOx plasma levels, HIIT may be effective in reducing blood pressure.

  12. Moderate-intensity interval training increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor level and decreases inflammation in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, J A; Majerczak, J; Zeligowska, E; Mencel, J; Jaskolski, A; Jaskolska, A; Marusiak, J

    2014-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that physical training increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in healthy people. The aim of this study was to establish the effect of physical training on the basal serum level of the BDNF in the Parkinson's disease patients (PD patients) in relation to their health status. Twelve PD patients (mean ± S.E.M: age 70 ± 3 years; body mass 70 ± 2 kg; height 163 ± 3 cm) performed a moderate-intensity interval training (three 1-hour training sessions weekly), lasting 8 weeks. Basal serum BDNF in the PD patients before training amounted to 10,977 ± 756 pg x mL(-1) and after 8 weeks of training it has increased to 14,206 ± 1256 pg x mL(-1) (i.e. by 34%, P=0.03). This was accompanied by an attenuation of total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (P=0.01). The training resulted also in a decrease of basal serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) (P=0.001) and serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (P=0.03) levels. We have concluded that the improvement of health status of the Parkinson's disease patients after training could be related to the increase of serum BDNF level caused by the attenuated inflammation in those patients.

  13. Cold-water immersion after training sessions: Effects on fiber type-specific adaptations in muscle K+ transport proteins to sprint-interval training in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Danny; Bishop, David John; Broatch, James R; Bangsbo, Jens; McKenna, Michael John; Murphy, Robyn M

    2018-05-10

    Effects of regular use of cold-water immersion (CWI) on fiber type-specific adaptations in muscle K + transport proteins to intense training, along with their relationship to changes in mRNA levels after the first training session, were investigated in humans. Nineteen recreationally-active men (24{plus minus}6 y, 79.5{plus minus}10.8 kg, 44.6{plus minus}5.8 mL∙kg -1 ∙min -1 ) completed six weeks of sprint-interval cycling either without (passive rest; CON) or with training sessions followed by CWI (15 min at 10{degree sign}C; COLD). Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after training to determine abundance of Na + ,K + -ATPase isoforms (α 1-3 , β 1-3 ) and FXYD1, and after recovery treatments (+0h and +3h) on the first day of training to measure mRNA content. Training increased (ptraining (p>0.05). CWI after each session did not influence responses to training (p>0.05). However, α 2 mRNA increased after the first session in COLD (+0h, p0.05). In both conditions, α 1 and β 3 mRNA increased (+3h; p 0.05) after the first session. In summary, Na + ,K + -ATPase isoforms are differently regulated in type I and II muscle fibers by sprint-interval training in humans, which for most isoforms do not associate with changes in mRNA levels after the first training session. CWI neither impairs nor improves protein adaptations to intense training of importance for muscle K + regulation.

  14. High-intensity interval training and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid improves aerobic power and metabolic thresholds

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Edward H; Stout, Jeffrey R; Miramonti, Amelia A; Fukuda, David H; Wang, Ran; Townsend, Jeremy R; Mangine, Gerald T; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research combining Calcium β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (CaHMB) and running high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have shown positive effects on aerobic performance measures. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid (HMBFA) and cycle ergometry HIIT on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and time to exhaustion (Tmax) in college-aged men and women. Methods Thi...

  15. A 3?week multimodal intervention involving high?intensity interval training in female cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Joachim; Lindner, Nathalie; Reuss?Borst, Monika; Holmberg, Hans?Christer; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To compare the effects of a 3?week multimodal rehabilitation involving supervised high?intensity interval training (HIIT) on female breast cancer survivors with respect to key variables of aerobic fitness, body composition, energy expenditure, cancer?related fatigue, and quality of life to those of a standard multimodal rehabilitation program. A randomized controlled trial design was administered. Twenty?eight women, who had been treated for cancer were randomly assigned to either a ...

  16. Significant variations in Weber fraction for changes in inter-onset interval of a click train over the range of intervals between 5 ms and 300 ms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekcan eUngan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a common psychophysical experience that a train of clicks faster than ca. 30 per second is heard as one steady sound, whereas temporal patterns occurring on a slower time scale are perceptually resolved as individual auditory events. This phenomenon suggests the existence of two different neural mechanisms for processing of auditory sequences with fast and slow repetition rates. To test this hypothesis we used Weber’s law, which is known to be valid for perception of time intervals. Discrimination thresholds and Weber fractions (WF for twelve base inter-click intervals (ICI between 5 ms and 300 ms were measured from ten normal hearing subjects by using an up-down staircase algorithm. The mean WF, which is supposed to be constant for any perceptual mechanism according to Weber’s law, displayed significant variation with click rate. WFs decreased sharply from an average value of around 5% at repetition rates below 20 Hz to about 0.5% at rates above 67 Hz. Parallel to this steep transition, subjects reported that at rates below 20 Hz they perceived periodicity as a fast tapping rhythm, whereas at rates above 50 Hz the perceived quality was a pitch. Such a dramatic change in WF indicated the existence of two separate mechanisms for processing the click rate for long and short ICIs, based on temporal and spectral features, respectively. A range of rates between 20 Hz and 33 Hz, in which the rate discrimination threshold was maximum, appears to be a region where both of the presumed time and pitch mechanisms are relatively insensitive to rate alterations. Based on this finding, we speculate that the interval-based perception mechanism ceases to function at around 20 Hz and the spectrum-based mechanism takes over at around 33 Hz; leaving a transitional gap in between, where neither of the two mechanisms is as sensitive. Another notable finding was a significant drop in WF for ICI=100 ms, suggesting a connection of time perception to the EEG

  17. Is Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Combined with High Intensity Interval Training More Effective at Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness than Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Alone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon H. Roxburgh, Paul B. Nolan, Ryan M. Weatherwax, Lance C. Dalleck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery, CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R and a sedentary control group (n = 7. Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg-1·min-1, whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1. It was ‘unclear’ if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains ‘unclear’ whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart.

  18. Comparison between two types of anaerobic speed endurance training in competitive soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of additional in-season speed endurance production versus speed endurance maintenance training regimes on performance in competitive male soccer players. In a randomised controlled trial 18 male sub-elite players were exposed to additional...... during training were higher (psoccer players with superior...... speed endurance production (SEP) or speed endurance maintenance (SEM) training (two additional sessions/wk for 4 weeks) during the competitive season. Players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test (YYIR2) and a repeated sprint test (RST) pre- and postintervention. Yo-Yo IR2 performance...

  19. Effect of 8 weeks sprint interval training on serum levels of Adiponectin and insulin in overweight children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Kazemi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific studies demonstrated that decreased blood Adiponectin level is associated with insulin resistance in obesity. Also it is well documented that exercise training exerts beneficial effects on obesity but there is few study regarding beneficial effects of sprint Interval training (SIT on childhood obesity. This study was intended to investigate the effect of SIT on serum levels of Adiponectin and insulin in overweight children. Material and Methods: In this study thirty-two obese boy (BMI=27 were randomly assigned to sprint Interval Training (SIT (N=16 and control group(C (N=16. Training protocol consisted of 30s and 90s all-out running that performed 3 sessions per week for 8 weeks. Blood samples were measured by ELISA analysis. Data were analyzed using Independent sample t-test. Results: 8 weeks SIT increase serum levels of Adiponectin (P=0.028 and decrease insulin level (P=0.00. This change was directly related to decrease in values of BMI (P=0.01, total cholesterol (P=0.00 and body weight (P=0.02, but significant change in serum levels of HDL (P=0.50, LDL (P=0.17 and TG (P=0.60 wasn’t observed. Conclusion: These findings suggest that SIT may ameliorate the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity in children probably through elevation of serum Adiponectin level.

  20. Effect of 8 Weeks of High Intensity Interval Training on Plasma Levels of Adiponectin and Leptin in Overweight Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Avazpor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: High intensity interval training (HIIT is a novel training method which has received most attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT on plasma levels of adiponectin and leptin in overweight nurses.Materials and Methods: 27 nurses (mean age 25.81±60 years, height 158.01±67 cm and weight 69.41±25 kg were voluntarily selected and randomly assigned to three groups (each group 9 subjects: 1. HIIT (type 1 including 8 seconds of sprint running and 12 seconds of active recovery 2. HIIT (type 2 including 40-m shuttle run with maximum speed 3. Control group. HIIT (type 1 was performed for eight weeks, three sessions per week, each session 6-9 min. With more than 90% HRmax. HIIT (type 2 was applied for eight weeks, three sessions per week with more than 90% HRmax. The control group did not participate in any training protocol.Results: The data were analyzed by the dependent t test and ANOVA. The results showed that the HIIT (type 1 and (type 2 had significant effects on plasma leptin decrease and plasma adiponectin concentration increase in nurses. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to analyze the intergroup data at p˂0.05.Conclusion: The results showed a significant difference in the variables (leptin and adiponectin among HIIT (type 1, HIIT (type 2 and control.

  1. Combined Effects of Lignosus rhinocerotis Supplementation and Resistance Training on Isokinetic Muscular Strength and Power, Anaerobic and Aerobic Fitness Level, and Immune Parameters in Young Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chee Keong; Hamdan, Nor Faeiza; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Wan Abd Hamid, Wan Zuraida

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Lignosus rhinocerotis (LRS) supplementation and resistance training (RT) on isokinetic muscular strength and power, anaerobic and aerobic fitness, and immune parameters in young males. Participants were randomly assigned to four groups: Control (C), LRS, RT, and combined RT-LRS (RT-LRS). Participants in the LRS and RT-LRS groups consumed 500 mg of LRS daily for 8 weeks. RT was conducted 3 times/week for 8 weeks for participants in the RT and RT-LRS groups. The following parameters were measured before and after the intervention period: Anthropometric data, isokinetic muscular strength and power, and anaerobic and aerobic fitness. Blood samples were also collected to determine immune parameters. Isokinetic muscular strength and power were increased ( P anaerobic power and capacity and aerobic fitness in this group. Similarly, RT group had increases ( P anaerobic power and capacity, aerobic fitness, T lymphocytes (CD3 and CD4), and B lymphocytes (CD19) counts were observed in the RT group. RT elicited increased isokinetic muscular strength and power, anaerobic and aerobic fitness, and immune parameters among young males. However, supplementation with LRS during RT did not provide additive benefits.

  2. Salutary effects of high-intensity interval training in persons with elevated cardiovascular risk [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome L. Fleg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT has been the traditional model for aerobic exercise training for over four decades, a growing body of literature has demonstrated equal if not greater improvement in aerobic capacity and similar beneficial effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and quality of life from high-intensity interval training (HIIT. An advantage of HIIT over MICT is the shorter time required to perform the same amount of energy expenditure. The current brief review summarizes the effects of HIIT on peak aerobic capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults and those with various cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and post heart transplantation.

  3. The effect on glycaemic control of low-volume high-intensity interval training versus endurance training in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winding, Kamilla M; Munch, Gregers W; Iepsen, Ulrik W; Van Hall, Gerrit; Pedersen, Bente K; Mortensen, Stefan P

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with a lower time commitment can be as effective as endurance training (END) on glycaemic control, physical fitness and body composition in individuals with type 2 diabetes. A total of 29 individuals with type 2 diabetes were allocated to control (CON; no training), END or HIIT groups. Training groups received 3 training sessions per week consisting of either 40 minutes of cycling at 50% of peak workload (END) or 10 1-minute intervals at 95% of peak workload interspersed with 1 minute of active recovery (HIIT). Glycaemic control (HbA1c, oral glucose tolerance test, 3-hour mixed meal tolerance test with double tracer technique and continuous glucose monitoring [CGM]), lipolysis, VO 2 peak and body composition were evaluated before and after 11 weeks of intervention. Exercise training increased VO 2 peak more in the HIIT group (20% ± 20%) compared with the END group (8% ± 9%) despite lower total energy expenditure and time usage during the training sessions. HIIT decreased whole body and android fat mass compared with the CON group. In addition, visceral fat mass, HbA1c, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, glycaemic variability and HOMA-IR decreased after HIIT. The reduced postprandial glucose in the HIIT group was driven primarily by a lower rate of exogenous glucose appearance. In the CON group, postprandial lipolysis was augmented over the 11-week control period. Despite a ~45% lower training volume, HIIT resulted in similar or even better improvements in physical fitness, body composition and glycemic control compared to END. HIIT therefore appears to be an important time-efficient treatment for individuals with type 2 diabetes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A swarm-trained k-nearest prototypes adaptive classifier with automatic feature selection for interval data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Filho, Telmo M; Souza, Renata M C R; Prudêncio, Ricardo B C

    2016-08-01

    Some complex data types are capable of modeling data variability and imprecision. These data types are studied in the symbolic data analysis field. One such data type is interval data, which represents ranges of values and is more versatile than classic point data for many domains. This paper proposes a new prototype-based classifier for interval data, trained by a swarm optimization method. Our work has two main contributions: a swarm method which is capable of performing both automatic selection of features and pruning of unused prototypes and a generalized weighted squared Euclidean distance for interval data. By discarding unnecessary features and prototypes, the proposed algorithm deals with typical limitations of prototype-based methods, such as the problem of prototype initialization. The proposed distance is useful for learning classes in interval datasets with different shapes, sizes and structures. When compared to other prototype-based methods, the proposed method achieves lower error rates in both synthetic and real interval datasets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multidisciplinary team training reduces the decision-to-delivery interval for emergency Caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrmann, Lone; Pedersen, T H; Atke, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emergency Caesarean section is performed when the life of the pregnant woman and/or the foetus is considered at risk. A 30-min standard for the decision-to-delivery interval (DDI) is a common practice and is supported by national organisations including The Danish Society of Obstetrics...

  6. Change in maximal fat oxidation in response to different regimes of periodized high-intensity interval training (HIIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Edmunds, Ross M; Clark, Amy; Gallant, Rachael; King, Leesa; Ordille, Gina M; Heath, Brendyn; Montell, Matthew; Bandong, Jason

    2017-04-01

    Increased capacity for fat oxidation (FatOx) is demonstrated in response to chronic endurance training as well as high-intensity interval training (HIIT). This study examined changes in maximal fat oxidation (MFO) in response to 20 sessions of periodized HIIT in an attempt to identify if various regimes of HIIT similarly augment capacity for FatOx. Thirty-nine habitually active men and women (mean age and VO 2 max = 22.5 ± 4.4 year and 40.0 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min) completed training and 32 men and women with similar physical activity and fitness level served as non-exercising controls (CON). Training consisted of ten sessions of progressive low-volume HIIT on the cycle ergometer after which participants completed an additional ten sessions of sprint interval training (SIT), high-volume HIIT, or periodized HIIT, whose assignment was randomized. Before and throughout training, MFO, FatOx, and carbohydrate oxidation (CHOOx) were assessed during progressive cycling to exhaustion. Compared to CON, there was no effect of HIIT on MFO (p = 0.11). Small increases (p = 0.03) in FatOx were evident in response to HIIT leading to an additional 4.3 g of fat oxidized, although this value may not be clinically meaningful. Our results refute the widely reported increases in capacity for FatOx demonstrated with HIIT, which is likely due to marked day-to-day variability in determinations of MFO and exercise fat oxidation as well as the heterogeneity of our sample.

  7. The Effect of the Interval Training During 8-Week Preparation Period on the Athletic Performances of 9-12 Year Old Swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    SEVER, M. Onur; CICIOGLU, H. Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect ofinterval training on the athletic performances of 9-12 years old swimmers inaddition to the eight-week preparation stage. Athletes were split into twogroups as the ones with performing branch specific swimming training (n=9) andthe ones with performing interval training along with swimming training (n=11).Before and after training programs, 12-minutes Cooper test was applied todetermine aerobic endurance in both groups. Wingate test was used...

  8. Eight weeks of a combination of high intensity interval training and conventional training reduce visceral adiposity and improve physical fitness: a group-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaki, Christoforos D; Aphamis, George; Sakkis, Panikos; Hadjicharalambous, Marios

    2016-04-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been recently promoted as an effective, low volume and time-efficient training method for improving fitness and health related parameters. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of a combination of a group-based HIIT and conventional gym training on physical fitness and body composition parameters in healthy adults. Thirty nine healthy adults volunteered to participate in this eight-week intervention study. Twenty three participants performed regular gym training 4 days a week (C group), whereas the remaining 16 participants engaged twice a week in HIIT and twice in regular gym training (HIIT-C group) as the other group. Total body fat and visceral adiposity levels were calculated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Physical fitness parameters such as cardiorespiratory fitness, speed, lower limb explosiveness, flexibility and isometric arm strength were assessed through a battery of field tests. Both exercise programs were effective in reducing total body fat and visceral adiposity (Ptraining improved cardiorespiratory fitness levels (Ptraining (Ptraining improve various physical fitness parameters and reduce both total and visceral fat levels. This type of training was also found to be superior compared with conventional exercise training alone in terms of reducing more visceral adiposity levels. Group-based HIIT may consider as a good methods for individuals who exercise in gyms and craving to acquire significant fitness benefits in relatively short period of time.

  9. Soccer training: high-intensity interval training is mood disturbing while small sided games ensure mood balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Okba; Haddad, Monoem; Majed, Lina; Ben Khalifa, Wissam; Hamza, Marzougui; Chamari, Karim

    2017-05-09

    BACKGROUNDː The aim of the study was to compare the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) versus small-sided games (SSG) in soccer on both the physiological responses and the mood state of players. Sixteen professional soccer players took part in the study (age: 24.1±0.9 years). Testing of players was conducted on separate days in a randomized and counter-balanced order (each training session: 28-min: 4x4 minutes work with 3-min of passive recovery in-between). Effort: HIIT: intermittent 15-s runs at 110% maximal aerobic speed with 15-s of passive recovery in-between. SSG: 4 versus 4 players on a 25x35m pitch size with full-involvement play. Psychological responses before- and after- each training-session were assessed using the profile of mood-state (POMS: Tension, Depression, Anger, Vigor, Fatigue, and Confusion). The players' heart rate (HR) was continuously measured, whereas ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate concentration ([La]) were collected ~3-min after each training-session. HIIT and SSG showed no significant difference in HR, RPE and [La] responses. The HIIT compared with SSG resulted in: an increased total mood disturbance (pmind the mood-related advantages of the SSG shown in the present study.

  10. The effects of free-living interval-walking training on glycemic control, body composition, and physical fitness in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Winding, Kamilla; Knudsen, Sine H; Nielsen, Jens S; Thomsen, Carsten; Pedersen, Bente K; Solomon, Thomas P J

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of free-living walking training in type 2 diabetic patients and to investigate the effects of interval-walking training versus continuous-walking training upon physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control. Subjects with type 2 diabetes were randomized to a control (n = 8), continuous-walking (n = 12), or interval-walking group (n = 12). Training groups were prescribed five sessions per week (60 min/session) and were controlled with an accelerometer and a heart-rate monitor. Continuous walkers performed all training at moderate intensity, whereas interval walkers alternated 3-min repetitions at low and high intensity. Before and after the 4-month intervention, the following variables were measured: VO(2)max, body composition, and glycemic control (fasting glucose, HbA(1c), oral glucose tolerance test, and continuous glucose monitoring [CGM]). Training adherence was high (89 ± 4%), and training energy expenditure and mean intensity were comparable. VO(2)max increased 16.1 ± 3.7% in the interval-walking group (P Body mass and adiposity (fat mass and visceral fat) decreased in the interval-walking group only (P interval-walking group. The continuous walkers showed no changes in glycemic control. Free-living walking training is feasible in type 2 diabetic patients. Continuous walking offsets the deterioration in glycemia seen in the control group, and interval walking is superior to energy expenditure-matched continuous walking for improving physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control.

  11. The Effect of Age on the V˙O2max Response to High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støren, Øyvind; Helgerud, Jan; Sæbø, Mona; Støa, Eva Maria; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Unhjem, Runar J; Hoff, Jan; Wang, Eivind

    2017-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is documented to yield effective improvements in the cardiovascular system and be an excellent strategy for healthy aging. However, it is not determined how age may affect the training response of key components of aerobic endurance. We recruited 72 males (mean ± SD, weight = 84.9 ± 12.9 kg, height = 180.4 ± 5.8 cm) and 22 females (weight = 76.0 ± 17.2 kg, height = 171.2 ± 6.7 cm) from 20 to 70+ yr with a training status typical for their age group and divided them into six decade cohorts. The participants followed supervised training with a targeted intensity of 90%-95% of maximal HR (HRmax) three times a week for 8 wk. After HIIT, all age groups increased (P HIIT were inversely associated with baseline training status (r = 0.66, P HIIT may be used as an excellent strategy for healthy aging.

  12. Sprint interval and sprint continuous training increases circulating CD34+ cells and cardio-respiratory fitness in young healthy women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Harris

    Full Text Available The improvement of vascular health in the exercising limb can be attained by sprint interval training (SIT. However, the effects on systemic vascular function and on circulating angiogenic cells (CACs which may contribute to endothelial repair have not been investigated. Additionally, a comparison between SIT and sprint continuous training (SCT which is less time committing has not been made.12 women (22±2 yrs completed 12 sessions of either SIT (n = 6 or work-matched SCT (n = 6 on 3 days/week. Pre and post-training assessments included brachial artery endothelial function and peripheral blood analysis for CAC number (CD34+/CD34+CD45dim. CAC function was measured by migration and adhesion assays. Cardio-respiratory fitness, carotid arterial stiffness and carotid-radial and brachial-foot pulse wave velocity (PWV were also evaluated.CD34+ CACs increased following training in both groups but CD34+CD45dim did not (Pre CD34+: 40±21/105 leukocytes, Post CD34+: 56±24/105 leukocytes, main time effect p0.05.SCT involving little time commitment is comparable to SIT in increasing CD34+ cell number and [Formula: see text]. An increased mobilisation of CD34+ CACs suggests that sprint training may be an effective method to enhance vascular repair.

  13. Sprint interval and moderate-intensity cycling training differentially affect adiposity and aerobic capacity in overweight young-adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Simon; Fedewa, Michael V; Hathaway, Elizabeth D; Schmidt, Michael D; Evans, Ellen M

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of sprint interval training (SIT) and moderate-intensity continuous cycle training (MICT), with equal estimated energy expenditure during training on body composition and aerobic capacity. Body composition measured via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and aerobic capacity were assessed following 6 weeks of training in previously inactive overweight/obese young women (n = 52; age, 20.4 ± 1.5 years; body mass index, 30.3 ± 4.5 kg·m -2 , 67.3% white). Training was performed in a group-exercise format that mimicked cycling classes offered by commercial fitness facilities, and included 3 weekly sessions of either 30-s "all-out" sprints followed by 4 min of active recovery (SIT), or continuous cycling at 60%-70% heart rate reserve to expend a similar amount of energy. Participants were randomized to SIT or MICT, attended a similar number of sessions (15.0 ± 1.5 sessions vs. 15.8 ± 1.9 sessions, P = 0.097) and expended a similar amount of energy (541.8 ± 104.6 kJ·session -1 vs. 553.5 ± 138.1 kJ·session -1 , P = 0.250). Without significant changes in body mass (P > 0.05), greater relative reductions occurred in SIT than in MICT in total fat mass (3.6% ± 5.6% vs. 0.6% ± 3.9%, P = 0.007), and android fat mass (6.6% ± 6.9% vs. 0.7% ± 6.5%, P = 0.002). Aerobic capacity (mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ) increased significantly following both interventions (P interval cycling reduces adiposity and increases aerobic capacity more than continuous moderate-intensity cycling of equal estimated energy expenditure in overweight/obese young women.

  14. Is high-intensity interval training a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve health and fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-03-01

    Growing research suggests that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve cardiorespiratory and metabolic health. "All out" HIIT models such as Wingate-type exercise are particularly effective, but this type of training may not be safe, tolerable or practical for many individuals. Recent studies, however, have revealed the potential for other models of HIIT, which may be more feasible but are still time-efficient, to stimulate adaptations similar to more demanding low-volume HIIT models and high-volume endurance-type training. As little as 3 HIIT sessions per week, involving ≤10 min of intense exercise within a time commitment of ≤30 min per session, including warm-up, recovery between intervals and cool down, has been shown to improve aerobic capacity, skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, exercise tolerance and markers of disease risk after only a few weeks in both healthy individuals and people with cardiometabolic disorders. Additional research is warranted, as studies conducted have been relatively short-term, with a limited number of measurements performed on small groups of subjects. However, given that "lack of time" remains one of the most commonly cited barriers to regular exercise participation, low-volume HIIT is a time-efficient exercise strategy that warrants consideration by health practitioners and fitness professionals.

  15. Increased cardiac output and maximal oxygen uptake in response to ten sessions of high intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Edmunds, Ross M; Clark, Amy; King, Leesa; Gallant, Rachael M; Namm, Samantha; Fischer, Anthony; Wood, Kimi A

    2018-01-01

    Increases in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) are widely reported in response to completion of high intensity interval training (HIIT), yet the mechanism explaining this result is poorly understood. This study examined changes in VO2max and cardiac output (CO) in response to 10 sessions of low-volume HIIT. Participants included 30 active men and women (mean age and VO2max=22.9±5.4 years and 39.6±5.6 mL/kg/min) who performed HIIT and 30 men and women (age and VO2max=25.7±4.5 years and 40.7±5.2 mL/kg/min) who served as non-exercising controls (CON). High intensity interval training consisted of 6-10 s bouts of cycling per session at 90-110 percent peak power output (PPO) interspersed with 75 s recovery. Before and after training, progressive cycling to exhaustion was completed during which CO, stroke volume (SV), and heart rate (HR) were estimated using thoracic impedance. To confirm VO2max attainment, a verification test was completed after progressive cycling at a work rate equal to 110%PPO. Data demonstrated significant improvements in VO2max (2.71±0.63 L/min to 2.86±0.63 L/min, Psessions of HIIT is due to improvements in oxygen delivery.

  16. The effects of high-intensity interval training on glucose regulation and insulin resistance: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelleyman, C; Yates, T; O'Donovan, G; Gray, L J; King, J A; Khunti, K; Davies, M J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to quantify the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on markers of glucose regulation and insulin resistance compared with control conditions (CON) or continuous training (CT). Databases were searched for HIIT interventions based upon the inclusion criteria: training ≥2 weeks, adult participants and outcome measurements that included insulin resistance, fasting glucose, HbA1c or fasting insulin. Dual interventions and participants with type 1 diabetes were excluded. Fifty studies were included. There was a reduction in insulin resistance following HIIT compared with both CON and CT (HIIT vs. CON: standardized mean difference [SMD] = -0.49, confidence intervals [CIs] -0.87 to -0.12, P = 0.009; CT: SMD = -0.35, -0.68 to -0.02, P = 0.036). Compared with CON, HbA1c decreased by 0.19% (-0.36 to -0.03, P = 0.021) and body weight decreased by 1.3 kg (-1.9 to -0.7, P HIIT appears effective at improving metabolic health, particularly in those at risk of or with type 2 diabetes. Larger randomized controlled trials of longer duration than those included in this meta-analysis are required to confirm these results. © 2015 World Obesity.

  17. Comparison of different volumes of high intensity interval training on cardiac autonomic function in sedentary young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, Pooja; Bansal, Vishal; Moiz, Jamal Ali

    2017-08-24

    Purpose The present study was conducted to compare the effects of low volume of high intensity interval training (LVHIIT) and high volume of high intensity interval training (HVHIIT) on heart rate variability (HRV) as a primary outcome measure, and on maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), body composition, and lower limb muscle strength as secondary outcome measures, in sedentary young women. Methods Thirty-six participants were recruited in this study. The LVHIIT group (n = 17) performed one 4-min bout of treadmill running at 85%-95% maximum heart rate (HRmax), followed by 3 min of recovery by running at 70% HRmax, three times per week for 6 weeks. The HVHIIT group (n = 15) performed four times 4-min bouts of treadmill running at 85%-95% HRmax, interspersed with 3-min of recovery by running at 70% HRmax, 3 times per week for 6 weeks. All criterion measures were measured before and after training in both the groups. Results Due to attrition of four cases, data of 32 participants was used for analysis. A significant increase in high frequency (HF) power (p high frequency power (LF/HF) ratio (p body composition, and muscle strength. Conclusion The study results suggest that both LVHIIT and HVHIIT are equally effective in improving VO2max, body composition, and muscle strength, in sedentary young women. However, HVHIIT induces parasympathetic dominance as well, as measured by HRV.

  18. Cardiorespiratory Effects of One-Legged High-Intensity Interval Training in Normoxia and Hypoxia: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Menz, Mona Semsch, Florian Mosbach, Martin Burtscher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A higher-than-average maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, is closely associated with decreased morbidity and mortality and improved quality of life and acts as a marker of cardiorespiratory fitness. Although there is no consensus about an optimal training method to enhance VO2max, nevertheless training of small muscle groups and repeated exposure to hypoxia seem to be promising approaches. Therefore, this study was aimed at gaining innovative insights into the effects of small muscle group training in normoxia and hypoxia. Thirteen healthy participants were randomly assigned to the hypoxic (HG, n = 7 or normoxic (NG, n = 6 training group. Both groups completed nine high-intensity interval training sessions in 3 wks. The NG performed the training in normoxia (FiO2: 0.21; ~ 600 m and the HG in hypoxia (FiO2: 0.126; ~ 4500 m. Each session consisted of 4 x 4 min one-legged cycling at 90% of maximal heart rate separated by 4 min recovery periods. Before and after the intervention period, VO2max and peak power output (Wmax and responses to submaximal cycling (100 and 150 watts were assessed in a laboratory cycling test. Peak power output significantly improved within both groups (9.6 ± 4.8% and 12.6 ± 8.9% for HG and NG, respectively with no significant interaction (p = 0.277. However, VO2max only significantly increased after training in hypoxia from 45.4 ± 10.1 to 50.0 ± 9.8 ml/min/kg (10.8 ± 6.0%; p = 0.002 with no significant interaction (p = 0.146. The maximal O2-pulse improved within the HG and demonstrated a significant interaction (p = 0.040. One-legged cycling training significantly improved VO2max and peak power output. Training under hypoxic conditions may generate greater effects on VO2max than a similar training in normoxia and is considered as a promising training method for improving cardiorespiratory fitness.

  19. Short and Long Term Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Hormones, Metabolites, Antioxidant System, Glycogen Concentration, and Aerobic Performance Adaptations in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Gustavo G; Papoti, Marcelo; Dos Reis, Ivan Gustavo Masselli; de Mello, Maria A R; Gobatto, Claudio A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of short and long term High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on anaerobic and aerobic performance, creatinine, uric acid, urea, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, testosterone, corticosterone, and glycogen concentration (liver, soleus, and gastrocnemius). The Wistar rats were separated in two groups: HIIT and sedentary/control (CT). The lactate minimum (LM) was used to evaluate the aerobic and anaerobic performance (AP) (baseline, 6, and 12 weeks). The lactate peak determination consisted of two swim bouts at 13% of body weight (bw): (1) 30 s of effort; (2) 30 s of passive recovery; (3) exercise until exhaustion (AP). Tethered loads equivalent to 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.5% bw were performed in incremental phase. The aerobic capacity in HIIT group increased after 12 weeks (5.2 ± 0.2% bw) in relation to baseline (4.4 ± 0.2% bw), but not after 6 weeks (4.5 ± 0.3% bw). The exhaustion time in HIIT group showed higher values than CT after 6 (HIIT = 58 ± 5 s; CT = 40 ± 7 s) and 12 weeks (HIIT = 62 ± 7 s; CT = 49 ± 3 s). Glycogen (mg/100 mg) increased in gastrocnemius for HIIT group after 6 weeks (0.757 ± 0.076) and 12 weeks (1.014 ± 0.157) in comparison to baseline (0.358 ± 0.024). In soleus, the HIIT increased glycogen after 6 weeks (0.738 ± 0.057) and 12 weeks (0.709 ± 0.085) in comparison to baseline (0.417 ± 0.035). The glycogen in liver increased after HIIT 12 weeks (4.079 ± 0.319) in relation to baseline (2.400 ± 0.416). The corticosterone (ng/mL) in HIIT increased after 6 weeks (529.0 ± 30.5) and reduced after 12 weeks (153.6 ± 14.5) in comparison to baseline (370.0 ± 18.3). In conclusion, long term HIIT enhanced the aerobic capacity, but short term was not enough to cause aerobic adaptations. The anaerobic performance increased in HIIT short and long term compared with CT, without differences between HIIT short and long term. Furthermore, the

  20. SHORT AND LONG TERM EFFECTS OF HIGH-INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING ON HORMONES, METABOLITES, ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM, GLYCOGEN CONCENTRATION AND AEROBIC PERFORMANCE ADAPTATIONS IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gomes De Araujo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of short and long term High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT on anaerobic and aerobic performance, creatinine, uric acid, urea, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, testosterone, corticosterone and glycogen concentration (liver, soleus and gastrocnemius. The Wistar were separated in two groups: HIIT and sedentary/control (CT. The lactate minimum (LM was used to evaluate the aerobic and anaerobic performance (AP (baseline, 6 and 12 wk. The lactate peak determination consisted of two swim bouts at 13% of body weight (bw: 1 30 s of effort; 2 30 s of passive recovery; 3 exercise until exhaustion (AP. Tethered loads equivalent to 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5 and 6.5% bw were performed in incremental phase. The aerobic capacity in HIIT group increased after 12 wk (5.2±0.2 % bw in relation to baseline (4.4±0.2 % bw, but not after 6 wk (4.5±0.3 % bw. The exhaustion time in HIIT group showed higher values than CT after 6 (HIIT= 58±5 s; CT=40±7 s and 12 wk (HIIT=62±7 s; CT=49±3 s. Glycogen (mg/100mg increased in gastrocnemius for HIIT group after 6 wk (0.757±0.076 and 12 wk (1.014±0.157 in comparison to baseline (0.358±0.024. In soleus, the HIIT increased glycogen after 6 wk (0.738±0.057 and 12 wk (0.709±0.085 in comparison to baseline (0.417±0.035. The glycogen in liver increased after HIIT 12 wk (4.079±0.319 in relation to baseline (2.400±0.416. The corticosterone (ng/mL in HIIT increased after 6 wk (529.0±30.5 and reduced after 12 wk (153.6±14.5 in comparison to baseline (370.0±18.3. In conclusion, long term HIIT enhanced the aerobic capacity, but short term (6wk was not enough to cause aerobic adaptations. The anaerobic performance increased in HIIT short and long term compared with CT, without differences between HIIT short and long term. Furthermore, the glycogen super-compensantion increased after short and long term HIIT in comparison to

  1. Psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery from high-intensity interval training

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, L; Tiller, NB; Karageorghis, CI

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined the multifarious effects of music applied during exercise but few have assessed the efficacy of music as an aid to recovery. Music might facilitate physiological recovery via the entrainment of respiratory rhythms with music tempo. High-intensity exercise training is not typically associated with positive affective responses, and thus ways of assuaging negative affect warrant further exploration. This study assessed the psychophysiological effects of music on ac...

  2. Aerobic Interval vs. Continuous Training in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease or Heart Failure: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with a Focus on Secondary Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, Nele; Beulque, Randy; Cornelissen, Véronique

    2018-05-01

    In a previous meta-analysis including nine trials comparing aerobic interval training with aerobic continuous training in patients with coronary artery disease, we found a significant difference in peak oxygen uptake favoring aerobic interval training. The objective of this study was to (1) update the original meta-analysis focussing on peak oxygen uptake and (2) evaluate the effect on secondary outcomes. We conducted a systematic review with a meta-analysis by searching PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases up to March 2017. We included randomized trials comparing aerobic interval training and aerobic continuous training in patients with coronary artery disease or chronic heart failure. The primary outcome was change in peak oxygen uptake. Secondary outcomes included cardiorespiratory parameters, cardiovascular risk factors, cardiac and vascular function, and quality of life. Twenty-four papers were identified (n = 1080; mean age 60.7 ± 10.7 years). Aerobic interval training resulted in a higher increase in peak oxygen uptake compared with aerobic continuous training in all patients (1.40 mL/kg/min; p aerobic interval training in all patients. Other cardiorespiratory parameters, cardiovascular risk factors, and quality of life were equally affected. This meta-analysis adds further evidence to the clinically significant larger increase in peak oxygen uptake following aerobic interval training vs. aerobic continuous training in patients with coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure. More well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to establish the safety of aerobic interval training and the sustainability of the training response over longer periods.

  3. Long-term effect of smartphone-delivered Interval Walking Training on physical activity in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentiner, Laura Staun; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Karstoft, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Physical activity is a cornerstone in type 2 diabetes (T2D) rehabilitation. Effective long-term and low-cost strategies to keep these patients' physically active are needed. However, maintaining physical activity behaviour is difficult once formalised interventions end. Structured...... exercise training supported by mobile technology and remote feedback is potentially an effective strategy. The objective of the trial is to investigate whether mobile health support using the InterWalk application for smartphones is effective in increasing physical activity levels in persons with T2D over...... time compared with standard care. We investigate whether Interval Walking Training using the InterWalk application is superior to Danish municipality-based rehabilitation in increasing moderate-and-vigorous physical activity levels in patients with T2D across 52 weeks. Secondary, we hypothesise...

  4. Long-Term effect of smartphone-delivered Interval Walking Training on physical activity in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentiner, Laura Staun; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Karstoft, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    exercise training supported by mobile technology and remote feedback is potentially an effective strategy. The objective of the trial is to investigate whether mobile health support using the InterWalk application for smartphones is effective in increasing physical activity levels in persons with T2D over......Introduction Physical activity is a cornerstone in type 2 diabetes (T2D) rehabilitation. Effective long-Term and low-cost strategies to keep these patients' physically active are needed. However, maintaining physical activity behaviour is difficult once formalised interventions end. Structured...... time compared with standard care. We investigate whether Interval Walking Training using the InterWalk application is superior to Danish municipality-based rehabilitation in increasing moderate-And-vigorous physical activity levels in patients with T2D across 52â €..weeks. Secondary, we hypothesise...

  5. Effects of rest interval length on Smith machine bench press performance and perceived exertion in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibana, Ramires A; Vieira, Denis C L; Tajra, Vitor; Bottaro, Martim; de Salles, Belmiro F; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Prestes, Jonato

    2013-12-01

    This study compared two different rest intervals (RI) between sets of resistance exercise. Ten resistance-trained men (M age = 24.3, SD = 3.5 yr.; M weigh t= 80.0 kg, SD = 15.3; M height = 1.75 m, SD = 0.04) performed five sets of Smith machine bench presses at 60% of one repetition maximum, either with 1.5 min. or 3 min. RI between sets. Their repetition performance, total training volume, velocity, fatigue, rating of perceived exertion, and muscular power were measured. All of these measures indicated that performance was significantly better and fatigue was significantly lower in the 3 min. RI as compared with the 1.5 min. RI, except the rating of perceived exertion which did not show a significant difference. A longer RI between sets promotes superior performance for the bench press.

  6. High intensity interval and endurance training have opposing effects on markers of heart failure and cardiac remodeling in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Tanya M; Bloemberg, Darin; da Silva, Mayne L; Simpson, Jeremy A; Quadrilatero, Joe; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2015-01-01

    There has been re-emerging interest and significant work dedicated to investigating the metabolic effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in recent years. HIIT is considered to be a time efficient alternative to classic endurance training (ET) that elicits similar metabolic responses in skeletal muscle. However, there is a lack of information on the impact of HIIT on cardiac muscle in disease. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of ET and HIIT to alter cardiac muscle characteristics involved in the development of diastolic dysfunction, such as ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and angiogenesis, in a well-established rodent model of hypertension-induced heart failure before the development of overt heart failure. ET decreased left ventricle fibrosis by ~40% (P hypertension. However, HIIT promoted a pathological adaptation in the left ventricle in the presence of hypertension, highlighting the need for further research on the widespread effects of HIIT in the presence of disease.

  7. No Additional Benefits of Block- Over Evenly-Distributed High-Intensity Interval Training within a Polarized Microcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGawley, Kerry; Juudas, Elisabeth; Kazior, Zuzanna; Ström, Kristoffer; Blomstrand, Eva; Hansson, Ola; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The current study aimed to investigate the responses to block- versus evenly-distributed high-intensity interval training (HIT) within a polarized microcycle. Methods: Twenty well-trained junior cross-country skiers (10 males, age 17.6 ± 1.5 and 10 females, age 17.3 ± 1.5) completed two, 3-week periods of training (EVEN and BLOCK) in a randomized, crossover-design study. In EVEN, 3 HIT sessions (5 × 4-min of diagonal-stride roller-skiing) were completed at a maximal sustainable intensity each week while low-intensity training (LIT) was distributed evenly around the HIT. In BLOCK, the same 9 HIT sessions were completed in the second week while only LIT was completed in the first and third weeks. Heart rate (HR), session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), and perceived recovery (pREC) were recorded for all HIT and LIT sessions, while distance covered was recorded for each HIT interval. The recovery-stress questionnaire for athletes (RESTQ-Sport) was completed weekly. Before and after EVEN and BLOCK, resting saliva and muscle samples were collected and an incremental test and 600-m time-trial (TT) were completed. Results: Pre- to post-testing revealed no significant differences between EVEN and BLOCK for changes in resting salivary cortisol, testosterone, or IgA, or for changes in muscle capillary density, fiber area, fiber composition, enzyme activity (CS, HAD, and PFK) or the protein content of VEGF or PGC-1α. Neither were any differences observed in the changes in skiing economy, [Formula: see text] or 600-m time-trial performance between interventions. These findings were coupled with no significant differences between EVEN and BLOCK for distance covered during HIT, summated HR zone scores, total sRPE training load, overall pREC or overall recovery-stress state. However, 600-m TT performance improved from pre- to post-training, irrespective of intervention ( P = 0.003), and a number of hormonal and muscle biopsy markers were also significantly

  8. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females

    OpenAIRE

    Racil, G; Coquart, JB; Elmontassar, W; Haddad, M; Goebel, R; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS), with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thr...

  9. The Effect of Low Volume Interval Training on Resting Blood Pressure in Pre-hypertensive Subjects: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutnik, Benjamin C; Smith, Joshua R; Johnson, Ariel M; Kurti, Stephanie P; Harms, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Clinically pre-hypertensive adults are at a greater risk of developing hypertension, stiffened arteries, and other cardiovascular risks. Endurance exercise training has been shown to improve elevated resting blood pressure and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. However, a primary barrier preventing individuals from engaging in regular physical activity is a lack of time. The purpose of our study was to determine if a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocol would be as effective as continuous aerobic endurance training (ET) on resting blood pressure in pre-hypertensive participants. Additionally, this study investigated the effects of HIIT vs. ET on CRP. Twelve pre-hypertensive participants (33.3±6.1 yrs; 3M/9W) participated in 8 weeks of cycle ergometer exercise training. The ET exercised for 30 continuous min/day, 4 days/week at 40% VO2max reserve. The HIIT exercised at a 1:1 work-to-rest for 20 min/day, 3 days/week at 60% peak power. Resting mean arterial pressure and CRP were compared throughout the study. Both groups showed decreases (pHIIT: -8.6 ± 4.8 mmHg) following the 8 weeks. For CRP, there was a significant decrease (p=0.014) as a main effect of time. VO2max increased (pHIIT and ET. These preliminary data suggest HIIT and ET similarly decreased resting blood pressure and increased VO2max.

  10. Effects of Small-Sided Games vs. Interval Training in Aerobic Fitness and Physical Enjoyment in Young Elite Soccer Players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Los Arcos

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Small-Sided Games (SSG vs. Interval Training (IT in soccer training on aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in youth elite soccer players during the last 8 weeks of the season. Seventeen U-16 male soccer players (age = 15.5 ± 0.6 years, and 8.5 years of experience of a Spanish First Division club academy were randomized to 2 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 9 and IT group (n = 8. In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 11 sessions with different SSGs, whereas the IT group performed the same number of sessions of IT. Players were tested before and after the 6-week training intervention with a continuous maximal multistage running field test and the counter movement jump test (CMJ. At the end of the study, players answered the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES. During the study, heart rate (HR and session perceived effort (sRPE were assessed. SSGs were as effective as IT in maintaining the aerobic fitness in elite young soccer players during the last weeks of the season. Players in the SSG group declared a greater physical enjoyment than IT (P = 0.006; ES = 1.86 ± 1.07. Coaches could use SSG training during the last weeks of the season as an option without fear of losing aerobic fitness while promoting high physical enjoyment.

  11. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of V˙O2peak. V˙O2peak, body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in V˙O2peak (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p=0.062. The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p=0.042. Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  12. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods . Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of [Formula: see text]. [Formula: see text], body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results . Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in [Formula: see text] (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT) and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT) despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention ( p = 0.062). The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT ( p = 0.042). Conclusion . Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  13. The Physiological Mechanisms of Performance Enhancement with Sprint Interval Training Differ between the Upper and Lower Extremities in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Christoph; Morales-Alamo, David; Ørtenblad, Niels; Larsen, Filip J.; Schiffer, Tomas A.; Willis, Sarah J.; Gelabert-Rebato, Miriam; Perez-Valera, Mario; Boushel, Robert; Calbet, Jose A. L.; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differences in adaptation of arm and leg muscles to sprint training, over a period of 11 days 16 untrained men performed six sessions of 4–6 × 30-s all-out sprints (SIT) with the legs and arms, separately, with a 1-h interval of recovery. Limb-specific VO2peak, sprint performance (two 30-s Wingate tests with 4-min recovery), muscle efficiency and time-trial performance (TT, 5-min all-out) were assessed and biopsies from the m. vastus lateralis and m. triceps brachii taken before and after training. VO2peak and Wmax increased 3–11% after training, with a more pronounced change in the arms (P training, VO2 during the two Wingate tests was increased by 52 and 6% for the arms and legs, respectively (P intensity, HR, VO2, VCO2, VE, and Vt were all lower during arm-cranking than leg-pedaling, and oxidation of fat was minimal, remaining so after training. Despite the higher relative intensity, fat oxidation was 70% greater during leg-pedaling (P = 0.017). The aerobic energy contribution in the legs was larger than for the arms during the Wingate tests, although VO2 for the arms was enhanced more by training, reducing the O2 deficit after SIT. The levels of muscle glycogen, as well as the myosin heavy chain composition were unchanged in both cases, while the activities of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase and citrate synthase were elevated only in the legs and capillarization enhanced in both limbs. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the variables that predict TT performance differ for the arms and legs. The primary mechanism of adaptation to SIT by both the arms and legs is enhancement of aerobic energy production. However, with their higher proportion of fast muscle fibers, the arms exhibit greater plasticity. PMID:27746738

  14. Highly favorable physiological responses to concurrent resistance and high-intensity interval training during chemotherapy: the OptiTrain breast cancer trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijwel, Sara; Backman, Malin; Bolam, Kate A; Olofsson, Emil; Norrbom, Jessica; Bergh, Jonas; Sundberg, Carl Johan; Wengström, Yvonne; Rundqvist, Helene

    2018-05-01

    Advanced therapeutic strategies are often accompanied by significant adverse effects, which warrant equally progressive countermeasures. Physical exercise has proven an effective intervention to improve physical function and reduce fatigue in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in this population are not well established although HIIT has proven effective in other clinical populations. The aim of the OptiTrain trial was to examine the effects of concurrent resistance and high-intensity interval training (RT-HIIT) or concurrent moderate-intensity aerobic and high-intensity interval training (AT-HIIT), to usual care (UC) on pain sensitivity and physiological outcomes in patients with breast cancer during chemotherapy. Two hundred and forty women were randomized to 16 weeks of RT-HIIT, AT-HIIT, or UC. cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, body mass, hemoglobin levels, and pressure-pain threshold. Pre- to post-intervention, RT-HIIT (ES = 0.41) and AT-HIIT (ES = 0.42) prevented the reduced cardiorespiratory fitness found with UC. Handgrip strength (surgery side: RT-HIIT vs. UC: ES = 0.41, RT-HIIT vs. AT-HIIT: ES = 0.28; non-surgery side: RT-HIIT vs. UC: ES = 0.35, RT-HIIT vs. AT-HIIT: ES = 0.22) and lower-limb muscle strength (RT-HIIT vs. UC: ES = 0.66, RT-HIIT vs. AT-HIIT: ES = 0.23) were significantly improved in the RT-HIIT. Increases in body mass were smaller in RT-HIIT (ES = - 0.16) and AT-HIIT (ES = - 0.16) versus UC. RT-HIIT reported higher pressure-pain thresholds than UC (trapezius: ES = 0.46, gluteus: ES = 0.53) and AT-HIIT (trapezius: ES = 0.30). Sixteen weeks of RT-HIIT significantly improved muscle strength and reduced pain sensitivity. Both exercise programs were well tolerated and were equally efficient in preventing increases in body mass and in preventing declines in cardiorespiratory fitness. These results highlight the importance of implementing a combination of

  15. Effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function in inactive latin-american adults: a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Quiñonez, Paula Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training is effective for improving cardiometabolic health and physical fitness in inactive adults. However, limited research has been conducted on the optimal exercise training intensity for this population. We investigate the effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function and physical fitness in physically inactive adults. Twenty inactive adults were randomly allocated to receive either moderate intensity training (MCT group) or high intens...

  16. Impact of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training on resting and postexercise cardiac troponin T concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jinlei; Zhang, Haifeng; Kong, Zhaowei; George, Keith; Little, Jonathan P; Tong, Tomas K; Li, Feifei; Shi, Qingde

    2018-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does exercise training impact resting and postexercise cardiac troponin T (cTnT) concentration? What is the main finding and its importance? This randomized controlled intervention study demonstrated that 12 weeks of either high-intensity interval training or moderate-intensity continuous training largely abolished the exercise-induced elevation in cTnT when exercise was performed at the same absolute intensity. There was no impact of training on resting cTnT or postexercise appearance of cTnT when exercise was performed at the same relative intensity. These findings provide new information that might help clinicians with decision-making in relationship to basal and postexercise values of cTnT in individuals with different training status. We evaluated the influence of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training [HIIT; repeated 4 min cycling at 90% of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) interspersed with 3 min rest, 200-300 kJ per session, 3 or 4 days each week] and work-equivalent moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT; continuous cycling at 60% V̇O2max) on resting cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and the appearance of exercise-induced cTnT. Forty-eight sedentary obese young women were randomly assigned to HIIT, MICT or a control group. The V̇O2max and body composition were measured before and after training. At baseline, cTnT was assessed using a high-sensitivity assay at rest and immediately, 2 and 4 h after 45 min cycling at 60% V̇O2max. After a 12 week training period, cTnT was assessed before and after 45 min cycling at the same relative and absolute intensities as before training. Training led to higher V̇O2max and lower fat mass in both HIIT and MICT groups (all P training, cTnT was significantly elevated in all three groups (by 35-118%, all P training, both resting and postexercise cTnT concentrations (same relative intensity) were similar to pretraining values. In contrast, postexercise cTnT (same

  17. Effect of High Intensity Interval Training on Cardiac Function in Children with Obesity: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingul, Charlotte B; Dias, Katrin A; Tjonna, Arnt E; Follestad, Turid; Hosseini, Mansoureh S; Timilsina, Anita S; Hollekim-Strand, Siri M; Ro, Torstein B; Davies, Peter S W; Cain, Peter A; Leong, Gary M; Coombes, Jeff S

    2018-02-13

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) confers superior cardiovascular health benefits to moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) in adults and may be efficacious for improving diminished cardiac function in obese children. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT, MICT and nutrition advice interventions on resting left ventricular (LV) peak systolic tissue velocity (S') in obese children. Ninety-nine obese children were randomised into one of three 12-week interventions, 1) HIIT [n = 33, 4 × 4 min bouts at 85-95% maximum heart rate (HR max ), 3 times/week] and nutrition advice, 2) MICT [n = 32, 44 min at 60-70% HR max , 3 times/week] and nutrition advice, and 3) nutrition advice only (nutrition) [n = 34]. Twelve weeks of HIIT and MICT were equally efficacious, but superior to nutrition, for normalising resting LV S' in children with obesity (estimated mean difference 1.0 cm/s, 95% confidence interval 0.5 to 1.6 cm/s, P HIIT and MICT were superior to nutrition advice only for improving resting LV systolic function in obese children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-Based Running Plan Improves Athletic Performance by Improving Muscle Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Cámara-Pérez, Jose C; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor M; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2017-01-01

    García-Pinillos, F, Cámara-Pérez, JC, Soto-Hermoso, VM, and Latorre-Román, PÁ. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-based running plan improves athletic performance by improving muscle power. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 146-153, 2017-This study aimed to examine the effect of a 5-week high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT)-based running plan on athletic performance and to compare the physiological and neuromuscular responses during a sprint-distance triathlon before and after the HIIT period. Thirteen triathletes were matched into 2 groups: the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG). The CG was asked to maintain their normal training routines, whereas the EG maintained only their swimming and cycling routines and modified their running routine. Participants completed a sprint-distance triathlon before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention period. In both pretest and posttest, the participants performed 4 jumping tests: before the race (baseline), postswim, postcycling, and postrun. Additionally, heart rate was monitored (HRmean), whereas rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate accumulation (BLa) were registered after the race. No significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) between groups were found before HIIT intervention (at pretest). Significant group-by-training interactions were found in vertical jumping ability and athletic performance: the EG improved jumping performance (∼6-9%, p ≤ 0.05, effect size (ES) > 0.7), swimming performance (p = 0.013, ES = 0.438), and running time (p = 0.001, ES = 0.667) during the competition, whereas the CG remained unchanged (p ≥ 0.05, ES HIIT-based running plan combined with the high training volumes of these triathletes in swimming and cycling improved athletic performance during a sprint-distance triathlon. This improvement may be due to improved neuromuscular characteristics that were transferred into improved muscle power and work economy.

  19. High intensity interval training in a real world setting: a randomized controlled feasibility study in overweight inactive adults, measuring change in maximal oxygen uptake.

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    Helen Lunt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In research clinic settings, overweight adults undertaking HIIT (high intensity interval training improve their fitness as effectively as those undertaking conventional walking programs but can do so within a shorter time spent exercising. We undertook a randomized controlled feasibility (pilot study aimed at extending HIIT into a real world setting by recruiting overweight/obese, inactive adults into a group based activity program, held in a community park. METHODS: Participants were allocated into one of three groups. The two interventions, aerobic interval training and maximal volitional interval training, were compared with an active control group undertaking walking based exercise. Supervised group sessions (36 per intervention were held outdoors. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake, results expressed in ml/min/kg, before and after the 12 week interventions. RESULTS: On ITT (intention to treat analyses, baseline (N = 49 and exit (N = 39 [Formula: see text]O2 was 25.3±4.5 and 25.3±3.9, respectively. Participant allocation and baseline/exit VO2max by group was as follows: Aerobic interval training N =  16, 24.2±4.8/25.6±4.8; maximal volitional interval training N = 16, 25.0±2.8/25.2±3.4; walking N = 17, 26.5±5.3/25.2±3.6. The post intervention change in VO2max was +1.01 in the aerobic interval training, -0.06 in the maximal volitional interval training and -1.03 in the walking subgroups. The aerobic interval training subgroup increased VO2max compared to walking (p = 0.03. The actual (observed, rather than prescribed time spent exercising (minutes per week, ITT analysis was 74 for aerobic interval training, 45 for maximal volitional interval training and 116 for walking (p =  0.001. On descriptive analysis, the walking subgroup had the fewest adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to earlier studies, the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness in a

  20. Effects of aerobic and anaerobic training programs together with omega-3 supplement on interleukin-17 and CRP plasma levels in male mice.

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    Alizadeh, Hamid; Daryanoosh, Farhad; Moatari, Maryam; Hoseinzadeh, Khadijeh

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we studied the effects of two different exercise protocols on IL-17 and CRP plasma levels along with the anti-inflammatory effects of fish oil. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) consumption along with two different types of physical activities on IL-17 and CRP plasma levels in trained male mice. A total of 130 adult male mice of Syrian race with the age of 2 months and the weight of 35±1 grams were selected. At the beginning, 10 mice were killed in order to determine the amounts of pre-test variables. The rest of the mice were randomly divided into 6 groups including control group (n=20), supplement (n=20), aerobic exercise (n=20), anaerobic exercise (n=20), supplementaerobic exercise (n=20), and supplement-anaerobic exercise (n=20). Blood samples were withdrawn from the tail under intraperitoneal ketamine and xylasine anaesthesia. The anaerobic training program included 8 weeks of running on treadmill, 3 sessions per week; the aerobic training program included 8 weeks of running on treadmill, 5 sessions per week. At the end of the training program, the blood sample from each group was taken in order to measure the CRP and IL-17 levels. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the differences among the groups. The results showed that there was a significant difference in IL-17 and CRP plasma levels between the groups after 8 weeks (Ptraining programs, both IL-17 and CRP plasma levels increased, although these observed increases were not same for two measured variables. The results might also show that the effect of the supplement depends on the type of training.

  1. Influence of Hypoxic Interval Training and Hyperoxic Recovery on Muscle Activation and Oxygenation in Connection with Double-Poling Exercise.

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    Christoph Zinner

    Full Text Available Here, we evaluated the influence of breathing oxygen at different partial pressures during recovery from exercise on performance at sea-level and a simulated altitude of 1800 m, as reflected in activation of different upper body muscles, and oxygenation of the m. triceps brachii. Ten well-trained, male endurance athletes (25.3±4.1 yrs; 179.2±4.5 cm; 74.2±3.4 kg performed four test trials, each involving three 3-min sessions on a double-poling ergometer with 3-min intervals of recovery. One trial was conducted entirely under normoxic (No and another under hypoxic conditions (Ho; FiO2 = 0.165. In the third and fourth trials, the exercise was performed in normoxia and hypoxia, respectively, with hyperoxic recovery (HOX; FiO2 = 1.00 in both cases. Arterial hemoglobin saturation was higher under the two HOX conditions than without HOX (p<0.05. Integrated muscle electrical activity was not influenced by the oxygen content (best d = 0.51. Furthermore, the only difference in tissue saturation index measured via near-infrared spectroscopy observed was between the recovery periods during the NoNo and HoHOX interventions (P<0.05, d = 0.93. In the case of HoHo the athletes' Pmean declined from the first to the third interval (P < 0.05, whereas Pmean was unaltered under the HoHOX, NoHOX and NoNo conditions. We conclude that the less pronounced decline in Pmean during 3 x 3-min double-poling sprints in normoxia and hypoxia with hyperoxic recovery is not related to changes in muscle activity or oxygenation. Moreover, we conclude that hyperoxia (FiO2 = 1.00 used in conjunction with hypoxic or normoxic work intervals may serve as an effective aid when inhaled during the subsequent recovery intervals.

  2. Comparison of High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-to-Vigorous Continuous Training for Cardiometabolic Health and Exercise Enjoyment in Obese Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengyan; Song, Lili; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training (MVCT) on cardiometabolic health outcomes and enjoyment of exercise in obese young women. Methods A randomized controlled experiment was conducted that involved thirty-one obese females (age range of 18–30) randomly assigned to either HIIT or MVCT five-week training programs. Participants in HIIT condition performed 20 min of repeated 8 s cycling interspersed with 12 s rest intervals, and those in MVCT condition cycled continuously for 40 min at 60–80% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak), both for four days in a week. Outcomes such as V˙O2peak, body composition estimated by bioimpedance analysis, blood lipids, and serum sexual hormones were measured at pre-and post-training. The scores of Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PAES) were collected during the intervention. Results After training, V˙O2peak increased significantly for both training programs (9.1% in HIIT and 10.3% in MVCT) (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.41). Although MVCT group had a significant reduction in total body weight (TBW, −1.8%, p = 0.034), fat mass (FM, - 4.7%, p = 0.002) and percentage body fat (PBF, −2.9%, p = 0.016), there were no significant between-group differences in the change of the pre- and post-measures of these variables. The HIIT group had a higher score on PAES than the MVCT group during the intervention. For both conditions, exercise training led to a decline in resting testosterone and estradiol levels, but had no significant effect on blood lipids. Conclusion Both HIIT and MVCT are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and in reducing sexual hormones in obese young women; however, HIIT is a more enjoyable and time-efficient strategy. The mild-HIIT protocol seems to be useful for at least maintaining the body weight among sedentary individuals. PMID:27368057

  3. Comparison of High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-to-Vigorous Continuous Training for Cardiometabolic Health and Exercise Enjoyment in Obese Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Zhaowei Kong

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training (MVCT on cardiometabolic health outcomes and enjoyment of exercise in obese young women.A randomized controlled experiment was conducted that involved thirty-one obese females (age range of 18-30 randomly assigned to either HIIT or MVCT five-week training programs. Participants in HIIT condition performed 20 min of repeated 8 s cycling interspersed with 12 s rest intervals, and those in MVCT condition cycled continuously for 40 min at 60-80% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O2peak, both for four days in a week. Outcomes such as [Formula: see text]O2peak, body composition estimated by bioimpedance analysis, blood lipids, and serum sexual hormones were measured at pre-and post-training. The scores of Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PAES were collected during the intervention.After training, [Formula: see text]O2peak increased significantly for both training programs (9.1% in HIIT and 10.3% in MVCT (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.41. Although MVCT group had a significant reduction in total body weight (TBW, -1.8%, p = 0.034, fat mass (FM, - 4.7%, p = 0.002 and percentage body fat (PBF, -2.9%, p = 0.016, there were no significant between-group differences in the change of the pre- and post-measures of these variables. The HIIT group had a higher score on PAES than the MVCT group during the intervention. For both conditions, exercise training led to a decline in resting testosterone and estradiol levels, but had no significant effect on blood lipids.Both HIIT and MVCT are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and in reducing sexual hormones in obese young women; however, HIIT is a more enjoyable and time-efficient strategy. The mild-HIIT protocol seems to be useful for at least maintaining the body weight among sedentary individuals.

  4. Comparison of High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-to-Vigorous Continuous Training for Cardiometabolic Health and Exercise Enjoyment in Obese Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Fan, Xitao; Sun, Shengyan; Song, Lili; Shi, Qingde; Nie, Jinlei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training (MVCT) on cardiometabolic health outcomes and enjoyment of exercise in obese young women. A randomized controlled experiment was conducted that involved thirty-one obese females (age range of 18-30) randomly assigned to either HIIT or MVCT five-week training programs. Participants in HIIT condition performed 20 min of repeated 8 s cycling interspersed with 12 s rest intervals, and those in MVCT condition cycled continuously for 40 min at 60-80% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O2peak), both for four days in a week. Outcomes such as [Formula: see text]O2peak, body composition estimated by bioimpedance analysis, blood lipids, and serum sexual hormones were measured at pre-and post-training. The scores of Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PAES) were collected during the intervention. After training, [Formula: see text]O2peak increased significantly for both training programs (9.1% in HIIT and 10.3% in MVCT) (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.41). Although MVCT group had a significant reduction in total body weight (TBW, -1.8%, p = 0.034), fat mass (FM, - 4.7%, p = 0.002) and percentage body fat (PBF, -2.9%, p = 0.016), there were no significant between-group differences in the change of the pre- and post-measures of these variables. The HIIT group had a higher score on PAES than the MVCT group during the intervention. For both conditions, exercise training led to a decline in resting testosterone and estradiol levels, but had no significant effect on blood lipids. Both HIIT and MVCT are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and in reducing sexual hormones in obese young women; however, HIIT is a more enjoyable and time-efficient strategy. The mild-HIIT protocol seems to be useful for at least maintaining the body weight among sedentary individuals.

  5. Effects of high-intensity interval training on fatigue and quality of life in testicular cancer survivors.

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    Adams, Scott C; DeLorey, Darren S; Davenport, Margie H; Fairey, Adrian S; North, Scott; Courneya, Kerry S

    2018-05-08

    Testicular cancer survivors (TCS) are at increased risk of cancer-related fatigue (CRF), psychosocial impairment, and poor mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Here, we examine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in TCS. Secondarily, we explore cardiorespiratory fitness as a mediator of intervention effects and select baseline characteristics as moderators of intervention effects. TCS (n = 63) were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of supervised HIIT or usual care (UC). PROs included CRF, depression, anxiety, stress, self-esteem, sleep quality, and HRQoL assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. TCS (median 7 years postdiagnosis) completed 99% of training sessions and achieved 98% of target training intensity. ANCOVA revealed that, compared to UC, HIIT significantly improved post-intervention CRF (p = 0.003), self-esteem (p = 0.029), and multiple HRQoL domains (ps ≤ 0.05). Effects on CRF (p = 0.031) and vitality (p = 0.015) persisted at 3-month follow-up. Cardiorespiratory fitness changes mediated CRF and HRQoL improvements. CRF effects were larger for TCS with an inactive lifestyle, lower fitness, higher testosterone, and clinical fatigue at baseline. HIIT significantly improves CRF and HRQoL in TCS. Mediation by cardiorespiratory fitness and moderation by clinical characteristics suggests opportunities for targeted exercise interventions to optimise PROs in TCS.

  6. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on People Living with Type 2 Diabetes: A Narrative Review.

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    Wormgoor, Shohn G; Dalleck, Lance C; Zinn, Caryn; Harris, Nigel K

    2017-10-01

    People with type 2 diabetes typically present with comorbidities, such as elevated blood pressure, high cholesterol, high blood glucose, obesity and decreased fitness, all contributive to increased risk for cardiovascular complications. Determination of effective exercise modalities for the management of such complications is important. One such modality is high-intensity interval training (HIIT). To conduct the review, PubMed and EBSCOHost databases were searched through June 1, 2016, for all HIIT intervention studies conducted in people living with type 2 diabetes. Thereafter, the central characteristics of HIIT were analyzed to obtain a broader understanding of the cardiometabolic benefits achievable by HIIT. Fourteen studies were included for review, but the heterogeneity of the participants with type 2 diabetes, the training equipment and HIIT parameters, accompanied by variations in supervision, dietary advice and medications, prevented direct comparisons. However HIIT, regardless of the specific parameters employed, was a suitable option in pursuing improved glycemic control, body composition, aerobic fitness, blood pressure and lipidemia measures in individuals with type 2 diabetes. HIIT is a therapy with at least equivalent benefit to moderate-intensity continuous training; hence, HIIT should be considered when prescribing exercise interventions for people living with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. High-intensity interval training in overweight and obese children and adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Thivel, David; Masurier, Julie; Baquet, Georges; Timmons, Brian W; Pereira, Bruno; Berthoin, Serge; Duclos, Martine; Aucouturier, Julien

    2018-03-27

    While High Intensity Interval Training is praised in many populations for its beneficial effects on body composition and cardiometabolic health, its use among obese youth remain uncertain. This study aimed at determining whether HIIT is effective to improve aerobic fitness and reduce cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese youth. A systematic search was conducted and articles reporting studies that investigated the effects of HIIT in 6 to 18-year-old youth were eligible. Meta-analyses were performed when appropriate. 15 studies were included for the systematic review and meta-analyses. HIIT significantly improves maximal oxygen uptake [1.117 (95% CI=0.528 to 1.706), pbody mass [-0.295 (95%CI =-0.525 to -0.066), pbody fat [-0.786 (95%CI =-1.452 to - 0.120), phigh inconsistency for most cardiometabolic risk factors and aerobic fitness. Although few studies have reported cardiometabolic risks, HIIT may also be as effective as traditional endurance continuous training to decrease blood pressure and insulin resistance. HIIT is effective to improve aerobic fitness, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors in obese youth, but data are insufficient to determine whether it is more effective than traditional continuous submaximal intensity exercise training.

  8. The training and detraining effect of high-intensity interval training on post-exercise hypotension in young overweight/obese women.

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    Bonsu, Biggie; Terblanche, Elmarie

    2016-01-01

    Studies evaluating the response in blood pressure (BP) following high-intensity interval training (HIIT) are scant even though there has been extensive work done on the BP response following acute and chronic low- to moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals. The present study sought to investigate the training and detraining effects of short-term HIIT on the post-exercise hypotension (PEH) response in overweight/obese young women. Twenty young untrained women volunteered for the study. Participants performed six HIIT sessions on a treadmill within 2 weeks (week 1: 10 × 1 min and week 2: 15 × 1 min intervals at 90-95% HRmax, separated by 1 min active recovery at 70% HRmax each session) and detrained for 2 weeks. Post-exercise BP was measured for 1 h following the first and last HIIT sessions. Participants were normotensive (SBP: 119.2 ± 5.60 mmHg; DBP: 78.8 ± 4.12 mmHg) and had a BMI greater than 25 kg m(-2). The magnitude of the systolic hypotensive response was slightly greater after the six sessions HIIT compared to pre-training (5.04 and 4.28 mmHg, respectively), and both would be considered clinically significant (>3 mmHg decrease). After 2 weeks, detraining the PEH response was not clinically significant (1.08 mmHg decrease). The magnitude of the DBP response was only clinically significant following post- and detraining (4.26 and 3.87 mmHg, respectively). The findings suggest that six HIIT sessions is sufficient to affect clinically significant PEH responses in young, overweight/obese women; however, the training effects are lost within 2 weeks of detraining.

  9. Comparison of Psychological and Physiological Responses to Imposed vs. Self-selected High-Intensity Interval Training.

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    Kellogg, Erin; Cantacessi, Cheyann; McNamer, Olivia; Holmes, Heather; von Bargen, Robert; Ramirez, Richard; Gallagher, Daren; Vargas, Stacy; Santia, Ben; Rodriguez, Karen; Astorino, Todd A

    2018-05-08

    Kellogg, E, Cantacessi, C, McNamer, O, Holmes, H, von Bargen, R, Ramirez, R, Gallagher, D, Vargas, S, Santia, B, Rodriguez, K, and Astorino, TA. Comparison of psychological and physiological responses to imposed vs. self-selected high-intensity interval training. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-High-intensity interval training elicits similar physiological adaptations as moderate intensity continuous training (MICT). Some studies report greater enjoyment to a bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) vs. MICT, which is surprising considering that HIIE is more intense and typically imposed on the participant. This study compared physiological and perceptual responses between imposed and self-selected HIIE. Fourteen adults (age = 24 ± 3 years) unfamiliar with HIIE initially performed ramp exercise to exhaustion to measure maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) followed by 2 subsequent sessions whose order was randomized. Imposed HIIE consisted of eight 60 seconds bouts at 80 percent peak power output (%PPO) separated by 60 seconds recovery at 10 %PPO. Self-selected HIIE (HIIESS) followed the same structure, but participants freely selected intensity in increments of 10 %PPO to achieve a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) ≥7. During exercise, heart rate, V[Combining Dot Above]O2, blood lactate concentration (BLa), affect (+5 to -5), and RPE were assessed. Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale was measured after exercise. Results showed higher V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (+10%, p = 0.013), BLa (p = 0.001), and RPE (p = 0.001) in HIIESS vs. HIIEIMP, and lower affect (p = 0.01), and enjoyment (87.6 ± 15.7 vs. 95.7 ± 11.7, p = 0.04). There was a significantly higher power output in self-selected vs. imposed HIIE (263.9 ± 81.4 W vs. 225.2 ± 59.6 W, p < 0.001). Data suggest that intensity mediates affective responses rather than the mode of HIIE performed by the participant.

  10. Determining the anaerobic threshold in post-polio syndrome: comparison with current guidelines for training intensity prescription.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, E.L.; Gerrits, K.H.L.; Koopman, F.S.; Nollet, F.; Beelen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the anaerobic threshold (AT) can be identified in individuals with postpolio syndrome (PPS) using submaximal incremental exercise testing, and to compare current guidelines for intensity prescription in PPS with the AT. Design Cohort study. Setting Research

  11. Twelve Weeks of Sprint Interval Training Improves Indices of Cardiometabolic Health Similar to Traditional Endurance Training despite a Five-Fold Lower Exercise Volume and Time Commitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna B Gillen

    Full Text Available We investigated whether sprint interval training (SIT was a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve insulin sensitivity and other indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT. SIT involved 1 minute of intense exercise within a 10-minute time commitment, whereas MICT involved 50 minutes of continuous exercise per session.Sedentary men (27±8y; BMI = 26±6kg/m2 performed three weekly sessions of SIT (n = 9 or MICT (n = 10 for 12 weeks or served as non-training controls (n = 6. SIT involved 3x20-second 'all-out' cycle sprints (~500W interspersed with 2 minutes of cycling at 50W, whereas MICT involved 45 minutes of continuous cycling at ~70% maximal heart rate (~110W. Both protocols involved a 2-minute warm-up and 3-minute cool-down at 50W.Peak oxygen uptake increased after training by 19% in both groups (SIT: 32±7 to 38±8; MICT: 34±6 to 40±8ml/kg/min; p<0.001 for both. Insulin sensitivity index (CSI, determined by intravenous glucose tolerance tests performed before and 72 hours after training, increased similarly after SIT (4.9±2.5 to 7.5±4.7, p = 0.002 and MICT (5.0±3.3 to 6.7±5.0 x 10-4 min-1 [μU/mL]-1, p = 0.013 (p<0.05. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial content also increased similarly after SIT and MICT, as primarily reflected by the maximal activity of citrate synthase (CS; P<0.001. The corresponding changes in the control group were small for VO2peak (p = 0.99, CSI (p = 0.63 and CS (p = 0.97.Twelve weeks of brief intense interval exercise improved indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional endurance training in sedentary men, despite a five-fold lower exercise volume and time commitment.

  12. High-Intensity Interval Training After Stroke: An Opportunity to Promote Functional Recovery, Cardiovascular Health, and Neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Jennifer; Roig, Marc; Eng, Janice J; MacKay-Lyons, Marilyn; Fung, Joyce; Ploughman, Michelle; Bailey, Damian M; Sweet, Shane N; Giacomantonio, Nicholas; Thiel, Alexander; Trivino, Michael; Tang, Ada

    2018-04-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Individuals poststroke possess less than half of the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) as their nonstroke counterparts, leading to inactivity, deconditioning, and an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Preserving cardiovascular health is critical to lower stroke risk; however, stroke rehabilitation typically provides limited opportunity for cardiovascular exercise. Optimal cardiovascular training parameters to maximize recovery in stroke survivors also remains unknown. While stroke rehabilitation recommendations suggest the use of moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) to improve CRF, neither is it routinely implemented in clinical practice, nor is the intensity always sufficient to elicit a training effect. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged as a potentially effective alternative that encompasses brief high-intensity bursts of exercise interspersed with bouts of recovery, aiming to maximize cardiovascular exercise intensity in a time-efficient manner. HIIT may provide an alternative exercise intervention and invoke more pronounced benefits poststroke. To provide an updated review of HIIT poststroke through ( a) synthesizing current evidence; ( b) proposing preliminary considerations of HIIT parameters to optimize benefit; ( c) discussing potential mechanisms underlying changes in function, cardiovascular health, and neuroplasticity following HIIT; and ( d) discussing clinical implications and directions for future research. Preliminary evidence from 10 studies report HIIT-associated improvements in functional, cardiovascular, and neuroplastic outcomes poststroke; however, optimal HIIT parameters remain unknown. Larger randomized controlled trials are necessary to establish ( a) effectiveness, safety, and optimal training parameters within more heterogeneous poststroke populations; (b) potential mechanisms of HIIT-associated improvements; and ( c) adherence and psychosocial outcomes.

  13. Interval training in the fed or fasted state improves body composition and muscle oxidative capacity in overweight women.

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    Gillen, Jenna B; Percival, Michael E; Ludzki, Alison; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) performed in the fasted (FAST) versus fed (FED) state on body composition, muscle oxidative capacity, and glycemic control in overweight/obese women. Sixteen women (27 ± 8 years, BMI: 29 ± 6 kg/m(2) , VO2peak : 28 ± 3 ml/kg/min) were assigned to either FAST or FED (n = 8 each) and performed 18 sessions of HIT (10× 60-s cycling efforts at ∼90% maximal heart rate, 60-s recovery) over 6 weeks. There was no significant difference between FAST and FED for any measured variable. Body mass was unchanged following training; however, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry revealed lower percent fat in abdominal and leg regions as well as the whole body level (main effects for time, P ≤ 0.05). Fat-free mass increased in leg and gynoid regions (P ≤ 0.05). Resting muscle biopsies revealed a training-induced increase in mitochondrial capacity as evidenced by increased maximal activities of citrate synthase and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (P ≤ 0.05). There was no change in insulin sensitivity, although change in insulin area under the curve was correlated with change in abdominal percent fat (r = 0.54, P ≤ 0.05). Short-term low-volume HIT is a time-efficient strategy to improve body composition and muscle oxidative capacity in overweight/obese women, but fed- versus fasted-state training does not alter this response. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  14. Effect of aerobic interval training on serum IL-10, TNFα, and adipokines levels in women with multiple sclerosis: possible relations with fatigue and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarzade, Motahare; Ranjbar, Rouholah; Majdinasab, Nastaran; Patel, Darpan; Molanouri Shamsi, Mehdieh

    2017-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis is associated with immune system dysfunction and chronic inflammation; however, possible relations between immunologic and metabolic factors and some psychological indexes such as fatigue and quality of life, especially in relation to exercise training, have not yet been investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aerobic interval training on interleukin-10/tumor necrosis factor ratio and adipokine (leptin and adiponectin) concentrations in women with multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, the relationship between these factors with fatigue and quality of life were assessed. Forty women with multiple sclerosis (Expanded Disability Status Scale ≤3) were randomized into either a non-exercising control or training group. The training group performed 8-weeks of upper and lower limb aerobic interval training. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factorα, interleukin-10, leptin, and adiponectin were measured before and after the 8-week intervention. Moreover, antropometric measures and measures for fatigue and quality of life were determined at the onset of and after exercise training. The results revealed that leptin and tumor necrosis factorα levels significantly decreased subsequent to the aerobic interval training. Although blood adiponectin levels considerably increased in the training group, interleukin-10 and interleukin-10/tumor necrosis factorα ratio underwent no substantial change after the exercise training. In addition, the aerobic interval training was associated with improvement in fatigue, quality of life, and maximal oxygen consumption. Our findings suggested that aerobic interval training can be an effective strategy for managing the immune system at least by its significant impact on inflammatory cytokines and adipokines levels in women with multiple sclerosis. Additionally, this positive impact improved fatigue and adipose tissue indicators.

  15. The physiological mechanisms of performance enhancement with sprint interval training differ between the upper and lower extremities in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Zinner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differences in adaptation of arm and leg muscles to sprint training, over a period of 11 days 16 untrained men performed six sessions of 4-6x30-sec all-out sprints (SIT with the legs and arms, separately, with a 1-h interval of recovery. Limb-specific VO2peak, sprint performance (two 30-sec Wingate tests with 4-min recovery, muscle efficiency and time-trial performance (TT, 5-min all-out were assessed and biopsies from the m. vastus lateralis and m. triceps brachii taken before and after training. VO2peak and Wmax increased 3-11% after training, with a more pronounced change in the arms (P < 0.05. Gross efficiency improved for the arms (+8.8%, P < 0.05, but not the legs (-0.6%. Wingate peak and mean power outputs improved similarly for the arms and legs, as did TT performance. After training, VO2 during the two Wingate tests was increased by 52% and 6% for the arms and legs, respectively (P < 0.001. In the case of the arms, VO2 was higher during the first than second Wingate test (64% vs. 44%, P < 0.05. During the TT, relative exercise intensity, HR, VO2, VCO2, VE, and Vt were all lower during arm-cranking than leg-pedaling, and oxidation of fat was minimal, remaining so after training. Despite the higher relative intensity, fat oxidation was 70% greater during leg-pedaling (P = 0.017. The aerobic energy contribution in the legs was larger than for the arms during the Wingate tests, although VO2 for the arms was enhanced more by training, reducing the O2 deficit after SIT. The levels of muscle glycogen, as well as the myosin heavy chain composition were unchanged in both cases, while the activities of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase and citrate synthase were elevated only in the legs and capillarization enhanced in both limbs. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the variables that predict TT performance differ for the arms and legs. The primary mechanism of adaptation to SIT by both the arms

  16. Assessing the effectiveness of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) for smoking cessation in women: HIIT to quit study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavey, Toby G; Gartner, Coral E; Coombes, Jeff S; Brown, Wendy J

    2015-12-29

    Smoking and physical inactivity are major risk factors for heart disease. Linking strategies that promote improvements in fitness and assist quitting smoking has potential to address both these risk factors simultaneously. The objective of this study is to compare the effects of two exercise interventions (high intensity interval training (HIIT) and lifestyle physical activity) on smoking cessation in female smokers. This study will use a randomised controlled trial design. Women aged 18-55 years who smoke ≥ 5 cigarettes/day, and want to quit smoking. all participants will receive usual care for quitting smoking. Group 1--will complete two gym-based supervised HIIT sessions/week and one home-based HIIT session/week. At each training session participants will be asked to complete four 4-min (4 × 4 min) intervals at approximately 90% of maximum heart rate interspersed with 3- min recovery periods. Group 2--participants will receive a resource pack and pedometer, and will be asked to use the 10,000 steps log book to record steps and other physical activities. The aim will be to increase daily steps to 10,000 steps/day. Analysis will be intention to treat and measures will include smoking cessation, withdrawal and cravings, fitness, physical activity, and well-being. The study builds on previous research suggesting that exercise intensity may influence the efficacy of exercise as a smoking cessation intervention. The hypothesis is that HIIT will improve fitness and assist women to quit smoking. ACTRN12614001255673 (Registration date 02/12/2014).

  17. Increased Brain Glucose Uptake After 12 Weeks of Aerobic High-Intensity Interval Training in Young and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Matthew M; Lowe, Val J; Nair, K Sreekumaran

    2018-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training can increase brain volume and blood flow, but the impact on brain metabolism is less known. We determined whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases brain metabolism by measuring brain glucose uptake in younger and older adults. Brain glucose uptake was measured before and after HIIT or a sedentary (SED) control period within a larger exercise study. Study procedures were performed at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. Participants were younger (18 to 30 years) or older (65 to 80 years) SED adults who were free of major medical conditions. Group sizes were 15 for HIIT (nine younger and six older) and 12 for SED (six younger and six older). Participants completed 12 weeks of HIIT or SED. HIIT was 3 days per week of 4 × 4 minute intervals at over 90% of peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak) with 2 days per week of treadmill walking at 70% VO2peak. Resting brain glucose uptake was measured using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans at baseline and at week 12. Scans were performed at 96 hours after exercise. VO2peak was measured by indirect calorimetry. Glucose uptake increased significantly in the parietal-temporal and caudate regions after HIIT compared with SED. The gains with HIIT were not observed in all brain regions. VO2peak was increased for all participants after HIIT and did not change with SED. We demonstrate that brain glucose metabolism increased after 12 weeks of HIIT in adults in regions where it is reduced in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  18. A 3-week multimodal intervention involving high-intensity interval training in female cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Joachim; Lindner, Nathalie; Reuss-Borst, Monika; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-02-01

    To compare the effects of a 3-week multimodal rehabilitation involving supervised high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on female breast cancer survivors with respect to key variables of aerobic fitness, body composition, energy expenditure, cancer-related fatigue, and quality of life to those of a standard multimodal rehabilitation program. A randomized controlled trial design was administered. Twenty-eight women, who had been treated for cancer were randomly assigned to either a group performing exercise of low-to-moderate intensity (LMIE; n = 14) or a group performing high-intensity interval training (HIIT; n = 14) as part of a 3-week multimodal rehabilitation program. No adverse events related to the exercise were reported. Work economy improved following both HIIT and LMIE, with improved peak oxygen uptake following LMIE. HIIT reduced mean total body fat mass with no change in body mass, muscle or fat-free mass (best P body mass. Total energy expenditure (P = 0.45) did not change between the groups, whereas both improved quality of life to a similar high extent and lessened cancer-related fatigue. This randomized controlled study demonstrates that HIIT can be performed by female cancer survivors without adverse health effects. Here, HIIT and LMIE both improved work economy, quality of life and cancer-related fatigue, body composition or energy expenditure. Since the outcomes were similar, but HIIT takes less time, this may be a time-efficient strategy for improving certain aspects of the health of female cancer survivors. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  19. Anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. In humans, these bacteria ... Brook I. Diseases caused by non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  20. High-Intensity Interval Training for Overweight Adolescents: Program Acceptance of a Media Supported Intervention and Changes in Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Herget

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity interval training (HIIT consists of short intervals of exercise at high intensity intermitted by intervals of lower intensity and is associated with improvement of body composition and metabolic health in adults. Studies in overweight adolescents are scarce. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in overweight adolescents to compare acceptance and attendance of HIIT with or without weekly motivational encouragement through text messages and access to a study website. HIIT was offered for six months (including summer vacation twice a week (60 min/session. Participation rates were continuously assessed and acceptance was measured. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after six months. Twenty-eight adolescents participated in this study (age 15.5 ± 1.4; 54% female. The standard deviation score for body mass index over all participants was 2.33 at baseline and decreased by 0.026 (95% CI −0.048 to 0.10 units, p = 0.49. Waist to height ratio was 0.596 at baseline and decreased by 0.013 (95% CI 0.0025 to 0.024, p = 0.023. Participation within the first two months ranged from 65% to 75%, but fell to 15% within the last three months. Attendance in the intervention group was 14% (95% CI −8 to 37, p = 0.18, higher than the control group. Overall program content was rated as “good” by participants, although high drop-out rates were observed. Summer months constitute a serious problem regarding attendance. The use of media support has to be assessed further in appropriately powered trials.

  1. High-Intensity Interval Training for Overweight Adolescents: Program Acceptance of a Media Supported Intervention and Changes in Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, Sabine; Reichardt, Sandra; Grimm, Andrea; Petroff, David; Käpplinger, Jakob; Haase, Michael; Markert, Jana; Blüher, Susann

    2016-11-08

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) consists of short intervals of exercise at high intensity intermitted by intervals of lower intensity and is associated with improvement of body composition and metabolic health in adults. Studies in overweight adolescents are scarce. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in overweight adolescents to compare acceptance and attendance of HIIT with or without weekly motivational encouragement through text messages and access to a study website. HIIT was offered for six months (including summer vacation) twice a week (60 min/session). Participation rates were continuously assessed and acceptance was measured. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after six months. Twenty-eight adolescents participated in this study (age 15.5 ± 1.4; 54% female). The standard deviation score for body mass index over all participants was 2.33 at baseline and decreased by 0.026 (95% CI -0.048 to 0.10) units, p = 0.49. Waist to height ratio was 0.596 at baseline and decreased by 0.013 (95% CI 0.0025 to 0.024), p = 0.023. Participation within the first two months ranged from 65% to 75%, but fell to 15% within the last three months. Attendance in the intervention group was 14% (95% CI -8 to 37), p = 0.18, higher than the control group. Overall program content was rated as "good" by participants, although high drop-out rates were observed. Summer months constitute a serious problem regarding attendance. The use of media support has to be assessed further in appropriately powered trials.

  2. Does a single session of high-intensity interval training provoke a transient elevated risk of falling in seniors and adults?

    OpenAIRE

    Donath, Lars; Kurz, Eduard; Roth, Ralf; Hanssen, Henner; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Balance and strength training can reduce seniors' fall risk up to 50%. Available evidence suggests that acute bouts of neuromuscular and endurance exercise deteriorate postural control. High-intensity endurance training has been successfully applied in different populations. Thus, it seemed valuable to examine the acute effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on neuromuscular performance in seniors and young adults.; The acute impact of a HIIT session on balance performance and mus...

  3. High intensity interval training improves VO2peak, maximal lactate production, time trial and competition performance in 9-11 year old swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Helleman, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, H. C.; Mester, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Open Access - This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the source is credited. Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present s...

  4. Establishing a Practical Treadmill Sprint as an Alternative to the Wingate Anaerobic Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, Greg L.; Islam, Hashim; Townsend, Logan K.; Howe, Greg J.; Hazell, Tom J.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the validity and reliability of a 30-second running sprint test using two non-motorized treadmills compared to the established Wingate Anaerobic Test. Twenty-four participants completed three sessions in a randomized order on a: (1) manual mode treadmill (Woodway); (2) specialized interval training treadmill (HiTrainer); and…

  5. The compatibility of concurrent high intensity interval training and resistance training for muscular strength and hypertrophy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabag, Angelo; Najafi, Abdolrahman; Michael, Scott; Esgin, Tuguy; Halaki, Mark; Hackett, Daniel

    2018-04-16

    The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the effect of concurrent high intensity interval training (HIIT) and resistance training (RT) on strength and hypertrophy. Five electronic databases were searched using terms related to HIIT, RT, and concurrent training. Effect size (ES), calculated as standardised differences in the means, were used to examine the effect of concurrent HIIT and RT compared to RT alone on muscle strength and hypertrophy. Sub-analyses were performed to assess region-specific strength and hypertrophy, HIIT modality (cycling versus running), and inter-modal rest responses. Compared to RT alone, concurrent HIIT and RT led to similar changes in muscle hypertrophy and upper body strength. Concurrent HIIT and RT resulted in a lower increase in lower body strength compared to RT alone (ES = -0.248, p = 0.049). Sub analyses showed a trend for lower body strength to be negatively affected by cycling HIIT (ES = -0.377, p = 0.074) and not running (ES = -0.176, p = 0.261). Data suggests concurrent HIIT and RT does not negatively impact hypertrophy or upper body strength, and that any possible negative effect on lower body strength may be ameliorated by incorporating running based HIIT and longer inter-modal rest periods.

  6. Improvements in Attention and Cardiac Autonomic Modulation After a 2-Weeks Sprint Interval Training Program: A Fidelity Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arilson F. M. de Sousa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to: (1 investigate the influence of a 2-weeks sprint interval training (SIT program on aerobic capacity, cardiac autonomic control, and components of attention in young healthy university students; and (2 to ascertain whether training fidelity would influence these adaptations. One hundred and nine participants were divided into an experimental (EG and control (CG groups. The EG performed a SIT program that consisted of 6 sessions of 4 × 30 s “all-out” efforts on a cycle ergometer, interspersed with active rests of 4 min. The criterion for fidelity was achieving >90% of estimated maximum heart rate (HR during sprint bouts. After analyses, the EG was divided into HIGH (n = 26 and LOW (n = 46 fidelity groups. Components of attention were assessed using the Attention Network Test (ANT. Aerobic capacity (VO2max was estimated while the sum of skinfolds was determined. Autonomic control of HR was assessed by means of HR variability (HRV and HR complexity at rest and during ANT. Both HIGH and LOW significantly increased aerobic capacity, vagal modulation before and during ANT, and executive control, and decreased body fatness after SIT (p < 0.05. However, only participants from HIGH showed an increase in HR complexity and accuracy in ANT when compared to LOW (p < 0.05. Two weeks of SIT improved executive control, body fatness, aerobic fitness, and autonomic control in university students with better results reported in those individuals who exhibited high fidelity.

  7. High-intensity interval training in patients with lifestyle-induced cardiometabolic disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Kassia S; Wisløff, Ulrik; Coombes, Jeff S

    2014-08-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a strong determinant of morbidity and mortality. In athletes and the general population, it is established that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is superior to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in improving CRF. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the efficacy and safety of HIIT compared to MICT in individuals with chronic cardiometabolic lifestyle diseases. The included studies were required to have a population sample of chronic disease, where poor lifestyle is considered as a main contributor to the disease. The procedural quality of the studies was assessed by use of a modified Physiotherapy Evidence Base Database (PEDro) scale. A meta-analysis compared the mean difference (MD) of preintervention versus postintervention CRF (VO2peak) between HIIT and MICT. 10 studies with 273 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Participants had coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and obesity. There was a significantly higher increase in the VO2peak after HIIT compared to MICT (MD 3.03 mL/kg/min, 95% CI 2.00 to 4.07), equivalent to 9.1%. HIIT significantly increases CRF by almost double that of MICT in patients with lifestyle-induced chronic diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Effect of aquatic interval training with Mediterranean diet counseling in obese patients: results of a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boidin, Maxime; Lapierre, Gabriel; Paquette Tanir, Laurie; Nigam, Anil; Juneau, Martin; Guilbeault, Valérie; Latour, Elise; Gayda, Mathieu

    2015-10-01

    No previous studies have investigated a high-intensity interval training program (HIIT) with an immersed ergocycle and Mediterranean diet counseling (Med) in obese patients. We aimed to compare the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention, Med and HIIT with a water-immersed versus dryland ergocycle, on cardiometabolic and exercise parameters in obese patients. We retrospectively identified 95 obese patients at their entry into a 9-month Med and HIIT program: 21 were trained on a water-immersed ergocycle and 74 on a standard dryland ergocycle. Body composition, cardiometabolic and exercise parameters were measured before and after the program. For obese patients performing water- and dryland-exercise (mean age 58±9 years versus 55±7 years), BMI was higher for the water- than dryland-exercise group (39.4±8.3kg/m(2) versus 34.7±5.1kg/m(2), Pendurance were similarly improved (PHIIT program with water-cycling is as effective as a dryland program in improving body composition, fasting glucose, triglycerides level, blood pressure and fitness in obese patients. A Mediterranean diet combined with water-cycling HIIT may be efficient for severely obese patients at high risk of musculoskeletal conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. High Intensity Interval and Endurance Training Have Opposing Effects on Markers of Heart Failure and Cardiac Remodeling in Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Tanya M.; Bloemberg, Darin; da Silva, Mayne L.; Simpson, Jeremy A.; Quadrilatero, Joe; Spriet, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    There has been re-emerging interest and significant work dedicated to investigating the metabolic effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in recent years. HIIT is considered to be a time efficient alternative to classic endurance training (ET) that elicits similar metabolic responses in skeletal muscle. However, there is a lack of information on the impact of HIIT on cardiac muscle in disease. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of ET and HIIT to alter cardiac muscle characteristics involved in the development of diastolic dysfunction, such as ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and angiogenesis, in a well-established rodent model of hypertension-induced heart failure before the development of overt heart failure. ET decreased left ventricle fibrosis by ~40% (P HIIT did not decrease existing fibrosis, and HIIT animals displayed a 20% increase in left ventricular mass (PHIIT also increased brain natriuretic peptide by 50% (PHIIT promoted a pathological adaptation in the left ventricle in the presence of hypertension, highlighting the need for further research on the widespread effects of HIIT in the presence of disease. PMID:25803693

  10. Effects of a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Treadmill Training on Corticomotor Excitability following Stroke: Implications for Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Madhavan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. High intensity interval treadmill training (HIITT has been gaining popularity for gait rehabilitation after stroke. In this study, we examined the changes in excitability of the lower limb motor cortical representation (M1 in chronic stroke survivors following a single session of HIITT. We also determined whether exercise-induced changes in excitability could be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS enhanced with a paretic ankle skill acquisition task. Methods. Eleven individuals with chronic stroke participated in two 40-minute treadmill-training sessions: HIITT alone and HITT preceded by anodal tDCS enhanced with a skill acquisition task (e-tDCS+HIITT. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS was used to assess corticomotor excitability of paretic and nonparetic tibialis anterior (TA muscles. Results. HIIT alone reduced paretic TA M1 excitability in 7 of 11 participants by ≥ 10%. e-tDCS+HIITT increased paretic TA M1 excitability and decreased nonparetic TA M1 excitability. Conclusions. HIITT suppresses corticomotor excitability in some people with chronic stroke. When HIITT is preceded by tDCS in combination with a skill acquisition task, the asymmetry of between-hemisphere corticomotor excitability is reduced. Significance. This study provides preliminary data indicating that the cardiovascular benefits of HIITT may be achieved without suppressing motor excitability in some stroke survivors.

  11. High-intensity interval training for improving health-related fitness in adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, S A; Eather, N; Plotnikoff, R C; Taaffe, D R; Lubans, D R

    2015-10-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may be a feasible and efficacious strategy for improving health-related fitness in young people. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the utility of HIIT to improve health-related fitness in adolescents and to identify potential moderators of training effects. Studies were considered eligible if they: (1) examined adolescents (13-18 years); (2) examined health-related fitness outcomes; (3) involved an intervention of ≥4 weeks in duration; (4) included a control or moderate intensity comparison group; and (5) prescribed high-intensity activity for the HIIT condition. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the effect of HIIT on health-related fitness components using Comprehensive Meta-analysis software and potential moderators were explored (ie, study duration, risk of bias and type of comparison group). The effects of HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition were large, and medium, respectively. Study duration was a moderator for the effect of HIIT on body fat percentage. Intervention effects for waist circumference and muscular fitness were not statistically significant. HIIT is a feasible and time-efficient approach for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in adolescent populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. High Intensity Interval- vs Moderate Intensity- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight or Obese Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Fisher

    Full Text Available To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI, blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group.28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2 participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure.A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185 in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P < 0.05.Participation in HIIT or MIT exercise training displayed: 1 improved SI, 2 reduced blood lipids, 3 decreased % body fat, and 4 improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or

  13. High Intensity Interval- vs Moderate Intensity- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight or Obese Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Gordon; Brown, Andrew W; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Alcorn, Amy; Noles, Corey; Winwood, Leah; Resuehr, Holly; George, Brandon; Jeansonne, Madeline M; Allison, David B

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT) vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT) for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI), blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group. 28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2) participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure. A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185) in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P training displayed: 1) improved SI, 2) reduced blood lipids, 3) decreased % body fat, and 4) improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or obese young men, with no clear advantage between these

  14. Metabolic effects of resistance or high-intensity interval training among glycemic control-nonresponsive children with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, C; Ramírez-Campillo, R; Ramírez-Vélez, R; Martínez, C; Castro-Sepúlveda, M; Alonso-Martínez, A; Izquierdo, M

    2018-01-01

    Little evidence exists on which variables of body composition or muscular strength mediates more glucose control improvements taking into account inter-individual metabolic variability to different modes of exercise training. We examined 'mediators' to the effects of 6-weeks of resistance training (RT) or high-intensity interval training (HIT) on glucose control parameters in physically inactive schoolchildren with insulin resistance (IR). Second, we also determined both training-induce changes and the prevalence of responders (R) and non-responders (NR) to decrease the IR level. Fifty-six physically inactive children diagnosed with IR followed a RT or supervised HIT program for 6 weeks. Participants were classified based on ΔHOMA-IR into glycemic control R (decrease in homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) training-induced changes to glucose control parameters; and third the report of R and NR to improve body composition, cardiovascular, metabolic and performance variables. Mediation analysis revealed that improvements (decreases) in abdominal fat by the waist circumference can explain more the effects (decreases) of HOMA-IR in physically inactive schoolchildren under RT or HIT regimes. The same analysis showed that increased one-maximum repetition leg-extension was correlated with the change in HOMA-IR (β=-0.058; P=0.049). Furthermore, a change in the waist circumference fully mediated the dose-response relationship between changes in the leg-extension strength and HOMA-IR (β'=-0.004; P=0.178). RT or HIT were associated with significant improvements in body composition, muscular strength, blood pressure and cardiometabolic parameters irrespective of improvement in glycemic control response. Both glucose control RT-R and HIT-R (respectively), had significant improvements in mean HOMA-IR, mean muscular strength leg-extension and mean measures of adiposity. The improvements in the lower body strength and the decreases in waist circumference can explain more

  15. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipryan, Lukas; Tschakert, Gerhard; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s), long HIIT (3min) and constant load exercise (CE). The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇O2, RER) and metabolic (lactate) variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h) in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes) and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin) were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE) or largely (both HIIT modes) higher mean V̇O2. These differences were trivial/small when V̇O2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇O2max. Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes. Key points The manner in which each training background (endurance vs. sprint) influences the response to HIIT is not well known. Despite the identical exercise intensity in relative terms, endurance

  16. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio-Metabolic and Psychological Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam O Shepherd

    Full Text Available Within a controlled laboratory environment, high-intensity interval training (HIT elicits similar cardiovascular and metabolic benefits as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT. It is currently unclear how HIT can be applied effectively in a real-world environment.To investigate the hypothesis that 10 weeks of HIT, performed in an instructor-led, group-based gym setting, elicits improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2max, cardio-metabolic risk and psychological health which are comparable to MICT.Ninety physically inactive volunteers (42±11 y, 27.7±4.8 kg.m-2 were randomly assigned to HIT or MICT group exercise classes. HIT consisted of repeated sprints (15-60 seconds, >90% HRmax interspersed with periods of recovery cycling (≤25 min.session-1, 3 sessions.week-1. MICT participants performed continuous cycling (~70% HRmax, 30-45 min.session-1, 5 sessions.week-1. VO2max, markers of cardio-metabolic risk, and psychological health were assessed pre and post-intervention.Mean weekly training time was 55±10 (HIT and 128±44 min (MICT (p<0.05, with greater adherence to HIT (83±14% vs. 61±15% prescribed sessions attended, respectively; p<0.05. HIT improved VO2max, insulin sensitivity, reduced abdominal fat mass, and induced favourable changes in blood lipids (p<0.05. HIT also induced beneficial effects on health perceptions, positive and negative affect, and subjective vitality (p<0.05. No difference between HIT and MICT was seen for any of these variables.HIT performed in a real-world gym setting improves cardio-metabolic risk factors and psychological health in physically inactive adults. With a reduced time commitment and greater adherence than MICT, HIT offers a viable and effective exercise strategy to target the growing incidence of metabolic disease and psychological ill-being associated with physical inactivity.

  17. High-intensity interval training (swimming) significantly improves the adverse metabolism and comorbidities in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Victor F; Aguila, Marcia B; Mandarim-DE-Lacerda, Carlos A

    2016-05-01

    Controlling obesity and other comorbidities in the population is a challenge in modern society. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) combines short periods of high-intensity exercise with long recovery periods or a low-intensity exercise. The aim was to assess the impact of HIIT in the context of diet-induced obesity in the animal model. C57BL/6 mice were fed one of the two diets: standard chow (lean group [LE]) or a high-fat diet (obese group [OB]). After twelve weeks, the animals were divided into non-trained groups (LE-NT and OB-NT) and trained groups (LE-T and OB-T), and began an exercise protocol. For biochemical analysis of inflammatory and lipid profile, we used a colorimetric enzymatic method and an automatic spectrophotometer. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of the experimental groups with Holm-Sidak post-hoc Test. Two-way ANOVA analyzed the interactions between diet and HIIT protocol. HIIT leads to significant reductions in body mass, blood glucose, glucose tolerance and hepatic lipid profile in T-groups compared to NT-groups. HIIT was able to reduce plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, HIIT improves the insulin immunodensity in the islets, reduces the adiposity and the hepatic steatosis in the T-groups. HIIT improves beta-oxidation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha and reduces lipogenesis and PPAR-gamma levels in the liver. In skeletal muscle, HIIT improves PPAR-alpha and glucose transporter-4 and reduces PPAR-gamma levels. HIIT leads to attenuate the adverse effects caused by a chronic ingestion of a high-fat diet.

  18. Effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training in a community setting: a pilot study.

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    Reljic, Dejan; Wittmann, Felix; Fischer, Joachim E

    2018-06-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is emerging as an effective and time-efficient exercise strategy for health promotion. However, most HIIT studies are conducted in laboratory settings and evidence regarding the efficacy of time-efficient "low-volume" HIIT is based mainly on demanding "all-out" protocols. Thus, the aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of two low-volume (≤ 30 min time-effort/week), non-all-out HIIT protocols, performed 2 ×/week over 8 weeks in a community-based fitness centre. Thirty-four sedentary men and women were randomised to either 2 × 4-min HIIT (2 × 4-HIIT) or 5 × 1-min HIIT (5 × 1-HIIT) at 85-95% maximal heart rate (HR max ), or an active control group performing moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT, 76 min/week) at 65-75% HR max . The exercise protocols were well tolerated and no adverse events occurred. 2 × 4-HIIT and 5 × 1-HIIT exhibited lower dropout rates (17 and 8 vs. 30%) than MICT. All training modes improved VO 2max (2 × 4-HIIT: + 20%, P HIIT: + 27%, P HIIT protocols required 60% less time commitment. Both HIIT protocols and MICT had positive impact on cholesterol profiles. Only 5 × 1-HIIT significantly improved waist circumference (P HIIT can be feasibly implemented in a community-based setting. Moreover, our data suggest that practical (non-all-out) HIIT that requires as little as 30 min/week, either performed as 2 × 4-HIIT or 5 × 1-HIIT, may induce significant improvements in VO 2max and cardiometabolic risk markers.

  19. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Total, Abdominal and Visceral Fat Mass: A Meta-Analysis.

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    Maillard, Florie; Pereira, Bruno; Boisseau, Nathalie

    2018-02-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is promoted as a time-efficient strategy to improve body composition. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of HIIT in reducing total, abdominal, and visceral fat mass in normal-weight and overweight/obese adults. Electronic databases were searched to identify all related articles on HIIT and fat mass. Stratified analysis was performed using the nature of HIIT (cycling versus running, target intensity), sex and/or body weight, and the methods of measuring body composition. Heterogeneity was also determined RESULTS: A total of 39 studies involving 617 subjects were included (mean age 38.8 years ± 14.4, 52% females). HIIT significantly reduced total (p = 0.003), abdominal (p = 0.007), and visceral (p = 0.018) fat mass, with no differences between the sexes. A comparison showed that running was more effective than cycling in reducing total and visceral fat mass. High-intensity (above 90% peak heart rate) training was more successful in reducing whole body adiposity, while lower intensities had a greater effect on changes in abdominal and visceral fat mass. Our analysis also indicated that only computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging showed significant abdominal and/or visceral fat-mass loss after HIIT interventions. HIIT is a time-efficient strategy to decrease fat-mass deposits, including those of abdominal and visceral fat mass. There was some evidence of the greater effectiveness of HIIT running versus cycling, but owing to the wide variety of protocols used and the lack of full details about cycling training, further comparisons need to be made. Large, multicenter, prospective studies are required to establish the best HIIT protocols for reducing fat mass according to subject characteristics.

  20. Effect of periodized high intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition and attitudes towards hunger in active men and women.

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    Astorino, Todd A; Heath, Brendyn; Bandong, Jason; Ordille, Gina M; Contreras, Ramon; Montell, Matthew; Schubert, Matthew M

    2018-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake similar to aerobic exercise. However, changes in body composition are equivocal in response to HIIT. We examined changes in body composition and dietary restraint in response to 20 sessions of HIIT varying in structure. Thirty nine active men and women (age and VO2max=22.5±4.4 years and 40.1±5.6 mL/kg/min) were randomized to one of three periodized HIIT regimes performed on a cycle ergometer. Before and after training, body composition was assessed using skinfolds (SKF), circumference measures, and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) following standardized procedures. Hunger, restraint, and disinhibition were also measured using the 3-Factor Eating Questionnaire and Power of Food Survey. Control participants (N.=32, age and VO2max=25.6±4.4 years and 40.6±4.9 mL/kg/min) matched for age and fitness level underwent all testing but did not complete HIIT. There was no change (P>0.05) in body mass, circumferences, or BIA-derived body fat in response to HIIT. However, SKF-derived body fat declined (P=0.04) with HIIT, and gender x time (P=0.03) and gender x time x regimen interactions (P=0.04) were shown in that women but not men exhibited significant reductions in body fat. Hunger was reduced from baseline to post-training (P=0.028), but this response was not different in response to HIIT compared to controls. Twenty sessions of low-volume HIIT reduce body fat in women but not men, but do not alter perceptions of hunger.

  1. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio-Metabolic and Psychological Health.

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    Shepherd, Sam O; Wilson, Oliver J; Taylor, Alexandra S; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Adlan, Ahmed M; Wagenmakers, Anton J M; Shaw, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Within a controlled laboratory environment, high-intensity interval training (HIT) elicits similar cardiovascular and metabolic benefits as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). It is currently unclear how HIT can be applied effectively in a real-world environment. To investigate the hypothesis that 10 weeks of HIT, performed in an instructor-led, group-based gym setting, elicits improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2max), cardio-metabolic risk and psychological health which are comparable to MICT. Ninety physically inactive volunteers (42±11 y, 27.7±4.8 kg.m-2) were randomly assigned to HIT or MICT group exercise classes. HIT consisted of repeated sprints (15-60 seconds, >90% HRmax) interspersed with periods of recovery cycling (≤25 min.session-1, 3 sessions.week-1). MICT participants performed continuous cycling (~70% HRmax, 30-45 min.session-1, 5 sessions.week-1). VO2max, markers of cardio-metabolic risk, and psychological health were assessed pre and post-intervention. Mean weekly training time was 55±10 (HIT) and 128±44 min (MICT) (pHIT (83±14% vs. 61±15% prescribed sessions attended, respectively; pHIT improved VO2max, insulin sensitivity, reduced abdominal fat mass, and induced favourable changes in blood lipids (pHIT also induced beneficial effects on health perceptions, positive and negative affect, and subjective vitality (pHIT and MICT was seen for any of these variables. HIT performed in a real-world gym setting improves cardio-metabolic risk factors and psychological health in physically inactive adults. With a reduced time commitment and greater adherence than MICT, HIT offers a viable and effective exercise strategy to target the growing incidence of metabolic disease and psychological ill-being associated with physical inactivity.

  2. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women

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    Haifeng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session high-intensity interval training (HIIT. Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n=15, MICT (n=15, or no training (CON, n=13 for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (−9.1, −9.2 cm2, ASFA (−35, −28.3 cm2, and combined AVFA and ASFA (−44.7, −37.5 cm2, p>0.05 were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (−2.5%, −2.4%, total fat mass (−2.8, −2.8 kg, and fat mass of the android (−0.3, −0.3 kg, gynoid (−0.5, −0.7 kg, and trunk (−1.6, −1.2 kg, p>0.05 regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency.

  3. High-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training within cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Amanda L; Hing, Wayne; Simas, Vini; Climstein, Mike; Coombes, Jeff S; Jayasinghe, Rohan; Byrnes, Joshua; Furness, James

    2018-01-01

    Aerobic capacity has been shown to be inversely proportionate to cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and there is growing evidence that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) appears to be more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in improving cardiorespiratory fitness within the cardiac population. Previously published systematic reviews in cardiovascular disease have neither investigated the effect that the number of weeks of intervention has on cardiorespiratory fitness changes, nor have adverse events been collated. We aimed to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) within the cardiac population that investigated cardiorespiratory fitness changes resulting from HIIT versus MICT and to collate adverse events. A critical narrative synthesis and meta-analysis was conducted after systematically searching relevant databases up to July 2017. We searched for RCTs that compared cardiorespiratory fitness changes resulting from HIIT versus MICT interventions within the cardiac population. Seventeen studies, involving 953 participants (465 for HIIT and 488 for MICT) were included in the analysis. HIIT was significantly superior to MICT in improving cardiorespiratory fitness overall (SMD 0.34 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.2-0.48]; p HIIT intervention (n=9). However, some adverse events (n=5) were not classified by intervention group. HIIT is superior to MICT in improving cardiorespiratory fitness in participants of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness are significant for CR programs of >6-week duration. Programs of 7-12 weeks' duration resulted in the largest improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness for patients with coronary artery disease. HIIT appears to be as safe as MICT for CR participants.

  4. High-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training within cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Amanda L; Hing, Wayne; Simas, Vini; Climstein, Mike; Coombes, Jeff S; Jayasinghe, Rohan; Byrnes, Joshua; Furness, James

    2018-01-01

    Background Aerobic capacity has been shown to be inversely proportionate to cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and there is growing evidence that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) appears to be more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in improving cardiorespiratory fitness within the cardiac population. Previously published systematic reviews in cardiovascular disease have neither investigated the effect that the number of weeks of intervention has on cardiorespiratory fitness changes, nor have adverse events been collated. Objective We aimed to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) within the cardiac population that investigated cardiorespiratory fitness changes resulting from HIIT versus MICT and to collate adverse events. Methods A critical narrative synthesis and meta-analysis was conducted after systematically searching relevant databases up to July 2017. We searched for RCTs that compared cardiorespiratory fitness changes resulting from HIIT versus MICT interventions within the cardiac population. Results Seventeen studies, involving 953 participants (465 for HIIT and 488 for MICT) were included in the analysis. HIIT was significantly superior to MICT in improving cardiorespiratory fitness overall (SMD 0.34 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.2–0.48]; pHIIT intervention (n=9). However, some adverse events (n=5) were not classified by intervention group. Conclusion HIIT is superior to MICT in improving cardiorespiratory fitness in participants of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness are significant for CR programs of >6-week duration. Programs of 7–12 weeks’ duration resulted in the largest improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness for patients with coronary artery disease. HIIT appears to be as safe as MICT for CR participants. PMID:29416382

  5. Interval training-induced alleviation of rigidity and hypertonia in patients with Parkinson's disease is accompanied by increased basal serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusiak, Jarosław; Żeligowska, Ewa; Mencel, Joanna; Kisiel-Sajewicz, Katarzyna; Majerczak, Joanna; Zoladz, Jerzy A; Jaskólski, Artur; Jaskólska, Anna

    2015-04-01

    To examine the effects of cycloergometric interval training on parkinsonian rigidity, relaxed biceps brachii muscle tone in affected upper extremities, and serum level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Case series, repeated-measures design, pilot study. Eleven patients with mild-to-moderate Parkinson's disease (Hoehn & Yahr scale 2.3 ± 0.72), recruited from a neurological clinic, underwent cycle training and were tested along with non-trained, healthy control subjects (n = 11) in a motor control laboratory. Patients underwent 8 weeks of interval training (3 × 1-h sessions weekly, consisting of a 10-min warm-up, 40 min of interval exercise, and 10-min cool-down) on a stationary cycloergometer. Parkinsonian rigidity (Unified Parkinson's Disease-Rating-Scale) in the upper extremity, resting biceps brachii muscle tone (myometric stiffness and frequency), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor level were measured 1-3 days before interval training cycle started and 6-10 days after the last training session. Training resulted in a decrease in rigidity (p = 0.048) and biceps brachii myometric muscle stiffness (p = 0.030) and frequency (p = 0.006), and an increase in the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (p = 0.035) relative to pre-training values. The increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor level correlated with improvements in parkinsonian rigidity (p = 0.025), biceps brachii myometric stiffness (p = 0.001) and frequency (p = 0.002). Training-induced alleviation of parkinsonian rigidity and muscle tone decrease may be associated with neuroplastic changes caused by a training-induced increase in the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

  6. Simultaneous Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT and Consumption of Flaxseed on Serum Levels of TNF-α and IL1β in Rats

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    Khademi Y.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims The high concentration of Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β and Tumor Necrosis Factor- α (TNF-α is an important risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the simultaneous effect of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT and the use of flaxseed oil with different doses on the serum levels of TNF-α and IL1β in rats. Materials & Methods In this experimental study, 30 Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: control, training, 10mg/kg supplement, 30mg/kg supplement, training with 10mg/kg supplement and training with 30mg/kg supplement. The groups performed High- Intensity Interval Training (HIIT for 10 weeks and received flaxseed oil extracts. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and LSD post hoc test. Findings Serum levels of IL1β in the training group and training groups with doses of 10 and 30mg/kg of extract were significantly lower than the control group. Serum levels of IL1β in the training group with 30mg/kg of extract, was significantly lower than group with 10mg/ kg of extract. Also, serum levels of TNF-α in the training group, training groups with doses of 10 and 30mg/kg of extract and group with 30mg/kg of extract were significantly lower than the control group. Serum levels of TNF-α in the training group with 30mg/kg of extract were significantly lower than other groups (p<0.05. Conclusion High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT and consumption of flaxseed oil for 10 weeks have interactive effects on reduction of serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in rats.

  7. Effect of Six Sessions of High Intensity Interval Training on Levels of Hypoxanthine, Xanthine, Hypoxanthine-Guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT and Serum Uric Acid in active young men

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    ROHOULLAH HAGHSHENAS GATABI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction and objectives: long-term sport and physical activity results in compatibility in maintaining purine derivatives but the compatibility achieved within a few sessions is not well investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 30-seconds high intensity interval training on Hypoxanthine, xanthine, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT and serum uric acid in young college men. Methods: In this study, 18 untrained healthy men were divided into two control and training groups after homogenization based on their personal characteristics. Training included six sessions (every other day for two weeks with different intervals (4, 7, 6, 6, 5 & 4, respectively with a fixed four-minute rest between each interval, and with a constant load of .6 on the cycle-ergometer. Blood samples were taken before and 48 hours after the last training session, and were used to analyze hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid, and serum HGPRT. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. Results: The results showed that high-intensity interval training for two weeks did not cause significant changes in serum HGPRT (P = .73; likewise, the increase in serum hypoxanthine (P = .170 and serum xanthine (P = .170 was not statistically significant but significant reduction was observed in serum uric acid (P = .025. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study indicated that two-week HIIT training is likely to enhance athletic performance and recovery of purine nucleotide cycle.

  8. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females.

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    Racil, G; Coquart, J B; Elmontassar, W; Haddad, M; Goebel, R; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS), with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thrice weekly, or a no-training control group. The HIIT and MIIT groups showed improved (p HIIT group showed decreased waist circumference (WC) (p = 0.017). The effect of exercise on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was significant (p = 0.019, ES = 0.48 and p = 0.010, ES = 0.57, HIIT and MIIT, respectively). The decrease of rate-pressure product (RPP) (p HIIT and MIIT, respectively) followed the positive changes in resting heart rate and blood pressures. Blood glucose, insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin decreased (p HIIT and MIIT, respectively. In the post-intervention period, blood leptin was strongly associated with %BF (p HIIT and MIIT groups, respectively, while RPE was strongly associated with BM (p HIIT group. The results suggest that high-intensity interval training may produce more positive effects on health determinants in comparison with the same training mode at a moderate intensity.

  9. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes.

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    Cipryan, Lukas; Tschakert, Gerhard; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s), long HIIT (3min) and constant load exercise (CE). The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇ O 2 , RER) and metabolic (lactate) variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h) in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes) and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin) were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE) or largely (both HIIT modes) higher mean V̇ O 2 . These differences were trivial/small when V̇ O 2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇ O 2max . Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes.

  10. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

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    Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years participating in endurance (n = 8 or sprint (n = 8 sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s, long HIIT (3min and constant load exercise (CE. The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇O2, RER and metabolic (lactate variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE or largely (both HIIT modes higher mean V̇O2. These differences were trivial/small when V̇O2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇O2max. Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes.

  11. High-intensity interval training improves VO2peak, maximal lactate accumulation, time trial and competition performance in 9?11-year-old swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Heilemann, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Mester, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 5-week HIIT versus high-volume training (HVT) in 9?11-year-old swimmers on competition performance, 100 and 2,000?m time (T 100?m and T 2,000?m), VO2peak and rate of maximal lactate accumulation (La...

  12. Effects of eight weeks of aerobic interval training and of isoinertial resistance training on risk factors of cardiometabolic diseases and exercise capacity in healthy elderly subjects

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    Bruseghini, Paolo; Calabria, Elisa; Tam, Enrico; Milanese, Chiara; Oliboni, Eugenio; Pezzato, Andrea; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Schena, Federico; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi; Capelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 8 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIT) and isoinertial resistance training (IRT) on cardiovascular fitness, muscle mass-strength and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in 12 healthy older adults (68 yy ± 4). HIT consisted in 7 two-minute repetitions at 80%–90% of V˙O2max, 3 times/w. After 4 months of recovery, subjects were treated with IRT, which included 4 sets of 7 maximal, bilateral knee extensions/flexions 3 times/w on a leg-press flywheel ergometer. HIT elicited significant: i) modifications of selected anthropometrical features; ii) improvements of cardiovascular fitness and; iii) decrease of systolic pressure. HIT and IRT induced hypertrophy of the quadriceps muscle, which, however, was paralleled by significant increases in strength only after IRT. Neither HIT nor IRT induced relevant changes in blood lipid profile, with the exception of a decrease of LDL and CHO after IRT. Physiological parameters related with aerobic fitness and selected body composition values predicting cardiovascular risk remained stable during detraining and, after IRT, they were complemented by substantial increase of muscle strength, leading to further improvements of quality of life of the subjects. PMID:26046575

  13. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses.

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    Songstad, Nils Thomas; Kaspersen, Knut-Helge Frostmo; Hafstad, Anne Dragøy; Basnet, Purusotam; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Acharya, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85-90% of maximal oxygen consumption) for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats), echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples. Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04) and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02) in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014), superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001) and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049) in the fetal heart. Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated.

  14. High intensity interval and endurance training have opposing effects on markers of heart failure and cardiac remodeling in hypertensive rats.

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    Tanya M Holloway

    Full Text Available There has been re-emerging interest and significant work dedicated to investigating the metabolic effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT in recent years. HIIT is considered to be a time efficient alternative to classic endurance training (ET that elicits similar metabolic responses in skeletal muscle. However, there is a lack of information on the impact of HIIT on cardiac muscle in disease. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of ET and HIIT to alter cardiac muscle characteristics involved in the development of diastolic dysfunction, such as ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and angiogenesis, in a well-established rodent model of hypertension-induced heart failure before the development of overt heart failure. ET decreased left ventricle fibrosis by ~40% (P < 0.05, and promoted a 20% (P<0.05 increase in the left ventricular capillary/fibre ratio, an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein (P<0.05, and a decrease in hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha protein content (P<0.05. In contrast, HIIT did not decrease existing fibrosis, and HIIT animals displayed a 20% increase in left ventricular mass (P<0.05 and a 20% decrease in cross sectional area (P<0.05. HIIT also increased brain natriuretic peptide by 50% (P<0.05, in the absence of concomitant angiogenesis, strongly suggesting pathological cardiac remodeling. The current data support the longstanding belief in the effectiveness of ET in hypertension. However, HIIT promoted a pathological adaptation in the left ventricle in the presence of hypertension, highlighting the need for further research on the widespread effects of HIIT in the presence of disease.

  15. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafstad, Anne Dragøy; Basnet, Purusotam; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Acharya, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85–90% of maximal oxygen consumption) for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats), echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples. Results Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04) and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02) in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014), superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001) and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049) in the fetal heart. Conclusions Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated. PMID:26566220

  16. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses.

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    Nils Thomas Songstad

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats.Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85-90% of maximal oxygen consumption for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats, echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples.Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04 and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02 in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014, superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001 and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049 in the fetal heart.Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated.

  17. Superior Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training Compared to Conventional Therapy on Cardiovascular and Psychological Aspects in Myocardial Infarction.

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    Choi, Ha-Yoon; Han, Hee-Jun; Choi, Ji-Won; Jung, Han-Young; Joa, Kyung-Lim

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on psychological symptoms, activity states, and cardiovascular functions in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) of low and moderate risk stratification. This prospective study randomly allocated 44 patients with MI to 18 sessions of HIIT or conventional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and after 18 sessions. Post-exercise cardiovascular and functional states, maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ), metabolic equivalents (METs), 6-Minute Walking Test (6MWT), and Korean Activity Scale/Index (KASI) scores were significantly improved in the HIIT group compared to those in the MICT group after 18 exercise sessions. In particular, VO 2max was significantly (pHIIT group (7.58 mL/kg/min) compared to that in the MICT group (2.42 mL/kg/min). In addition, post-exercise psychological states (i.e., scores of Fatigue Severity Scale [FSS] and depression items of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS_D]) were significantly improved in the HIIT group compared to those in the MICT group after 18 exercise sessions. HADS-D was improved by 1.89 in the HIIT group compared to decrement of 0.47 in the MICT group. FSS was improved by 6.38 in the HIIT group compared to decrement of 0.77 in the MICT group (pHIIT can improve cardiac function, psychological, and activity states in low and moderate risk MI patients. Compared to conventional MICT, HIIT can improve cardiovascular functions, activity states, depression, and fatigue more effectively.

  18. Effectiveness of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIT) and Continuous Endurance Training for VO2max Improvements: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials.

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    Milanović, Zoran; Sporiš, Goran; Weston, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    Enhancing cardiovascular fitness can lead to substantial health benefits. High-intensity interval training (HIT) is an efficient way to develop cardiovascular fitness, yet comparisons between this type of training and traditional endurance training are equivocal. Our objective was to meta-analyse the effects of endurance training and HIT on the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) of healthy, young to middle-aged adults. Six electronic databases were searched (MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and Google Scholar) for original research articles. A search was conducted and search terms included 'high intensity', 'HIT', 'sprint interval training', 'endurance training', 'peak oxygen uptake', and 'VO2max'. Inclusion criteria were controlled trials, healthy adults aged 18-45 years, training duration ≥2 weeks, VO2max assessed pre- and post-training. Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. This resulted in 723 participants with a mean ± standard deviation (SD) age and initial fitness of 25.1 ± 5 years and 40.8 ± 7.9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively. We made probabilistic magnitude-based inferences for meta-analysed effects based on standardised thresholds for small, moderate and large changes (0.2, 0.6 and 1.2, respectively) derived from between-subject SDs for baseline VO2max. The meta-analysed effect of endurance training on VO2max was a possibly large beneficial effect (4.9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); 95 % confidence limits ±1.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), when compared with no-exercise controls. A possibly moderate additional increase was observed for typically younger subjects (2.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); ±2.1 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and interventions of longer duration (2.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); ±3.0 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), and a small additional improvement for subjects with lower baseline fitness (1.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); ±2.0 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)). When compared with no-exercise controls

  19. High-intensity interval training, but not continuous training, reverses right ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction in a rat model of pulmonary hypertension.

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    Brown, Mary Beth; Neves, Evandro; Long, Gary; Graber, Jeremy; Gladish, Brett; Wiseman, Andrew; Owens, Matthew; Fisher, Amanda J; Presson, Robert G; Petrache, Irina; Kline, Jeffrey; Lahm, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Exercise is beneficial in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), although studies to date indicate little effect on the elevated pulmonary pressures or maladaptive right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy associated with the disease. For chronic left ventricle failure, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) promotes greater endothelial stimulation and superior benefit than customary continuous exercise training (CExT); however, HIIT has not been tested for PAH. Therefore, here we investigated acute and chronic responses to HIIT vs. CExT in a rat model of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced mild PAH. Six weeks of treadmill training (5 times/wk) were performed, as either 30 min HIIT or 60 min low-intensity CExT. To characterize acute hemodynamic responses to the two approaches, novel recordings of simultaneous pulmonary and systemic pressures during running were obtained at pre- and 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk post-MCT using long-term implantable telemetry. MCT-induced decrement in maximal aerobic capacity was ameliorated by both HIIT and CExT, with less pronounced pulmonary vascular remodeling and no increase in RV inflammation or apoptosis observed. Most importantly, only HIIT lowered RV systolic pressure, RV hypertrophy, and total pulmonary resistance, and prompted higher cardiac index that was complemented by a RV increase in the positive inotrope apelin and reduced fibrosis. HIIT prompted a markedly pulsatile pulmonary pressure during running and was associated with greater lung endothelial nitric oxide synthase after 6 wk. We conclude that HIIT may be superior to CExT for improving hemodynamics and maladaptive RV hypertrophy in PAH. HIIT's superior outcomes may be explained by more favorable pulmonary vascular endothelial adaptation to the pulsatile HIIT stimulus.

  20. High-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training within cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Hannan AL

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Amanda L Hannan,1 Wayne Hing,1 Vini Simas,1 Mike Climstein,2,3 Jeff S Coombes,4 Rohan Jayasinghe,5–7 Joshua Byrnes,8 James Furness1 1Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine, Bond University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 2Exercise Health and Performance Faculty Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Water Based Research Unit, Bond University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 4School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 5Cardiology Department, Gold Coast University Hospital, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 6Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 7Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 8Centre for Applied Health Economics, School of Medicine, Griffith University, Logan, QLD, Australia Background: Aerobic capacity has been shown to be inversely proportionate to cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and there is growing evidence that high-intensity interval training (HIIT appears to be more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT in improving cardiorespiratory fitness within the cardiac population. Previously published systematic reviews in cardiovascular disease have neither investigated the effect that the number of weeks of intervention has on cardiorespiratory fitness changes, nor have adverse events been collated. Objective: We aimed to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs within the cardiac population that investigated cardiorespiratory fitness changes resulting from HIIT versus MICT and to collate adverse events. Methods: A critical narrative synthesis and meta-analysis was conducted after systematically searching relevant databases up to July 2017. We searched for RCTs that compared cardiorespiratory fitness changes resulting from HIIT versus MICT interventions within the cardiac population. Results: Seventeen studies, involving 953 participants (465

  1. High Rate of Return to High-Intensity Interval Training After Arthroscopic Management of Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome.

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    Riff, Andrew J; Ukwuani, Gift; Clapp, Ian; Movassaghi, Kamran; Kelly, D Michael; Nho, Shane J

    2018-06-01

    Since the inception of CrossFit in 2000, the popularity of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in the United States has risen dramatically. While HIIT is a highly efficient exercise for weight loss and improved conditioning, some literature reports injuries in up to 34% of HIIT participants. We sought to evaluate the functional and sports-specific results of hip arthroscopic surgery in recreational HIIT participants. To evaluate patients' ability to return to HIIT after hip arthroscopic surgery for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS). Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Consecutive patients with FAIS who had identified themselves as participating in HIIT and had undergone hip arthroscopic surgery for the treatment of FAIS by a single fellowship-trained surgeon between 2012 and 2015 were reviewed. Demographic data; preoperative physical examination findings; preoperative imaging results; preoperative patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores including the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL), Hip Outcome Score-Sports-Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain; and postoperative examination and PRO scores at a minimum 2 years after surgery, including a HIIT-specific questionnaire, were assessed for all patients. Thirty-two patients (13 male, 19 female) with a mean age of 34.7 ± 6.9 years (range, 21-49 years) were identified with a minimum 24-month follow-up. Among these, 22 participated in CrossFit, 4 in Shred415, 3 in Orangetheory, and 3 in self-directed cross-training including plyometrics. Preoperatively, 14 patients had discontinued HIIT because of activity-related hip complaints, 17 patients had scaled back involvement in HIIT, and 1 patient maintained her baseline routine. Postoperatively, 28 of 32 patients (88%) returned to HIIT at a mean of 9.8 ± 5.7 months after surgery (range, 3-24 months); 96% returned to HIIT at the same level as or better than before the injury. Fear

  2. Mechanical alterations during interval-training treadmill runs in high-level male team-sport players.

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    Girard, Olivier; Brocherie, Franck; Morin, Jean-Benoit; Millet, Grégoire P

    2017-01-01

    To examine mechanical alterations during interval-training treadmill runs in high-level team-sport players. Within-participants repeated measures. Twenty high-level male field-hockey players performed six 30-s runs at 5.53±0.19ms -1 corresponding to 115% of their velocity associated with maximal oxygen uptake (vVO 2max ) with 30-s passive recovery on an instrumented treadmill. Continuous measurement of running kinetics/kinematics and spring-mass characteristics were performed and values were subsequently averaged over 20s (8th-28ths) for comparison. Contact time (+1.1±4.3%; p=0.044), aerial time (+4.1±5.3%; p=0.001), step length (+2.4±2.2%; pteam-sport players modified their mechanical behaviour towards lower vertical stiffness while preserving a constant leg stiffness. Maintenance of running velocity induced longer step lengths and decreased step frequencies that were also accompanied by increased impact loading rates. These mechanical alterations occurred early during the set. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of high-intensity interval training on the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia.

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    Wu, Meng Hsiu; Lee, Chin Pang; Hsu, Shih Chieh; Chang, Chia Ming; Chen, Ching Yen

    2015-01-01

    Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is emerging as a time-efficient exercise strategy for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and for controlling blood sugar levels and hypertension. In addition, patient acceptance of HIIT may improve adherence to exercise programs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of HIIT for improving the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia. Twenty patients attending a psychiatric day care unit volunteered for an 8-week program of HIIT. Blood pressure, resting heart rate, body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio were measured weekly. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score was recorded at baseline and at the end of the study. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) scores were recorded every 2 weeks. Statistically significant changes occurred in the physical and mental parameters measured in the 18 patients who completed the study. Body weight, body mass index, resting heart rate, and pulse pressure decreased significantly. Mean arterial pressure and diastolic blood pressure increased significantly. Mental health scores improved, with the Negative Scale score decreasing from 31.17±5.95 to 27.78±3.57 (PHIIT has positive effects on the physical and mental health of patients with chronic schizophrenia.

  4. Comparison of the acute effects of high-intensity interval training and continuous aerobic walking on inhibitory control.

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    Kao, Shih-Chun; Westfall, Daniel R; Soneson, Jack; Gurd, Brendon; Hillman, Charles H

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a single bout of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous aerobic exercise (CAE) on inhibitory control. The P3 component of the stimulus-locked ERP was collected in 64 young adults during a modified flanker task following 20 min of seated rest, 20 min of CAE, and 9 min of HIIT on separate days in counterbalanced order. Participants exhibited shorter overall reaction time following CAE and HIIT compared to seated rest. Response accuracy improved following HIIT in the task condition requiring greater inhibitory control compared to seated rest and CAE. P3 amplitude was larger following CAE compared to seated rest and HIIT. Decreased P3 amplitude and latency were observed following HIIT compared to seated rest. The current results replicated previous findings indicating the beneficial effect of acute CAE on behavioral and neuroelectric indices of inhibitory control. With a smaller duration and volume of exercise, a single bout of HIIT resulted in additional improvements in inhibitory control, paralleled by a smaller and more efficient P3 component. In sum, the current study demonstrated that CAE and HIIT differentially facilitate inhibitory control and its underlying neuroelectric activation, and that HIIT may be a time-efficient approach for enhancing cognitive health. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies.

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    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Tucker, Patrick S; Fenning, Andrew S

    2017-03-01

    The current review clarifies the cardiometabolic health effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in adults. A systematic search (PubMed) examining HIIT and cardiometabolic health markers was completed on 15 October 2015. Sixty-five intervention studies were included for review and the methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Downs and Black score. Studies were classified by intervention duration and body mass index classification. Outcomes with at least 5 effect sizes were synthesised using a random-effects meta-analysis of the standardised mean difference (SMD) in cardiometabolic health markers (baseline to postintervention) using Review Manager 5.3. Short-term (ST) HIIT (HIIT (≥12 weeks) significantly improved waist circumference (SMD -0.20, 95% CI -0.38 to -0.01; pHIIT demonstrated no effect on insulin, lipid profile, C reactive protein or interleukin 6 in overweight/obese populations. In normal weight populations, ST-HIIT and LT-HIIT significantly improved VO 2 max, but no other significant effects were observed. Current evidence suggests that ST-HIIT and LT-HIIT can increase VO 2 max and improve some cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Exploring the impact of high intensity interval training on adolescents' objectively measured physical activity: Findings from a randomized controlled trial.

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    Costigan, Sarah A; Ridgers, Nicola D; Eather, Narelle; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Harris, Nigel; Lubans, David R

    2018-05-01

    High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) may be effective for accumulating VPA. However, the contribution of HIIT to overall physical activity is unknown. Our primary aim was to explore the impact of school-based HIIT on physical activity. The secondary aim was to explore within-individual changes in physical activity after participating in HIIT. Participants [n = 65; 15.8(0.6)years] were randomized to a HIIT or control group. Intervention groups participated in three HIIT sessions/week. GENEActiv accelerometers assessed objective physical activity at baseline and week-one, to detect changes in MPA and VPA. Intervention effects were examined using linear mixed models and evidence of a change in physical activity (i.e., compensation) were examined using multilevel linear regression models. The group-by-time interaction effects for MPA and VPA were small and moderate, respectively. Adjusted difference between groups for VPA was 1.70 min/day, 95%CI -1.96 to 5.36; p = 0.354; d = 0.55). Embedding HIIT within the school-day had a moderate effect on VPA compared to controls. Compensation analyses (i.e., individual level) suggested that adolescents were more active on days when they participated in HIIT. Further studies are needed to test the effects of HIIT on adolescents' physical activity over extended time periods.

  7. Effect of 24 sessions of high-intensity aerobic interval training carried out at either high or moderate frequency, a randomized trial.

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    Hatle, Håvard; Støbakk, Per Kristian; Mølmen, Harald Edvard; Brønstad, Eivind; Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Skogvoll, Eirik; Wisløff, Ulrik; Ingul, Charlotte Björk; Rognmo, Øivind

    2014-01-01

    The training response of an intensified period of high-intensity exercise is not clear. Therefore, we compared the cardiovascular adaptations of completing 24 high-intensity aerobic interval training sessions carried out for either three or eight weeks, respectively. Twenty-one healthy subjects (23.0±2.1 years, 10 females) completed 24 high-intensity training sessions throughout a time-period of either eight weeks (moderate frequency, MF) or three weeks (high frequency, HF) followed by a detraining period of nine weeks without any training. In both groups, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was evaluated before training, at the 9(th) and 17(th) session and four days after the final 24(th) training session. In the detraining phase VO2max was evaluated after 12 days and thereafter every second week for eight weeks. Left ventricular echocardiography, carbon monoxide lung diffusion transfer factor, brachial artery flow mediated dilatation and vastus lateralis citrate maximal synthase activity was tested before and after training. The cardiovascular adaptation after HF training was delayed compared to training with MF. Four days after ending training the HF group showed no improvement (+3.0%, p = 0.126), whereas the MF group reached their highest VO2max with a 10.7% improvement (ptraining of high-intensity aerobic exercise improves VO2max. The cardiovascular adaptation following a HF programme of high-intensity exercise is however delayed compared to MF training. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00733941.

  8. Effects of a short-term pre-season training programme on the body composition and anaerobic performance of professional rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, Christos K; Gill, Nicholas; Keogh, Justin; Hopkins, Will G; Beaven, C Martyn

    2010-04-01

    Pre-season rugby training develops the physical requisites for competition and consists of a high volume of resistance training and anaerobic and aerobic conditioning. However, the effects of a rugby union pre-season in professional athletes are currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a 4-week pre-season on 33 professional rugby union players. Bench press and box squat increased moderately (13.6 kg, 90% confidence limits +/-2.9 kg and 17.6 +/- 8.0 kg, respectively) over the training phase. Small decreases in bench throw (70.6 +/- 53.5 W), jump squat (280.1 +/- 232.4 W), and fat mass (1.4 +/- 0.4 kg) were observed. In addition, small increases were seen in fat-free mass (2.0 +/- 0.6 kg) and flexed upper-arm girth (0.6 +/- 0.2 cm), while moderate increases were observed in mid-thigh girth (1.9 +/- 0.5 cm) and perception of fatigue (0.6 +/- 0.4 units). Increases in strength and body composition were observed in elite rugby union players after 4 weeks of intensive pre-season training, but this may have been the result of a return to fitness levels prior to the off-season. Decreases in power may reflect high training volumes and increases in perceived of fatigue.

  9. Effect of inter-train interval on the induction of repetition suppression of motor-evoked potentials using transcranial magnetic stimulation.

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    Minna Pitkänen

    Full Text Available Repetition suppression (RS is evident as a weakened response to repeated stimuli after the initial response. RS has been demonstrated in motor-evoked potentials (MEPs induced with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Here, we investigated the effect of inter-train interval (ITI on the induction of RS of MEPs with the attempt to optimize the investigative protocols. Trains of TMS pulses, targeted to the primary motor cortex by neuronavigation, were applied at a stimulation intensity of 120% of the resting motor threshold. The stimulus trains included either four or twenty pulses with an inter-stimulus interval (ISI of 1 s. The ITI was here defined as the interval between the last pulse in a train and the first pulse in the next train; the ITIs used here were 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 12, and 17 s. RS was observed with all ITIs except with the ITI of 1 s, in which the ITI was equal to ISI. RS was more pronounced with longer ITIs. Shorter ITIs may not allow sufficient time for a return to baseline. RS may reflect a startle-like response to the first pulse of a train followed by habituation. Longer ITIs may allow more recovery time and in turn demonstrate greater RS. Our results indicate that RS can be studied with confidence at relatively short ITIs of 6 s and above.

  10. The effects of short versus long inter-set rest intervals in resistance training on measures of muscle hypertrophy: A systematic review.

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    Grgic, Jozo; Lazinica, Bruno; Mikulic, Pavle; Krieger, James W; Schoenfeld, Brad Jon

    2017-09-01

    Although the effects of short versus long inter-set rest intervals in resistance training on measures of muscle hypertrophy have been investigated in several studies, the findings are equivocal and the practical implications remain unclear. In an attempt to provide clarity on the topic, we performed a systematic literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) electronic databases. Six studies were found to have met the inclusion criteria: (a) an experimental trial published in an English-language peer-reviewed journal; (b) the study compared the use of short (≤60 s) to long (>60 s) inter-set rest intervals in a traditional dynamic resistance exercise using both concentric and eccentric muscle actions, with the only difference in resistance training among groups being the inter-set rest interval duration; (c) at least one method of measuring changes in muscle mass was used in the study; (d) the study lasted for a minimum of four weeks, employed a training frequency of ≥2 resistance training days per week, and (e) used human participants without known chronic disease or injury. Current evidence indicates that both short and long inter-set rest intervals may be useful when training for achieving gains in muscle hypertrophy. Novel findings involving trained participants using measures sensitive to detect changes in muscle hypertrophy suggest a possible advantage for the use of long rest intervals to elicit hypertrophic effects. However, due to the paucity of studies with similar designs, further research is needed to provide a clear differentiation between these two approaches.

  11. Energy expenditure and EPOC between water-based high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training sessions in healthy women.

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    Schaun, Gustavo Zaccaria; Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Praia, Aline Borges de Carvalho; Alberton, Cristine Lima

    2018-02-05

    The present study compared the energy expenditure (EE) during and after two water aerobics protocols, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate continuous training (CONT). A crossover randomized design was employed comprising 11 healthy young women. HIIT consisted of eight 20s bouts at 130% of the cadence associated with the maximal oxygen consumption (measured in the aquatic environment) with 10s passive rest. CONT corresponded to 30 min at a heart rate equivalent to 90-95% of the second ventilatory threshold. EE was measured during and 30 min before and after the protocols and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was calculated. Total EE during session was higher in CONT (227.62 ± 31.69 kcal) compared to HIIT (39.91 ± 4.24 kcal), while EE per minute was greater in HIIT (9.98 ± 1.06 kcal) than in CONT (7.58 ± 1.07 kcal). Post-exercise EE (64.48 ± 3.50 vs. 63.65 ± 10.39 kcal) and EPOC (22.53 ± 4.98 vs.22.10 ± 8.00 kcal) were not different between HIIT and CONT, respectively. Additionally, oxygen uptake had already returned to baseline fifteen minutes post-exercise. These suggest that a water aerobics CONT session results in post-exercise EE and EPOC comparable to HIIT despite the latter supramaximal nature. Still, CONT results in higher total EE.

  12. The Effect of High Intensity Interval Training on Hormonal Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axisand Fertility in Type 2 Diabetic Male Rats

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    Mohammad Parastesh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with reductions in fertility indices. Interval training, on the other hand, through reducing the adverse effects of diabetes, exerts a positive impact on diabetic individuals.The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of ten weeks of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT on reproductive hormones and sperm parameters in Wistar rats with diabetes mellitus type 2. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 36 Wistar rats with mean weight of 200±48 were randomly assigned to healthy control, diabetic control and diabetic + high intensity interval training groups. The diabetic training group received ten weeks of HIIT training by treadmill following the induction of diabetes. Twenty-four hours after the last training session, left epididymis of the rats was examined for studying sperm parameters and blood serum samples were examined for evaluating reproductive hormones. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at a significant level of 0.05%. Results: Ten weeks of HIIT training reduces fasting blood glucose (p=0.001 and significantly increases serum testosterone (p=0.001, LH (p=0.042 and FSH (p=0.024 levels in the HIIT training group in comparison to the diabetic group. In addition, sperm parameters (sperm count, survival rate and motility presented significant improvements compared to the diabetic group (p<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that HIIT training can improve sperm count, survival rate and motility, through increasing serum testosterone, LH and FSH levels (reproductive hormones in rats with diabetes mellitus type 2.

  13. High-Intensity Cycling Training: The Effect of Work-to-Rest Intervals on Running Performance Measures.

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    Kavaliauskas, Mykolas; Aspe, Rodrigo R; Babraj, John

    2015-08-01

    The work-to-rest ratio during cycling-based high-intensity interval training (HIT) could be important in regulating physiological and performance adaptations. We sought to determine the effectiveness of cycling-based HIT with different work-to-rest ratios for long-distance running. Thirty-two long-distance runners (age: 39 ± 8 years; sex: 14 men, 18 women; average weekly running training volume: 25 miles) underwent baseline testing (3-km time-trial, V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak and time to exhaustion, and Wingate test) before a 2-week matched-work cycling HIT of 6 × 10-second sprints with different rest periods (30 seconds [R30], 80 seconds [R80], 120 seconds [R120], or control). Three-kilometer time trial was significantly improved in the R30 group only (3.1 ± 4.0%, p = 0.04), whereas time to exhaustion was significantly increased in the 2 groups with a lower work-to-rest ratio (R30 group 6.4 ± 6.3%, p = 0.003 vs. R80 group 4.4 ± 2.7%, p = 0.03 vs. R120 group 1.9 ± 5.0%, p = 0.2). However, improvements in average power production were significantly greater with a higher work-to-rest ratio (R30 group 0.3 ± 4.1%, p = 0.8 vs. R80 group 4.6 ± 4.2%, p = 0.03 vs. R120 group 5.3 ± 5.9%, p = 0.02), whereas peak power significantly increased only in the R80 group (8.5 ± 8.2%, p = 0.04) but not in the R30 group (4.3 ± 6.1%, p = 0.3) or in the R120 group (7.1 ± 7.9%, p = 0.09). Therefore, cycling-based HIT is an effective way to improve running performance, and the type and magnitude of adaptation is dependent on the work-to-rest ratio.

  14. Beneficial Autophagic Activities, Mitochondrial Function, and Metabolic Phenotype Adaptations Promoted by High-Intensity Interval Training in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Hui Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of high-intensity interval (HIIT and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on basal autophagy and mitochondrial function in cardiac and skeletal muscle and plasma metabolic phenotypes have not been clearly characterized. Here, we investigated how 10-weeks HIIT and MICT differentially modify basal autophagy and mitochondrial markers in cardiac and skeletal muscle and conducted an untargeted metabolomics study with proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis of plasma metabolic phenotypes. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were separated into three groups: sedentary control (SED, MICT, and HIIT. Rats underwent evaluation of exercise performance, including exercise tolerance and grip strength, and blood lactate levels were measured immediately after an incremental exercise test. Plasma samples were analyzed by 1H NMR. The expression of autophagy and mitochondrial markers and autophagic flux (LC3II/LC3-I ratio in cardiac, rectus femoris, and soleus muscle were analyzed by western blotting. Time to exhaustion and grip strength increased significantly following HIIT compared with that in both SED and MICT groups. Compared with those in the SED group, blood lactate level, and the expression of SDH, COX-IV, and SIRT3 significantly increased in rectus femoris and soleus muscle of both HIIT and MICT groups. Meanwhile, SDH and COX-IV content of cardiac muscle and COX-IV and SIRT3 content of rectus femoris and soleus muscle increased significantly following HIIT compared with that following MICT. The expression of LC3-II, ATG-3, and Beclin-1 and LC3II/LC3-I ratio were significantly increased only in soleus and cardiac muscle following HIIT. These data indicate that HIIT was more effective for improving physical performance and facilitating cardiac and skeletal muscle adaptations that increase mitochondrial function and basal autophagic activities. Moreover, 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate

  15. High Intensity Interval Training Improves Glycaemic Control and Pancreatic β Cell Function of Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Søren Møller; Thorup, Anne Cathrine; Overgaard, Kristian; Jeppesen, Per Bendix

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity improves the regulation of glucose homeostasis in both type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients and healthy individuals, but the effect on pancreatic β cell function is unknown. We investigated glycaemic control, pancreatic function and total fat mass before and after 8 weeks of low volume high intensity interval training (HIIT) on cycle ergometer in T2D patients and matched healthy control individuals. Study design/method: Elderly (56 yrs±2), non-active T2D patients (n = 10) and matched (52 yrs±2) healthy controls (CON) (n = 13) exercised 3 times (10×60 sec. HIIT) a week over an 8 week period on a cycle ergometer. Participants underwent a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). On a separate day, resting blood pressure measurement was conducted followed by an incremental maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) cycle ergometer test. Finally, a whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed. After 8 weeks of training, the same measurements were performed. Results: in the T2D-group, glycaemic control as determined by average fasting venous glucose concentration (p = 0.01), end point 2-hour OGTT (p = 0.04) and glycosylated haemoglobin (p = 0.04) were significantly reduced. Pancreatic homeostasis as determined by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and HOMA β cell function (HOMA-%β) were both significantly ameliorated (p = 0.03 and p = 0.03, respectively). Whole body insulin sensitivity as determined by the disposition index (DI) was significantly increased (p = 0.03). During OGTT, the glucose continuum was significantly reduced at -15 (p = 0.03), 30 (p = 0.03) and 120 min (p = 0.03) and at -10 (p = 0.003) and 0 min (p = 0.003) with an additional improvement (p = 0.03) of its 1st phase (30 min) area under curve (AUC). Significant abdominal fat mass losses were seen in both groups (T2D: p = 0.004 and CON: p = 0.02) corresponding to a percentage change of -17.84%±5.02 and -9.66%±3.07, respectively. Conclusion: these results

  16. Beneficial Autophagic Activities, Mitochondrial Function, and Metabolic Phenotype Adaptations Promoted by High-Intensity Interval Training in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang-Hui; Li, Tao; Ai, Jing-Yi; Sun, Lei; Min, Zhu; Duan, Rui; Zhu, Ling; Liu, Yan-Ying; Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi

    2018-01-01

    The effects of high-intensity interval (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on basal autophagy and mitochondrial function in cardiac and skeletal muscle and plasma metabolic phenotypes have not been clearly characterized. Here, we investigated how 10-weeks HIIT and MICT differentially modify basal autophagy and mitochondrial markers in cardiac and skeletal muscle and conducted an untargeted metabolomics study with proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis of plasma metabolic phenotypes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into three groups: sedentary control (SED), MICT, and HIIT. Rats underwent evaluation of exercise performance, including exercise tolerance and grip strength, and blood lactate levels were measured immediately after an incremental exercise test. Plasma samples were analyzed by 1 H NMR. The expression of autophagy and mitochondrial markers and autophagic flux (LC3II/LC3-I ratio) in cardiac, rectus femoris, and soleus muscle were analyzed by western blotting. Time to exhaustion and grip strength increased significantly following HIIT compared with that in both SED and MICT groups. Compared with those in the SED group, blood lactate level, and the expression of SDH, COX-IV, and SIRT3 significantly increased in rectus femoris and soleus muscle of both HIIT and MICT groups. Meanwhile, SDH and COX-IV content of cardiac muscle and COX-IV and SIRT3 content of rectus femoris and soleus muscle increased significantly following HIIT compared with that following MICT. The expression of LC3-II, ATG-3, and Beclin-1 and LC3II/LC3-I ratio were significantly increased only in soleus and cardiac muscle following HIIT. These data indicate that HIIT was more effective for improving physical performance and facilitating cardiac and skeletal muscle adaptations that increase mitochondrial function and basal autophagic activities. Moreover, 1 H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical

  17. High Intensity Interval Training Improves Glycaemic Control and Pancreatic β Cell Function of Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Møller Madsen

    Full Text Available Physical activity improves the regulation of glucose homeostasis in both type 2 diabetes (T2D patients and healthy individuals, but the effect on pancreatic β cell function is unknown. We investigated glycaemic control, pancreatic function and total fat mass before and after 8 weeks of low volume high intensity interval training (HIIT on cycle ergometer in T2D patients and matched healthy control individuals. Study design/method: Elderly (56 yrs±2, non-active T2D patients (n = 10 and matched (52 yrs±2 healthy controls (CON (n = 13 exercised 3 times (10×60 sec. HIIT a week over an 8 week period on a cycle ergometer. Participants underwent a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. On a separate day, resting blood pressure measurement was conducted followed by an incremental maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max cycle ergometer test. Finally, a whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA was performed. After 8 weeks of training, the same measurements were performed. Results: in the T2D-group, glycaemic control as determined by average fasting venous glucose concentration (p = 0.01, end point 2-hour OGTT (p = 0.04 and glycosylated haemoglobin (p = 0.04 were significantly reduced. Pancreatic homeostasis as determined by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and HOMA β cell function (HOMA-%β were both significantly ameliorated (p = 0.03 and p = 0.03, respectively. Whole body insulin sensitivity as determined by the disposition index (DI was significantly increased (p = 0.03. During OGTT, the glucose continuum was significantly reduced at -15 (p = 0.03, 30 (p = 0.03 and 120 min (p = 0.03 and at -10 (p = 0.003 and 0 min (p = 0.003 with an additional improvement (p = 0.03 of its 1st phase (30 min area under curve (AUC. Significant abdominal fat mass losses were seen in both groups (T2D: p = 0.004 and CON: p = 0.02 corresponding to a percentage change of -17.84%±5.02 and -9.66%±3.07, respectively. Conclusion: these results

  18. Concomitant external pneumatic compression treatment with consecutive days of high intensity interval training reduces markers of proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Cody T; Roberts, Michael D; Romero, Matthew A; Osburn, Shelby C; Healy, James C; Moore, Angelique N; Mobley, Christopher B; Roberson, Paul A; Kephart, Wesley C; Mumford, Petey W; Goodlett, Michael D; Pascoe, David D; Martin, Jeffrey S

    2017-12-01

    To compare the effects of external pneumatic compression (EPC) and sham when used concurrently with high intensity interval training (HIIT) on performance-related outcomes and recovery-related molecular measures. Eighteen recreationally endurance-trained male participants (age: 21.6 ± 2.4 years, BMI: 25.7 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 , VO 2peak : 51.3 ± 0.9 mL/kg/min) were randomized to balanced sham and EPC treatment groups. Three consecutive days of HIIT followed by EPC/sham treatment (Days 2-4) and 3 consecutive days of recovery (Days 5-7) with EPC/sham only on Days 5-6 were employed. Venipuncture, flexibility and pressure-to-pain threshold (PPT) measurements were made throughout. Vastus lateralis muscle was biopsied at PRE (i.e., Day 1), 1-h post-EPC/sham treatment on Day 2 (POST1), and 24-h post-EPC/sham treatment on Day 7 (POST2). 6-km run time trial performance was tested at PRE and POST2. No group × time interaction was observed for flexibility, PPT, or serum measures of creatine kinase (CK), hsCRP, and 8-isoprostane. However, there was a main effect of time for serum CK (p = 0.005). Change from PRE in 6-km run times at POST2 were not significantly different between groups. Significant between-groups differences existed for change from PRE in atrogin-1 mRNA (p = 0.018) at the POST1 time point (EPC: - 19.7 ± 8.1%, sham: + 7.7 ± 5.9%) and atrogin-1 protein concentration (p = 0.013) at the POST2 time point (EPC: - 31.8 ± 7.5%, sham: + 96.0 ± 34.7%). In addition, change from PRE in poly-Ub proteins was significantly different between groups at both the POST1 (EPC: - 26.0 ± 10.3%, sham: + 34.8 ± 28.5%; p = 0.046) and POST2 (EPC: - 33.7 ± 17.2%, sham: + 21.4 ± 14.9%; p = 0.037) time points. EPC when used concurrently with HIIT and in subsequent recovery days reduces skeletal muscle markers of proteolysis.

  19. Effects of high-intensity interval training on physical capacities and substrate oxidation rate in obese adolescents.

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    Lazzer, S; Tringali, G; Caccavale, M; De Micheli, R; Abbruzzese, L; Sartorio, A

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effects of a 3-week weight-management program entailing moderate energy restriction, nutritional education, psychological counseling and three different exercise training (a: low intensity, LI: 40 % V'O 2 max; b: high intensity, HI: 70 % V'O 2 max; c: high-intensity interval training, HIIT), on body composition, energy expenditure and fat oxidation rate in obese adolescents. Thirty obese adolescents (age: 15-17 years, BMI: 37.5 kg m -2 ) participated in this study. Before starting (week 0, W0) and at the end of the weight-management program (week 3, W3), body composition was assessed by an impedancemeter; basal metabolic rate (BMR), energy expenditure and substrate oxidation rate were measured during exercise and post-exercise recovery by indirect calorimetry. At W3, body mass (BM) and fat mass (FM) decreased significantly in all groups, the decreases being significantly greater in the LI than in the HI and HIIT subgroups (BM: -8.4 ± 1.5 vs -6.3 ± 1.9 vs -4.9 ± 1.3 kg and FM: -4.2 ± 1.9 vs -2.8 ± 1.2 vs -2.3 ± 1.4 kg, p < 0.05, respectively). V'O 2 peak, expressed in relative values, changed significantly only in the HI and HIIT groups by 0.009 ± 0.005 and 0.007 ± 0.004 L kg FFM -1  min -1 (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the HI and HIIT subgroups exhibited a greater absolute rate of fat oxidation between 50 and 70 % V'O 2 peak at W3. No significant changes were observed at W3 in BMR, energy expenditure during exercise and post-exercise recovery. A 3-week weight-management program induced a greater decrease in BM and FM in the LI than in the HI and HIIT subgroups, and greater increase in V'O 2 peak and fat oxidation rate in the HI and HIIT than in the LI subgroup.

  20. High-intensity interval training and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid improves aerobic power and metabolic thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Edward H; Stout, Jeffrey R; Miramonti, Amelia A; Fukuda, David H; Wang, Ran; Townsend, Jeremy R; Mangine, Gerald T; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R

    2014-01-01

    Previous research combining Calcium β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (CaHMB) and running high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have shown positive effects on aerobic performance measures. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid (HMBFA) and cycle ergometry HIIT on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and time to exhaustion (Tmax) in college-aged men and women. Thirty-four healthy men and women (Age: 22.7 ± 3.1 yrs ; VO2peak: 39.3 ± 5.0 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) volunteered to participate in this double-blind, placebo-controlled design study. All participants completed a series of tests prior to and following treatment. A peak oxygen consumption test was performed on a cycle ergometer to assess VO2peak, Tmax, VT, and RCP. Twenty-six participants were randomly assigned into either a placebo (PLA-HIIT) or 3 g per day of HMBFA (BetaTor™) (HMBFA-HIIT) group. Eight participants served as controls (CTL). Participants in the HIIT groups completed 12 HIIT (80-120% maximal workload) exercise sessions consisting of 5-6 bouts of a 2:1 minute cycling work to rest ratio protocol over a four-week period. Body composition was measured with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Outcomes were assessed by ANCOVA with posttest means adjusted for pretest differences. The HMBFA-HIIT intervention showed significant (p body composition. An independent-samples t-test confirmed that there were no significant differences between the training volumes for the PLA-HIIT and HMBFA-HIIT groups. Our findings support the use of HIIT in combination with HMBFA to improve aerobic fitness in college age men and women. These data suggest that the addition of HMBFA supplementation may result in greater changes in VO2peak and VT than HIIT alone. The study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT01941368).

  1. Regulators of human white adipose browning: evidence for sympathetic control and sexual dimorphic responses to sprint interval training.

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    Rebecca L Scalzo

    Full Text Available The conversion of white adipose to the highly thermogenic beige adipose tissue has been proposed as a potential strategy to counter the unfavorable consequences of obesity. Three regulators of this conversion have recently emerged but information regarding their control is limited, and contradictory. We present two studies examining the control of these regulators. Study 1: In 10 young men, the plasma concentrations of irisin and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 were determined prior to and during activation of the sympathetic nervous system via hypoxic gas breathing (FIO2 = 0.11. The measurements were performed twice, once with and once without prior/concurrent sympathetic inhibition via transdermal clonidine administration. FGF21 was unaffected by basal sympathetic inhibition (338±113 vs. 295±80 pg/mL; P = 0.43; mean±SE, but was increased during hypoxia mediated sympathetic activation (368±135; this response was abrogated (P = 0.035 with clonidine (269±93. Irisin was unaffected by sympathetic inhibition and/or hypoxia (P>0.21. Study 2: The plasma concentration of irisin and FGF21, and the skeletal muscle protein content of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5 was determined in 19 young adults prior to and following three weeks of sprint interval training (SIT. SIT decreased FGF21 (338±78 vs. 251±36; P = 0.046 but did not affect FNDC5 (P = 0.79. Irisin was decreased in males (127±18 vs. 90±23 ng/mL; P = 0.045 and increased in females (139±14 vs. 170±18. Collectively, these data suggest a potential regulatory role of acute sympathetic activation pertaining to the browning of white adipose; further, there appears to be a sexual dimorphic response of irisin to SIT.

  2. High-intensity interval and endurance training are associated with divergent skeletal muscle adaptations in a rodent model of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Tanya M; Bloemberg, Darin; da Silva, Mayne L; Quadrilatero, Joe; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal muscle is extremely adaptable to a variety of metabolic challenges, as both traditional moderate-intensity endurance (ET) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases oxidative potential in a coordinated manner. Although these responses have been clearly demonstrated in healthy individuals, it remains to be determined whether both produce similar responses in the context of hypertension, one of the most prevalent and costly diseases worldwide. Therefore, in the current study, we used the Dahl sodium-sensitive rat, a model of hypertension, to determine the molecular responses to 4 wk of either ET or HIIT in the red (RG) and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscles. In the RG, both ET and HIIT increased the content of electron transport chain proteins and increased succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) content in type I fibers. Although both intensities of exercise shifted fiber type in RG (increased IIA, decreased IIX), only HIIT was associated with a reduction in endothelial nitric oxide synthase and an increase in HIF-1α proteins. In the WG, both ET and HIIT increased markers of the electron transport chain; however, HIIT decreased SDH content in a fiber-specific manner. ET increased type IIA, decreased IIB fibers, and increased capillarization, while, in contrast, HIIT increased the percentage of IIB fibers, decreased capillary-to-fiber ratios, decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and increased hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein. Altogether, these data show that unlike in healthy animals, ET and HIIT have divergent effects in the skeletal muscle of hypertensive rats. This suggests ET may be optimal at improving the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle in animals with hypertension. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Australian cardiac rehabilitation exercise parameter characteristics and perceptions of high-intensity interval training: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Amanda L; Hing, Wayne; Climstein, Mike; Coombes, Jeff S; Furness, James; Jayasinghe, Rohan; Byrnes, Joshua

    2018-01-01

    Purpose This study explored current demographics, characteristics, costs, evaluation methods, and outcome measures used in Australian cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs. It also determined the actual usage and perceptions of high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Methods A cross-sectional observational web-based survey was distributed to 328 Australian CR programs nationally. Results A total of 261 programs completed the survey (79.6% response rate). Most Australian CR programs were located in a hospital setting (76%), offered exercise sessions once a week (52%) for 6–8 weeks (49%) at moderate intensity (54%) for 46–60 min (62%), and serviced 101–500 clients per annum (38%). HIIT was reported in only 1% of programs, and 27% of respondents believed that it was safe while 42% of respondents were unsure. Lack of staff (25%), monitoring resources (20%), and staff knowledge (18%) were the most commonly reported barriers to the implementation of HIIT. Overall, Australian CR coordinators are unsure of the cost of exercise sessions. Conclusion There is variability in CR delivery across Australia. Only half of programs reassess outcome measures postintervention, and cost of exercise sessions is unknown. Although HIIT is recommended in international CR guidelines, it is essentially not being used in Australia and clinicians are unsure as to the safety of HIIT. Lack of resources and staff knowledge were perceived as the biggest barriers to HIIT implementation, and there are inconsistent perceptions of prescreening and monitoring requirements. This study highlights the need to educate health professionals about the benefits and safety of HIIT to improve its usage and patient outcomes. PMID:29750058

  4. Preliminary efficacy and feasibility of embedding high intensity interval training into the school day: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Costigan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current physical activity and fitness levels among adolescents are low, increasing the risk of chronic disease. Although the efficacy of high intensity interval training (HIIT for improving metabolic health is now well established, it is not known if this type of activity can be effective to improve adolescent health. The primary aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of embedding HIIT into the school day. A 3-arm pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted in one secondary school in Newcastle, Australia. Participants (n = 65; mean age = 15.8(0.6 years were randomized into one of three conditions: aerobic exercise program (AEP (n = 21, resistance and aerobic exercise program (RAP (n = 22 and control (n = 22. The 8-week intervention consisted of three HIIT sessions per week (8–10 min/session, delivered during physical education (PE lessons or at lunchtime. Assessments were conducted at baseline and post-intervention to detect changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage shuttle-run, muscular fitness (push-up, standing long jump tests, body composition (Body Mass Index (BMI, BMI-z scores, waist circumference and physical activity motivation (questionnaire, by researchers blinded to treatment allocation. Intervention effects for outcomes were examined using linear mixed models, and Cohen's d effect sizes were reported. Participants in the AEP and RAP groups had moderate intervention effects for waist circumference (p = 0.024, BMI-z (p = 0.037 and BMI (not significant in comparison to the control group. A small intervention effect was also evident for cardiorespiratory fitness in the RAP group.

  5. Preliminary efficacy and feasibility of embedding high intensity interval training into the school day: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, S A; Eather, N; Plotnikoff, R C; Taaffe, D R; Pollock, E; Kennedy, S G; Lubans, D R

    2015-01-01

    Current physical activity and fitness levels among adolescents are low, increasing the risk of chronic disease. Although the efficacy of high intensity interval training (HIIT) for improving metabolic health is now well established, it is not known if this type of activity can be effective to improve adolescent health. The primary aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of embedding HIIT into the school day. A 3-arm pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted in one secondary school in Newcastle, Australia. Participants (n = 65; mean age = 15.8(0.6) years) were randomized into one of three conditions: aerobic exercise program (AEP) (n = 21), resistance and aerobic exercise program (RAP) (n = 22) and control (n = 22). The 8-week intervention consisted of three HIIT sessions per week (8-10 min/session), delivered during physical education (PE) lessons or at lunchtime. Assessments were conducted at baseline and post-intervention to detect changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage shuttle-run), muscular fitness (push-up, standing long jump tests), body composition (Body Mass Index (BMI), BMI-z scores, waist circumference) and physical activity motivation (questionnaire), by researchers blinded to treatment allocation. Intervention effects for outcomes were examined using linear mixed models, and Cohen's d effect sizes were reported. Participants in the AEP and RAP groups had moderate intervention effects for waist circumference (p = 0.024), BMI-z (p = 0.037) and BMI (not significant) in comparison to the control group. A small intervention effect was also evident for cardiorespiratory fitness in the RAP group.

  6. The effects of high intensity interval training on muscle size and quality in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Malia N M; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Trexler, Eric T; Hirsch, Katie R

    2018-02-01

    Despite growing popularity of high intensity interval training (HIIT) for improving health and fitness, limited data exist identifying the effects of HIIT on muscle characteristics. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a 3-week HIIT intervention on muscle size and quality in overweight and obese men and women. Randomized controlled trial. Forty-four overweight and obese men and women (mean±SD; age: 35.4±12.3years; height: 174.9±9.7cm; weight: 94.6±17.0kg; %fat: 32.7±6.5%) completed the current study. During baseline and post testing, muscle cross sectional area (mCSA) and echo intensity (EI) were determined from a panoramic scan of the vastus lateralis obtained by B-mode ultrasonography. Body composition variables were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Participants were randomized into either a 1:1 work-to-rest ratio HIIT group (SIT; n=16), a 2:1 work-to-rest ratio HIIT group (LIT; n=19), or control (CON; n=9). HIIT participants performed five, 2-min bouts (LIT) or 10, 1-min bouts (SIT) at 85-100% VO 2peak for 9 sessions over three weeks. Analysis of covariance demonstrated a significant increase in mCSA for SIT (p=0.038; change (Δ)=3.17±3.36cm 2 ) compared to CON (Δ=-0.34±2.36cm 2 ). There was no significant difference in EI across groups (p=0.672). HIIT may be an effective exercise modality to influence muscle size in overweight and obese individuals. Future studies should investigate muscle characteristics and remodeling in an overweight population following interventions of longer duration and varying work-to-rest protocols. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Superior Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training vs. Moderate Continuous Training on Arterial Stiffness in Episodic Migraine: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Henner Hanssen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and vascular dysfunction. Since aerobic exercise can reduce cardiovascular risk, the present randomized controlled trail aimed at investigating the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIT vs. moderate continuous exercise training (MCT on arterial stiffness in migraine patients.Methods: Forty-eight episodic migraineurs were initially enrolled in the study. 37 patients [female: 30; age: 37 (SD: 10; BMI: 23.1 (5.2; Migraine days per month: 3.7 (2.5] completed the intervention. Central blood pressure, pulse wave reflection, and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV were obtained by an oscillometric monitor. Incremental treadmill exercise testing yielded maximal and submaximal fitness parameters. Participants were randomly assigned to either HIT, MCT, or a control group (CON. The intervention groups trained twice a week over a 12-week intervention period.Results: After adjustment for between-group baseline differences, a moderate meaningful overall reduction of the augmentation index at 75 min−1 heart rate (AIx@75 was observed [partial eta squared (ηp2 = 0.16; p = 0.06]. With 91% likely beneficial effects, HIT was more effective in reducing AIx@75 than MCT [HIT: pre 22.0 (9.7, post 14.9 (13.0, standardized mean difference (SMD = 0.62; MCT: pre 16.6 (8.5, post 21.3 (10.4, SMD −0.49]. HIT induced a relevant reduction in central systolic blood pressure [cSBP: pre 118 (23 mmHg, post 110 (16 mmHg, SMD = 0.42] with a 59% possibly beneficial effect compared to CON, while MCT showed larger effects in lowering central diastolic blood pressure [pre 78 (7 mmHg, post 74 (7 mmHg, SMD = 0.61], presenting 60% possibly beneficial effects compared to CON. Central aortic PWV showed no changes in any of the three groups. Migraine days were reduced more successfully by HIT than MCT (HIT: SMD = 1.05; MCT: SMD = 0.43.Conclusion: HIT but not MCT reduces AIx@75 as a measure of pulse wave

  8. Effect of a 10 week high intensity interval training supplemented with green tea on lipid profiles and body composition in overweight women

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    Elham Ghasemi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Increasing the intensity of physical activity along with regular consumption of green tea can be effective on energy metabolism, weight, and body fat content. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a 10 week. .high intensity interval training supplemented with consuming green tea .on lipid profiles and body composition in overweight women. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 30 overweight women were purposefully and randomly chosen and divided into 3 equal groups. Training group performed training programs including 3 sessions per week at maximum intensity of 85-95% heart rate and the supplement group consumed 3 tablets of green tea (500 mg daily for 10 weeks High intensity interval training and the supplement group both underwent intervention. Blood samples were collected before and after the intervention in fasting state. Finally,the obtained data was fed into SPSS software (V. 19 and analyzed using paired t test, covariance analysis, one way-variance analysis, and Bonferroni post- hoc tests at the significant level of P<0.05. Results: After the period of high intensity interval training and green tea supplementation triglycerides (P=0.001, LDL (P=0.02, weight (P=0.0001, body mass index (P=0.0001, and body fat percentage (P=0.0001 in all the groups and total cholesterol (P=0.01 decreased ,but  HDL (P=0.01 increased in high intensity interval training plus supplements and high intensity interval training plus placebo groups. However, these two indicators did not differ significantly in the supplement group (P=0.23 and P=0.06, respectively. Furthermore, systolic (P= 0.55 and diastolic (P= 0.15 blood pressure and waist-to-hip ratio (P= 0.08 did not change after intervention in all the groups. Conclusion: It was found that consumption of green tea along with performing of high intensity interval training can be effective in improving of cardiovascular risk factors in overweight women.

  9. Impact of a single bout of high-intensity interval exercise and short-term interval training on interleukin-6, FNDC5, and METRNL mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle

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    Malcolm Eaton

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise promotes numerous phenotypic adaptations in skeletal muscle that contribute to improved function and metabolic capacity. An emerging body of evidence suggests that skeletal muscle also releases a myriad of factors during exercise, termed “myokines”. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on the acute regulation of the mRNA expression of several myokines, including the prototypical myokine interleukin-6 (IL-6, and recently identified myokines fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5 (irisin and meteorin-like protein (METRNL. Methods: Both before and after a 20-day period of twice-daily high-volume HIIT, 9 healthy males (20.5 ± 1.5 years performed a standardized bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE; 5 × 4 min at ~80% pretraining peak power output with skeletal muscle biopsy samples (vastus lateralis obtained at rest, immediately following exercise, and at 3 h recovery. Results: Before training, a single bout of HIIE increased IL-6 (p < 0.05 and METRNL (p < 0.05 mRNA expression measured at 3 h recovery when compared to rest. Following 20 days of HIIT, IL-6 and FNDC5 mRNA were increased at 3 h recovery from the standardized HIIE bout when compared to rest (both p < 0.05. Resting METRNL and FNDC5 mRNA expression were higher following training (p < 0.05, and there was an overall increase in FNDC5 mRNA post-training (main effect of training, p < 0.05. Conclusion: In human skeletal muscle (1 an acute bout of HIIE can induce upregulation of skeletal muscle IL-6 mRNA both before and after a period of intensified HIIT; (2 Resting and overall FNDC5 mRNA expression is increased by 20 days of HIIT; and (3 METRNL mRNA expression is responsive to both acute HIIE and short-term intense HIIT. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings at the protein and secretion level in humans. Keywords: Brown adipose tissue

  10. Effects of high-intensity interval versus mild-intensity endurance training on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone response in rats fed a high-fat or control diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youqing; Huang, Guoyuan; McCormick, Bryan P; Song, Tao; Xu, Xiangfeng

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HI) to mild-intensity endurance training (ME), combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone levels in rats. Fifty-three rats were randomized to 6 groups according to diet and training regimen as follows: CD and sedentary (CS, n = 11), CD and ME (CME, n = 8), CD and HI (CHI, n = 8), HFD and sedentary (HS, n = 10), HFD and ME (HME, n = 8), and HFD and HI (HHI, n = 8). All exercise groups were trained for 10 weeks and had matched running distances. Dietary intake, body composition, blood metabolites, and corticosterone levels were measured. Histological lipid droplets were observed in the livers. The HFD led to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and higher body fat (all, P 0.06), as well as higher corticosterone levels (P training improved fat weight, glucose, and lipid profiles, and reduced corticosterone levels (P body and fat weight, serum glucose and triglycerides, lipid content in the liver, and corticosterone levels (P training compared to ME training. Reductions in HFD-induced body weight gain, blood glucose and lipid profiles, and corticosterone levels, as well as improvements in QUICKI were better with HHI compared to HME. Correlation analyses revealed that corticosterone levels were significantly associated with phenotype variables (P training, HI training contributes to greater improvements in metabolic and corticosterone responses, leading to a greater reduction in susceptibility to HFD-induced disorders.

  11. Effects of Training and Feedback on Accuracy of Predicting Rectosigmoid Neoplastic Lesions and Selection of Surveillance Intervals by Endoscopists Performing Optical Diagnosis of Diminutive Polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleugels, Jasper L A; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Hazewinkel, Yark; Wanders, Linda K; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2018-05-01

    Real-time differentiation of diminutive polyps (1-5 mm) during endoscopy could replace histopathology analysis. According to guidelines, implementation of optical diagnosis into routine practice would require it to identify rectosigmoid neoplastic lesions with a negative predictive value (NPV) of more than 90%, using histologic findings as a reference, and agreement with histology-based surveillance intervals for more than 90% of cases. We performed a prospective study with 39 endoscopists accredited to perform colonoscopies on participants with positive results from fecal immunochemical tests in the Bowel Cancer Screening Program at 13 centers in the Netherlands. Endoscopists were trained in optical diagnosis using a validated module (Workgroup serrAted polypS and Polyposis). After meeting predefined performance thresholds in the training program, the endoscopists started a 1-year program (continuation phase) in which they performed narrow band imaging analyses during colonoscopies of participants in the screening program and predicted histological findings with confidence levels. The endoscopists were randomly assigned to groups that received feedback or no feedback on the accuracy of their predictions. Primary outcome measures were endoscopists' abilities to identify rectosigmoid neoplastic lesions (using histology as a reference) with NPVs of 90% or more, and selecting surveillance intervals that agreed with those determined by histology for at least 90% of cases. Of 39 endoscopists initially trained, 27 (69%) completed the training program. During the continuation phase, these 27 endoscopists performed 3144 colonoscopies in which 4504 diminutive polyps were removed. The endoscopists identified neoplastic lesions with a pooled NPV of 90.8% (95% confidence interval 88.6-92.6); their proposed surveillance intervals agreed with those determined by histologic analysis for 95.4% of cases (95% confidence interval 94.0-96.6). Findings did not differ between the group

  12. Effects of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training on endothelial function and cardiometabolic risk markers in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brandon J; Tucker, Wesley J; Bhammar, Dharini M; Ryder, Justin R; Sweazea, Karen L; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2016-07-01

    We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would be more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) at improving endothelial function and maximum oxygen uptake (V̇o2 max) in obese adults. Eighteen participants [35.1 ± 8.1 (SD) yr; body mass index = 36.0 ± 5.0 kg/m(2)] were randomized to 8 wk (3 sessions/wk) of either HIIT [10 × 1 min, 90-95% maximum heart rate (HRmax), 1-min active recovery] or MICT (30 min, 70-75% HRmax). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) increased after HIIT (5.13 ± 2.80% vs. 8.98 ± 2.86%, P = 0.02) but not after MICT (5.23 ± 2.82% vs. 3.05 ± 2.76%, P = 0.16). Resting artery diameter increased after MICT (3.68 ± 0.58 mm vs. 3.86 ± 0.58 mm, P = 0.02) but not after HIIT (4.04 ± 0.70 mm vs. 4.09 ± 0.70 mm; P = 0.63). There was a significant (P = 0.02) group × time interaction in low flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC) between MICT (0.63 ± 2.00% vs. -2.79 ± 3.20%; P = 0.03) and HIIT (-1.04 ± 4.09% vs. 1.74 ± 3.46%; P = 0.29). V̇o2 max increased (P HIIT (2.19 ± 0.65 l/min vs. 2.64 ± 0.88 l/min) and MICT (2.24 ± 0.48 l/min vs. 2.55 ± 0.61 l/min). Biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and endothelial function were unchanged. HIIT and MICT produced different vascular adaptations in obese adults, with HIIT improving FMD and MICT increasing resting artery diameter and enhancing L-FMC. HIIT required 27.5% less total exercise time and ∼25% less energy expenditure than MICT. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Effectiveness of high-intensity interval training on the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia

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    Wu MH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Meng Hsiu Wu,1,2 Chin Pang Lee,1–3 Shih Chieh Hsu,1,3 Chia Ming Chang,1,3 Ching Yen Chen1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 2Men’s Health Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 3School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Background: Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT is emerging as a time-efficient exercise strategy for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and for controlling blood sugar levels and hypertension. In addition, patient acceptance of HIIT may improve adherence to exercise programs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of HIIT for improving the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia. Methods: Twenty patients attending a psychiatric day care unit volunteered for an 8-week program of HIIT. Blood pressure, resting heart rate, body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio were measured weekly. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score was recorded at baseline and at the end of the study. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI scores were recorded every 2 weeks. Results: Statistically significant changes occurred in the physical and mental parameters measured in the 18 patients who completed the study. Body weight, body mass index, resting heart rate, and pulse pressure decreased significantly. Mean arterial pressure and diastolic blood pressure increased significantly. Mental health scores improved, with the Negative Scale score decreasing from 31.17±5.95 to 27.78±3.57 (P<0.01 and the General Psychopathology Scale score from 14.28±2.16 to 13.00±1.72 (P<0.01. Positive Scale scores changed, but not significantly, from 12.28±2.27 to 12.33±2.00 (P=0.729. Scores on the BDI (from 19.56±15.28 to 15.89±14.33, P<0.001 and BAI (from 13.67±13.83 to 10.06±11.18, P=0.003 both improved significantly. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that HIIT has positive

  14. High-intensity interval training and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid improves aerobic power and metabolic thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research combining Calcium β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (CaHMB) and running high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have shown positive effects on aerobic performance measures. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid (HMBFA) and cycle ergometry HIIT on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and time to exhaustion (Tmax) in college-aged men and women. Methods Thirty-four healthy men and women (Age: 22.7 ± 3.1 yrs ; VO2peak: 39.3 ± 5.0 ml · kg-1 · min-1) volunteered to participate in this double-blind, placebo-controlled design study. All participants completed a series of tests prior to and following treatment. A peak oxygen consumption test was performed on a cycle ergometer to assess VO2peak, Tmax, VT, and RCP. Twenty-six participants were randomly assigned into either a placebo (PLA-HIIT) or 3 g per day of HMBFA (BetaTor™) (HMBFA-HIIT) group. Eight participants served as controls (CTL). Participants in the HIIT groups completed 12 HIIT (80-120% maximal workload) exercise sessions consisting of 5–6 bouts of a 2:1 minute cycling work to rest ratio protocol over a four-week period. Body composition was measured with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Outcomes were assessed by ANCOVA with posttest means adjusted for pretest differences. Results The HMBFA-HIIT intervention showed significant (p HIIT group. Both PLA-HIIT and HMBFA-HIIT treatment groups demonstrated significant (p HIIT and HMBFA-HIIT groups. Conclusions Our findings support the use of HIIT in combination with HMBFA to improve aerobic fitness in college age men and women. These data suggest that the addition of HMBFA supplementation may result in greater changes in VO2peak and VT than HIIT alone. Study registration The study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT01941368). PMID:24782684

  15. Effects of 12-week high-intensity interval training on plasma visfatin concentration and insulin resistance in overweight men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Matinhomaee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on visfatin and insulin resistance (IR in overweight adult men during a weight-loss program. Eighteen overweight men (age = 31.8 ± 9.2 years; body mass index = 28.6 ± 1.4 kg/m2 were randomly recruited into one of the two groups, namely, HIIT (3 days/week, 20 minutes/day; 85–95% peak oxygen uptake and diet-induced weight-loss combined (DHIIT; n = 10 and diet-induced weight loss only (DIO; n = 8. The DHIIT and DIO groups undertook a 12-week weight-loss intervention using a moderate isocaloric energy-deficit diet. Both DHIIT and DIO groups demonstrated a significant reduction in body weight (p < 0.01. Total fat mass (p < 0.05 and lean body mass (p < 0.05 were decreased in the DIO group with no significant changes in abdominal fat mass, plasma insulin concentration, homeostasis model assessment-estimated IR (HOMA-IR, blood glucose level, and plasma visfatin. In the DHIIT group, total fat mass (p < 0.01, abdominal fat mass (p < 0.05, plasma insulin concentration (p < 0.05, plasma visfatin (p < 0.01, and HOMA-IR (p < 0.05 were reduced and lean body mass remained unchanged. In conclusion, adding a low-volume 20-minute HIIT (three times/week to an energy-deficit diet not only can improve the efficiency of weight-loss program in the reduction of body fat, plasma visfatin levels, and HOMA-IR, but also has a reservation effect on lean body mass.

  16. Application of the Speed-Duration Relationship to Normalize the Intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Carrie; Wilson, John; Birch, Karen M.; Kemi, Ole J.

    2013-01-01

    The tolerable duration of continuous high-intensity exercise is determined by the hyperbolic Speed-tolerable duration (S-tLIM) relationship. However, application of the S-tLIM relationship to normalize the intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) has yet to be considered, with this the aim of present study. Subjects completed a ramp-incremental test, and series of 4 constant-speed tests to determine the S-tLIM relationship. A sub-group of subjects (n = 8) then repeated 4 min bouts of exercise at the speeds predicted to induce intolerance at 4 min (WR4), 6 min (WR6) and 8 min (WR8), interspersed with bouts of 4 min recovery, to the point of exercise intolerance (fixed WR HIIT) on different days, with the aim of establishing the work rate that could be sustained for 960 s (i.e. 4×4 min). A sub-group of subjects (n = 6) also completed 4 bouts of exercise interspersed with 4 min recovery, with each bout continued to the point of exercise intolerance (maximal HIIT) to determine the appropriate protocol for maximizing the amount of high-intensity work that can be completed during 4×4 min HIIT. For fixed WR HIIT tLIM of HIIT sessions was 399±81 s for WR4, 892±181 s for WR6 and 1517±346 s for WR8, with total exercise durations all significantly different from each other (PHIIT, there was no difference in tLIM of each of the 4 bouts (Bout 1: 229±27 s; Bout 2: 262±37 s; Bout 3: 235±49 s; Bout 4: 235±53 s; P>0.050). However, there was significantly less high-intensity work completed during bouts 2 (153.5±40. 9 m), 3 (136.9±38.9 m), and 4 (136.7±39.3 m), compared with bout 1 (264.9±58.7 m; P>0.050). These data establish that WR6 provides the appropriate work rate to normalize the intensity of HIIT between subjects. Maximal HIIT provides a protocol which allows the relative contribution of the work rate profile to physiological adaptations to be considered during alternative intensity-matched HIIT protocols. PMID:24244266

  17. Efectos del entrenamiento continuo e interválico de carga externa similar sobre la frecuencia cardiaca Effects of continuous and interval training similar external load on heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Tuimil

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Los objetivos de este estudio fueron comparar la frecuencia cardíaca (FC media entre dos tipos de entrenamiento de carga externa equiparada basados en la carrera, la relación de la velocidad aeróbica máxima (VAM con la F.C. de reserva (FCR y los efectos de estos dos tipos de entrenamiento sobre la F.C. basal (FCB. El estudio se llevó a cabo con ocho estudiantes de educación física (23,25 años; VAM: 17,93 Km.h-1 que realizaron dos tipos de entrenamiento: CC =8 km al 70%VAM y CI= 4x(1000m al 90%VAM+1000m al 50% VAM. Se registró la FC durante el entrenamiento y la FCB antes y después del mismo. La diferencia de la FC media entre ambos métodos no fue estadísticamente significativa, sin embargo las medias del CC (FCCC (Z=2,240; p<0,05 y CI (FCCI (Z=2,380; p<0,05 fueron significativamente más elevadas que la calculada al 70% de FCR. La FCB se elevó de forma significativa (Z=2,319; p=0.020 solamente después del entrenamiento CI. En conclusión, dos métodos de entrenamiento distintos, pero de intensidad media similar, pueden dar lugar a una FC media también similar. La intensidad de carrera programada en función de la VAM es significativamente superior a la programada en función de la FCR. El entrenamiento interválico puede tener un mayor efecto sobre el incremento de la FCB.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Frecuencia cardíaca media, frecuencia cardíaca de reserva, frecuencia cardíaca basal, VAM, carrera continua, carrera interválica.

    The aims of this study were to compare the mean heart rate response in two training methods of equal average intensity based on running, the relationship of the maximal aerobic speed (VAM with the reserve heart rate (FCR and the effects of these modes of training on the basal heart rate (FCB. The study was carried out with eight physical activity students (23,25 years old; VAM: 17,93 Km.h-1

  18. Effect of 24 sessions of high-intensity aerobic interval training carried out at either high or moderate frequency, a randomized trial.

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    Håvard Hatle

    Full Text Available The training response of an intensified period of high-intensity exercise is not clear. Therefore, we compared the cardiovascular adaptations of completing 24 high-intensity aerobic interval training sessions carried out for either three or eight weeks, respectively.Twenty-one healthy subjects (23.0±2.1 years, 10 females completed 24 high-intensity training sessions throughout a time-period of either eight weeks (moderate frequency, MF or three weeks (high frequency, HF followed by a detraining period of nine weeks without any training. In both groups, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max was evaluated before training, at the 9(th and 17(th session and four days after the final 24(th training session. In the detraining phase VO2max was evaluated after 12 days and thereafter every second week for eight weeks. Left ventricular echocardiography, carbon monoxide lung diffusion transfer factor, brachial artery flow mediated dilatation and vastus lateralis citrate maximal synthase activity was tested before and after training.The cardiovascular adaptation after HF training was delayed compared to training with MF. Four days after ending training the HF group showed no improvement (+3.0%, p = 0.126, whereas the MF group reached their highest VO2max with a 10.7% improvement (p<0.001: group difference p = 0.035. The HF group reached their highest VO2max (6.1% increase, p = 0.026 twelve days into the detraining period, compared to a concomitant reduction to 7.9% of VO2max (p<0.001 above baseline in the MF group (group difference p = 0.609.Both HF and MF training of high-intensity aerobic exercise improves VO2max. The cardiovascular adaptation following a HF programme of high-intensity exercise is however delayed compared to MF training.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00733941.

  19. Effects of interval exercise training programme on the indices of adiposity and biomarker of inflammation in hypertension: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamina, S; Okoye, C G; Hanif, S M

    2014-06-01

    Hypertension remains a significant risk factor in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 8 weeks interval training programme on blood pressure, aerobic capacity (VO max), indices of adiposity and marker of inflammation in black African men with essential hypertension. Two hundred and forty five (245) male subjects with stage 1 and 2 (systolic blood pressure [SBP] between 140-179 & diastolic blood pressure [DBP] between 90-109 mmHg) essential hypertension were age matched and grouped into experimental and control groups. The experimental (n=140; 58.90 ± 7.35 years) group involved in an 8 weeks interval training (60-79% HRmax) programme of between 45 and 60 minutes, while age-matched control hypertensive (n=105; 58.27±6.24 years) group remain sedentary during this period. All subjects in both groups were on antihypertensive drugs throughout the study period. Cardiovascular parameters (SBP, DBP) & VO max and percent body fat [%BF], waist to hip ratio [WHR] and C-reactive protein [CRP] were assessed. Independent t-test and Pearson correlation test were used in data analysis. Findings of the study revealed significant decreased effects of interval training programme on SBP, DBP, %BF, WHR and CRP and significant increased effect on VO max at pexercise training significantly and positively correlated with changes in SBP, DBP, %BF, WHR, CRP and negatively correlated with VO max at p< 0.05.

  20. The Effect of a 12-Week Moderate Intensity Interval Training Program on the Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile in Men Smoking Cigarettes or Hookah: A Cohort Study

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    Abdessalem Koubaa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To examine the impact of interval training program on the antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in men smoking cigarettes or hookah unable or unwilling to quit smoking. Methods. Thirty-five participants performed an interval training (2 : 1 work : rest ratio 3 times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity of 70% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to a biochemical test session before and after the training program. Results. The increase of total antioxidant status (TAS, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and α-tocopherol, is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS and hookah smokers (HS groups. The decrease of malondialdehyde (MDA and the increase of glutathione reductase (GR are more pronounced in smokers groups compared to those of nonsmokers (NS. Superoxide dismutase (SOD increases in NS, CS, and HS groups by 10.1%, 19.5%, and 13.3%, respectively (P<0.001. Likewise, a significant improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio was observed in CS and HS groups (P<0.05. Conclusion. Although the interval training program does not have a significant effect on blood lipid levels, it seems to be very beneficial in the defense and prevention programs of oxidative stress.

  1. Beneficial effects of training at the anaerobic threshold in addition to pharmacotherapy on weight loss, body composition, and exercise performance in women with obesity

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    Ozcelik O

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oguz Ozcelik,1 Yusuf Ozkan,2 Sermin Algul,1 Ramis Colak2,3 1Department of Physiology, 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, 3Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey Objective: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of weight loss achieved through orlistat therapy alone or a combination of orlistat and an aerobic exercise training program on aerobic fitness and body composition in obese females.Methods: Twenty-eight obese patients were randomly assigned to receive 12-week treatment with hypocaloric diet–orlistat or diet–orlistat–exercise. Each participant performed an incremental ramp exercise test every 4 weeks to measure aerobic fitness. Fourteen participants performed continuous exercise (approximately 45 minutes per session at a work rate corresponding to the anaerobic threshold three times per week.Results: A decrease in the fat mass to body weight ratio of 3.8% (P=0.006 was observed at the end of the 12 weeks in the orlistat group, while a decrease of 9.5% (P=0.001 was seen in the orlistat–exercise group. Maximal exercise capacity increased by 46.5% in the orlistat–exercise group and by 19.5% in the orlistat group.Conclusion: While orlistat therapy resulted in an improvement in body composition and aerobic fitness at the end of the 12-week period, its combination with exercise training provided improvements in the same parameters within the first 4 weeks of the study. These additional beneficial effects of combining aerobic exercise with orlistat therapy are important with regards to obesity-associated risk factors. Keywords: obesity, orlistat, body mass index, anaerobic threshold, aerobic fitness

  2. Long-term lifestyle intervention with optimized high-intensity interval training improves body composition, cardiometabolic risk, and exercise parameters in patients with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremeaux, Vincent; Drigny, Joffrey; Nigam, Anil; Juneau, Martin; Guilbeault, Valérie; Latour, Elise; Gayda, Mathieu

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to study the impact of a combined long-term lifestyle and high-intensity interval training intervention on body composition, cardiometabolic risk, and exercise tolerance in overweight and obese subjects. Sixty-two overweight and obese subjects (53.3 ± 9.7 yrs; mean body mass index, 35.8 ± 5 kg/m(2)) were retrospectively identified at their entry into a 9-mo program consisting of individualized nutritional counselling, optimized high-intensity interval exercise, and resistance training two to three times a week. Anthropometric measurements, cardiometabolic risk factors, and exercise tolerance were measured at baseline and program completion. Adherence rate was 97%, and no adverse events occurred with high-intensity interval exercise training. Exercise training was associated with a weekly energy expenditure of 1582 ± 284 kcal. Clinically and statistically significant improvements were observed for body mass (-5.3 ± 5.2 kg), body mass index (-1.9 ± 1.9 kg/m(2)), waist circumference (-5.8 ± 5.4 cm), and maximal exercise capacity (+1.26 ± 0.84 metabolic equivalents) (P high-density lipoprotein ratio were also significantly improved (P body mass and waist circumference loss were baseline body mass index and resting metabolic rate; those for body mass index decrease were baseline waist circumference and triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. A long-term lifestyle intervention with optimized high-intensity interval exercise improves body composition, cardiometabolic risk, and exercise tolerance in obese subjects. This intervention seems safe, efficient, and well tolerated and could improve adherence to exercise training in this population.

  3. Nutrition therapy with high intensity interval training to improve prostate cancer-related fatigue in men on androgen deprivation therapy: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguley, Brenton J; Skinner, Tina L; Leveritt, Michael D; Wright, Olivia R L

    2017-01-03

    Cancer-related fatigue is one of the most prevalent, prolonged and distressing side effects of prostate cancer treatment with androgen deprivation therapy. Preliminary evidence suggests natural therapies such as nutrition therapy and structured exercise prescription can reduce symptoms of cancer-related fatigue. Men appear to change their habitual dietary patterns after prostate cancer diagnosis, yet prostate-specific dietary guidelines provide limited support for managing adverse side effects of treatment. The exercise literature has shown high intensity interval training can improve various aspects of health that are typically impaired with androgen deprivation therapy; however exercise at this intensity is yet to be conducted in men with prostate cancer. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of nutrition therapy beyond the current healthy eating guidelines with high intensity interval training for managing cancer-related fatigue in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy. This is a two-arm randomized control trial of 116 men with prostate cancer and survivors treated with androgen deprivation therapy. Participants will be randomized to either the intervention group i.e. nutrition therapy and high intensity interval training, or usual care. The intervention group will receive 20 weeks of individualized nutrition therapy from an Accredited Practising Dietitian, and high intensity interval training (from weeks 12-20 of the intervention) from an Accredited Exercise Physiologist. The usual care group will maintain their standard treatment regimen over the 20 weeks. Both groups will undertake primary and secondary outcome testing at baseline, week 8, 12, and 20; testing includes questionnaires of fatigue and quality of life, objective measures of body composition, muscular strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, biomarkers for disease progression, as well as dietary analysis. The primary outcomes for this trial are measures of

  4. The Effects of Free-Living Interval-Walking Training on Glycemic Control, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Winding, Kamilla; Knudsen, Sine H

    2013-01-01

    at moderate intensity, whereas interval walkers alternated 3-min repetitions at low and high intensity. Before and after the 4-month intervention, the following variables were measured: VO(2)max, body composition, and glycemic control (fasting glucose, HbA(1c), oral glucose tolerance test, and continuous...... glucose monitoring [CGM]).RESULTSTraining adherence was high (89 ± 4%), and training energy expenditure and mean intensity were comparable. VO(2)max increased 16.1 ± 3.7% in the interval-walking group (P

  5. High Intensity High Volume Interval Training Improves Endurance Performance and Induces a Nearly Complete Slow-to-Fast Fiber Transformation on the mRNA Level

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    Julian Eigendorf

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We present here a longitudinal study determining the effects of two 3 week-periods of high intensity high volume interval training (HIHVT (90 intervals of 6 s cycling at 250% maximum power, Pmax/24 s on a cycle ergometer. HIHVT was evaluated by comparing performance tests before and after the entire training (baseline, BSL, and endpoint, END and between the two training sets (intermediate, INT. The mRNA expression levels of myosin heavy chain (MHC isoforms and markers of energy metabolism were analyzed in M. vastus lateralis biopsies by quantitative real-time PCR. In incremental tests peak power (Ppeak was increased, whereas V˙O2peak was unaltered. Prolonged time-to-exhaustion was found in endurance tests with 65 and 80% Pmax at INT and END. No changes in blood levels of lipid metabolites were detected. Training-induced decreases of hematocrit indicate hypervolemia. A shift from slow MHCI/β to fast MHCIIa mRNA expression occurred after the first and second training set. The mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α, a master regulator of oxidative energy metabolism, decreased after the second training set. In agreement, a significant decrease was also found for citrate synthase mRNA after the second training set, indicating reduced oxidative capacity. However, mRNA expression levels of glycolytic marker enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase did not change after the first and second training set. HIHVT induced a nearly complete slow-to-fast fiber type transformation on the mRNA level, which, however, cannot account for the improvements of performance parameters. The latter might be explained by the well-known effects of hypervolemia on exercise performance.

  6. The Effect of Folate Supplementation on Ghrelin of Stomach and Insulin Level of Serum in Male Wistar Rats during 10 Weeks of High Intensity Interval Training

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    Ali Gorzi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: High intensity training can lead to lower the appetite. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of folate supplementation on ghrelin level of stomach and insulin level of serum in male wistar rats during 10 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT. Materials and Methods: Twenty seven male Wistar rats (weight= 203.94±27.34 gr, Age: 9 weeks after one week familiarization, were randomly divided into four groups: control (n=6, folate supplementation (n=6, (HIIT (n=7 and HIIT+ folate supplement (n=8. HIIT training protocol started with 30 m/min running on treadmill for 1 min with 10 reps and 2 min active rest at the first week and reached to 75-80 m/min for 1 min with 7 reps and 3 min active rest at last 3 weeks. Acylated ghrelin level of stomach tissue and serum level of insulin were assayed by ELISA kit. Results: The results of Kruskal-vallis analysis showed that the ghrelin level of stomach was increased significantly (p=0.001 in folate+HIIT in compare with HIIT group. Also, insulin level of serum was decreased significantly (p=0.001 in folate +HIIT in compare with control and HIIT groups. Conclusion: Based on our results, folate supplementation during high intensity interval training, increased the ghrelin of stomach and decreased the insulin level of serum. So, it seems that folate supplementation can prevent from losing appetite in athletes who train with high intensity training with interval type.

  7. The Effect of High-intensity Interval Training (HIIT on Plasma Levels of Resistin in Male Non-athlete Students (A Trial Study

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    Karim Dehghani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Adipose tissue as a source of energy, is known as an important endocrine organ that releases various hormones including resistin. Resistin plays an important role in regulation of energy homeostasis and metabolism. The effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on resistin concentration in individuals is not clearly defined. The present study aimed to determine the effect of 10-weeks of HIIT on plasma resistin levels in male non-athlete students.   Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 26 male non-athlete students were randomly selected and divided into two groups of experimental and control. The experimental group performed interval trainings, in a 10-week training program (3 times a week according to the training program with the intensity of 85-100% HRmax. Blood samples were taken after 14 hours of fasting at different stages and similar conditions, and plasma levels of resistin were measured using a resistin kit (BOSTER Company, USA. The data were analyzed using independent and dependent t-tests at the significance level of α < 0.05.   Results: In this study, 10 weeks of HIIT caused a significant decrease in the plasma levels of resistin in the experimental group compared to the control group (p≤0.05.   Conclusion: From the obtained results, it can be said that HIIT, as a new and effective training method, has a preventive effect on cardiovascular diseases through a significant reduction of resistin.

  8. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mazurek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME. Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n=24 or CME; n=24 of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%–75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p<0.001, similar improvements being found in both groups (+12% in HIIE and +11% in CME, despite body mass not changing significantly (p=0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME. A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM and fat-free mass (FFM (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively. A group x time interaction effect was found for relative FM and FFM (p=0.018 and p=0.018; a greater reduction in FM and greater increase in FFM were noted in the CME than the HIIE group. Improvements in anaerobic power were observed in both groups (p<0.001, but it was greater in the HIIE group (interaction effect, p=0.022. Weight loss is not mandatory for exercise-induced effects on improving aerobic and anaerobic capacity in collegiate females. Eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with CME sessions are more effective in improving body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions.

  9. High Intensity Training (HIT) en High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) bij patiënten met chronische non-specifieke lage rugpijn: effecten op fysieke parameters en subjectieve pijnbeleving

    OpenAIRE

    Nuyttens, Jelle; Vuylsteke, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    Niet-specifieke chronische lage rugpijn (NSCLRP) zorgt via directe en indirecte kosten voor een enorme economische last in onze huidige maatschappij. Tot op heden wordt een grote variëteit aan trainingsprogramma's aangewend in de behandeling van lage rugpijn, maar er bestaat weinig consensus omtrent de ideale trainingsintensiteit. In deze pilotstudie werd de bruikbaarheid en het effect van de combinatie 'High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)' en 'High-Intensity Training (HIT)' op pijn, acti...

  10. Neutrophil and Monocyte Bactericidal Responses to 10 Weeks of Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval or Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Sedentary Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Sam O.; Wilson, Oliver J.; Adlan, Ahmed M.; Wagenmakers, Anton J. M.; Shaw, Christopher S.; Lord, Janet M.

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils and monocytes are key components of the innate immune system that undergo age-associated declines in function. This study compared the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on immune function in sedentary adults. Twenty-seven (43 ± 11 years) healthy sedentary adults were randomized into ten weeks of either a HIIT (>90% maximum heart rate) or MICT (70% maximum heart rate) group training program. Aerobic capacity (VO2peak), neutrophil and monocyte bacterial phagocytosis and oxidative burst, cell surface receptor expression, and systemic inflammation were measured before and after the training. Total exercise time commitment was 57% less for HIIT compared to that for MICT while both significantly improved VO2peak similarly. Neutrophil phagocytosis and oxidative burst and monocyte phagocytosis and percentage of monocytes producing an oxidative burst were improved by training similarly in both groups. Expression of monocyte but not neutrophil CD16, TLR2, and TLR4 was reduced by training similarly in both groups. No differences in systemic inflammation were observed for training; however, leptin was reduced in the MICT group only. With similar immune-enhancing effects for HIIT compared to those for MICT at 50% of the time commitment, our results support HIIT as a time efficient exercise option to improve neutrophil and monocyte function. PMID:28656073

  11. Neutrophil and Monocyte Bactericidal Responses to 10 Weeks of Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval or Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Sedentary Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Bartlett

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils and monocytes are key components of the innate immune system that undergo age-associated declines in function. This study compared the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on immune function in sedentary adults. Twenty-seven (43 ± 11 years healthy sedentary adults were randomized into ten weeks of either a HIIT (>90% maximum heart rate or MICT (70% maximum heart rate group training program. Aerobic capacity (VO2peak, neutrophil and monocyte bacterial phagocytosis and oxidative burst, cell surface receptor expression, and systemic inflammation were measured before and after the training. Total exercise time commitment was 57% less for HIIT compared to that for MICT while both significantly improved VO2peak similarly. Neutrophil phagocytosis and oxidative burst and monocyte phagocytosis and percentage of monocytes producing an oxidative burst were improved by training similarly in both groups. Expression of monocyte but not neutrophil CD16, TLR2, and TLR4 was reduced by training similarly in both groups. No differences in systemic inflammation were observed for training; however, leptin was reduced in the MICT group only. With similar immune-enhancing effects for HIIT compared to those for MICT at 50% of the time commitment, our results support HIIT as a time efficient exercise option to improve neutrophil and monocyte function.

  12. High Intensity Interval Training Favourably Affects Angiotensinogen mRNA Expression and Markers of Cardiorenal Health in a Rat Model of Early-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Patrick S.; Scanlan, Aaron T.; Dalbo, Vincent J.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of CKD-related complications stem from cardiovascular pathologies such as hypertension. To help reduce cardiovascular complications, aerobic exercise is often prescribed. Emerging evidence suggests high intensity interval training (HIIT) may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of varying forms of aerobic exercise, along with descriptions of mechanisms responsible for health-related improvements, are lacking. This study examined the effects of...

  13. Heterogeneous responses of personalised high intensity interval training on type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease risk in young healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, T.P; Baker, M.D; Evans, S-A; Adams, R.A; Cobbold, C

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension, decreased glucose tolerance, adverse lipid profiles and low physical activity levels are associated with increased type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. High intensity interval training (HIIT), a low volume, reduced time, high intensity programme, may be a useful alternative to current government guidelines which specify a minimum of 150 minutes of physical activity per week. We describe a personalised programme of high intensity exercise which p...

  14. Age related vascular endothelial function following lifelong sedentariness: positive impact of cardiovascular conditioning without further improvement following low frequency high intensity interval training

    OpenAIRE

    Grace, Fergal M.; Herbert, Peter; Ratcliffe, John W.; New, Karl J.; Baker, Julien S.; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aging is associated with diffuse impairments in vascular endothelial function and traditional aerobic exercise is known to ameliorate these changes. High intensity interval training (HIIT) is effective at improving vascular function in aging men with existing disease, but its effectiveness remains to be demonstrated in otherwise healthy sedentary aging. However, the frequency of commonly used HIIT protocols may be poorly tolerated in older cohorts. Therefore, the present study invest...

  15. A 3‐week multimodal intervention involving high‐intensity interval training in female cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Joachim; Lindner, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effects of a 3‐week multimodal rehabilitation involving supervised high‐intensity interval training (HIIT) on female breast cancer survivors with respect to key variables of aerobic fitness, body composition, energy expenditure, cancer‐related fatigue, and quality of life to those of a standard multimodal rehabilitation program. A randomized controlled trial design was administered. Twenty‐eight women, who had been treated for cancer were randomly assigned to either a group per...

  16. Alteration in cardiac uncoupling proteins and eNOS gene expression following high-intensity interval training in favor of increasing mechanical efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Shekarfroush, Shahnaz; Rahimi, Mostafa; Jalali, Amirhossain; Khoshbaten, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): High-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases energy expenditure and mechanical energy efficiency. Although both uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) affect the mechanical efficiency and antioxidant capacity, their effects are inverse. The aim of this study was to determine whether the alterations of cardiac UCP2, UCP3, and eNOS mRNA expression following HIIT are in favor of increased mechanical efficiency or decreased oxidative stress. Mat...

  17. Effects of in-season short-term aerobic and high-intensity interval training program on repeated sprint ability and jump performance in handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermassi, Souhail; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Schwesig, René; Fieseler, Georg; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Chamari, Karim; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed-Souhaiel

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a 7-week in-season aerobic and high-intensity interval-training program on performance tests linked to successful handball play (e.g., repeated sprint and jumping ability). Thirty participants (age 17.0±1.2 years, body mass 81.1±3.4 kg, height 1.82±0.07 m) performed a Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1), a squat (SJ) and a Countermovement Jump Test (CMJ), as well as a repeated Sprint Ability Test (RSA). From this, maximal aerobic speed (MAS, reached at the end of the Yo-Yo IR1), jumping ability, best time in a single sprint trial (RSAbest), total time (RSATT) and the performance decrement (RSAdec) during all sprints were calculated. Later, subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (CG; N.=15) performing their normal training schedule (5 weekly sessions of ~90 minutes of handball training) or an experimental group (EG; N.=15). The EG performed two 30 min sessions per week of high-intensity aerobic exercises at 100-130% of MAS in addition to their normal training schedule. A significant improvement in MAS (d=4.1), RSAbest (d=1.9), RSATT (d=1.5) and RSAdec (d=2.3) after the training period was demonstrated. Also, significant interaction effects (time x group) were found for all parameters as the EG significantly improved performances in all tests after training. The greatest interaction effects were observed in MAS (η2=0.811) and CMJ (η2=0.759). No relevant changes in test performances were found in the CG (mean d=-0.02). These results indicate that individually speed-controlled aerobic and interval training is effective for improving specific handball performance.

  18. Manipulating Carbohydrate Availability Between Twice-Daily Sessions of High-Intensity Interval Training Over 2 Weeks Improves Time-Trial Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Andrew J; Myslik, Frank; MacInnis, Martin J; Percival, Michael E; Bishop, David; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2015-10-01

    Commencing some training sessions with reduced carbohydrate (CHO) availability has been shown to enhance skeletal muscle adaptations, but the effect on exercise performance is less clear. We examined whether restricting CHO intake between twice daily sessions of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) augments improvements in exercise performance and mitochondrial content. Eighteen active but not highly trained subjects (peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak] = 44 ± 9 ml/kg/min), matched for age, sex, and fitness, were randomly allocated to two groups. On each of 6 days over 2 weeks, subjects completed two training sessions, each consisting of 5 × 4-min cycling intervals (60% of peak power), interspersed by 2 min of recovery. Subjects ingested either 195 g of CHO (HI-HI group: ~2.3 g/kg) or 17 g of CHO (HI-LO group: ~0.3 g/kg) during the 3-hr period between sessions. The training-induced improvement in 250-kJ time trial performance was greater (p = .02) in the HI-LO group (211 ± 66 W to 244 ± 75 W) compared with the HI-HI group (203 ± 53 W to 219 ± 60 W); however, the increases in mitochondrial content was similar between groups, as reflected by similar increases in citrate synthase maximal activity, citrate synthase protein content and cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV protein content (p > .05 for interaction terms). This is the first study to show that a short-term "train low, compete high" intervention can improve whole-body exercise capacity. Further research is needed to determine whether this type of manipulation can also enhance performance in highly-trained subjects.

  19. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Racil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS, with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thrice weekly, or a no-training control group. The HIIT and MIIT groups showed improved (p˂0.05 body mass (BM, BMI Z-score, and percentage of body fat (%BF. Only the HIIT group showed decreased waist circumference (WC (p=0.017. The effect of exercise on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max was significant (p=0.019, ES=0.48 and p=0.010, ES=0.57, HIIT and MIIT, respectively. The decrease of rate-pressure product (RPP (p<0.05, ES=0.53 and ES=0.46, HIIT and MIIT, respectively followed the positive changes in resting heart rate and blood pressures. Blood glucose, insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin decreased (p<0.05 in both training groups. Significant decreases occurred in blood leptin (p=0.021, ES=0.67 and p=0.011, ES=0.73 and in RPE (p=0.001, ES=0.76 and p=0.017, ES=0.57 in HIIT and MIIT, respectively. In the post-intervention period, blood leptin was strongly associated with %BF (p<0.001 and VO2max (p<0.01 in the HIIT and MIIT groups, respectively, while RPE was strongly associated with BM (p<0.01 in the HIIT group. The results suggest that high-intensity interval training may produce more positive effects on health determinants in comparison with the same training mode at a moderate intensity.

  20. The effects of four weeks of creatine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on cardiorespiratory fitness: a randomized controlled trial

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    Cramer Joel T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-intensity interval training has been shown to be a time-efficient way to induce physiological adaptations similar to those of traditional endurance training. Creatine supplementation may enhance high-intensity interval training, leading to even greater physiological adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT and creatine supplementation on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance (maximal oxygen consumption (VO2PEAK, time-to-exhaustion (VO2PEAKTTE, ventilatory threshold (VT, and total work done (TWD in college-aged men. Methods Forty-three recreationally active men completed a graded exercise test to determine VO2PEAK, VO2PEAKTTE, and VT. In addition, participants completed a time to exhaustion (TTE ride at 110% of the maximum workload reached during the graded exercise test to determine TWD (TTE (sec × W = J. Following testing, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: creatine (creatine citrate (Cr; n = 16, placebo (PL; n = 17, or control (n = 10 groups. The Cr and PL groups completed four weeks of HIIT prior to post-testing. Results Significant improvements in VO2PEAK and VO2PEAKTTE occurred in both training groups. Only the Cr group significantly improved VT (16% vs. 10% improvement in PL. No changes occurred in TWD in any group. Conclusion In conclusion, HIIT is an effective and time-efficient way to improve maximal endurance performance. The addition of Cr improved VT, but did not increase TWD. Therefore, 10 g of Cr per day for five days per week for four weeks does not seem to further augment maximal oxygen consumption, greater than HIIT alone; however, Cr supplementation may improve submaximal exercise performance.

  1. A pilot study examining the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Kellie; Pumpa, Kate L; Arnolda, Leonard; Cooke, Julie; Yip, Desmond; Craft, Paul S; Semple, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in cancer survivors. Cancer survivors within 24 months post-diagnosis were randomly assigned into the low-volume high-intensity interval training group ( n  = 8) or the continuous low to moderate intensity training group ( n  = 8) group for 36 sessions (12 weeks) of supervised exercise. The low-volume high-intensity interval training (LVHIIT) group performed 7 × 30 s intervals (≥85% maximal heart rate) and the continuous low to moderate intensity training (CLMIT) group performed continuous aerobic training for 20 min (≤55% maximal heart rate) on a stationary bike or treadmill. Significant improvements (time) were observed for 13 of the 23 dependent variables (ES 0.05-0.61, p  ≤ 0.05). An interaction effect was observed for six minute walk test (18.53% [32.43-4.63] ES 0.50, p  ≤ 0.01) with the LVHIIT group demonstrating greater improvements. These preliminary findings suggest that both interventions can induce improvements in quality of life, functional capacity and selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. The LVHIIT program was well tolerated by the participants and our results suggest that LVHIIT is the preferred modality to improve fitness (6MWT); it remains to be seen which intervention elicits the most clinically relevant outcomes for patients. A larger sample size with a control group is required to confirm the significance of these findings.

  2. The Effect of 8 Weeks High-intensity Interval Training on Myostatin and Follistatin Gene Expression in Gastrocnemius Muscle of the Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Biglari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of 8 weeks High-intensity Interval Training (HIIT on the expression of two muscle growth regulating genes (myostatin and follistatin in gastrocnemius muscle of healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: 16 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups in the same number: control and HIIT. HIIT program was underwent 40 min each session, three sessions in a week for eight weeks. Each exercise training session consisted of 5 min warm-up and cool-down at 40-50 % VO2max, 30 min interval running including 4 min high-intensity (85-90% VO2max and 2 min active recovery (at 50-60% VO2max. Rats in control group did not do any exercise training program. 48 h after the last training session, rats` gastrocnemius muscle was extracted and the expression of myostatin and follistatin genes was determined by Real Time-PCR. For statistical data analysis, independent t-test was used. Results: The expression of myostatin was significantly reduced 68% in HIIT group in comparison with the control group (p0.05. Gastrocnemius muscle weight was significantly increased 23% in the HIIT group compared to the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results indicated that HIIT lead to significant reduction in the expression of myostatin gene and increase in the weight of gastrocnemius muscle in rats.

  3. Effects of high-intensity interval versus mild-intensity endurance training on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone response in rats fed a high-fat or control diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youqing Shen

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HI to mild-intensity endurance training (ME, combined with a high-fat diet (HFD or control diet (CD on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone levels in rats. Fifty-three rats were randomized to 6 groups according to diet and training regimen as follows: CD and sedentary (CS, n = 11, CD and ME (CME, n = 8, CD and HI (CHI, n = 8, HFD and sedentary (HS, n = 10, HFD and ME (HME, n = 8, and HFD and HI (HHI, n = 8. All exercise groups were trained for 10 weeks and had matched running distances. Dietary intake, body composition, blood metabolites, and corticosterone levels were measured. Histological lipid droplets were observed in the livers. The HFD led to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and higher body fat (all, P 0.06, as well as higher corticosterone levels (P < 0.01, η2 = 0.09 compared with the CD groups. Exercise training improved fat weight, glucose, and lipid profiles, and reduced corticosterone levels (P < 0.01, η2 = 0.123. Furthermore, body and fat weight, serum glucose and triglycerides, lipid content in the liver, and corticosterone levels (P < 0.05 were lower with HI training compared to ME training. Reductions in HFD-induced body weight gain, blood glucose and lipid profiles, and corticosterone levels, as well as improvements in QUICKI were better with HHI compared to HME. Correlation analyses revealed that corticosterone levels were significantly associated with phenotype variables (P < 0.01. Corticosterone level was inversely correlated with QUICKI (r = -0.38, P < 0.01. Altogether, these results indicate that HFD may elicit an exacerbated basal serum corticosterone level and thus producing a metabolic imbalance. Compared with ME training, HI training contributes to greater improvements in metabolic and corticosterone responses, leading to a greater reduction in susceptibility to HFD-induced disorders.

  4. Effects of long or short duration stimulus during high-intensity interval training on physical performance, energy intake, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Elaine Domingues; Salermo, Gabriela Pires; Panissa, Valéria Leme Gonçalves; Franchini, Emerson; Takito, Monica Yuri

    2017-08-01

    To compare the effects of 6 weeks of long or short high-intensity interval training (long- or short-HIIT) on body composition, hunger perception, food intake and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Twenty previously untrained women (25±5 years) were randomly assigned to do a long-HIIT (n=10) or a short-HIIT (n=10). The long-HIIT group performed fifteen 1-min bouts at 90% of maximum heart rate (HRmax), interspersed by 30-sec active recovery (60% HRmax). The short-HIIT group performed forty-five 20-sec bouts at 90% of HRmax, interspersed by 10-sec active recovery (60% HRmax). The training for both groups was conducted 3 times a week for 6 weeks. All subjects performed the Astrand cycle ergometer test to estimate maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2max ) 1 week before and after the training period, as well as body composition, which was estimated through circumferences and skinfold thicknesses. For all training sessions, the heart rate, visual scale of hunger, internal load, and RPE were recorded. In the first and last week of training, subjects were asked to record a 24-hr food diary for 3 days. Both training induced significant pre to post decreases for fat mass, fat percentage, waist circumference, sum of seven skinfolds and RPE. As expected estimated, the VO 2max increased in both groups. There were no differences for hunger perception, energy intake, and body mass. Long and short-HIIT resulted in fat loss, without altering the energy intake.

  5. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, K; Zmijewski, P; Krawczyk, K; Czajkowska, A; Kęska, A; Kapuściński, P; Mazurek, T

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE) or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME). Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n = 24 or CME; n = 24) of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week) physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%-75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p body mass not changing significantly (p = 0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME). A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) (p body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions.

  6. The effect of eight week interval acute training on plasma visfatin, TNF-α and IL-6 in rats: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Daryanoosh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adipokines are peptides secreted by adipose tissue that affect whole-body energy metabolism. Exercise training exerts beneficial effects on adipose tissue. However, less is known regarding visfatin’s, IL-6 & TNF-α response to an interval acute training. Therefore, we investigated the effects of acute interval exercise on plasma visfatin, TNF-α and IL-6 levels, in healthy female rats. Furthermore, correlate between changes probably these factors were also assessed.Methods: This study was conducted experimentally. Forty five female sprague dawley rat were randomly divided into three groups: pre test (n= 15, treadmill exercise (n= 15 and sedentary controls (n= 15. The acute alternative exercise consisted of treadmill running: 3 session/ week for 8 week. The changes of plasma IL-6, TNF-α and Visfatin levels were measured by ELISA analysis. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with measures (ANOVA and post hoc Tukey test.Results: Acute interval treadmill exercise led to significant decreases in visfatin (P= 0/036, IL-6 (P= 0/009 and TNF-α (P= 0/022 plasma levels between the groups. Also, this study no significant correlations between the changes in adipokines were observed.Conclusion: Decreased levels of TNF-α and IL-6 correlated with intensity and duration exercise. Furthermore, probably there were some factors except weight decreasing that affects on visfatin decrease. Therefore, the reduction of this factor may cause in preventing metabolic disease.

  7. A short period of high-intensity interval training improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Jacobs, Robert A; Bonne, Thomas Christian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improvements in pulmonary V̇O2 kinetics following a short period of high-intensity training (HIT) would be associated with improved skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Ten untrained male volunteers (age: 26 ± 2; mean ± SD) performed six HIT...

  8. Iron, Hematological Parameters and Blood Plasma Lipid Profile in Vitamin D Supplemented and Non-Supplemented Young Soccer Players Subjected to High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebska, Maria; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Suárez, Arturo Diaz; Sánchez, Guillermo Felipe López; Jastrzebska, Joanna; Radziminski, Lukasz; Jastrzebski, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and anemia. Vitamin D-related changes in lipid profile have been studied extensively but the relationship between vitamin D and lipid metabolism is not completely understood. As both vitamin D and intermittent training may potentially affect iron and lipid metabolism, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether a daily supplementation of vitamin D can modulate the response of hematological and lipid parameters to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in soccer players. Thirty-six young elite junior soccer players were included in the placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Participants were non-randomly allocated into either a supplemented group (SG, n=20, HIIT and 5,000 IU of vitamin D daily) or placebo group (PG, n=16, HIIT and sunflower oil). Hematological parameters were ascertained before and after the 8-wk training. The change score (post- and pre-training difference) was calculated for each individual and the mean change score (MCS) was compared between SG and PG using the t test and analysis of covariance. There were no differences between SG and PG at baseline. The red and white cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCHC, ferritin, and HDL-cholesterol changed significantly over the 8-wk HIIT. However, no significant differences in MCS were observed between SG and PG for any variable. A daily vitamin D supplement did not have any impact on alteration in hematological or lipid parameters in young soccer players in the course of high-intensity interval training.

  9. Effects of Exercise Modality During Additional "High-Intensity Interval Training" on Aerobic Fitness and Strength in Powerlifting and Strongman Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulakis-Korakakis, Patroklos; Langdown, Louis; Lewis, Adam; Fisher, James P; Gentil, Paulo; Paoli, Antonio; Steele, James

    2018-02-01

    Androulakis-Korakakis, P, Langdown, L, Lewis, A, Fisher, JP, Gentil, P, Paoli, A, and Steele, J. Effects of exercise modality during additional "high-intensity interval training" on aerobic fitness and strength in powerlifting and strongman athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 450-457, 2018-Powerlifters and strongman athletes have a necessity for optimal levels of muscular strength while maintaining sufficient aerobic capacity to perform and recover between events. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been popularized for its efficacy in improving both aerobic fitness and strength but never assessed within the aforementioned population group. This study looked to compare the effect of exercise modality, e.g., a traditional aerobic mode (AM) and strength mode (SM), during HIIT on aerobic fitness and strength. Sixteen well resistance-trained male participants, currently competing in powerlifting and strongman events, completed 8 weeks of approximately effort- and volume-matched HIIT in 2 groups: AM (cycling, n = 8) and SM (resistance training, n = 8). Aerobic fitness was measured as predicted V[Combining Dot Above]O2max using the YMCA 3 minutes step test and strength as predicted 1 repetition maximum from a 4-6RM test using a leg extension. Both groups showed significant improvements in both strength and aerobic fitness. There was a significant between-group difference for aerobic fitness improvements favoring the AM group (p ≤ 0.05). There was no between-group difference for change in strength. Magnitude of change using within-group effect size for aerobic fitness and strength was considered large for each group (aerobic fitness, AM = 2.6, SM = 2.0; strength, AM = 1.9, SM = 1.9). In conclusion, our results support enhanced strength and aerobic fitness irrespective of exercise modality (e.g., traditional aerobic and resistance training). However, powerlifters and strongman athletes wishing to enhance their aerobic fitness should consider HIIT using an

  10. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Versus Continuous Exercise Training on Functional Capacity and Quality of Life in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaureguizar, Koldobika Villelabeitia; Vicente-Campos, Davinia; Bautista, Lorena Ruiz; de la Peña, Cesar Hernández; Gómez, María José Arriaza; Rueda, María José Calero; Fernández Mahillo, Ignacio