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Sample records for anaerobic benzene communities

  1. Anaerobic benzene degradation by bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Carsten; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Richnow, Hans-Hermann

    2011-11-01

    Benzene is a widespread and toxic contaminant. The fate of benzene in contaminated aquifers seems to be primarily controlled by the abundance of oxygen: benzene is aerobically degraded at high rates by ubiquitous microorganisms, and the oxygen-dependent pathways for its breakdown were elucidated more than 50 years ago. In contrast, benzene was thought to be persistent under anoxic conditions until 25 years ago. Nevertheless, within the last 15 years, several benzene-degrading cultures have been enriched under varying electron acceptor conditions in laboratories around the world, and organisms involved in anaerobic benzene degradation have been identified, indicating that anaerobic benzene degradation is a relevant environmental process. However, only a few benzene degraders have been isolated in pure culture so far, and they all use nitrate as an electron acceptor. In some highly enriched strictly anaerobic cultures, benzene has been described to be mineralized cooperatively by two or more different organisms. Despite great efforts, the biochemical mechanism by which the aromatic ring of benzene is activated in the absence of oxygen is still not fully elucidated; methylation, hydroxylation and carboxylation are discussed as likely reactions. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the 'key players' of anaerobic benzene degradation under different electron acceptor conditions and the possible pathway(s) of anaerobic benzene degradation. © 2011 The Authors; Journal compilation © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Anaerobic benzene degradation by bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Carsten; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Richnow, Hans‐Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Summary Benzene is a widespread and toxic contaminant. The fate of benzene in contaminated aquifers seems to be primarily controlled by the abundance of oxygen: benzene is aerobically degraded at high rates by ubiquitous microorganisms, and the oxygen‐dependent pathways for its breakdown were elucidated more than 50 years ago. In contrast, benzene was thought to be persistent under anoxic conditions until 25 years ago. Nevertheless, within the last 15 years, several benzene‐degrading cultures have been enriched under varying electron acceptor conditions in laboratories around the world, and organisms involved in anaerobic benzene degradation have been identified, indicating that anaerobic benzene degradation is a relevant environmental process. However, only a few benzene degraders have been isolated in pure culture so far, and they all use nitrate as an electron acceptor. In some highly enriched strictly anaerobic cultures, benzene has been described to be mineralized cooperatively by two or more different organisms. Despite great efforts, the biochemical mechanism by which the aromatic ring of benzene is activated in the absence of oxygen is still not fully elucidated; methylation, hydroxylation and carboxylation are discussed as likely reactions. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the ‘key players’ of anaerobic benzene degradation under different electron acceptor conditions and the possible pathway(s) of anaerobic benzene degradation. PMID:21450012

  3. Denitrification synergized with ANAMMOX for the anaerobic degradation of benzene: performance and microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shuchan; Zhang, Lilan; Zhang, DaiJun; Lu, Peili; Zhang, Xiaoting; He, Qiang

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) on benzene degradation under denitrification, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) under denitrification synergized with ANAMMOX (SBR-DenAna) for benzene degradation was established by inoculating anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) into a SBR under denitrification reactor (SBR-Den) for benzene degradation. The average rate of benzene degradation and the maximum first-order kinetic constant in SBR-DenAna were 2.34- and 1.41-fold those in SBR-Den, respectively, indicating that ANAMMOX improved the degradation of benzene under denitrification synergized with ANAMMOX. However, the average rate of benzene degradation decreased by 35% in the denitrification-ANAMMOX synergistic reactor when 10 mg N L -1 NO 2 - was added; the rate recovered once NO 2 - was depleted, indicating that ANAMMOX might detoxify NO 2 - . Results from high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that Azoarcus within the family Rhodocyclaceae might be associated with benzene degradation in the two SBRs. AnAOB affiliated with the family Candidatus Brocadiaceae were just detected in SBR-DenAna.

  4. Anaerobic Benzene Oxidation by Geobacter Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Timothy S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Barlett, Melissa A.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2012-01-01

    The abundance of Geobacter species in contaminated aquifers in which benzene is anaerobically degraded has led to the suggestion that some Geobacter species might be capable of anaerobic benzene degradation, but this has never been documented. A strain of Geobacter, designated strain Ben, was isolated from sediments from the Fe(III)-reducing zone of a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in which there was significant capacity for anaerobic benzene oxidation. Strain Ben grew in a medium with benzene as the sole electron donor and Fe(III) oxide as the sole electron acceptor. Furthermore, additional evaluation of Geobacter metallireducens demonstrated that it could also grow in benzene-Fe(III) medium. In both strain Ben and G. metallireducens the stoichiometry of benzene metabolism and Fe(III) reduction was consistent with the oxidation of benzene to carbon dioxide with Fe(III) serving as the sole electron acceptor. With benzene as the electron donor, and Fe(III) oxide (strain Ben) or Fe(III) citrate (G. metallireducens) as the electron acceptor, the cell yields of strain Ben and G. metallireducens were 3.2 × 109 and 8.4 × 109 cells/mmol of Fe(III) reduced, respectively. Strain Ben also oxidized benzene with anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) as the sole electron acceptor with cell yields of 5.9 × 109 cells/mmol of AQDS reduced. Strain Ben serves as model organism for the study of anaerobic benzene metabolism in petroleum-contaminated aquifers, and G. metallireducens is the first anaerobic benzene-degrading organism that can be genetically manipulated. PMID:23001648

  5. Anaerobic benzene degradation by bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Carsten; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Richnow, Hans‐Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Summary Benzene is a widespread and toxic contaminant. The fate of benzene in contaminated aquifers seems to be primarily controlled by the abundance of oxygen: benzene is aerobically degraded at high rates by ubiquitous microorganisms, and the oxygen‐dependent pathways for its breakdown were elucidated more than 50 years ago. In contrast, benzene was thought to be persistent under anoxic conditions until 25 years ago. Nevertheless, within the last 15 years, several benzene‐degrading cultures...

  6. Metatranscriptome of an Anaerobic Benzene-Degrading, Nitrate-Reducing Enrichment Culture Reveals Involvement of Carboxylation in Benzene Ring Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fei; Gitiafroz, Roya; Devine, Cheryl E.; Gong, Yunchen; Hug, Laura A.; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2014-01-01

    The enzymes involved in the initial steps of anaerobic benzene catabolism are not known. To try to elucidate this critical step, a metatranscriptomic analysis was conducted to compare the genes transcribed during the metabolism of benzene and benzoate by an anaerobic benzene-degrading, nitrate-reducing enrichment culture. RNA was extracted from the mixed culture and sequenced without prior mRNA enrichment, allowing simultaneous examination of the active community composition and the differential gene expression between the two treatments. Ribosomal and mRNA sequences attributed to a member of the family Peptococcaceae from the order Clostridiales were essentially only detected in the benzene-amended culture samples, implicating this group in the initial catabolism of benzene. Genes similar to each of two subunits of a proposed benzene-carboxylating enzyme were transcribed when the culture was amended with benzene. Anaerobic benzoate degradation genes from strict anaerobes were transcribed only when the culture was amended with benzene. Genes for other benzoate catabolic enzymes and for nitrate respiration were transcribed in both samples, with those attributed to an Azoarcus species being most abundant. These findings indicate that the mineralization of benzene starts with its activation by a strict anaerobe belonging to the Peptococcaceae, involving a carboxylation step to form benzoate. These data confirm the previously hypothesized syntrophic association between a benzene-degrading Peptococcaceae strain and a benzoate-degrading denitrifying Azoarcus strain for the complete catabolism of benzene with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor. PMID:24795366

  7. Anaerobic benzene degradation under denitrifying conditions: Peptococcaceae was identified as dominant benzene degrader by Stable Isotope Probing (SIP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaan, van der B.M.; Talarico Saia, F.; Plugge, C.M.; Vos, de W.M.; Smidt, H.; Stams, A.J.M.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Gerritse, J.

    2012-01-01

    An anaerobic microbial community was enriched in a chemostat that was operated for more than 8 years with benzene and nitrate as electron acceptor. The coexistence of multiple species in the chemostat and the presence of a biofilm, led to the hypothesis that benzene-degrading species coexist in a

  8. Anaerobic Benzene Oxidation via Phenol in Geobacter metallireducens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Smith, Jessica A.; Bain, Timothy S.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic activation of benzene is expected to represent a novel biochemistry of environmental significance. Therefore, benzene metabolism was investigated in Geobacter metallireducens, the only genetically tractable organism known to anaerobically degrade benzene. Trace amounts (benzene to carbon dioxide with the reduction of Fe(III). Phenol was not detected in cell-free controls or in Fe(II)- and benzene-containing cultures of Geobacter sulfurreducens, a Geobacter species that cannot metabolize benzene. The phenol produced in G. metallireducens cultures was labeled with 18O during growth in H218O, as expected for anaerobic conversion of benzene to phenol. Analysis of whole-genome gene expression patterns indicated that genes for phenol metabolism were upregulated during growth on benzene but that genes for benzoate or toluene metabolism were not, further suggesting that phenol was an intermediate in benzene metabolism. Deletion of the genes for PpsA or PpcB, subunits of two enzymes specifically required for the metabolism of phenol, removed the capacity for benzene metabolism. These results demonstrate that benzene hydroxylation to phenol is an alternative to carboxylation for anaerobic benzene activation and suggest that this may be an important metabolic route for benzene removal in petroleum-contaminated groundwaters, in which Geobacter species are considered to play an important role in anaerobic benzene degradation. PMID:24096430

  9. Anaerobic benzene degradation by Gram-positive sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Laban, Nidal; Selesi, Drazenka; Jobelius, Carsten; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2009-06-01

    Despite its high chemical stability, benzene is known to be biodegradable with various electron acceptors under anaerobic conditions. However, our understanding of the initial activation reaction and the responsible prokaryotes is limited. In the present study, we enriched a bacterial culture that oxidizes benzene to carbon dioxide under sulfate-reducing conditions. Community analysis using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and FISH revealed 95% dominance of one phylotype that is affiliated to the Gram-positive bacterial genus Pelotomaculum showing that sulfate-reducing Gram-positive bacteria are involved in anaerobic benzene degradation. In order to get indications of the initial activation mechanism, we tested the substrate utilization, performed cometabolism tests and screened for putative metabolites. Phenol, toluene, and benzoate could not be utilized as alternative carbon sources by the benzene-degrading culture. Cometabolic degradation experiments resulted in retarded rates of benzene degradation in the presence of phenol whereas toluene had no effect on benzene metabolism. Phenol, 2-hydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, and benzoate were identified as putative metabolites in the enrichment culture. However, hydroxylated aromatics were shown to be formed abiotically. Thus, the finding of benzoate as an intermediate compound supports a direct carboxylation of benzene as the initial activation mechanism but additional reactions leading to its formation cannot be excluded definitely.

  10. Anaerobic Degradation of Benzene and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckenstock, Rainer U; Boll, Matthias; Mouttaki, Housna; Koelschbach, Janina S; Cunha Tarouco, Paola; Weyrauch, Philip; Dong, Xiyang; Himmelberg, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are very slowly degraded without molecular oxygen. Here, we review the recent advances in the elucidation of the first known degradation pathways of these environmental hazards. Anaerobic degradation of benzene and PAHs has been successfully documented in the environment by metabolite analysis, compound-specific isotope analysis and microcosm studies. Subsequently, also enrichments and pure cultures were obtained that anaerobically degrade benzene, naphthalene or methylnaphthalene, and even phenanthrene, the largest PAH currently known to be degradable under anoxic conditions. Although such cultures grow very slowly, with doubling times of around 2 weeks, and produce only very little biomass in batch cultures, successful proteogenomic, transcriptomic and biochemical studies revealed novel degradation pathways with exciting biochemical reactions such as for example the carboxylation of naphthalene or the ATP-independent reduction of naphthoyl-coenzyme A. The elucidation of the first anaerobic degradation pathways of naphthalene and methylnaphthalene at the genetic and biochemical level now opens the door to studying the anaerobic metabolism and ecology of anaerobic PAH degraders. This will contribute to assessing the fate of one of the most important contaminant classes in anoxic sediments and aquifers. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Metagenomic and proteomic analyses to elucidate the mechanism of anaerobic benzene degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu Laban, Nidal [Helmholtz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the mechanism of anaerobic benzene degradation using metagenomic and proteomic analyses. The objective of the study is to find out the microbes and biochemistry involved in benzene degradation. Hypotheses are proposed for the initial activation mechanism of benzene under anaerobic conditions. Two methods for degradation, molecular characterization and identification of benzene-degrading enzymes, are described. The physiological and molecular characteristics of iron-reducing enrichment culture are given and the process is detailed. Metagenome analysis of iron-reducing culture is presented using a pie chart. From the metagenome analysis of benzene-degrading culture, putative mobile element genes were identified in the aromatic-degrading configurations. Metaproteomic analysis of iron-reducing cultures and the anaerobic benzene degradation pathway are also elucidated. From the study, it can be concluded that gram-positive bacteria are involved in benzene degradation under iron-reducing conditions and that the catalysis mechanism of putative anaerobic benzene carboxylase needs further investigation.

  12. Benzene degradation in a denitrifying biofilm reactor: activity and microbial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waals, Marcelle J; Atashgahi, Siavash; da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; van der Zaan, Bas M; Smidt, Hauke; Gerritse, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Benzene is an aromatic compound and harmful for the environment. Biodegradation of benzene can reduce the toxicological risk after accidental or controlled release of this chemical in the environment. In this study, we further characterized an anaerobic continuous biofilm culture grown for more than 14 years on benzene with nitrate as electron acceptor. We determined steady state degradation rates, microbial community composition dynamics in the biofilm, and the initial anaerobic benzene degradation reactions. Benzene was degraded at a rate of 0.15 μmol/mg protein/day and a first-order rate constant of 3.04/day which was fourfold higher than rates reported previously. Bacteria belonging to the Peptococcaceae were found to play an important role in this anaerobic benzene-degrading biofilm culture, but also members of the Anaerolineaceae were predicted to be involved in benzene degradation or benzene metabolite degradation based on Illumina MiSeq analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Biomass retention in the reactor using a filtration finger resulted in reduction of benzene degradation capacity. Detection of the benzene carboxylase encoding gene, abcA, and benzoic acid in the culture vessel indicated that benzene degradation proceeds through an initial carboxylation step.

  13. Anaerobic Oxidation of Benzene by the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Ferroglobus placidus▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Dawn E.; Risso, Carla; Smith, Jessica A.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to the reduction of Fe(III) was studied in Ferroglobus placidus in order to learn more about how such a stable molecule could be metabolized under strict anaerobic conditions. F. placidus conserved energy to support growth at 85°C in a medium with benzene provided as the sole electron donor and Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor. The stoichiometry of benzene loss and Fe(III) reduction, as well as the conversion of [14C]benzene to [14C]carbon dioxide, was consistent with complete oxidation of benzene to carbon dioxide with electron transfer to Fe(III). Benzoate, but not phenol or toluene, accumulated at low levels during benzene metabolism, and [14C]benzoate was produced from [14C]benzene. Analysis of gene transcript levels revealed increased expression of genes encoding enzymes for anaerobic benzoate degradation during growth on benzene versus growth on acetate, but genes involved in phenol degradation were not upregulated during growth on benzene. A gene for a putative carboxylase that was more highly expressed in benzene- than in benzoate-grown cells was identified. These results suggest that benzene is carboxylated to benzoate and that phenol is not an important intermediate in the benzene metabolism of F. placidus. This is the first demonstration of a microorganism in pure culture that can grow on benzene under strict anaerobic conditions and for which there is strong evidence for degradation of benzene via clearly defined anaerobic metabolic pathways. Thus, F. placidus provides a much-needed pure culture model for further studies on the anaerobic activation of benzene in microorganisms. PMID:21742914

  14. Identification of genes specifically required for the anaerobic metabolism of benzene in Geobacter metallireducens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Tian; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Although the biochemical pathways for the anaerobic degradation of many of the hydrocarbon constituents in petroleum reservoirs have been elucidated, the mechanisms for anaerobic activation of benzene, a very stable molecule, are not known. Previous studies have demonstrated that Geobacter...... metallireducens can anaerobically oxidize benzene to carbon dioxide with Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor and that phenol is an intermediate in benzene oxidation. In an attempt to identify enzymes that might be involved in the conversion of benzene to phenol, whole-genome gene transcript abundance...... was compared in cells metabolizing benzene and cells metabolizing phenol. Eleven genes had significantly higher transcript abundance in benzene-metabolizing cells. Five of these genes had annotations suggesting that they did not encode proteins that could be involved in benzene metabolism and were not further...

  15. Anaerobic degradation of benzene by enriched consortia with humic acids as terminal electron acceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, Francisco J., E-mail: fjcervantes@ipicyt.edu.mx [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi, SLP, 78216 Mexico (Mexico); Mancilla, Ana Rosa; Toro, E. Emilia Rios-del [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi, SLP, 78216 Mexico (Mexico); Alpuche-Solis, Angel G.; Montoya-Lorenzana, Lilia [Division de Biologia Molecular, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi, SLP, 78216 Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Enriched consortia were able to couple the anaerobic degradation of benzene to the reduction of humic acids. {yields} Electron-equivalents derived from anaerobic benzene oxidation were highly recovered as reduced humic acids. {yields} Several species from classes {beta}-, {delta}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria were enriched during the anaerobic degradation of benzene. - Abstract: The anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of humic acids (HA) was demonstrated in two enriched consortia. Both inocula were able to oxidize benzene under strict anaerobic conditions when the humic model compound, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), was supplied as terminal electron acceptor. An enrichment culture originated from a contaminated soil was also able to oxidize benzene linked to the reduction of highly purified soil humic acids (HPSHA). In HPSHA-amended cultures, 9.3 {mu}M of benzene were degraded, which corresponds to 279 {+-} 27 micro-electron equivalents ({mu}Eq) L{sup -1}, linked to the reduction of 619 {+-} 81 {mu}Eq L{sup -1} of HPSHA. Neither anaerobic benzene oxidation nor reduction of HPSHA occurred in sterilized controls. Anaerobic benzene oxidation did not occur in soil incubations lacking HPSHA. Furthermore, negligible reduction of HPSHA occurred in the absence of benzene. The enrichment culture derived from this soil was dominated by two {gamma}-Proteobacteria phylotypes. A benzene-degrading AQDS-reducing enrichment originated from a sediment sample showed the prevalence of different species from classes {beta}-, {delta}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria. The present study provides clear quantitative demonstration of anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of HA.

  16. Anaerobic degradation of benzene by enriched consortia with humic acids as terminal electron acceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes, Francisco J.; Mancilla, Ana Rosa; Toro, E. Emilia Rios-del; Alpuche-Solis, Angel G.; Montoya-Lorenzana, Lilia

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Enriched consortia were able to couple the anaerobic degradation of benzene to the reduction of humic acids. → Electron-equivalents derived from anaerobic benzene oxidation were highly recovered as reduced humic acids. → Several species from classes β-, δ- and γ-Proteobacteria were enriched during the anaerobic degradation of benzene. - Abstract: The anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of humic acids (HA) was demonstrated in two enriched consortia. Both inocula were able to oxidize benzene under strict anaerobic conditions when the humic model compound, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), was supplied as terminal electron acceptor. An enrichment culture originated from a contaminated soil was also able to oxidize benzene linked to the reduction of highly purified soil humic acids (HPSHA). In HPSHA-amended cultures, 9.3 μM of benzene were degraded, which corresponds to 279 ± 27 micro-electron equivalents (μEq) L -1 , linked to the reduction of 619 ± 81 μEq L -1 of HPSHA. Neither anaerobic benzene oxidation nor reduction of HPSHA occurred in sterilized controls. Anaerobic benzene oxidation did not occur in soil incubations lacking HPSHA. Furthermore, negligible reduction of HPSHA occurred in the absence of benzene. The enrichment culture derived from this soil was dominated by two γ-Proteobacteria phylotypes. A benzene-degrading AQDS-reducing enrichment originated from a sediment sample showed the prevalence of different species from classes β-, δ- and γ-Proteobacteria. The present study provides clear quantitative demonstration of anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of HA.

  17. Anaerobic degradation of alkylated benzenes in denitrifying laboratory aquifer columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, E.P.; Zeyer, J.; Eicher, P.; Schwarzenbach, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Toluene and m-xylene were rapidly mineralized in an anaerobic laboratory aquifer column operated under continuous-flow conditions with nitrate as an electron acceptor. The oxidation of toluene and m-xylene was coupled with the reduction of nitrate, and mineralization was confirmed by trapping 14 CO 2 evolved from 14 C-ring-labeled substrates. Substrate degradation also took place when nitrous oxide replaced nitrate as an electron acceptor, but decomposition was inhibited in the presence of molecular oxygen or after the substitution of nitrate by nitrite. The m-xylene-adapted microorganisms in the aquifer column degraded toluene, benzaldehyde, benzoate, m-toluylaldehyde, m-toluate, m-cresol, p-cresol, and p-hydroxybenzoate but were unable to metabolize benzene, naphthalene, methylcyclohexane, and 1,3-dimethylcyclohexane. Isotope-dilution experiments suggested benzoate as an intermediate formed during anaerobic toluene metabolism. The finding that the highly water-soluble nitrous oxide served as electron acceptor for the anaerobic mineralization of some aromatic hydrocarbons may offer attractive options for the in situ restoration of polluted aquifers

  18. Physiological and phylogenetic characterization of a stable benzene-degrading, chlorate-reducing microbial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.; Tan, N.C.G.; Broeke, H. ten; Doesburg, W. van; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Gerritse, J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    A stable anoxic enrichment culture was obtained that degraded benzene with chlorate as an electron acceptor. The benzene degradation rate was 1.65 mM benzene per day, which is similar to reported aerobic benzene degradation rates but 20-1650 times higher than reported for anaerobic benzene

  19. Degradation of benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons by anaerobic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Accidental spills, industrial discharges and gasoline leakage from underground storage tanks have resulted in serious pollution of the environment with monoaromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (so-called BTEX). High concentrations of BTEX have been detected in

  20. Anaerobic degradation of a mixture of MtBE, EtBE, TBA, and benzene under different redox conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waals, Marcelle J; Pijls, Charles; Sinke, Anja J C; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Smidt, Hauke; Gerritse, Jan

    2018-04-01

    The increasing use of biobased fuels and fuel additives can potentially change the typical fuel-related contamination in soil and groundwater. Anaerobic biotransformation of the biofuel additive ethyl tert-butyl ether (EtBE), as well as of methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE), benzene, and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA, a possible oxygenate metabolite), was studied at an industrially contaminated site and in the laboratory. Analysis of groundwater samples indicated that in the field MtBE was degraded, yielding TBA as major product. In batch microcosms, MtBE was degraded under different conditions: unamended control, with medium without added electron acceptors, or with ferrihydrite or sulfate (with or without medium) as electron acceptor, respectively. Degradation of EtBE was not observed under any of these conditions tested. TBA was partially depleted in parallel with MtBE. Results of microcosm experiments with MtBE substrate analogues, i.e., syringate, vanillate, or ferulate, were in line with the hypothesis that the observed TBA degradation is a cometabolic process. Microcosms with ferulate, syringate, isopropanol, or diethyl ether showed EtBE depletion up to 86.5% of the initial concentration after 83 days. Benzene was degraded in the unamended controls, with medium without added electron acceptors and with ferrihydrite, sulfate, or chlorate as electron acceptor, respectively. In the presence of nitrate, benzene was only degraded after addition of an anaerobic benzene-degrading community. Nitrate and chlorate hindered MtBE, EtBE, and TBA degradation.

  1. Benzene degradation in a denitrifying biofilm reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Waals, van der, Marcelle J.; Atashgahi, Siavash; Rocha, da, Ulisses Nunes; Zaan, van der, Bas M.; Smidt, Hauke; Gerritse, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Benzene is an aromatic compound and harmful for the environment. Biodegradation of benzene can reduce the toxicological risk after accidental or controlled release of this chemical in the environment. In this study, we further characterized an anaerobic continuous biofilm culture grown for more than 14 years on benzene with nitrate as electron acceptor. We determined steady state degradation rates, microbial community composition dynamics in the biofilm, and the initial anaerobic benzene degr...

  2. Rapid anaerobic benzene oxidation with a variety of chelated Fe(III) forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Woodward, J.C.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    Fe(III) chelated to such compounds as EDTA, N-methyliminodiacetie acid, ethanol diglycine, humic acids, and phosphates stimulated benzene oxidation coupled to Fe(III) reduction in anaerobic sediments from a petroleum- contaminated aquifer as effectively as or more effectively than nitrilotriacetic acid did in a previously demonstrated stimulation experiment. These results indicate that many forms of chelated Fe(III) might be applicable to aquifer remediation.

  3. Isotopic evidence suggests different initial reaction mechanisms for anaerobic benzene biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Silvia A; Devine, Cheryl E; Elsner, Martin; Nandi, Monisha E; Ulrich, Ania C; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood

    2008-11-15

    The initial metabolic reactions for anaerobic benzene biodegradation remain uncharacterized. Isotopic data for carbon and hydrogen fractionation from nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic benzene-degrading enrichment cultures and phylogenic information were used to investigate the initial reaction step in anaerobic benzene biodegradation. Dual parameter plots of carbon and hydrogen isotopic data (deltadelta2H/ deltadelta13C) from each culture were linear, suggesting a consistent reaction mechanism as degradation proceeded. Methanogenic and sulfate-reducing cultures showed consistently higher slopes (m = 29 +/- 2) compared to nitrate-reducing cultures (m = 13 +/- 2) providing evidence for different initial reaction mechanisms. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that culture conditions were strictly anaerobic, precluding any involvement of molecular oxygen in the observed differences. Using published kinetic data, we explored the possibility of attributing such slopes to reaction mechanisms. The higher slopes found under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions suggest against an alkylation mechanism for these cultures. Observed differences between the methanogenic and nitrate-reducing cultures may not represent distinct reactions of different bonds, but rather subtle differences in relative reaction kinetics. Additional mechanistic conclusions could not be made because kinetic isotope effect data for carboxylation and other putative mechanisms are not available.

  4. Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Eekert, van M.H.A.; Dolfing, J.; Schraa, G.

    2006-01-01

    Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory

  5. Anaerobic degradation of a mixture of MtBE, EtBE, TBA, and benzene under different redox conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waals, van der Marcelle J.; Pijls, Charles; Sinke, Anja J.C.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smidt, Hauke; Gerritse, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The increasing use of biobased fuels and fuel additives can potentially change the typical fuel-related contamination in soil and groundwater. Anaerobic biotransformation of the biofuel additive ethyl tert-butyl ether (EtBE), as well as of methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE), benzene, and tert-butyl

  6. Benzene degradation in a denitrifying biofilm reactor : activity and microbial community composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waals, Marcelle J.; Atashgahi, Siavash; da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; van der Zaan, Bas M.; Smidt, Hauke; Gerritse, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Benzene is an aromatic compound and harmful for the environment. Biodegradation of benzene can reduce the toxicological risk after accidental or controlled release of this chemical in the environment. In this study, we further characterized an anaerobic continuous biofilm culture grown for more than

  7. Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stams, Alfons J M; de Bok, Frank A M; Plugge, Caroline M; van Eekert, Miriam H A; Dolfing, Jan; Schraa, Gosse

    2006-03-01

    Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory syntrophic consortia of proton-reducing acetogenic bacteria and hydrogen-consuming methanogenic archaea. Anaerobic microorganisms that use insoluble electron acceptors for growth, such as iron- and manganese-oxide as well as inert graphite electrodes in microbial fuel cells, also transfer electrons exocellularly. Soluble compounds, like humic substances, quinones, phenazines and riboflavin, can function as exocellular electron mediators enhancing this type of anaerobic respiration. However, direct electron transfer by cell-cell contact is important as well. This review addresses the mechanisms of exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities. There are fundamental differences but also similarities between electron transfer to another microorganism or to an insoluble electron acceptor. The physical separation of the electron donor and electron acceptor metabolism allows energy conservation in compounds as methane and hydrogen or as electricity. Furthermore, this separation is essential in the donation or acceptance of electrons in some environmental technological processes, e.g. soil remediation, wastewater purification and corrosion.

  8. Relating methanogen community structure and anaerobic digester function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocher, B T W; Cherukuri, K; Maki, J S; Johnson, M; Zitomer, D H

    2015-03-01

    Much remains unknown about the relationships between microbial community structure and anaerobic digester function. However, knowledge of links between community structure and function, such as specific methanogenic activity (SMA) and COD removal rate, are valuable to improve anaerobic bioprocesses. In this work, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) were developed using multiple linear regression (MLR) to predict SMA using methanogen community structure descriptors for 49 cultures. Community descriptors were DGGE demeaned standardized band intensities for amplicons of a methanogen functional gene (mcrA). First, predictive accuracy of MLR QSARs was assessed using cross validation with training (n = 30) and test sets (n = 19) for glucose and propionate SMA data. MLR equations correlating band intensities and SMA demonstrated good predictability for glucose (q(2) = 0.54) and propionate (q(2) = 0.53). Subsequently, data from all 49 cultures were used to develop QSARs to predict SMA values. Higher intensities of two bands were correlated with higher SMA values; high abundance of methanogens associated with these two bands should be encouraged to attain high SMA values. QSARs are helpful tools to identify key microorganisms or to study and improve many bioprocesses. Development of new, more robust QSARs is encouraged for anaerobic digestion or other bioprocesses, including nitrification, nitritation, denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation, and enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Natural Attenuation and Anaerobic Benzene Detoxification Processes at a Chlorobenzene-Contaminated Industrial Site Inferred from Field Investigations and Microcosm Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Wenjing; Luo, Fei; Lomheim, Line; Mack, Elizabeth Erin; Ye, Shujun; Wu, Jichun; Edwards, Elizabeth A

    2018-01-02

    A five-year site investigation was conducted at a former chemical plant in Nanjing, China. The main contaminants were 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) reaching concentrations up to 7300 μg/L, dichlorobenzene (DCB) isomers, monochlorobenzene (MCB), and benzene. Over time, these contaminants naturally attenuated to below regulatory levels under anaerobic conditions. To confirm the transformation processes and to explore the mechanisms, a corresponding laboratory microcosm study was completed demonstrating that 1,2,4-TCB was dechlorinated to 1,2-DCB, 1,3-DCB, and 1,4-DCB in approximately 2%/10%/88% molar proportions. The DCB isomers were dechlorinated via MCB to benzene, and, finally, benzene was degraded under prevailing sulfate-reducing conditions. Dechlorination could not be attributed to known dechlorinators Dehalobacter or Dehalococcoides, while anaerobic benzene degradation was mediated by microbes affiliated to a Deltaproteobacterium ORM2, previously associated with this activity. Unidentified organic compounds, possibly aromatic compounds related to past on-site production processes, were fueling the dechlorination reactions in situ. The microcosm study confirmed transformation processes inferred from field data and provided needed assurance for natural attenuation. Activity-based microcosm studies are often omitted from site characterization in favor of rapid and less expensive molecular surveys. However, the value of microcosm studies for confirming transformation processes, establishing electron balances, assessing cocontaminant inhibition, and validating appropriate monitoring tools is clear. At complex sites impacted by multiple compounds with poorly characterized transformation mechanisms, activity assays provide valuable data to incorporate into the conceptual site model to most effectively inform remediation alternatives.

  10. Microbial community analysis of ambient temperature anaerobic digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciotola, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Food, Agriculture and Biological Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which designs for Chinese and Indian fixed-dome anaerobic digesters were modified in an effort to produce smaller and more affordable digesters. While these types of systems are common in tropical regions of developing countries, they have not been used in colder climates because of the low biogas yield during the winter months. Although there is evidence that sufficient biogas production can be maintained in colder temperatures through design and operational changes, there is a lack of knowledge about the seasonal changes in the composition of the microbial communities in ambient temperature digesters. More knowledge is needed to design and operate systems for maximum biogas yield in temperate climates. The purpose of this study was to cultivate a microbial community that maximizes biogas production at psychrophilic temperatures. The study was conducted on a 300 gallon experimental anaerobic digester on the campus of Ohio State University. Culture-independent methods were used on weekly samples collected from the digester in order to examine microbial community response to changes in ambient temperature. Microbial community profiles were established using universal bacterial and archaeal primers that targeted the 16S rRNA gene. In addition to the methanogenic archaea, this analysis also targeted some of the other numerically and functionally important microbial taxa in anaerobic digesters, such as hydrolytic, fermentative, acetogenic and sulfate reducing bacteria. According to preliminary results, the composition of the microbial community shifts with changes in seasonal temperature.

  11. Relationship between microbial activity and microbial community structure in six full-scale anaerobic digesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regueiro, L.; Veiga, P.; Figueroa, M.; Alonso-Gutierrez, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lema, J.M.; Carballa, M.

    2012-01-01

    High activity levels and balanced anaerobic microbial communities are necessary to attain proper anaerobic digestion performance. Therefore, this work was focused on the kinetic performance and the microbial community structure of six full-scale anaerobic digesters and one lab-scale co-digester.

  12. Benzene oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Coates, J.D.; Woodward, J.C.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Highly reduced sediments from San Diego Bay, Calif., that were incubated under strictly anaerobic conditions metabolized benzene within 55 days when they were exposed initially to I ??M benzene. The rate of benzene metabolism increased as benzene was added back to the benzene-adapted sediments. When a [14C]benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited benzene uptake and production of 14CO2 from [14C]benzene. Benzene metabolism stopped when the sediments became sulfate depleted, and benzene uptake resumed when sulfate was added again. The stoichiometry of benzene uptake and sulfate reduction was consistent with the hypothesis that sulfate was the principal electron acceptor for benzene oxidation. Isotope trapping experiments performed with [14C]benzene revealed that there was no production of such potential extracellular intermediates of benzene oxidation as phenol, benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, cyclohexane, catechol, and acetate. The results demonstrate that benzene can be oxidized in the absence of O2, with sulfate serving as the electron acceptor, and suggest that some sulfate reducers are capable of completely oxidizing benzene to carbon dioxide without the production of extracellular intermediates. Although anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to chelated Fe(III) has been documented previously, the study reported here provides the first example of a natural sediment compound that can serve as an electron acceptor for anaerobic benzene oxidation.

  13. Relating Anaerobic Digestion Microbial Community and Process Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkiteshwaran, Kaushik; Bocher, Benjamin; Maki, James; Zitomer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) involves a consortium of microorganisms that convert substrates into biogas containing methane for renewable energy. The technology has suffered from the perception of being periodically unstable due to limited understanding of the relationship between microbial community structure and function. The emphasis of this review is to describe microbial communities in digesters and quantitative and qualitative relationships between community structure and digester function. Progress has been made in the past few decades to identify key microorganisms influencing AD. Yet, more work is required to realize robust, quantitative relationships between microbial community structure and functions such as methane production rate and resilience after perturbations. Other promising areas of research for improved AD may include methods to increase/control (1) hydrolysis rate, (2) direct interspecies electron transfer to methanogens, (3) community structure–function relationships of methanogens, (4) methanogenesis via acetate oxidation, and (5) bioaugmentation to study community–activity relationships or improve engineered bioprocesses. PMID:27127410

  14. Anaerobic methanotrophic communities thrive in deep submarine permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Matthias; Mitzscherling, Julia; Overduin, Pier P; Horn, Fabian; Winterfeld, Maria; Rijkers, Ruud; Grigoriev, Mikhail N; Knoblauch, Christian; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Wagner, Dirk; Liebner, Susanne

    2018-01-22

    Thawing submarine permafrost is a source of methane to the subsurface biosphere. Methane oxidation in submarine permafrost sediments has been proposed, but the responsible microorganisms remain uncharacterized. We analyzed archaeal communities and identified distinct anaerobic methanotrophic assemblages of marine and terrestrial origin (ANME-2a/b, ANME-2d) both in frozen and completely thawed submarine permafrost sediments. Besides archaea potentially involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) we found a large diversity of archaea mainly belonging to Bathyarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota. Methane concentrations and δ 13 C-methane signatures distinguish horizons of potential AOM coupled either to sulfate reduction in a sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) or to the reduction of other electron acceptors, such as iron, manganese or nitrate. Analysis of functional marker genes (mcrA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) corroborate potential activity of AOM communities in submarine permafrost sediments at low temperatures. Modeled potential AOM consumes 72-100% of submarine permafrost methane and up to 1.2 Tg of carbon per year for the total expected area of submarine permafrost. This is comparable with AOM habitats such as cold seeps. We thus propose that AOM is active where submarine permafrost thaws, which should be included in global methane budgets.

  15. Mechanism of uranium (VI) removal by two anaerobic bacterial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Monica; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Costa, Ana M. Rosa da; Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogerio; Matos, Antonio Pedro; Costa, Maria Clara

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of uranium (VI) removal by two anaerobic bacterial consortia, recovered from an uncontaminated site (consortium A) and other from an uranium mine (consortium U), was investigated. The highest efficiency of U (VI) removal by both consortia (97%) occurred at room temperature and at pH 7.2. Furthermore, it was found that U (VI) removal by consortium A occurred by enzymatic reduction and bioaccumulation, while the enzymatic process was the only mechanism involved in metal removal by consortium U. FTIR analysis suggested that after U (VI) reduction, U (IV) could be bound to carboxyl, phosphate and amide groups of bacterial cells. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA showed that community A was mainly composed by bacteria closely related to Sporotalea genus and Rhodocyclaceae family, while community U was mainly composed by bacteria related to Clostridium genus and Rhodocyclaceae family.

  16. Benzene Oxidation Coupled to Sulfate Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Lovley, D. R.; Coates, J. D.; Woodward, J. C.; Phillips, E.

    1995-01-01

    Highly reduced sediments from San Diego Bay, Calif., that were incubated under strictly anaerobic conditions metabolized benzene within 55 days when they were exposed initially to 1 (mu)M benzene. The rate of benzene metabolism increased as benzene was added back to the benzene-adapted sediments. When a [(sup14)C]benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as (sup14)CO(inf2). Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate r...

  17. Aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophic communities in urban landscape wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sili; Chen, Jianfei; Chang, Sha; Yi, Hao; Huang, Dawei; Xie, Shuguang; Guo, Qingwei

    2018-01-01

    Both aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) organisms can be important methane sinks in a wetland. However, the influences of the vegetation type on aerobic MOB and n-damo communities in wetland, especially in constructed wetland, remain poorly understood. The present study investigated the influences of the vegetation type on both aerobic MOB and n-damo organisms in a constructed urban landscape wetland. Sediments were collected from eight sites vegetated with different plant species. The abundance (1.19-3.27 × 10 7 pmoA gene copies per gram dry sediment), richness (Chao1 estimator = 16.3-81.5), diversity (Shannon index = 2.10-3.15), and structure of the sediment aerobic MOB community were found to vary considerably with sampling site. In contrast, n-damo community abundance (8.74 × 10 5 -4.80 × 10 6 NC10 16S rRNA gene copies per gram dry sediment) changed slightly with the sampling site. The richness (Chao1 estimator = 1-11), diversity (Shannon index = 0-0.78), and structure of the NC10 16S rRNA gene-based n-damo community illustrated slight site-related changes, while the spatial changes of the pmoA gene-based n-damo community richness (Chao1 estimator = 1-8), diversity (Shannon index = 0-0.99), and structure were considerable. The vegetation type could have a profound impact on the wetland aerobic MOB community and had a stronger influence on the pmoA-based n-damo community than on the NC10 16S-based one in urban wetland. Moreover, the aerobic MOB community had greater abundance and higher richness and diversity than the n-damo community. Methylocystis (type II MOB) predominated in urban wetland, while no known type I MOB species was detected. In addition, the ratio of total organic carbon to total nitrogen (C/N) might be a determinant of sediment n-damo community diversity and aerobic MOB richness.

  18. Bioremediation of Benzene-contaminated Underground Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Takahata, Yoh

    Contamination of underground aquifers with gasoline occurs frequently. Among the gasoline constituents, benzene is of great environmental concern, since it is carcinogenic, water-soluble and persistent under anaerobic conditions. We have analyzed a gasoline-contaminated underground aquifer undergoing natural attenuation, where benzene was degraded, albeit slowly, under anaerobic conditions. RNA-based stable-isotope probing identified that bacteria affiliated with the genus AZOARCUS was responsible for benzene degradation under nitrate-reducing conditions. This result was confirmed by isolating an anaerobic benzene-degrading bacterium AZOARCUS sp. strain DN11. This strain degraded benzene at relatively low concentrations (as low as 10 ppb). It could also degrade toluene and xylenes. In laboratory bioaugmentation experiments using benzene-contaminated groundwater, it was demonstrated that supplementation with DN11 significantly accelerated benzene degradation under a nitrate-reducing condition. These results indicate that DN11 is potentially useful for degrading benzene that contaminates underground aquifers at relatively low concentrations.

  19. Community Anaerobic Digester: Powered by Students and Driving Practical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond Hall, Joan [Vermont Sustainable Jobs Fund, Montpelier, VT (United States); O' Leary, Mary [Vermont Sustainable Jobs Fund, Montpelier, VT (United States)

    2016-03-23

    The Vermont Tech Community Anaerobic Digester (VTCAD) was conceived and funded by a partnership of educational, agricultural, waste management and environmental groups to create a living laboratory demonstrating the value of recycling nutrients, renewable energy and agricultural co-products from organic wastes. VTCAD was constructed on the Randolph Center, Vermont campus of Vermont Tech, a public college offering engineering technology, agricultural, renewable energy education and workforce training. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Vermont State Colleges and others, construction was completed in early 2014 and the facility has been operational since April 2014. At full power, VTCAD uses 16,000 gallons of manure and organic residuals to produce 8,880 kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity per day, ‘waste’ heat that will be used to heat four campus buildings, bedding material for the college dairy herds and recycled nutrients used as crop fertilizer. VTCAD uses a mixture of manure from co-managed farms and organic residuals collected from the community. Feedstock materials include brewery residuals, the glycerol by-product of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil, grease trap waste, and waste paper and, soon, locally collected pre- and post-consumer food residuals.

  20. Establishment of a Methanogenic Benzene-Degrading Culture and its Implication in Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, W.; Luo, F.; Bawa, N.; Guo, S.; Ye, S.; Edwards, E.

    2017-12-01

    Benzene is a known human carcinogen and it is a common pollutant in groundwater, mainly resulting from petrochemical industry. Anaerobic degradation of benzene has significant advantages over aerobic processes for in situ bioremediation. In this study, new methanogenic and sulfate-reducing benzene degrading cultures have been enriched. Microbial community composition was characterized with two other previously established benzene-degrading cultures, and their potential use in bioaugmentation is investigated. In this study, a lab microcosm study was conducted anaerobically with contaminated soil and groundwater from a former chemical plant. Benzene degradation was observed in the presence of co-contaminants and electron donor. Through repetitive amendment of benzene, two enrichment cultures have been developed under sulfate and methanogenic conditions. Results from DNA amplicon sequencing and qPCR analysis revealed that an organism similar to previously described benzene-degrading Deltaproteobacterium has been enriched. The microbial community of this culture was compared with other two methanogenic benzene-degrading enrichment cultures that were derived from an oil refinery and a decommissioned gasoline station, and have been maintained for decades. Deltaproteobacterium ORM2-like microbes were dominate in all enrichment cultures, which brought to light benzene-degrading microbes, ORM2 were enriched under different geological conditions distributed around the world. The relative abundance of methanogens was much lower compared to previously established cultures, although substantial amount of methane was produced. The peripheral organisms also vary. To investigate effectiveness of using ORM2-dominant enrichment cultures in bioremediation, microcosm studies were set up using contaminated materials, and a ORM2-dominating methanogenic benzene-degrading culture was used for bioaugmentation. Results revealed that benzene degradation was speeded up under methanogenic or

  1. Distinct and diverse anaerobic respiration of methanogenic community in response to MnO2nanoparticles in anaerobic digester sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Qiao, Sen; Yu, Cong; Tian, Yihui; Yang, Yue; Zhou, Jiti

    2017-10-15

    Recently, the influence of metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) on methanogenesis in anaerobic digestion has drawn much attention, however, the changes in NPs and functioning consortia within the methanogenic community are usually not investigated. Therefore, the methanogenesis performance, NPs transformation and methanogenic community development in anaerobic digester sludge under MnO 2 NP supplementation were demonstrated in this study. MnO 2 NPs (400 mg/gVSS) stimulated the methane (CH 4 ) yield by 42% for a final CH 4 proportion of 81.8% of the total gas production. Meanwhile, the coenzyme F 420 and INT-electron transport system activities showed positive correlation with MnO 2 concentration. Microbial Mn reduction and oxidation occurred in conjunction with methanogenesis, resulting in transformation of the shape of the MnO 2 NPs from wire-like to globular particles. Microbial community analysis indicated that the relative abundances of genera Methanobacterium, Methanosaeta, and Methanosarcina were higher in the presence of MnO 2 NPs. Moreover, a new and different crucial synergy within the methanogenic community was formed with low-abundance consortia driving Mn respiration coupled to methanogenesis in anaerobic digestion. To our knowledge, this is the first report on transformation of metal oxides NPs combined with syntrophic community development in studies focusing on methanogenesis in response to NPs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Spatial Variation in Anaerobic Microbial Communities in Wetland Margin Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, H.; Kannenberg, S.; Ludwig, S.; Nelson, L. C.; Spawn, S.; Porterfield, J.; Schade, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the severity and frequency of precipitation and drought events, which may result in substantial temporal variation in the size of wetlands. Wetlands are the world's largest natural emitter of methane, a greenhouse gas that is 20 times more effective at trapping heat than carbon dioxide. Changes in the dynamics of wetland size may lead to changes in the extent and timing of inundation of soils in ephemeral margins, which is likely to influence microbes that rely on anoxic conditions. The impact on process rates may depend on the structure of the community of microbes present in the soil, however, the link between microbial structure and patterns in process rates in soils is not well understood. Our goal was to use molecular techniques to compare microorganism communities in two wetlands that differ in the extent and duration of inundation of marginal soils to assess how these communities may change with changes in climate, and the potential consequences for methane production. This will allow us to examine how community composition changes with soil conditions such as moisture content, frequency of drought and abundance of available carbon. The main focus of this project was to determine the presence or absence of acetoclastic (AC) and hydrogenotrophic (HT) methanogens. AC methanogens use acetate as their main substrate, while HT methanogens use Hydrogen and Carbon dioxide. The relative proportion of these pathways depends on soil conditions, such as competition with other anaerobic microbes and the amount of labile carbon, and spatial patterns in the presence of each can give insight into the soil conditions of a wetland site. We sampled soil from three different wetland ponds of varying permanence in the St Olaf Natural Lands in Northfield, Minnesota, and extracted DNA from these soil samples with a MoBio PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit. With PCR and seven different primer sets, we tested the extracted DNA for the presence of

  3. Methanogenic degradation of (amino)aromatic compounds by anaerobic microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linkova, Y.V.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Degradation of a range of aromatic substrates by anaerobic microbial communities was studied. Active methanogenic microbial communities decomposing aminoaromatic acids and azo dyes into CH4 and CO2 were isolated. Products of primary conversion were found to be 2-hydroxybenzyl and benzyl alcohols

  4. Anaerobic transformation of carbon monoxide by microbial communities of Kamchatka hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetkova, Tatiana V; Rusanov, Igor I; Pimenov, Nikolay V; Kolganova, Tatyana V; Lebedinsky, Alexander V; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Sokolova, Tatyana G

    2011-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the common gaseous compounds found in hot volcanic environments. It is known to serve as the growth substrate for a number of thermophilic prokaryotes, both aerobic and anaerobic. The goal of this work was to study the process of anaerobic transformation of CO by microbial communities inhabiting natural thermal environments: hot springs of Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka. The anaerobic microbial community of Treshchinny Spring (80°C, pH 6.5) was found to exhibit two peaks of affinity for CO (K (S1) = 54 nM and K (S2) = 1 μM). The actual rate of anaerobic CO transformation by the microbial community of this spring, calculated after obtaining the concentration dependence curve and extrapolated to the natural concentration of CO dissolved in the hot spring water (20 nM), was found to be 120 μmol l(-1) of sediment day(-1). In all the hot springs studied, more than 90% of the carbon of (14)CO upon anaerobic incubation was recovered as (14)CO(2). From 1 to 5% of (14)CO was transformed to volatile fatty acids (VFA). The number of microorganisms capable of anaerobic CO oxidation determined by dilution-to-extinction method reached 10(6) cells ml(-1) of sediment. CO-transforming anaerobic thermophilic microorganisms isolated from the springs under study exhibited hydrogenogenic type of CO oxidation and belonged to the bacterial genera Carboxydocella and Dictyoglomus. These data suggest a significant role of hydrogenogenic carboxydotrophic prokaryotes in anaerobic CO transformation in Uzon Caldera hot springs.

  5. Effect of continuous oleate addition on microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baserba, Manel Garrido; Angelidaki, Irini; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the microbial diversity in anaerobic reactors, continuously exposed to oleate, added to a manure reactor influent, was investigated. Relative changes in archaeal community were less remarkable in comparison to changes in bacterial community indicating that dominant archaeal ...... a comprehensive picture on oleate degrading microbial communities in high organic strength wastewater. The findings might be utilized for development of strategies for biogas production from lipid-riched wastes....

  6. The impacts of triclosan on anaerobic community structures, function, and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Patrick J; LaPara, Timothy M; Novak, Paige J

    2014-07-01

    Triclosan is a widespread antimicrobial agent that accumulates in anaerobic digesters used to treat the residual solids generated at municipal wastewater treatment plants; there is very little information, however, about how triclosan impacts microbial communities in anaerobic digesters. We investigated how triclosan impacts the community structure, function and antimicrobial resistance genes in lab-scale anaerobic digesters. Previously exposed (to triclosan) communities were amended with 5, 50, and 500 mg/kg of triclosan, corresponding to the median, 95th percentile, and 4-fold higher than maximum triclosan concentration that has been detected in U.S. biosolids. Triclosan amendment caused all of the Bacteria and Archaea communities to structurally diverge from that of the control cultures (based on ARISA). At the end of the experiment, all triclosan-amended Archaea communities had diverged from the control communities, regardless of the triclosan concentration added. In contrast, over time the Bacteria communities that were amended with lower concentrations of triclosan (5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) initially diverged and then reconverged with the control community structure. Methane production at 500 mg/kg was nearly half the methane production in control cultures. At 50 mg/kg, a large variability in methane production was observed, suggesting that 50 mg/kg may be a tipping point where function begins to fail in some communities. When previously unexposed communities were exposed to 500 mg triclosan/kg, function was maintained, but the abundance of a gene encoding for triclosan resistance (mexB) increased. This research suggests that triclosan could inhibit methane production in anaerobic digesters if concentrations were to increase and may also select for resistant Bacteria. In both cases, microbial community composition and exposure history alter the influence of triclosan.

  7. Characterization and Adaptation of Anaerobic Sludge Microbial Communities Exposed to Tetrabromobisphenol A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Lefevre

    Full Text Available The increasing occurrence of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA in the environment is raising questions about its potential ecological and human health impacts. TBBPA is microbially transformed under anaerobic conditions to bisphenol A (BPA. However, little is known about which taxa degrade TBBPA and the adaptation of microbial communities exposed to TBBPA. The objectives of this study were to characterize the effect of TBBPA on microbial community structure during the start-up phase of a bench-scale anaerobic sludge reactor, and identify taxa that may be associated with TBBPA degradation. TBBPA degradation was monitored using LC/MS-MS, and the microbial community was characterized using Ion Torrent sequencing and qPCR. TBBPA was nearly completely transformed to BPA via reductive debromination in 55 days. Anaerobic reactor performance was not negatively affected by the presence of TBBPA and the bulk of the microbial community did not experience significant shifts. Several taxa showed a positive response to TBBPA, suggesting they may be associated with TBBPA degradation. Some of these taxa had been previously identified as dehalogenating bacteria including Dehalococcoides, Desulfovibrio, Propionibacterium, and Methylosinus species, but most had not previously been identified as having dehalogenating capacities. This study is the first to provide in-depth information on the microbial dynamics of anaerobic microbial communities exposed to TBBPA.

  8. The metagenome of an anaerobic microbial community decomposing poplar wood chips.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel van der Lelie

    Full Text Available This study describes the composition and metabolic potential of a lignocellulosic biomass degrading community that decays poplar wood chips under anaerobic conditions. We examined the community that developed on poplar biomass in a non-aerated bioreactor over the course of a year, with no microbial inoculation other than the naturally occurring organisms on the woody material. The composition of this community contrasts in important ways with biomass-degrading communities associated with higher organisms, which have evolved over millions of years into a symbiotic relationship. Both mammalian and insect hosts provide partial size reduction, chemical treatments (low or high pH environments, and complex enzymatic 'secretomes' that improve microbial access to cell wall polymers. We hypothesized that in order to efficiently degrade coarse untreated biomass, a spontaneously assembled free-living community must both employ alternative strategies, such as enzymatic lignin depolymerization, for accessing hemicellulose and cellulose and have a much broader metabolic potential than host-associated communities. This would suggest that such a community would make a valuable resource for finding new catalytic functions involved in biomass decomposition and gaining new insight into the poorly understood process of anaerobic lignin depolymerization. Therefore, in addition to determining the major players in this community, our work specifically aimed at identifying functions potentially involved in the depolymerization of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, and to assign specific roles to the prevalent community members in the collaborative process of biomass decomposition. A bacterium similar to Magnetospirillum was identified among the dominant community members, which could play a key role in the anaerobic breakdown of aromatic compounds. We suggest that these compounds are released from the lignin fraction in poplar hardwood during the decay process

  9. The metagenome of an anaerobic microbial community decomposing poplar wood chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lelie, Daniel; Taghavi, Safiyh; McCorkle, Sean M; Li, Luen-Luen; Malfatti, Stephanie A; Monteleone, Denise; Donohoe, Bryon S; Ding, Shi-You; Adney, William S; Himmel, Michael E; Tringe, Susannah G

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the composition and metabolic potential of a lignocellulosic biomass degrading community that decays poplar wood chips under anaerobic conditions. We examined the community that developed on poplar biomass in a non-aerated bioreactor over the course of a year, with no microbial inoculation other than the naturally occurring organisms on the woody material. The composition of this community contrasts in important ways with biomass-degrading communities associated with higher organisms, which have evolved over millions of years into a symbiotic relationship. Both mammalian and insect hosts provide partial size reduction, chemical treatments (low or high pH environments), and complex enzymatic 'secretomes' that improve microbial access to cell wall polymers. We hypothesized that in order to efficiently degrade coarse untreated biomass, a spontaneously assembled free-living community must both employ alternative strategies, such as enzymatic lignin depolymerization, for accessing hemicellulose and cellulose and have a much broader metabolic potential than host-associated communities. This would suggest that such a community would make a valuable resource for finding new catalytic functions involved in biomass decomposition and gaining new insight into the poorly understood process of anaerobic lignin depolymerization. Therefore, in addition to determining the major players in this community, our work specifically aimed at identifying functions potentially involved in the depolymerization of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, and to assign specific roles to the prevalent community members in the collaborative process of biomass decomposition. A bacterium similar to Magnetospirillum was identified among the dominant community members, which could play a key role in the anaerobic breakdown of aromatic compounds. We suggest that these compounds are released from the lignin fraction in poplar hardwood during the decay process, which would point to

  10. Impact of acclimation methods on microbial communities and performance of anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactors

    KAUST Repository

    Labarge, Nicole

    2016-10-17

    An anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (AFMBR) is a new and effective method for energy-efficient treatment of low strength wastewater, but the factors that affect performance are not well known. Different inocula and acclimation methods of the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the reactor were examined here to determine their impact on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and microbial community composition of domestic wastewater-fed AFMBRs. AFMBRs inoculated with anaerobic digester sludge (D) or domestic wastewater (W) and fed domestic wastewater, or inoculated with a microbiologically diverse anaerobic bog sediment and acclimated using methanol (M), all produced the same COD removal of 63 ± 12% using a diluted wastewater feed (100 ± 21 mg L−1 COD). However, an AFMBR with GAC inoculated with anaerobic digester sludge and acclimated using acetate (A) showed significantly increased wastewater COD removal to 84 ± 6%. In addition, feeding the AFMBR with the M-acclimated GAC with an acetate medium for one week subsequently increased COD removal to 70 ± 6%. Microbial communities enriched on the GAC included Geobacter, sulfur-reducing bacteria, Syntrophaceae, and Chlorobiaceae, with reactor A having the highest relative abundance of Geobacter. These results showed that acetate was the most useful substrate for acclimation of GAC communities, and GAC harbors unique communities relative to those in the AFMBR influent and recirculated solution.

  11. Methanogenic community composition in an organic waste mixture in an anaerobic bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryta, Agata; Oszust, Karolina; Brzezińska, Małgorzata; Ziemiński, Krzysztof; Bilińska-Wielgus, Nina; Frąc, Magdalena

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the substantial relationship between the compositions of methanogen community that assembles in the anaerobic digester mass and link it to methane production activity. The results of the metagenomic studies were used to evaluate how the methanogen structure changes during an anaerobic digestion process under various waste retention times (21, 23, 25, 29, 33, 39, 47 and 61 days). Phylogenetically coherent populations of methanogens were assessed by 16S rRNA gene next-generation sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting of a specific molecular marker, the mcrA gene. The results indicated multiple phylogenetically diverse methanogen populations associated with the various steps of anaerobic digestion. The stages of the anaerobic digestion process and waste retention times determine the microbial composition. The most dominant and acclimated microbial communities in all samples belonged to the genera Methanosaeta and Methanobacterium. The methane yield was consistent with the results of the microbial community structure, which indicated that acetotrophic Methanosaeta was the most active and most important during the methanogenic stage.

  12. Benzene degradation in a denitrifying biofilm reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waals, van der Marcelle J.; Atashgahi, Siavash; Rocha, da Ulisses Nunes; Zaan, van der Bas M.; Smidt, Hauke; Gerritse, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Benzene is an aromatic compound and harmful for the environment. Biodegradation of benzene can reduce the toxicological risk after accidental or controlled release of this chemical in the environment. In this study, we further characterized an anaerobic continuous biofilm culture grown for more

  13. Organic micropollutants in aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Changes in microbial communities and gene expression

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moustapha

    2016-07-09

    Organic micro-pollutants (OMPs) are contaminants of emerging concern in wastewater treatment due to the risk of their proliferation into the environment, but their impact on the biological treatment process is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the presence of OMPs on the core microbial populations of wastewater treatment. Two nanofiltration-coupled membrane bioreactors (aerobic and anaerobic) were subjected to the same operating conditions while treating synthetic municipal wastewater spiked with OMPs. Microbial community dynamics, gene expression levels, and antibiotic resistance genes were analyzed using molecular-based approaches. Results showed that presence of OMPs in the wastewater feed had a clear effect on keystone bacterial populations in both the aerobic and anaerobic sludge while also significantly impacting biodegradation-associated gene expression levels. Finally, multiple antibiotic-type OMPs were found to have higher removal rates in the anaerobic MBR, while associated antibiotic resistance genes were lower.

  14. Correlation between microbial community and granule conductivity in anaerobic bioreactors for brewery wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Pravin; Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Werner, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Prior investigation of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating brewery wastes suggested that direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) significantly contributed to interspecies electron transfer to methanogens. To investigate DIET in granules further, the electrical conducti......Prior investigation of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating brewery wastes suggested that direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) significantly contributed to interspecies electron transfer to methanogens. To investigate DIET in granules further, the electrical...... conductivity and bacterial community composition of granules in fourteen samples from four different UASB reactors treating brewery wastes were investigated. All of the UASB granules were electrically conductive whereas control granules from ANAMMOX (ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation) reactors and microbial...... granules from an aerobic bioreactor designed for phosphate removal were not. There was a moderate correlation (r = 0.67) between the abundance of Geobacter species in the UASB granules and granule conductivity, suggesting that Geobacter contributed to granule conductivity. These results, coupled...

  15. Microbial diversity of hydrothermal sediments in the Guaymas Basin: evidence for anaerobic methanotrophic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, Andreas; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Edgcomb, Virginia; de Vera Gomez, Alvin; Kysela, David; Sylva, Sean P; Sogin, Mitchell L; Jannasch, Holger W

    2002-04-01

    Microbial communities in hydrothermally active sediments of the Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California, Mexico) were studied by using 16S rRNA sequencing and carbon isotopic analysis of archaeal and bacterial lipids. The Guaymas sediments harbored uncultured euryarchaeota of two distinct phylogenetic lineages within the anaerobic methane oxidation 1 (ANME-1) group, ANME-1a and ANME-1b, and of the ANME-2c lineage within the Methanosarcinales, both previously assigned to the methanotrophic archaea. The archaeal lipids in the Guaymas Basin sediments included archaeol, diagnostic for nonthermophilic euryarchaeota, and sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol, with the latter compound being particularly abundant in cultured members of the Methanosarcinales. The concentrations of these compounds were among the highest observed so far in studies of methane seep environments. The delta-(13)C values of these lipids (delta-(13)C = -89 to -58 per thousand) indicate an origin from anaerobic methanotrophic archaea. This molecular-isotopic signature was found not only in samples that yielded predominantly ANME-2 clones but also in samples that yielded exclusively ANME-1 clones. ANME-1 archaea therefore remain strong candidates for mediation of the anaerobic oxidation of methane. Based on 16S rRNA data, the Guaymas sediments harbor phylogenetically diverse bacterial populations, which show considerable overlap with bacterial populations of geothermal habitats and natural or anthropogenic hydrocarbon-rich sites. Consistent with earlier observations, our combined evidence from bacterial phylogeny and molecular-isotopic data indicates an important role of some novel deeply branching bacteria in anaerobic methanotrophy. Anaerobic methane oxidation likely represents a significant and widely occurring process in the trophic ecology of methane-rich hydrothermal vents. This study stresses a high diversity among communities capable of anaerobic oxidation of methane.

  16. Influence of phenylacetic acid pulses on anaerobic digestion performance and archaeal community structure in WWTP sewage sludge digesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrol, L.; Urra, J.; Rosenkranz, F.; Kroff, P.A.; Plugge, C.M.; Lesty, Y.; Chamy, R.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of phenylacetic acid (PAA) pulses on anaerobic digestion (AD) performance and archaeal community structure was evaluated in anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Four pilot-scale continuous stirred tank reactors were set up at a full-scale

  17. Effects of Predation by Protists on Prokaryotic Community Function, Structure, and Diversity in Anaerobic Granular Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakata, Yuga; Oshiki, Mamoru; Kuroda, Kyohei; Hatamoto, Masashi; Kubota, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki; Araki, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Predation by protists is top-down pressure that regulates prokaryotic abundance, community function, structure, and diversity in natural and artificial ecosystems. Although the effects of predation by protists have been studied in aerobic ecosystems, they are poorly understood in anoxic environments. We herein studied the influence of predation by Metopus and Caenomorpha ciliates—ciliates frequently found in anoxic ecosystems—on prokaryotic community function, structure, and diversity. Metopus and Caenomorpha ciliates were cocultivated with prokaryotic assemblages (i.e., anaerobic granular sludge) in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for 171 d. Predation by these ciliates increased the methanogenic activities of granular sludge, which constituted 155% of those found in a UASB reactor without the ciliates (i.e., control reactor). Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons using Illumina MiSeq revealed that the prokaryotic community in the UASB reactor with the ciliates was more diverse than that in the control reactor; 2,885–3,190 and 2,387–2,426 operational taxonomic units (>97% sequence similarities), respectively. The effects of predation by protists in anaerobic engineered systems have mostly been overlooked, and our results show that the influence of predation by protists needs to be examined and considered in the future for a better understanding of prokaryotic community structure and function. PMID:27431197

  18. Key players and team play: anaerobic microbial communities in hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Schleinitz, Kathleen M; Vogt, Carsten

    2012-05-01

    Biodegradation of anthropogenic pollutants in shallow aquifers is an important microbial ecosystem service which is mainly brought about by indigenous anaerobic microorganisms. For the management of contaminated sites, risk assessment and control of natural attenuation, the assessment of in situ biodegradation and the underlying microbial processes is essential. The development of novel molecular methods, "omics" approaches, and high-throughput techniques has revealed new insight into complex microbial communities and their functions in anoxic environmental systems. This review summarizes recent advances in the application of molecular methods to study anaerobic microbial communities in contaminated terrestrial subsurface ecosystems. We focus on current approaches to analyze composition, dynamics, and functional diversity of subsurface communities, to link identity to activity and metabolic function, and to identify the ecophysiological role of not yet cultured microbes and syntrophic consortia. We discuss recent molecular surveys of contaminated sites from an ecological viewpoint regarding degrader ecotypes, abiotic factors shaping anaerobic communities, and biotic interactions underpinning the importance of microbial cooperation for microbial ecosystem services such as contaminant degradation.

  19. The Analysis of a Microbial Community in the UV/O3-Anaerobic/Aerobic Integrated Process for Petrochemical Nanofiltration Concentrate (NFC Treatment by 454-Pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wei

    Full Text Available In this study, high-throughput pyrosequencing was applied on the analysis of the microbial community of activated sludge and biofilm in a lab-scale UV/O3- anaerobic/aerobic (A/O integrated process for the treatment of petrochemical nanofiltration concentrate (NFC wastewater. NFC is a type of saline wastewater with low biodegradability. From the anaerobic activated sludge (Sample A and aerobic biofilm (Sample O, 59,748 and 51,231 valid sequence reads were obtained, respectively. The dominant phylotypes related to the metabolism of organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH biodegradation, assimilation of carbon from benzene, and the biodegradation of nitrogenous organic compounds were detected as genus Clostridium, genera Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, class Betaproteobacteria, and genus Hyphomicrobium. Furthermore, the nitrite-oxidising bacteria Nitrospira, nitrite-reducing and sulphate-oxidising bacteria (NR-SRB Thioalkalivibrio were also detected. In the last twenty operational days, the total Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and Total Organic Carbon (TOC removal efficiencies on average were 64.93% and 62.06%, respectively. The removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen and Total Nitrogen (TN on average were 90.51% and 75.11% during the entire treatment process.

  20. Cultivable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial communities in the fermentation chambers of Holotrichia parallela (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Yuan, Yimin; Ali, Muhammad Waqar; Peng, Tao; Peng, Wei; Raza, Muhammad Fahim; Zhao, Yongshun; Zhang, Hongyu

    2018-01-01

    As important pests, scarab beetle larvae survive on plant biomass and the microbiota of the fermentation chamber play an important role in the digestion of lignocellulose-rich diets. However, the cultivable microbes, especially the anaerobic cultivable microbes, are still largely unknown. Here, both cultivable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial communities associated with the fermentation chamber of Holotrichia parallela larvae were investigated. In total bacteria cells directly enumerated by the 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining method, the viable plate counts of cultivable bacteria in the fermentation chamber accounted for 0.92% of proportion. These cultivable bacteria were prone to attach to the fermentation chamber wall (88.41%) compared to the chamber contents. Anaerobic bacteria were dominant in the cultivable bacteria attaching to the fermentation chamber wall (70.20%), while the quantities of anaerobes and aerobes were similar in the chamber contents. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), fingerprinting and sequence analysis of isolated colonies revealed that the cultivable bacteria are affiliated with class γ-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidia, Actinobacteria, Clostridia and β-Proteobacteria. γ-Proteobacteria was the major type of anaerobic cultivable bacteria and even the only one type of aerobic cultivable bacteria. Taken together, our results suggest, for the first time, that anaerobic microbiota are dominant in cultivable bacteria in the special anoxia niche of the fermentation chamber from H. parallela larvae. These bacterial isolates could be a treasure trove for screening lignocellulytic microbes which are essential for the plant biomass digestion of this scarab species.

  1. Cultivable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial communities in the fermentation chambers of Holotrichia parallela (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Waqar; Peng, Tao; Peng, Wei; Raza, Muhammad Fahim; Zhao, Yongshun; Zhang, Hongyu

    2018-01-01

    As important pests, scarab beetle larvae survive on plant biomass and the microbiota of the fermentation chamber play an important role in the digestion of lignocellulose-rich diets. However, the cultivable microbes, especially the anaerobic cultivable microbes, are still largely unknown. Here, both cultivable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial communities associated with the fermentation chamber of Holotrichia parallela larvae were investigated. In total bacteria cells directly enumerated by the 4’, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining method, the viable plate counts of cultivable bacteria in the fermentation chamber accounted for 0.92% of proportion. These cultivable bacteria were prone to attach to the fermentation chamber wall (88.41%) compared to the chamber contents. Anaerobic bacteria were dominant in the cultivable bacteria attaching to the fermentation chamber wall (70.20%), while the quantities of anaerobes and aerobes were similar in the chamber contents. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), fingerprinting and sequence analysis of isolated colonies revealed that the cultivable bacteria are affiliated with class γ-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidia, Actinobacteria, Clostridia and β-Proteobacteria. γ-Proteobacteria was the major type of anaerobic cultivable bacteria and even the only one type of aerobic cultivable bacteria. Taken together, our results suggest, for the first time, that anaerobic microbiota are dominant in cultivable bacteria in the special anoxia niche of the fermentation chamber from H. parallela larvae. These bacterial isolates could be a treasure trove for screening lignocellulytic microbes which are essential for the plant biomass digestion of this scarab species. PMID:29304141

  2. Effects of shearing on biogas production and microbial community structure during anaerobic digestion with recuperative thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shufan; Phan, Hop V; Bustamante, Heriberto; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Nghiem, Long D

    2017-06-01

    Recuperative thickening can intensify anaerobic digestion to produce more biogas and potentially reduce biosolids odour. This study elucidates the effects of sludge shearing during the thickening process on the microbial community structure and its effect on biogas production. Medium shearing resulted in approximately 15% increase in biogas production. By contrast, excessive or high shearing led to a marked decrease in biogas production, possibly due to sludge disintegration and cell lysis. Microbial analysis using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that medium shearing increased the evenness and diversity of the microbial community in the anaerobic digester, which is consistent with the observed improved biogas production. By contrast, microbial diversity decreased under either excessive shearing or high shearing condition. In good agreement with the observed decrease in biogas production, the abundance of Bacteroidales and Syntrophobaterales (which are responsible for hydrolysis and acetogenesis) decreased due to high shearing during recuperative thickening. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid establishment of thermophilic anaerobic microbial community during the one-step startup of thermophilic anaerobic digestion from a mesophilic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhe; Zhang, Yu; Li, Yuyou; Chi, Yongzhi; Yang, Min

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how fast the thermophilic anaerobic microbial community could be established during the one-step startup of thermophilic anaerobic digestion from a mesophilic digester. Stable thermophilic anaerobic digestion was achieved within 20 days from a mesophilic digester treating sewage sludge by adopting the one-step startup strategy. The succession of archaeal and bacterial populations over a period of 60 days after the temperature increment was followed by using 454-pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. After the increase of temperature, thermophilic methanogenic community was established within 11 days, which was characterized by the fast colonization of Methanosarcina thermophila and two hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanothermobacter spp. and Methanoculleus spp.). At the same time, the bacterial community was dominated by Fervidobacterium, whose relative abundance rapidly increased from 0 to 28.52 % in 18 days, followed by other potential thermophilic genera, such as Clostridium, Coprothermobacter, Anaerobaculum and EM3. The above result demonstrated that the one-step startup strategy could allow the rapid establishment of the thermophilic anaerobic microbial community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Illumina sequencing-based analysis of a microbial community enriched under anaerobic methane oxidation condition coupled to denitrification revealed coexistence of aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Luciene Alves Batista; Leite, Laura Rabelo; Oliveira, Guilherme; Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto Lemos; de Araújo, Juliana Calabria

    2017-07-01

    Methane is produced in anaerobic environments, such as reactors used to treat wastewaters, and can be consumed by methanotrophs. The composition and structure of a microbial community enriched from anaerobic sewage sludge under methane-oxidation condition coupled to denitrification were investigated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis retrieved sequences of Methylocaldum and Chloroflexi. Deep sequencing analysis revealed a complex community that changed over time and was affected by methane concentration. Methylocaldum (8.2%), Methylosinus (2.3%), Methylomonas (0.02%), Methylacidiphilales (0.45%), Nitrospirales (0.18%), and Methanosarcinales (0.3%) were detected. Despite denitrifying conditions provided, Nitrospirales and Methanosarcinales, known to perform anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (DAMO) process, were in very low abundance. Results demonstrated that aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophs coexisted in the reactor together with heterotrophic microorganisms, suggesting that a diverse microbial community was important to sustain methanotrophic activity. The methanogenic sludge was a good inoculum to enrich methanotrophs, and cultivation conditions play a selective role in determining community composition.

  5. Anaerobic halo- alkaliphilic bacterial community of athalassic, hypersaline Mono lake and Owens Lake in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Detkova, Ekaterina N.; Bej, Asim K.; Marsic, Damien; Hoover, Richard B.

    2003-02-01

    The bacterial diversity of microbial extremophiles from the meromictic, hypersaline Mono Lake and a small evaporite pool in Owens Lake of California was studied. In spite of these regions had differing mineral background and different concentrations of NaCl in water they contain the same halo- alkaliphiles anaerobic bacterial community. Three new species of bacteria were detected in this community: primary anaerobe, dissipotrophic saccharolytic spirochete Spirochaeta americana strain AspG1T, primary anaerobe which is proteolytic Tindallia californiensis strain APOT, and secondary anaerobe, hydrogen using Desulfonatronum thiodismutans strain MLF1T, which is sulfate- reducer with chemo-litho-autotrophic metabolism. All of these bacteria are obligate alkaliphiles and dependent upon Na+ ions and CO32- ions in growth mediums. It is interesting that closest relationships for two of these species were isolates from samples of equatorial African soda Magadi lake: Spirochaeta americana AspG1T has 99.4% similarity on 16S rDNA- analyses with Spirochaeta alkalica Z- 7491T, and Tindallia californiensis APOT has 99.1% similarity with Tindallia magadiensis Z-7934T. But result of DNA-DNA- hybridization demonstrated less then 50% similarity between Spirochaeta americana AspG1T and Spirochaeta alkalica Z-7491T. Percent of homology between Tindallia californiensis APOT and Tindallia magadiensis Z-7934T is only 55%. The sulfate-reducer from the alkalic anaerobic community of Magadi lake Desulfonatronovibrio hydrogenovorans Z-7935T was phylogenetically distant from this sulfate-reducer in Mono lake, but genetically closer (99.7% similarity) to the sulfate-reducer, isolated from Central Asian alkalic lake Khadyn in Siberia Desulfonatronum lacustre Z-7951T. The study of key enzymes (hydrogenase and CO- hydrogenase) in Tindallia californiensis APOT and Desulfonatronum thiodismutans MLF1T showed the presence of high activity of both the enzymes in first and only hydrogenase in second

  6. Significance of anaerobes and oral bacteria in community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Kei; Kawanami, Toshinori; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Noguchi, Shingo; Nagata, Shuya; Nishida, Chinatsu; Kido, Takashi; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hatsumi; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Molecular biological modalities with better detection rates have been applied to identify the bacteria causing infectious diseases. Approximately 10-48% of bacterial pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia are not identified using conventional cultivation methods. This study evaluated the bacteriological causes of community-acquired pneumonia using a cultivation-independent clone library analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and compared the results with those of conventional cultivation methods. Patients with community-acquired pneumonia were enrolled based on their clinical and radiological findings. Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were collected from pulmonary pathological lesions using bronchoscopy and evaluated by both a culture-independent molecular method and conventional cultivation methods. For the culture-independent molecular method, approximately 600 base pairs of 16S ribosomal RNA genes were amplified using polymerase chain reaction with universal primers, followed by the construction of clone libraries. The nucleotide sequences of 96 clones randomly chosen for each specimen were determined, and bacterial homology was searched. Conventional cultivation methods, including anaerobic cultures, were also performed using the same specimens. In addition to known common pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia [Streptococcus pneumoniae (18.8%), Haemophilus influenzae (18.8%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (17.2%)], molecular analysis of specimens from 64 patients with community-acquired pneumonia showed relatively higher rates of anaerobes (15.6%) and oral bacteria (15.6%) than previous reports. Our findings suggest that anaerobes and oral bacteria are more frequently detected in patients with community-acquired pneumonia than previously believed. It is possible that these bacteria may play more important roles in community-acquired pneumonia.

  7. Significance of anaerobes and oral bacteria in community-acquired pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Yamasaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular biological modalities with better detection rates have been applied to identify the bacteria causing infectious diseases. Approximately 10-48% of bacterial pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia are not identified using conventional cultivation methods. This study evaluated the bacteriological causes of community-acquired pneumonia using a cultivation-independent clone library analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and compared the results with those of conventional cultivation methods. METHODS: Patients with community-acquired pneumonia were enrolled based on their clinical and radiological findings. Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were collected from pulmonary pathological lesions using bronchoscopy and evaluated by both a culture-independent molecular method and conventional cultivation methods. For the culture-independent molecular method, approximately 600 base pairs of 16S ribosomal RNA genes were amplified using polymerase chain reaction with universal primers, followed by the construction of clone libraries. The nucleotide sequences of 96 clones randomly chosen for each specimen were determined, and bacterial homology was searched. Conventional cultivation methods, including anaerobic cultures, were also performed using the same specimens. RESULTS: In addition to known common pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia [Streptococcus pneumoniae (18.8%, Haemophilus influenzae (18.8%, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (17.2%], molecular analysis of specimens from 64 patients with community-acquired pneumonia showed relatively higher rates of anaerobes (15.6% and oral bacteria (15.6% than previous reports. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that anaerobes and oral bacteria are more frequently detected in patients with community-acquired pneumonia than previously believed. It is possible that these bacteria may play more important roles in community-acquired pneumonia.

  8. Interrogation of Chesapeake Bay sediment microbial communities for intrinsic alkane-utilizing potential under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jamie M; Wawrik, Boris; Isom, Catherine; Boling, Wilford B; Callaghan, Amy V

    2015-02-01

    Based on the transient exposure of Chesapeake Bay sediments to hydrocarbons and the metabolic versatility of known anaerobic alkane-degrading microorganisms, it was hypothesized that distinct Bay sediment communities, governed by geochemical gradients, would have intrinsic alkane-utilizing potential under sulfate-reducing and/or methanogenic conditions. Sediment cores were collected along a transect of the Bay. Community DNA was interrogated via pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, PCR of anaerobic hydrocarbon activation genes, and qPCR of 16S rRNA genes and genes involved in sulfate reduction/methanogenesis. Site sediments were used to establish microcosms amended with n-hexadecane under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes indicated that sediments associated with hypoxic water columns contained significantly greater proportions of Bacteria and Archaea consistent with syntrophic degradation of organic matter and methanogenesis compared to less reduced sediments. Microbial taxa frequently associated with hydrocarbon-degrading communities were found throughout the Bay, and the genetic potential for hydrocarbon metabolism was demonstrated via the detection of benzyl-(bssA) and alkylsuccinate synthase (assA) genes. Although microcosm studies did not indicate sulfidogenic alkane degradation, the data suggested that methanogenic conversion of alkanes was occurring. These findings highlight the potential role that anaerobic microorganisms could play in the bioremediation of hydrocarbons in the Bay. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Community periodontal index of treatment needs index: An indicator of anaerobic periodontal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukumar S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN index is commonly used to measure periodontal disease. It′s uniqueness, apart from assessing the periodontal status, also gives the treatment needs for the underlying condition. Benzoyl-DL-arginine napthylamide (BANA test is a chair side diagnostic test used to detect the presence of putative periodontal pathogens. We correlated the CPITN scores of patients with BANA test results to assess the validity of CPITN as an indicator of anaerobic periodontal infection. Objectives : The present study was aimed to correlate the CPITN scores with the BANA activity of subgingival plaque. The objective was to assess the validity of CPITN index as indicator of anaerobic periodontal infection. Patients and Methods : A total of 80 sites were selected from 20 patients with generalized chronic periodontitis. After measuring the probing depth with CPITN C probe, the highest score from each sextant was selected according to the CPITN criteria and subgingival plaque samples were collected using a sterile curette and the BANA test was performed. Results : Kendall′s tau-b and Chi- square test were used to assess the correlation between the BANA test results and CPITN scores. Results indicated sensitivity (92.86%, specificity (80% and agreement (91.25%; indicating the validity of CPITN in assessing anaerobic infection. Conclusion : There was a significant correlation between BANA test results and scores 3 and score 4 of CPITN index (P < 0.001 clearly indicating the presence of anaerobic periodontal infection.

  10. Relating Anaerobic Digestion Microbial Community and Process Function : Supplementary Issue: Water Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Venkiteshwaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion (AD involves a consortium of microorganisms that convert substrates into biogas containing methane for renewable energy. The technology has suffered from the perception of being periodically unstable due to limited understanding of the relationship between microbial community structure and function. The emphasis of this review is to describe microbial communities in digesters and quantitative and qualitative relationships between community structure and digester function. Progress has been made in the past few decades to identify key microorganisms influencing AD. Yet, more work is required to realize robust, quantitative relationships between microbial community structure and functions such as methane production rate and resilience after perturbations. Other promising areas of research for improved AD may include methods to increase/control (1 hydrolysis rate, (2 direct interspecies electron transfer to methanogens, (3 community structure–function relationships of methanogens, (4 methanogenesis via acetate oxidation, and (5 bioaugmentation to study community–activity relationships or improve engineered bioprocesses.

  11. Microbial communities change in an anaerobic digestion after application of microbial electrolysis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Beom; Park, Jun-Gyu; Shin, Won-Beom; Tian, Dong-Jie; Jun, Hang-Bae

    2017-06-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are being studied to improve the efficiency of anaerobic digesters and biogas production. In the present study, we investigated the effects of electrochemical reactions in AD-MEC (anaerobic digester combined with MECs) on changes in the microbial communities of bulk sludge through 454-pyrosequencing analysis, as well as the effect of these changes on anaerobic digestion. Methanobacterium beijingense and Methanobacterium petrolearium were the dominant archaeal species in AD, while Methanosarcina thermophila and Methanobacterium formicicum were dominant in AD-MEC at steady-state. There were no substantial differences in dominant bacterial species. Clostridia class was more abundant than Bacteroidia class in both reactors. Compared to AD, AD-MEC showed a 40% increase in overall bacterial population, increasing the removal of organic matters and the conversion of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Thus, the MEC reaction more effectively converts organic matters to VFAs and activates microbial communities favorable for methane production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlation between microbial community and granule conductivity in anaerobic bioreactors for brewery wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Pravin; Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Werner, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    conductivity and bacterial community composition of granules in fourteen samples from four different UASB reactors treating brewery wastes were investigated. All of the UASB granules were electrically conductive whereas control granules from ANAMMOX (ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation) reactors and microbial......Prior investigation of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating brewery wastes suggested that direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) significantly contributed to interspecies electron transfer to methanogens. To investigate DIET in granules further, the electrical...... granules from an aerobic bioreactor designed for phosphate removal were not. There was a moderate correlation (r = 0.67) between the abundance of Geobacter species in the UASB granules and granule conductivity, suggesting that Geobacter contributed to granule conductivity. These results, coupled...

  13. Dynamics of microbial community in a mesophilic anaerobic digester treating food waste: Relationship between community structure and process stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; He, Qin; Ma, Yao; Wang, Xiaoming; Peng, Xuya

    2015-01-01

    Organic loading rate (OLR) disturbances were introduced into a mesophilic anaerobic digester treating food waste (FW) to induce stable and deteriorative phases. The microbial community of each phase was investigated using 454-pyrosequencing. Results show that the relative abundance of acid-producing bacteria and syntrophic volatile fatty acid (VFA) oxidizers increased dramatically at deteriorative phase, while the dominant methanogens did not shift from acetoclastic to hydrogenotrophic groups. The mismatching between bacteria and methanogens may partially be responsible for the process deterioration. Moreover, the succession of predominant hydrogenotrophic methanogens reduced the consumption efficiency of hydrogen; meanwhile, the dominant Methanosaeta with low acetate degradation rate, and the increase of inhibitors concentrations further decreased its activity, which may be the other causes for the process failure. These results improve the understanding of the microbial mechanisms of process instability, and provide theoretical basis for the efficient and stable operation of anaerobic digester treating FW. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Triclocarban Influences Antibiotic Resistance and Alters Anaerobic Digester Microbial Community Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel E; Zitomer, Daniel H; Hristova, Krassimira R; Kappell, Anthony D; McNamara, Patrick J

    2016-01-05

    Triclocarban (TCC) is one of the most abundant organic micropollutants detected in biosolids. Lab-scale anaerobic digesters were amended with TCC at concentrations ranging from the background concentration of seed biosolids (30 mg/kg) to toxic concentrations of 850 mg/kg to determine the effect on methane production, relative abundance of antibiotic resistance genes, and microbial community structure. Additionally, the TCC addition rate was varied to determine the impacts of acclimation time. At environmentally relevant TCC concentrations (max detect = 440 mg/kg), digesters maintained function. Digesters receiving 450 mg/kg of TCC maintained function under gradual TCC addition, but volatile fatty acid concentrations increased, pH decreased, and methane production ceased when immediately fed this concentration. The concentrations of the mexB gene (encoding for a multidrug efflux pump) were higher with all concentrations of TCC compared to a control, but higher TCC concentrations did not correlate with increased mexB abundance. The relative abundance of the gene tet(L) was greater in the digesters that no longer produced methane, and no effect on the relative abundance of the class 1 integron integrase encoding gene (intI1) was observed. Illumina sequencing revealed substantial community shifts in digesters that functionally failed from increased levels of TCC. More subtle, yet significant, community shifts were observed in digesters amended with TCC levels that did not inhibit function. This research demonstrates that TCC can select for a multidrug resistance encoding gene in mixed community anaerobic environments, and this selection occurs at concentrations (30 mg/kg) that can be found in full-scale anaerobic digesters (U.S. median concentration = 22 mg/kg, mean = 39 mg/kg).

  15. Performance and methanogenic community of rotating disk reactor packed with polyurethane during thermophilic anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yingnan; Tsukahara, Kenichiro; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2007-01-01

    A newly developed anaerobic rotating disk reactor (ARDR) packed with polyurethane was used in continuous mode for organic waste removal under thermophilic (55 o C) anaerobic conditions. This paper reports the effects of the rotational speed on the methanogenic performance and community in an ARDR supplied with acetic acid synthetic wastewater as the organic substrate. The best performance was obtained from the ARDR with the rotational speed (ω) of 30 rpm. The average removal of dissolved organic carbon was 98.5%, and the methane production rate was 393 ml/l-reactor/day at an organic loading rate of 2.69 g/l-reactor/day. Under these operational conditions, the reactor had a greater biomass retention capacity and better reactor performance than those at other rotational speeds (0, 5 and 60 rpm). The results of 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis indicated that the major methanogens in the reactor belonged to the genus Methanosarcina spp. The results of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis suggested that the cell density of methanogenic archaea immobilized on the polyurethane foam disk could be concentrated more than 2000 times relative to those in the original thermophilic sludge. Scanning electron microphotographs showed that there were more immobilized microbes at ω of 30 rpm than 60 rpm. A rotational speed on the outer layer of the disk of 6.6 m/min could be appropriate for anaerobic digestion using the polyurethane ARDR

  16. Community periodontal index of treatment needs index: an indicator of anaerobic periodontal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, S; Suresh, R

    2009-01-01

    Community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) index is commonly used to measure periodontal disease. It's uniqueness, apart from assessing the periodontal status, also gives the treatment needs for the underlying condition. Benzoyl-DL-arginine napthylamide (BANA) test is a chair side diagnostic test used to detect the presence of putative periodontal pathogens. We correlated the CPITN scores of patients with BANA test results to assess the validity of CPITN as an indicator of anaerobic periodontal infection. The present study was aimed to correlate the CPITN scores with the BANA activity of subgingival plaque. The objective was to assess the validity of CPITN index as indicator of anaerobic periodontal infection. A total of 80 sites were selected from 20 patients with generalized chronic periodontitis. After measuring the probing depth with CPITN C probe, the highest score from each sextant was selected according to the CPITN criteria and subgingival plaque samples were collected using a sterile curette and the BANA test was performed. Kendall's tau-b and Chi-square test were used to assess the correlation between the BANA test results and CPITN scores. Results indicated sensitivity (92.86%), specificity (80%) and agreement (91.25%); indicating the validity of CPITN in assessing anaerobic infection. There was a significant correlation between BANA test results and scores 3 and score 4 of CPITN index (P periodontal infection.

  17. Characterization of a Methanogenic Community within an Algal Fed Anaerobic Digester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Joshua T.; Tramp, Cody; Sims, Ronald C.; Miller, Charles D.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial diversity and metabolic potential of a methanogenic consortium residing in a 3785-liter anaerobic digester, fed with wastewater algae, was analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing technology. DNA was extracted from anaerobic sludge material and used in metagenomic analysis through PCR amplification of the methyl-coenzyme M reductase α subunit (mcrA) gene using primer sets ML, MCR, and ME. The majority of annotated mcrA sequences were assigned taxonomically to the genera Methanosaeta in the order Methanosarcinales. Methanogens from the genus Methanosaeta are obligate acetotrophs, suggesting this genus plays a dominant role in methane production from the analyzed fermentation sample. Numerous analyzed sequences within the algae fed anaerobic digester were unclassified and could not be assigned taxonomically. Relative amplicon frequencies were determined for each primer set to determine the utility of each in pyrosequencing. Primer sets ML and MCR performed better quantitatively (representing the large majority of analyzed sequences) than primer set ME. However, each of these primer sets was shown to provide a quantitatively unique community structure, and thus they are of equal importance in mcrA metagenomic analysis. PMID:23724331

  18. Bacterial community analysis in upflow multilayer anaerobic reactor treating high-solids organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Si-Kyung; Jung, Kyung-Won; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kwon, Joong-Chun; Ijaz, Umer Zeeshan; Shin, Seung Gu

    2017-09-01

    A novel anaerobic digestion configuration, the upflow multi-layer anaerobic reactor (UMAR), was developed to treat high-solids organic wastes. The UMAR was hypothesized to form multi-layer along depth due to the upflow plug flow; use of a recirculation system and a rotating distributor and baffles aimed to assist treating high-solids influent. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and methane (CH 4 ) production rate were 89% and 2.10 L CH 4 /L/d, respectively, at the peak influent COD concentration (110.4 g/L) and organic loading rate (7.5 g COD/L/d). The 454 pyrosequencing results clearly indicated heterogeneous distribution of bacterial communities at different vertical locations (upper, middle, and bottom) of the UMAR. Firmicutes was the dominant (>70%) phylum at the middle and bottom parts, while Deltaproteobacteria and Chloroflexi were only found in the upper part. Potential functions of the bacteria were discussed to speculate on their roles in the anaerobic performance of the UMAR system. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1226-1234, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. Microbial Community Response to Seasonal Temperature Variation in a Small-Scale Anaerobic Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Michel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bacterial and Archaeal communities in a 1.14 m3 ambient temperature anaerobic digester treating dairy cow manure were investigated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP and direct sequencing of the cloned polymerase chain reaction (PCR products. Results indicate shifts in the structure of the both the Archaeal and Bacterial communities coincided with digester re-inoculation as well as temperature and loading rate changes. Following re-inoculation of the sour digester, the predominant Archaea shifted from Methanobrevibacter to Methanosarcina, which was the most abundant Archaea in the inoculum. Methonosarcina was replaced by Methanosaeta after the resumption of digester loading in the summer of 2010. Methanosaeta began to decline in abundance as the digester temperature cooled in the fall of 2010 while Methanobrevibacter increased in abundance. The microbial community rate of change was variable during the study period, with the most rapid changes occurring after re-inoculation.

  20. Electron acceptors for anaerobic oxidation of methane drive microbial community structure and diversity in mud volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ge; Ma, Anzhou; Zhang, Yanfen; Deng, Ye; Zheng, Guodong; Zhuang, Xuliang; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Fortin, Danielle

    2018-04-06

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) emit globally significant quantities of methane into the atmosphere, however, methane cycling in such environments is not yet fully understood, as the roles of microbes and their associated biogeochemical processes have been largely overlooked. Here, we used data from high-throughput sequencing of microbial 16S rRNA gene amplicons from six MVs in the Junggar Basin in northwest China to quantify patterns of diversity and characterize the community structure of archaea and bacteria. We found anaerobic methanotrophs and diverse sulfate- and iron-reducing microbes in all of the samples, and the diversity of both archaeal and bacterial communities was strongly linked to the concentrations of sulfate, iron, and nitrate, which could act as electron acceptors in anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The impacts of sulfate/iron/nitrate on AOM in the MVs were verified by microcosm experiments. Further, two representative MVs were selected to explore the microbial interactions based on phylogenetic molecular ecological networks. The sites showed distinct network structures, key species and microbial interactions, with more complex and numerous linkages between methane-cycling microbes and their partners being observed in the iron/sulfate-rich MV. These findings suggest that electron acceptors are important factors driving the structure of microbial communities in these methane-rich environments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Transformation of anaerobic granules into aerobic granules and the succession of bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haohao; Yu, Ping; Li, Qiaoling; Ren, Hongqiang; Liu, Bo; Ye, Lin; Zhang, Xu-Xiang

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that anaerobic granular sludge could be successfully transformed into aerobic granular sludge in a continuous up-flow reactor in 45 days. An aerobic microbial community successfully developed in the granules and high organic matter and nitrogen removal performance was achieved. Under an ammonia nitrogen loading rate of 0.8 kg N/(m 3 day), ammonia nitrogen and the total nitrogen removal efficiency of the reactor reached up to 100 and 93%, respectively. An obvious bacterial community shift in granular sludge was observed during the transformation process. By comparing with the bacterial community in aerobic granules cultivated from floccular activated sludge, some bacteria (affiliated with Comamonadaceae, Xanthomonadaceae, Rhodocyclaceae, Moraxellaceae, and Nitrosomonadaceae) playing significant roles in maintaining the structures and functions of aerobic granules were identified. After the transformation, the granules could be clearly separated into the inner core and outer shell. 16S rRNA gene sequencing results indicated many bacterial species present in both the inner core and outer shell; however, their abundance differed significantly. Overall, this study confirms the feasibility of transforming anaerobic granules into aerobic granules and provides novel approaches and insights to understand the microbial ecology in granular sludge.

  2. Anaerobic methanotrophic community of a 5346-m-deep vesicomyid clam colony in the Japan Trench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felden, J; Ruff, S E; Ertefai, T; Inagaki, F; Hinrichs, K-U; Wenzhöfer, F

    2014-05-01

    Vesicomyidae clams harbor sulfide-oxidizing endosymbionts and are typical members of cold seep communities where active venting of fluids and gases takes place. We investigated the central biogeochemical processes that supported a vesicomyid clam colony as part of a locally restricted seep community in the Japan Trench at 5346 m water depth, one of the deepest seep settings studied to date. An integrated approach of biogeochemical and molecular ecological techniques was used combining in situ and ex situ measurements. In sediment of the clam colony, low sulfate reduction rates (maximum 128 nmol mL(-1) day(-1)) were coupled to the anaerobic oxidation of methane. They were observed over a depth range of 15 cm, caused by active transport of sulfate due to bioturbation of the vesicomyid clams. A distinct separation between the seep and the surrounding seafloor was shown by steep horizontal geochemical gradients and pronounced microbial community shifts. The sediment below the clam colony was dominated by anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME-2c) and sulfate-reducing Desulfobulbaceae (SEEP-SRB-3, SEEP-SRB-4). Aerobic methanotrophic bacteria were not detected in the sediment, and the oxidation of sulfide seemed to be carried out chemolithoautotrophically by Sulfurovum species. Thus, major redox processes were mediated by distinct subgroups of seep-related microorganisms that might have been selected by this specific abyssal seep environment. Fluid flow and microbial activity were low but sufficient to support the clam community over decades and to build up high biomasses. Hence, the clams and their microbial communities adapted successfully to a low-energy regime and may represent widespread chemosynthetic communities in the Japan Trench. In this regard, they contributed to the restricted deep-sea trench biodiversity as well as to the organic carbon availability, also for non-seep organisms, in such oligotrophic benthic environment of the dark deep ocean. © 2014 The

  3. Linking Microbial Community Structure and Function During the Acidified Anaerobic Digestion of Grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Aoife; Ijaz, Umer Z; Nzeteu, Corine; Vaughan, Aoife; Shirran, Sally L; Botting, Catherine H; Quince, Christopher; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Abram, Florence

    2018-01-01

    Harvesting valuable bioproducts from various renewable feedstocks is necessary for the critical development of a sustainable bioeconomy. Anaerobic digestion is a well-established technology for the conversion of wastewater and solid feedstocks to energy with the additional potential for production of process intermediates of high market values (e.g., carboxylates). In recent years, first-generation biofuels typically derived from food crops have been widely utilized as a renewable source of energy. The environmental and socioeconomic limitations of such strategy, however, have led to the development of second-generation biofuels utilizing, amongst other feedstocks, lignocellulosic biomass. In this context, the anaerobic digestion of perennial grass holds great promise for the conversion of sustainable renewable feedstock to energy and other process intermediates. The advancement of this technology however, and its implementation for industrial applications, relies on a greater understanding of the microbiome underpinning the process. To this end, microbial communities recovered from replicated anaerobic bioreactors digesting grass were analyzed. The bioreactors leachates were not buffered and acidic pH (between 5.5 and 6.3) prevailed at the time of sampling as a result of microbial activities. Community composition and transcriptionally active taxa were examined using 16S rRNA sequencing and microbial functions were investigated using metaproteomics. Bioreactor fraction, i.e., grass or leachate, was found to be the main discriminator of community analysis across the three molecular level of investigation (DNA, RNA, and proteins). Six taxa, namely Bacteroidia, Betaproteobacteria, Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Methanomicrobia, and Negativicutes accounted for the large majority of the three datasets. The initial stages of grass hydrolysis were carried out by Bacteroidia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Negativicutes in the grass biofilms, in addition to Clostridia in the

  4. Linking Microbial Community Structure and Function During the Acidified Anaerobic Digestion of Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife Joyce

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting valuable bioproducts from various renewable feedstocks is necessary for the critical development of a sustainable bioeconomy. Anaerobic digestion is a well-established technology for the conversion of wastewater and solid feedstocks to energy with the additional potential for production of process intermediates of high market values (e.g., carboxylates. In recent years, first-generation biofuels typically derived from food crops have been widely utilized as a renewable source of energy. The environmental and socioeconomic limitations of such strategy, however, have led to the development of second-generation biofuels utilizing, amongst other feedstocks, lignocellulosic biomass. In this context, the anaerobic digestion of perennial grass holds great promise for the conversion of sustainable renewable feedstock to energy and other process intermediates. The advancement of this technology however, and its implementation for industrial applications, relies on a greater understanding of the microbiome underpinning the process. To this end, microbial communities recovered from replicated anaerobic bioreactors digesting grass were analyzed. The bioreactors leachates were not buffered and acidic pH (between 5.5 and 6.3 prevailed at the time of sampling as a result of microbial activities. Community composition and transcriptionally active taxa were examined using 16S rRNA sequencing and microbial functions were investigated using metaproteomics. Bioreactor fraction, i.e., grass or leachate, was found to be the main discriminator of community analysis across the three molecular level of investigation (DNA, RNA, and proteins. Six taxa, namely Bacteroidia, Betaproteobacteria, Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Methanomicrobia, and Negativicutes accounted for the large majority of the three datasets. The initial stages of grass hydrolysis were carried out by Bacteroidia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Negativicutes in the grass biofilms, in addition to

  5. Bacterial communities associated with anaerobic debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether from mangrove sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chu-Wen; Lee, Ching-Chang; Ku, His; Chang, Bea-Ven

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) anaerobic debromination and bacterial community changes in mangrove sediment. BDE-209 debromination rates were enhanced with zerovalent iron compared to without zerovalent iron in the sediment. BDE-209 debromination rates in microcosms constructed with sediments collected in autumn were higher than in microcosms constructed with sediments collected in spring and were higher at the Bali sampling site than the Guandu sampling site. The intermediate products resulting from the reductive debromination of BDE-209 in sediment were nona-BDE (BDE-206, BDE-207), octa-BDEs (BDE-196, BDE-197), hepta-BDEs (BDE-183, BDE-184, BDE-191), hexa-BDEs (BDE-137, BDE-138, BDE-154, BDE-157), penta-BDEs (BDE-85, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-126), tetra-BDEs (BDE-47, BDE-49, BDE-66, BDE-77), tri-BDEs (BDE-17, BDE-28), and di-BDEs (BDE-15). Fifty bacterial genera associated with BDE-209 debromination were identified. Overall, 12 of the 50 bacterial genera were reported to be involved in dehalogenation of aromatic compounds. These bacteria have high potential to be BDE-209 debromination bacteria. Different combinations of bacterial community composition exhibit different abilities for BDE-209 anaerobic debromination.

  6. Microbial community structure associated with the high loading anaerobic codigestion of olive mill and abattoir wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannoun, Hana; Omri, Ilhem; Chouari, Rakia; Khelifi, Eltaief; Keskes, Sajiaa; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar; Sghir, Abdelghani; Bouallagui, Hassib

    2016-02-01

    The effect of increasing the organic loading rates (OLRs) on the performance of the anaerobic codigestion of olive mill (OMW) and abattoir wastewaters (AW) was investigated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The structure of the microbial community was also monitored. Increasing OLR to 9g of chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1)d(-1) affected significantly the biogas yield and microbial diversity at 35°C. However, at 55°C digester remained stable until OLR of 12g of CODL(-1)d(-1) with higher COD removal (80%) and biogas yield (0.52Lg(-1) COD removed). Significant differences in the bacterial communities were detected between mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The dominant phyla detected in the digester at both phases were the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Synergistetes and Spirochaete. However, Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria and the candidate division BRC1 were only detected at thermophilic conditions. The Methanobacteriales and the Thermoplasmales were found as a high predominant archaeal member in the anaerobic sludge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of chlortetracycline and copper on tetracyclines and copper resistance genes and microbial community during swine manure anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Chen, Meixue; Feng, Feng; Zhang, Junya; Sui, Qianwen; Tong, Juan; Wei, Yuansong; Wei, Dongbin

    2017-08-01

    As antibiotic and heavy metals are over used in the livestock industry, animal manure is a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Anaerobic digestion has been reported to have the potential to reduce ARGs. However, few studies investigated whether reduction of ARGs would be affected by different external pressures including antibiotics and heavy metals during anaerobic digestion. The purpose of this study was thus to investigate effects of both chlortetracycline (CTC) and Cu on reduction of ARGs, heavy metal resistance genes (HMRGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) during the swine manure anaerobic digestion. The results showed that the predominant ARGs (tetO, tetW, tetX, tetL) could be effectively reduced (approximately 1.00 log copies/g TS) through mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Microbial community evolution was the main driver. It was interesting that Treponema might indicate the termination of anaerobic digestion and compete with ARGs host bacteria. Addition of CTC, Cu and CTC+Cu affected microbial community change and hindered removal of ARGs, especially, CTC+Cu seriously affected Treponema and ARGs during anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Influence of Loading Rate and Variable Temperatures on Microbial Communities in Anaerobic Digesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Ciotola

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between seasonal temperatures, organic loading rate (OLR and the structure of archaeal communities in anaerobic digesters was investigated. Previous studies have often assessed archaeal community structure at fixed temperatures and constant OLRs, or at variable temperatures not characteristic of temperate climates. The goal of this study was to determine the maximum OLR that would maintain a balanced microbial ecosystem during operation in a variable temperature range expected in a temperate climate (27–10 °C. Four-liter laboratory digesters were operated in a semi-continuous mode using dairy cow manure as the feedstock. At OLRs of 1.8 and 0.8 kg VS/m3·day the digesters soured (pH < 6.5 as a result of a decrease in temperature. The structure of the archaeal community in the sour digesters became increasingly similar to the manure feedstock with gains in the relative abundance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. At an OLR of 0.3 kg VS/m3·day the digesters did not sour, but the archaeal community was primarily hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Recommendations for operating an ambient temperature digester year round in a temperate climate are to reduce the OLR to at least 0.3 kg VS/m3·day in colder temperatures to prevent a shift to the microbial community associated with the sour digesters.

  9. Bacterial community dynamics in an anaerobic plug-flow type bioreactor treating swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Caroline S; Talbot, Guylaine; Topp, Edward; Beaulieu, Carole; Palin, Marie-France; Massé, Daniel I

    2009-01-01

    A plug-flow type anaerobic reactor consisting of eight sequential compartments was used to study shifts in a bacterial community adapted to degrade swine manure at 25 degrees C. The investigation was carried out during the first 6 months of reactor operation. The reactor successfully separated the hydrolysis/acidogenesis stage from the methanogenesis stage. Bacterial 16S rDNA- and rRNA-based fingerprints obtained through amplicon length heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR) were analyzed with a view to characterizing the bacterial community structure and the metabolically active community, respectively. Multivariate statistical tools showed that the rDNA-based fingerprints described a more temporal than compartmentalized distribution of similar bacterial communities. By contrast, the rRNA-based multivariate analyses described a distribution that was linked more to reactor performance parameters, especially during short time periods. Diversity indices calculated from fingerprint data were used to assess overall diversity shifts. The decrease in rRNA-based diversity observed through the reactor compartments was greater than the decrease in rDNA-based diversity. This finding indicates that the analysis of metabolically active bacteria diversity was more discriminative than the analysis based on the mere presence of bacteria. The observed decrease in diversity suggests that the bacterial community became specialized in degrading less diversified substrates through the compartments. All these findings suggest that rRNA-based analyses are more appropriate for monitoring reactor performance.

  10. Hydrogeologic characterization and assessment of bioremediation of chlorinated benzenes and benzene in wetland areas, Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Walker, Charles W.; Baker, Anna C.; Teunis, Jessica A.; Emily Majcher,; Brayton, Michael J.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2015-01-01

    desorption from the sediments.When highly reducing, methanogenic, or sulfate-reducing conditions existed in the wetland groundwater, molar composition of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) showed that chlorobenzene and benzene were predominant, indicating biodegradation of the chlorinated benzenes through reductive dechlorination pathways. Temporal changes in redox conditions between 2009 and 2011–12 have shifted the locations in the wetland study area where reductive dechlorination is evident. Microbial community analyses of sediment showed relatively high cell numbers and diversity of populations (Dehalococcoides, Dehalobacter, Desulfitobacterium, and Geobacter) that are known to contain species capable of reductive dechlorination, confirming groundwater geochemistry evidence of the occurrence of reductive dechlorination. Natural attenuation was not sufficient, however, to reduce total VOC concentrations along upward groundwater flowpaths in the wetland sediments, most likely due to the additional source of contaminants in the upper sediments. In situ microcosms that were unamended except for the addition of 13C-labeled contaminants in some treatments, confirmed that the native microbial community was able to biodegrade the higher chlorinated benzenes through reductive dechlorination and that 1,2-dichlorobenzene, chlorobenzene, and benzene could be degraded to carbon dioxide through oxidation pathways. Microcosms that were bioaugmented with the anaerobic dechlorinating consortium WBC-2 and deployed in the wetland sediments showed reductive dechlorination of tri-, di-, and monochlorobenzene, and 13C-chlorobenzene treatments showed complete degradation of chlorobenzene to carbon dioxide under anaerobic conditions.Experiments with a continuous flow, fixed-film bioreactor seeded with native microorganisms in groundwater from the wetland area showed both aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of dichlorobenzenes, monochlorobenzene, and benzene, although

  11. Intrinsic and enhanced biodegradation of benzene in strongly reduced aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiningen, W.N.M. van; Rijnaarts, H.H.M; Langenhoff, A.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory microcosm studies were performed to examine intrinsic and enhanced benzene bioremediation using five different sediment and groundwater samples from three deeply anaerobic aquifers sited in northern Netherlands. The influence of addition of nitrate, sulfate, limited amounts of oxygen, and

  12. Evaluation of the biomethane potential from multiple waste streams for a proposed community scale anaerobic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, James D; Allen, Eoin; Murphy, Jerry D

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the biomethane potential from organic waste for a proposed community scale anaerobic digester in a rural town. The biomethane potential test is used to assess the suitability of waste streams for biomethane production and to examine the variation in biomethane potential between waste sub-streams. A methodology for accurately estimating the biomethane potential from multiple heterogeneous organic waste substrates is sought. Five main waste streams were identified as possible substrates for biogas production, namely Abattoir waste (consisting of paunch and de-watered activated sludge); cheese factory effluent; commercial and domestic food waste; pig slurry and waste water treatment sludge. The biomethane potential of these waste streams ranged from as low as 99 L CH4 kg VS(-1) for pig slurry to as high as 787 L CH4 kg VS(-1) for dissolved air floatation (DAF) sludge from a cheese effluent treatment plant. The kinetic behaviour of the biomethane production in the batch test is also examined. The objective of the paper is to suggest an optimum substrate mix in terms of biomethane yield per unit substrate for the proposed anaerobic digester. This should maximize the yield of biomethane per capital investment. Food waste displayed the highest biomethane yield (128 m(n)(3) t(-1)) followed by cheese waste (38 m(n)(3) t(-1)) and abattoir waste (36 m(n)(3) t(-1)). It was suggested that waste water sludge (16 m(n)(3) t(-1)) and pig slurry (4 m(n)(3) t(-1)) should not be digested. However, the biomethane potential test does not give information on the continuous operation of an anaerobic digester.

  13. Biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community in mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, D; Kurola, J M; Lähde, K; Kymäläinen, M; Sinkkonen, A; Romantschuk, M

    2014-10-01

    Over 258 Mt of solid waste are generated annually in Europe, a large fraction of which is biowaste. Sewage sludge is another major waste fraction. In this study, biowaste and sewage sludge were co-digested in an anaerobic digestion reactor (30% and 70% of total wet weight, respectively). The purpose was to investigate the biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community composition in the anaerobic digestion reactor under meso- (35-37 °C) and thermophilic (55-57 °C) processes and an increasing organic loading rate (OLR, 1-10 kg VS m(-3) d(-1)), and also to find a feasible compromise between waste treatment capacity and biogas production without causing process instability. In summary, more biogas was produced with all OLRs by the thermophilic process. Both processes showed a limited diversity of the methanogenic archaeal community which was dominated by Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (e.g. Methanosarcina) in both meso- and thermophilic processes. Methanothermobacter was detected as an additional dominant genus in the thermophilic process. In addition to operating temperatures, the OLRs, the acetate concentration, and the presence of key substrates like propionate also affected the methanogenic archaeal community composition. A bacterial cell count 6.25 times higher than archaeal cell count was observed throughout the thermophilic process, while the cell count ratio varied between 0.2 and 8.5 in the mesophilic process. This suggests that the thermophilic process is more stable, but also that the relative abundance between bacteria and archaea can vary without seriously affecting biogas production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance and microbial community variations of anaerobic digesters under increasing tetracycline concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yanghui; Harb, Moustapha; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2017-07-01

    The impact of different concentrations of tetracycline on the performance of anaerobic treatment was evaluated. Results revealed that for all of the tested tetracycline concentrations, no major sustained impact on methane production was observed. Instead, a significant increase in propionic acid was observed in the reactor subjected to the highest concentration of tetracycline (20 mg/L). Microbial community analyses suggest that an alternative methanogenic pathway, specifically that of methanol-utilizing methanogens, may be important for ensuring the stability of methane production in the presence of high tetracycline concentrations. In addition, the accumulation of propionate was due to an increase in volatile fatty acids (VFA)-producing bacteria coupled with a reduction in propionate utilizers. An increase in the abundance of tetracycline resistance genes associated with ribosomal protection proteins was observed after 30 days of exposure to high concentrations of tetracycline, while other targeted resistance genes showed no significant changes. These findings suggest that anaerobic treatment processes can robustly treat wastewater with varying concentrations of antibiotics while also deriving value-added products and minimizing the dissemination of associated antibiotic resistance genes.

  15. Performance and microbial community variations of anaerobic digesters under increasing tetracycline concentrations

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yanghui

    2017-04-01

    The impact of different concentrations of tetracycline on the performance of anaerobic treatment was evaluated. Results revealed that for all of the tested tetracycline concentrations, no major sustained impact on methane production was observed. Instead, a significant increase in propionic acid was observed in the reactor subjected to the highest concentration of tetracycline (20 mg/L). Microbial community analyses suggest that an alternative methanogenic pathway, specifically that of methanol-utilizing methanogens, may be important for ensuring the stability of methane production in the presence of high tetracycline concentrations. In addition, the accumulation of propionate was due to an increase in volatile fatty acids (VFA)-producing bacteria coupled with a reduction in propionate utilizers. An increase in the abundance of tetracycline resistance genes associated with ribosomal protection proteins was observed after 30 days of exposure to high concentrations of tetracycline, while other targeted resistance genes showed no significant changes. These findings suggest that anaerobic treatment processes can robustly treat wastewater with varying concentrations of antibiotics while also deriving value-added products and minimizing the dissemination of associated antibiotic resistance genes.

  16. Characterisation of community structure of bacteria in parallel mesophilic and thermophilic pilot scale anaerobe sludge digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, T; Berta, Brigitta; Székely, Anna J; Gyarmati, I; Kékesi, Katalin; Márialigeti, K; Tóth, Erika M

    2007-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to compare the microbial communities of a mesophilic and a thermophilic pilot scale anaerobe sludge digester. For studying the communities cultivation independent chemotaxonomical methods (RQ and PLFA analyses) and T-RFLP were applied. Microbial communities of the mesophilic and thermophilic pilot digesters showed considerable differences, both concerning the species present, and their abundance. A Methanosarcina sp. dominated the thermophilic, while a Methanosaeta sp. the mesophilic digester among Archaea. Species diversity of Bacteria was reduced in the thermophilic digester. Based on the quinone patterns in both digesters the dominance of sulphate reducing respiratory bacteria could be detected. The PLFA profiles of the digester communities were similar though in minor components characteristic differences were shown. Level of branched chain fatty acids is slightly lower in the thermophilic digester that reports less Gram positive bacteria. The relative ratio of fatty acids characteristic to Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroidetes and Clostridia shows differences between the two digesters: their importance generally decreased under thermophilic conditions. The sulphate reducer marker (15:1 and 17:1) fatty acids are present in low quantity in both digesters.

  17. A mesophilic anaerobic digester for treating food waste: process stability and microbial community analysis using pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; He, Qin; Ma, Yao; Wang, Xiaoming; Peng, Xuya

    2016-04-25

    Anaerobic digesters become unstable when operated at a high organi c loading rate (OLR). Investigating the microbial community response to OLR disturbance is helpful for achieving efficient and stable process operation. However, previous studies have only focused on community succession during different process stages. How does community succession influence process stability? Is this kind of succession resilient? Are any key microbial indicator closely related to process stability? Such relationships between microbial communities and process stability are poorly understood. In this study, a mesophilic anaerobic digester for treating food waste (FW) was operated to study the microbial diversity and dynamicity due to OLR disturbance. Overloading resulted in proliferation of acidogenic bacteria, and the resulting high volatile fatty acid (VFA) yield triggered an abundance of acetogenic bacteria. However, the abundance and metabolic efficiency of hydrogenotrophic methanogens decreased after disturbance, and as a consequence, methanogens and acetogenic bacteria could not efficiently complete the syntrophy. This stress induced the proliferation of homoacetogens as alternative hydrogenotrophs for converting excessive H2 to acetate. However, the susceptible Methanothrix species also failed to degrade the excessive acetate. This metabolic imbalance finally led to process deterioration. After process recovery, the digester gradually returned to its original operational conditions, reached close to its original performance, and the microbial community profile achieved a new steady-state. Interestingly, the abundance of Syntrophomonas and Treponema increased during the deteriorative stage and rebounded after disturbance, suggesting they were resilient groups. Acidogenic bacteria showed high functional redundancy, rapidly adapted to the increased OLR, and shaped new microbial community profiles. The genera Syntrophomonas and Treponema were resilient groups. This observation

  18. Benzene degradation coupled with chlorate reduction in soil column study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, N.C.G.; Doesburg, van W.C.J.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Perchlorate and chlorate are electron acceptors that during reduction result in the formation of molecular oxygen. The produced oxygen can be used for activation of anaerobic persistent pollutants, like benzene. In this study chlorate was tested as potential electron acceptor to stimulate benzene

  19. Succession of microbial community and enhanced mechanism of a ZVI-based anaerobic granular sludge process treating chloronitrobenzenes wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Liang; Jin, Jie; Lin, Haizhuan; Gao, Kaituo; Xu, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The combined ZVI–UASB process was established for the degradation of chloronitrobenzenes. • There were the better shock resistance and buffering capacity for anaerobic acidification in the combined process. • Novel ZVI-based anaerobic granular sludge (ZVI–AGS) was successfully developed. • Adaptive shift of microbial community was significant in ZVI-based anaerobic granular sludge system. - Abstract: The combined zero-valent iron (ZVI) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process is established for the treatment of chloronitrobenzenes (ClNBs) wastewater, and the succession of microbial community and its enhanced mechanism are investigated in the study. Results showed that compared with the control UASB (R1), the stable COD removal, ClNBs transformation, and dechlorination occurred in the combined system (R2) when operated at influent COD and 3,4-Dichloronitrobenzene (3,4-DClNB) loading rates of 4200–7700 g m −3 d −1 and 6.0–70.0 g m −3 d −1 , and R2 had the better shock resistance and buffering capacity for the anaerobic acidification. The dechlorination for the intermediate products of p-chloroanaline (p-ClAn) to analine (AN) occurred in R2 reactor after 45 days, whereas it did not occur in R1 after a long-term operation. The novel ZVI-based anaerobic granular sludge (ZVI–AGS) was successfully developed in the combined system, and higher microbial activities including ClNB transformation and H 2 /CH 4 production were achieved simultaneously. The dominant bacteria were closely related to the groups of Megasphaera, Chloroflexi, and Clostridium, and the majority of archaea were correlated with the groups of Methanosarcinalesarchaeon, Methanosaetaconcilii, and Methanothrixsoehngenii, which are capable of reductively dechlorinating PCB, HCB, and TCE in anaerobic niche and EPS secretion

  20. Succession of microbial community and enhanced mechanism of a ZVI-based anaerobic granular sludge process treating chloronitrobenzenes wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Liang, E-mail: felix79cn@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory for Water Pollution Control and Environmental Safety, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Jin, Jie [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Lin, Haizhuan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wenzhou Environmental Protection Design Scientific Institute, Wenzhou 325000 (China); Gao, Kaituo [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Xu, Xiangyang, E-mail: xuxy@zju.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory for Water Pollution Control and Environmental Safety, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • The combined ZVI–UASB process was established for the degradation of chloronitrobenzenes. • There were the better shock resistance and buffering capacity for anaerobic acidification in the combined process. • Novel ZVI-based anaerobic granular sludge (ZVI–AGS) was successfully developed. • Adaptive shift of microbial community was significant in ZVI-based anaerobic granular sludge system. - Abstract: The combined zero-valent iron (ZVI) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process is established for the treatment of chloronitrobenzenes (ClNBs) wastewater, and the succession of microbial community and its enhanced mechanism are investigated in the study. Results showed that compared with the control UASB (R1), the stable COD removal, ClNBs transformation, and dechlorination occurred in the combined system (R2) when operated at influent COD and 3,4-Dichloronitrobenzene (3,4-DClNB) loading rates of 4200–7700 g m{sup −3} d{sup −1} and 6.0–70.0 g m{sup −3} d{sup −1}, and R2 had the better shock resistance and buffering capacity for the anaerobic acidification. The dechlorination for the intermediate products of p-chloroanaline (p-ClAn) to analine (AN) occurred in R2 reactor after 45 days, whereas it did not occur in R1 after a long-term operation. The novel ZVI-based anaerobic granular sludge (ZVI–AGS) was successfully developed in the combined system, and higher microbial activities including ClNB transformation and H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} production were achieved simultaneously. The dominant bacteria were closely related to the groups of Megasphaera, Chloroflexi, and Clostridium, and the majority of archaea were correlated with the groups of Methanosarcinalesarchaeon, Methanosaetaconcilii, and Methanothrixsoehngenii, which are capable of reductively dechlorinating PCB, HCB, and TCE in anaerobic niche and EPS secretion.

  1. Obtaining representative community profiles of anaerobic digesters through optimisation of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Karst, Søren Michael

    A reliable and reproducible method for identification and quantification of the microorganisms involved in biogas production is important for the study and understanding of the microbial communities responsible for the function of anaerobic digester systems. DNA based identification using 16S rRN...

  2. Optimisation of 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing protocols for microbial community profiling of anaerobic digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Larsen, Poul

    A reliable and reproducible method for identification and quantification of the microorganisms involved in biogas production is important for the study and understanding of the microbial communities responsible for the function of anaerobic digester systems. DNA based identification using 16S rRN...

  3. Community and Proteomic Analysis of Anaerobic Consortia Converting Tetramethylammonium to Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Kraková, Lucia; Pangallo, Domenico; Jeszeová, Lenka; Liu, Bing; Yasui, Hidenari

    2017-01-01

    Tetramethylammonium-degrading methanogenic consortia from a complete-mixing suspended sludge (CMSS) and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were studied using multiple PCR-based molecular techniques and shotgun proteomic approach. The prokaryotic 16S rRNA genes of the consortia were analyzed by quantitative PCR, high-throughput sequencing, and DGGE-cloning methods. The results showed that methanogenic archaea were highly predominant in both reactors but differed markedly according to community structure. Community and proteomic analysis revealed that Methanomethylovorans and Methanosarcina were the major players for the demethylation of methylated substrates and methane formation through the reduction pathway of methyl-S-CoM and possibly, acetyl-CoA synthase/decarbonylase-related pathways. Unlike high dominance of one Methanomethylovorans population in the CMSS reactor, diverse methylotrophic Methanosarcina species inhabited in syntrophy-like association with hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium in the granular sludge of UASB reactor. The overall findings indicated the reactor-dependent community structures of quaternary amines degradation and provided microbial insight for the improved understanding of engineering application. PMID:29391857

  4. Community and Proteomic Analysis of Anaerobic Consortia Converting Tetramethylammonium to Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetramethylammonium-degrading methanogenic consortia from a complete-mixing suspended sludge (CMSS and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactors were studied using multiple PCR-based molecular techniques and shotgun proteomic approach. The prokaryotic 16S rRNA genes of the consortia were analyzed by quantitative PCR, high-throughput sequencing, and DGGE-cloning methods. The results showed that methanogenic archaea were highly predominant in both reactors but differed markedly according to community structure. Community and proteomic analysis revealed that Methanomethylovorans and Methanosarcina were the major players for the demethylation of methylated substrates and methane formation through the reduction pathway of methyl-S-CoM and possibly, acetyl-CoA synthase/decarbonylase-related pathways. Unlike high dominance of one Methanomethylovorans population in the CMSS reactor, diverse methylotrophic Methanosarcina species inhabited in syntrophy-like association with hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium in the granular sludge of UASB reactor. The overall findings indicated the reactor-dependent community structures of quaternary amines degradation and provided microbial insight for the improved understanding of engineering application.

  5. Common hydraulic fracturing fluid additives alter the structure and function of anaerobic microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Adam C.; Akob, Denise M.; Klinges, J. Grace; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2018-01-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) resources results in the production of large volumes of wastewater containing a complex mixture of hydraulic fracturing chemical additives and components from the formation. The release of these wastewaters into the environment poses potential risks that are poorly understood. Microbial communities in stream sediments form the base of the food chain and may serve as sentinels for changes in stream health. Iron-reducing organisms have been shown to play a role in the biodegradation of a wide range of organic compounds, and so to evaluate their response to UOG wastewater, we enriched anaerobic microbial communities from sediments collected upstream (background) and downstream (impacted) of an UOG wastewater injection disposal facility in the presence of hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) additives: guar gum, ethylene glycol, and two biocides, 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA) and bronopol (C3H6BrNO4). Iron reduction was significantly inhibited early in the incubations with the addition of biocides, whereas amendment with guar gum and ethylene glycol stimulated iron reduction relative to levels in the unamended controls. Changes in the microbial community structure were observed across all treatments, indicating the potential for even small amounts of UOG wastewater components to influence natural microbial processes. The microbial community structure differed between enrichments with background and impacted sediments, suggesting that impacted sediments may have been preconditioned by exposure to wastewater. These experiments demonstrated the potential for biocides to significantly decrease iron reduction rates immediately following a spill and demonstrated how microbial communities previously exposed to UOG wastewater may be more resilient to additional spills.

  6. Multiple approaches to characterize the microbial community in a thermophilic anaerobic digester running on swine manure: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Nguyen Ngoc; Chang, Yi-Chia; Yu, Chang-Ping; Huang, Shir-Ly

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the first survey of microbial community in thermophilic anaerobic digester using swine manure as sole feedstock was performed by multiple approaches including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), clone library and pyrosequencing techniques. The integrated analysis of 21 DGGE bands, 126 clones and 8506 pyrosequencing read sequences revealed that Clostridia from the phylum Firmicutes account for the most dominant Bacteria. In addition, our analysis also identified additional taxa that were missed by the previous researches, including members of the bacterial phyla Synergistetes, Planctomycetes, Armatimonadetes, Chloroflexi and Nitrospira which might also play a role in thermophilic anaerobic digester. Most archaeal 16S rRNA sequences could be assigned to the order Methanobacteriales instead of Methanomicrobiales comparing to previous studies. In addition, this study reported that the member of Methanothermobacter genus was firstly found in thermophilic anaerobic digester. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Similar PAH fate in anaerobic digesters inoculated with three microbial communities accumulating either volatile fatty acids or methane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Braun

    Full Text Available Urban sludge produced on wastewater treatment plants are often contaminated by organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. Their removal under methanogenic conditions was already reported, but the factors influencing this removal remain unclear. Here, we determined the influence of microbial communities on PAH removal under controlled physico-chemical conditions. Twelve mesophilic anaerobic digesters were inoculated with three microbial communities extracted from ecosystems with contrasting pollution histories: a PAH contaminated soil, a PCB contaminated sediment and a low contaminated anaerobic sludge. These anaerobic digesters were operated during 100 days in continuous mode. A sterilised activated sludge, spiked with 13 PAH at concentrations usually encountered in full-scale wastewater treatment plants, was used as substrate. The dry matter and volatile solid degradation, the biogas production rate and composition, the volatile fatty acids (VFA production and the PAH removals were monitored. Bacterial and archaeal communities were compared in abundance (qPCR, in community structure (SSCP fingerprinting and in dominant microbial species (454-pyrosequencing. The bioreactors inoculated with the community extracted from low contaminated anaerobic sludge showed the greater methane production. The PAH removals ranged from 10% to 30%, respectively, for high and low molecular weight PAH, whatever the inoculums tested, and were highly correlated with the dry matter and volatile solid removals. The microbial community structure and diversity differed with the inoculum source; this difference was maintained after the 100 days of digestion. However, the PAH removal was not correlated to these diverse structures and diversities. We hence obtained three functional stable consortia with two contrasted metabolic activities, and three different pictures of microbial diversity, but similar PAH and matter removals. These results confirm

  8. Evaluation of A Novel Split-Feeding Anaerobic/Oxic Baffled Reactor (A/OBR) For Foodwaste Anaerobic Digestate: Performance, Modeling and Bacterial Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaojie; Peng, Liyu; Jiang, Yixin; Gikas, Petros; Zhu, Baoning; Su, Haijia

    2016-10-01

    To enhance the treatment efficiency from an anaerobic digester, a novel six-compartment anaerobic/oxic baffled reactor (A/OBR) was employed. Two kinds of split-feeding A/OBRs R2 and R3, with influent fed in the 1st, 3rd and 5th compartment of the reactor simultaneously at the respective ratios of 6:3:1 and 6:2:2, were compared with the regular-feeding reactor R1 when all influent was fed in the 1st compartment (control). Three aspects, the COD removal, the hydraulic characteristics and the bacterial community, were systematically investigated, compared and evaluated. The results indicated that R2 and R3 had similar tolerance to loading shock, but the R2 had the highest COD removal of 91.6% with a final effluent of 345 mg/L. The mixing patterns in both split-feeding reactors were intermediate between plug-flow and completely-mixed, with dead spaces between 8.17% and 8.35% compared with a 31.9% dead space in R1. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis revealed that the split-feeding strategy provided a higher bacterial diversity and more stable bacterial community than that in the regular-feeding strategy. Further analysis indicated that Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria were the dominant bacteria, among which Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes might be responsible for organic matter degradation and Proteobacteria for nitrification and denitrification.

  9. Evaluation of A Novel Split-Feeding Anaerobic/Oxic Baffled Reactor (A/OBR) For Foodwaste Anaerobic Digestate: Performance, Modeling and Bacterial Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaojie; Peng, Liyu; Jiang, Yixin; Gikas, Petros; Zhu, Baoning; Su, Haijia

    2016-10-06

    To enhance the treatment efficiency from an anaerobic digester, a novel six-compartment anaerobic/oxic baffled reactor (A/OBR) was employed. Two kinds of split-feeding A/OBRs R2 and R3, with influent fed in the 1 st , 3 rd and 5 th compartment of the reactor simultaneously at the respective ratios of 6:3:1 and 6:2:2, were compared with the regular-feeding reactor R1 when all influent was fed in the 1 st compartment (control). Three aspects, the COD removal, the hydraulic characteristics and the bacterial community, were systematically investigated, compared and evaluated. The results indicated that R2 and R3 had similar tolerance to loading shock, but the R2 had the highest COD removal of 91.6% with a final effluent of 345 mg/L. The mixing patterns in both split-feeding reactors were intermediate between plug-flow and completely-mixed, with dead spaces between 8.17% and 8.35% compared with a 31.9% dead space in R1. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis revealed that the split-feeding strategy provided a higher bacterial diversity and more stable bacterial community than that in the regular-feeding strategy. Further analysis indicated that Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria were the dominant bacteria, among which Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes might be responsible for organic matter degradation and Proteobacteria for nitrification and denitrification.

  10. Anaerobic digester bioaugmentation influences quasi steady state performance and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkiteshwaran, K; Milferstedt, K; Hamelin, J; Zitomer, D H

    2016-11-01

    Nine anaerobic digesters, each seeded with biomass from a different source, were operated identically and their quasi steady state function was compared. Subsequently, digesters were bioaugmented with a methanogenic culture previously shown to increase specific methanogenic activity. Before bioaugmentation, different seed biomass resulted in different quasi steady state function, with digesters clustering into three groups distinguished by methane (CH 4 ) production. Digesters with similar functional performance contained similar archaeal communities based on clustering of Illumina sequence data of the V4V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene. High CH 4 production correlated with neutral pH and high Methanosarcina abundance, whereas low CH 4 production correlated to low pH as well as high Methanobacterium and DHVEG 6 family abundance. After bioaugmentation, CH 4 production from the high CH 4 producing digesters transiently increased by 11 ± 3% relative to non-bioaugmented controls (p digesters that all had pH higher than 6.7. The CH 4 production increase after bioaugmentation was correlated to increased relative abundance of Methanosaeta and Methaospirillum originating from the bioaugment culture. In conclusion, different anaerobic digester seed biomass can result in different quasi steady state CH 4 production, SCOD removal, pH and effluent VFA concentration in the timeframe studied. The bioaugmentation employed can result in a period of increased methane production. Future research should address extending the period of increased CH 4 production by employing pH and VFA control concomitant with bioaugmentation, developing improved bioaugments, or employing a membrane bioreactor to retain the bioaugment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of the antimicrobial tylosin on the microbial community structure of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Toshio; Li, Xu; Zilles, Julie L; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2011-02-01

    The effects of the antimicrobial tylosin on a methanogenic microbial community were studied in a glucose-fed laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) exposed to stepwise increases of tylosin (0, 1.67, and 167 mg/L). The microbial community structure was determined using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and phylogenetic analyses of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene clone libraries of biomass samples. During the periods without tylosin addition and with an influent tylosin concentration of 1.67 mg/L, 16S rRNA gene sequences related to Syntrophobacter were detected and the relative abundance of Methanosaeta species was high. During the highest tylosin dose of 167 mg/L, 16S rRNA gene sequences related to Syntrophobacter species were not detected and the relative abundance of Methanosaeta decreased considerably. Throughout the experimental period, Propionibacteriaceae and high GC Gram-positive bacteria were present, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and FISH analyses, respectively. The accumulation of propionate and subsequent reactor failure after long-term exposure to tylosin are attributed to the direct inhibition of propionate-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria closely related to Syntrophobacter and the indirect inhibition of Methanosaeta by high propionate concentrations and low pH. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Anaerobic methanethiol degradation and methanogenic community analysis in an alkaline (pH 10) biological process for liquefied petroleum gas desulfurization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerdam, van R.C.; Bonilla-Salinas, M.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Bruning, H.; Lens, P.N.L.; Stams, A.J.M.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic methanethiol (MT) degradation by mesophilic (30 degrees C) alkaliphilic (pH 10) communities was studied in a lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactor inoculated with a mixture of sediments from the Wadden Sea (The Netherlands), Soap Lake (Central Washington), and Russian soda

  13. Bacteria and archaea communities in full-scale thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digesters treating food wastewater: Key process parameters and microbial indicators of process instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonyeob; Shin, Seung Gu; Han, Gyuseong; Koo, Taewoan; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2017-12-01

    In this study, four different mesophilic and thermophilic full-scale anaerobic digesters treating food wastewater (FWW) were monitored for 1-2years in order to investigate: 1) microbial communities underpinning anaerobic digestion of FWW, 2) significant factors shaping microbial community structures, and 3) potential microbial indicators of process instability. Twenty-seven bacterial genera were identified as abundant bacteria underpinning the anaerobic digestion of FWW. Methanosaeta harundinacea, M. concilii, Methanoculleus bourgensis, M. thermophilus, and Methanobacterium beijingense were revealed as dominant methanogens. Bacterial community structures were clearly differentiated by digesters; archaeal community structures of each digester were dominated by one or two methanogen species. Temperature, ammonia, propionate, Na + , and acetate in the digester were significant factors shaping microbial community structures. The total microbial populations, microbial diversity, and specific bacteria genera showed potential as indicators of process instability in the anaerobic digestion of FWW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The biotransformation of brewer's spent grain into biogas by anaerobic microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakhova, Dina V; Egorova, Maria A; Prokudina, Ljuba I; Netrusov, Alexander I; Tsavkelova, Elena A

    2015-12-01

    The present study reports on the biotransformation of the brewer's spent grain (BSG) in co-digestion with Jerusalem artichoke (JA, Helianthus tuberosus L.) phytomass by thermophilic (+55 °C) and mesophilic (+30 °C) anaerobic methanogenic communities. BSG is a by-product of the beer-brewing process generated in large amounts, in which utilization provokes a negative effect on the environment. In this study, we will show an effective conversion of BSG into biogas by selected microbial communities, obtained from different sources (animal manure and previously isolated microbial consortia). The stimulation of methanogenesis was reached by the co-digestion of JA's phytomass (stem and leaves). The optimized conditions for microbial stable cultivation included the use of nutrient medium, containing yeast extract and trace element solution. The optimal BSG concentration in biogas production was 50 and 100 g L(-1). Under thermophilic conditions, the maximum total methane production reached 64%, and it comprised around 6-8 and 9-11 of L CH4 per 100 g of fermented BSG without and with co-digested JA, respectively, when the fresh inoculum was added. Although, after a year of re-cultivation, the values reduced to around 6-7, and 6-10 L CH4/100 g BSG, correspondingly, the selected microbial communities showed effective biotransformation of BSG. The supplementation of soil with the residual fermented BSG (10%, w/w) resulted in the promotion of lettuce (Lepidium sativum L.) growth. The results obtained demonstrate a potential for complete BSG utilization via biogas production and application as a soil additive.

  15. Inactivation of ANAMMOX communities under concurrent operation of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) and denitrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamchoi, N.; Nitisoravut, S.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    A concurrent operation of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) and denitrification was investigated in a well known UASB reactor seeding with both ANAMMOX and anaerobic granular sludges. ANAMMOX activity was confirmed by hydroxylamine test and the hybridization of biomass using the gene probes...

  16. Entrapped cells-based-anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating domestic wastewater: Performances, fouling, and bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntawang, Chaipon; Rongsayamanont, Chaiwat; Khan, Eakalak

    2017-11-01

    A laboratory scale study on treatment performances and fouling of entrapped cells-based-anaerobic membrane bioreactor (E-AnMBR) in comparison with suspended cells-based-bioreactor (S-AnMBR) treating domestic wastewater was conducted. The difference between E-AnMBR and S-AnMBR was the uses of cells entrapped in phosphorylated polyvinyl alcohol versus planktonic cells. Bulk organic removal efficiencies by the two AnMBRs were comparable. Lower concentrations of suspended biomass, bound extracellular polymeric substances and soluble microbial products in E-AnMBR resulted in less fouling compared to S-AnMBR. S-AnMBR provided 7 days of operation time versus 11 days for E-AnMBR before chemical cleaning was required. The less frequent chemical cleaning potentially leads to a longer membrane life-span for E-AnMBR compared to S-AnMBR. Phyla Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were dominant in cake sludge from both AnMBRs but their abundances were different between the two AnMBRs, suggesting influence of cell entrapment on the bacteria community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of phenylacetic acid pulses on anaerobic digestion performance and archaeal community structure in WWTP sewage sludge digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Léa; Urra, Johana; Rosenkranz, Francisca; Kroff, Pablo Araya; Plugge, Caroline M; Lesty, Yves; Chamy, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    The effect of phenylacetic acid (PAA) pulses on anaerobic digestion (AD) performance and archaeal community structure was evaluated in anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Four pilot-scale continuous stirred tank reactors were set up at a full-scale municipal WWTP in Santiago de Chile, and fed with either primary or mixed sewage sludge. AD performance was evaluated by volatile fatty acid (VFA) and biogas production monitoring. Archaeal community structure was characterized by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and band sequencing. In the primary sludge digester, a single PAA pulse at 200 mg L(-1) was sufficient to affect AD performance and archaeal community structure, resulting in long-term VFA accumulation, reduced biogas production and community shift from dominant acetoclastic (Methanosaeta concilii) to hydrogenotrophic (Methanospirillum hungatei) methanogens. By contrast, AD performance and archaeal community structure in the mixed sludge digester were stable and resistant to repeated PAA pulses at 200 and 600 mg L(-1). This work demonstrated that the effect of PAA pulses on methanogenic activity and archaeal community structure differed according to AD substrate, and suggests that better insights of the correlations between archaeal population dynamics and functional performance could help to better face toxic shocks in AD.

  18. Archaeal and bacterial community dynamics and bioprocess performance of a bench-scale two-stage anaerobic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Garcia-Ruiz, Maria Jesus; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Osorio, Francisco; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus

    2016-07-01

    Two-stage technologies have been developed for anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge. In this study, the archaeal and bacterial community structure dynamics and bioprocess performance of a bench-scale two-stage anaerobic digester treating urban sewage sludge have been studied by the means of high-throughput sequencing techniques and physicochemical parameters such as pH, dried sludge, volatile dried sludge, acid concentration, alkalinity, and biogas generation. The coupled analyses of archaeal and bacterial communities and physicochemical parameters showed a direct relationship between archaeal and bacterial populations and bioprocess performance during start-up and working operation of a two-stage anaerobic digester. Moreover, results demonstrated that archaeal and bacterial community structure was affected by changes in the acid/alkalinity ratio in the bioprocess. Thus, a predominance of the acetoclastic methanogen Methanosaeta was observed in the methanogenic bioreactor at high-value acid/alkaline ratio, while a predominance of Methanomassilicoccaeceae archaea and Methanoculleus genus was observed in the methanogenic bioreactor at low-value acid/alkaline ratio. Biodiversity tag-iTag sequencing studies showed that methanogenic archaea can be also detected in the acidogenic bioreactor, although its biological activity was decreased after 4 months of operation as supported by physicochemical analyses. Also, studies of the VFA producers and VFA consumers microbial populations showed as these microbiota were directly affected by the physicochemical parameters generated in the bioreactors. We suggest that the results obtained in our study could be useful for future implementations of two-stage anaerobic digestion processes at both bench- and full-scale.

  19. Performance and microbial community composition in a long-term sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor operation treating coking wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Dev Raj; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Zhe; Gao, Yingxin; Yang, Min

    2016-09-01

    The combined anaerobic-aerobic biosystem is assumed to consume less energy for the treatment of high strength industrial wastewater. In this study, pollutant removal performance and microbial diversity were assessed in a long-term (over 300 days) bench-scale sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor treating coking wastewater. Anaerobic treatment removed one third of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and more than half of the phenols with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 42 h, while the combined system with total HRT of 114 h removed 81.8, 85.6, 99.9, 98.2, and 85.4 % of COD, total organic carbon (TOC), total phenols, thiocyanate, and cyanide, respectively. Two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed complete removal of phenol derivatives and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) via the combined system, with the anaerobic process alone contributing 58.4 and 58.6 % removal on average, respectively. Microbial activity in the bioreactors was examined by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities. Proteobacteria (61.2-93.4 %), particularly Betaproteobacteria (34.4-70.1 %), was the dominant bacterial group. Ottowia (14.1-46.7 %), Soehngenia (3.0-8.2 %), and Corynebacterium (0.9-12.0 %), which are comprised of phenol-degrading and hydrolytic bacteria, were the most abundant genera in the anaerobic sludge, whereas Thiobacillus (6.6-43.6 %), Diaphorobacter (5.1-13.0 %), and Comamonas (0.2-11.1 %) were the major degraders of phenol, thiocyanate, and NHCs in the aerobic sludge. Despite the low density of fungi, phenol degrading oleaginous yeast Trichosporon was abundant in the aerobic sludge. This study demonstrated the feasibility and optimization of less energy intensive treatment and the potential association between abundant bacterial groups and biodegradation of key pollutants in coking wastewater.

  20. The microbial community composition of anaerobic digesters is strongly influenced by immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Kristensen, Jannie Munk

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is globally applied for bioenergy production. Although its widespread application, improved understanding of the underlying microbial ecology is needed to provide solutions for optimised process performance. In this study, we investigated the impact of immigration on the ...

  1. Immigration has a large impact on the observed microbial community in anaerobic digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Kristensen, Jannie Munk

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is globally applied for bioenergy production. Although its widespread application, improved understanding of the underlying microbial ecology is needed to provide solutions for optimised process performance. In this study, we investigated the impact of immigration on the ...

  2. Investigation into the effect of high concentrations of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion on methanogenic communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H., E-mail: ingrid.whittle@uibk.ac.at [Institut für Mikrobiologie, Universität Innsbruck, Technikerstraße 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Walter, Andreas [Institut für Mikrobiologie, Universität Innsbruck, Technikerstraße 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Ebner, Christian [Abwasserverband Zirl und Umgebung, Meilbrunnen 5, 6170 Zirl (Austria); Insam, Heribert [Institut für Mikrobiologie, Universität Innsbruck, Technikerstraße 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Different methanogenic communities in mesophilic and thermophilic reactors. • High VFA levels do not cause major changes in archaeal communities. • Real-time PCR indicated greater diversity than ANAEROCHIP microarray. - Abstract: A study was conducted to determine whether differences in the levels of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in anaerobic digester plants could result in variations in the indigenous methanogenic communities. Two digesters (one operated under mesophilic conditions, the other under thermophilic conditions) were monitored, and sampled at points where VFA levels were high, as well as when VFA levels were low. Physical and chemical parameters were measured, and the methanogenic diversity was screened using the phylogenetic microarray ANAEROCHIP. In addition, real-time PCR was used to quantify the presence of the different methanogenic genera in the sludge samples. Array results indicated that the archaeal communities in the different reactors were stable, and that changes in the VFA levels of the anaerobic digesters did not greatly alter the dominating methanogenic organisms. In contrast, the two digesters were found to harbour different dominating methanogenic communities, which appeared to remain stable over time. Real-time PCR results were inline with those of microarray analysis indicating only minimal changes in methanogen numbers during periods of high VFAs, however, revealed a greater diversity in methanogens than found with the array.

  3. Effects of sludge inoculum and organic feedstock on active microbial communities and methane yield during anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eWilkins

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion (AD is a widespread microbial technology used to treat organic waste and recover energy in the form of methane (biogas. While most AD systems have been designed to treat a single input, mixtures of digester sludge and solid organic waste are emerging as a means to improve efficiency and methane yield. We examined laboratory anaerobic cultures of AD sludge from two sources amended with food waste, xylose, and xylan at mesophilic temperatures, and with cellulose at meso- and thermophilic temperatures, to determine whether and how the inoculum and substrate affect biogas yield and community composition. All substrate and inoculum combinations yielded methane, with food waste most productive by mass. Pyrosequencing of transcribed bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA showed that community composition varied across substrates and inocula, with differing ratios of hydrogenotrophic/acetoclastic methanogenic archaea associated with syntrophic partners. While communities did not cluster by either inoculum or substrate, additional sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene in the source sludge revealed that the bacterial communities were influenced by their inoculum. These results suggest that complete and efficient AD systems could potentially be assembled from different microbial inocula and consist of taxonomically diverse communities that nevertheless perform similar functions.

  4. Anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase diversity in the homoacetogenic hindgut microbial communities of lower termites and the wood roach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric G Matson

    Full Text Available Anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH is a key enzyme in the Wood-Ljungdahl (acetyl-CoA pathway for acetogenesis performed by homoacetogenic bacteria. Acetate generated by gut bacteria via the acetyl-CoA pathway provides considerable nutrition to wood-feeding dictyopteran insects making CODH important to the obligate mutualism occurring between termites and their hindgut microbiota. To investigate CODH diversity in insect gut communities, we developed the first degenerate primers designed to amplify cooS genes, which encode the catalytic (β subunit of anaerobic CODH enzyme complexes. These primers target over 68 million combinations of potential forward and reverse cooS primer-binding sequences. We used the primers to identify cooS genes in bacterial isolates from the hindgut of a phylogenetically lower termite and to sample cooS diversity present in a variety of insect hindgut microbial communities including those of three phylogenetically-lower termites, Zootermopsis nevadensis, Reticulitermes hesperus, and Incisitermes minor, a wood-feeding cockroach, Cryptocercus punctulatus, and an omnivorous cockroach, Periplaneta americana. In total, we sequenced and analyzed 151 different cooS genes. These genes encode proteins that group within one of three highly divergent CODH phylogenetic clades. Each insect gut community contained CODH variants from all three of these clades. The patterns of CODH diversity in these communities likely reflect differences in enzyme or physiological function, and suggest that a diversity of microbial species participate in homoacetogenesis in these communities.

  5. Effects of different carriers on biogas production and microbial community structure during anaerobic digestion of cassava ethanol wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhou; Chen, Feier; Zhong, Chao; Zhou, Jun; Wu, Xiayuan; Yong, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Hua; Jiang, Min; Jia, Honghua; Wei, Ping

    2017-09-01

    In this study, an anaerobic bioreactor (AB) with no added fillers (ABWF), a packed-bed bioreactor with a porous ceramic filler (ABCF), and another packed-bed bioreactor filled with graphite felt (ABGF) were established for anaerobic digestion of cassava ethanol wastewater. The results showed that ABCF exhibited excellent wastewater treatment performance in a stable process that was superior to ABWF and ABGF, with the following characteristics: a high chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 98.06% and maximum biogas production of 3200 mL/d at a total reactor volume of 3.46 L. Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis revealed that differences existed among the microbial communities of the three ABs that were in accordance with the operational characteristics. The ABCF system displayed maximum bacterial diversity, whereas the ABWF system exhibited moderate richness and the ABGF system possessed the lowest species richness. The ABCF system was more stable than the ABWF and ABGF systems during anaerobic digestion of cassava ethanol wastewater. Different functional microbial communities that are responsible for the degradation of certain compounds were also identified in the ABCF and ABGF systems. Our results demonstrate that ceramic materials should be considered an appropriate support for the immobilization of cells.

  6. Biases during DNA extraction affect bacterial and archaeal community profile of anaerobic digestion samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarain, Ashira; Mukhuba, Mashudu; Adeleke, Rasheed; Moeletsi, Mokhele

    2017-12-01

    The anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic waste for biogas production has received much attention in recent years due to the increasing need for renewable energy and environmentally friendly waste management systems. Identification of the microbial community involved in AD aids in better understanding and optimising of the process. The choice of DNA extraction method is an integral step in any molecular biodiversity study. In the present study, potential biases introduced by DNA extraction methods were examined by comparing quality, quantity and representability of DNA extracted from AD samples using various extraction methods. In spite of the non-kit based method (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) yielding the largest quantity of DNA (approximately 44 µg DNA per gram dry weight), the extracted DNA contained PCR inhibitors. Furthermore, the quantity of extracted DNA was not proportional to species diversity. Diversity, determined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), was strongly linked to the type of extraction method used. The spin-column filter-based kit that incorporated mechanical and chemical lysis (Macherey-Nagel kit) gave the best results in terms of bacterial and archaeal diversity (Shannon-Wiener indices: average 2.5 and 2.6, respectively). Furthermore, this kit was the most effective at lysing hard-to-lyse bacterial and archaeal cells. The choice of DNA extraction method significantly influences the reliability and comparability of results obtained during AD microbial ecology investigations. Moreover, the careful selection of the DNA extraction method is of particular importance when analysing AD samples since these samples are rich in PCR inhibitors and hard-to-lyse cells such as archaea and gram-positive bacteria.

  7. Eubacteria and archaea communities in seven mesophile anaerobic digester plants in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abendroth, Christian; Vilanova, Cristina; Günther, Thomas; Luschnig, Olaf; Porcar, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Only a fraction of the microbial species used for anaerobic digestion in biogas production plants are methanogenic archaea. We have analyzed the taxonomic profiles of eubacteria and archaea, a set of chemical key parameters, and biogas production in samples from nine production plants in seven facilities in Thuringia, Germany, including co-digesters, leach-bed, and sewage sludge treatment plants. Reactors were sampled twice, at a 1-week interval, and three biological replicates were taken in each case. A complex taxonomic composition was found for both eubacteria and archaea, both of which strongly correlated with digester type. Plant-degrading Firmicutes as well as Bacteroidetes dominated eubacteria profiles in high biogas-producing co-digesters; whereas Bacteroidetes and Spirochaetes were the major phyla in leach-bed and sewage sludge digesters. Methanoculleus was the dominant archaea genus in co-digesters, whereas Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta were the most abundant methanogens in leachate from leach-bed and sewage sludge digesters, respectively. This is one of the most comprehensive characterizations of the microbial communities of biogas-producing facilities. Bacterial profiles exhibited very low variation within replicates, including those of semi-solid samples; and, in general, low variation in time. However, facility type correlated closely with the bacterial profile: each of the three reactor types exhibited a characteristic eubacteria and archaea profile. Digesters operated with solid feedstock, and high biogas production correlated with abundance of plant degraders (Firmicutes) and biofilm-forming methanogens (Methanoculleus spp.). By contrast, low biogas-producing sewage sludge treatment digesters correlated with high titers of volatile fatty acid-adapted Methanosaeta spp.

  8. Archaeal and anaerobic methane oxidizer communities in the Sonora Margin cold seeps, Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneron, Adrien; Cruaud, Perrine; Pignet, Patricia; Caprais, Jean-Claude; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne; Godfroy, Anne; Toffin, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    Cold seeps, located along the Sonora Margin transform fault in the Guaymas Basin, were extensively explored during the 'BIG' cruise in June 2010. They present a seafloor mosaic pattern consisting of different faunal assemblages and microbial mats. To investigate this mostly unknown cold and hydrocarbon-rich environment, geochemical and microbiological surveys of the sediments underlying two microbial mats and a surrounding macrofaunal habitat were analyzed in detail. The geochemical measurements suggest biogenic methane production and local advective sulfate-rich fluxes in the sediments. The distributions of archaeal communities, particularly those involved in the methane cycle, were investigated at different depths (surface to 18 cm below the sea floor (cmbsf)) using complementary molecular approaches, such as Automated method of Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA), 16S rRNA libraries, fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction with new specific primer sets targeting methanogenic and anaerobic methanotrophic lineages. Molecular results indicate that metabolically active archaeal communities were dominated by known clades of anaerobic methane oxidizers (archaeal anaerobic methanotroph (ANME)-1, -2 and -3), including a novel 'ANME-2c Sonora' lineage. ANME-2c were found to be dominant, metabolically active and physically associated with syntrophic Bacteria in sulfate-rich shallow sediment layers. In contrast, ANME-1 were more prevalent in the deepest sediment samples and presented a versatile behavior in terms of syntrophic association, depending on the sulfate concentration. ANME-3 were concentrated in small aggregates without bacterial partners in a restricted sediment horizon below the first centimetres. These niche specificities and syntrophic behaviors, depending on biological surface assemblages and environmental availability of electron donors, acceptors and carbon substrates, suggest that ANME could support

  9. Shifts in indigenous microbial communities during the anaerobic degradation of pentachlorophenol in upland and paddy soils from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yating; Tao, Liang; Wu, Ke; Wang, Yongkui

    2016-11-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a common persistent pesticide in soil that has generated a significant environmental problem worldwide. Therefore, anaerobic degradation of PCP by the soil indigenous microbial community has gained increasing attention. However, little information is available concerning the functional microorganisms and the potential shifts in the microbial community associated with PCP degradation. In this study, we conducted a set of experiments to determine which components of the indigenous microbial community were capable of degrading PCP in soils of two land use types (upland and paddy soils) in southern China. Our results showed that the PCP degradation rate was significantly higher in paddy soils than that in upland soils. 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) high-throughput sequencing revealed significant differences in microbial taxonomic composition between the soil with PCP and blank (soil without PCP) with Acinetobacter, Clostridium, Coprococcus, Oxobacter, and Sedimentibacter dominating the PCP-affected communities. Acinetobacter was also apparently enriched in the paddy soils with PCP (up to 52.2 %) indicated this genus is likely to play an important role in PCP degradation. Additionally, the Fe(III)-reducing bacteria Clostridium may also be involved in PCP degradation. Our data further revealed hitherto unknown metabolisms of potential PCP degradation by microorganisms including Coprococcus, Oxobacter, and Ruminiclostridium. Overall, these findings indicated that land use types may affect the PCP anaerobic degradation rate via the activities of indigenous bacterial populations and extend our knowledge of the bacterial populations responsible for PCP degradation.

  10. Start-Up of an Anaerobic Dynamic Membrane Digester for Waste Activated Sludge Digestion: Temporal Variations in Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongguang; Wang, Qiaoying; Wang, Zhiwei; Sahinkaya, Erkan; Li, Yongli; Ma, Jinxing; Wu, Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    An anaerobic dynamic membrane digester (ADMD) was developed to digest waste sludge, and pyrosequencing was used to analyze the variations of the bacterial and archaeal communities during the start-up. Results showed that bacterial community richness decreased and then increased over time, while bacterial diversity remained almost the same during the start-up. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the major phyla. At the class level, Betaproteobacteria was the most abundant at the end of start-up, followed by Sphingobacteria. In the archaeal community, richness and diversity peaked at the end of the start-up stage. Principle component and cluster analyses demonstrated that archaeal consortia experienced a distinct shift and became stable after day 38. Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales were the two predominant orders. Further investigations indicated that Methanolinea and Methanosaeta were responsible for methane production in the ADMD system. Hydrogenotrophic pathways might prevail over acetoclastic means for methanogenesis during the start-up, supported by specific methanogenic activity tests. PMID:24695488

  11. Adaption of microbial community during the start-up stage of a thermophilic anaerobic digester treating food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Wang, Xing; Deng, Ya-Yue; He, Xiao-Lan; Li, Zheng-Wei; Li, Qiang; Qin, Han; Chen, Jing-Tao; He, Ming-Xiong; Zhang, Min; Hu, Guo-Quan; Yin, Xiao-Bo

    2016-10-01

    A successful start-up enables acceleration of anaerobic digestion (AD) into steady state. The microbial community influences the AD performance during the start-up. To investigate how microbial communities changed during the start-up, microbial dynamics was analyzed via high-throughput sequencing in this study. The results confirmed that the AD was started up within 25 d. Thermophilic methanogens and bacterial members functioning in hydrolysis, acidogenesis, and syntrophic oxidation became predominant during the start-up stage, reflecting a quick adaption of microorganisms to operating conditions. Such predominance also indicated the great contribution of these members to the fast start-up of AD. Redundancy analysis confirmed that the bacterial abundance significantly correlated with AD conditions. The stable ratio of hydrogenotrophic methanogens to aceticlastic methanogens is also important to maintain the stability of the AD process. This work will be helpful to understand the contribution of microbial community to the start-up of AD.

  12. Microbial community analysis of swine wastewater anaerobic lagoons by next-generation DNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic lagoons are a standard practice for the treatment of swine wastewater. This practice relies heavily on microbiological processes to reduce concentrated organic material and nutrients. Despite this reliance on microbiological processes, research has only recently begun to identify and enume...

  13. Biogas Production from Distilled Grain Waste by Thermophilic Dry Anaerobic Digestion: Pretreatment of Feedstock and Dynamics of Microbial Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Huang, Yu-Lian; Tan, Li; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2018-02-01

    Distilled grain waste (DGW) eluted from the Chinese liquor making process poses potential serious environmental problems. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of converting DGW to biogas by thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion. To improve biogas production, the effects of dilute H 2 SO 4 and thermal pretreatment on DGW were evaluated by biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The results indicate that 90 °C thermal pretreatment provided the highest methane production at 212.7 mL/g-VTS add . The long-term thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion process was conducted in a 5-L separable flask for more than 3 years at a volatile total solid (VTS) loading rate of 1 g/kg-sludge/d, using synthetic waste, untreated and 90 °C thermal pretreated DGW as the feedstock, respectively. A higher methane production, 451.6 mL/g-VTS add , was obtained when synthetic waste was used; the methane production decreased to 139.4 mL/g-VTS add when the untreated DGW was used. The 90 °C thermal pretreated DGW increased the methane production to 190.5 mL/g-VTS add , showing an increase of 36.7% in methane production compared with that using untreated DGW. The microbial community structure analysis indicates that the microbial community in the thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion system maintained a similar structure when untreated or pretreated DGW was used, whereas the structure differed significantly when synthetic waste was used as the feedstock.

  14. Strain-resolved microbial community proteomics reveals simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic function during gastrointestinal tract colonization of a preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon eBrooks

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available While there has been growing interest in the gut microbiome in recent years, it remains unclear whether closely related species and strains have similar or distinct functional roles and if organisms capable of both aerobic and anaerobic growth do so simultaneously. To investigate these questions, we implemented a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to identify proteins in fecal samples collected on days of life 13-21 from an infant born at 28 weeks gestation. No prior studies have coupled strain-resolved community metagenomics to proteomics for such a purpose. Sequences were manually curated to resolve the genomes of two strains of Citrobacter that were present during the later stage of colonization. Proteome extracts from fecal samples were processed via a nano-2D-LC-MS/MS and peptides were identified based on information predicted from the genome sequences for the dominant organisms, Serratia and the two Citrobacter strains. These organisms are facultative anaerobes, and proteomic information indicates the utilization of both aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms throughout the time series. This may indicate growth in distinct niches within the gastrointestinal tract. We uncovered differences in the physiology of coexisting Citrobacter strains, including differences in motility and chemotaxis functions. Additionally, for both Citrobacter strains we resolved a community-essential role in vitamin metabolism and a predominant role in propionate production. Finally, in this case study we detected differences between genome abundance and activity levels for the dominant populations. This underlines the value in layering proteomic information over genetic potential.

  15. Benzene: questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This information booklet is intended to inform residents near natural gas dehydration facilities about benzene and its levels in the atmosphere. It was issued following the federal government's decision to place benzene on its Priority Substances List and to require industry to establish means for reducing benzene emissions from natural gas dehydrators and to inform residents about benzene emissions from glycol dehydration facilities. Accordingly, the booklet explains what benzene is (a colourless flammable liquid component of hydrocarbons) how it gets into the air (during gasoline refining, vehicle refueling and the production of steel and petrochemicals), the associated health hazards (a recognized carcinogen, causing an increased incidence of leukemia in concentrations of 100 parts per million), defines a glycol dehydrator (a facility built at or near some natural gas fields for the removal of water from the natural gas to prevent corrosion and freezing of pipelines), and enumerates the steps that are being taken to reduce benzene levels in the air (benzene levels in gasoline have been reduced, along with benzene emissions from petrochemical plants, refineries, steel plants and glycol dehydrators by 54 per cent to date; this will rise to 90 per cent by 2005). In addition to these actions, industry plans call for all existing glycol dehydrators within 750 metres of any permanent residence to be limited to benzene emissions of no more than three tonnes per year before 2001; new glycol dehydrators after that date will be expected to have benzene emissions reduced to the lowest level that can be practically achieved

  16. Effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the biodegradation of trichloroethylene wastewater and anaerobic bacterial community in the UASB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xin; Hu, Miao; Li, Pengfei

    2015-02-01

    This study utilizes the unique merits of an 8-L laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for treating synthetic wastewater containing trichloroethylene (TCE). The reactor was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 25, 20, 15, 10, and 5 h. TCE removal efficiency decreased from 99 to 85 % when the HRT was lowered down from 25 to 5 h, as well as chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency (from 95 to 84.15 %). Using Illumina 16S rRNA gene MiSeq sequencing, we investigated the evolution of bacterial communities in the anaerobic sludge under five different conditions of HRT. In total, 106,387 effective sequences of the 16S rRNA gene were generated from 5 samples that widely represented the diversity of microbial community. Sequence analysis consisting of several novel taxonomic levels ranging from phyla to genera revealed the percentages of these bacterial groups in each sample under different HRTs. The differences found among the five samples indicated that HRT had effects on the structures of bacterial communities and the changes of bacterial communities associated with the effect of HRT on the performance of the reactor. Sequence analyses showed that Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant phyla. It is notable that the class Dehalococcoidia was found in the samples at HRT of 5, 10, 20, and 25 h, respectively, in which there were some dechlorination strains. Moreover, a tremendous rise of TCE removal efficiency from HRT of 5 h to HRT of 10 h was found.

  17. Anaerobic digestion of spent mushroom substrate under thermophilic conditions: performance and microbial community analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zheng; Lin, Manhong; Fan, Jinlin; Chen, Yixuan; Zhao, Chao; Liu, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is the residue of edible mushroom production occurring in huge amounts. The SMS residue can be digested for biogas production in the mesophilic anaerobic digestion. In the present study, performance of batch thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD) of SMS was investigated as well as the interconnected microbial population structure changes. The analyzed batch TAD process lasted for 12 days with the cumulative methane yields of 177.69 mL/g volatile solid (VS). Hydrolytic activities of soluble sugar, crude protein, and crude fat in SMS were conducted mainly in the initial phase, accompanied by the excessive accumulation of volatile fatty acids and low methane yield. Biogas production increased dramatically from days 4 to 6. The degradation rates of cellulose and hemicellulose were 47.53 and 55.08%, respectively. The high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons revealed that Proteobacteria (56.7%-62.8%) was the dominant phylum in different fermentative stages, which was highly specific compared with other anaerobic processes of lignocellulosic materials reported in the literature. Crenarchaeota was abundant in the archaea. The most dominant genera of archaea were retrieved as Methanothermobacter and Methanobacterium, but the latter decreased sharply with time. This study shows that TAD is a feasible method to handle the waste SMS.

  18. Densities and Kinematic Viscosities for the Systems Benzene + Methyl Formate, Benzene + Ethyl Formate, Benzene + Propyl Formate, and Benzene + Butyl Formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmerling, Uwe; Rasmussen, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for the system benzene + methyl formate at 20°C and for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate from 20°C to 50°C. The results for the system benzene + methyl formate have been correlated usi...

  19. Conversion of Corn Stover Hydrolysates to Acids: Comparison Between Clostridium carboxidivorans P7 and Microbial Communities Developed from Lake Sediment and an Anaerobic Digester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaowen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tucker, Melvin P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Xia, Chunjie [Southern Illinois University; Kumar, Aditi [Carbondale Community High School; Liang, Yanna [Southern Illinois University

    2017-01-18

    Anaerobic fermentation is an environmentally sustainable technology for converting a variety of feedstocks to biofuels and bioproducts. Considering the complex nature of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, we aimed to investigate product formation from corn stover hydrolysates by using microbial communities under anaerobic conditions. A community developed from lake sediment was able to produce lactic acid from only glucose in the raw or overlimed hydrolysates. Another community from an anaerobic digester, however, was capable of using all hexose and pentose sugars in the raw and undetoxified hydrolysates and released lactic acid at 26.76 g/L. A pure acetogen, Clostridium carboxidivorans P7, was able to grow on the raw and overlimed hydrolysates, too. But the consumption of sugars was minimal and the total released acid concentrations were less than 2 g/L. Next generation sequencing of the enriched community derived from the anaerobic digester revealed the presence of Lactobacillus strains. The predominant species were Lactobacillus parafarraginis (72.6%) and L. buchneri (13.4%). Product titer from using this enriched community can be further enhanced by cultivating at fed-batch or continuous fermentation modes. Results from this study widened the door for producing valuable products from lignocellulosic feedstocks through using mixed cultures.

  20. Chronic exposure to triclosan sustains microbial community shifts and alters antibiotic resistance gene levels in anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel E; Zitomer, Daniel H; Kappell, Anthony D; Choi, Melinda J; Hristova, Krassimira R; McNamara, Patrick J

    2016-08-10

    Triclosan, an antimicrobial chemical found in consumer personal care products, has been shown to stimulate antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria. Although many studies focus on antibiotic resistance pertinent to medical scenarios, resistance developed in natural and engineered environments is less studied and has become an emerging concern for human health. In this study, the impacts of chronic triclosan (TCS) exposure on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and microbial community structure were assessed in lab-scale anaerobic digesters. TCS concentrations from below detection to 2500 mg kg(-1) dry solids were amended into anaerobic digesters over 110 days and acclimated for >3 solid retention time values. Four steady state TCS concentrations were chosen (30-2500 mg kg(-1)). Relative abundance of mexB, a gene coding for a component of a multidrug efflux pump, was significantly higher in all TCS-amended digesters (30 mg kg(-1) or higher) relative to the control. TCS selected for bacteria carrying tet(L) and against those carrying erm(F) at concentrations which inhibited digester function; the pH decrease associated with digester failure was suspected to cause this selection. Little to no impact of TCS was observed on intI1 relative abundance. Microbial communities were also surveyed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Compared to the control digesters, significant shifts in community structure towards clades containing commensal and pathogenic bacteria were observed in digesters containing TCS. Based on these results, TCS should be included in studies and risk assessments that attempt to elucidate relationships between chemical stressors (e.g. antibiotics), antibiotic resistance genes, and public health.

  1. Determination and Variation of Core Bacterial Community in a Two-Stage Full-Scale Anaerobic Reactor Treating High-Strength Pharmaceutical Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haijun; Ye, Lin; Hu, Haidong; Zhang, Lulu; Ding, Lili; Ren, Hongqiang

    2017-10-28

    Knowledge on the functional characteristics and temporal variation of anaerobic bacterial populations is important for better understanding of the microbial process of two-stage anaerobic reactors. However, owing to the high diversity of anaerobic bacteria, close attention should be prioritized to the frequently abundant bacteria that were defined as core bacteria and putatively functionally important. In this study, using MiSeq sequencing technology, the core bacterial community of 98 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was determined in a two-stage upflow blanket filter reactor treating pharmaceutical wastewater. The core bacterial community accounted for 61.66% of the total sequences and accurately predicted the sample location in the principal coordinates analysis scatter plot as the total bacterial OTUs did. The core bacterial community in the first-stage (FS) and second-stage (SS) reactors were generally distinct, in that the FS core bacterial community was indicated to be more related to a higher-level fermentation process, and the SS core bacterial community contained more microbes in syntrophic cooperation with methanogens. Moreover, the different responses of the FS and SS core bacterial communities to the temperature shock and influent disturbance caused by solid contamination were fully investigated. Co-occurring analysis at the Order level implied that Bacteroidales, Selenomonadales, Anaerolineales, Syneristales, and Thermotogales might play key roles in anaerobic digestion due to their high abundance and tight correlation with other microbes. These findings advance our knowledge about the core bacterial community and its temporal variability for future comparative research and improvement of the two-stage anaerobic system operation.

  2. Effect of feeding mode and dilution on the performance and microbial community population in anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hun; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Kwon, Joong-Chun; Kim, Sang-Hyoun

    2018-01-01

    The effect of feeding mode and dilution was studied in anaerobic digestion of food waste. An upflow anaerobic digester with a settler was fed at six different organic loading rates (OLRs) from 4.6 to 8.6kgCOD/m 3 /d for 200days. The highest methane productivity of 2.78LCH 4 /L/d was achieved at 8.6kgCOD/m 3 /d during continuous feeding of diluted FW. Continuous feeding of diluted food waste showed more stable and efficient performance than stepwise feeding of undiluted food waste. Sharp increase in propionate concentration attributed towards deterioration of the digester performances in stepwise feeding of undiluted food waste. Microbial communities at various OLRs divulged that the microbial distribution in the continuous feeding of diluted food waste was not significantly perturbed despite the increase of OLR up to 8.6kgCOD/m 3 /d, which was contrast to the unstable distribution in stepwise feeding of undiluted food waste at 6.1kgCOD/m 3 /d. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Remoção de etanol e benzeno em reator anaeróbio horizontal de leito fixo na presença de sulfato Ethanol and benzene removal in a horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass reactor in the presence of sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bosco Mattos Cattony

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Reator anaeróbio horizontal de leito fixo (RAHLF, preenchido com espumas de poliuretano, foi usado para tratar benzeno em solução etanólica, sob condições sulfetogênicas. Benzeno foi adicionado em concentração inicial de 2,0 mg.l-1, seguido de aumentos que variaram até 10 mg.l-1. O etanol foi adicionado em concentrações de 170 mg.l-1 a 980 mg.l-1. Soluções de sulfato ferroso e sulfato de sódio foram usadas, nas concentrações de 91 e 550 mg.l-1, respectivamente. O reator foi operado a 30 (± 2 ºC com tempo de detenção hidráulica de 12 h. A remoção da matéria orgânica foi próxima a 90% com taxa máxima de degradação de benzeno de 0,07 mg benzeno.mg-1SSV.d-1. O presente trabalho corrobora os dados obtidos por Cattony et al (2005, na medida em que torna mais consistente a proposta do uso de unidades compactas de RAHLF, para a biorremediação in situ de compostos aromáticos.In this study it is reported the operation of a horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass (HAIB reactor under sulfate-reducing condition which was also exposed to different amounts of ethanol and benzene. The HAIB reactor comprised of an immobilized biomass on polyurethane foam and ferrous and sodium sulfate solutions were used (91 and 550 mg.l-1, respectively, to promote a sulfate-reducing environment. Benzene was added at an initial concentration of 2.0 mg.l-1 followed by an increased to 9 e 10 mg.l-1, respectively. Ethanol was added at an initial concentration of 170 mg.l-1 followed by an increased range of 960 mg.l-1. The reactor was operated at 30 (± 2 ºC with hydraulic detention time of 12 h. Organic matter removal efficiency of 90% with a maximum benzene degradation rate of 0.07 mg benzene.mg-1VSS.d-1. Thus, this work corroborate the data obtained for Cattony et al (2005 and also demonstrate that compact units of HAIB reactors, under sulfate reducing conditions, are a potential alternative for in situ aromatic compounds bioremediation.

  4. Benzene and its Isomers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    instantly brings benzene to mind. Benzene is one of the most basic structural units of thousands of the so-called aromatic compounds, which include dyes, drugs, polymers and many more types of compounds that are very useful for our existence and progress. The whole gamut of the chemistry of aromatic compounds, ...

  5. Benzene and its Isomers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    present vast knowledge of extremely complex structures of thou- sands of organic compounds, the structure of benzene now appears ridiculously simple, but it had taken nearly half a century of effort by some of the greatest ever scientists to arrive at it correctly. Benzene was discovered by Michael Faraday in the year 1825 ...

  6. Comparative performance and microbial community of single-phase and two-phase anaerobic systems co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panichnumsin, P.; Ahring, B.K.; Nopharatana, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we illustrated the performance and microbial community of single- and two-phase systems anaerobically co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure. The results showed that the volatile solid reduction and biogas productivity of two-phase CSTR were 66 ± 4% and 2000 ± 210 ml l-1 d-1, while...

  7. Activity, Microenvironments, and Community Structure of Aerobic and Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidizing Prokaryotes in Estuarine Sediment (Randers Fjord, DK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Andreas; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Dalsgaard, Tage

    2006-01-01

    stations where it accounted for 5-16% of the total N2 production and 0.1-0.25% of the total prokaryotic population. These numbers result in cell-specific anammox rates of about 6 fmol N day-1, comparable to literature values. Anammox cells occurred mainly in clusters and were related to the candidate genus......ACTIVITY, MICROENVIRONMENTS, AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC AMMONIUM OXIDIZING PROKARYOTES IN ESTUARINE SEDIMENT (RANDERS FJORD, DK) A. Schramm 1, N.P. Revsbech 1, T. Dalsgaard 2, E. Piña-Ochoa 3, J. de la Torré 4, D.A. Stahl 4, N. Risgaard-Petersen 2 1 Department of Biological...

  8. Densities and Kinematic Viscosities for the Systems Benzene + Methyl Formate, Benzene + Ethyl Formate, Benzene + Propyl Formate, and Benzene + Butyl Formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmerling, Uwe; Rasmussen, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for the system benzene + methyl formate at 20°C and for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate from 20°C to 50°C. The results for the system benzene + methyl formate have been correlated using...... a Redlich-Kister type of expression with temperature-independent parameters and the data for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate with temperature-dependent parameters. The viscosities have furthermore been compared to values predicted by means of the GC...

  9. Performance and spatial community succession of an anaerobic baffled reactor treating acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Wei, Yongjun; Xiao, Wei; Zhou, Zhihua; Yan, Xing

    2011-08-01

    An anaerobic baffled reactor with four compartments (C1-C4) was successfully used for treatment of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation wastewater and methane production. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was 88.2% with a CH(4) yield of 0.25L/(g COD(removed)) when organic loading rate (OLR) was 5.4kg CODm(-3)d(-1). C1 played the most important role in solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol) and COD removal. Community structure of C2 was similar to that in C1 at stage 3 with higher OLR, but was similar to those in C3 and C4 at stages 1-2 with lower OLR. This community variation in C2 was consistent with its increased role in COD and solvent removal at stage 3. During community succession from C1 to C4 at stage 3, abundance of Firmicutes (especially OTUs ABRB07 and ABRB10) and Methanoculleus decreased, while Bacteroidetes and Methanocorpusculum became dominant. Thus, ABRB07 coupled with Methanoculleus and/or acetogen (ABRB10) may be key species for solvents degradation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Source attribution and quantification of benzene event emissions in a Houston ship channel community based on real-time mobile monitoring of ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaguer, Eduardo P; Erickson, Matthew H; Wijesinghe, Asanga; Neish, Bradley S

    2016-02-01

    A mobile laboratory equipped with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) operated in Galena Park, Texas, near the Houston Ship Channel during the Benzene and other Toxics Exposure Study (BEE-TEX). The mobile laboratory measured transient peaks of benzene of up to 37 ppbv in the afternoon and evening of February 19, 2015. Plume reconstruction and source attribution were performed using the four-dimensional (4D) variational data assimilation technique and a three-dimensional (3D) micro-scale forward and adjoint air quality model based on mobile PTR-MS data and nearby stationary wind measurements at the Galena Park Continuous Air Monitoring Station (CAMS). The results of inverse modeling indicate that significant pipeline emissions of benzene may at least partly explain the ambient concentration peaks observed in Galena Park during BEE-TEX. Total pipeline emissions of benzene inferred within the 16-km(2) model domain exceeded point source emissions by roughly a factor of 2 during the observational episode. Besides pipeline leaks, the model also inferred significant benzene emissions from marine, railcar, and tank truck loading/unloading facilities, consistent with the presence of a tanker and barges in the Kinder Morgan port terminal during the afternoon and evening of February 19. Total domain emissions of benzene exceeded corresponding 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) estimates by a factor of 2-6. Port operations involving petrochemicals may significantly increase emissions of air toxics from the transfer and storage of materials. Pipeline leaks, in particular, can lead to sporadic emissions greater than in emission inventories, resulting in higher ambient concentrations than are sampled by the existing monitoring network. The use of updated methods for ambient monitoring and source attribution in real time should be encouraged as an alternative to expanding the conventional monitoring network.

  11. Influence of fertilizer draw solution properties on the process performance and microbial community structure in a side-stream anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis - ultrafiltration bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjin; Li, Sheng; Chekli, Laura; Phuntsho, Sherub; Ghaffour, Noreddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a side-stream anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membrane bioreactor (MBR) hybrid system was proposed and operated for 55days. The FDFO performance was first investigated in terms of flux decline with various fertilizers draw solution. Flux decline was very severe with all fertilizers due to the absence of aeration and the sticky property of sludge. Flux recovery by physical cleaning varied significantly amongst tested fertilizers which seriously affected biofouling in FDFO via reverse salt flux (RSF). Besides, RSF had a significant impact on nutrient accumulation in the bioreactor. These results indicated that nutrient accumulation negatively influenced the anaerobic activity. To elucidate these phenomena, bacterial and archaeal community structures were analyzed by pyrosequencing. Results showed that bacterial community structure was affected by fertilizer properties with less impact on archaeal community structure, which resulted in a reduction in biogas production and an increase in nitrogen content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of fertilizer draw solution properties on the process performance and microbial community structure in a side-stream anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis – ultrafiltration bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngjin

    2017-02-27

    In this study, a side-stream anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membrane bioreactor (MBR) hybrid system was proposed and operated for 55 days. The FDFO performance was first investigated in terms of flux decline with various fertilizers draw solution. Flux decline was very severe with all fertilizers due to the absence of aeration and the sticky property of sludge. Flux recovery by physical cleaning varied significantly amongst tested fertilizers which seriously affected biofouling in FDFO via reverse salt flux (RSF). Besides, RSF had a significant impact on nutrient accumulation in the bioreactor. These results indicated that nutrient accumulation negatively influenced the anaerobic activity. To elucidate these phenomena, bacterial and archaeal community structures were analyzed by pyrosequencing. Results showed that bacterial community structure was affected by fertilizer properties with less impact on archaeal community structure, which resulted in a reduction in biogas production and an increase in nitrogen content.

  13. Depth-resolved microbial community analyses in the anaerobic co-digester of dewatered sewage sludge with food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Zheng, Yue; Zhang, Hai-Bo; Liu, Jian-Bo; Xiong, Wei-Ping; Zhang, Yan-Ru; Ahmad, Kito

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the impacts of FW addition on co-digestion in terms of microbial community. Anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) reactors were conducted at gradually increased addition of food waste (FW) from 0 to 4kg-VSm -3 d -1 for 220days. Although no markable acidification was found at an OLR of 4kg-VSm -3 d -1 , the unhealthy operation was observed in aspect of an inhibited methane yield (185mLg -1 VS added ), which was restricted by 40% when compared with its peak value. Deterioration of digestion process was timely indicated by the dramatic decrease of archaeal population and microbial biodiversity. Furthermore, the cooperation network showed a considerable number of rare species (<1%) were strongly correlated with methane production, which were frequently overlooked due to the limits of detecting resolution or analysis methods before. Advances in the analysis of sensitive microbial community enable us to detect the early disturbances in AcoD reactors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibition of residual n-hexane in anaerobic digestion of lipid-extracted microalgal wastes and microbial community shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Shin, Hang-Sik; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Oh, You-Kwan; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Converting lipid-extracted microalgal wastes to methane (CH4) via anaerobic digestion (AD) has the potential to make microalgae-based biodiesel platform more sustainable. However, it is apparent that remaining n-hexane (C6H14) from lipid extraction could inhibit metabolic pathway of methanogens. To test an inhibitory influence of residual n-hexane, this study conducted a series of batch AD by mixing lipid-extracted Chlorella vulgaris with a wide range of n-hexane concentration (∼10 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L). Experimental results show that the inhibition of n-hexane on CH4 yield was negligible up to 2 g COD/L and inhibition to methanogenesis became significant when it was higher than 4 g COD/L based on quantitative mass balance. Inhibition threshold was about 4 g COD/L of n-hexane. Analytical result of microbial community profile revealed that dominance of alkane-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and syntrophic bacteria increased, while that of methanogens sharply dropped as n-hexane concentration increased. These findings offer a useful guideline of threshold n-hexane concentration and microbial community shift for the AD of lipid-extracted microalgal wastes.

  15. Benzene from Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, F.; Berkowicz, R.; Skov, H.

    number of petrol vehicles with three way catalysts, 60-70% in 1999. The very steep decreasing trend for benzene at the beginning of the period from 1994 was explained by the combination of more catalyst vehicles and reduced benzene content in Danish petrol. The total amount of aromatics in petrol......, including toluene, increased only weakly. The analyses of air concentrations were confirmed by analyses of petrol sold in Denmark. The concentration of benzene at Jagtvej in Copenhagen is still in 1998 above the expected new EU limit value, 5 µg/m3 as annual average. However, the reduced content of benzene...... in petrol from 1998 and the increasing number of vehicles with catalysts will probably lead to compliance with this limit value...

  16. Benzene Monitor System report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Two systems for monitoring benzene in aqueous streams have been designed and assembled by the Savannah River Technology Center, Analytical Development Section (ADS). These systems were used at TNX to support sampling studies of the full-scale open-quotes SRAT/SME/PRclose quotes and to provide real-time measurements of benzene in Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) simulant. This report describes the two ADS Benzene Monitor System (BMS) configurations, provides data on system operation, and reviews the results of scoping tests conducted at TNX. These scoping tests will allow comparison with other benzene measurement options being considered for use in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) laboratory. A report detailing the preferred BMS configuration statistical performance during recent tests has been issued under separate title: Statistical Analyses of the At-line Benzene Monitor Study, SCS-ASG-92-066. The current BMS design, called the At-line Benzene Monitor (ALBM), allows remote measurement of benzene in PHA solutions. The authors have demonstrated the ability to calibrate and operate this system using peanut vials from a standard Hydragard trademark sampler. The equipment and materials used to construct the ALBM are similar to those already used in other applications by the DWPF lab. The precision of this system (±0.5% Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) at 1 sigma) is better than the purge ampersand trap-gas chromatograpy reference method currently in use. Both BMSs provide a direct measurement of the benzene that can be purged from a solution with no sample pretreatment. Each analysis requires about five minutes per sample, and the system operation requires no special skills or training. The analyzer's computer software can be tailored to provide desired outputs. Use of this system produces no waste stream other than the samples themselves (i.e. no organic extractants)

  17. Comparing mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of chicken manure: Microbial community dynamics and process resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Qigui; Takemura, Yasuyuki; Kubota, Kengo; Li, Yu-You

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Microbial community dynamics and process functional resilience were investigated. • The threshold of TAN in mesophilic reactor was higher than the thermophilic reactor. • The recoverable archaeal community dynamic sustained the process resilience. • Methanosarcina was more sensitive than Methanoculleus on ammonia inhibition. • TAN and FA effects the dynamic of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria obviously. - Abstract: While methane fermentation is considered as the most successful bioenergy treatment for chicken manure, the relationship between operational performance and the dynamic transition of archaeal and bacterial communities remains poorly understood. Two continuous stirred-tank reactors were investigated under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions feeding with 10%TS. The tolerance of thermophilic reactor on total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was found to be 8000 mg/L with free ammonia (FA) 2000 mg/L compared to 16,000 mg/L (FA1500 mg/L) of mesophilic reactor. Biomethane production was 0.29 L/gV S in in the steady stage and decreased following TAN increase. After serious inhibition, the mesophilic reactor was recovered successfully by dilution and washing stratagem compared to the unrecoverable of thermophilic reactor. The relationship between the microbial community structure, the bioreactor performance and inhibitors such as TAN, FA, and volatile fatty acid was evaluated by canonical correspondence analysis. The performance of methanogenic activity and substrate removal efficiency were changed significantly correlating with the community evenness and phylogenetic structure. The resilient archaeal community was found even after serious inhibition in both reactors. Obvious dynamics of bacterial communities were observed in acidogenic and hydrolytic functional bacteria following TAN variation in the different stages

  18. Methane seep in shallow-water permeable sediment harbors high diversity of anaerobic methanotrophic communities, Elba, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Emil Ruff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM is a key biogeochemical process regulating methane emission from marine sediments into the hydrosphere. AOM is largely mediated by consortia of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB, and has mainly been investigated in deep-sea sediments. Here we studied methane seepage at four spots located at 12 m water depth in coastal, organic-carbon depleted permeable sands off the Island of Elba (Italy. We combined biogeochemical measurements, sequencing-based community analyses and in situ hybridization to investigate the microbial communities of this environment. Increased alkalinity, formation of free sulfide and nearly stoichiometric methane oxidation and sulfate reduction rates up to 200 nmol g-1 day-1 indicated the predominance of sulfate-coupled AOM. With up to 40 cm thickness the zones of AOM activity were unusually large and occurred in deeper sediment horizons (20–50 cm below seafloor as compared to diffusion-dominated deep-sea seeps, which is likely caused by advective flow of pore water due to the shallow water depth and permeability of the sands. Hydrodynamic forces also may be responsible for the substantial phylogenetic and unprecedented morphological diversity of AOM consortia inhabiting these sands, including the clades ANME-1a/b, ANME-2a/b/c, ANME-3 and their partner bacteria SEEP-SRB1a and SEEP-SRB2. High microbial dispersal, the availability of diverse energy sources and high habitat heterogeneity might explain that the emission spots shared few microbial taxa, despite their physical proximity. Although the biogeochemistry of this shallow methane seep was very different to that of deep-sea seeps, their key functional taxa were very closely related, which supports the global dispersal of key taxa and underlines strong selection by methane as the predominant energy source. Mesophilic, methane-fueled ecosystems in shallow-water permeable sediments may comprise

  19. Response of a continuous anaerobic digester to temperature transitions: A critical range for restructuring the microbial community structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaai; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-02-01

    Temperature is a crucial factor that significantly influences the microbial activity and so the methanation performance of an anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Therefore, how to control the operating temperature for optimal activity of the microbes involved is a key to stable AD. This study examined the response of a continuous anaerobic reactor to a series of temperature shifts over a wide range of 35-65 °C using a dairy-processing byproduct as model wastewater. During the long-term experiment for approximately 16 months, the reactor was subjected to stepwise temperature increases by 5 °C at a fixed HRT of 15 days. The reactor showed stable performance within the temperature range of 35-45 °C, with the methane production rate and yield being maximum at 45 °C (18% and 26% greater, respectively, than at 35 °C). However, the subsequent increase to 50 °C induced a sudden performance deterioration with a complete cessation of methane recovery, indicating that the temperature range between 45 °C and 50 °C had a critical impact on the transition of the reactor's methanogenic activity from mesophilic to thermophilic. This serious process perturbation was associated with a severe restructuring of the reactor microbial community structure, particularly of methanogens, quantitatively as well as qualitatively. Once restored by interrupted feeding for about two months, the reactor maintained fairly stable performance under thermophilic conditions until it was upset again at 65 °C. Interestingly, in contrast to most previous reports, hydrogenotrophs largely dominated the methanogen community at mesophilic temperatures while acetotrophs emerged as a major group at thermophilic temperature. This implies that the primary methanogenesis route of the reactor shifted from hydrogen- to acetate-utilizing pathways with the temperature shifts from mesophilic to thermophilic temperatures. Our observations suggest that a mesophilic digester may not need to be cooled at up

  20. Microbial community analysis in sludge of anaerobic wastewater treatment systems : integrated culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, C.

    2007-01-01

    The need for clean water is increasing and anaerobic wastewater treatment can be used as a cost-effective solution for purification of organically polluted industrial waste streams. This thesis presents results from microbiological investigations of several full-scale and lab-scale anaerobic

  1. Bacterial and archaeal community distribution and stabilization of anaerobic sludge in a strengthen circulation anaerobic (SCA) reactor for municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Xu, Hui; Wang, Junfeng; Song, Xinshan; Wang, Yuhui; Li, Fang; Tian, Qing; Ma, Chunyan; Wang, Daoyuan; Bai, Junhong; Sand, Wolfgang

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a SCA reactor was employed for municipal wastewater treatment at a mesophilic temperature (30°C) under different hydraulic retention times (HRT) and upflow velocities (V up ) to investigate granule sludge stability and spatial microbial distribution. The stable COD removal efficiency readied at HRT of 15, 12, 9 and 6h, and V up ranging from 0.6 to 5.9mh -1 . EPS fraction analysis of granule sludge shows that municipal wastewater was mainly attributed to the enrichment influence of polysaccharide and tightly bound-EPS. SEM images exhibited that the stability and floating of anaerobic granular sludge may be promoted in the primary three-phase separator area because the channels of the granules was clogged by EPS. The SMA and high-throughput sequencing analysis indicated acetoclastic methanogens and hydrogenotrophic methanogens played an important role in formation and maintenance of the anaerobic granule sludge in low and high organic load rate operation conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pathways in bacterial and archaeal communities dictated by ammonium stress in a high solid anaerobic digester with dewatered sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; He, Jin; Yan, Han; Chen, Sisi; Dai, Xiaohu

    2017-10-01

    Metagenomic comparisons of microbial profiles were conducted to investigate differences between the samples from steady (Day 42), ammonium-adjusting (Day 63), and ammonium-stressed (Day 102) periods during the 110-day operation of a high solid anaerobic digester of sewage sludge. Comparing to the steady period, biogas production was slightly inhibited after ammonium adjustment, during which the microbes showed higher abundance in 6 of the total 22 ammonium-related genes. In addition, among the 19 amino-acid-related genes, 9 genes involved in amino acid generation and utilization were reduced, which partially revealed the reason of deterioration of volatile solids (VSs) degradation following ammonium stress. Furthermore, although the acetoclastic pathway was to some extent inhibited with the decrease of biogas amount and content, no enhancement of genes involved in hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was observed, elucidating the distinct role of ammonium stress in directing bacterial community structure toward the enhanced syntrophic acetate oxidation reaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Community periodontal index of treatment needs index: An indicator of anaerobic periodontal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Muthukumar S; Suresh R

    2009-01-01

    Background : Community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) index is commonly used to measure periodontal disease. It′s uniqueness, apart from assessing the periodontal status, also gives the treatment needs for the underlying condition. Benzoyl-DL-arginine napthylamide (BANA) test is a chair side diagnostic test used to detect the presence of putative periodontal pathogens. We correlated the CPITN scores of patients with BANA test results to assess the validity of CPITN as an ...

  4. Effects of oxytetracycline on archaeal community, and tetracycline resistance genes in anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Pan, Hongjia; Gu, Jie; Qian, Xun; Gao, Hua; Qin, Qingjun

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the effects of different concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC) on biogas production, archaeal community structure, and the levels of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) were investigated in the anaerobic co-digestion products of pig manure and wheat straw. PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) (PCR) were used to detect the archaeal community structure and the levels of four TRGs: tet(M), tet(Q), tet(W), and tet(C). The results showed that anaerobic co-digestion with OTC at concentrations of 60, 100, and 140 mg/kg (dry weight of pig manure) reduced the cumulative biogas production levels by 9.9%, 10.4%, and 14.1%, respectively, compared with that produced by the control, which lacked the antibiotic. The addition of OTC substantially modified the structure of the archaeal community. Two orders were identified by phylogenetic analysis, that is, Pseudomonadales and Methanomicrobiales, and the methanogen present during anaerobic co-digestion with OTC may have been resistant to OTC. The abundances of tet(Q) and tet(W) genes increased as the OTC concentration increased, whereas the abundances of tet(M) and tet(C) genes decreased as the OTC concentration increased.

  5. Differences in microbial communities and performance between suspended and attached growth anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating synthetic municipal wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moustapha

    2015-08-14

    Two lab-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs), one up-flow attached-growth (UA) and another continuously stirred (CSTR), were operated under mesophilic conditions (35 °C) while treating synthetic municipal wastewater (800 mg L−1 COD). Each reactor was attached to both polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyethersulfone (PES) microfiltration (MF) membranes in an external cross-flow configuration. Both reactors were started up and run under the same operating conditions for multiple steady-state experiments. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates were similar for both reactors (90–96%), but captured methane was found to be 11–18% higher for the CSTR than the UA reactor. Ion Torrent sequencing targeting 16S rRNA genes showed that several operational taxonomic units (OTUs) most closely related to fermentative bacteria (e.g., Microbacter margulisiae) were dominant in the suspended biomass of the CSTR, accounting for 30% of the microbial community. Conversely, methanogenic archaea (e.g., Methanosaeta) and syntrophic bacteria (e.g., Smithella propionica) were found in significantly higher relative abundances in the UA AnMBR as compared to the CSTR due to their affinity for surface attachment. Of the methanogens that were present in the CSTR sludge, hydrogenotrophic methanogens dominated (e.g., Methanobacterium). Measured EPS (both proteins and carbohydrates), which has been broadly linked to fouling, was determined to be consistently lower in the UA AnMBR membrane samples than in CSTR AnMBR membrane samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on HPLC profiles of soluble microbial products (SMPs) further demonstrated these differences between reactor types in replicate runs. The results of this study showed that reactor configuration can significantly impact the development of the microbial communities of AnMBRs that are responsible for both membrane and reactor performance.

  6. Influence of co-substrate on textile wastewater treatment and microbial community changes in the anaerobic biological sulfate reduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasool, Kashif; Mahmoud, Khaled A. [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, PO BOX 5825, Doha (Qatar); Lee, Dae Sung, E-mail: daesung@knu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehak-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Textile wastewater treatment performance was investigated with different co-substrates. • Dye biodegradation and biotransformation enhanced with lactate as co-substrate. • Sulfate removal significantly decreased under limited co-substrate concentration. • Changes in microbial community structure were studied using bar-coded pyrosequencing. • Lactate as co-substrate showed the highest relative abundance of sulfate reducing bacteria. - Abstract: This study investigated the anaerobic treatment of sulfate-rich synthetic textile wastewater in three sulfidogenic sequential batch reactors (SBRs). The experimental protocol was designed to examine the effect of three different co-substrates (lactate, glucose, and ethanol) and their concentrations on wastewater treatment performance. Sulfate reduction and dye degradation were improved when lactate and ethanol were used as electron donors, as compared with glucose. Moreover, under co-substrate limited concentrations, color, sulfate, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies were declined. By reducing co-substrate COD gradually from 3000 to 500 mg/L, color removal efficiencies were decreased from 98.23% to 78.46%, 63.37%, and 69.10%, whereas, sulfate removal efficiencies were decreased from 98.42%, 82.35%, and 87.0%, to 30.27%, 21.50%, and 10.13%, for lactate, glucose, and ethanol fed reactors, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and total aromatic amine analysis revealed lactate to be a potential co-substrate for further biodegradation of intermediate metabolites formed after dye degradation. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that microbial community structure was significantly affected by the co-substrate. The reactor with lactate as co-substrate showed the highest relative abundance of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRBs), followed by ethanol, whereas the glucose-fed reactor showed the lowest relative abundance of SRB.

  7. Benzene and superior counterpart; Benzene et homologues superieurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    A century ago, the first case of purpura and acute anemia provoked by benzene was described. Afterwards, others important toxic effects in relation with the exposure to this solvent were known: medullar aplasia, acute leukemia,carcinogenesis. The chronic intoxication by benzene is called benzenism, the term of benzolism is devoted to the intoxication provoked by the mixture of benzene and superior counterparts: toluene, xylenes. (N.C.)

  8. Leukemia and Benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Excessive exposure to benzene has been known for more than a century to damage the bone marrow resulting in decreases in the numbers of circulating blood cells, and ultimately, aplastic anemia. Of more recent vintage has been the appreciation that an alternative outcome of benzene exposure has been the development of one or more types of leukemia. While many investigators agree that the array of toxic metabolites, generated in the liver or in the bone marrow, can lead to traumatic bone marrow injury, the more subtle mechanisms leading to leukemia have yet to be critically dissected. This problem appears to have more general interest because of the recognition that so-called “second cancer” that results from prior treatment with alkylating agents to yield tumor remissions, often results in a type of leukemia reminiscent of benzene-induced leukemia. Furthermore, there is a growing literature attempting to characterize the fine structure of the marrow and the identification of so called “niches” that house a variety of stem cells and other types of cells. Some of these “niches” may harbor cells capable of initiating leukemias. The control of stem cell differentiation and proliferation via both inter- and intra-cellular signaling will ultimately determine the fate of these transformed stem cells. The ability of these cells to avoid checkpoints that would prevent them from contributing to the leukemogenic response is an additional area for study. Much of the study of benzene-induced bone marrow damage has concentrated on determining which of the benzene metabolites lead to leukemogenesis. The emphasis now should be directed to understanding how benzene metabolites alter bone marrow cell biology. PMID:23066403

  9. Microbial community structure of a pilot-scale thermophilic anaerobic digester treating poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ami M; Sharma, Deepak; Lappin-Scott, Hilary; Burton, Sara; Huber, David H

    2014-03-01

    The microbial community structure of a stable pilot-scale thermophilic continuous stirred tank reactor digester stabilized on poultry litter was investigated. This 40-m(3) digester produced biogas with 57% methane, and chemical oxygen demand removal of 54%. Bacterial and archaeal diversity were examined using both cloning and pyrosequencing that targeted 16S rRNA genes. The bacterial community was dominated by phylum Firmicutes, constituting 93% of the clones and 76% of the pyrotags. Of the Firmicutes, class Clostridia (52% pyrotags) was most abundant followed by class Bacilli (13% pyrotags). The bacterial libraries identified 94 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and pyrosequencing identified 577 OTUs at the 97% minimum similarity level. Fifteen OTUs were dominant (≥2% abundance), and nine of these were novel unclassified Firmicutes. Several of the dominant OTUs could not be classified more specifically than Clostridiales, but were most similar to plant biomass degraders, including Clostridium thermocellum. Of the rare pyrotag OTUs (99% of the archaeal clones. Based on the primary methanogen, as well as digester chemistry (high VA and ammonia levels), we propose that bacterial acetate oxidation is the primary pathway in this digester for the control of acetate levels.

  10. Influence of applied voltage on the performance of bioelectrochemical anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and planktonic microbial communities at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qing; Song, Young-Chae; Bae, Byung-Uk

    2016-11-01

    The influence of applied voltage on the bioelectrochemical anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge was studied at ambient temperature (25±2°C). The stability of the bioelectrochemical anaerobic digestion was considerably good in terms of pH, alkalinity and VFAs at 0.3V and 0.5V, but VFA accumulation occurred at 0.7V. The specific methane production rate (370mLCH4/L.d) was the highest at 0.3V, but the methane content (80.6%) in biogas and the methane yield (350mLCH4/gCODr) were higher at 0.5V, significantly better than those of 0.7V. The VS removal efficiency was 64-66% at 0.3V and 0.5V, but only 31% at 0.7V. The dominant species of planktonic microbial communities was Cloacamonas at 0.3V and 0.5V, but the percentage of hydrolytic bacteria species such as Saprospiraceae, Fimbriimonas, and Ottowia pentelensis was much higher at 0.7V. The optimal applied voltage for bioelectrochemical anaerobic digestion was 0.3-0.5V according to digestion performance and planktonic microbial communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Benzene and its Isomers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    part of an assignment given by a gas company. The gas obtained by thermal decomposition of whale oil used to be stored in cylinders under pressure for illuminating streetlights. Faraday succeeded in isolating benzene by distillation and crystalliza- tion of the light mobile oil left behind in the gas cylinders. He was also able ...

  12. Benzene and its Isomers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Benzene and its Isomers atomic weights and availability of improved analytical methods. At this time the .... geometry. Forcing them in cyclic structures would lead to signifi- cant strain. Bicyclic structures do not easily accommodate double bonds at bridgehead positions (Bredt's rule). Many of the polycy- clic isomers clearly ...

  13. On Benzene and Aromaticity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 4. On Benzene and Aromaticity History and Some Folklore. M V Bhatt. General Article Volume 3 Issue 4 April 1998 pp 88-93. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/04/0088-0093 ...

  14. Benzene and its Isomers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 5. Benzene and its Isomers - How many Structures can we Draw for C6H6? Gopalpur Nagendrappa. General Article Volume 6 Issue 5 May 2001 pp 74-78. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Denitrification of groundwater using a sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic denitrifying anaerobic fluidized-bed MBR: performance and bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Chengzhi; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-03-01

    This paper investigates a novel sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic denitrifying anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (AnFB-MBR) that has the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic denitrification systems. The AnFB-MBR produced consistent high-quality product water when fed by a synthetic groundwater with NO3 (-)-N ranging 25-80 mg/L and operated at hydraulic retention times of 0.5-5.0 h. A nitrate removal rate of up to 4.0 g NO3 (-)-N/Lreactord was attained by the bioreactor, which exceeded any reported removal capacity. The flux of AnFB-MBR was maintained in the range of 1.5-15 L m(-2) h(-1). Successful membrane cleaning was practiced with cleaning cycles of 35-81 days, which had no obvious effect on the AnFB-MBR performance. The (15) N-tracer analyses elucidated that nitrogen was converted into (15) N2-N and (15) N-biomass accounting for 88.1-93.1 % and 6.4-11.6 % of the total nitrogen produced, respectively. Only 0.3-0.5 % of removed nitrogen was in form of (15)N2O-N in sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic denitrification process, reducing potential risks of a significant amount of N2O emissions. The sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic denitrifying bacterial consortium was composed mainly of bacteria from Proteobacteria, Chlorobi, and Chloroflexi phyla, with genera Thiobacillus, Sulfurimonas, and Ignavibacteriales dominating the consortium. The pyrosequencing assays also suggested that the stable microbial communities corresponded to the elevated performance of the AnFB-MBR. Overall, this research described relatively high nitrate removal, acceptable flux, indicating future potential for the technology in practice.

  16. Selenite Reduction by Anaerobic Microbial Aggregates: Microbial Community Structure, and Proteins Associated to the Produced Selenium Spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela

    2016-04-26

    Certain types of anaerobic granular sludge, which consists of microbial aggregates, can reduce selenium oxyanions. To envisage strategies for removing those oxyanions from wastewater and recovering the produced elemental selenium (Se0), insights into the microbial community structure and synthesis of Se0 within these microbial aggregates are required. High-throughput sequencing showed that Veillonellaceae (c.a. 20%) and Pseudomonadaceae (c.a.10%) were the most abundant microbial phylotypes in selenite reducing microbial aggregates. The majority of the Pseudomonadaceae sequences were affiliated to the genus Pseudomonas. A distinct outer layer (∼200 μm) of selenium deposits indicated that bioreduction occurred in the outer zone of the microbial aggregates. In that outer layer, SEM analysis showed abundant intracellular and extracellular Se0 (nano)spheres, with some cells having high numbers of intracellular Se0 spheres. Electron tomography showed that microbial cells can harbor a single large intracellular sphere that stretches the cell body. The Se0 spheres produced by the microorganisms were capped with organic material. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of extracted Se0 spheres, combined with a mathematical approach to analyzing XPS spectra from biological origin, indicated that proteins and lipids were components of the capping material associated to the Se0 spheres. The most abundant proteins associated to the spheres were identified by proteomic analysis. Most of the proteins or peptide sequences capping the Se0 spheres were identified as periplasmic outer membrane porins and as the cytoplasmic elongation factor Tu protein, suggesting an intracellular formation of the Se0 spheres. In view of these and previous findings, a schematic model for the synthesis of Se0 spheres by the microorganisms inhabiting the granular sludge is proposed.

  17. Benzene and its Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tozun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon, colorless, sweet-smelling liquid. It is an important industrial solvent, is used in the manufacture of plastics, detergents, pesticides, and other chemicals. Benzene is a carcinogen. Short-term and high level benzene exposure causes symptoms of the central nervous system. Long-term benzene exposure may affect to bone marrow and blood production. Additionally, genotoxic, immunological, and urogenital negative effects may occur with chronicle benzene exposure. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(6.000: 541-546

  18. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern...... requirements. In fact, most advances were achieved during the last three decades, when high-rate reactor systems were developed and a profound insight was obtained in the microbiology of the anaerobic communities. This insight led to a better understanding of anaerobic treatment and, subsequently, to a broader...

  19. Performance and microbial community analysis of the anaerobic reactor with coke oven gas biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Xie, Li; Luo, Gang

    2013-01-01

    A new method for simultaneous coke oven gas (COG) biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading in anaerobic reactor was developed in this study. The simulated coke oven gas (SCOG) (92% H2 and 8% CO) was injected directly into the anaerobic reactor treating sewage sludge through hollow fiber membrane...... (HFM). With pH control at 8.0, the added H2 and CO were fully consumed and no negative effects on the anaerobic degradation of sewage sludge were observed. The maximum CH4 content in the biogas was 99%. The addition of SCOG resulted in enrichment and dominance of homoacetogenetic genus Treponema...... in the biofilm on the HFM, which indicated indirect (homoacetogenesis + aceticlastic methanogenesis) H2 conversion pathway on the biofilm. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Enrichment of sulfate reducing anaerobic methane oxidizing community dominated by ANME-1 from Ginsburg Mud Volcano (Gulf of Cadiz) sediment in a biotrickling filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Susma; Cassarini, Chiara; Rene, Eldon R; Zhang, Yu; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2018-07-01

    This study was performed to enrich anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) present in sediment from the Ginsburg Mud Volcano (Gulf of Cadiz) in a polyurethane foam packed biotrickling filter (BTF). The BTF was operated at 20 (±2) °C, ambient pressure with continuous supply of methane for 248 days. Sulfate reduction with simultaneous sulfide production (accumulating ∼7 mM) after 200 days of BTF operation evidenced anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction. High-throughput sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that after 248 days of BTF operation, the ANME clades enriched to more than 50% of the archaeal sequences, including ANME-1b (40.3%) and ANME-2 (10.0%). Enrichment of the AOM community was beneficial to Desulfobacteraceae, which increased from 0.2% to 1.8%. Both the inoculum and the BTF enrichment contained large populations of anaerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria, suggesting extensive sulfur cycling in the BTF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A long-term cultivation of an anaerobic methane-oxidizing microbial community from deep-sea methane-seep sediment using a continuous-flow bioreactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Aoki

    Full Text Available Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM in marine sediments is an important global methane sink, but the physiological characteristics of AOM-associated microorganisms remain poorly understood. Here we report the cultivation of an AOM microbial community from deep-sea methane-seep sediment using a continuous-flow bioreactor with polyurethane sponges, called the down-flow hanging sponge (DHS bioreactor. We anaerobically incubated deep-sea methane-seep sediment collected from the Nankai Trough, Japan, for 2,013 days in the bioreactor at 10°C. Following incubation, an active AOM activity was confirmed by a tracer experiment using 13C-labeled methane. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that phylogenetically diverse Archaea and Bacteria grew in the bioreactor. After 2,013 days of incubation, the predominant archaeal components were anaerobic methanotroph (ANME-2a, Deep-Sea Archaeal Group, and Marine Benthic Group-D, and Gammaproteobacteria was the dominant bacterial lineage. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that ANME-1 and -2a, and most ANME-2c cells occurred without close physical interaction with potential bacterial partners. Our data demonstrate that the DHS bioreactor system is a useful system for cultivating fastidious methane-seep-associated sedimentary microorganisms.

  2. Methanosarcina Play an Important Role in Anaerobic Co-Digestion of the Seaweed Ulva lactuca: Taxonomy and Predicted Metabolism of Functional Microbial Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie A FitzGerald

    Full Text Available Macro-algae represent an ideal resource of third generation biofuels, but their use necessitates a refinement of commonly used anaerobic digestion processes. In a previous study, contrasting mixes of dairy slurry and the macro-alga Ulva lactuca were anaerobically digested in mesophilic continuously stirred tank reactors for 40 weeks. Higher proportions of U. lactuca in the feedstock led to inhibited digestion and rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids, requiring a reduced organic loading rate. In this study, 16S pyrosequencing was employed to characterise the microbial communities of both the weakest (R1 and strongest (R6 performing reactors from the previous work as they developed over a 39 and 27-week period respectively. Comparing the reactor communities revealed clear differences in taxonomy, predicted metabolic orientation and mechanisms of inhibition, while constrained canonical analysis (CCA showed ammonia and biogas yield to be the strongest factors differentiating the two reactor communities. Significant biomarker taxa and predicted metabolic activities were identified for viable and failing anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca. Acetoclastic methanogens were inhibited early in R1 operation, followed by a gradual decline of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Near-total loss of methanogens led to an accumulation of acetic acid that reduced performance of R1, while a slow decline in biogas yield in R6 could be attributed to inhibition of acetogenic rather than methanogenic activity. The improved performance of R6 is likely to have been as a result of the large Methanosarcina population, which enabled rapid removal of acetic acid, providing favourable conditions for substrate degradation.

  3. Methanosarcina Play an Important Role in Anaerobic Co-Digestion of the Seaweed Ulva lactuca: Taxonomy and Predicted Metabolism of Functional Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Jamie A; Allen, Eoin; Wall, David M; Jackson, Stephen A; Murphy, Jerry D; Dobson, Alan D W

    2015-01-01

    Macro-algae represent an ideal resource of third generation biofuels, but their use necessitates a refinement of commonly used anaerobic digestion processes. In a previous study, contrasting mixes of dairy slurry and the macro-alga Ulva lactuca were anaerobically digested in mesophilic continuously stirred tank reactors for 40 weeks. Higher proportions of U. lactuca in the feedstock led to inhibited digestion and rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids, requiring a reduced organic loading rate. In this study, 16S pyrosequencing was employed to characterise the microbial communities of both the weakest (R1) and strongest (R6) performing reactors from the previous work as they developed over a 39 and 27-week period respectively. Comparing the reactor communities revealed clear differences in taxonomy, predicted metabolic orientation and mechanisms of inhibition, while constrained canonical analysis (CCA) showed ammonia and biogas yield to be the strongest factors differentiating the two reactor communities. Significant biomarker taxa and predicted metabolic activities were identified for viable and failing anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca. Acetoclastic methanogens were inhibited early in R1 operation, followed by a gradual decline of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Near-total loss of methanogens led to an accumulation of acetic acid that reduced performance of R1, while a slow decline in biogas yield in R6 could be attributed to inhibition of acetogenic rather than methanogenic activity. The improved performance of R6 is likely to have been as a result of the large Methanosarcina population, which enabled rapid removal of acetic acid, providing favourable conditions for substrate degradation.

  4. Effects of hydrogen and acetate on benzene mineralisation under sulphate-reducing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Jana; Schleinitz, Kathleen M; Müller, Nicolai; Richnow, Hans H; Vogt, Carsten

    2011-08-01

    Syntrophic mineralisation of benzene, as recently proposed for a sulphate-reducing enrichment culture, was tested in product inhibition experiments with acetate and hydrogen, both putative intermediates of anaerobic benzene fermentation. Using [(13)C(6)]-benzene enabled tracking the inhibition of benzene mineralisation sensitively by analysis of (13)CO(2). In noninhibited cultures, hydrogen was detected at partial pressures of 2.4 × 10(-6) ± 1.5 × 10(-6) atm. Acetate was detected at concentrations of 17 ± 2 μM. Spiking with 0.1 atm hydrogen produced a transient inhibitory effect on (13)CO(2) formation. In cultures spiked with higher amounts of hydrogen, benzene mineralisation did not restart after hydrogen consumption, possibly due to the toxic effects of the sulphide produced. An inhibitory effect was also observed when acetate was added to the cultures (0.3, 3.5 and 30 mM). Benzene mineralisation resumed after acetate was degraded to concentrations found in noninhibited cultures, indicating that acetate is another key intermediate in anaerobic benzene mineralisation. Although benzene mineralisation by a single sulphate reducer cannot be ruled out, our results strongly point to an involvement of syntrophic interactions in the process. Thermodynamic calculations revealed that, under in situ conditions, benzene fermentation to hydrogen and acetate yielded a free energy change of ΔG'=-83.1 ± 5.6 kJ mol(-1). Benzene mineralisation ceased when ΔG' values declined below -61.3 ± 5.3 kJ mol(-1) in the presence of acetate, indicating that ATP-consuming reactions are involved in the pathway. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of feedstock-to-inoculum ratio on performance and microbial community succession during solid-state thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of pig urine and rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingyu; Xie, Li; Kinh, Co Thi; Suenaga, Toshikazu; Hori, Tomoyuki; Riya, Shohei; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of the feedstock-to-inoculum (F/I) ratio on performance of the solid-state anaerobic co-digestion of pig urine and rice straw inoculated with a solid digestate, and clarified the microbial community succession. A 44-day biochemical methane potential test at F/I ratios of 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 at 55 °C and a 35-day large-scale batch test at F/I ratios of 0.5 and 3 at 55 °C were conducted to investigate the effects of F/I ratio on anaerobic digestibility and analyze microbial community succession, respectively. The highest cumulative methane yield was 353.7 m 3 /t VS in the large-scale batch test. Volatile fatty acids did not accumulate at any F/I ratios. The volatile solids reduction rate was highest at a F/I ratio of 0.5. Microbial community structures were similar between F/I ratios of 3 and 0.5, despite differences in digestion performance, suggesting that stable operation can be achieved at these ratios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vertical distribution of archaeal communities associated with anaerobic degradation of pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) in river-based groundwater recharge with reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yulin; Ma, Mengsi; Liu, Xiang; Ma, Weifang; Li, Yangyao

    2018-02-01

    When groundwater is recharged with reclaimed water, the presence of trace amounts of biorefractory pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE, specifically BDE-99) might cause potential groundwater pollution. A laboratory-scale column was designed to investigate the distribution of the community of archaea in this scenario and the associated anaerobic degradation of BDE-99. The concentration of BDE-99 decreased significantly as soil depth increased, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis suggested that archaea exerted significant effects on the biodegradation of PBDE. Through 454 pyrosequencing of 16s rRNA genes, we found that the distribution and structure of the archaeal community associated with anaerobic degradation of BDE-99 in the river-based aquifer media changed significantly between different soil depths. The primary debrominated metabolites varied with changes in the vertically distributed archaeal community. The archaea in the surface layer were dominated by Methanomethylovorans, and the middle layer was mainly composed of Nitrososphaera. Nitrosopumilus and Nitrososphaera were equally abundant in the bottom layer. In addition, Methanomethylovorans abundance depended on the depth of soil, and the relative abundance of Nitrosopumilus increased with increasing depth, which was associated with the oxidation-reduction potential and the content of intermediate metabolites. We propose that Nitrososphaera and Nitrosopumilus might be the key archaeal taxa mediating the biodegradation of BDE-99.

  7. Long-chain fatty acids inhibition and adaptation process in anaerobic thermophilic digestion: Batch tests, microbial community structure and mathematical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paltsi, Jordi; Illa, J.; Prenafeta-Boldu, F.X.

    2010-01-01

    Biomass samples taken during the continuous operation of thermophilic anaerobic digestors fed with manure and exposed to successive inhibitory pulses of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) were characterized in terms of specific metabolic activities and 16S rDNA DGGE profiling of the microbial community......-oxidation bacterial genera (Syntrophomonas and Clostridium), while a single predominant syntrophic archaeae was related with the genus Methanosarcina. The hypothesis that biomass adaptation was fundamentally of physiological nature was tested using mathematical modelling, taking the IWA ADM1 as general model. New...

  8. Effects of Metal Nanoparticles on Methane Production from Waste-Activated Sludge and Microorganism Community Shift in Anaerobic Granular Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Dong; Dai, Lingling; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Xiaohu

    2016-05-01

    Extensive use of nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer and industrial products has led to concerns about their potential environmental impacts; however, the influences of different NPs (e.g., nZVI (nano zero-valent iron), Ag NPs, Fe2O3 NPs and MgO NPs) on the anaerobic digestion of sludge have not yet been studied in depth. Additionally, a new guideline or the use of different NPs in the anaerobic digestion of sludge should be established to improve the anaerobic digestion of sludge and avoid inhibitory effects. This study investigated the effects of four representative NPs (i.e., nZVI, Ag NPs, Fe2O3 NPs and MgO NPs) on methane production during the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). The presence of 10 mg/g total suspended solids (TSS) nZVI and 100 mg/g TSS Fe2O3 NPs increased methane production to 120% and 117% of the control, respectively, whereas 500 mg/g TSS Ag NPs and 500 mg/g TSS MgO NPs generated lower levels of methane production (73.52% and 1.08% that of the control, respectively). These results showed that low concentrations of nZVI and Fe2O3 NPs promoted the amount of microbes (Bacteria and Archaea) and activities of key enzymes but that higher concentrations of Ag NPs and MgO NPs inhibited them.

  9. Acidification of methanol-fed anaerobic granular sludge bioreactors by cobalt deprivation: Induction and microbial community dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Fermoso, F.; Collins, G.; Bartacek, J.; O'Flaherty, V.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2008-01-01

    The acidification of mesophilic (30 degrees C) methanol-fed upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors induced by cobalt deprivation from the influent was investigated by coupling the reactor performance (pH 7.0; organic loading rate 4.5 g COD . L-1 . d(-1)) to the microbial ecology of the

  10. Potential and optimization of two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge and microbial community study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghong; Liang, Ying; Zhao, Peng; Li, Qing X.; Guo, Shaohui; Chen, Chunmao

    2016-01-01

    Oil refinery waste activated sludge produced from oil wastewater biological treatment is a major industrial sludge. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge was studied for the first time. Thermal pretreatment under 170 °C is effective on sludge solubilization. At the optimum hydrolytic-acidogenic condition which was pH of 6.5, temperature of 55 °C and HRT of 2 days, 2754 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced and acetic acid and butyric acid were the key components. Comparative studies of single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion in terms of organic removal, biogas production and methane concentration were conducted. The cumulative methane production and soluble COD (SCOD) removal efficiency in the two-phase system were 228 mL/g COD added and 77.8%, respectively, which were 1.6 and 2.1 times higher than those in single-phase anaerobic digestion. Such improved performance is attributed to intensification of dominant microbial population in separated reactors. Caloramator, Ureibacillus, Dechloromonas, Petrobacter, and T78 played important roles in hydrolytic-acidification and oil-organics degradation. Syntrophic bacteria in the family Porphyromonadaceae and the genus Anaerobranca provide acetate for methanogen. The results demonstrated the potential and operating condition of two-phase anaerobic digestion in treatment of oil refinery waste activated sludge. PMID:27905538

  11. Benzene exposures in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valerio, F.; Pala, M.; Cipolla, M.; Stella, A.

    2001-01-01

    Benzene exposures in urban areas were reviewed. Available data confirm that both in USA and Europe, benzene concentrations measured by fixed outdoor monitoring stations underestimate personal exposures of urban residents. Indoor sources, passive smoke and the high exposures during commuting time may explain this difference. Measures in European towns confirm that very frequently mean daily personal exposures to benzene exceed 10 μg/m 3 , current European air quality guideline for this carcinogenic compound [it

  12. Enhancing methane production from U. lactuca using combined anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) and rumen fluid pre-treatment and the effect on the solubilization of microbial community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu; Xu, Xiaochen; Li, Liang; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen

    2018-04-01

    Methane production by the anaerobic digestion of seaweed is restricted by the slow degradation caused by the influence of the rigid algal cell wall. At the present time, there has been no study focusing on the anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca by co-fermentation and pre-treatment with rumen fluid. Rumen fluid can favor methane production from algal biomass by utilizing the diversity and quantity of bacterial and archaeal communities in the rumen fluid. This research presents a novel method based on combined ADS and rumen fluid pre-treatment to improve the production of methane from seaweed. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed to investigate the biogas production using combined ADS and rumen fluid pre-treatment at varied inoculum ratios on the performance of methane production from U. lactuca biomass. Compared to the control (no rumen fluid pre-treatment), the highest BMP yields of U. lactuca increased from 3%, 27.5% and 39.5% to 31.1%, 73% and 85.6%, respectively, for three different types of treatment. Microbial community analysis revealed that the Methanobrevibacter species, known to accept electrons to form methane, were only detected when rumen fluid was added. Together with the significant increase in species of Methanoculleus, Methanospirillum and Methanosaeta, rumen fluid improved the fermentation and degradation of the microalgae biomass not only by pre-treatment to foster cell-wall degradation but also by relying on methane production within itself during anaerobic processes. Batch experiments further indicated that rumen fluid applied to the co-fermentation and pre-treatment could increase the economic value and hold promise for enhancing biogas production from different seaweed species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of heterogeneous Fenton-like pre-treatment on anaerobic granular sludge performance and microbial community for the treatment of traditional Chinese medicine wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chengyuan, E-mail: suchengyuan2008@126.com [School of Environment and Resources, Guangxi Normal University, 15 Yucai Road, Guilin 541004 (China); School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe Road, Harbin 150090 (China); Li, Weiguang [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe Road, Harbin 150090 (China); Lu, Yuxiang; Chen, Menglin; Huang, Zhi [School of Environment and Resources, Guangxi Normal University, 15 Yucai Road, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Rhein has metabolic or physiological toxicity on methanogens in anaerobic granular sludge. • TCM wastewater containing rhein can be successfully treated by the combined treatment. • The productions of the EPS of granular sludge increased after pre-treatment. • Methanoregula, Methanobacterium, Methanosphaerula were predominant in the DC reactor after pre-treatment. - Abstract: The effect of a heterogeneous Fenton-like pre-treatment on the anaerobic processes, characteristics and microbial community of sludge was investigated for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wastewater containing rhein. When the concentrations of rhein were 50 mg/L and 100 mg/L, the toxic effect was physiological toxicity for anaerobic granular sludge. Using a single double circle (DC) reactor for the treatment of TCM wastewater containing rhein at concentrations of 15–20 mg/L, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate was 69%, and coenzyme F{sub 420} was nearly undetectable in the 3D-excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of soluble microbial products (SMP). The abundances of Methanoregula, Methanobacterium, Methanosphaerula were only 5.57%, 2.39% and 1.08% in the DC reactor, respectively. TCM wastewater containing rhein could be successfully treated by the combination of the heterogeneous Fenton-like pre-treatment and the DC reactor processes, and the COD removal rate reached 95%. Meanwhile, the abundances of Methanoregula, Methanobacterium, Methanosphaerula increased to 22.5%, 18.5%, and 13.87%, respectively. For the bacterial community, the abundance of Acidobacteria-Gp6 decreased from 6.99% to 1.07%, while the abundances of Acidobacteria-Gp1 and Acidobacteria-Gp2 increased from 1.61% to 6.55% and from 1.28% to 5.87%, respectively.

  14. Nanoscale zero-valent iron/persulfate enhanced upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for dye removal: Insight into microbial metabolism and microbial community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fei; Zhong, Xiaohan; Xia, Dongsheng; Yin, Xianze; Li, Fan; Zhao, Dongye; Ji, Haodong; Liu, Wen

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the efficiency of nanoscale zero-valent iron combined with persulfate (NZVI/PS) for enhanced degradation of brilliant red X-3B in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, and examined the effects of NZVI/PS on anaerobic microbial communities during the treatment process. The addition of NZVI (0.5 g/L) greatly enhanced the decolourization rate of X-3B from 63.8% to 98.4%. The Biolog EcoPlateTM technique was utilized to examine microbial metabolism in the reactor, and the Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing revealed 22 phyla and 88 genera of the bacteria. The largest genera (Lactococcus) decreased from 33.03% to 7.94%, while the Akkermansia genera increased from 1.69% to 20.23% according to the abundance in the presence of 0.2 g/L NZVI during the biological treatment process. Meanwhile, three strains were isolated from the sludge in the UASB reactors and identified by 16 S rRNA analysis. The distribution of three strains was consistent with the results from the Illumina MiSeq high throughput sequencing. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that Fe(0) was transformed into Fe(II)/Fe(III) during the treatment process, which are beneficial for the microorganism growth, and thus promoting their metabolic processes and microbial community. PMID:28300176

  15. Operating conditions influence microbial community structures, elimination of the antibiotic resistance genes and metabolites during anaerobic digestion of cow manure in the presence of oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Gokhan; Akyol, Çağrı; Ince, Orhan; Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar

    2018-01-01

    The way that antibiotic residues in manure follow is one of the greatest concerns due to its potential negative impacts on microbial communities, the release of metabolites and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) into the nature and the loss of energy recovery in anaerobic digestion (AD) systems. This study evaluated the link between different operating conditions, the biodegradation of oxytetracycline (OTC) and the formation of its metabolites and ARGs in anaerobic digesters treating cow manure. Microbial communities and ARGs were determined through the use of quantitative real-time PCR. The biodegradation of OTC and occurrence of metabolites were determined using UV-HPLC and LC/MS/MS respectively. The maximum quantity of resistance genes was also examined at the beginning of AD tests and concentration was in the order of: tetM >tetO. The numbers of ARGs were always higher at high volatile solids (VS) content and high mixing rate. The results of the investigation revealed that relationship between mixing rate and VS content plays a crucial role for elimination of ARGs, OTC and metabolites. This can be attributed to high abundance of microorganisms due to high VS content and their increased contact with elevated mixing rate. An increased interaction between microorganisms triggers the promotion of ARGs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bacterial community shift for monitoring the co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch and palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Ramli, Norhayati; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Tashiro, Kosuke; Sakai, Kenji; Tashiro, Yukihiro

    2017-06-01

    A recently developed rapid co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge is beginning to attract attention from the palm oil industry in managing the disposal of these wastes. However, a deeper understanding of microbial diversity is required for the sustainable practice of the co-compositing process. In this study, an in-depth assessment of bacterial community succession at different stages of the pilot scale co-composting of OPEFB-POME anaerobic sludge was performed using 454-pyrosequencing, which was then correlated with the changes of physicochemical properties including temperature, oxygen level and moisture content. Approximately 58,122 of 16S rRNA gene amplicons with more than 500 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) were obtained. Alpha diversity and principal component analysis (PCoA) indicated that bacterial diversity and distributions were most influenced by the physicochemical properties of the co-composting stages, which showed remarkable shifts of dominant species throughout the process. Species related to Devosia yakushimensis and Desemzia incerta are shown to emerge as dominant bacteria in the thermophilic stage, while Planococcus rifietoensis correlated best with the later stage of co-composting. This study proved the bacterial community shifts in the co-composting stages corresponded with the changes of the physicochemical properties, and may, therefore, be useful in monitoring the progress of co-composting and compost maturity.

  17. Nanoscale zero-valent iron/persulfate enhanced upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for dye removal: Insight into microbial metabolism and microbial community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fei; Zhong, Xiaohan; Xia, Dongsheng; Yin, Xianze; Li, Fan; Zhao, Dongye; Ji, Haodong; Liu, Wen

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the efficiency of nanoscale zero-valent iron combined with persulfate (NZVI/PS) for enhanced degradation of brilliant red X-3B in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, and examined the effects of NZVI/PS on anaerobic microbial communities during the treatment process. The addition of NZVI (0.5 g/L) greatly enhanced the decolourization rate of X-3B from 63.8% to 98.4%. The Biolog EcoPlateTM technique was utilized to examine microbial metabolism in the reactor, and the Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing revealed 22 phyla and 88 genera of the bacteria. The largest genera (Lactococcus) decreased from 33.03% to 7.94%, while the Akkermansia genera increased from 1.69% to 20.23% according to the abundance in the presence of 0.2 g/L NZVI during the biological treatment process. Meanwhile, three strains were isolated from the sludge in the UASB reactors and identified by 16 S rRNA analysis. The distribution of three strains was consistent with the results from the Illumina MiSeq high throughput sequencing. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that Fe(0) was transformed into Fe(II)/Fe(III) during the treatment process, which are beneficial for the microorganism growth, and thus promoting their metabolic processes and microbial community.

  18. The steady state anaerobic digestion of Laminaria hyperborea--effect of hydraulic residence on biogas production and bacterial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinks, Jamie; Edwards, Stephen; Sallis, Paul J; Caldwell, Gary S

    2013-09-01

    Methane production by anaerobic digestion (AD) of macroalgae (seaweed) is a promising algal bioenergy option. Work presented here is primarily based on the AD of Laminaria hyperborea using batch and continuously stirred tank reactors. Extrapolation of data from batch studies to long term continuous reactors was unreliable. A conservative organic loading rate (OLR) of 1 g L(-1) d(-1) was used due to difficulties experienced in achieving steady state performance at an OLR of 1.5 g L(-1) d(-1). Biogas composition and methane yields (60-70%) were near to values expected from terrestrial feedstocks. Biomass washout, as imposed by the dilution rate (i.e., hydraulic residence), had considerable bearing on the biogas generation profile, particularly at >3 hydraulic residences. Inhibition of methanogen growth was linked to nutrient deficiency and potentially antimicrobial compounds associated with the feedstock. Anaerobic digestion of L. hyperborea proved feasible over extended operational periods. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The effect of enzymatic pre-hydrolysis of dairy wastewater on the granular and immobilized microbial community in anaerobic bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Magali C; Rosa, Daniela R; Duarte, Iolanda C S; Saavedra, Nora K; Varesche, Maria B A; Zaiat, Marcelo; Freire, Denise M G

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a lipase-rich enzyme preparation produced by the fungus Penicillium sp. on solid-state fermentation was evaluated in two anaerobic bioreactors (up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass (HAIB)) treating dairy wastewater with 1200 mg oil and grease/L. The oil and grease hydrolysis step was carried out with 0.1% (w/v) of the solid enzymatic preparation at 30 degrees C for 24 h. This resulted in a final concentration of free acids eight times higher than the initial value. The bioreactors operated at 30 degrees C with hydraulic retention times of 12 h (HAIB) and 20 h (UASB) for a period of 430 days, and had high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies (around 90%) when fed with pre-hydrolyzed wastewater. There was, however, an increase in the effluent oil and grease concentration (from values as low as 17 mg/L to values above 150 mg/L in the UASB bioreactor, and from 38-242 mg/L in the HAIB bioreactor), and oil and grease accumulation in the biomass throughout the operational period (the oil and grease content reached 1.7 times that found in the inoculum of the UASB bioreactor). The HAIB bioreactor gave better results because the support for biomass immobilization acted as a filter, retaining oil and grease at the entry of the bioreactor. The molecular analysis of the Bacteria and Archaea domains revealed significant differences in the microbial profiles in experiments conducted with and without the pre-hydrolysis step. The differences observed in the overall parameters could be related to the microbial diversity of the anaerobic sludge.

  20. Effect of Operational Parameters in the Continuous Anaerobic. Fermentation of Cheese Whey on Titers, Yields, Productivities, and Microbial Community Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Domingos, Joana M. B.; Martinez, Gonzalo A.; Scoma, Alberto; Fraraccio, Serena; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Boon, Nico; Reis, Maria A. M.; Fava, Fabio; Bertin, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced using cheese whey as feedstock. A mixed culture packed bed bioreactor was set up to digest anaerobically, under an acidogenic condition, a water solution of a cheese whey powder. Batch tests pointed out that the whole VFAs production process occurred via two sequential phases: (a) conversion of lactose into lactic acid and (b) conversion of lactic acid into a mixture of VFAs. Furthermore, the same tests showed that the ceramic material Vukopor S10 can...

  1. Performance and microbial community analysis of the anaerobic reactor with coke oven gas biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Xie, Li; Luo, Gang; Zhou, Qi; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-10-01

    A new method for simultaneous coke oven gas (COG) biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading in anaerobic reactor was developed in this study. The simulated coke oven gas (SCOG) (92% H2 and 8% CO) was injected directly into the anaerobic reactor treating sewage sludge through hollow fiber membrane (HFM). With pH control at 8.0, the added H2 and CO were fully consumed and no negative effects on the anaerobic degradation of sewage sludge were observed. The maximum CH4 content in the biogas was 99%. The addition of SCOG resulted in enrichment and dominance of homoacetogenetic genus Treponema and hydrogenotrophic genus Methanoculleus in the liquid, which indicated that H2 were converted to methane by both direct (hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis) and indirect (homoacetogenesis+aceticlastic methanogenesis) pathways in the liquid. However, the aceticlasitic genus Methanosaeta was dominant for archaea in the biofilm on the HFM, which indicated indirect (homoacetogenesis+aceticlastic methanogenesis) H2 conversion pathway on the biofilm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An innovative wood-chip-framework soil infiltrator for treating anaerobic digested swine wastewater and analysis of the microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bowei; Li, Jianzheng; Leu, Shao-Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Combined anaerobic-aerobic processes are efficacious and economic approaches in treating swine wastewater. Nitrogen removal efficiency of these processes, however, is usually limited due to the low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio of the wastewater. An innovative wood-chip-framework soil infiltrator (WFSI) was developed and its performance in treating anaerobic digested swine wastewater was investigated. The WFSI showed comparable removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and amongst the highest efficiency of nitrogen removal in treating low C/N wastewater. At a COD volume loading rate of 98.6 g/m3 d the WFSI could remove up to 47.7 g/m3 d of COD. Removal rates of NH4+-N and total nitrogen, also reached 69.1 and 30.4 g/m3 d, respectively, when NH4+-N loading rate was 88.4 g/m3 d. Biological analysis indicated that aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic microbiota occurred throughout the WFSI. Abundant cellulose and lignin decomposing bacteria could degrade the wood chips and provided extra carbon source to enhance denitrification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Substituent Effect in Benzene Dication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palusiak, M.; Domagala, M.; Dominikowska, J.E.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    It was recently postulated that the benzene ring and its 4n + 2 π-electron analogues are resistant to the substituent effect due to the fact that such systems tend to retain their delocalized character. Therefore, the 4n π-electron dicationic form of benzene should appear to be less resistant to the

  4. Fuel Dependence of Benzene Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H; Eddings, E; Sarofim, A; Westbrook, C

    2008-07-14

    The relative importance of formation pathways for benzene, an important precursor to soot formation, was determined from the simulation of 22 premixed flames for a wide range of equivalence ratios (1.0 to 3.06), fuels (C{sub 1}-C{sub 12}), and pressures (20 to 760 torr). The maximum benzene concentrations in 15 out of these flames were well reproduced within 30% of the experimental data. Fuel structural properties were found to be critical for benzene production. Cyclohexanes and C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} fuels were found to be among the most productive in benzene formation; and long-chain normal paraffins produce the least amount of benzene. Other properties, such as equivalence ratio and combustion temperatures, were also found to be important in determining the amount of benzene produced in flames. Reaction pathways for benzene formation were examined critically in four premixed flames of structurally different fuels of acetylene, n-decane, butadiene, and cyclohexane. Reactions involving precursors, such as C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} species, were examined. Combination reactions of C{sub 3} species were identified to be the major benzene formation routes with the exception of the cyclohexane flame, in which benzene is formed exclusively from cascading fuel dehydrogenation via cyclohexene and cyclohexadiene intermediates. Acetylene addition makes a minor contribution to benzene formation, except in the butadiene flame where C{sub 4}H{sub 5} radicals are produced directly from the fuel, and in the n-decane flame where C{sub 4}H{sub 5} radicals are produced from large alkyl radical decomposition and H atom abstraction from the resulting large olefins.

  5. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  6. Correlation between iron mobilization and emergence of benzene in leachate at old landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin

    2013-05-15

    Leachate monitoring data from a closed municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill with negligible gas production showed increasing iron, alkalinity and benzene levels over time. Due to significant rain water infiltration, concentration data alone was not adequate to analyze the possible correlations between the leachate quality parameters monitored. When quantities (kg/d) present in leachate rather than concentrations (mg/L) of benzene, bicarbonate and iron were analyzed; there were significant correlations between benzene and iron as well as biocarbonate and iron quantities. Increasing iron quantity in leachate was accompanied by increasing quantities of benzene and bicarbonate which are indicative of transformation reactions of polymeric organic compounds present in MSW. The results indicate that biotransformation mechanisms in landfills are similar to those in anaerobic sediments due to lack of electron acceptors with higher energy yields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biotransformation of toluene, benzene and naphthalene under anaerobic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenhoff, A.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are widespread in nature, due to increasing industrial activity, and often contribute to polluted soils, sediments, and groundwater. Most of these compounds are toxic at relatively high concentrations, but some are already carcinogenic at very low concentrations, e.g.

  8. Collision lifetimes of polyatomic molecules at low temperatures: benzene-benzene vs benzene-rare gas atom collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jie; Li, Zhiying; Krems, Roman V

    2014-10-28

    We use classical trajectory calculations to study the effects of the interaction strength and the geometry of rigid polyatomic molecules on the formation of long-lived collision complexes at low collision energies. We first compare the results of the calculations for collisions of benzene molecules with rare gas atoms He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. The comparison illustrates that the mean lifetimes of the collision complexes increase monotonically with the strength of the atom-molecule interaction. We then compare the results of the atom-benzene calculations with those for benzene-benzene collisions. The comparison illustrates that the mean lifetimes of the benzene-benzene collision complexes are significantly reduced due to non-ergodic effects prohibiting the molecules from sampling the entire configuration space. We find that the thermally averaged lifetimes of the benzene-benzene collisions are much shorter than those for Xe with benzene and similar to those for Ne with benzene.

  9. Pyrosequencing of mcrA and Archaeal 16S rRNA Genes Reveals Diversity and Substrate Preferences of Methanogen Communities in Anaerobic Digesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, David; Lu, Xiao-Ying; Shen, Zhiyong; Chen, Jiapeng

    2014-01-01

    Methanogenic archaea play a key role in biogas-producing anaerobic digestion and yet remain poorly taxonomically characterized. This is in part due to the limitations of low-throughput Sanger sequencing of a single (16S rRNA) gene, which in the past may have undersampled methanogen diversity. In this study, archaeal communities from three sludge digesters in Hong Kong and one wastewater digester in China were examined using high-throughput pyrosequencing of the methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) and 16S rRNA genes. Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanosarcinales were detected in each digester, indicating that both hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis was occurring. Two sludge digesters had similar community structures, likely due to their similar design and feedstock. Taxonomic classification of the mcrA genes suggested that these digesters were dominated by acetoclastic methanogens, particularly Methanosarcinales, while the other digesters were dominated by hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales. The proposed euryarchaeotal order Methanomassiliicoccales and the uncultured WSA2 group were detected with the 16S rRNA gene, and potential mcrA genes for these groups were identified. 16S rRNA gene sequencing also recovered several crenarchaeotal groups potentially involved in the initial anaerobic digestion processes. Overall, the two genes produced different taxonomic profiles for the digesters, while greater methanogen richness was detected using the mcrA gene, supporting the use of this functional gene as a complement to the 16S rRNA gene to better assess methanogen diversity. A significant positive correlation was detected between methane production and the abundance of mcrA transcripts in digesters treating sludge and wastewater samples, supporting the mcrA gene as a biomarker for methane yield. PMID:25381241

  10. Biogas Production from Protein-Rich Biomass: Fed-Batch Anaerobic Fermentation of Casein and of Pig Blood and Associated Changes in Microbial Community Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Etelka; Wirth, Roland; Maróti, Gergely; Bagi, Zoltán; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted as a fact in the biogas technology that protein-rich biomass substrates should be avoided due to inevitable process inhibition. Substrate compositions with a low C/N ratio are considered difficult to handle and may lead to process failure, though protein-rich industrial waste products have outstanding biogas generation potential. This common belief has been challenged by using protein-rich substrates, i.e. casein and precipitated pig blood protein in laboratory scale continuously stirred mesophilic fed-batch biogas fermenters. Both substrates proved suitable for sustained biogas production (0.447 L CH4/g protein oDM, i.e. organic total solids) in high yield without any additives, following a period of adaptation of the microbial community. The apparent key limiting factors in the anaerobic degradation of these proteinaceous materials were the accumulation of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. Changes in time in the composition of the microbiological community were determined by next-generation sequencing-based metagenomic analyses. Characteristic rearrangements of the biogas-producing community upon protein feeding and specific differences due to the individual protein substrates were recognized. The results clearly demonstrate that sustained biogas production is readily achievable, provided the system is well-characterized, understood and controlled. Biogas yields (0.45 L CH4/g oDM) significantly exceeding those of the commonly used agricultural substrates (0.25-0.28 L CH4/g oDM) were routinely obtained. The results amply reveal that these high-energy-content waste products can be converted to biogas, a renewable energy carrier with flexible uses that can replace fossil natural gas in its applications. Process control, with appropriate acclimation of the microbial community to the unusual substrate, is necessary. Metagenomic analysis of the microbial community by next-generation sequencing allows a precise determination of the alterations in

  11. Biogas production from protein-rich biomass: fed-batch anaerobic fermentation of casein and of pig blood and associated changes in microbial community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etelka Kovács

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted as a fact in the biogas technology that protein-rich biomass substrates should be avoided due to inevitable process inhibition. Substrate compositions with a low C/N ratio are considered difficult to handle and may lead to process failure, though protein-rich industrial waste products have outstanding biogas generation potential. This common belief has been challenged by using protein-rich substrates, i.e. casein and precipitated pig blood protein in laboratory scale continuously stirred mesophilic fed-batch biogas fermenters. Both substrates proved suitable for sustained biogas production (0.447 L CH4/g protein oDM, i.e. organic total solids in high yield without any additives, following a period of adaptation of the microbial community. The apparent key limiting factors in the anaerobic degradation of these proteinaceous materials were the accumulation of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. Changes in time in the composition of the microbiological community were determined by next-generation sequencing-based metagenomic analyses. Characteristic rearrangements of the biogas-producing community upon protein feeding and specific differences due to the individual protein substrates were recognized. The results clearly demonstrate that sustained biogas production is readily achievable, provided the system is well-characterized, understood and controlled. Biogas yields (0.45 L CH4/g oDM significantly exceeding those of the commonly used agricultural substrates (0.25-0.28 L CH4/g oDM were routinely obtained. The results amply reveal that these high-energy-content waste products can be converted to biogas, a renewable energy carrier with flexible uses that can replace fossil natural gas in its applications. Process control, with appropriate acclimation of the microbial community to the unusual substrate, is necessary. Metagenomic analysis of the microbial community by next-generation sequencing allows a precise determination of the

  12. Alkyl-benzene-sulfonates; Alkylbenzenesulfonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcou, L. [Ecole Superieure de Physique et Chimie Industrielles, 75 - Paris (France)]|[CEN, Comite europeen de normalisation (France)]|[Syndicat francais des producteurs d`agents de surface et produits auxiliaires industriels (ASPA) (France)

    1998-03-01

    The alkyl-benzene-sulfonates, or sulfophenyl-4-alkanes salts, (ABS) are anionic surface agents whose chemical formula is R-C{sub 6} H{sub 4}-SO{sub 3} M (where R is an aliphatic hydro-carbonated radical and M a metal). Like most of the surface agents, the ABS are complicated mixtures of isomers and homologues, the most usual products having 10 or 13 atoms of carbons. Their chemical preparation is carried out in two steps: 1)the alkyl-benzenes production by the alkanes or alkenes condensation on benzene 2)the alkyl-benzenes sulfonation and the neutralization of the sulfonic acids. The environmental impacts of these compounds are also given. (O.M.) 11 refs.

  13. Effects of graphene oxide on the performance, microbial community dynamics and antibiotic resistance genes reduction during anaerobic digestion of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junya; Wang, Ziyue; Wang, Yawei; Zhong, Hui; Sui, Qianwen; Zhang, Changping; Wei, Yuansong

    2017-12-01

    The role of graphene oxide (GO) on anaerobic digestion (AD) of swine manure concerning the performance, microbial community and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) reduction was investigated. Results showed that methane production was reduced by 13.1%, 10.6%, 2.7% and 17.1% at GO concentration of 5mg/L, 50mg/L, 100mg/L and 500mg/L, respectively, but propionate degradation was enhanced along with GO addition. Both bacterial and archaeal community changed little after GO addition. AD could well reduce ARGs abundance, but it was deteriorated at the GO concentration of 50mg/L and 100mg/L and enhanced at 500mg/L, while no obvious changes at 5mg/L. Network and SEM analysis indicated that changes of each ARG was closely associated with variation of microbial community composition, environmental variables contributed most to the dynamics of ARGs indirectly, GO influenced the ARGs dynamics negatively and (heavy metal resistance genes (MRGs)) influenced the most directly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of digestate from anaerobically digested cattle slurry and plant materials on soil microbial community and emission of CO2 and N2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Carter, Mette Sustmann; Jensen, Erik S.

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manure and crop residues may be employed to produce biogas as a climate-neutral source of energy and to recycle plant nutrients as fertilizers. However, especially organic farmers are concerned that fertilizing with the digestates may impact the soil microbiota...... of the other treatments during the 9 days. Regarding microbial community composition, grass-clover induced the largest changes in microbial diversity measures compared to the controls, where raw cattle slurry and the two anaerobically digested materials (cattle slurry/maize, cattle slurry/grass-clover) only...... induced minor and transient changes....

  15. Effects of biochars on the bioaccessibility of phenanthrene/pyrene/zinc/lead and microbial community structure in a soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ni; Shi, Renyong; Liu, Zongtang; Bian, Yongrong; Wang, Fang; Song, Yang; Jiang, Xin

    2018-01-01

    The immobilization of co-contaminants of organic and inorganic pollutants by biochar is an efficient remediation strategy. However, the effect of biochar amendments on the bioaccessibility of the co-contaminants in dry versus flooded soils has rarely been compared. In batch experiments, bamboo-derived biochar (BB) had a higher sorption capacity for phenanthrene (Phe)/pyrene (Pyr)/zinc (Zn) than corn straw-derived biochar (CB), while CB had a higher sorption capacity for lead (Pb) than BB. After 150days of incubation, the amendments of 2% CB, 0.5% BB and 2% BB effectively suppressed the dissipation and reduced the bioaccessibility of Phe/Pyr by 15.65%/18.02%, 17.07%/18.31% and 25.43%/27.11%, respectively, in the aerobic soils. This effectiveness was more significant than that in the anaerobic soils. The accessible Zn/Pb concentrations were also significantly lower in the aerobic soils than in the anaerobic soils, regardless of treatments. The Gram-negative bacterial biomass and the Shannon-Weaver index in the aerobic soil amended with 2% CB were the highest. The soil microbial community structure was jointly affected by changes in the bioaccessibility of the co-contaminants and the soil physiochemical properties caused by biochar amendments under the two conditions. Therefore, dry land farming may be more reliable than paddy soil cultivation at reducing the bioaccessibility of Phe/Pyr/Zn/Pb and enhancing the soil microbial diversity in the short term. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Characterization of bacterial communities in hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-membrane bioreactor (MBR) process for berberine antibiotic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guanglei; Song, Yong-Hui; Zeng, Ping; Duan, Liang; Xiao, Shuhu

    2013-08-01

    Biodegradation of berberine antibiotic was investigated in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-membrane bioreactor (MBR) process. After 118days of operation, 99.0%, 98.0% and 98.0% overall removals of berberine, COD and NH4(+)-N were achieved, respectively. The detailed composition of the established bacterial communities was studied by using 16S rDNA clone library. Totally, 400 clones were retrieved and grouped into 186 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). UASB was dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, while Proteobacteria, especially Alpha- and Beta-proteobacteria were prevalent in the MBRs. Clostridium, Eubacterium and Synergistes in the UASB, as well as Hydrogenophaga, Azoarcus, Sphingomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Shinella and Alcaligenes in the MBRs were identified as potential functional species in biodegradation of berberine and/or its metabolites. The bacterial community compositions in two MBRs were significantly discrepant. However, the identical functions of the functional species ensured the comparable pollutant removal performances in two bioreactors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Combination of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) for berberine reduction from wastewater and the effects of berberine on bacterial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guanglei; Song, Yonghui; Zeng, Ping; Duan, Liang; Xiao, Shuhu

    2013-02-15

    Berberine is a broad-spectrum antibiotic extensively used in personal medication. The production of berberine results in the generation of wastewater containing concentrated residual berberine. However, few related studies up to date focus on berberine removal from wastewaters. In this study, a lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-membrane bioreactor (MBR) process was developed for berberine removal from synthetic wastewater. The performance of the UASB-MBR system on berberine, COD and NH(4)(+)--N removal was investigated at different berberine loadings. And the effects of berberine on bacterial communities were evaluated using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Results showed that, as the increase of berberine loadings, UASB performance was affected remarkably, whereas, efficient and stable performance of MBR ensured the overall removal rates of berberine, COD and NH(4)(+)--N consistently reached up to 99%, 98% and 98%, respectively. Significant shifts of bacterial community structures were detected in both UASB and MBR, especially in the initial operations. Along with the increase of berberine loadings, high antibiotic resisting species and some functional species, i.e. Acinetobacter sp., Clostridium sp., Propionibacterium sp., and Sphingomonas sp. in UASB, as well as Sphingomonas sp., Methylocystis sp., Hydrogenophaga sp. and Flavobacterium sp. in MBR were enriched in succession. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of different swine manure to wheat straw ratios on antibiotic resistance genes and the microbial community structure during anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen; Wang, Xiaojuan; Gu, Jie; Zhang, Sheqi; Yin, Yanan; Li, Yang; Qian, Xun; Sun, Wei

    2017-05-01

    This study explored the effects of different mass ratios of swine manure relative to wheat straw (3:7, 5:5, and 7:3, i.e., control reactors C1, C2, and C3, respectively) on variations in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and the microbial community during anaerobic digestion (AD). The cumulative biogas production volumes were 1711, 3857, and 3226mL in C1, C2, and C3, respectively. After AD, the total relative abundance of ARGs decreased by 4.23 logs in C3, whereas the reductions were only 1.03 and 1.37 logs in C1 and C2, respectively. Network analysis showed that the genera Solibacillus, Enterococcus, Facklamia, Corynebacterium_1, and Acinetobacter were potential hosts of ermB, sul1, and dfrA7. Redundancy analysis showed that the bacterial communities and environmental factors played important roles in the variation in ARGs. Thus, reductions in ARGs should be considered before reusing animal manure treated by AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization and microbial community analysis for production of biogas from solid waste residues of palm oil mill industry by solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksong, Wantanasak; Kongjan, Prawit; Prasertsan, Poonsuk; Imai, Tsuyoshi; O-Thong, Sompong

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the improvement of biogas production from solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of oil palm biomass by optimizing of total solids (TS) contents, feedstock to inoculum (F:I) ratios and carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratios. Highest methane yield from EFB, OPF and OPT of 358, 280 and 324m(3)CH4ton(-1)VS, respectively, was achieved at TS content of 16%, C:N ratio of 30:1 and F:I ratio of 2:1. The main contribution to methane from biomass was the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose. The highest methane production of 72m(3)CH4ton(-1) biomass was achieved from EFB. Bacteria community structure in SS-AD process of oil palm biomass was dominated by Ruminococcus sp. and Clostridium sp., while archaea community was dominated by Methanoculleus sp. Oil palm biomass has great potential for methane production via SS-AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of system performance and microbial communities of a temperature-phased anaerobic digestion system treating dairy manure: thermophilic digester operated at acidic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wen; Zhang, Wenfei; Yu, Zhongtang

    2013-08-01

    A temperature-phased anaerobic digestion system with the thermophilic digester acidified by acidogenesis products (referred to as AT-TPAD) was evaluated to treat high-strength dairy cattle manure at a 15-day retention time. Three temperatures (50, 55, and 60°C) were tested on the thermophilic digester, and 50°C was found to be the optimal temperature for overall performance of the AT-TPAD system, achieving 31% VS removal and 0.22 L methane/g VS fed. The mesophilic digester contributed significantly more to the overall system performance than the thermophilic digester. The thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters had different microbial communities under all conditions, and both microbial communities exhibited dynamic changes in response to different conditions. Certain microbial groups were found significantly correlated with the system performance. Methanosarcina was the most important methanogen genus of the AT-TPAD system and its population abundance was inversely correlated with high concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Benzene formation in electronic cigarettes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Pankow

    Full Text Available The heating of the fluids used in electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes" used to create "vaping" aerosols is capable of causing a wide range of degradation reaction products. We investigated formation of benzene (an important human carcinogen from e-cigarette fluids containing propylene glycol (PG, glycerol (GL, benzoic acid, the flavor chemical benzaldehyde, and nicotine.Three e-cigarette devices were used: the JUULTM "pod" system (provides no user accessible settings other than flavor cartridge choice, and two refill tank systems that allowed a range of user accessible power settings. Benzene in the e-cigarette aerosols was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Benzene formation was ND (not detected in the JUUL system. In the two tank systems benzene was found to form from propylene glycol (PG and glycerol (GL, and from the additives benzoic acid and benzaldehyde, especially at high power settings. With 50:50 PG+GL, for tank device 1 at 6W and 13W, the formed benzene concentrations were 1.9 and 750 μg/m3. For tank device 2, at 6W and 25W, the formed concentrations were ND and 1.8 μg/m3. With benzoic acid and benzaldehyde at ~10 mg/mL, for tank device 1, values at 13W were as high as 5000 μg/m3. For tank device 2 at 25W, all values were ≤~100 μg/m3. These values may be compared with what can be expected in a conventional (tobacco cigarette, namely 200,000 μg/m3. Thus, the risks from benzene will be lower from e-cigarettes than from conventional cigarettes. However, ambient benzene air concentrations in the U.S. have typically been 1 μg/m3, so that benzene has been named the largest single known cancer-risk air toxic in the U.S. For non-smokers, chronically repeated exposure to benzene from e-cigarettes at levels such as 100 or higher μg/m3 will not be of negligible risk.

  2. Benzene formation in electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, James F; Kim, Kilsun; McWhirter, Kevin J; Luo, Wentai; Escobedo, Jorge O; Strongin, Robert M; Duell, Anna K; Peyton, David H

    2017-01-01

    The heating of the fluids used in electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes") used to create "vaping" aerosols is capable of causing a wide range of degradation reaction products. We investigated formation of benzene (an important human carcinogen) from e-cigarette fluids containing propylene glycol (PG), glycerol (GL), benzoic acid, the flavor chemical benzaldehyde, and nicotine. Three e-cigarette devices were used: the JUULTM "pod" system (provides no user accessible settings other than flavor cartridge choice), and two refill tank systems that allowed a range of user accessible power settings. Benzene in the e-cigarette aerosols was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Benzene formation was ND (not detected) in the JUUL system. In the two tank systems benzene was found to form from propylene glycol (PG) and glycerol (GL), and from the additives benzoic acid and benzaldehyde, especially at high power settings. With 50:50 PG+GL, for tank device 1 at 6W and 13W, the formed benzene concentrations were 1.9 and 750 μg/m3. For tank device 2, at 6W and 25W, the formed concentrations were ND and 1.8 μg/m3. With benzoic acid and benzaldehyde at ~10 mg/mL, for tank device 1, values at 13W were as high as 5000 μg/m3. For tank device 2 at 25W, all values were ≤~100 μg/m3. These values may be compared with what can be expected in a conventional (tobacco) cigarette, namely 200,000 μg/m3. Thus, the risks from benzene will be lower from e-cigarettes than from conventional cigarettes. However, ambient benzene air concentrations in the U.S. have typically been 1 μg/m3, so that benzene has been named the largest single known cancer-risk air toxic in the U.S. For non-smokers, chronically repeated exposure to benzene from e-cigarettes at levels such as 100 or higher μg/m3 will not be of negligible risk.

  3. Anaerobic biodegradability of macropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    A variety of test procedures for determination of anaerobic biodegradability has been reported. This paper reviews the methods developed for determination of anaerobic biodegradability of macro-pollutants. Anaerobic biodegradability of micro-pollutants is not included. Furthermore, factors...

  4. Strong Regionality and Dominance of Anaerobic Bacterial Taxa Characterize Diazotrophic Bacterial Communities of the Arcto-Alpine Plant Species Oxyria digyna and Saxifraga oppositifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2017-10-01

    rhizosphere soil as well as the endosphere communities in the Mayrhofen region were all characterized by high relative abundances of nifH sequences related to Geobacter. In contrast, the endosphere and soil (bulk or rhizosphere soil communities in the High Arctic were highly divergent: endosphere communities in the arctic regions were shaped by Clostridium spp., while nifH sequences representing δ-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria (in Ny-Ålesund, and Verrucomicrobia (in Kilpisjärvi dominated the soil communities. Interestingly, the major PNFB genera identified in this study have been previously identified as members of conserved core microbiomes in the endospheres and seeds of these plants by 16S rRNA gene based analyses combined with bacterial isolation, suggesting a very tight interaction between diazotrophic bacteria and these arctic pioneer plants. Overall, anaerobic bacterial taxa dominated the PNFB communities of the endospheres and rhizospheres of the two plant species in all study sites. This could indicate anoxic conditions in and around plant roots at the time of sampling (early growth season, created by melting snow and underlying permafrost.

  5. Establishment and metabolic analysis of a model microbial community for understanding trophic and electron accepting interactions of subsurface anaerobic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zamin K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communities of microorganisms control the rates of key biogeochemical cycles, and are important for biotechnology, bioremediation, and industrial microbiological processes. For this reason, we constructed a model microbial community comprised of three species dependent on trophic interactions. The three species microbial community was comprised of Clostridium cellulolyticum, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, and Geobacter sulfurreducens and was grown under continuous culture conditions. Cellobiose served as the carbon and energy source for C. cellulolyticum, whereas D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens derived carbon and energy from the metabolic products of cellobiose fermentation and were provided with sulfate and fumarate respectively as electron acceptors. Results qPCR monitoring of the culture revealed C. cellulolyticum to be dominant as expected and confirmed the presence of D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens. Proposed metabolic modeling of carbon and electron flow of the three-species community indicated that the growth of C. cellulolyticum and D. vulgaris were electron donor limited whereas G. sulfurreducens was electron acceptor limited. Conclusions The results demonstrate that C. cellulolyticum, D. vulgaris, and G. sulfurreducens can be grown in coculture in a continuous culture system in which D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens are dependent upon the metabolic byproducts of C. cellulolyticum for nutrients. This represents a step towards developing a tractable model ecosystem comprised of members representing the functional groups of a trophic network.

  6. Species differences in the metabolism of benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, R.F. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The pathways of metabolism of benzene appear to be qualitatively similar in all species studied thus far. However, there are quantitative differences in the fraction of benzene metabolized by the different pathways. These species differences become important for risk assessments based on animal data. Mice have a greater overall capacity to metabolize benzene than rats or primates, based on mass balance studies conducted in vivo using radiolabled benzene. Mice and monkeys metabolize more of the benzene to hydroquinone metabolites than do rats or chimpanzees, especially at low doses. Nonhuman primates metabolize less of the benzene to muconic acid than do rodents or humans. In all species studied, a greater proportion of benzene is converted to hydroquinone and ring-breakage metabolites at low doses than at high doses. This finding should be considered in attempting to extrapolate the toxicity of benzene observed at high doses to predicted toxicity at low doses. Because ring-breakage metabolites and hydroquinone have both been implicated in the toxicity of benzene, the higher formation of those metabolites in the mouse may partially explain why mice are more sensitive to benzene than are rats. Metabolism of benzene in humans, the species of interest, does not exactly mimic that of any animal species studied. More information on the urinary and blood metabolites of occupationally exposed people is required to determine the fractional conversion of benzene to putative toxic metabolites and the degree of variability present in human subjects. 12 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. 46 CFR 30.25-3 - Benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benzene. 30.25-3 Section 30.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commodities Regulated § 30.25-3 Benzene. The provisions contained in 46 CFR part 197, subpart C, apply to liquid cargoes containing 0.5% or more benzene...

  8. 27 CFR 21.97 - Benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benzene. 21.97 Section 21... TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.97 Benzene. (a..., Standard No. D 836-77; for incorporation by reference, see § 21.6(b).) When 100 ml of benzene are distilled...

  9. Story of skeletally substituted benzenes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    corresponds to the out-of-plane distortion of the hydrogen atom connected to the heteroatoms, which is then ..... etc. exhibits significant localization.24 The skeletally substituted benzenes considered in the study with a wide ... involving cationic and anionic systems are expected to show considerable localization. In. Table 3.

  10. Acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge degrading benzene derivatives and co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene by benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizong; Yang, Qi; Bai, Zhiyong; Wang, Shidong; Wang, Yeyao; Nowak, Karolina M

    2015-01-01

    The acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge for degradation of benzene derivatives was investigated in batch experiments. Phenol, benzoic acid, toluene, aniline and chlorobenzene were concurrently added to five different bioreactors which contained the aerobic-activated sludge. After the acclimation process ended, the acclimated phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic-activated sludge were used to explore the co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene (TCE). Monod equation was employed to simulate the kinetics of co-metabolic degradation of TCE by benzene derivative-grown sludge. At the end of experiments, the mixed microbial communities grown under different conditions were identified. The results showed that the acclimation periods of microorganisms for different benzene derivatives varied. The maximum degradation rates of TCE for phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic sludge were 0.020, 0.017, 0.016, 0.0089 and 0.0047 mg g SS(-1) h(-1), respectively. The kinetic of TCE degradation in the absence of benzene derivative followed Monod equation well. Also, eight phyla were observed in the acclimated benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge. Each of benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge had different microbial community composition. This study can hopefully add new knowledge to the area of TCE co-metabolic by mixed microbial communities, and further the understanding on the function and applicability of aerobic-activated sludge.

  11. Anaerobic Thermophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Canganella

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong

  12. Obtaining representative community profiles of anaerobic digesters through optimisation of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Karst, Søren Michael

    RNA gene amplicon sequencing is rapid, cheap, high throughput, and has high taxonomic resolution. However, biases are introduced in multiple steps of this approach, including non-representative DNA extraction and uneven taxonomic coverage of selected PCR primers, potentially giving a skewed view...... parameters involving harsher lysis conditions than recommended for the commercial kit, and appeared to be similar for both the mesophilic and thermophilic reactor biomass samples. The community profiling was found to be greatly influenced by the selected PCR primers, and showed that in silico designed...

  13. 46 CFR 151.05-2 - Compliance with requirements for tank barges carrying benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or butyl acrylate cargoes. 151.05-2 Section 151.05-2 Shipping... Compliance with requirements for tank barges carrying benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or butyl acrylate cargoes. A tank barge certificated to carry benzene and benzene containing cargoes or butyl...

  14. Microbial community analysis in a combined anaerobic and aerobic digestion system for treatment of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lili; Yu, Yanling; Zhu, Zebing; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Haiman; Ambuchi, John J; Feng, Yujie

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the microbial diversity established in a combined system composed of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treatment of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater. Excellent wastewater treatment performance was obtained in the combined system, which showed a high chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 95.8% and completely eliminated most complex organics revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed differences in the microbial community structures of the three reactors. Further identification of the microbial populations suggested that the presence of Lactobacillus and Prevotella in CSTR played an active role in the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The most diverse microorganisms with analogous distribution patterns of different layers were observed in the EGSB reactor, and bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Synergistetes, and Thermotogae were associated with production of acetate and carbon dioxide/hydrogen, while all acetoclastic methanogens identified belonged to Methanosaetaceae. Overall, microorganisms associated with the ability to degrade cellulose, hemicellulose, and other biomass-derived organic carbons were observed in the combined system. The results presented herein will facilitate the development of an improved cellulosic ethanol production wastewater treatment system.

  15. Denitrifying capability and community dynamics of glycogen accumulating organisms during sludge granulation in an anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Zhang; Bin, Xue; Zhigang, Qiu; Zhiqiang, Chen; Junwen, Li; Taishi, Gong; Wenci, Zou; Jingfeng, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Denitrifying capability of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) has received great attention in environmental science and microbial ecology. Combining this ability with granule processes would be an interesting attempt. Here, a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated to enrich GAOs and enable sludge granulation. The results showed that the GAO granules were cultivated successfully and the granules had denitrifying capability. The batch experiments demonstrated that all NO3−-N could be removed or reduced, some amount of NO2−-N were accumulated in the reactor, and N2 was the main gaseous product. SEM analysis suggested that the granules were tightly packed with a large amount of tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs); filamentous bacteria served as the supporting structures for the granules. The microbial community structure of GAO granules was differed substantially from the inoculant conventional activated sludge. Most of the bacteria in the seed sludge grouped with members of Proteobacterium. FISH analysis confirmed that GAOs were the predominant members in the granules and were distributed evenly throughout the granular space. In contrast, PAOs were severely inhibited. Overall, cultivation of the GAO granules and utilizing their denitrifying capability can provide us with a new approach of nitrogen removal and saving more energy. PMID:26257096

  16. Metabolic adaptation of microbial communities to ammonium stress in a high solid anaerobic digester with dewatered sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaohu; Yan, Han; Li, Ning; He, Jin; Ding, Yueling; Dai, Lingling; Dong, Bin

    2016-06-17

    A high solid digester with dewatered sludge was operated for 110 days to ascertain the interactions between bacterial and archaeal communities under ammonium stress, as well as the corresponding changes in bio-degradation mechanisms. The volatile solids reduction (95% confidence intervals in mean) changed from 31.6 ± 0.9% in the stable period (day 40-55) to 21.3 ± 1.5% in the last period (day 71-110) when ammonium concentration was elevated to be within 5,000-6,000 mgN/L. Biogas yield dropped accordingly from 11.9 ± 0.3 to 10.4 ± 0.2 L/d and carbon dioxide increased simultaneously from 35.2% to 44.8%. Anaerobranca better adapted to the ammonium stress, while the initially dominant protein-degrading microbes-Tepidimicrobium and Proteiniborus were suppressed, probably responsible for the increase of protein content in digestate. Meanwhile, Methanosarcina, as the dominant Archaea, was resistant to ammonium stress with the constant relative abundance of more than 92% during the whole operation. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) analysis was thus conducted which indicated that the gradually increased TAN dictated the bacterial clusters. The dominant Methanosarcina and the increased carbon dioxide content under ammonium stress suggested that, rather than the commonly acknowledged syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, only SAO pathway was enhanced during the initial 'ammonium inhibition'.

  17. The effect of exergames on functional strength, anaerobic fitness, balance and agility in children with and without motor coordination difficulties living in low-income communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Jelsma, L Dorothee; Ferguson, Gillian D

    2017-10-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are physically less active, preferring more sedentary behavior and are at risk of developing health problems or becoming overweight. 18 children (age 6-10years) with lower levels of motor coordination attending a primary school in a low-income community in South Africa (score on Movement Assessment Battery for Children Second edition equal to or below the 5th percentile) were selected to participate in the study and were age-matched with typically developing peers (TD). Both groups of children engaged in 20min of active Nintendo Wii Fit gaming on the balance board, twice a week for a period of five weeks. All children were tested before and after the intervention using the lower limb items of the Functional Strength Measurement, the 5×10 meter sprint test, the 5×10 meter slalom sprint test, and the Balance, Running speed and Agility subtest of the Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2nd edition (BOT-2). After intervention, both groups of children improved in functional strength and anaerobic fitness. The magnitude of these changes was not related to participant's motor coordination level. However, differences in change between the TD and DCD group were apparent on the motor performance tests; children with DCD seemed to benefit more in balance skills of the BOT-2, while the TD children improved more in the Running speed and Agility component of the BOT-2. Compliance to the study protocol over 5weeks was high and the effect on physical functioning was shown on standardized measures of physical performance validated for children with and without DCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9.......6 addresses the mass balances and environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion....

  19. [Benzene in food and human environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedra, Małgorzata; Starski, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Benzene is releasing to environment in cause of industry activities. This compound is known as carcinogenic. This article contains information about benzene occurrence in people environment and sources of people exposition on this compound. Toxicology and metabolism in human organism were discussed. Benzene contamination of various food was presented on the basis of our results and also other European and American investigations and Codex Alimentarius documents. Especially formation and occurrence of benzene in non-alcoholic beverages preserved by benzoates were considered. Article describes also action, which was taken up by non-alcoholic beverages industry to mitigate benzene formation in soft drinks. National regulations concerning maximum levels of benzene in drinking water and air were also presented.

  20. Effect of repeated benzene inhalation exposures on benzene metabolism, binding to hemoglobin, and induction of micronuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabourin, P.J.; Sun, J.D.; MacGregor, J.T.; Wehr, C.M.; Birnbaum, L.S.; Lucier, G.; Henderson, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Metabolism of benzene is thought to be necessary to produce the toxic effects, including carcinogenicity, associated with benzene exposure. To extrapolate from the results of rodent studies to potential health risks in man, one must know how benzene metabolism is affected by species, dose, dose rate, and repeated versus single exposures. The purpose of our studies was to determine the effect of repeated inhalation exposures on the metabolism of [14C]benzene by rodents. Benzene metabolism was assessed by characterizing and quantitating urinary metabolites, and by quantitating 14C bound to hemoglobin and micronuclei induction. F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed, nose-only, to 600 ppm benzene or to air (control) for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks. On the last day, both benzene-pretreated and control animals were exposed to 600 ppm, 14C-labeled benzene for 6 hr. Individual benzene metabolites in urine collected for 24 hr after the exposure were analyzed. There was a significant decrease in the respiratory rate of mice (but not rats) pretreated with benzene which resulted in lower levels of urinary [14C]benzene metabolites. The analyses indicated that the only effects of benzene pretreatment on the metabolite profile in rat or mouse urine were a slight shift from glucuronidation to sulfation in mice and a shift from sulfation to glucuronidation in rats. Benzene pretreatment also had no effect, in either species, on formation of [14C]benzene-derived hemoglobin adducts. Mice and rats had similar levels of hemoglobin adduct binding, despite the higher metabolism of benzene by mice. This indicates that hemoglobin adduct formation occurs with higher efficiency in rats. After 1 week of exposure to 600 ppm benzene, the frequency of micronucleated, polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) in mice was significantly increased

  1. Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Anaerobic Digester Database provides basic information about anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States, organized in Excel spreadsheets. It includes projects that are under construction, operating, or shut down.

  2. Human risk assessment of benzene after a gasoline station fuel leak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam dos Anjos Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the health risk of exposure to benzene for a community affected by a fuel leak. METHODS: Data regarding the fuel leak accident with, which occurred in the Brasilia, Federal District, were obtained from the Fuel Distributor reports provided to the environmental authority. Information about the affected population (22 individuals was obtained from focal groups of eight individuals. Length of exposure and water benzene concentration were estimated through a groundwater flow model associated with a benzene propagation model. The risk assessment was conducted according to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry methodology. RESULTS: A high risk perception related to the health consequences of the accident was evident in the affected community (22 individuals, probably due to the lack of assistance and a poor risk communication from government authorities and the polluting agent. The community had been exposed to unsafe levels of benzene (> 5 µg/L since December 2001, five months before they reported the leak. The mean benzene level in drinking water (72.2 µg/L was higher than that obtained by the Fuel Distributer using the Risk Based Corrective Action methodology (17.2 µg/L.The estimated benzene intake from the consumption of water and food reached a maximum of 0.0091 µg/kg bw/day (5 x 10-7 cancer risk per 106 individuals. The level of benzene in water vapor while showering reached 7.5 µg/m3 for children (1 per 104 cancer risk. Total cancer risk ranged from 110 to 200 per 106 individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The population affected by the fuel leak was exposed to benzene levels that might have represented a health risk. Local government authorities need to develop better strategies to respond rapidly to these types of accidents to protect the health of the affected population and the environment.

  3. Occupational exposure to benzene in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Mi-Young; Kim, Tae-Kyun; Lee, Jeong-Oh; Ahn, Yeon Soon

    2005-05-30

    Benzene has been used in various industries as glues or solvents in Korea. Since 1981, a preparation containing more than 1% benzene is not allowed to be manufactured, used or dealt with in the workplace, except in laboratories and in those situations benzene must be used in a completely sealed process as specified in Industrial Safety and Health Act (ISHA). Claims for compensation of hematopoietic diseases related to benzene have been rising even though the work environment has been improved. This study was conducted to assess the status of benzene exposure in different industries in Korea. We reviewed the claimed cases investigated by the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) between 1992 and 2000. The Survey of National Work Environment Status in 1998 was analyzed to assume the number of workers and factories exposed to benzene. In 2000, six factories were investigated to evaluate benzene exposure. Personal air monitoring was performed in 61 workers and urine samples were collected from 57 workers to measure trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA). Hematologic examination has performed. Thirty-four cases of hematopoietic diseases were investigated by KOSHA including eight cases of myelodysplastic syndrome and eight cases of acute myelocytic leukemia. Eight cases were accepted as related to benzene exposure. The number of workers possibly exposed to benzene can be estimated to be 196,182 workers from 6219 factories based on the database. The geometric mean of benzene in air was 0.094 (0.005-5.311) ppm. Seven samples were higher than 1 ppm but they did not go over the 10 ppm occupational exposure limit (OEL) value in Korea. The geometric mean of trans,trans-muconic acid in urine was 0.966 (0.24-2.74) mg/g creatinine. The benzene exposure level was low except in a factory where benzene was used to polymerize other chemicals. The ambient benzene from 0.1 to 1 ppm was significantly correlated with urine t,t-MA concentration (r=0.733, p<0.01). Hematologic

  4. Anaerobic fungal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookman, J.L.; Nicholson, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The development of molecular techniques has greatly broadened our view of microbial diversity and enabled a more complete detection and description of microbial communities. The application of these techniques provides a simple means of following community changes, for example, Ishii et al. described transient and more stable inhabitants in another dynamic microbial system, compost. Our present knowledge of anaerobic gut fungal population diversity within the gastrointestinal tract is based upon isolation, cultivation and observations in vivo. It is likely that there are many species yet to be described, some of which may be non-culturable. We have observed a distinct difference in the ease of cultivation between the different genera, for example, Caecomyes isolates are especially difficult to isolate and maintain in vitro, a feature that is likely to result in the under representation of this genera in culture-based enumerations. The anaerobic gut fungi are the only known obligately anaerobic fungi. For the majority of their life cycles, they are found tightly associated with solid digesta in the rumen and/or hindgut. They produce potent fibrolytic enzymes and grow invasively on and into the plant material they are digesting making them important contributors to fibre digestion. This close association with intestinal digesta has made it difficult to accurately determine the amount of fungal biomass present in the rumen, with Orpin suggesting 8% contribution to the total microbial biomass, whereas Rezaeian et al. more recently gave a value of approximately 20%. It is clear that the rumen microbial complement is affected by dietary changes, and that the fungi are more important in digestion in the rumens of animals fed with high-fibre diets. It seems likely that the gut fungi play an important role within the rumen as primary colonizers of plant fibre, and so we are particularly interested in being able to measure the appearance and diversity of fungi on the plant

  5. Anaerobic treatment of raw domestic wastewater in a UASB-digester at 10 °C and microbial community dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lei; Vrieze, De Jo; Hendrickx, Tim L.G.; Wei, Wei; Temmink, Hardy; Rijnaarts, Huub; Zeeman, Grietje

    2018-01-01

    Direct anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater is becoming attractive as it can change a wastewater treatment plant from energy consuming to energy producing. A pilot scale UASB-digester was studied to treat domestic wastewater at temperatures of 10–20 °C and an HRT of 6 h. The results show a

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1128 - Benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene. 1926.1128 Section 1926.1128 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1128 Benzene. Note...

  7. 46 CFR 151.50-60 - Benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benzene. 151.50-60 Section 151.50-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-60 Benzene. The person in charge of a...

  8. 46 CFR 153.1060 - Benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benzene. 153.1060 Section 153.1060 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1060 Benzene...

  9. 29 CFR 1915.1028 - Benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene. 1915.1028 Section 1915.1028 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... Benzene. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to...

  10. Biomarkers of susceptibility following benzene exposure: influence of genetic polymorphisms on benzene metabolism and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonari, Damiano; Chiarella, Pieranna; Mansi, Antonella; Pigini, Daniela; Iavicoli, Sergio; Tranfo, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Benzene is a ubiquitous occupational and environmental pollutant. Improved industrial hygiene allowed airborne concentrations close to the environmental context (1-1000 µg/m(3)). Conversely, new limits for benzene levels in urban air were set (5 µg/m(3)). The biomonitoring of exposure to such low benzene concentrations are performed measuring specific and sensitive biomarkers such as S-phenylmercapturic acid, trans, trans-muconic acid and urinary benzene: many studies referred high variability in the levels of these biomarkers, suggesting the involvement of polymorphic metabolic genes in the individual susceptibility to benzene toxicity. We reviewed the influence of metabolic polymorphisms on the biomarkers levels of benzene exposure and effect, in order to understand the real impact of benzene exposure on subjects with increased susceptibility.

  11. Benzene dynamics and biodegradation in alluvial aquifers affected by river fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle-Aguilar, J; Morasch, B; Hunkeler, D; Brouyère, S

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of a benzene plume in an alluvial aquifer strongly affected by river fluctuations was studied. Benzene concentrations, aquifer geochemistry datasets, past river morphology, and benzene degradation rates estimated in situ using stable carbon isotope enrichment were analyzed in concert with aquifer heterogeneity and river fluctuations. Geochemistry data demonstrated that benzene biodegradation was on-going under sulfate reducing conditions. Long-term monitoring of hydraulic heads and characterization of the alluvial aquifer formed the basis of a detailed modeled image of aquifer heterogeneity. Hydraulic conductivity was found to strongly correlate with benzene degradation, indicating that low hydraulic conductivity areas are capable of sustaining benzene anaerobic biodegradation provided the electron acceptor (SO4 (2-) ) does not become rate limiting. Modeling results demonstrated that the groundwater flux direction is reversed on annual basis when the river level rises up to 2 m, thereby forcing the infiltration of oxygenated surface water into the aquifer. The mobilization state of metal trace elements such as Zn, Cd, and As present in the aquifer predominantly depended on the strong potential gradient within the plume. However, infiltration of oxygenated water was found to trigger a change from strongly reducing to oxic conditions near the river, causing mobilization of previously immobile metal species and vice versa. MNA appears to be an appropriate remediation strategy in this type of dynamic environment provided that aquifer characterization and targeted monitoring of redox conditions are adequate and electron acceptors remain available until concentrations of toxic compounds reduce to acceptable levels. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  12. Microbial community composition of a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor combined with an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for the treatment of municipal sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Kengo; Hayashi, Mikio; Matsunaga, Kengo; Iguchi, Akinori; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Li, Yu-You; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    The microbial community composition of a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-DHS system used for the treatment of municipal sewage was investigated. The clone libraries showed marked differences in microbial community composition at different reactor heights and in different seasons. The dominant phylotypes residing in the upper part of the reactor were likely responsible for removing organic matters because a significant reduction in organic matter in the upper part was observed. Quantification of the amoA genes revealed that the proportions of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) varied along the vertical length of the reactor, with more AOB colonizing the middle and lower parts of the reactor than the top of the reactor. The findings indicated that sewage treatment was achieved by a separation of microbial habitats responsible for organic matter removal and nitrification in the DHS reactor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Benzene and lymphohematopoietic malignancies in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, R B; Songnian, Y; Dosemeci, M; Linet, M

    2001-08-01

    Quantitative evaluations of benzene-associated risk for cancer have relied primarily on findings from a cohort study of highly exposed U.S. rubber workers. An epidemiologic investigation in China (NCI/CAPM study) extended quantitative evaluations of cancer risk to a broader range of benzene exposures, particularly at lower levels. We review the evidence implicating benzene in the etiology of hematopoietic disorders, clarify methodologic aspects of the NCI/CAPM study, and examine the study in the context of the broader literature on health effects associated with occupational benzene exposure. Quantitative relationships for cancer risk from China and the U.S. show a relatively smooth increase in risk for acute myeloid leukemia and related conditions over a broad dose range of benzene exposure (below 200 ppm-years mostly from the China study and above 200 ppm-years mostly from the U.S. study). Risks of acute myeloid leukemia and other malignant and nonmalignant hematopoietic disorders associated with benzene exposure in China are consistent with other information about benzene exposure, hematotoxicity, and cancer risk, extending evidence for hematopoietic cancer risks to levels substantially lower than had previously been established. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Anaerobe Reinigung von Abwasser

    OpenAIRE

    Sternad, W.; Mohr, M.; Spork, C.; Troesch, W.; Trick, I.; Krischke, W.

    2007-01-01

    WO 2007076953 A1 UPAB: 20070822 NOVELTY - The municipal wastewater purification comprises anaerobic biological purification of the wastewater by using a biomass (15-100 g/l) from psychrophilic microorganisms, concentrating the sludge by separating the wastewater and feeding back the sludge into the anaerobic biological purification. The psychrophilic microorganisms exhibit an optimum temperature of less than 25degreesC. The anaerobic purification takes place as single- or two-step methanizati...

  15. Adsorption selectivity of benzene and propene mixtures for various zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837288; van Laak, A.N.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833223; de Jongh, P.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186125372; van der Eerden, J.P.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068420471; Vlugt, T.J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/205040187

    2007-01-01

    The nine-site benzene model of Zhao et al. (J. Phys. Chem. B 2005, 109, 5368-5374) has been used to systematically study the adsorption of benzene, propene, and benzene-propene mixtures in zeolites mordenite, Y, , silicalite, and MCM22. Interaction parameters for the benzene-zeolite interactions

  16. Environmental, Occupational Exposures to Benzene and Cancer: a Meta –analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onny Setiani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Many epidemiological studies have been able to address the relationships between benzene exposure in the environment  and  the level of risk. Incidence has risen in industrialized countries since the 1960s and is highly and rapidly fatal and represent the fifth leading cause of deaths from cancer  and 50%-100%  more  common in men than women. To identify, appraising and synthesizing  the risk of cancer from benzene exposure in environment or workplace,  a meta analysis is conducted. Method: Epidemiological studies were identified through a computerized Medline and search on follow up and case control studies.  The risk were identified as Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs, Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs, Relative Risk (RR and Odd Ratio (OR.   Data extraction covered characteristic of the study (publication year, country, study type, case definition, sources of cases, reference population, follow up period, risk measures and  risk estimates. The extracted data were checked for consistency and entered into a database and checked for correctness. Summary of  relative risk was calculated from log(RR and log(upper and lower limit of 95% CI of log RR. SE and weight of all studies were estimated by fixed effect model. Results: The identified studies  were industrial-based (n=6, community-based (n=2,  and multicentre hospital-based study (n=2. RR of each study were also show benzene exposure was favour to risk of malignancy. This findings indicated workers who were exposed to benzene have risk to get malignancy 2 times higher than  person who were not exposed to benzene. The excess risk found for Benzene was based on 8 population that were exposed with benzene from oil or petroleum  industry. The risk of soft tissue carcinoma due to benzene exposure was highest  with RR=15,59 (95% CI= 1.74-139.3.  The lowest risk was  stomach carcinoma RR 2,51  (95% CI= 1,60-2,94 and hemopoetic malignancy in general with RR

  17. Aromaticity of benzene in condensed phases. A case of a benzene-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zborowski, Krzysztof K.

    2014-05-01

    A theoretical Density Functional Theory study was performed for a benzene molecule in water cages. Two DFT functionals (B3LYP and BLYP) were employed. The optimized geometries of the studied clusters were used to calculate the aromaticity of benzene in a condensed phase using the aromaticity indices: HOMA, NICS, PDI, and H. The results were compared with aromaticity of a single benzene molecule in the gas phase and in the solvent environment provided by the PCM continuum model. It is argued that high aromaticity of benzene in the gas phase is retained in the water environment.

  18. Benzene formation in Titan's lower atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plane, J. M. C.; Douglas, K.; Blitz, M. A.; Heard, D. E.; Seakins, P. W.; Feng, W.; Willacy, K.

    2017-09-01

    The most distinctive feature of Saturn's moon Titan is that it is covered in a thick haze. The haze consists of organic particles called tholins, of which benzene is thought to be an important precursor. Here we examine two pathways to form benzene. The first involves reactions on cosmic dust particles, which mostly do not ablate when entering Titan's atmosphere and accumulate in the lower atmosphere. We have shown in the laboratory that acetylene molecules stick on synthetic cosmic dust at low temperatures, and react efficiently to make benzene. The second pathway is through gas phase reactions involving radical species formed through methane photochemistry. A new lab study shows that the rates of critical reactions involving these radicals vary unexpectedly at low temperatures, leading to significant changes in important benzene precursors.

  19. Three coordination compounds based on benzene tetracarboxylate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YUNLONG WU

    Three coordination compounds based on benzene tetracarboxylate ligand: syntheses, structures, thermal behaviors and luminescence properties. YUNLONG WU, CHANGKUN XIA, JUN QIAN and JIMIN XIE. ∗. School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013,. People's Republic of ...

  20. Radiocarbon dating methods using benzene liquid scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, Shigeko; Matsumoto, Eiji

    1983-01-01

    The radiocarbon dating method using benzene liquid scintillation is reported in detail. The results of measurement of NBS oxalic acid agree with the recommended value, indicating that isotopic fractionation during benzene synthesis can be negligible. Ten samples which have been already measured by gas counter are dated by benzene liquid scintillation. There is no significant difference in age for the same sample between benzene liquid scintillation and gas counters. It is shown that quenching has to be corrected for the young sample. Memory effect in stainless steel reaction vessel can be removed by using an exchangeable inner vessel and by baking it in the air. Using this method, the oldest age that can be measured with 2.3 g carbon is 40,000 years B.P. (author)

  1. Reactions of iron atoms with benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stewart F

    2010-02-04

    The reaction of iron atoms with benzene has been studied for nearly 40 years. Despite this, there is no agreement as to the nature of the products. With the aid of density functional theory calculations of the energetics and the infrared spectra of the various species, the present work provides a rationalization of the conflicting reports regarding the nature of the products of the reaction of iron atoms with benzene in low-temperature matrices. At low temperature in dilute benzene matrices, Fe(eta(6)-C(6)H(6)) and Fe(eta(6)-C(6)H(6))(2) are the major products. At high iron concentrations, Fe(2)(eta(2)-C(6)H(6)) is also formed. In pure benzene at low temperature, Fe(eta(6)-C(6)H(6))(2) and Fe(eta(6)-C(6)H(6))(eta(4)-C(6)H(6)) are formed. None of the species undergo photoexcitation to give insertion products HFe(C(6)H(5)). In pure benzene at 77 K, Fe(eta(6)-C(6)H(6))(eta(4)-C(6)H(6)) is the major product, together with small amounts of Fe(eta(6)-C(6)H(6))(2) and iron clusters. The infrared spectra of pure benzene are complicated by the activation of infrared forbidden modes by the presence of the metal atom.

  2. Anaerobic sludge granulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Castro Lopes, de S.I.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews different theories on anaerobic sludge granulation in UASB-reactors that have been proposed during the past two decades
    This paper reviews different theories on anaerobic sludge granulation in UASB-reactors that have been proposed during the past two decades. The initial

  3. Comparison of the microbial communities in solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) reactors operated at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueh-Fen; Nelson, Michael C; Chen, Po-Hsu; Graf, Joerg; Li, Yebo; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-01-01

    The microbiomes involved in liquid anaerobic digestion process have been investigated extensively, but the microbiomes underpinning solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) are poorly understood. In this study, microbiome composition and temporal succession in batch SS-AD reactors, operated at mesophilic or thermophilic temperatures, were investigated using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A greater microbial richness and evenness were found in the mesophilic than in the thermophilic SS-AD reactors. Firmicutes accounted for 60 and 82 % of the total Bacteria in the mesophilic and in the thermophilic SS-AD reactors, respectively. The genus Methanothermobacter dominated the Archaea in the thermophilic SS-AD reactors, while Methanoculleus predominated in the mesophilic SS-AD reactors. Interestingly, the data suggest syntrophic acetate oxidation coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis as an important pathway for biogas production during the thermophilic SS-AD. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that temperature was the most influential factor in shaping the microbiomes in the SS-AD reactors. Thermotogae showed strong positive correlation with operation temperature, while Fibrobacteres, Lentisphaerae, Spirochaetes, and Tenericutes were positively correlated with daily biogas yield. This study provided new insight into the microbiome that drives SS-AD process, and the findings may help advance understanding of the microbiome in SS-AD reactors and the design and operation of SS-AD systems.

  4. Radiolysis of Aqueous Benzene Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, H.

    1964-05-01

    Aerated and deaerated aqueous solutions of benzene have been irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays. The products of radiolysis in deaerated, unbuffered or acid, solutions were phenol, biphenyl, hydrogen and in acid solutions also hydrogen peroxide with the following yields: G(phenol) = 0. 37 (0. 37), G(biphenyl) = 1.3 (1.7), G(H 2 ) = 0.44 (0. 43) and G(H 2 O 2 ) = 0 (0.60), the figures in brackets giving the results for acid solutions. The results are shown to agree with the conclusion that k(e - aq + H 2 O 2 ) >> k(H + H 2 O 2 ). Furthermore, the results indicate that a competition takes place between the reactions: 2 C 6 H 6 OH · -> dimer -> biphenyl. C 6 H 7 · + C 6 H 6 OH · -> dimer -> biphenyl. The yields in aerated, unbuffered or acid, solutions were: G(phenol) = 2.1 (2.3), G(biphenyl) = 0 (0), and G(H 2 O 2 ) = 2.2 (3.1), the figures in brackets being valid for acid solutions. The ratio k(H + C 6 H 6 )/k(H + O 2 ) was 1.4x10 -2 . The results indicate that peroxides, or more probably hydroperoxides, take part in the reactions. After the addition of Fe 2+ or Fe 3+ to aerated acid solutions G(phenol) was increased to 6.6 and 3.4 respectively. Oxygen was consumed more rapidly in the presence of Fe. Reaction mechanisms are discussed

  5. Benzene and childhood acute leukemia in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janitz, Amanda E; Campbell, Janis E; Magzamen, Sheryl; Pate, Anne; Stoner, Julie A; Peck, Jennifer D

    2017-10-01

    Although childhood cancer is a leading cause of childhood mortality in the US, evidence regarding the etiology is lacking. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between benzene, a known carcinogen, and childhood acute leukemia. We conducted a case-control study including cases diagnosed with acute leukemia between 1997 and 2012 (n = 307) from the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry and controls matched on week of birth from birth certificates (n = 1013). We used conditional logistic regression to evaluate the association between benzene, measured with the 2005 National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) at census tract of the birth residence, and childhood acute leukemia. We observed no differences in benzene exposure overall between cases and controls. However, when stratified by year of birth, cases born from 2005 to 2010 had a three-fold increased unadjusted odds of elevated exposure compared to controls born in this same time period (4th Quartile OR: 3.53, 95% CI: 1.35, 9.27). Furthermore, the estimates for children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were stronger than those with acute lymphoid leukemia, though not statistically significant. While we did not observe an association between benzene and childhood leukemia overall, our results suggest that acute leukemia is associated with increased benzene exposure among more recent births, and children with AML may have increased benzene exposure at birth. Using the NATA estimates allowed us to assess a specific pollutant at the census tract level, providing an advantage over monitor or point source data. Our study, however, cannot rule out the possibility that benzene may be a marker of other traffic-related exposures and temporal misclassification may explain the lack of an association among earlier births. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  7. Benzene monitoring at CPPI service stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted in which ambient airborne concentration levels of benzene were measured at a representative set of gasoline service stations in Toronto and Vancouver. Benzene is considered to be toxic under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA). It is a component in gasoline (0.1 to 4.7 per cent by volume) and is present in vehicle evaporative and exhaust emissions. Measurements were made every 18 days at each station for one year. The objective of the study was to assess the ambient and employee exposure levels of benzene at service stations and to determine whether the levels were typical of those published in the literature. In a 1986 PACE (Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment) survey of exposure to gasoline hydrocarbon vapours at Canadian service stations, airborne benzene concentration data was inconsistent with similar ambient and personal exposure data in the international literature. It was concluded that both the mean ambient benzene concentration and the personal exposure level measurements in this study were generally lower than similar measurements made in other countries. The same observation was made with respect to ambient and personal exposure levels measured in this study vis-a-vis those measured during the PACE study conducted in 1985/86. . 31 refs., 24 tabs., 5 figs

  8. Multi-scale simulation on solid benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Heinz, Hendrik

    2009-03-01

    Solid Benzene is used in organic semiconductors for photovoltaics, which often include pi-conjugated systems. We use MD simulations method to explore the relationship between the structure and interaction energy of two kinds of solid benzene, with the Pbca and P21c crystallgraphic structures respectively. Simple relevant force fields (PCFF and CVFF) are examined with regard to their performance on the structure and energetics of benzene dimers and benzene crystals which serve as well characterized model systems. However, MD simulations cannot get the transport properties. So the combination of reliable classical atomistic simulations and quantum-mechanical methods is needed to understand the dynamics of charge transport and self-assembly processes involving pi-conjugated oligomers and polymers. As alternative and accurate models, we explore atomistic models with additional sites which represent the location of the pi electrons and are characterized by suitable charges and van-der-Waals parameters. With these parameters, it will be possible to reproduce the dimer geometries and energies, the crystal structure of solid benzene, as well as pi-stacking forces and free energies for similar systems.

  9. Membrane controlled anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omstead, D. R.

    In response to general shortages of energy, examination of the anaerboic digestion process as a potential source of a combustible, methane-rich fuel has intensified in recent years. It has been suggested that orgaic intermediates (such as fatty acids), produced during digestion, might also be recovered for use as chemical feedstocks. This investigation has been concerned with combining ultrafiltration separation techniques with anaerobic digestion for the development of a process in which the total production of acetic acid (the most valuable intermediate in anaerobic digestion) and methane are optimized. Enrichment cultures, able to utilize glucose as a sole carbon source, were adapted from sewage digesting cultures using conventional techniques. An ultrafiltration system was constructed and coupled to an anaerobic digester culture vessel which contained the glucose enrichment. The membrane controlled anaerobic digester appears to show promise as a means of producing high rates of both methane gas and acetic acid.

  10. Anaerobic Digestion Foaming Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ganidi, Nafsika

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water utilities due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been suggested over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases site specific. The present report aimed to provide a better understanding of the anaerobic di...

  11. Control of VOCs from printing press air emissions by anaerobic bioscrubber: Performance and microbial community of an on-site pilot unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, D; Ferrero, P; Penya-Roja, J M; Álvarez-Hornos, F J; Gabaldón, C

    2017-07-15

    A novel process consisted of an anaerobic bioscrubber was studied at the field scale for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from a printing press facility. The pilot unit worked under high fluctuating waste gas emissions containing ethanol, ethyl acetate, and 1-ethoxy-2-propanol as main pollutants, with airflows ranging between 184 and 1253 m 3  h -1 and an average concentration of 1126 ± 470 mg-C Nm -3 . Three scrubber configurations (cross-flow and vertical-flow packings and spray tower) were tested, and cross-flow packing was found to be the best one. For this packing, daily average values of VOC removal efficiency ranged between 83% and 93% for liquid to air volume ratios between 3.5·10 -3 and 9.1·10 -3 . Biomass growth was prevented by periodical chemical cleaning; the average pressure drop was 165 Pa m -1 . Rapid initiation of anaerobic degradation was achieved by using granular sludge from a brewery wastewater treatment plant. Despite the intermittent and fluctuating organic load, the expanded granular sludge bed reactor showed an excellent level of performance, reaching removal efficiencies of 93 ± 5% at 25.1 ± 3.2 °C, with biogas methane content of 94 ± 3% in volume. Volatile fatty acid concentration was as low as 200 mg acetic acid L -1 by treating daily average organic loads up to 3.0 kg COD h -1 , equivalent to 24 kg COD m -3 bed d -1 . The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) results revealed the initial shift of the domains Archaea and Bacteria associated with the limitation of the carbon source to a few organic solvents. The Archaea domain was more sensitive, resulting in a drop of the Shannon index from 1.07 to 0.41 in the first 123 days. Among Archaea, the predominance of Methanosaeta persisted throughout the experimental period. The increase in the proportion of Methanospirillum and Methanobacterium sp. was linked to the spontaneous variations of operating temperature and load, respectively

  12. Peer Review Comments on the IRIS Assessment of Benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attachment to IRIS file for benzene, January 19, 2000, RESPONSE TO THE PEER REVIEW COMMENTS, II. Extrapolation of the Benzene Inhalation Unit Risk Estimate to the Oral Route of Exposure (EPA/NCEA-W-0517, July 1999)

  13. Effects of temperature and organic loading rate on the performance and microbial community of anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Chengliu; Yang, Zhaohui; Huang, Jing; Wang, Huiling; Xu, Haiyin; Wang, Like

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and food waste was investigated semi-continuously using continuously stirred tank reactors. Results showed that the performance of co-digestion system was distinctly influenced by temperature and organic loading rate (OLR) in terms of gas production rate (GPR), methane yield, volatile solids (VS) removal efficiency and the system stability. The highest GPR at 55 °C was 1.6 and 1.3 times higher than that at 35 and 45 °C with the OLR of 1 g VSL(-1)d(-1), and the corresponding average CH₄ yields were 0.40, 0.26 and 0.30 L CH₄ g(-1)VSadded, respectively. The thermophilic system exhibited the best load bearing capacity at extremely high OLR of 7 g VSL(-1)d(-1), while the mesophilic system showed the best process stability at low OLRs (< 5 g VSL(-1)d(-1)). Temperature had a more remarkable effect on the richness and diversity of microbial populations than the OLR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anaerobic degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Ethers (PBDEs), and microbial community dynamics of electronic waste-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mengke [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Luo, Chunling, E-mail: clluo@gig.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Fangbai [Guangdong Institute of Eco-environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Jiang, Longfei [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Wang, Yan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, Dayi [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Zhang, Gan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination caused by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is attracting increasing attention worldwide because of the threats posed to ecosystems and human safety. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of e-waste-contaminated soils. We found that, in the presence of lactate as an electron donor, higher halogenated congeners were converted to lower congeners via anaerobic halorespiration using ferrous ions in contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of terminal restriction fragments indicated that the three dominant strains were closely related to known dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and those able to perform dehalogenation upon respiration. The functional species performed the activities of ferrous oxidation to ferric ions and further ferrous reduction for dehalogenation. The present study links iron cycling to degradation of halogenated materials in natural e-waste-contaminated soil, and highlights the synergistic roles of soil bacteria and ferrous/ferric ion cycling in the dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). - Highlights: • The biodegradation PCBs and PBDEs in e-waste contaminated soils was studied. • DIRB and arylhalorespiring bacteria were responsive to dehalogenation respiration. • Soil bacteria and Fe ion cycling play synergistic roles in dehalogenation.

  15. Anaerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls ethers (PBDEs), and microbial community dynamics of electronic waste-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mengke; Luo, Chunling; Li, Fangbai; Jiang, Longfei; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Dayi; Zhang, Gan

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination caused by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is attracting increasing attention worldwide because of the threats posed to ecosystems and human safety. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of e-waste-contaminated soils. We found that, in the presence of lactate as an electron donor, higher halogenated congeners were converted to lower congeners via anaerobic halorespiration using ferrous ions in contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of terminal restriction fragments indicated that the three dominant strains were closely related to known dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and those able to perform dehalogenation upon respiration. The functional species performed the activities of ferrous oxidation to ferric ions and further ferrous reduction for dehalogenation. The present study links iron cycling to degradation of halogenated materials in natural e-waste-contaminated soil, and highlights the synergistic roles of soil bacteria and ferrous/ferric ion cycling in the dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of thermal pretreatment on the biogas production and microbial communities balance during anaerobic digestion of urban and industrial waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Hajer; Miladi, Baligh; Diaz, Soraya Zahedi; Güelfo, Luis Alberto Fernández; Solera, Rosario; Hamdi, Moktar; Bouallagui, Hassib

    2016-08-01

    The effect of thermal pre-treatment on the microbial populations balance and biogas production was studied during anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) coming from urban (US: urban sludge) and industrial (IS: industrial sludge) wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The highest biogas yields of 0.42l/gvolatile solid (VS) removed and 0.37l/gVS removed were obtained with urban and industrial sludge pre-treated at 120°C, respectively. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to quantify the major Bacteria and Archaea groups. Compared to control trails without pretreatment, Archaea content increased from 34% to 86% and from 46% to 83% for pretreated IS and US, respectively. In fact, the thermal pre-treatment of WAS enhanced the growth of hydrogen-using methanogens (HUMs), which consume rapidly the H2 generated to allow the acetogenesis. Therefore, the stable and better performance of digesters was observed involving the balance and syntrophic associations between the different microbial populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Benzene derivatives produced by Fusarium graminearum - Short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntushelo, Khayalethu; Setshedi, Itumeleng

    2015-06-01

    Using NMR spectroscopy benzene derivatives were detected in mycelia of Fusarium graminearum, a pathogen of wheat and maize. In previous studies F. graminearum was found to cause cancer to humans and benzene derivatives were detected in breath of cancer sufferers. Surprisingly, no study found benzene derivatives to be the cancerous agents in F. graminearum. In this study we detected benzene derivatives in F. graminearum and propose to study their role as cancer agents.

  18. 40 CFR 721.1187 - Bis(imidoethylene) benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bis(imidoethylene) benzene. 721.1187... Substances § 721.1187 Bis(imidoethylene) benzene. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance bis(imidoethylene)benzene (PMN P-93-1447) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1350 - Benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2-phenylethyl)-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2-phenylethyl... Substances § 721.1350 Benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2-phenylethyl)-. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1210 - Benzene, (2-chloroethoxy)-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, (2-chloroethoxy)-. 721.1210... Substances § 721.1210 Benzene, (2-chloroethoxy)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, (2-chloroethoxy)- (PMN P-87-1471) is subject to...

  1. Recommended sublimation pressure and enthalpy of benzene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, K.; Fulem, Michal; Červinka, C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 68, Jan (2014), s. 40-47 ISSN 0021-9614 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : benzene * vapor pressure * heat capacity * ideal-gas thermodynamic properties * sublimation enthalpy * recommended vapor pressure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.679, year: 2014

  2. Three coordination compounds based on benzene tetracarboxylate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 129; Issue 8. Three coordination compounds based on benzene tetracarboxylate ligand: syntheses, structures, thermal behaviors and luminescence properties. YUNLONG WU CHANGKUN XIA JUN QIAN JIMIN XIE. REGULAR ARTICLE Volume 129 Issue 8 August ...

  3. Formation of Benzene in the Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brant M.; Zhang, Fangtong; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Jamal, Adeel; Mebel, Alexander M.; Cordiner, Martin A.; Charnley, Steven B.; Crim, F. Fleming (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related species have been suggested to play a key role in the astrochemical evolution of the interstellar medium, but the formation mechanism of even their simplest building block-the aromatic benzene molecule-has remained elusive for decades. Here we demonstrate in crossed molecular beam experiments combined with electronic structure and statistical calculations that benzene (C6H6) can be synthesized via the barrierless, exoergic reaction of the ethynyl radical and 1,3- butadiene, C2H + H2CCHCHCH2 --> C6H6, + H, under single collision conditions. This reaction portrays the simplest representative of a reaction class in which aromatic molecules with a benzene core can be formed from acyclic precursors via barrierless reactions of ethynyl radicals with substituted 1,3-butadlene molecules. Unique gas-grain astrochemical models imply that this low-temperature route controls the synthesis of the very first aromatic ring from acyclic precursors in cold molecular clouds, such as in the Taurus Molecular Cloud. Rapid, subsequent barrierless reactions of benzene with ethynyl radicals can lead to naphthalene-like structures thus effectively propagating the ethynyl-radical mediated formation of aromatic molecules in the interstellar medium.

  4. Organocalcium-mediated nucleophilic alkylation of benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew S S; Hill, Michael S; Mahon, Mary F; Dinoi, Chiara; Maron, Laurent

    2017-12-01

    The electrophilic aromatic substitution of a C-H bond of benzene is one of the archetypal transformations of organic chemistry. In contrast, the electron-rich π-system of benzene is highly resistant to reactions with electron-rich and negatively charged organic nucleophiles. Here, we report that this previously insurmountable electronic repulsion may be overcome through the use of sufficiently potent organocalcium nucleophiles. Calcium n -alkyl derivatives-synthesized by reaction of ethene, but-1-ene, and hex-1-ene with a dimeric calcium hydride-react with protio and deutero benzene at 60°C through nucleophilic substitution of an aromatic C-D/H bond. These reactions produce the n- alkyl benzenes with regeneration of the calcium hydride. Density functional theory calculations implicate an unstabilized Meisenheimer complex in the C-H activation transition state. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  5. Formation of benzene in the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brant M.; Zhang, Fangtong; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Jamal, Adeel; Mebel, Alexander M.; Cordiner, Martin A.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related species have been suggested to play a key role in the astrochemical evolution of the interstellar medium, but the formation mechanism of even their simplest building block—the aromatic benzene molecule—has remained elusive for decades. Here we demonstrate in crossed molecular beam experiments combined with electronic structure and statistical calculations that benzene (C6H6) can be synthesized via the barrierless, exoergic reaction of the ethynyl radical and 1,3-butadiene, C2H + H2CCHCHCH2 → C6H6 + H, under single collision conditions. This reaction portrays the simplest representative of a reaction class in which aromatic molecules with a benzene core can be formed from acyclic precursors via barrierless reactions of ethynyl radicals with substituted 1,3-butadiene molecules. Unique gas-grain astrochemical models imply that this low-temperature route controls the synthesis of the very first aromatic ring from acyclic precursors in cold molecular clouds, such as in the Taurus Molecular Cloud. Rapid, subsequent barrierless reactions of benzene with ethynyl radicals can lead to naphthalene-like structures thus effectively propagating the ethynyl-radical mediated formation of aromatic molecules in the interstellar medium. PMID:21187430

  6. Self-diffusion in benzene-toluene and benzene-cyclohexane solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimschuessel, W.; Hawlicka, E.

    1977-01-01

    The self-diffusion in benzene-toluene and benzene-cyclohexane solutions have been measured at different temperatures. The capillary-cell method was employed. The activation parameters of self-diffusion for the systems are presented. The data have been used to test the validity of various diffusion equations proposed in the literature. The hypothesis that the self-diffusion was realized by movement of aggregates of molecules is suggested. (orig.) [de

  7. In situ demonstration of anaerobic BTEX biodegradation through controlled-release experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard, M.; Hopkins, G.D.; Orwin, E.; Shang, S.; Lebron, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation of the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene and o-xylene (BTEX) was studied in situ within the anaerobic zone of a weathered gasoline spill site. Slug tests were conducted in which approximately 1,000 L of treated anaerobic groundwater was injected into a test zone through a multiport injection well. The injectate contained bromide as the conservative tracer, nitrate or sulfate as the electron acceptor, and trace concentrations of BTEX compounds. Following injection, water was withdraw and analyzed for bromide, nitrate, sulfate, and BTEX. Under denitrification conditions, transformation was complete within 8 days for toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene and within 75 days for o-xylene. Benzene removal was not observed within the time span and the conditions of the experiment. With sulfate as the predominant electron acceptor under sulfidogenic conditions, toluene, and m- and o-xylene were transformed and completely removed over a period of 40 to 50 days. Ethylbenzene removal began to accelerate after 30 days. Benzene removal was slow but appeared to be significant

  8. Microbial Communities and Their Performances in Anaerobic Hybrid Sludge Bed-Fixed Film Reactor for Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent under Various Organic Pollutant Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanlayanee Meesap

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic hybrid reactor consisting of sludge and packed zones was operated with organic pollutant loading rates from 6.2 to 8.2 g COD/L day, composed mainly of suspended solids (SS and oil and grease (O&G concentrations between 5.2 to 10.2 and 0.9 to 1.9 g/L, respectively. The overall process performance in terms of chemical oxygen demands (COD, SS, and O&G removals was 73, 63, and 56%, respectively. When the organic pollutant concentrations were increased, the resultant methane potentials were higher, and the methane yield increased to 0.30 L CH4/g CODremoved. It was observed these effects on the microbial population and activity in the sludge and packed zones. The eubacterial population and activity in the sludge zone increased to 6.4 × 109 copies rDNA/g VSS and 1.65 g COD/g VSS day, respectively, whereas those in the packed zone were lower. The predominant hydrolytic and fermentative bacteria were Pseudomonas, Clostridium, and Bacteroidetes. In addition, the archaeal population and activity in the packed zone were increased from to 9.1 × 107 copies rDNA/g VSS and 0.34 g COD-CH4/g VSS day, respectively, whereas those in the sludge zone were not much changed. The most represented species of methanogens were the acetoclastic Methanosaeta, the hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium sp., and the hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiaceae.

  9. The Influence of Micro-Oxygen Addition on Desulfurization Performance and Microbial Communities during Waste-Activated Sludge Digestion in a Rusty Scrap Iron-Loaded Anaerobic Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjun Ruan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, micro-oxygen was integrated into a rusty scrap iron (RSI-loaded anaerobic digester. Under an optimal RSI dosage of 20 g/L, increasing O2 levels were added stepwise in seven stages in a semi-continuous experiment. Results showed the average methane yield was 306 mL/g COD (chemical oxygen demand, and the hydrogen sulphide (H2S concentration was 1933 ppmv with RSI addition. O2 addition induced the microbial oxidation of sulphide by stimulating sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and chemical corrosion of iron, which promoted the generation of FeS and Fe2S3. In the 6th phase of the semi-continuous test, deep desulfurization was achieved without negatively impacting system performance. Average methane yield was 301.1 mL/g COD, and H2S concentration was 75 ppmv. Sulfur mass balance was described, with 84.0%, 11.90% and 0.21% of sulfur present in solid, liquid and gaseous phases, respectively. The Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that RSI addition could enrich the diversity of hydrogenotrophic methanogens and iron-reducing bacteria to benefit methanogenesis and organic mineralization, and impoverish the methanotroph (Methylocella silvestris to reduce the consumption of methane. Micro-oxygen supplementation could enhance the diversity of iron-oxidizing bacteria arising from the improvement of Fe(II release rate and enrich the sulphur-oxidising bacteria to achieved desulfurization. These results demonstrated that RSI addition in combination with micro-oxygenation represents a promising method for simultaneously controlling biogas H2S concentration and improving digestion performance.

  10. Anaerobic BTEX biodegradation linked to nitrate and sulfate reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou Junfeng; Liu Xiang; Hu Zhifeng; Deng Dong

    2008-01-01

    Effective anaerobic BTEX biodegradation was obtained under nitrate and sulfate reducing conditions by the mixed bacterial consortium that were enriched from gasoline contaminated soil. Under the conditions of using nitrate or sulfate as reducing acceptor, the degradation rates of the six tested substrates decreased with toluene > ethylbenzene > m-xylene > o-xylene > benzene > p-xylene. The higher concentrations of BTEX were toxic to the mixed cultures and led to reduce the degradation rates of BTEX. Benzene and p-xylene were more toxic than toluene and ethylbenzene. Nitrate was a more favorable electron acceptor compared to sulfate. The measured ratios between the amount of nitrate consumed and the amount of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene degraded were 9.47, 9.26, 11.14, 12.46, 13.36 and 13.02, respectively. The measured ratios between sulfate reduction and BTEX degradation were 3.51, 4.33, 4.89, 4.81, 4.86 and 4.76, respectively, which were nearly the same to theoretical ones, and the relative error between the measured and calculated ratios was less than 10%

  11. Anaerobic and aerobic acetylene hydratase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Acetaldehyde is the first metabolite produced during acetylene degradation by bacteria either aerobically or anaerobically. Conversion of acetylene into acetaldehyde, ethanol, acetate, and biomass occurs in anaerobic cultures of Palobacter acetylinicus or aerobically with Mycobacterium lacticola, Nocardia rhodochrous, ...

  12. Development of antibiotic resistance genes in microbial communities during long-term operation of anaerobic reactors in the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan

    2015-10-15

    Biological treatment processes offer the ideal conditions in which a high diversity of microorganisms can grow and develop. The wastewater produced during these processes is contaminated with antibiotics and, as such, they provide the ideal setting for the acquisition and proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). This research investigated the occurrence and variation in the ARGs found during the one-year operation of the anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) used to treat pharmaceutical wastewater that contained combinations of sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline-erythromycin (STE) and sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline (ST). The existence of eighteen ARGs encoding resistance to sulfamethoxazole (sul1, sul2, sul3), erythromycin (ermA, ermF, ermB, msrA, ereA), tetracycline (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tetE, tetM, tetS, tetQ, tetW, tetX) and class Ι integron gene (intΙ 1) in the STE and ST reactors was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. Due to the limited availability of primers to detect ARGs, Illumina sequencing was also performed on the sludge and effluent of the STE and ST reactors. Although there was good reactor performance in the SBRs, which corresponds to min 80% COD removal efficiency, tetA, tetB, sul1, sul2 and ermB genes were among those ARGs detected in the effluent from STE and ST reactors. A comparison of the ARGs acquired from the STE and ST reactors revealed that the effluent from the STE reactor had a higher number of ARGs than that from the ST reactor; this could be due to the synergistic effects of erythromycin. According to the expression of genes results, microorganisms achieve tetracycline and erythromycin resistance through a combination of three mechanisms: efflux pumping protein, modification of the antibiotic target and modifying enzymes. There was also a significant association between the presence of the class 1 integron and sulfamethoxazole resistance genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Indicators of benzene emissions and exposure in Bangkok street

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, S.T.; Laortanakul, Preecha

    2003-01-01

    Ambient benzene measurements were conducted for the first time at four air monitoring sites in the Bangkok metropolitan region (BMR), from January to December 2001. Analytical results show that the mean benzene concentrations range from 42.4 μg/m 3 at the Din Daeng urban site to 15.1 μg/m 3 at the Chaeng Wattana suburban site. The monitoring results show that at a larger distance from the roadside or a higher level from the street surface, the level of benzene decreases. Analysis of the ambient benzene concentrations was carried out with reference to meteorological influences and traffic density. In traffic analysis, the combined effects of street topography and traffic flows established high impact on the overall benzene concentration in Bangkok. Statistical analysis shows good correlations of blood benzene levels and trans, trans-muconic acid with ambient benzene and demonstrated substantial exposure from traffic

  14. Microbial population dynamics in urban organic waste anaerobic co-digestion with mixed sludge during a change in feedstock composition and different hydraulic retention times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Treu, Laura; Boldrin, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    Microbial communities play an essential role in the biochemical pathways of anaerobic digestion processes. The correlations between microorganisms' relative abundance and anaerobic digestion process parameters were investigated, by considering the effect of different feedstock compositions...

  15. The role of anaerobic sludge recycle in improving anaerobic digester performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michelle N; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Liu, Wenjun; Doyle, Michael L; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    Solids retention time (SRT) is a critical parameter for the performance of anaerobic digesters (AD) in wastewater treatment plants. AD SRT should increase when active biomass is input to the AD by recycling anaerobic sludge via the wastewater-treatment tanks, creating a hybrid aerobic/anaerobic system. When 85% of the flow through the AD was recycled in pilot-scale hybrid systems, the AD SRT increased by as much as 9-fold, compared to a parallel system without anaerobic-sludge recycle. Longer AD SRTs resulted in increased hydrolysis and methanogenesis in the AD: net solids yield decreased by 39-96% for overall and 23-94% in the AD alone, and AD methane yield increased 1.5- to 5.5-fold. Microbial community assays demonstrated higher, more consistent Archaea concentrations in all tanks in the wastewater-treatment system with anaerobic-sludge recycle. Thus, multiple lines of evidence support that AD-sludge recycle increased AD SRT, solids hydrolysis, and methane generation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Formation of reactive metabolites from benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, R.; Jowa, L.; Witz, G.; Kalf, G.; Rushmore, T.

    1986-01-01

    Rat liver mitoplasts were incubated first with [ 3 H]dGTP, to form DNA labeled in G, and then with [ 14 C]benzene. The DNA was isolated and upon isopycnic density gradient centrifugation in CsCl yielded a single fraction of DNA labeled with both [ 3 H] and [ 14 C]. These data are consistent with the covalent binding of one or more metabolites of benzene to DNA. The DNA was enzymatically hydrolyzed to deoxynucleosides and chromatographed to reveal at least seven deoxyguanosine adducts. Further studies with labeled deoxyadenine revealed one adduct on deoxyadenine. [ 3 H]Deoxyguanosine was reacted with [ 14 C]hydroquinone or benzoquinone. The product was characterized using uv, fluorescence, mass and NMR spectroscopy. A proposed structure is described. (orig.)

  17. Anaerobic biotransformation of estrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czajka, Cynthia P.; Londry, Kathleen L.

    2006-01-01

    Estrogens are important environmental contaminants that disrupt endocrine systems and feminize male fish. We investigated the potential for anaerobic biodegradation of the estrogens 17-α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and 17-β-estradiol (E2) in order to understand their fate in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Cultures were established using lake water and sediment under methanogenic, sulfate-, iron-, and nitrate-reducing conditions. Anaerobic degradation of EE2 (added at 5 mg/L) was not observed in multiple trials over long incubation periods (over three years). E2 (added at 5 mg/L) was transformed to estrone (E1) under all four anaerobic conditions (99-176 μg L -1 day -1 ), but the extent of conversion was different for each electron acceptor. The oxidation of E2 to E1 was not inhibited by E1. Under some conditions, reversible inter-conversion of E2 and E1 was observed, and the final steady state concentration of E2 depended on the electron-accepting condition but was independent of the total amount of estrogens added. In addition, racemization occurred and E1 was also transformed to 17-α-estradiol under all but nitrate-reducing conditions. Although E2 could be readily transformed to E1 and in many cases 17-α-estradiol under anaerobic conditions, the complete degradation of estrogens under these conditions was minimal, suggesting that they would accumulate in anoxic environments

  18. Anaerobic biotransformation of estrogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czajka, Cynthia P. [Department of Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Londry, Kathleen L. [Department of Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada)]. E-mail: londryk@cc.umanitoba.ca

    2006-08-31

    Estrogens are important environmental contaminants that disrupt endocrine systems and feminize male fish. We investigated the potential for anaerobic biodegradation of the estrogens 17-{alpha}-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and 17-{beta}-estradiol (E2) in order to understand their fate in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Cultures were established using lake water and sediment under methanogenic, sulfate-, iron-, and nitrate-reducing conditions. Anaerobic degradation of EE2 (added at 5 mg/L) was not observed in multiple trials over long incubation periods (over three years). E2 (added at 5 mg/L) was transformed to estrone (E1) under all four anaerobic conditions (99-176 {mu}g L{sup -1} day{sup -1}), but the extent of conversion was different for each electron acceptor. The oxidation of E2 to E1 was not inhibited by E1. Under some conditions, reversible inter-conversion of E2 and E1 was observed, and the final steady state concentration of E2 depended on the electron-accepting condition but was independent of the total amount of estrogens added. In addition, racemization occurred and E1 was also transformed to 17-{alpha}-estradiol under all but nitrate-reducing conditions. Although E2 could be readily transformed to E1 and in many cases 17-{alpha}-estradiol under anaerobic conditions, the complete degradation of estrogens under these conditions was minimal, suggesting that they would accumulate in anoxic environments.

  19. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  20. Anaerobic biological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speece, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Enso-Fenox process has been very successfully used to remove chlorinated phenolic compounds from pulp bleaching effluents. It is a two-stage anaerobic/aerobic process consisting of a nonmethanogenic anaerobic fluidized bed followed by a trickling filter. Studies have been conducted on reductive dechlorination of chlorinated aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions with chlorinated phenols as the sole carbon and energy source. Approximately 40% of the added chlorophenols was converted to CH 4 and CO 2 . Substrate loading rates were 20 mg/L/d at hydraulic detention times of 2-4 days with 90% substrate conversion efficiency. Reductive dechlorination of mono, di-, tri-, and pentachlorophenols has been demonstrated in anaerobic sewage sludge. The following constituents were tested in the laboratory at their approximate concentrations in coal conversion wastewater (CCWW) and were anaerobically degraded in serum bottles: 1,000 mg/L phenol; 500 mg/L resorcinol; 1,000 mg/L benzoic acid; 500 mg/L p-cresol; 200 mg/L pyridine; 2,000 mg/L benzoic acid; 250 mg/L 40 methylcatechol; 500 mg/L 4-ethylpyridine; and 2,000 mg/L hexanoic acid. A petrochemical may initially exhibit toxicity to an unacclimated population of methane-fermenting bacteria, but with acclimation the toxicity may be greatly reduced or disappear. In addition, the microorganisms may develop the capacity to actually degrade compounds which showed initial toxicity. Since biomass digestion requires a complete consortium of bacteria, it is relevant to study the effect of a given process as well as to individual steps within the process. A toxicant can inhibit the rate-limiting step and/or change the step that is rate-limiting. Both manifestations of toxicity can severely affect the overall process

  1. Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, W.N. [Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. They probably entered the water as leachates from chemical waste dumps and as effluents from manufacturing. Hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene are commonly present in Herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from the Great Lakes, and some of the isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene are occasionally detected at low concentrations. Hexachlorobenzene, which was formerly used as a fungicide, has been the most thoroughly studied chlorinated benzene, and has been detected in many species. Its use as a fungicide in the United States was canceled in 1984. Since about 1975 hexachlorobenzene has been formed mainly in the production of chlorinated solvents. It is highly persistent in the environment and some species are poisoned by hexachlorobenzene at very low chronic dietary exposures. As little as 1 ppm in the diet of mink (Mustela vison) reduced the birth weights of young, and 5 ppm in the diet of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) caused slight liver damage. This paper describes a long-term (26 wk) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to length of exposure and three 8 wk experiments relating concentration to the concentration in soil the soil organic matter content, and the degree of chlorination. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Urban benzene pollution and population exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocheo, V.; Sacco, P.; Boaretto, C. [Fondazione Salvatore, Maugeri-IRCCS, Padova (Italy); Saeger, E. de; Ballesta, P.P. [Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy); Skov, H. [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej (Denmark); Goelen, E. [Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek, Mol (Belgium); Gonzalez, N. [Institut National de l' environnement Industriel et des Risques, 60 - Verneuil en Halatte (France); Caracena, A.B. [Universidad de Murcia, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica-Murcia (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Benzene is among the gasoline components and is airborne by vehicular traffic. It is a myelo-toxic and leukaemia-inducing compound. The risk level, expressed as myeloid leukaemia cases increment estimate among the population not professionally exposed to benzene, has been stated to range 3.8 to 7.5 cases every million people exposed during the lifetime to 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. All the estimates deal with exposure, not with environmental concentration. Since the two parameters can be not coincident, the citizens' risk level, which depends on actual exposure, can not be simply estimated by means of urban pollution. Therefore, once a socially acceptable exposure risk level is stated by a political decision, one can set a limiting value for benzene concentration in urban air only if the relationship between personal exposure and urban pollution is known. We find the citizens' exposure level, whatever their occupation or the fraction of time spent outdoors, is higher than urban average level and is equal, on average in Europe, to twice its value. To establish this relationship, six towns and a sample of their citizens and their homes have undergone environmental monitoring for an entire year. The towns were distributed among the Northern, Central and Southern European countries, comprising a wide range of different lifestyles, climates and development features. (authors)

  3. Benzene patterns in different urban environments and a prediction model for benzene rates based on NOx values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Shlomit; Goldstein, Pavel; Kordova-Biezuner, Levana; Adler, Lea

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to benzene has been associated with multiple severe impacts on health. This notwithstanding, at most monitoring stations, benzene is not monitored on a regular basis. The aims of the study were to compare benzene rates in different urban environments (region with heavy traffic and industrial region), to analyse the relationship between benzene and meteorological parameters in a Mediterranean climate type, to estimate the linkages between benzene and NOx and to suggest a prediction model for benzene rates based on NOx levels in order contribute to a better estimation of benzene. Data were used from two different monitoring stations, located on the eastern Mediterranean coast: 1) a traffic monitoring station in Tel Aviv, Israel (TLV) located in an urban region with heavy traffic; 2) a general air quality monitoring station in Haifa Bay (HIB), located in Israel's main industrial region. At each station, hourly, daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual data of benzene, NOx, mean temperature, relative humidity, inversion level, and temperature gradient were analysed over three years: 2008, 2009, and 2010. A prediction model for benzene rates based on NOx levels (which are monitored regularly) was developed to contribute to a better estimation of benzene. The severity of benzene pollution was found to be considerably higher at the traffic monitoring station (TLV) than at the general air quality station (HIB), despite the location of the latter in an industrial area. Hourly, daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual patterns have been shown to coincide with anthropogenic activities (traffic), the day of the week, and atmospheric conditions. A strong correlation between NOx and benzene allowed the development of a prediction model for benzene rates, based on NOx, the day of the week, and the month. The model succeeded in predicting the benzene values throughout the year (except for September). The severity of benzene pollution was found to be considerably higher at the

  4. Diversity Profile of Microbes Associated with Anaerobic Sulfur Oxidation in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor Treating Municipal Sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Azrina A.; Kuroda, Kyohei; Yamamoto, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Akinobu; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We herein analyzed the diversity of microbes involved in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor used for treating municipal sewage under low-temperature conditions. Anaerobic sulfur oxidation occurred in the absence of oxygen, with nitrite and nitrate as electron acceptors; however, reactor performance parameters demonstrated that anaerobic conditions were maintained. In order to gain insights into the underlying basis of anaerobic sulfur oxidation, the microbial diversity that exists in the UASB sludge was analyzed comprehensively to determine their identities and contribution to sulfur oxidation. Sludge samples were collected from the UASB reactor over a period of 2 years and used for bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and next-generation sequencing analyses. T-RFLP and sequencing results both showed that microbial community patterns changed markedly from day 537 onwards. Bacteria belonging to the genus Desulforhabdus within the phylum Proteobacteria and uncultured bacteria within the phylum Fusobacteria were the main groups observed during the period of anaerobic sulfur oxidation. Their abundance correlated with temperature, suggesting that these bacterial groups played roles in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in UASB reactors. PMID:25817585

  5. [Achievement of Sulfate-Reducing Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation Reactor Started with Nitrate-Reducting Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng-chuan; Yuan, Lin-jiang; Zhou, Guo-biao; Li, Jing

    2015-09-01

    The transformation of nitrite-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation to sulfate-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation in an UASB was performed and the changes in microbial community were studied. The result showed that the sulfate reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation process was successfully accomplished after 177 days' operation. The removal rate of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate were up to 58. 9% and 15. 7%, the removing load of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate were 74. 3 mg.(L.d)-1 and 77. 5 mg.(L.d)-1 while concentration of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate of influent were 130 mg.(L.d)-1 and 500 mg.(L.d)-1, respectively. The lost nitrogen and sulphur was around 2 in molar ratio. The pH value of the effluent was lower than that of the influent. Instead of Candidatus brocadia in nitrite reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation granular sludge, Bacillus benzoevorans became the dominant species in sulfate reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation sludge. The dominant bacterium in the two kinds of anaerobic ammonium oxidation process is different. Our results imply that the two anaerobic ammonium oxidation processes are carried out by different kind of bacterium.

  6. Methods of ammonia removal in anaerobic digestion: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakat, Niclas; Demirel, Burak; Anjum, Reshma; Dietz, Donna

    2017-10-01

    The anaerobic digestion of substrates with high ammonia content has always been a bottleneck in the methanisation process of biomasses. Since microbial communities in anaerobic digesters are sensitive to free ammonia at certain conditions, the digestion of nitrogen-rich substrates such as livestock wastes may result in inhibition/toxicity eventually leading to process failures, unless appropriate engineering precautions are taken. There are many different options reported in literature to remove ammonia from anaerobic digesters to achieve a safe and stable process so that along with high methane yields, a good quality of effluents can also be obtained. Conventional techniques to remove ammonia include physical/chemical methods, immobilization and adaptation of microorganisms, while novel methods include ultrasonication, microwave, hollow fiber membranes and microbial fuel cell applications. This paper discusses conventional and novel methods of ammonia removal from anaerobic digesters using nitrogen-rich substrates, with particular focus on recent literature available about this topic.

  7. Removal Efficiency of Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate (LAS in Yazd Stabilization Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Ebrahimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are organic chemicals with wide applications as detergents. Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS is an anionic surfactant most commonly used. Discharge of raw or treated wastewater containing this chemical into the environment causes major public health problems. In this study, 64 samples were taken from the effluent of Yazd Wastewater  Treatment Plant over a period of one year. The samples were analyzed according to standard methods. The results obtained from the samples taken in different seasons showed that the highest efficiency of anionic surfactant removal was achieved in the summer in the secondary facultative stabilization pond. The least efficiency was observed in the autumn in samples from the anaerobic stabilization pond. It was also found that treated wastewater discharged into surface waters, reused for agricultural irrigation, or discharged into absorbent wells had significant differences with Pvalue

  8. Biogeochemistry of anaerobic crude oil biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Ian; Gray, Neil; Aitken, Caroline; Sherry, Angela; Jones, Martin; Larter, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Anaerobic degradation of crude oil and petroleum hydrocarbons is widely recognized as a globally significant process both in the formation of the world's vast heavy oil deposits and for the dissipation of hydrocarbon pollution in anoxic contaminated environments. Comparative analysis of crude oil biodegradation under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions has revealed differences not only in the patterns of compound class removal but also in the microbial communities responsible. Under methanogenic conditions syntrophic associations dominated by bacteria from the Syntropheaceae are prevalent and these are likely key players in the initial anaerobic degradation of crude oil alkanes to intermediates such as hydrogen and acetate. Syntrophic acetate oxidation plays an important role in these systems and often results in methanogenesis dominated by CO2 reduction by members of the Methanomicrobiales. By contrast the bacterial communities from sulfate-reducing crude oil-degrading systems were more diverse and no single taxon dominated the oil-degrading sulfate-reducing systems. All five proteobacterial subdivisions were represented with Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria being detected most consistently. In sediments which were pasteurized hydrocarbon degradation continued at a relatively low rate. Nevertheless, alkylsuccinates characteristic of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation accumulated to high concentrations. This suggested that the sediments harbour heat resistant, possibly spore-forming alkane degrading sulfate-reducers. This is particularly interesting since it has been proposed recently, that spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria found in cold arctic sediments may have originated from seepage of geofluids from deep subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  9. Early anaerobic metabolisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

    2006-01-01

    probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity......Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were...... of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent...

  10. Early anaerobic metabolisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Don E; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8 Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent with the carbon isotope record and other considerations of the carbon cycle, that marine rates of primary production at this time were probably an order of magnitude (or more) less than today. We conclude that the flux of reduced species to the Earth surface at this time may have been sufficient to drive anaerobic ecosystems of sufficient activity to be consistent with the carbon isotope record. Conversely, an ecosystem based on oxygenic photosynthesis was also possible with complete removal of the oxygen by reaction with reduced species from the mantle. PMID:17008221

  11. The resonance energy of benzene: a revisit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yirong

    2009-04-30

    Zielinski and van Lenthe recently extended the block-localized wave function (BLW) method by introducing the resonating BLW (RBLW) method and performed test calculations on hexagonal H(6) and benzene [J. Phys. Chem. A 2008, 112, 13197]. However, the Pauling's resonance energies from their RBLW and ab initio valence bond (VB) calculations were greatly underestimated largely due to the imperfect use of either one-electron orbitals (method = delocal) or resonance structures (method = local). Whereas it has been well recognized that electronic resonance within a molecular system plays a stabilizing role, there are many indirect experimental evidences available to evaluate the resonance energy and, thus, to justify computational results. Here we used the BLW method, which can be regarded as the simplest variant of modern ab initio VB theory, to re-evaluate the resonance energy of benzene at the B3LYP level, following the original definition by Pauling and Wheland, who obtained the resonance energy "by subtracting the actual energy of the molecule in question from that of the most stable contributing structure". The computed vertical resonance energy (or quantum mechanical resonance energy) in benzene is 88.8, 92.2, or 87.9 kcal/mol with the basis sets of 6-31G(d), 6-311+G(d,p), or cc-pVTZ, respectively, while the adiabatic resonance energy (or theoretical resonance energy) is 61.4, 63.2, or 62.4 kcal/mol, exhibiting insignificant basis set dependency for moderate basis sets. In line with predictions, the geometry optimization of the elusive cyclohexatriene (i.e., the Kekule structure) with the BLW method also resulted in carbon-carbon bond lengths (e.g., 1.322 and 1.523 A with the cc-pVTZ basis set) comparable to those in ethylene or ethane.

  12. Benzene-free synthesis of adipic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Wei; Draths, K M; Frost, J W

    2002-01-01

    Strains of Escherichia coli were constructed and evaluated that synthesized cis,cis-muconic acid from D-glucose under fed-batch fermentor conditions. Chemical hydrogenation of the cis,cis-muconic acid in the resulting fermentation broth has also been examined. Biocatalytic synthesis of adipic acid from glucose eliminates two environmental concerns characteristic of industrial adipic acid manufacture: use of carcinogenic benzene and benzene-derived chemicals as feedstocks and generation of nitrous oxide as a byproduct of a nitric acid catalyzed oxidation. While alternative catalytic syntheses that eliminate the use of nitric acid have been developed, most continue to rely on petroleum-derived benzene as the ultimate feedstock. In this study, E. coli WN1/pWN2.248 was developed that synthesized 36.8 g/L of cis,cis-muconic acid in 22% (mol/mol) yield from glucose after 48 h of culturing under fed-batch fermentor conditions. Optimization of microbial cis,cis-muconic acid synthesis required expression of three enzymes not typically found in E. coli. Two copies of the Klebsiella pneumoniae aroZ gene encoding DHS dehydratase were inserted into the E. coli chromosome, while the K. pneumoniae aroY gene encoding PCA decarboxylase and the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus catA gene encoding catechol 1,2-dioxygenase were expressed from an extrachromosomal plasmid. After fed-batch culturing of WN1/pWN2.248 was complete, the cells were removed from the broth, which was treated with activated charcoal and subsequently filtered to remove soluble protein. Hydrogenation of the resulting solution with 10% Pt on carbon (5% mol/mol) at 3400 kPa of H2 pressure for 2.5 h at ambient temperature afforded a 97% (mol/mol) conversion of cis,cis-muconic acid into adipic acid.

  13. Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.

    1996-01-01

    Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. This paper describes a long-term (26 week) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 1) the length of exposure, and it describes three 8-week experiments relating concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 2) their concentration in soil 3) the soil organic matter content and, 4) the degree of chlorination. In the 26-week experiment, the concentration of 1,2,4 - trichlorobenzene in earthworms fluctuated only slightly about a mean of 0.63 ppm (Fig. 1). Although a statistically significant decrease can be demonstrated over the test (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = -0.62 p earthworms showed a cyclical trend that coincided with replacement of the media, and a slight but statistically significant tendency to increase from about 2 to 3 ppm over the 26 weeks (r = 0.55, p earthworms increased as the concentrations in the soil increased (Fig. 2), but leveled off at the highest soil concentrations. The most surprising result of this study was the relatively low concentrations in earthworms compared to those in soils. The average concentration of each of the six isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene in earthworms was only about 1 ppm (Table 2); the isomeric structure did not affect accumulation. The concentration of organic matter in soil had a prominent effect on hexachlorobenzene concentrations in earthworms (Fig. 3). Hexachlorobenzene concentrations decreased steadily from 9.3 ppm in earthworms kept in soil without any peat moss added to about 1 ppm in soil containing 16 or 32% organic matter.

  14. Detection of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylenes (BTEX) using toluene dioxygenase-peroxidase coupling reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhaohui; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a simple, whole-cell bioassay for the detection of bioavailable benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and similar compounds. A genetically engineered E. coli strain expressing toluene dioxygenase (TDO) and toluene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (TodD) was constructed, enabling the conversion of BTEX into their respective catechols, which were quickly converted into colored products by a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-coupled reaction. The intensity of the color formation was correlated to concentrations of the BTEX compounds. Under the optimized conditions, a detection limit (defined as three times the standard deviation of the response obtained from the blank) of 10, 10, 20, and 50 microM was observed for benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene, respectively. The bioassay was selective toward BTEX-related compounds with no interference observed with commonly used pesticides, herbicides, and organic solvent. The bioassay was very stable with little change in response over a 10-week period. The excellent stability suggests that the reported bioassay may be suitable for field monitoring of BTEX to identify and track contaminated water and follow the bioremediation progress.

  15. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern requireme......The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern...

  16. Benzene and cyclohexane separation using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonfa, Girma; Ismail, Marhaina; Bustam, Mohamad Azmi

    2017-09-01

    Cyclohexane is mainly produced by catalytic hydrogenation of benzene. Removal of unreacted benzene from the product stream is very important in this process. However, due to their close boiling points and azeotrope formation, it is very difficult to separate cyclohexane and benzene by conventional distillation. Currently, special separation processes such as processes extractive distillation is commercially used for this separation. However, this extractive distillation suffers from process complexity and higher energy consumption due to their low extractive selectivity of molecular entrainers used. The aim of the present work is to investigate the applicability of ionic liquids as entrainer in extractive distillation of benzene and cyclohexane mixture. In this study, we investigated 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([BMIM][SCN]) ionic liquid for separation of benzene and cyclohexane by measuring the Vapor Liquid Equilibrium data of the two components in the presence of the ionic liquid. As green and potential environmentally friendly solvents, ionic liquids have attracted increasing attention as alternative conventional entrainers in extractive distillation. Isothermal Vapor Liquid Equilibrium for the benzene + cyclohexane + [BMIM][SCN] ternary system was obtained at 353.15 K using a Head Space Gas Chromatography. The addition of [BMIM][SCN] breaks the benzene-cyclohexane azeotrope and increased the relative volatility cyclohexane to benzene in the mixture. The effect of [BMIM][SCN] on the relative volatility cyclohexane to benzene was studied at various benzene and cyclohexane compositions and solvent to feed ratios. The performance of [BMIM][SCN] was compared with typical conventional solvents, dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The results show that the relative volatility of cyclohexane to benzene in the presence of [BMIM][SCN] is higher compared that of DMSO and DMF.

  17. Non-parametric estimation of low-concentration benzene metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis A; Schnatter, A Robert; Boogaard, Peter J; Banton, Marcy; Ketelslegers, Hans B

    2017-12-25

    Two apparently contradictory findings in the literature on low-dose human metabolism of benzene are as follows. First, metabolism is approximately linear at low concentrations, e.g., below 10 ppm. This is consistent with decades of quantitative modeling of benzene pharmacokinetics and dose-dependent metabolism. Second, measured benzene exposure and metabolite concentrations for occupationally exposed benzene workers in Tianjin, China show that dose-specific metabolism (DSM) ratios of metabolite concentrations per ppm of benzene in air decrease steadily with benzene concentration, with the steepest decreases below 3 ppm. This has been interpreted as indicating that metabolism at low concentrations of benzene is highly nonlinear. We reexamine the data using non-parametric methods. Our main conclusion is that both findings are correct; they are not contradictory. Low-concentration metabolism can be linear, with metabolite concentrations proportional to benzene concentrations in air, and yet DSM ratios can still decrease with benzene concentrations. This is because a ratio of random variables can be negatively correlated with its own denominator even if the mean of the numerator is proportional to the denominator. Interpreting DSM ratios that decrease with air benzene concentrations as evidence of nonlinear metabolism is therefore unwarranted when plots of metabolite concentrations against benzene ppm in air show approximately straight-line relationships between them, as in the Tianjin data. Thus, an apparent contradiction that has fueled heated discussions in the recent literature can be resolved by recognizing that highly nonlinear, decreasing DSM ratios are consistent with linear metabolism. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Anaerobic biodegradation of (emerging) organic contaminants in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghattas, Ann-Kathrin; Fischer, Ferdinand; Wick, Arne; Ternes, Thomas A

    2017-06-01

    Although strictly anaerobic conditions prevail in several environmental compartments, up to now, biodegradation studies with emerging organic contaminants (EOCs), such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, have mainly focused on aerobic conditions. One of the reasons probably is the assumption that the aerobic degradation is more energetically favorable than degradation under strictly anaerobic conditions. Certain aerobically recalcitrant contaminants, however, are biodegraded under strictly anaerobic conditions and little is known about the organisms and enzymatic processes involved in their degradation. This review provides a comprehensive survey of characteristic anaerobic biotransformation reactions for a variety of well-studied, structurally rather simple contaminants (SMOCs) bearing one or a few different functional groups/structural moieties. Furthermore it summarizes anaerobic degradation studies of more complex contaminants with several functional groups (CMCs), in soil, sediment and wastewater treatment. While strictly anaerobic conditions are able to promote the transformation of several aerobically persistent contaminants, the variety of observed reactions is limited, with reductive dehalogenations and the cleavage of ether bonds being the most prevalent. Thus, it becomes clear that the transferability of degradation mechanisms deduced from culture studies of SMOCs to predict the degradation of CMCs, such as EOCs, in environmental matrices is hampered due the more complex chemical structure bearing different functional groups, different environmental conditions (e.g. matrix, redox, pH), the microbial community (e.g. adaptation, competition) and the low concentrations typical for EOCs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. In situ synthesis of silver benzene-dithiolate hybrid films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenier, Roger, E-mail: roger.brenier@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR 5306, Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, Domaine Scientifique de La Doua, Batiment Kastler, 10 rue Ada Byron, 69622 Villeurbanne, Cedex (France); Piednoir, Agnès, E-mail: agnes.piednoir@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR 5306, Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, Domaine Scientifique de La Doua, Batiment Kastler, 10 rue Ada Byron, 69622 Villeurbanne, Cedex (France); Bertorelle, Franck, E-mail: franck.bertorelle@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR 5306, Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, Domaine Scientifique de La Doua, Batiment Kastler, 10 rue Ada Byron, 69622 Villeurbanne, Cedex (France); Penuelas, José, E-mail: jose.penuelas@ec-lyon.fr [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5270, 36 rue Guy de Collongues, F69134 Ecully (France); Grenet, Geneviève, E-mail: genevieve.grenet@ec-lyon.fr [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5270, 36 rue Guy de Collongues, F69134 Ecully (France)

    2016-02-01

    In this article, a method for in situ synthesis of silver benzene-dithiolate hybrid films is presented. Silver nanoparticles, generated on ZrO{sub 2} films, are transformed into silver benzene 1,4-dithiolate or, partially, into silver benzene 1,2-dithiolate after sample immersion in the corresponding thiol solutions. These transformations occur at room temperature owing to the catalytic action of ZrO{sub 2}. It is also shown that TiO{sub 2} in place of ZrO{sub 2} is very efficient, both for the catalytic generation of silver nanoparticles and for their further transformation in benzene 1,4-dithiolate compound. This latter semiconductor has an optical bandgap of about 3 eV and the film is made of touching nanoparticles in an amorphous state. Our work has potential applications in the electronic and photovoltaic fields. - Highlights: • A method for in situ synthesis of silver benzene-dithiolate hybrid semiconductor films is presented. • Silver nanoparticles are, first, generated on ZrO{sub 2} or on TiO{sub 2} coated silica substrates. • The samples are immersed in benzene dithiol solution for two days at room temperature. • During the immersion, the silver nanoparticles are transformed into silver benzene dithiolate. • The silver benzene dithiolate film is made of amorphous nanoparticles with a banbgap of 3 eV.

  20. Benzene as a Chemical Hazard in Processed Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Paula Salviano dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a literature review on benzene in foods, including toxicological aspects, occurrence, formation mechanisms, and mitigation measures and analyzes data reporting benzene levels in foods. Benzene is recognized by the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer as carcinogenic to humans, and its presence in foods has been attributed to various potential sources: packaging, storage environment, contaminated drinking water, cooking processes, irradiation processes, and degradation of food preservatives such as benzoates. Since there are no specific limits for benzene levels in beverages and food in general studies have adopted references for drinking water in a range from 1–10 ppb. The presence of benzene has been reported in various food/beverage substances with soft drinks often reported in the literature. Although the analyses reported low levels of benzene in most of the samples studied, some exceeded permissible limits. The available data on dietary exposure to benzene is minimal from the viewpoint of public health. Often benzene levels were low as to be considered negligible and not a consumer health risk, but there is still a need of more studies for a better understanding of their effects on human health through the ingestion of contaminated food.

  1. The excited state antiaromatic benzene ring: a molecular Mr Hyde?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Raffaello; Ottosson, Henrik

    2015-09-21

    The antiaromatic character of benzene in its first ππ* excited triplet state (T1) was deduced more than four decades ago by Baird using perturbation molecular orbital (PMO) theory [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1972, 94, 4941], and since then it has been confirmed through a range of high-level quantum chemical calculations. With focus on benzene we now first review theoretical and computational studies that examine and confirm Baird's rule on reversal in the electron count for aromaticity and antiaromaticity of annulenes in their lowest triplet states as compared to Hückel's rule for the ground state (S0). We also note that the rule according to quantum chemical calculations can be extended to the lowest singlet excited state (S1) of benzene. Importantly, Baird, as well as Aihara [Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 1978, 51, 1788], early put forth that the destabilization and excited state antiaromaticity of the benzene ring should be reflected in its photochemical reactivity, yet, today these conclusions are often overlooked. Thus, in the second part of the article we review photochemical reactions of a series of benzene derivatives that to various extents should stem from the excited state antiaromatic character of the benzene ring. We argue that benzene can be viewed as a molecular "Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde" with its largely unknown excited state antiaromaticity representing its "Mr Hyde" character. The recognition of the "Jekyll and Hyde" split personality feature of the benzene ring can likely be useful in a range of different areas.

  2. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of sodium butyl benzene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    shape and size of the aggregates of sodium n-butyl benzene sulfonate in aqueous solutions. To the best of our knowledge this is the first SANS report on the aggre- gation behaviour of a hydrotrope in aqueous solutions. 2. Materials and methods n-Butyl benzene, procured from Herdilia Chemicals, Mumbai, was sulfonated ...

  3. Nonthermal plasma assisted photocatalytic oxidation of dilute benzene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to utilize the UV light for photocatalytic decomposition of chlorinated VOCs.23. Benzene, a commonly used industrial solvent, whose abatement under dilute concentrations (<1000 ppm) may not be economical by conventional techniques. The present study was aimed at the total oxidation of dilute benzene in a DBD reactor.

  4. Cytokine Network Involvement in Subjects Exposed to Benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    Benzene represents an ubiquitous pollutant both in the workplace and in the general environment. Health risk and stress posed by benzene have long been a concern because of the carcinogenic effects of the compound which was classified as a Group 1 carcinogen to humans and animals. There is a close correlation between leukemia, especially acute myeloid leukemia, and benzene exposure. In addition, exposure to benzene can cause harmful effects on immunological, neurological, and reproductive systems. Benzene can directly damage hematopoietic progenitor cells, which in turn could lead to apoptosis or may decrease responsiveness to cytokines and cellular adhesion molecules. Alternatively, benzene toxicity to stromal cells or mature blood cells could disrupt the regulation of hematopoiesis, including hematopoietic commitment, maturation, or mobilization, through the network of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules. Today there is mounting evidence that benzene may alter the gene expression, production, or processing of several cytokines in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this review was to systematically analyze the published cases of cytokine effects on human benzene exposure, particularly hematotoxicity, and atopy, and on lungs. PMID:25202711

  5. Evidence that humans metabolize benzene via two pathways.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rappaport, S.M.; Kim, S.; Lan, Q.; Vermeulen, R.C.H.; Waidyanatha, S.; Zhang, L.; Li, G.; Yin, S.; Hayes, R.B.; Rothman, N.; Smith, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent evidence has shown that humans metabolize benzene more efficiently at environmental air concentrations than at concentrations > 1 ppm. This led us to speculate that an unidentified metabolic pathway was mainly responsible for benzene metabolism at ambient levels. OBJECTIVE: We

  6. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-03-08

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  7. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-09-06

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  8. Relating BTEX degradation to the biogeochemistry of an anaerobic aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toze, S.G.; Power, T.R.; Davis, G.B.

    1995-01-01

    Trends in chemical and microbiological parameters in a petroleum hydrocarbon plume within anaerobic groundwater have been studied. Previously, microbial degradation of the hydrocarbon compounds had been substantiated by the use of deuterated hydrocarbons to determine natural (intrinsic) degradation rates within the contaminant plume. Here, sulfate concentration decreases, Eh decreases, and hydrogen sulfide and bicarbonate concentration increases are shown to be associated with the contaminant plume. These trends indicate microbial degradation of the benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Stoichiometry indicates that other consortia of bacteria play a role in the degradation of the hydrocarbons. Total microbial cell numbers were higher within the plume than in the uncontaminated groundwater. There is, however, no direct correlation between total microbial cell numbers, and BTEX, sulfate, bicarbonate, and hydrogen sulfide concentrations within the plume

  9. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, B.K.; Macarie, H.; Moletta, R.; Dohanyos, M.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lens, P.N.L.; Verstraete, W.

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern

  10. Anaerobic digestion of piggery waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsen, van A.F.M.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process by which organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide by microbes in the absence of air (oxygen). In nature, anaerobic conversions occur at all places where organic material accumulates and the supply of oxygen is deficient, e.g. in marshes

  11. Influence of benzene emission from motorcycle on Bangkok air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Shing Tet; Muttamara, S.; Laortanakul, Preecha

    This study investigated the influence of benzene concentration from motorcycle exhaust emissions on ambient air quality in Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR). Measurement of benzene concentration in exhaust emissions is performed on a standard test driving cycle through which each motorcycle to be tested is driven. The test result revealed that average benzene concentrations in exhaust emission for the test motorcycles ranged from 3.02 to 109.68 mg/m 3. The finding also indicated that two-stroke motorcycles emitted five times more benzene than that of four-stroke motorcycles. Four air monitoring sites were strategically established to determine the relationship between average benzene concentrations with different traffic configurations in each traffic zone of BMR during peak/non-peak hours, day/night times and weekday/weekend. The shape of the curve for benzene level usually shows two peaks corresponding to the morning and evening traffic rush or commuter rush hours. The finding shows that the mean concentrations for benzene in all monitoring stations in the ambient air for peak hours (07:00-09:00 and 16:00-18:00 h) ranged from 15.1 to 42.4 μg/m 3. For non-peak hour (11:30-15:00 h), benzene levels were found in the range 16.3-30.9 μg/m 3. It is observed that higher levels of benzene are found among roadside stations with slow moving traffic while lower levels are found among roadside stations with fast traffic movement. Additional factors such as temperature, wind speed, rainfall, etc. are also considered in this study to determine the relationship between traffic conditions and ambient benzene levels.

  12. MiDAS 2.0: an ecosystem-specific taxonomy and online database for the organisms of wastewater treatment systems expanded for anaerobic digester groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; McIlroy, Bianca

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater is increasingly viewed as a resource, with anaerobic digester technology being routinely implemented for biogas production. Characterising the microbial communities involved in wastewater treatment facilities and their anaerobic digesters is considered key to their optimal design...... of the anaerobic digester systems fed primary sludge and surplus activated sludge. The updated database includes descriptions of the abundant genus-level-taxa in influent wastewater, activated sludge and anaerobic digesters. Abundance information is also included to allow assessment of the role of emigration...

  13. Competitive Nitration of Benzene-Fluorobenzene and Benzene-Toluene Mixtures: Orientation and Reactivity Studies Using HPLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankespoor, Ronald L.; Hogendoorn, Stephanie; Pearson, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The reactivity and orientation effects of a substituent are analyzed by using HPLC to determine the competitive nitration of the benzene-toluene and benzene-fluorobenzene mixtures. The results have shown that HPLC is an excellent instrumental method to use in analyzing these mixtures.

  14. Diversity and ecophysiological features of thermophilic carboxydotrophic anaerobes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolova, T.G.; Henstra, A.M.; Sipma, J.; Parshina, S.N.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lebedinsky, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Both natural and anthropogenic hot environments contain appreciable levels of carbon monoxide (CO). Anaerobic microbial communities play an important role in CO conversion in such environments. CO is involved in a number of redox reactions. It is biotransformed by thermophilic methanogens,

  15. Benzene exposure is associated with cardiovascular disease risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Abplanalp

    Full Text Available Benzene is a ubiquitous, volatile pollutant present at high concentrations in toxins (e.g. tobacco smoke known to increase cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Despite its prevalence, the cardiovascular effects of benzene have rarely been studied. Hence, we examined whether exposure to benzene is associated with increased CVD risk. The effects of benzene exposure in mice were assessed by direct inhalation, while the effects of benzene exposure in humans was assessed in 210 individuals with mild to high CVD risk by measuring urinary levels of the benzene metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA. Generalized linear models were used to assess the association between benzene exposure and CVD risk. Mice inhaling volatile benzene had significantly reduced levels of circulating angiogenic cells (Flk-1+/Sca-1+ as well as an increased levels of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL compared with control mice breathing filtered air. In the human cohort, urinary levels of t,t-MA were inversely associated several populations of circulating angiogenic cells (CD31+/34+/45+, CD31+/34+/45+/AC133-, CD34+/45+/AC133+. Although t,t-MA was not associated with plasma markers of inflammation or thrombosis, t,t-MA levels were higher in smokers and in individuals with dyslipidemia. In smokers, t,t-MA levels were positively associated with urinary metabolites of nicotine (cotinine and acrolein (3-hydroxymercapturic acid. Levels of t,t-MA were also associated with CVD risk as assessed using the Framingham Risk Score and this association was independent of smoking. Thus, benzene exposure is associated with increased CVD risk and deficits in circulating angiogenic cells in both smokers and non-smokers.

  16. Anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2003-01-01

    -rate anaerobic treatment systems based on anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm are described in this chapter. Emphasis is given to a) the Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems, b) the main characteristics of the anaerobic granular sludge, and c) the factors that control the granulation process...

  17. Reactions of benzene oxide with thiols including glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Alistair P; Barnes, Martine L; Bleasdale, Christine; Cameron, Richard; Clegg, William; Heath, Sarah L; Lindstrom, Andrew B; Rappaport, Stephen M; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Watson, William P; Golding, Bernard T

    2005-02-01

    S-Phenylmercapturic acid is a minor metabolite of benzene used as a biomarker for human benzene exposures. The reaction of intracellular glutathione with benzene oxide-oxepin, the initial metabolite of benzene, is presumed to give 1-(S-glutathionyl)-cyclohexa-3,5-dien-2-ol, which undergoes dehydration to S-phenylglutathione, the precursor of S-phenylmercapturic acid. To validate the proposed route to S-phenylglutathione, reactions of benzene oxide-oxepin with glutathione and other sulfur nucleophiles have been studied. The reaction of benzene oxide with an excess of aqueous sodium sulfide, followed by acetylation, gave bis-(6-trans-5-acetoxycyclohexa-1,3-dienyl)sulfide, the structure of which was proved by X-ray crystallography. Reactions of benzene oxide-oxepin in a 95:5 (v/v) mixture of phosphate buffer in D2O with (CD3)2SO were monitored by 1H NMR spectroscopy. In the absence of glutathione, the half-life of benzene oxide-oxepin was ca. 34 min at 25 degrees C and pD 7.0. The half-life was not affected in the range of 2-15 mM glutathione in the presence and absence of a commercial sample of human glutathione S-transferase (at pH 7.0, 8.0, 8.5, or 10.0). The adduct 1-(S-glutathionyl)-cyclohexa-3,5-diene-2-ol was identified in these reaction mixtures, especially at higher pH, by mass spectrometry and by its acid-catalyzed decomposition to S-phenylglutathione. Incubation of benzene oxide with N-acetyl-L-cysteine at 37 degrees C and pH 10.0 and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis of the mixture showed formation of pre-S-phenylmercapturic acid and the dehydration product, S-phenylmercapturic acid. The data validate the premise that benzene oxide-oxepin can be captured by glutathione to give (1R,2R)- and/or (1S,2S)-1-(S-glutathionyl)-cyclohexa-3,5-dien-2-ol, which dehydrate to S-phenylglutathione. The capture is a relatively inefficient process at pH 7 that is accelerated at higher pH. These studies account for the observation that the metabolism of benzene is

  18. Isolation and Cultivation of Anaerobes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aragao Börner, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms play important roles in different biotechnological processes. Their complex metabolism and special cultivation requirements have led to less isolated representatives in comparison to their aerobic counterparts.In view of that, the isolation and cultivation of anaerobic...... microorganisms is still a promising venture, and conventional methodologies as well as considerations and modifications are presented here. An insight into new methodologies and devices as well as a discussion on future perspectives for the cultivation of anaerobes may open the prospects of the exploitation...... of these microorganisms as a source for biotechnology....

  19. Biodegradation of Methylene Blue Dye by Sequential Treatment Using Anaerobic Hybrid Reactor and Submerged Aerobic Fixed Film Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Izharul H.; Basheer, Farrukh; Tiwari, Pradeepika

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were carried out to access the feasibility of sequential anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment for the biodegradation of Methylene Blue (MB) dye. Anaerobic studies were performed using anaerobic hybrid reactor (consisting of UASB and Anaerobic filter) whereas submerged aerobic fixed film reactor was used as aerobic reactor. Degradation of MB dye was attempted using neutralized acetic acid (1000 mg/L) as co-substrate. MB dye concentration was stepwise increased from 10 to 70 mg/L after reaching steady state in each dye concentration. Such a gradual increase in the dye concentration helps in the proper acclimatization of the sludge to dyes thereby avoiding the possible inhibitory effects to biological activities at high dye concentrations. The overall treatment efficiency of MB through sequential anaerobic-aerobic reactor operation was 90% at maximum attempted dye concentration of 70 mg/L. The effluent from anaerobic reactor was analysed for intermediate biodegradation products through HPLC. It was observed that catechol, quinone, amino pyrine, 1,4 diamino benzene were present. However they were absent in final effluent.

  20. 40 CFR 80.1295 - How are gasoline benzene credits used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are gasoline benzene credits used... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Averaging, Banking and Trading (abt) Program § 80.1295 How are gasoline benzene credits used? (a) Credit use. (1) Gasoline benzene...

  1. 40 CFR 80.1356 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline benzene compliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for gasoline benzene compliance? 80.1356 Section 80.1356 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Benzene Attest Engagements § 80.1356 What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline benzene... that contain gasoline benzene and gasoline volume information. (2) Agree the yearly volumes of gasoline...

  2. Anaerobic digestion of microalgal biomass: Challenges, opportunities and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, Cristina; Sialve, Bruno; Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz

    2015-12-01

    Integration of anaerobic digestion (AD) with microalgae processes has become a key topic to support economic and environmental development of this resource. Compared with other substrates, microalgae can be produced close to the plant without the need for arable lands and be fully integrated within a biorefinery. As a limiting step, anaerobic hydrolysis appears to be one of the most challenging steps to reach a positive economic balance and to completely exploit the potential of microalgae for biogas and fertilizers production. This review covers recent investigations dealing with microalgae AD and highlights research opportunities and needs to support the development of this resource. Novel approaches to increase hydrolysis rate, the importance of the reactor design and the noteworthiness of the microbial anaerobic community are addressed. Finally, the integration of AD with microalgae processes and the potential of the carboxylate platform for chemicals and biofuels production are reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Implementing Livestock Anaerobic Digestion Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page provides information to help make an informed decision about installing an anaerobic digester. Is it a good match for a farm’s organic waste, project financing, development guidelines and permit requirements?

  4. Electronic structure of benzene adsorbed on Ni and Cu surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinelt, M.; Nilsson, A.; Wassdahl, N. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Benzene has for a long time served as a prototype adsorption system of large molecules. It adsorbs with the molecular plane parallel to the surface. The bonding of benzene to a transition metal is typically viewed to involve the {pi} system. Benzene adsorbs weakly on Cu and strongly on Ni. It is interesting to study how the adsorption strength is reflected in the electronic structure of the adsorbate-substrate complex. The authors have used X-ray Emission (XE) and X-ray Absorption (XA) spectroscopies to selectively study the electronic states localized on the adsorbed benzene molecule. Using XES the occupied states can be studies and with XAS the unoccupied states. The authors have used beamline 8.0 and the Swedish endstation equipped with a grazing incidence x-ray spectrometer and a partial yield absorption detector. The resolution in the XES and XAS were 0.5 eV and 0.05 eV, respectively.

  5. Positronium quenching in liquid and solid octanol and benzene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shantarovich, V.P.; Mogensen, O.E.; Goldanskii, V.I.

    1970-01-01

    The lifetimes of orthopositronium in several solutions in liquid and solid octanol and benzene have been measured. The Ps-quenching constant was found to be two to thirty times higher in the solid than in the liquid phase....

  6. Variability of benzene exposure among filling station attendants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carere, A.; Iacovella, N.; Turrio Baldassarri, L.; Fuselli, S.; Iavarone, I.; Lagorio, S.; Proietto, A.R.

    1996-12-01

    A monitoring survey of filling station attendants aimed at identifying sources of variability of exposure to benzene and other aromatics was carried out. Concurrent samples of the worker's breathing zone air, atmospheric air in the service station proximity, and gasoline were collected, along with information about daily workloads and other exposure-related factors. Benzene personal exposure was characterised by a small between-worker variability and a predominant within-worker variance component. Such elevated day-to-day variability yields to imprecise estimates of mean personal exposure. Almost 70% of the overall personal exposure variance was explained by a model including daily benzene from dispensed fuel, presence of a shelter over the refueling area, amount of fuel supplied to the station if a delivery occurred, and background atmospheric benzene concentration

  7. Toxicity of substituted benzene derivatives to four chemolithotrophic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxicity of benzene, hydroxylbenzene (phenol), chlorobenzene, methylbenzene (toluene) and dimethylbenzene (xylene) to four chemolithotrophic bacteria (Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter, Thiobacillus and Leptothrix isolated from the New Calabar River water was investigated. The static method for acute toxicity assessment ...

  8. Vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy of crystalline and amorphous benzene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawes, Anita; Pascual, Natalia; Hoffmann, Soren V.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first high resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption study of amorphous benzene with com parisons to annealed crystalline benzene and the gas phase. Vapour deposited benzene layers w ere grow n at 25 K and annealed to 90 K under conditions pertinent to interstellaricy dust grains...... and icy planetary bodies in our solar system. Three single t-single t electronic transitions in solid benzene correspond to the B-1(2u), B-1(1u) and E-1(1u) states, redshifted by 0.05, 0.25 and 0.51 eV respectively with respect to the gas phase. The symmetry forbidden B-1(2u)...

  9. Modeling the formation and reactions of benzene metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Bernard T; Barnes, Martine L; Bleasdale, Christine; Henderson, Alistair P; Jiang, Dong; Li, Xin; Mutlu, Esra; Petty, Hannah J; Sadeghi, Majid M

    2010-03-19

    One or more of the muconaldehyde isomers is a putative product of benzene metabolism. As muconaldehydes are highly reactive dienals and potentially mutagenic they might be relevant to the carcinogenicity of benzene. Muconaldehydes may be derived through the action of a cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase on benzene oxide-oxepin, which are established metabolites of benzene. Oxidation of benzene oxide-oxepin either by the one-electron oxidant cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate (CAN) or by iron(III) tris(1,10-phenanthroline) hexafluorophosphate in acetone at -78 degrees C or acetonitrile at -40 degrees C gave (E,Z)-muconaldehyde, which was a single diastereoisomer according to analysis by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Reaction of toluene-1,2-oxide/2-methyloxepin with CAN gave (2E,4Z)-6-oxo-hepta-2,4-dienal. Similarly, the action of CAN on 1,6-dimethylbenzene oxide-2,7-dimethyloxepin gave (3Z,5E)-octa-3,5-diene-2,7-dione. In vivo, benzene oxide-oxepin could suffer one-electron oxidation by cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase giving (E,Z)-muconaldehyde. The observations presented may be relevant to the toxicology of benzene oxide-oxepin and other arene oxide-oxepins as we have previously shown that (E,Z)-muconaldehyde, analogously to (Z,Z)-muconaldehyde, affords pyrrole adducts with the exocyclic amino groups of the DNA bases adenine and guanine. Independent of their possible toxicological significance, the experiments described provide preparatively useful routes to (E,Z)-muconaldehyde and its congeners. Methods are also described for the trapping and analysis of reactive benzene metabolites, e.g. using the Diels-Alder reaction with the dienophile 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione to trap arene oxides and with the diene 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran to trap enals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Metabolism of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene Hydrocarbons in Soil†

    OpenAIRE

    Tsao, C.-W.; Song, H.-G.; Bartha, R.

    1998-01-01

    Enrichment cultures obtained from soil exposed to benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) mineralized benzene and toluene but cometabolized only xylene isomers, forming polymeric residues. This observation prompted us to investigate the metabolism of 14C-labeled BTX hydrocarbons in soil, either individually or as mixtures. BTX-supplemented soil was incubated aerobically for up to 4 weeks in a sealed system that automatically replenished any O2 consumed. The decrease in solvent vapors and the produ...

  11. Reactions of benzene oxide, a reactive metabolite of benzene, with model nucleophiles and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míčová, Kateřina; Linhart, Igor

    2012-10-01

    1. Reactivity of benzene oxide (BO), a reactive metabolite of benzene, was studied in model reactions with biologically relevant S- and N-nucleophiles by LC-ESI-MS. 2. Reaction with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in aqueous buffer solutions gave N-acetyl-S-(6-hydroxycyclohexa-2,4-dien-1-yl)cysteine (pre-phenylmercapturic acid, PPhMA), which was easily dehydrated in acidic solutions to phenylmercapturic acid (PhMA). The yield of PPhMA + PhMA increased exponentially with pH up to 11% in the pH range from 5.5 to 11.4. 3. Primary 6-hydroxycyclohexa-2,4-dien-1-yl (HC) adducts were detected also in reactions of purine nucleosides and nucleotides under physiological conditions. After a vigorous acidic hydrolysis, all HC adducts were converted to corresponding phenyl purines, which were identified as 7-phenylguanine (7-PhG), 3-phenyladenine (3-PhA) and N(6)-phenyladenine (6-PhA). The yield of 7-PhG amounted to 14 ± 5 and 16 ± 7 ppm for 2'-deoxyguanosine and 2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-monophosphate, respectively, that of 6-PhA was 500 ± 70 and 455 ± 75 ppm with 2'-deoxyadenosine and 2'-deoxyadenosine-5'-phosphate, respectively, with only traces of 3-PhA. 4. Reactions with the DNA followed by acidic hydrolysis yielded 26 ± 11 ppm (mean ± SD; n = 9) of 7-PhG as the sole adduct detected. 5. In contrast to the reactions with S-nucleophiles, the reactivity of BO with nucleophilic sites in the DNA is very low and can therefore hardly account for a significant DNA damage caused by benzene.

  12. Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  13. Exposition by inhalation to the benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes (BTEX) in the air. Sources, measures and concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Gratta, F.; Durif, M.; Fagault, Y.; Zdanevitch, I.

    2004-12-01

    This document presents the main techniques today available to characterize the benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylene (BTEX) concentrations in the air for different contexts: urban and rural areas or around industrial installations but also indoor and occupational area. It provides information to guide laboratories and research departments. A synthesis gives also the main emissions sources of these compounds as reference concentrations measured in different environments. (A.L.B.)

  14. Effect of zinc and benzene on respiration and excretion of mussel larvae (Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca; Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADLVC. Jorge

    Full Text Available The presence of pollutants in the ocean may affect different physiological parameters of animals. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion were evaluated in D-shaped larvae of mussels (Perna perna exposed to zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 and benzene (C6H6. When compared to the control group, both pollutants presented a significant reduction in oxygen consumption. A reduction in the ammonia excretion was also observed, both for ZnSO4 and C6H6 and also in the oxygen consumption. The results indicate that anaerobic metabolism may occur at the beginning of P. perna mussels development, as observed in veliger larvae. The O:N ratio under experimental conditions showed low values indicating that catabolism in veliger larvae was predominantly proteic.

  15. Effects of ferric iron on the anaerobic treatment and microbial biodiversity in a coupled microbial electrolysis cell (MEC)--anaerobic reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxin; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo

    2013-10-01

    Adding Fe(III) into a MEC - anaerobic reactor enhanced the degradation of organic matters. To clarify the respective effects of combining Fe(III) dosage and a MEC and Fe(III) dosage only on strengthening anaerobic digestion, three anaerobic reactors were operated in parallel: a MEC - anaerobic reactor with dosing Fe(OH)3 (R1), an anaerobic reactor with dosing Fe(OH)3 (R2) and a common anaerobic reactor (R3). With increasing influent COD from 1500 to 4000 mg/L, the COD removal in R1 was maintained at 88.3% under a voltage of 0.8 V, which was higher than that in reactor R2 and R3. When the power was cut off, the COD removal in R1 decreased by 5.9%. The addition of Fe(OH)3 enhanced both anaerobic digestion and anodic oxidation, resulting in the effective mineralization of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The reduced Fe(II) combined with electric field resulted more extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production. Quantitative real - time PCR showed a higher abundance of bacteria in the anodic biofilm and R1. Pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that the dominant bacteria and archaea communities were richer and more abundant in the anode biofilm and R1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exposure to polystyrene nanoplastic leads to inhibition of anaerobic digestion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shan-Fei; Ding, Jian-Nan; Zhang, Yun; Li, Yi-Fei; Zhu, Rong; Yuan, Xian-Zheng; Zou, Hua

    2018-06-01

    In this study, impacts of nanoplastic on the pure and mixed anaerobic digestion systems were investigated. Results showed the growth and metabolism of Acetobacteroides hydrogenigenes were partly inhibited by nanoplastic existed in the pure anaerobic digestion system. The anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge was also obviously inhibited by nanoplastic existed in the mixed anaerobic digestion system. Both the methane yield and methane production rate of the mixed anaerobic digestion system showed negative correlation with the nanoplastic concentration. Compared with anaerobic digestion system without nanoplastic, methane yield and maximum daily methane yield at the nanoplastic concentration of 0.2g/L decreased for 14.4% and 40.7%, respectively. In addition, the start-up of mixed anaerobic digestion system was prolonged by addition of nanoplastic. Microbial community structure analysis indicated the microbial community structures were also affected by nanoplastic existed in the system. At the nanoplastic concentration of 0.2g/L, the relative abundances of family Cloacamonaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Anaerolinaceae and Gracilibacteraceae decreased partly. Conversely, the relative abundances of family Anaerolinaceae, Clostridiaceae, Geobacteraceae, Dethiosulfovibrionaceae and Desulfobulbaceae improved partly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Benzene oxidation under sulfate-reducing conditions in columns simulating in situ conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Carsten; Gödeke, Stefan; Treutler, Hanns-Christian; Weiss, Holger; Schirmer, Mario; Richnow, Hans-Hermann

    2007-10-01

    The oxidation of benzene under sulfate-reducing conditions was examined in column and batch experiments under close to in situ conditions. Mass balances and degradation rates for benzene oxidation were determined in four sand and four lava granules filled columns percolated with groundwater from an anoxic benzene-contaminated aquifer. The stoichiometry of oxidized benzene, produced hydrogen carbonate and reduced sulfate correlated well with the theoretical equation for mineralization of benzene with sulfate as electron acceptor. Mean retention times of water in four columns were determined using radon ((222)Rn) as tracer. The retention times were used to calculate average benzene oxidation rates of 8-36 microM benzene day(-1). Benzene-degrading, sulfide-producing microcosms were successfully established from sand material of all sand filled columns, strongly indicating that the columns were colonized by anoxic benzene-degrading microorganisms. In general, these data indicate a high potential for Natural Attenuation of benzene under sulfate-reducing conditions at the field site Zeitz. In spite of this existing potential to degrade benzene with sulfate as electron acceptor, the benzene plume at the field site is much longer than expected if benzene would be degraded at the rates observed in the column experiment, indicating that benzene oxidation under sulfate-reducing conditions is limited in situ.

  18. Anaerobic biodegradation of alkylbenzenes and trichloroethylene in aquifer sediment down gradient of a sanitary landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James J.; Borden, Robert C.; Barlaz, Morton A.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the anaerobic biodegradability of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, ortho-, meta- and para-xylene (BTEX) and trichloroethylene (TCE) in aquifer sediment down gradient of an unlined landfill. The major organic contaminants identified in the shallow unconfined aquifer are cis-dichloroethylene ( c-DCE) and toluene. The biodegradative potential of the contaminated aquifer was measured in three sets of microcosms constructed using anaerobic aquifer sediment from three boreholes down gradient of the landfill. The degradability of BTEX and TCE was examined under ambient and amended conditions. TCE was degraded in microcosms with aquifer material from all three boreholes. Toluene biodegradation was inconsistent, exhibiting biodegradation with no lag in one set of microcosms but more limited biodegradation in two additional sets of microcosms. TCE exhibited an inhibitory effect on toluene degradation at one location. The addition of calcium carbonate stimulated TCE biodegradation which was not further stimulated by nutrient addition. TCE was converted to ethylene, a harmless byproduct, in all tests. Benzene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers were recalcitrant in both ambient and amendment experiments. Biodegradation occurred under methanogenic conditions as methane was produced in all experiments. Bromoethane sulfonic acid (BES), a methanogenic inhibitor, inhibited methane and ethylene production and TCE biodegradation. The results indicate the potential for intrinsic bioremediation of TCE and toluene down gradient of the Wilder's Grove, North Carolina, landfill. The low concentrations of TCE in monitoring wells was consistent with its biodegradation in laboratory microcosms.

  19. Groundbreaking technology: in-situ anaerobic bioremediation for treatment of contaminated soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    Anaerobic in-situ bioremediation is a technique often used to cleanse contaminated soil and groundwater. 'Anaerobic in-situ bioremediation' is a phrase with distinct terms all having relevance in the application of this technique. 'Anaerobic' implies the absence of dissolved oxygen, while 'in-situ' simply means that the environmental cleansing occurs with out removing, displacing, or significantly disturbing the specimen or surrounding area. 'Bioremediation' is a term used to describe the biological use of microbes or plants to detoxify the environment. In order to properly implement this complex process, one must have an understanding of microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, metabolic processes, and structure and function of natural microbial communities. (author)

  20. Groundbreaking technology: in-situ anaerobic bioremediation for treatment of contaminated soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    Anaerobic in-situ bioremediation is a technique often used to cleanse contaminated soil and groundwater. 'Anaerobic in-situ bioremediation' is a phrase with distinct terms all having relevance in the application of this technique. Anaerobic implies the absence of dissolved oxygen, while 'in-situ' simply means that the environmental cleansing occurs with out removing, displacing, or significantly disturbing the specimen or surrounding area. 'Bioremediation' is a term used to describe the biological use of microbes or plants to detoxify the environment. In order to properly implement this complex process, one must have an understanding of microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, metabolic processes, and structure and function of natural microbial communities. (author)

  1. Potential Application of Anaerobic Extremophiles for Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    During substrate fermentation many anaerobes produce the hydrogen as a waste product, which often regulates the growth of the cultures as an inhibitor. In nature the hydrogen is usually removed from the ecosystem due to its physical properties or by consumption of hydrogen by secondary anaerobes, which sometimes behave as competitors for electron donors as is seen in the classical example in anaerobic microbial communities via the interaction between methanogens and sulfate- or sulfur- reducers. It was demonstrated previously on mixed cultures of anaerobes at neutral pH that bacterial hydrogen production could provide an alternative energy source. But at neutral pH the original cultures can easily be contaminated by methanogens, a most unpleasant side effect of these conditions is the development of pathogenic bacteria. In both cases the rate of hydrogen production was dramatically decreased since some part of the hydrogen was transformed to methane, and the cultivation of human pathogens on a global scale is very dangerous. In our laboratory, experiments with obligately alkaliphilic bacteria that excrete hydrogen as the end metabolic product were performed at different temperature regimes. Mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacterial cultures have been studied and compared for the most effective hydrogen production. For high-mineralized media with pH 9.5-10.0 not many methanogens are known to exist. Furthermore, the development of pathogenic contaminant microorganisms is virtually impossible: carbonate-saturated solutions are used as antiseptics in medicine. Therefore the cultivation of alkaliphilic hydrogen producing bacteria could be considered as most safe process for global Scale industry in future. Here we present experimental data on the rates of hydrogen productivity for mesophilic, alkaliphilic, obligately anaerobic bacterium Spirocheta americana ASpG1 and moderately thermophilic, alkaliphilic, facultative anaerobe Anoxybacillus pushchinoensis K1 and

  2. Anaerobic digestion of solid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavilin, V.A.; Lokshina, L.Y.; Flotats, X.

    2007-01-01

    A new multidimensional (3 and 2D) anaerobic digestion model for cylindrical reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions was developed to study the way in which mixing intensity affects the efficiency of continuous-flow anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments reported and simulated....... In the system, the threshold methanogenic biomass concentration existed because of inhibition by high VFA concentration. High methanogenic biomass concentration is required for efficient anaerobic digestion of MSW in order to avoid possible inhibition due to high VFA build-up. Thus, CSTR configuration might...... have unstable dynamics at high organic loading as shown in earlier experiments carried out by Stroot et al. (2001). A gradual increase of organic loading during the start up of a completely mixed digester causing an accumulation of methanogenic biomass is a solution to prevent a probable digester...

  3. Soot precursor measurements in benzene and hexane diffusion flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Furuhata, T.; Amagai, K.; Arai, M. [Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu-shi, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    To clarify the mechanism of soot formation in diffusion flames of liquid fuels, measurements of soot and its precursors were carried out. Sooting diffusion flames formed by a small pool combustion equipment system were used for this purpose. Benzene and hexane were used as typical aromatic and paraffin fuels. A laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method was used to obtain spatial distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are considered as soot particles. Spatial distributions of soot in test flames were measured by a laser-induced incandescence (LII) method. Soot diameter was estimated from the temporal change of LII intensity. A region of transition from PAHs to soot was defined from the results of LIF and LII. Flame temperatures, PAH species, and soot diameters in this transition region were investigated for both benzene and hexane flames. The results show that though the flame structures of benzene and hexane were different, the temperature in the PAHs-soot transition region of the benzene flame was similar to that of the hexane flame. Furthermore, the relationship between the PAH concentrations measured by gas chromatography in both flames and the PAH distributions obtained from LIF are discussed. It was found that PAHs with smaller molecular mass, such as benzene and toluene, remained in both the PAHs-soot transition and sooting regions, and it is thought that molecules heavier than pyrene are the leading candidates for soot precursor formation. (author)

  4. Toxicity of Naphthalene and Benzene on Tribollium castaneum Herbst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajaro-Castro, Nerlis; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2017-06-21

    Naphthalene and benzene are widely-used volatile organic compounds. The aim of this research was to examine the toxicological effects of naphthalene and benzene against Tribolium castaneum as an animal model. Adult insects were exposed to these aromatic compounds to assess mortality after 4-48 h of exposure. The lethal concentration 50 (LC 50 ) for naphthalene, naphthalin, and benzene were 63.6 µL/L, 20.0 µL/L, and 115.9 µL/L in air, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed expression changes in genes related to oxidative stress and metabolism [Glutathione S-Transferase (Gst), and Cytochrome P450 6BQ8 (Cyp6bq8)]; reproduction and metamorphosis [Hormone receptor in 39-like protein (Hr39), Ecdysone receptor: (Ecr), and Chitin synthase 2 (Chs2)]; and neurotransmission [Histamine-gated chloride channel 2 (Hiscl2)] in insects exposed for 4 h to 70.2 µL/L naphthalene. Adults exposed to benzene (80 µL/L; 4 h) overexpressed genes related to neurotransmission [GABA-gated anion channel (Rdl), Hiscl2, and GABA-gated ion channel (Grd)]; reproduction and metamorphosis [Ultraspiracle nuclear receptor (USP), Ecr; and Hr39]; and development (Chs2). The data presented here provides evidence that naphthalene and benzene inhalation are able to induce alterations on reproduction, development, metamorphosis, oxidative stress, metabolism, neurotransmission, and death of the insect.

  5. Microbial stress mediated intercellular nanotubes in an anaerobic microbial consortium digesting cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    John, Martina; Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Zhou, Yan; Ng, Wun Jern

    2017-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion process is a multi - step reaction dependent on concerted activities such as exchange of metabolites among physiologically different microbial communities. This study investigated the impact of iron oxide nanoparticles on the anaerobic sludge microbiota. It was shown there were three distinct microbial phases following addition of the nanoparticles: microbial stress and cell death of approximately one log order of magnitude, followed by microbial rewiring, and recovery...

  6. Oxygen sensitivity of various anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loesche, W J

    1969-11-01

    Anaerobes differ in their sensitivity to oxygen, as two patterns were recognizable in the organisms included in this study. Strict anaerobes were species incapable of agar surface growth at pO(2) levels greater than 0.5%. Species that were found to be strict anaerobes were Treponema macrodentium, Treponema denticola, Treponema oralis n. sp., Clostridium haemolyticum, Selenomonas ruminatium, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, and Lachnospira multiparus. Moderate anaerobes would include those species capable of growth in the presence of oxygen levels as high as 2 to 8%. The moderate anaerobes could be exposed to room atmosphere for 60 to 90 min without appreciable loss of viability. Species considered as moderate anaerobes were Bacteroides fragilis, B. melaninogenicus, B. oralis, Fusobacteria nucleatum, Clostridium novyi type A, and Peptostreptococcus elsdenii. The recognition of at least two general types of anaerobes would seem to have practical import in regard to the primary isolation of anaerobes from source material.

  7. Instrumentation in anaerobic treatment - research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, H.; Lier, van J.B.

    2006-01-01

    High rate anaerobic treatment reactors are able to uncouple solids and liquid retention time, resulting in high biomass concentrations. Principal advantages of anaerobic treatment include: energy efficiency, low biomass yield, low nutrient requirement and high volumetric organic loadings. In order

  8. RISK FACTORS IN NEONATAL ANAEROBIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Tabib

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic bacteria are well known causes of sepsis in adults but there are few studies regarding their role in neonatal sepsis. In an attempt to define the incidence of neonatal anaerobic infections a prospective study was performed during one year period. A total number of 400 neonates under sepsis study were entered this investigation. Anaerobic as well as aerobic cultures were sent. The patients were subjected to comparison in two groups: anaerobic culture positive and anaerobic culture negative and this comparison were analyzed statistically. There were 7 neonates with positive anaerobic culture and 35 neonates with positive aerobic culture. A significant statistical relationship was found between anaerobic infections and abdominal distention and pneumonia. It is recommended for those neonates with abdominal distention and pneumonia refractory to antibiotic treatment to be started on antibiotics with anaerobic coverage.

  9. Anaerobic bacterial meningitis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Jun; Lien, Chia-Yi; Chien, Chun-Chih; Huang, Chi-Ren; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Chang, Chiung-Chih; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Chang, Wen-Neng

    2018-01-22

    Anaerobic infection is a very uncommon condition in adult bacterial meningitis (ABM), and its clinical characteristics have yet to be clarified. We enrolled 540 patients with culture-proven bacterial meningitis during a study period of 30 years (1986-2015), of whom 13 (2.4%) had anaerobic infections. These 13 patients were eight men and five women, aged 22-77 years. Among them, 53.8% (7/13) had a postneurosurgical state as the preceding event, and 79.6% (10/13) had underlying medical conditions including diabetes mellitus, malignancy, liver cirrhosis, cerebral infarct and alcoholism. Nosocomial and mixed infections were found in 15.5% (2/13) and 46.1% (6/13) of the patients, respectively. A total of 14 anaerobic strains were isolated from cerebrospinal fluid specimens, including nine Gram-negative (G(-)) strains: Fusobacterium nucleatum (3), Prevotella species (3) and Bacteroides fragilis (3), and five Gram-positive (G(+)) strains: Propionibacterium acnes (3) and Peptostreptococcus micros (also known as Parvimonas micra) (2). All of the implicated G(+) anaerobic bacteria were susceptible to penicillin, and no multiple drug-resistant strains were found among the implicated G(-) anaerobic bacteria. Despite treatment, 30.8% (4/13) of the patients died. Of the nine survivors, 22.2% (2/9) had a full recovery, while the other 77.8% (7/9) had varying degrees of neurological deficits. Compared with the good outcome group (n = 6, modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores: 0-2), the poor outcome group (n = 7, mRS scores ≧3) had higher incidence of seizure. These results may offer a preliminary view of the clinical characteristics of anaerobic ABM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ammonia and temperature determine potential clustering in the anaerobic digestion microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vrieze, Jo; Saunders, Aaron Marc; He, Ying; Fang, Jing; Nielsen, Per Halkjaer; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2015-05-15

    Anaerobic digestion is regarded as a key environmental technology in the present and future bio-based economy. The microbial community completing the anaerobic digestion process is considered complex, and several attempts already have been carried out to determine the key microbial populations. However, the key differences in the anaerobic digestion microbiomes, and the environmental/process parameters that drive these differences, remain poorly understood. In this research, we hypothesized that differences in operational parameters lead to a particular composition and organization of microbial communities in full-scale installations. A total of 38 samples were collected from 29 different full-scale anaerobic digestion installations, showing constant biogas production in function of time. Microbial community analysis was carried out by means of amplicon sequencing and real-time PCR. The bacterial community in all samples was dominated by representatives of the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, covering 86.1 ± 10.7% of the total bacterial community. Acetoclastic methanogenesis was dominated by Methanosaetaceae, yet, only the hydrogenotrophic Methanobacteriales correlated with biogas production, confirming their importance in high-rate anaerobic digestion systems. In-depth analysis of operational and environmental parameters and bacterial community structure indicated the presence of three potential clusters in anaerobic digestion. These clusters were determined by total ammonia concentration, free ammonia concentration and temperature, and characterized by an increased relative abundance of Bacteroidales, Clostridiales and Lactobacillales, respectively. None of the methanogenic populations, however, could be significantly attributed to any of the three clusters. Nonetheless, further experimental research will be required to validate the existence of these different clusters, and to which extent the presence of these clusters relates to stable or sub

  11. Special Issue on “Microbial Ecology of Anaerobic Digestion”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Kleinsteuber

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion (AD is an efficient and sustainable way of using organic carbon from residual biomass and organic waste for the production of renewable energy, while simultaneously recycling nutrients and cleaning up waste streams. The process relies on complex microbial communities comprised of diverse functional guilds; these communities have manifold metabolic pathways and interactions. In contrast to the conventional view of an anaerobic digester as a black box, advanced microbiological methods have paved the way for understanding and even controlling complex microbial networks. Nowadays, microbial resource management is crucial for technological progress in AD, and offers new perspectives concerning sustainable waste management, renewable energy production, resource efficiency, and advanced bio-refineries; these perspectives lead to novel applications of AD processes that go beyond biogas as the main product. [...

  12. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa

  13. Anaerobic bioprocessing of organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, W; de Beer, D; Pena, M; Lettinga, G; Lens, P

    1996-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of dissolved, suspended and solid organics has rapidly evolved in the last decades but nevertheless still faces several scientific unknowns. In this review, some fundamentals of bacterial conversions and adhesion are addressed initially. It is argued in the light of ΔG-values of reactions, and in view of the minimum energy quantum per mol, that anaerobic syntrophs must have special survival strategies in order to support their existence: redistributing the available energy between the partners, reduced end-product fermentation reactions and special cell-to-cell physiological interactions. In terms of kinetics, it appears that both reaction rates and residual substrate thresholds are strongly related to minimum ΔG-values. These new fundamental insights open perspectives for efficient design and operation of anaerobic bioprocesses. Subsequently, an overview is given of the current anaerobic biotechnology. For treating wastewaters, a novel and high performance new system has been introduced during the last decade; the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket system (UASB). This reactor concept requires anaerobic consortia to grow in a dense and eco-physiologically well-organized way. The microbial principles of such granular sludge growth are presented. Using a thermodynamic approach, the formation of different types of aggregates is explained. The application of this bioprocess in worldwide wastewater treatment is indicated. Due to the long retention times of the active biomass, the UASB is also suitable for the development of bacterial consortia capable of degrading xenobiotics. Operating granular sludge reactors at high upflow velocities (5-6 m/h) in expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) systems enlarges the application field to very low strength wastewaters (chemical oxygen demand system to the thermophilic configuration, as the latter permits higher conversion rates and easier sanitation. Integration of ultrafiltration in anaerobic slurry digestion

  14. Tandem 1,4-addition reactions with benzene and alkylated benzenes promoted by pentaammineosmium(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fei; Kopach, Michael E; Sabat, Michal; Harman, W Dean

    2002-11-06

    Electrophiles such as dimethoxymethane and 3-penten-2-one react with the complex [Os(NH(3))(5)(eta(2)-benzene)](2+) in the presence of triflic acid to form metastable benzenium intermediates. These benzenium intermediates further react with carbon nucleophiles including silyl ketene acetals, (silyloxy)alkenes, and phenyllithium in an overall tandem 1,4-addition sequence. The metal fragment controls the relative stereo- and regiochemistry for both electrophilic and nucleophilic addition steps. Upon oxidative demetalation with silver triflate, cis-1,4 cyclohexadienes are formed in yields ranging from 16 to 82%. This methodology can also be used to dearomatize toluene and ortho- and meta-xylene with unexpectedly high regio- and stereocontrol.

  15. Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria have lagged behind similar studies in aerobes. However, the current interest in biotechnology, the involvement of anaerobes in disease and the emergence of antibioticresistant strains have focused attention on the genetics of anaerobes. This article reviews molecular genetic studies in Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and methanogens. Certain genetic systems in some anaerobes differ from those in aerobes and illustrate the genetic diversity among bacteria

  16. Viscosity evolution of anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.; Baudu, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the apparent viscosity at steady shear rate of sieved anaerobic granular sludge (20¿315 ¿m diameter) sampled from different full-scale anaerobic reactors was recorded using rotation tests. The ¿limit viscosity¿ of sieved anaerobic granular sludge was determined from the apparent

  17. Kinetics and modeling of anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion modeling started in the early 1970s when the need for design and efficient operation of anaerobic systems became evident. At that time not only was the knowledge about the complex process of anaerobic digestion inadequate but also there were computational limitations. Thus...

  18. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a device intended for medical purposes to maintain an anaerobic (oxygen...

  19. [Myelofibrosis in a benzene-exposed cleaning worker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausà, Roser; Navarro, Lydia; Cortès-Franch, Imma

    Long-term exposure to benzene has been associated with several blood malignancies, including aplastic anemia, myeloproliferative neoplasms, and different leukemias. We present a case of primary myelofibrosis in a 59-year-old woman who worked as a cleaner at a car dealership and automobile mechanic shop. For 25 years, she used gasoline as a degreaser and solvent to clean engine parts, floors and work desks on a daily basis. She was referred by her primary care provider to the Occupational Health Unit of Barcelona to assess whether her illness was work-related. Review of her job history and working conditions revealed chronic exposure to benzene in the absence of adequate preventive measures. An association between benzene exposure and myeloproliferative disease was established, suspicious for an occupational disease. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  20. Anaerobic toxicity of cationic silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitipour, Alireza; Thiel, Stephen W. [Biomedical, Chemical, and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Scheckel, Kirk G. [USEPA, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tolaymat, Thabet, E-mail: tolaymat.thabet@epa.gov [USEPA, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag{sup +} under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged polyvinylpyrrolidone coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) and (3) positively charged branched polyethyleneimine coated AgNPs (BPEI-AgNPs). The AgNPs investigated in this experiment were similar in size (10–15 nm), spherical in shape, but varied in surface charge which ranged from highly negative to highly positive. While, at AgNPs concentrations lower than 5 mg L{sup −1}, the anaerobic decomposition process was not influenced by the presence of the nanoparticles, there was an observed impact on the diversity of the microbial community. At elevated concentrations (100 mg L{sup −1} as silver), only the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity similar in magnitude to that of Ag{sup +}. Both citrate and PVP-AgNPs did not exhibit toxicity at the 100 mg L{sup −1} as measured by biogas evolution. These findings further indicate the varying modes of action for nanoparticle toxicity and represent one of the few studies that evaluate end-of-life management concerns with regards to the increasing use of nanomaterials in our everyday life. These findings also highlight some of the concerns with a one size fits all approach to the evaluation of environmental health and safety concerns associated with the use of nanoparticles. - Highlights: • At concentrations -1 the anaerobic decomposition process was not impacted. • An impact on the microbial community at concentrations -1 were observed. • At high concentrations (100 mg L{sup −1}), the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity. • Toxicity was demonstrated without the presence of oxidative dissolution of silver. • A one size fits all approach for the evaluation of NPs may not be accurate.

  1. Unleaded gasoline with reduction in benzene and aromatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.

    2003-01-01

    The trend today is towards making gasoline more environment and human friendly or in other words making gasoline a really clean fuel. This paper covers the ill effects of benzene and aromatics and the driving force behind their reduction in gasoline worldwide. It addresses health concerns specifically, and the theme is unleaded gasoline without simultaneously addressing reduction in benzene and aromatics is more harmful. The paper cites worldwide case studies, and also the World Bank (WB), Government of Pakistan (GoP), and United Nations (UN) efforts in this area in Pakistan. (author)

  2. Critical issues in benzene toxicity and metabolism: the effect of interactions with other organic chemicals on risk assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Medinsky, M A; Schlosser, P M; Bond, J A

    1994-01-01

    Benzene, an important industrial solvent, is also present in unleaded gasoline and cigarette smoke. The hematotoxic effects of benzene are well documented and include aplastic anemia and pancytopenia. Some individuals exposed repeatedly to cytotoxic concentrations of benzene develop acute myeloblastic anemia. It has been hypothesized that metabolism of benzene is required for its toxicity, although administration of no single benzene metabolite duplicates the toxicity of benzene. Several inve...

  3. Anaerobic Treatment of Methanolic Wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettinga, G.; Geest, van der A.Th.; Hobma, S.W.; Laan, van der J.B.R.

    1979-01-01

    Although it is well known that methanol can be fermented directly by a specific species of methane bacteria, viz. Methanosarcina barkeri, until now little information was available about the effect of important environmental factors on the anaerobic fermentation of methanol. As methanol can be the

  4. Perspectives of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, J.G.; Runia, W.T.; Molendijk, L.P.G.; Bleeker, P.O.

    2010-01-01

    Biological soil disinfestation is an environmentally friendly method to disinfest soil. From now on we refer to it as anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD). With ASD a green manure crop (40 t/ha) is homogeneously incorporated into the topsoil (0-30 cm) after which the field is lightly compacted and

  5. Draft Benzene Case Study Review - Second Prospective Report Study Science Advisory Board Review, March 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed a methodology for estimating the health benefits of benzene reductions and has applied it in a metropolitan-scale case study of the benefits of CAA controls on benzene emissions to accompany the main 812 analysis.

  6. Benzene Case Study Final Report - Second Prospective Report Study Science Advisory Board Review, July 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed a methodology for estimating the health benefits of benzene reductions and has applied it in a metropolitan-scale case study of the benefits of CAA controls on benzene emissions to accompany the main 812 analysis.

  7. Characterization of changes in gene expression and biochemical pathways at low levels of benzene exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Reuben; Hubbard, Alan E.; McHale, Cliona M.; Zhang, Luoping; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Jinot, Jennifer; Sonawane, Babasaheb R.; Smith, Martyn T.

    2014-01-01

    Benzene, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, causes acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recently, through transcriptome profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), we reported dose-dependent effects of benzene exposure on gene expression and biochemical pathways in 83 workers exposed across

  8. Benzene solubility in ionic liquids: working toward an understanding of liquid clathrate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jorge F B; Flores, Luis A; Wang, Hui; Rogers, Robin D

    2014-11-17

    The solubility of benzene in 15 imidazolium, pyrrolidinium, pyridinium, and piperidinium ionic liquids has been determined; the resulting, benzene-saturated ionic liquid solutions, also known as liquid clathrates, were examined with (1) H and (19) F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to try and understand the molecular interactions that control liquid clathrate formation. The results suggest that benzene interacts primarily with the cation of the ionic liquid, and that liquid clathrate formation (and benzene solubility) is controlled by the strength of the cation-anion interactions, that is, the stronger the cation-anion interaction, the lower the benzene solubility. Other factors that were determined to be important in the final amount of benzene in any given liquid clathrate phase included attractive interactions between the anion and benzene (when significant), and larger steric or free volume demands of the ions, both of which lead to greater benzene solubility. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Inhibition of Anaerobic Biological Treatment: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li; Ji, Dandan; Zang, Lihua

    2018-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a method for treating living and industrial wastewater by anaerobic degradation of organic compounds, which can produce biogas (carbon dioxide and methane mixture) and microbial biomass. And biogas as a renewable resource, can replace the use of ore fuel. In the process of anaerobic digestion, the problems of low methane yield and unstable reaction process are often encountered, which limits the widespread use of this technology. Various inhibitors are the main limiting factors for anaerobic digestion. In this paper, the main factors limiting anaerobic digestion are reviewed, and the latest research progress is introduced.

  10. Interim report: Study of benzene release from Savannah River in-tank precipitation process slurry simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappe, K.G.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1997-09-01

    At the Savannah River Site, the in-tank precipitation (ITP) process uses sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) to precipitate radioactive cesium from alkaline wastes. During this process, potassium is also precipitated to form a 4-wt% KTPB/CsTPB slurry. Residual NaTPB decomposes to form benzene, which is retained by the waste slurry. The retained benzene is also readily released from the waste during subsequent waste processing. While the release of benzene certainly poses both flammability and toxicological safety concerns, the magnitude of the hazard depends on the rate of release. Currently, the mechanisms controlling the benzene release rates are not well understood, and predictive models for estimating benzene release rates are not available. The overall purpose of this study is to obtain quantitative measurements of benzene release rates from a series of ITP slurry stimulants. This information will become a basis for developing a quantitative mechanistic model of benzene release rates. The transient benzene release rate was measured from the surface of various ITP slurry (solution) samples mixed with benzene. The benzene release rate was determined by continuously purging the headspace of a sealed sample vessel with an inert gas (nitrogen) and analyzing that purged headspace vapor for benzene every 3 minutes. The following 75-mL samples were measured for release rates: KTPB slurry with 15,000 ppm freshly added benzene that was gently mixed with the slurry, KTPB slurry homogenized (energetically mixed) with 15,000 ppm and 5,000 ppm benzene, clear and filtered KTPB salt solution saturated with benzene (with and without a pure benzene layer on top of the solution), and a slurry sample from a large demonstration experiment (DEMO slurry) containing-benzene generated in situ

  11. Utilization of alternative fuels and materials in cement kiln towards emissions of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes (BTEX)

    OpenAIRE

    Muliane Ulfi; Lestari Puji

    2018-01-01

    Co-processing in cement industry has benefits for energy conservation and waste recycling. Nevertheless, emissions of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylenes (BTEX) tend to increase compared to a non co-processing kiln. A study was conducted in kiln feeding solid AFR (similar to municipal solid waste, MSW) having production capacity 4600-ton clinker/day (max. 5000 ton/day) and kiln feeding biomass having production capacity 7800-ton clinker/day (max. 8000 ton/day). The concentration of V...

  12. Anaerobic metabolism of pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, N.B.K.

    1980-01-01

    A manifold assembly system was used to study the metabolism of 14 C labelled PCNB in flooded and moist anaerobic soils. Soil respiration was generally enhanced by PCNB. More CO 2 was produced in moist anaerobic than in flooded anaerobic soil. Flooding reduced the volatilization of pesticide. The extractable radioactivity from the soil was same (70%) in the treatments. Nevertheless, differences were observed in distribution of PCNB and its degradation products. Pentachloroaniline (PCA) was the principal degradation product. Pentachlorothioanisole (PCTA) was more abundant in moist anaerobic than in flooded anaerobic soil. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was formed from PCNB in anaerobic soil. Degradation of PCA, PCTA and PCP were further studied in soil and a possible pathway for anaerobic degradation of PCNB was proposed. (author)

  13. Determining anaerobic capacity in sporting activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordhof, Dionne A; Skiba, Philip F; de Koning, Jos J

    2013-09-01

    Anaerobic capacity/anaerobically attributable power is an important parameter for athletic performance, not only for short high-intensity activities but also for breakaway efforts and end spurts during endurance events. Unlike aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity cannot be easily quantified. The 3 most commonly used methodologies to quantify anaerobic capacity are the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit method, the critical power concept, and the gross efficiency method. This review describes these methods, evaluates if they result in similar estimates of anaerobic capacity, and highlights how anaerobic capacity is used during sporting activities. All 3 methods have their own strengths and weaknesses and result in more or less similar estimates of anaerobic capacity but cannot be used interchangeably. The method of choice depends on the research question or practical goal.

  14. 40 CFR 80.1275 - How are early benzene credits generated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...), per § 80.1280(a). Bavg,y = Average benzene concentration of gasoline produced at the refinery during averaging period y (volume percent benzene), per § 80.1238. Ve,y = Total volume of gasoline produced at the... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Averaging, Banking and Trading...

  15. 40 CFR 721.1240 - Benzene, (2-bromoethyl)-, ar-bromo derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, (2-bromoethyl)-, ar-bromo... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1240 Benzene, (2-bromoethyl)-, ar-bromo derivatives. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene...

  16. 40 CFR 80.1225 - Who must register with EPA under the gasoline benzene program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline benzene program? 80.1225 Section 80.1225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene General Information § 80.1225 Who must register with EPA under the gasoline benzene program? (a) Refiners and...

  17. 78 FR 25476 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Benzene...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ...; Benzene Standard ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On April 30, 2013, the Department of Labor (DOL) will submit the..., ``Benzene Standard,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval for continued [email protected] . Authority: 44 U.S.C. 3507(a)(1)(D). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Benzene Standard requires...

  18. 40 CFR 80.1361 - What penalties apply under the gasoline benzene program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline benzene program? 80.1361 Section 80.1361 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Violations and Penalties § 80.1361 What penalties apply under the gasoline benzene program? (a) Any person liable for a...

  19. 40 CFR 80.1358 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline benzene program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline benzene program? 80.1358 Section 80.1358 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Violations and Penalties § 80.1358 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline benzene program? No person shall— (a)(1...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates...

  1. 40 CFR 80.1354 - What are the reporting requirements for the gasoline benzene program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for the gasoline benzene program? 80.1354 Section 80.1354 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Benzene Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements § 80.1354 What are the reporting requirements for the gasoline benzene program? (a) Beginning with earliest applicable date specified in § 80.1347(a)(2), any...

  2. Toxicogenomic analysis of gene expression changes in rat liver after a 28-day oral benzene exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, W.H.M.; Jonker, D.; Stierum, R.H.; Ommen, B. van; Groten, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Benzene is an industrial chemical, component of automobile exhaust and cigarette smoke. After hepatic bioactivation benzene induces bone marrow, blood and hepatic toxicity. Using a toxicogenomics approach this study analysed the effects of benzene at three dose levels on gene expression in the liver

  3. 40 CFR 721.1230 - Benzene, ethenyl-, ar-bromo derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, ethenyl-, ar-bromo... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1230 Benzene, ethenyl-, ar-bromo derivatives. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, ethenyl-, ar...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN P-03...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1325 - Benzene, 1-(1-methyl-bu-toxy)-4-nitro-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, 1-(1-methyl-bu-toxy)-4-nitro... Substances § 721.1325 Benzene, 1-(1-methyl-bu-toxy)-4-nitro-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1-(1-methylbutoxy)-4-nitro- (PMN P...

  6. 46 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C to... - Substance Technical Guidelines, Benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance Technical Guidelines, Benzene B Appendix B to... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene Pt. 197, Subpt. C, App. B Appendix B to Subpart C to Part 197—Substance Technical Guidelines, Benzene I. Physical and Chemical Data (a) Substance...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN P-95...

  8. Hydroxylation of Benzene via CH Activation Using Bimetallic ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A photoactive bimetallic CuAg@g-C3N4 catalyst system has been designed and synthesized by impregnating copper and silver nanoparticles over the graphitic carbon nitride surface. Its application has been demonstrated in the hydroxylation of benzene under visible light. Prepared for submission to American Chemical Society (ACS) journal, ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering.

  9. Fluorescent naphthalene-based benzene tripod for selective ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aluminium complex of a naphthalene-based benzene tripod ligand system has been reported for the selective recognition of fluoride in aqueous medium in physiological condition. The ligand can selectively recognize Al3+ through enhancement in the fluorescence intensity and this in situ formed aluminium complex ...

  10. Isopropylation of benzene with 2-propanol over substituted large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The catalytic performance of these materials was tested for isopropylation of benzene with 2-propanol at 250, 300, 350 and 400°C. The products were cumene, -DIPB (-diisopropylbenzene) and -DIPB (-diisopropylbenzene). MnAPO-5 was found to be more active than the other catalysts. Maximum conversion (20%) ...

  11. Electronic states of 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duy Duc; Jones, Nykola; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning

    2012-01-01

    The electronic transitions of 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene (BPEB) were investigated by UV synchrotron radiation linear dichroism (SRLD) spectroscopy in the range 25,000 – 58,000 cm–1 (400 – 170 nm) on molecular samples aligned in stretched polyethylene. The investigation was supported by variable...

  12. Leukemia risk in caprolactam workers exposed to benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaen, Gerard M H; Scheffers, Theo; de Cock, Johan; Slangen, Jos; Drooge, Hinkelien

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the leukemia risk in a group of benzene exposed workers. We conducted a retrospective cohort mortality study on 311 men who worked between January 1, 1951 and December 31, 1968 in a Caprolactam plant in the Netherlands. In the production of Caprolactam (the Nylon 6 monomer) pure benzene is used as an extracting agent and the workers at this plant have been exposed to substantial concentrations of benzene. The cohort was followed for mortality until January 1, 2001. The total mortality was below the expected number, which was mainly caused by a deficit of cardiovascular disease mortality. In the total group, there was one death from leukemia, compared with an expected number of 1.17. Despite the substantial exposures to benzene (on average 159 ppm-years per person) there was no indication for increased leukemia mortality within the cohort. We have applied earlier quantitative risk assessments to our cohort and conclude that some of these assessments overestimate the risk observed in our cohort of Caprolactam workers.

  13. Resonance energy in benzene derivatives with a variable functional group

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Otto; Böhm, S.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 11 (2001), s. 1623-1637 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/1454 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : arenes * benzene Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.778, year: 2001

  14. 46 CFR 197.565 - Notifying personnel of benzene hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Material safety data sheet. A material safety data sheet (MSDS) addressing benzene must be made available... 197.565 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... A through E of this subpart and on where copies of this material are available; and (viii) The...

  15. Assessment of uncertainty of benzene measurements by Radiello diffusive sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisance, Hervé; Leonardis, Thierry; Gerboles, Michel

    The uncertainty of benzene measurements obtained by the analysis of thermally desorbable Radiello diffusive samplers was evaluated according to the recent standard EN 14662-4 [EN 14662-4, 2005. Ambient air quality. Standard method for measurement of benzene concentrations. Part 4: diffusive sampling followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography]. Considering the results of laboratory experiments, all the sources of uncertainty regarding the diffusive sampler method characteristics were accessed for the sampling times of 7 and 14 days. The major part of the uncertainty budget (>79%) was explained by the variation of the sampling rate due to the environmental factors (temperature and concentration level). For weekly sampling, the diffusive sampler method satisfies the data quality objectives of the European Directive to supply the indicative measurements as well as the reference measurement, since the expanded uncertainty is found workplaces. For 2-week sampling, the expanded uncertainty of measurements exceeds 30%. However, this diffusive sampler can still be used to carry out an objective evaluation of benzene (minimum quality objective for the accuracy of 100%). Therefore, the performance of this diffusive sampler method appears to be suitable for the benzene monitoring in ambiant air.

  16. Instrument for benzene and toluene emission measurements of glycol regenerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyecz, Veronika; Szabó, Gábor; Mohácsi, Árpád; Puskás, Sándor; Vágó, Árpád

    2013-01-01

    We introduce an in-field and in-explosive atmosphere useable instrument, which can measure the benzene and toluene concentration in two gas and two glycol samples produced by natural gas dehydration units. It is a two-phase, on-line gas chromatograph with a photoacoustic spectroscopy based detector. The time resolution is 10 min per cycle and the minimum detectable concentrations are 2 mg m −3 for benzene, 3 mg m −3 for toluene in natural gas, and 5 g m −3 for benzene and 6 g m −3 for toluene in glycol. Test measurements were carried out at a dehydration plant belonging to MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company. Benzene and toluene emissions of gas dehydration unit are calculated from the measured values based on mass balance of a glycol regenerator. The relationship between the outdoor temperature and the measured concentration was observed which is caused by temperature-dependent operation of the whole dehydration unit. Emission decreases with increase of outdoor temperature. (paper)

  17. Upstream petroleum industry glycol dehydrator benzene emissions status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The population of dehydrators referred to are located in the Western Sedimentary Basin in northeast British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan, and includes units installed at wellsites, compressor stations, gas plants, central crude oil treating facilities, and reservoir or salt cavern gas storage facilities. Benzene emissions from the still column vent on glycol dehydrators occur as a result of glycol's strong affinity for aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzene. A study was carried out to: 1) develop a list of oil and gas companies operating in Canada, 2) develop an equipment and benzene emissions inventory of glycol dehydrators, 3) develop a database in Microsoft Access format to gather and maintain inventory and emission data, 4) evaluate and validate at least 10% of the reported data, 5) develop a list of companies that manufacture dehydrators and incinerators to determine how many new dehydrators were sold for use in Canada in 1998, and 6) prepare a report summarizing findings and recommendations. The companies included in the survey were the oil and gas companies identified by the Nickels' Oil and Gas Index and others provided by CAPP, CGA, and SEPAC. The project was carried out to gather glycol dehydrator equipment and still column vent benzene emissions information. 8 refs

  18. The ototoxic effects of ethyl benzene in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; Klis, S.F.L.; Muijser, H.; Groot, J.C.M.J. de; Kulig, B.M.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    1999-01-01

    Exposure to organic solvents has been shown to be ototoxic in animals and there is evidence that these solvents can induce hearing loss in humans. In this study, the effects of inhalation of the possibly ototoxic solvent ethyl benzene on the cochlear function and morphology were evaluated using

  19. Potential application of anaerobic extremophiles for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-11-01

    In processes of the substrate fermentation most anaerobes produce molecular hydrogen as a waste end product, which often controls the culture growth as an inhibitor. Usually in nature the hydrogen is easily removed from an ecosystem, due to its physical features, and an immediate consumption by the secondary anaerobes that sometimes behave as competitors for electron donors; a classical example of this kind of substrate competition in anaerobic microbial communities is the interaction between methanogens and sulfate- or sulfur-reducers. Previously, on the mixed cultures of anaerobes at neutral pH, it was demonstrated that bacterial hydrogen production could provide a good alternative energy source. At neutral pH the original cultures could easily contaminated by methanogens, and the most unpleasant side effect of these conditions is the development of pathogenic bacteria. In both cases the rate of hydrogen production was dramatically decreased since some part of the hydrogen was transformed to methane, and furthermore, the cultivation with pathogenic contaminants on an industrial scale would create an unsafe situation. In our laboratory the experiments with obligately alkaliphilic bacteria producing hydrogen as an end metabolic product were performed at different conditions. The mesophilic, haloalkaliphilic and obligately anaerobic bacterium Spirochaeta americana ASpG1T was studied and various cultivation regimes were compared for the most effective hydrogen production. In a highly mineralized media with pH 9.5-10.0 not many known methanogens are capable of growth, and the probability of developing pathogenic contaminants is theoretically is close to zero (in medicine carbonate- saturated solutions are applied as antiseptics). Therefore the cultivation of alkaliphilic hydrogen producing bacteria could be considered as a safe and economical process for large-scale industrial bio-hydrogen production in the future. Here we present and discuss the experimental data

  20. [Anaerobic bacteria 150 years after their discovery by Pasteur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, José Elías; García-Sánchez, Enrique; Martín-Del-Rey, Ángel; García-Merino, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    In 2011 we celebrated the 150th anniversary of the discovery of anaerobic bacteria by Louis Pasteur. The interest of the biomedical community on such bacteria is still maintained, and is particularly focused on Clostridium difficile. In the past few years important advances in taxonomy have been made due to the genetic, technological and computing developments. Thus, a significant number of new species related to human infections have been characterised, and some already known have been reclassified. At pathogenic level some specimens of anaerobic microflora, that had not been isolated from human infections, have been now isolated in some clinical conditions. There was emergence (or re-emergence) of some species and clinical conditions. Certain anaerobic bacteria have been associated with established infectious syndromes. The virulence of certain strains has increased, and some hypotheses on their participation in certain diseases have been given. In terms of diagnosis, the routine use of MALDI-TOF has led to a shortening of time and a cost reduction in the identification, with an improvement directly related to the improvement of data bases. The application of real-time PCR has been another major progress, and the sequencing of 16srRNA gene and others is currently a reality for several laboratories. Anaerobes have increased their resistance to antimicrobial agents, and the emergence of resistance to carbapenems and metronidazole, and multi-resistance is a current reality. In this situation, linezolid could be an effective alternative for Bacteroides. Fidaxomicin is the only anti-anaerobic agent introduced in the recent years, specifically for the diarrhoea caused by C.difficile. Moreover, some mathematical models have also been proposed in relation with this species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbial stress mediated intercellular nanotubes in an anaerobic microbial consortium digesting cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Martina; Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Zhou, Yan; Ng, Wun Jern

    2017-12-21

    The anaerobic digestion process is a multi - step reaction dependent on concerted activities such as exchange of metabolites among physiologically different microbial communities. This study investigated the impact of iron oxide nanoparticles on the anaerobic sludge microbiota. It was shown there were three distinct microbial phases following addition of the nanoparticles: microbial stress and cell death of approximately one log order of magnitude, followed by microbial rewiring, and recovery. Furthermore, it was noted that cellular stress led to the establishment of intercellular nanotubes within the microbial biomass. Intercellular nanotube - mediated communication among genetically engineered microorganisms and ad hoc assembled co - cultures have been previously reported. This study presents evidence of intercellular nanotube formation within an environmental sample - i.e., anaerobic sludge microbiota subjected to stress. Our observations suggested a mode of microbial communication in the anaerobic digestion process not previously explored and which may have implications on bioreactor design and microbial functions.

  2. Influence of pretreatment techniques on anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper mill sludge: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluchamy, C; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2017-12-01

    Pulp and paper industry is one of the most polluting, energy and water intensive industries in the world. Produced pulp and paper mill sludge (PPMS) faces a major problem for handling and its management. An anaerobic digestion has become an alternative source. This review provides a detailed summary of anaerobic digestion of PPMS - An overview of the developments and improvement opportunities. This paper explores the different pretreatment methods to enhance biogas production from the PPMS. First, the paper gives an overview of PPMS production, and then it reviews PPMS as a substrate for anaerobic digestion with or without pretreatment. Finally, it discuss the optimal condition and concentration of organic and inorganic compounds required for the anaerobic metabolic activity. Future research should focus on the combination of different pretreatment technologies, relationship between sludge composition, reactor design and its operation, and microbial community dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A comprehensive study of benzene concentrations and emissions in Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Markus; Eichler, Philipp; Berk Knighton, W.; Estes, Mark; Crawford, James H.; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin

    2014-05-01

    The Houston Metropolitan Area (Greater Houston) has a population of over 6 million people, it ranks among the three fastest growing metropolises in the developed world and population growth scenarios predict it to reach megacity status in the coming two to four decades. Greater Houston is home to the largest petrochemical-manufacturing complex in the world with important consequences for the environment in the region. Direct and fugitive emissions of hydrocarbons adversely affect Houston's air quality which has been subject to intense studies over the past two decades. In 2013, NASA conducted the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign in support of developing a satellite-based capability to assess Houston's air quality in the future. Amongst other measurements, airborne, mobile ground-based and stationary ground-based measurements of benzene were carried out. Benzene is a carcinogenic air toxic with strict exposure regulations in the U.S. and in Europe. We have used the obtained comprehensive dataset to map benzene concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area, locate and identify point sources, compare industrial and traffic emissions and put them in relation to previous measurements and emission inventories. The obtained data will allow a better assessment of health risks associated with benzene exposure in a large metropolitan area that includes both traffic and industrial benzene sources. This work was funded by BMVIT / FFG-ALR in the frame of the Austrian Space Application Programme (ASAP 8, project 833451). PE was funded through the PIMMS ITN (EU-FP7, agreement number 287382). Additional resources were provided through NASA's Earth Venture program (EV-1) and the NASA Postdoctoral Program (NPP). We want to thank Scott Herndon and Aerodyne Research for their support.

  4. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yi

    Full Text Available The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  5. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies. PMID:25051352

  6. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jing; Dong, Bin; Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  7. Phylogenetic diversity and in situ detection of eukaryotes in anaerobic sludge digesters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miri Matsubayashi

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic communities in aerobic wastewater treatment processes are well characterized, but little is known about them in anaerobic processes. In this study, abundance, diversity and morphology of eukaryotes in anaerobic sludge digesters were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR, 18S rRNA gene clone library construction and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH. Samples were taken from four different anaerobic sludge digesters in Japan. Results of qPCR of rRNA genes revealed that Eukarya accounted from 0.1% to 1.4% of the total number of microbial rRNA gene copy numbers. The phylogenetic affiliations of a total of 251 clones were Fungi, Alveolata, Viridiplantae, Amoebozoa, Rhizaria, Stramenopiles and Metazoa. Eighty-five percent of the clones showed less than 97.0% sequence identity to described eukaryotes, indicating most of the eukaryotes in anaerobic sludge digesters are largely unknown. Clones belonging to the uncultured lineage LKM11 in Cryptomycota of Fungi were most abundant in anaerobic sludge, which accounted for 50% of the total clones. The most dominant OTU in each library belonged to either the LKM11 lineage or the uncultured lineage A31 in Alveolata. Principal coordinate analysis indicated that the eukaryotic and prokaryotic community structures were related. The detection of anaerobic eukaryotes, including the members of the LKM11 and A31 lineages in anaerobic sludge digesters, by CARD-FISH revealed their sizes in the range of 2-8 μm. The diverse and uncultured eukaryotes in the LKM11 and the A31 lineages are common and ecologically relevant members in anaerobic sludge digester.

  8. Supplementary measurements for air monitoring under NOVANA - Benzene and PAH; Supplerende maalinger til luftovervaagning under NOVANA - benzen og PAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellermann, T.; Klenoe Noejgaard, J.; Bossi, R.

    2011-10-15

    The report presents results from a project carried out for the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The aim of the project was to carry out several measuring campaigns in order to be able to better assess the monitoring needs for PAH and benzene in relation to EU's air quality directives. The results show that the mean concentrations of benzene are almost at the same level in Denmark's four largest cities, and that the concentrations are both below the threshold value (5mug/m3) as well as below the lower assessment threshold (2mug/m3). The report presents a method for objectively estimation the benzene concentration based on measurements of CO. The method can be applied to fulfil the monitoring need for benzene in those zones where no measurements of benzene are made. Measurements of PAH, especially benzo(a)pyrene, have been made during 12 months in the period 2010-2011 in an area with many wood burning furnaces are used (the town Jyllinge). The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in Jyllinge is almost three times higher than in the street H.C. Andersens Boulevard in Copenhagen. The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in Jylllinge are 0,6 ng/m3, which corresponds to the upper assessment threshold (0,6 ng/m3) and is 40% below the measuring value (1 ng/m3). On this basis, there is a need for re-evaluating the monitoring of PAH in the sub-programme for air under NOVANA. Measurements of PM{sub 10} showed that the levels in the towns Jyllinge, Lille Valby/Risoe and at the H.C. Oersted Institute in Copenhagen are all at about 20-22 mug/m3. (LN)

  9. Microbial-chemical indicator for anaerobic digester performance assessment in full-scale wastewater treatment plants for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversi, Deborah; Romanazzi, Valeria; Degan, Raffaella; Lorenzi, Eugenio; Carraro, Elisabetta; Gilli, Giorgio

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion was introduced into wastewater treatment plants several years ago, but anaerobic digestion performance has not yet been achieved. The variability of the microbial community in digesters is poorly understood, and despite the crucial role of anaerobic digestion reactors, the microbial equilibrium that yields the best performance in these reactors has only recently been hypothesised. In this study, two full-scale continuous anaerobic reactors, placed in Torino's main wastewater treatment plant in northern Italy, were followed to develop a summary indicator for measuring anaerobic digestion performance. A total of 100 sludge samples were collected. The samples were characterised chemically and physically, and microbial groups were quantified by qRT-PCR. A chemical biological performance index strictly correlated to specific biogas production (rho=0.739, panaerobic digestion in wastewater treatment plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of benzene release from Savannah River in-tank precipitation process slurry simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappe, K.G.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1998-08-01

    At the Savannah River Site, the in-tank precipitation (ITP) process uses sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) to precipitate radioactive cesium from alkaline wastes. During this process, potassium is also precipitated to form 4-wt% KTPB/CsTPB slurry. Residual NaTPB decomposes to form benzene, which is retained by the waste slurry. The retained benzene is also readily released from the waste during subsequent waste processing. While the release of benzene certainly poses flammability and toxicological safety concerns, the magnitude of the hazard depends on the rate of release. Currently, the mechanisms controlling the benzene release rates are not well understood, and predictive models for estimating benzene release rates are not available. The overall purpose of this study is to obtain quantitative measurements of benzene release rates from a series of ITP slurry simulants. This information will become a basis for developing a quantitative mechanistic model of benzene release rates. The transient benzene release rate was measured from the surface of various ITP slurry (solution) samples mixed with benzene. The benzene release rate was determined by continuously purging the headspace of a sealed sample vessel with an inert gas (nitrogen) and analyzing that purged headspace vapor for benzene every minute

  11. The state of benzene in TIP slurry using nuclear magnetic resonance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworjanyn, L.O.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements on In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) simulated potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) slurries at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have been completed. Most measurements were made on 4 wt percent KTPB slurry in 4 to 5 molar sodium salt solution. Liquid benzene was added volumetrically to the slurry in 25-mL vials and agitated to create a suspension. Earlier tests using dyed benzene showed that benzene remains suspended permanently in the slurry and the only visible change is overall slurry settling. Gentle vial agitation restores the original suspension state. To simulate in-situ uniformly dispersed benzene, benzene/KTPB samples were homogenized using a high speed rotor/stator biological homogenizer. Photomicrographs using homogenized samples containing dyed benzene showed no residual benzene droplets and fairly uniform coloration of the KTPB solids structure. All benzene concentration estimates are based on benzene addition since there is no available analytical method for benzene in slurry. Benzene losses could be significant, particularly at low concentrations and during homogenization

  12. The state of benzene in TIP slurry using nuclear magnetic resonance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dworjanyn, L.O.

    1997-11-14

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements on In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) simulated potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) slurries at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have been completed. Most measurements were made on 4 wt percent KTPB slurry in 4 to 5 molar sodium salt solution. Liquid benzene was added volumetrically to the slurry in 25-mL vials and agitated to create a suspension. Earlier tests using dyed benzene showed that benzene remains suspended permanently in the slurry and the only visible change is overall slurry settling. Gentle vial agitation restores the original suspension state. To simulate in-situ uniformly dispersed benzene, benzene/KTPB samples were homogenized using a high speed rotor/stator biological homogenizer. Photomicrographs using homogenized samples containing dyed benzene showed no residual benzene droplets and fairly uniform coloration of the KTPB solids structure. All benzene concentration estimates are based on benzene addition since there is no available analytical method for benzene in slurry. Benzene losses could be significant, particularly at low concentrations and during homogenization.

  13. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erşahin, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become

  14. Potential for anaerobic conversion of xenobiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Dolfing, J.; Haagensen, Frank

    2003-01-01

    This review covers the latest research on the anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic xenobiotic compounds, with emphasis on surfactants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalate esters, polychlorinated biphenyls, halogenated phenols, and pesticides. The versatility of anaerobic reactor systems...... regarding the treatment of xenobiotics is shown with the focus on the UASB reactor, but the applicability of other reactor designs for treatment of hazardous waste is also included. Bioaugmentation has proved to be a viable technique to enhance a specific activity in anaerobic reactors and recent research...

  15. Understanding and Predicting Foam in Anaerobic Digester

    OpenAIRE

    I. R. Kanu; T. J. Aspray; A. J. Adeloye

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the ambiguity and complexity surrounding anaerobic digester foaming, efforts have been made by various researchers to understand the process of anaerobic digester foaming so as to proffer a solution that can be universally applied rather than site specific. All attempts ranging from experimental analysis to comparative review of other process has not fully explained the conditions and process of foaming in anaerobic digester. Studying the current available ...

  16. Gene expression profile in bone marrow and hematopoietic stem cells in mice exposed to inhaled benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiola, Brenda; Fuller, Elizabeth S.; Wong, Victoria A.; Recio, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia are associated with benzene exposure. In mice, benzene induces chromosomal breaks as a primary mode of genotoxicity in the bone marrow (BM). Benzene-induced DNA lesions can lead to changes in hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that give rise to leukemic clones. To gain insight into the mechanism of benzene-induced leukemia, we investigated the DNA damage repair and response pathways in total bone marrow and bone marrow fractions enriched for HSC from male 129/SvJ mice exposed to benzene by inhalation. Mice exposed to 100 ppm benzene for 6 h per day, 5 days per week for 2 week showed significant hematotoxicity and genotoxicity compared to air-exposed control mice. Benzene exposure did not alter the level of apoptosis in BM or the percentage of HSC in BM. RNA isolated from total BM cells and the enriched HSC fractions from benzene-exposed and air-exposed mice was used for microarray analysis and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Interestingly, mRNA levels of DNA repair genes representing distinct repair pathways were largely unaffected by benzene exposure, whereas altered mRNA expression of various apoptosis, cell cycle, and growth control genes was observed in samples from benzene-exposed mice. Differences in gene expression profiles were observed between total BM and HSC. Notably, p21 mRNA was highly induced in BM but was not altered in HSC following benzene exposure. The gene expression pattern suggests that HSC isolated immediately following a 2 weeks exposure to 100 ppm benzene were not actively proliferating. Understanding the toxicogenomic profile of the specific target cell population involved in the development of benzene-associated diseases may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of benzene-induced leukemia and may identify important interindividual and tissue susceptibility factors

  17. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1991-06-01

    This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

  18. Mechanisms of free radical chemistry and biochemistry of benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, L.R.; Simic, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    o-Tyrosine (o-Tyr) was used as a specific biomarker for OH radicals generated in biosystems. Specificity of o-Tyr as an OH biomarker was based on previous studied in systems exposed to ionizing radiations. Fresh muscle tissue incubated with benzene for 1 hr at 38 degree C exhibits formation of o-Tyr as seen in the cases of ethanol- and carbon tetrachloride-exposed systems. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry selective ion monitoring measurements of o-Tyr yields in chicken breast muscle incubated with water or benzene indicate levels of less than 0.1 ppm and 3.0 ± 0.5 ppm of o-Tyr, respectively. Formation of OH is presumed to originate via a Haber-Weiss reaction of H 2 O 2 with Fe (II) preceded by the formation of O 2 and H 2 O 2 from distorted mitochondria

  19. 2-Phenylimidazolium hemi(benzene-1,3-dicarboxylate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yu Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C9H9N2+·0.5C8H4O4−·H2O, contains one 2-phenylimidazolium cation, half a benzene-1,3-dicarboxylate anion and one water molecule. In the crystal, components are connected by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions into a three-dimensional network.

  20. Synthesis of (+)-Pancratistatins via Catalytic Desymmetrization of Benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Lucas W; Pospech, Jola; Klöckner, Ulrich; Bingham, Tanner W; Sarlah, David

    2017-11-08

    A concise synthesis of (+)-pancratistatin and (+)-7-deoxypancratistatin from benzene using an enantioselective, dearomative carboamination strategy has been achieved. This approach, in combination with the judicious choice of subsequent olefin-type difunctionalization reactions, permits rapid and controlled access to a hexasubstituted core. Finally, minimal use of intermediary steps as well as direct, late stage C-7 hydroxylation provides both natural products in six and seven operations.

  1. Lithium Mediated Benzene Adsorption on Graphene and Graphene Nanoribbons

    OpenAIRE

    Krepel, Dana; Hod, Oded

    2013-01-01

    The anchoring of benzene molecules on lithium adsorption sites at the surface of graphene and nanoribbons thereof are investigated. The effects of adsorbate densities, specific adsorption locations, and spin states on the structural stability and electronic properties of the underlying graphene derivatives are revealed. At sufficiently high densities, bare lithium adsorption turns armchair graphene nanoribbons metallic and their zigzag counterparts half-metallic due to charge transfer from th...

  2. Amidine Sulfonamides and Benzene Sulfonamides: Synthesis and Their Biological Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Abdul Qadir; Mahmood Ahmed; Hina Aslam; Sadia Waseem; Muhammad Imtiaz Shafiq

    2015-01-01

    New amidine and benzene sulfonamide derivatives were developed and structures of the new products were confirmed by elemental and spectral analysis (FT-IR, ESI-MS, 1HNMR, and 13CNMR). In vitro, developed compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against medically important bacterial strains, namely, S. aureus, B. subtilis, and E. coli, and fungi, namely, A. flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. sp. The antibacterial and antifungal activities have been determined by me...

  3. Catalytic transformation of methyl benzenes over zeolite catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Khattaf, S.

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic transformation of three methyl benzenes (toluene, m-xylene, and 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene) has been investigated over ZSM-5, TNU-9, mordenite and SSZ-33 catalysts in a novel riser simulator at different operating conditions. Catalytic experiments were carried out in the temperature range of 300-400 °C to understand the transformation of these alkyl benzenes over large pore (mordenite and SSZ-33) in contrast to medium-pore (ZSM-5 and TNU-9) zeolite-based catalysts. The effect of reaction conditions on the isomerization to disproportionation product ratio, distribution of trimethylbenzene (TMB) isomers, and p-xylene/o-xylene ratios are reported. The sequence of reactivity of the three alkyl benzenes depends upon the pore structure of zeolites. The zeolite structure controls primarily the diffusion of reactants and products while the acidity of these zeolites is of a secondary importance. In the case of medium pore zeolites, the order of conversion was m-xylene > 1,2,4-TMB > toluene. Over large pore zeolites the order of reactivity was 1,2,4-TMB > m-xylene > toluene for SSZ-33 catalyst, and m-xylene ∼ 1,2,4-TMB > toluene over mordenite. Significant effect of pore size between ZSM-5 and TNU-9 was observed; although TNU-9 is also 3D 10-ring channel system, its slightly larger pores compared with ZSM-5 provide sufficient reaction space to behave like large-pore zeolites in transformation of aromatic hydrocarbons. We have also carried out kinetic studies for these reactions and activation energies for all three reactants over all zeolite catalysts under study have been calculated. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Assessment of anaerobic bacterial diversity and its effects on anaerobic system stability and the occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the link between anaerobic bacterial diversity and, the biodegradation of antibiotic combinations and assessed how amending antibiotic combination and increasing concentration of antibiotics in a stepwise fashion influences the development of resistance genes in anaerobic reactors. The biodegradation, sorption and occurrence of the known antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) of erythromycin and tetracycline were investigated using the processes of UV-HPLC and qPCR analysis respectively. Ion Torrent sequencing was used to detect microbial community changes in response to the addition of antibiotics. The overall results indicated that changes in the structure of a microbial community lead to changes in biodegradation capacity, sorption of antibiotics combinations and occurrence of ARGs. The enhanced biodegradation efficiency appeared to generate variations in the structure of the bacterial community. The results suggested that controlling the ultimate Gram-negative bacterial community, especially Acinetobacter-related populations, may promote the successful biodegradation of antibiotic combinations and reduce the occurrence of ARGs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adsorption Of Water And Benzene Vapour In Mesoporous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Taba

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous materials have attracted the attention of many researchers due to the potential applications promised by the materials. This article discusses adsorption of water and benzene vapour in mesoporous materials (mesoporous silica: MCM-41, MCM-48 and their modification. MCM-41 and MCM-48 were synthesized hydrothermally at 100 oC using cethyltrimethylammonium chloride or dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide for MCM-41 (C16 or MCM-41 (C12 respectively and a mixture of cethyltrimethylammonium bromide and Triton X-100 for MCM-48 as templates. Their modifications were conducted by silylation of MCM-41 (C16 and MCM-48 with trimethylchloro silane (MCM16-TMCS and MCM48-TMCS and t-butyldimethylchloro silane (MCM16-TBDMCS and MCM48-TBDMCS. Results showed that MCM-41 and MCM-48 materials had hydrophobic features which were shown in the small amount of water adsorption at low P/P0. The hydrophobicity of samples used in this study decrease in the sequence: MCM-41 (C16 > MCM-48 > MCM-41 (C12. The hydrophobicity increased when MCM-41 and MCM-48 were silylated with TMCS or TBDMCS. All unsilylated MCM materials show higher affinity to benzene at low P/P0 than the silylated samples. The results of water and benzene adsorption showed that silylated samples are promising candidates as selective adsorbents for organic compounds.

  6. Adsorption of Benzene by “Green” functionalization of Montmorillonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Hirra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of organically modified Montmorillonite (MMT clay to adsorb nonpolar organic compound (benzene in an aqueous solution, was investigated under the batch process. MMT was pretreated (centrifuged and then functionalized with green intercalating agent i.e. 1-hexyl-3-methyl imadazolium chloride [HMim][Cl]. The characterization through Fourir Transoform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM confirmed the presence of the oxygen containing functional groups, changes in melting point and variation in the morphological properties. The governing parameters for the sorption of benzene such as the effect of contact time, pH, adsorbent dose and rotation were studied. The kinetic data conformed to pseuodo 2nd order kinetic model and the isotherm experimental data were a better fit to Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 588.23mg/g under experimental conditions. Overall, MMT intercalated with 1-hexyl-3-methyl imadazolium chloride is a promising environmental friendly adsorbent for the abatement of benzene in an aqueous solution.

  7. STABILITY OF HEMOGLOBIN AND ALBUMIN ADDUCTS OF BENZENE OXIDE AND 1,4-BENZOQUINONE AFTER ADMINISTRATION OF BENZENE TO F344 RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stability of cysteinyl adducts of benzene oxide (BO) and mono-S-substituted cysteinyl adducts of 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ) was investigated in both hemoglobin (Hb) and albumin (Alb) following administration of a single oral dose of 400 mg [U-14C/13C6]benzene/kg body weight ...

  8. ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF A BIODEGRADABLE MATERIAL UNDER ANAEROBIC - THERMOPHILIC DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO CAMACHO-MUÑOZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper dertermined the anaerobic biodegradation of a polymer obtained by extrusion process of native cassava starch, polylactic acid and polycaprolactone. Initially a thermophilic - methanogenic inoculum was prepared from urban solid waste. The gas final methane concentration and medium’s pH reached values of 59,6% and 7,89 respectively. The assay assembly was carried out according ASTM D5511 standard. The biodegradation percent of used materials after 15 day of digestion were: 77,49%, 61,27%, 0,31% for cellulose, sample and polyethylene respectively. Due cellulose showed biodegradation levels higher than 70% it’s deduced that the inoculum conditions were appropriate. A biodegradation level of 61,27%, 59,35% of methane concentration in sample’s evolved gas and a medium’s finale pH of 7,71 in sample’s vessels, reveal the extruded polymer´s capacity to be anaerobically degraded under thermophilic- high solid concentration conditions.

  9. Processing anaerobic sludge for extended storage as anaerobic digester inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiajia; Zicari, Steven M; Cui, Zongjun; Zhang, Ruihong

    2014-08-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic sludge was processed to reduce the volume and moisture content in order to reduce costs for storing and transporting the sludge as microbial inoculum for anaerobic digester startup. The moisture content of the sludge was reduced from 98.7% to 82.0% via centrifugation and further to 71.5% via vacuum evaporation. The processed sludge was stored for 2 and 4 months and compared with the fresh sludge for the biogas and methane production using food waste and non-fat dry milk as substrates. It was found that fresh unprocessed sludge had the highest methane yield and the yields of both unprocessed and processed sludges decreased during storage by 1-34%, however processed sludges seemed to regain some activity after 4 months of storage as compared to samples stored for only 2 months. Maximum methane production rates obtained from modified Gompertz model application also increased between the 2-month and 4-month processed samples. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper mill wastewater and sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Torsten; Edwards, Elizabeth A

    2014-11-15

    Pulp and paper mills generate large amounts of waste organic matter that may be converted to renewable energy in form of methane. The anaerobic treatment of mill wastewater is widely accepted however, usually only applied to few selected streams. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates in full-scale reactors range between 30 and 90%, and methane yields are 0.30-0.40 m(3) kg(-1) COD removed. Highest COD removal rates are achieved with condensate streams from chemical pulping (75-90%) and paper mill effluents (60-80%). Numerous laboratory and pilot-scale studies have shown that, contrary to common perception, most other mill effluents are also to some extent anaerobically treatable. Even for difficult-to-digest streams such as bleaching effluents COD removal rates range between 15 and 90%, depending on the extent of dilution prior to anaerobic treatment, and the applied experimental setting. Co-digestion of different streams containing diverse substrate can level out and diminish toxicity, and may lead to a more robust microbial community. Furthermore, the microbial population has the ability to become acclimated and adapted to adverse conditions. Stress situations such as toxic shock loads or temporary organic overloading may be tolerated by an adapted community, whereas they could lead to process disturbance with an un-adapted community. Therefore, anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing elevated levels of inhibitors or toxicants should be initiated by an acclimation/adaptation period that can last between a few weeks and several months. In order to gain more insight into the underlying processes of microbial acclimation/adaptation and co-digestion, future research should focus on the relationship between wastewater composition, reactor operation and microbial community dynamics. The potential for engineering and managing the microbial resource is still largely untapped. Unlike in wastewater treatment, anaerobic digestion of mill biosludge (waste activated

  11. Current understandings and perspectives on non-cancer health effects of benzene: A global concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahadar, Haji; Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Benzene, as a volatile organic compound, is known as one of the main air pollutants in the environment. The aim of this review is to summarize all available evidences on non-cancerous health effects of benzene providing an overview of possible association of exposure to benzene with human chronic diseases, specially, in those regions of the world where benzene concentration is being poorly monitored. Methodology: A bibliographic search of scientific databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scirus was conducted with key words of “benzene toxic health effects”, “environmental volatile organic compounds”, “diabetes mellitus and environmental pollutants”, “breast cancer and environmental pollution”, “prevalence of lung cancer”, and “diabetes prevalence”. More than 300 peer reviewed papers were examined. Experimental and epidemiologic studies reporting health effects of benzene and volatile organic compounds were included in the study. Results: Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that benzene exposure can lead to numerous non-cancerous health effects associated with functional aberration of vital systems in the body like reproductive, immune, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, and respiratory. Conclusion: Chronic diseases have become a health burden of global dimension with special emphasis in regions with poor monitoring over contents of benzene in petrochemicals. Benzene is a well known carcinogen of blood and its components, but the concern of benzene exposure is more than carcinogenicity of blood components and should be evaluated in both epidemiologic and experimental studies. Aspect of interactions and mechanism of toxicity in relation to human general health problems especially endocrine disturbances with particular reference to diabetes, breast and lung cancers should be followed up. - Highlights: • Benzene is a volatile organic compound and established blood carcinogen. • Exposure to benzene needs to be

  12. Current understandings and perspectives on non-cancer health effects of benzene: A global concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadar, Haji [International Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mostafalou, Sara [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Objective: Benzene, as a volatile organic compound, is known as one of the main air pollutants in the environment. The aim of this review is to summarize all available evidences on non-cancerous health effects of benzene providing an overview of possible association of exposure to benzene with human chronic diseases, specially, in those regions of the world where benzene concentration is being poorly monitored. Methodology: A bibliographic search of scientific databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scirus was conducted with key words of “benzene toxic health effects”, “environmental volatile organic compounds”, “diabetes mellitus and environmental pollutants”, “breast cancer and environmental pollution”, “prevalence of lung cancer”, and “diabetes prevalence”. More than 300 peer reviewed papers were examined. Experimental and epidemiologic studies reporting health effects of benzene and volatile organic compounds were included in the study. Results: Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that benzene exposure can lead to numerous non-cancerous health effects associated with functional aberration of vital systems in the body like reproductive, immune, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, and respiratory. Conclusion: Chronic diseases have become a health burden of global dimension with special emphasis in regions with poor monitoring over contents of benzene in petrochemicals. Benzene is a well known carcinogen of blood and its components, but the concern of benzene exposure is more than carcinogenicity of blood components and should be evaluated in both epidemiologic and experimental studies. Aspect of interactions and mechanism of toxicity in relation to human general health problems especially endocrine disturbances with particular reference to diabetes, breast and lung cancers should be followed up. - Highlights: • Benzene is a volatile organic compound and established blood carcinogen. • Exposure to benzene needs to be

  13. Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA Application for Source Apportionment and Natural Attenuation Assessment of Chlorinated Benzenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Alberti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In light of the complex management of chlorobenzene (CB contaminated sites, at which a hydraulic barrier (HB for plumes containment is emplaced, compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA has been applied for source apportionment, for investigating the relation between the upgradient and downgradient of the HB, and to target potential CB biodegradation processes. The isotope signature of all the components potentially involved in the degradation processes has been expressed using the concentration-weighted average δ13C of CBs + benzene (δ13Csum. Upgradient of the HB, the average δ13Csum of −25.6‰ and −29.4‰ were measured for plumes within the eastern and western sectors, respectively. Similar values were observed for the potential sources, with δ13Csum values of −26.5‰ for contaminated soils and −29.8‰ for the processing water pipeline in the eastern and western sectors, respectively, allowing for apportioning of these potential sources to the respective contaminant plumes. For the downgradient of the HB, similar CB concentrations but enriched δ13Csum values between −24.5‰ and −25.9‰ were measured. Moreover, contaminated soils showed a similar δ13Csum signature of −24.5‰, thus suggesting that the plumes likely originate from past activities located in the downgradient of the HB. Within the industrial property, significant δ13C enrichments were measured for 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB, 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB, 1,3-DCB, and 1,4-DCBs, thus suggesting an important role for anaerobic biodegradation. Further degradation of monochlorobenzene (MCB and benzene was also demonstrated. CSIA was confirmed to be an effective approach for site characterization, revealing the proper functioning of the HB and demonstrating the important role of natural attenuation processes in reducing the contamination upgradient of the HB.

  14. Anaerobic biodegradation of fluoranthene under methanogenic conditions in presence of surface-active compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchedzhieva, Nadezhda; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus cereus isolated from municipal wastewater treatment plant was used as a model strain to assess the efficiency of two anionic surfactants, a chemical surfactant and a biosurfactant during fluoranthene biodegradation under anaerobic methanogenic conditions. The surfactants selected...... for the study were linear alkyl benzene sulphonates (LAS) and rhamnolipid-biosurfactant complex from Pseudomonas sp. PS-17. Biodegradation of fluoranthene was monitored by GC/MS for a period up to 12th day. No change in the fluoranthene concentration was registered after 7th day. The presence of LAS enhanced...... the cell growth as well as the fluoranthene biodegradation. The rhamnolipid-biosurfactant at both used concentrations inhibited the cell growth and had no effect on the biodegradation rate. It was shown that LAS did not affect the microbial cell permeability and its positive effect on fluoranthene...

  15. Cellulose fermentation by nitrogen-fixing anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canale-Parola, E.

    1992-12-13

    In anaerobic natural environments cellulose is degraded to methane, carbon dioxide and other products by the combined activities of many diverse microorganisms. We are simulating processes occurring in natural environments by constructing biologically-defined, stable, heterogeneous bacterial communities (consortia) that we use as in vitro systems for quantitative studies of cellulose degradation under conditions of combined nitrogen deprivation. These studies include the investigation of (i) metabolic interactions among members of cellulose-degrading microbial populations, and (ii) processes that regulate the activity or biosynthesis of cellulolytic enzymes. In addition, we are studying the sensory mechanisms that, in natural environments, may enable motile cellulolytic bacteria to migrate toward cellulose. This part of our work includes biochemical characterization of the cellobiose chemoreceptor of cellulolytic bacteria. Finally, an important aspect of our research is the investigation of the mechanisms by which multienzyme complexes of anaerobic bacteria catalyze the depolymerization of crystalline cellulose and of other plant cell wall polysacchaddes. The research will provide fundamental information on the physiology and ecology of cellulose-fermenting, N{sub 2}-fixing bacteria, and on the intricate processes involved in C and N cycling in anaerobic environments. Furthermore, the information will be valuable for the development of practical applications, such as the conversion of plant biomass (e.g., agricultural, forestry and municipal wastes) to automotive fuels such as ethanol.

  16. Microbial Ecology of Anaerobic Digesters: The Key Players of Anaerobiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ali Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is the method of wastes treatment aimed at a reduction of their hazardous effects on the biosphere. The mutualistic behavior of various anaerobic microorganisms results in the decomposition of complex organic substances into simple, chemically stabilized compounds, mainly methane and CO2. The conversions of complex organic compounds to CH4 and CO2 are possible due to the cooperation of four different groups of microorganisms, that is, fermentative, syntrophic, acetogenic, and methanogenic bacteria. Microbes adopt various pathways to evade from the unfavorable conditions in the anaerobic digester like competition between sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB and methane forming bacteria for the same substrate. Methanosarcina are able to use both acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic pathways for methane production. This review highlights the cellulosic microorganisms, structure of cellulose, inoculum to substrate ratio, and source of inoculum and its effect on methanogenesis. The molecular techniques such as DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis utilized for dynamic changes in microbial communities and FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization that deal with taxonomy and interaction and distribution of tropic groups used are also discussed.

  17. Microbial Ecology of Anaerobic Digesters: The Key Players of Anaerobiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Shah, Fayyaz; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Ahmad Asad, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is the method of wastes treatment aimed at a reduction of their hazardous effects on the biosphere. The mutualistic behavior of various anaerobic microorganisms results in the decomposition of complex organic substances into simple, chemically stabilized compounds, mainly methane and CO2. The conversions of complex organic compounds to CH4 and CO2 are possible due to the cooperation of four different groups of microorganisms, that is, fermentative, syntrophic, acetogenic, and methanogenic bacteria. Microbes adopt various pathways to evade from the unfavorable conditions in the anaerobic digester like competition between sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and methane forming bacteria for the same substrate. Methanosarcina are able to use both acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic pathways for methane production. This review highlights the cellulosic microorganisms, structure of cellulose, inoculum to substrate ratio, and source of inoculum and its effect on methanogenesis. The molecular techniques such as DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) utilized for dynamic changes in microbial communities and FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) that deal with taxonomy and interaction and distribution of tropic groups used are also discussed. PMID:24701142

  18. Method for anaerobic fermentation and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for biomass processing, anaerobic fermentation of the processed biomass, and the production biogas. In particular, the invention relates to a system and method for generating biogas from anaerobic fermentation of processed organic material that comprises...

  19. Anaerobic exercise - Induced changes in serum mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaerobic exercise, a non 02 – dependent energy metabolism leads to transient metabolic changes, which are corrected gradually by homestatic mechanism. We investigated in eight male subjects, the effects of anaerobic exercise after a day sedentary activity on serum mineral concentration. There was significant ...

  20. Integrated anaerobic and aerobic treatment of sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, K.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes results of investigations dealing with sequential concept of anaerobic-aerobic treatment of municipal wastewater. The main purposes of the study were 1) to develop a proper anaerobic hydrolytic pretreatment unit, consisting of a Hydrolysis Upflow Sludge Bed (HUSB-)

  1. Anaerobic induction in B. cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, van der M.; Abee, Tjakko

    2008-01-01

    A comparative transcriptome approach was used to assess genes involved in metabolism and pathogenesis that are specifically activated during anaerobic growth of the spore-forming food-borne human pathogen Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. Growth under anaerobic conditions in Brain Heart Infusion broth

  2. Utilization of alternative fuels and materials in cement kiln towards emissions of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes (BTEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muliane Ulfi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-processing in cement industry has benefits for energy conservation and waste recycling. Nevertheless, emissions of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylenes (BTEX tend to increase compared to a non co-processing kiln. A study was conducted in kiln feeding solid AFR (similar to municipal solid waste, MSW having production capacity 4600-ton clinker/day (max. 5000 ton/day and kiln feeding biomass having production capacity 7800-ton clinker/day (max. 8000 ton/day. The concentration of VOCs emissions tends to be higher at the raw mill on rather than the raw mill off. At the raw mill on, concentration of total volatile organic carbon (VOCs emission from cement kiln stack feeding Solid AFR 1, biomass, Solid AFR 2, and mixture of Solid AFR and biomass is 16.18 mg/Nm3, 16.15 mg/Nm3, 9.02 mg/Nm3, and 14.11 mg/Nm3 respectively. The utilization of biomass resulted in the lower fraction of benzene and the higher fraction of xylenes in the total VOCs emission. Operating conditions such as thermal substitution rate, preheater temperature, and kiln speed are also likely to affect BTEX emissions.

  3. Anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2003-01-01

    The long retention time of the active biomass in the high-rate anaerobic digesters is the key factor for the successful application of the high rate anaerobic wastewater treatment. The long solids retention time is achieved due to the specific reactor configuration and it is enhanced by the immob......The long retention time of the active biomass in the high-rate anaerobic digesters is the key factor for the successful application of the high rate anaerobic wastewater treatment. The long solids retention time is achieved due to the specific reactor configuration and it is enhanced...... by the immobilization of the biomass, which forms static biofilms, particle-supported biofilms, or granules depending on the reactor's operational conditions. The advantages of the high-rate anaerobic digestion over the conventional aerobic wastewater treatment methods has created a clear trend for the change...

  4. Anaerobic soil disinfestation and Brassica seed meal amendment alter soil microbiology and system resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassica seed meal amendments and anaerobic soil disinfestation control a spectrum of soil-borne plant pathogens via a diversity of mechanisms. Transformations in microbial community structure and function in certain instances were determinants of disease control and enhanced plant performance. Fo...

  5. How to use molecular biology tools for the study of the anaerobic digestion process?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabezas, Angela; Araujo, de Juliana Calabria; Callejas, Cecilia; Galès, Amandine; Hamelin, Jérôme; Marone, Antonella; Machado de Sousa, Diana; Trably, Eric; Etchebehere, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is used with success for the treatment of solid waste, urban and industrial effluents with a concomitant energy production. The process is robust and stable, but the complexity of the microbial community involved in the process is not yet fully comprehensive. Nowadays, the

  6. Anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactor and process for wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Amy, Gary

    2015-07-09

    An anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactor (AnEMBR) can include a vessel into which wastewater can be introduced, an anode electrode in the vessel suitable for supporting electrochemically active microorganisms (EAB, also can be referred to as anode reducing bacteria, exoelectrogens, or electricigens) that oxidize organic compounds in the wastewater, and a cathode membrane electrode in the vessel, which is configured to pass a treated liquid through the membrane while retaining the electrochemically active microorganisms and the hydrogenotrophic methanogens (for example, the key functional microbial communities, including EAB, methanogens and possible synergistic fermenters) in the vessel. The cathode membrane electrode can be suitable for catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction to generate hydro en.

  7. Benzene adsorption and hydrogenation on Pd-Ru alloy by pulse chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrokhotov, V.G.; Pavlova, L.F.; Gryaznov, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    Pulse chromatography has been applied to investigate benzene adsorption and hydrogenation on the Walls of a capillary of the Pd-6% Ru alloy at different hydrogen contents in the alloy and various methods of hydrogen supply: as a mixture with benzene vapors or by diffusion through the walls of the capillary. It is stated that reversible adsorption of benzene vapors on the Pd-6% Ru alloy at 303 K under the conditions of the β-phase existence in the alloy-hydrogen system does not change whereas in the region of the α-phase existence it slightly increases with a growth of hydrogen pressure. Strongly adsorbed benzene occupies approximately 7% of the surface. Only strongly adsorbed benzene is hydrogenated on the α-phase of the alloy-hydrogen system. Hydrogen supply to the hydrogenation zone by diffusion throUgh the alloy results in supersaturation of the surface active in the reaction of benzene hydrogenation with a chemisorbed hydrogen form

  8. Structural Degradation and Swelling of Lipid Bilayer under the Action of Benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinokov, Alexey; Ostroumov, Denis

    2015-12-03

    Benzene and other nonpolar organic solvents can accumulate in the lipid bilayer of cellular membranes. Their effect on the membrane structure and fluidity determines their toxic properties and antibiotic action of the organic solvents on the bacteria. We performed molecular dynamics simulations of the interaction of benzene with the dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer. An increase in the membrane surface area and fluidity was clearly detected. Changes in the acyl chain ordering, tilt angle, and overall bilayer thickness were, however, much less marked. The dependence of all computed quantities on the benzene content showed two regimes separated by the solubility limit of benzene in water. When the amount of benzene exceeded this point, a layer of almost pure benzene started to grow between the membrane leaflets. This process corresponds to the nucleation of a new phase and provides a molecular mechanism for the mechanical rupture of the bilayer under the action of nonpolar compounds.

  9. Stability, structural and electronic properties of benzene molecule adsorbed on free standing Au layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoch, Neha, E-mail: nehakatoch2@gmail.com; Kapoor, Pooja; Sharma, Munish; Ahluwalia, P. K. [Physics Department, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India 171005 (India); Kumar, Ashok [Center for Physical Sciences, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, India, 151001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    We report stability and electronic properties of benzene molecule adsorbed on the Au atomic layer within the framework of density function theory (DFT). Horizontal configuration of benzene on the top site of Au monolayer prefers energetically over other studied configurations. On the adsorption of benzene, the ballistic conductance of Au monolayer is found to decrease from 4G{sub 0} to 2G{sub 0} suggesting its applications for the fabrications of organic sensor devices based on the Au atomic layers.

  10. Assessing benzene-induced toxicity on wild type Euglena gracilis Z and its mutant strain SMZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Arthur, Dionne M; Sichani, Homa Teimouri; Xia, Qing; Ng, Jack C

    2013-11-01

    Benzene is a representative member of volatile organic compounds and has been widely used as an industrial solvent. Groundwater contamination of benzene may pose risks to human health and ecosystems. Detection of benzene in the groundwater using chemical analysis is expensive and time consuming. In addition, biological responses to environmental exposures are uninformative using such analysis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to employ a microorganism, Euglena gracilis (E. gracilis) as a putative model to monitor the contamination of benzene in groundwater. To this end, we examined the wild type of E. gracilis Z and its mutant form, SMZ in their growth rate, morphology, chlorophyll content, formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage in response to benzene exposure. The results showed that benzene inhibited cell growth in a dose response manner up to 48 h of exposure. SMZ showed a greater sensitivity compared to Z in response to benzene exposure. The difference was more evident at lower concentrations of benzene (0.005-5 μM) where growth inhibition occurred in SMZ but not in Z cells. We found that benzene induced morphological changes, formation of lipofuscin, and decreased chlorophyll content in Z strain in a dose response manner. No significant differences were found between the two strains in ROS formation and DNA damage by benzene at concentrations affecting cell growth. Based on these results, we conclude that E. gracilis cells were sensitive to benzene-induced toxicities for certain endpoints such as cell growth rate, morphological change, depletion of chlorophyll. Therefore, it is a potentially suitable model for monitoring the contamination of benzene and its effects in the groundwater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Halogenated benzenes, effect on xenobiotic metabolism and the toxicity of other chemicals. [Insecticides, rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    The insecticide EPN and six halogenated benzenes were administered orally to rats over a period of 14 days. The animals were killed 24 h after the last dose. Graphs are presented to show effects of halogenated benzene on EPN detoxification; liver to body weight ratio; and activities of benzpyrene hydroxylase, azoreductase, UDP glucuronyltransferase, and microsomal cytochrome c reductase. A significant enlargement of the liver was found. The results showed that the halogenated benzenes were capable of altering xenobiotic metabolism. (HLW)

  12. Determination of benzene in different food matrices by distillation and isotope dilution HS-GC/MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros Vinci, Raquel; Canfyn, Michael; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Schaetzen, Thibault de; Van Overmeire, Ilse; De Beer, Jacques; Van Loco, Joris

    2010-01-01

    Benzene is classified by the IARC as carcinogenic to humans. Several sources may contribute for the occurrence of benzene in foods, such as, environmental contamination and the reaction of benzoate salts with ascorbic acid (naturally present or added as food additives). Matrix effect on benzene recovery (e.g. in fatty foods) and artefactual benzene formation from benzoate during analysis in the presence of ascorbate are some of the challenges presented when determining benzene in a wide range of foodstuffs. Design of experiment (DOE) was used to determine the most important variables in benzene recovery from headspace GC/MS. Based on the results of the DOE, a versatile method for the extraction of benzene from all kind of food commodities was developed. The method which consisted of distillation and isotope dilution HS-GC/MS was in-house validated. Artefactual benzene was prevented by addition of a borate buffer solution (pH 11) under distillation conditions. The method presented in this study allows the use of a matrix-independent calibration with detection limits below the legal limit established by the European Council for benzene in drinking water (1 μg L -1 ).

  13. Low-dose metabolism of benzene in humans: science and obfuscation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Benzene is a ubiquitous air pollutant that causes human leukemia and hematotoxic effects. Although the mechanism by which benzene causes toxicity is unclear, metabolism is required. A series of articles by Kim et al. used air and biomonitoring data from workers in Tianjin, China, to investigate the dose-specific metabolism (DSM) of benzene over a wide range of air concentrations (0.03–88.9 p.p.m.). Kim et al. concluded that DSM of benzene is greatest at air concentrations benzene concentrations, Price et al. argued that Kim’s methods were inappropriate for assigning benzene exposures to low exposed subjects (based on measurements of urinary benzene) and for adjusting background levels of metabolites (based on median values from the 60 lowest exposed subjects). Price et al. then performed uncertainty analyses under alternative approaches, which led them to conclude that ‘… the Tianjin data appear to be too uncertain to support any conclusions …’ regarding the DSM of benzene. They also argued that the apparent low-dose metabolism of benzene could be explained by ‘lung clearance.’ In addressing these criticisms, we show that the methods and arguments presented by Price et al. are scientifically unsound and that their results are unreliable. PMID:23222815

  14. Benzene exposure and risk of lymphohaematopoietic cancers in 25 000 offshore oil industry workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenehjem, J S; Kjærheim, K; Bråtveit, M; Samuelsen, S O; Barone-Adesi, F; Rothman, N; Lan, Q; Grimsrud, T K

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this work was to examine the risk of lymphohaematopoietic (LH) cancer according to benzene exposure among offshore workers. Methods: Cancer registry data were used to identify 112 cancer cases diagnosed during 1999–2011 in a cohort of 24 917 Norwegian men reporting offshore work between 1965 and 1999. Analyses were conducted according to a stratified case–cohort design with a reference subcohort of 1661 workers. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for other benzene exposure and smoking. Results: Most workers were exposed to benzene for benzene exposure and risk for AML, MM, and suggestively for CLL. PMID:25867262

  15. Human hemoglobin structural and functional alterations and heme degradation upon interaction with benzene: A spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2016-03-15

    Here, the effect of benzene on hemoglobin structure, stability and heme prosthetic group integrity was studied by different methods. These included UV-vis absorption spectrophotometry, normal and synchronous fluorescence techniques, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Our results indicated that benzene has high hemolytic potential even at low concentrations. The UV-vis spectroscopic results demonstrated that benzene altered both the globin chain and the heme prosthetic group of hemoglobin increasing met- and deoxy-Hb, while decreasing oxy-Hb. However, with increasing benzene the concentration of all species decreased due to heme destruction. The spectrophotometric results show that benzene has a high potential for penetrating the hydrophobic pocket of hemoglobin. These results were consistent with the molecular docking simulation results of benzene-hHb. Aggregation and thermal denaturation studies show that the increased benzene concentration induced hemoglobin aggregation with a decrease in stability, which is consistent with the DSC results. Conventional fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the heme degradation species were produced in the presence of benzene. The results of constant wavelength synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (CWSFS) indicated that at least five heme-degraded species were produced. Together, our results indicated that benzene has adverse effects on hemoglobin structure and function, and heme degradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of personal air benzene and urine t,t-muconic acid as a benzene exposure surrogate during turnaround maintenance in petrochemical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Lee, Mi-Young; Chung, Eun-Kyo; Jang, Jae-Kil; Park, Dong-Uk

    2018-04-12

    Previous studies have shown that biomarkers of chemicals with long half-lives may be better surrogates of exposure for epidemiological analyses, leading to less attenuation of the exposure-disease association, than personal air samples. However, chemicals with short half-lives have shown inconsistent results. In the present study, we compared pairs of personal air benzene and its short-half-life urinary metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA), and predicted attenuation bias of theoretical exposure-disease association. Total 669 pairs of personal air benzene and urine t,t-MA samples were taken from 474 male workers during turnaround maintenance operations held in seven petrochemical plants. Maintenance jobs were classified into 13 groups. Variance components were calculated for personal air benzene and urine t, t-MA separately to estimate the attenuation of the theoretical exposure-disease association. Personal air benzene and urine t, t-MA showed similar attenuation of the theoretical exposure-disease association. Analyses for repeated measurements showed similar results, while in analyses for values above the limits of detection (LODs), urine t, t-MA showed less attenuation of the theoretical exposure-disease association than personal air benzene. Our findings suggest that there may be no significant difference in attenuation bias when personal air benzene or urine t,t-MA is used as a surrogate for benzene exposure.

  17. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to “slow rhythm music”, “fast rhythm music” or “no music”. 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN) tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music) was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p > 0.05). On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise. PMID:24744463

  18. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin Atan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to “slow rhythm music”, “fast rhythm music” or “no music”. 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p>0.05. On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise.

  19. Molecular ecology of anaerobic reactor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H. Jacob Peider; Zheng, D.; Westermann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic reactor systems are essential for the treatment of solid and liquid wastes and constitute a core facility in many waste treatment plants. Although much is known about the basic metabolism in different types of anaerobic reactors, little is known about the microbes responsible for these ......Anaerobic reactor systems are essential for the treatment of solid and liquid wastes and constitute a core facility in many waste treatment plants. Although much is known about the basic metabolism in different types of anaerobic reactors, little is known about the microbes responsible...... and malfunctions of anaerobic digesters occasionally experienced, leading to sub-optimal methane production and wastewater treatment. Using a variety of molecular techniques, we are able to determine which microorganisms are active, where they are active, and when they are active, but we still need to determine...... to the abundance of each microbe in anaerobic reactor systems by rRNA probing. This chapter focuses on various molecular techniques employed and problems encountered when elucidating the microbial ecology of anaerobic reactor systems. Methods such as quantitative dot blot/fluorescence in-situ probing using various...

  20. Assisted bioremediation tests on three natural soils contaminated with benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manuela Carvalho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is an attractive and useful method of remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons because it is simple to maintain, applicable in large areas, is economic and enables an effective destruction of the contaminant. Usually, the autochthone microorganisms have no ability to degrade these compounds, and otherwise, the contaminated sites have inappropriate environmental conditions for microorganism’s development. These problems can be overcome by assisted bioremediation (bioaugmentation and/or biostimulation. In this study the assisted bioremediation capacity on the rehabilitation of three natural sub-soils (granite, limestone and schist contaminated with benzene was evaluated. Two different types of assisted bioremediation were used: without and with ventilation (bioventing. The bioaugmentation was held by inoculating the soil with a consortium of microorganisms collected from the protection area of crude oil storage tanks in a refinery. In unventilated trials, biostimulation was accomplished by the addition of a nutrient mineral media, while in bioventing oxygen was also added. The tests were carried out at controlled temperature of 25 ºC in stainless steel columns where the moist soil contaminated with benzene (200 mg per kg of soil occupied about 40% of the column’s volume. The processes were daily monitored in discontinued mode. Benzene concentration in the gas phase was quantified by gas chromatography (GC-FID, oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations were monitored by respirometry. The results revealed that the three contaminated soils were remediated using both technologies, nevertheless, the bioventing showed faster rates. With this work it was proved that respirometric analysis is an appropriate instrument for monitoring the biological activity.

  1. Exposition by inhalation to the benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes (BTEX) in the air. Sources, measures and concentrations; Exposition par inhalation au benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene et xylenes (BTEX) dans l'air. Source, mesures et concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Gratta, F.; Durif, M.; Fagault, Y.; Zdanevitch, I

    2004-12-15

    This document presents the main techniques today available to characterize the benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylene (BTEX) concentrations in the air for different contexts: urban and rural areas or around industrial installations but also indoor and occupational area. It provides information to guide laboratories and research departments. A synthesis gives also the main emissions sources of these compounds as reference concentrations measured in different environments. (A.L.B.)

  2. trans-Dichloridobis(triphenylphosphane-κPpalladium(II benzene hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Meyer-Wegner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The title complex, [PdCl2(C18H15P2]·0.5C6H6, has the PdII ion in a square-planar coordination mode (r.m.s. deviation for Pd, P and Cl atoms = 0.024 Å with the PPh3 and Cl ligands mutually trans. The benzene solvent molecule is located about a crystallographic inversion centre. The title complex is isostructural with trans-dichloridobis(triphenylphosphanepalladium(II 1,4-dichlorobenzene sesquisolvate [Kitano et al. (1983. Acta Cryst. C39, 1015–1017].

  3. Subpicosecond pulse radiolysis in liquid methyl-substituted benzene derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Kazumasa [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)]. E-mail: kazu62@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kozawa, Takahiro [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Saeki, Akinori [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Yoshida, Yoichi [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Tagawa, Seiichi [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)]. E-mail: tagawa@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2007-05-15

    The early processes of radiation chemistry in the picosecond time region in methyl-substituted benzene derivatives have been investigated using subpicosecond pulse radiolysis. In o-xylene, a fairly slow geminate ion recombination was observed within 50 ps after the electron beam irradiation; this is due to the smaller electron mobility. The kinetic traces were analyzed using the Smoluchowski equation with exponential and modified-Gaussian (YGP) functions as the distribution of thermalized electrons. Only exponential functions well reproduced the experimental data within 50 ps after the electron pulse.

  4. Bis[diethyl(hydroxyammonium] benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Ming Xie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the centrosymmetric title compound, 2C4H12NO+·C8H4O42−, two N,N-diethyl(hydroxyammonium cations are linked to a benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate dianion by a combination of O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, which can be described in graph-set terminology as R22(7. The crystal structure is further stabilized by C—H...O hydrogen bonds, leading to the fomation of a ribbon-like network.

  5. The (p, ρ, T) of (methanol + benzene) and (methanol + ethylbenzene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naziev, Yashar M.; Shahverdiyev, Astan N.; Hasanov, Vaqif H.

    2005-01-01

    The (p, ρ, T) of methanol, ethylbenzene and (methanol + benzene) and (methanol + ethylbenzene) at temperatures between (290 and 500) K and pressures in the range (0.1 to 60) MPa have been measured with a magnetic suspension densimeter with an uncertainty of ±0.1%. Our measurements with methanol deviate from the literature values by less than 0.2%. The (p, ρ, T) measurements were fitted with experimental uncertainties by an empirical equation. The temperature and mole fraction dependence of the coefficients of the equation of state are presented

  6. Subpicosecond pulse radiolysis in liquid methyl-substituted benzene derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kazumasa; Kozawa, Takahiro; Saeki, Akinori; Yoshida, Yoichi; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2007-01-01

    The early processes of radiation chemistry in the picosecond time region in methyl-substituted benzene derivatives have been investigated using subpicosecond pulse radiolysis. In o-xylene, a fairly slow geminate ion recombination was observed within 50 ps after the electron beam irradiation; this is due to the smaller electron mobility. The kinetic traces were analyzed using the Smoluchowski equation with exponential and modified-Gaussian (YGP) functions as the distribution of thermalized electrons. Only exponential functions well reproduced the experimental data within 50 ps after the electron pulse

  7. Optimization of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for treatment of composite fermentation and distillation wastewater. ... Keywords: Composite wastewater, up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic biological treatment, biogas, granulated anaerobic sludge, industrial wastewater. African Journal of ...

  8. A simple anaerobic system for onsite treatment of domestic wastewater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among several anaerobic treatment processes, high rate anaerobic digesters receive great attention due to its high loading capacity and chemical oxygen demand removal rate. Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) is getting wide acceptance among several anaerobic processes. However, its application is still ...

  9. ISOLATION OF OBLIGATELY ANAEROBIC PSYCHROPHILIC BACTERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SINCLAIR, N A; STOKES, J L

    1964-03-01

    Sinclair, N. A. (Washington State University, Pullman), and J. L. Stokes. Isolation of obligately anaerobic psychrophilic bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 87:562-565. 1964.-A total of 11 strains of strictly anaerobic psychrophilic bacteria have been isolated from soil, mud, and sewage. The organisms grow well at 0 C in liquid and on solid media, and grow only in the complete absence of oxygen. On the basis of shape, sporulation, flagellation, and strictly anaerobic growth, all of the organisms were classified as strains of Clostridium. Some of the biochemical properties of the strains and the effect of temperature on growth are described.

  10. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Tirsgård, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady...... to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3...

  11. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Haagensen, Frank; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) found in wastewater is removed in the wastewater treatment facilities by sorption and aerobic biodegradation. The anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge has not been shown to contribute to the removal. The concentration of LAS based on dry matter typically...... increases during anaerobic stabilization due to transformation of easily degradable organic matter. Hence, LAS is regarded as resistant to biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. We present data from a lab-scale semi-continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) spiked with linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C...

  12. Accelerated anaerobic hydrolysis rates under a combination of intermittent aeration and anaerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T. R.; Lastra Milone, T.; Petersen, G.

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic hydrolysis in activated return sludge was investigated in laboratory scale experiments to find if intermittent aeration would accelerate anaerobic hydrolysis rates compared to anaerobic hydrolysis rates under strict anaerobic conditions. The intermittent reactors were set up in a 240 h...... for calculating hydrolysis rates based on soluble COD were compared. Two-way ANOVA with the Bonferroni post-test was performed in order to register any significant difference between reactors with intermittent aeration and strictly anaerobic conditions respectively. The experiment demonstrated a statistically...... significant difference in favor of the reactors with intermittent aeration showing a tendency towards accelerated anaerobic hydrolysis rates due to application of intermittent aeration. The conclusion of the work is thus that intermittent aeration applied in the activated return sludge process (ARP) can...

  13. [Geochemical characteristics of the carbonate constructions formed during microbial oxidation of methane under anaerobic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lein, A Iu; Ivanov, M V; Pimenov, N V; Gulin, M B

    2002-01-01

    The aragonite constructions of the Black Sea are formed in a stable anaerobic zone and are a perfect object to study the natural mechanism of anaerobic methane oxidation. The most probable pathway of methane oxidation is its methanogen-mediated reaction with bicarbonates, dissolved in seawater, with the formation of water and acetate, which is then consumed by other components of the anaerobic community. Comparison of the delta 13C values of carbonate minerals and organic matter once more demonstrated that the formation of the organic matter of biomass is accompanied by intense fractionation of carbon isotopes, as a result of which the total organic matter of biomass acquires an extremely light isotopic composition, characterized by delta 13C values as low as -83.8@1000.

  14. Application of next-generation sequencing methods for microbial monitoring of anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozan, Mahir; Akyol, Çağrı; Ince, Orhan; Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar

    2017-09-01

    The anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic wastes is considered an efficient method for managing the world's energy shortages and resolving contemporary environmental problems. However, the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass represents a barrier to maximizing biogas production. The purpose of this review is to examine the extent to which sequencing methods can be employed to monitor such biofuel conversion processes. From a microbial perspective, we present a detailed insight into anaerobic digesters that utilize lignocellulosic biomass and discuss some benefits and disadvantages associated with the microbial sequencing techniques that are typically applied. We further evaluate the extent to which a hybrid approach incorporating a variation of existing methods can be utilized to develop a more in-depth understanding of microbial communities. It is hoped that this deeper knowledge will enhance the reliability and extent of research findings with the end objective of improving the stability of anaerobic digesters that manage lignocellulosic biomass.

  15. Anaerobic nitrogen turnover by sinking diatom aggregates at varying ambient oxygen levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Kamp, Anja; Thamdrup, Bo

    2016-01-01

    In the world’s oceans, even relatively low oxygen levels inhibit anaerobic nitrogen cycling by free-living microbes. Sinking organic aggregates, however, might provide oxygen-depleted microbial hotspots in otherwise oxygenated surface waters. Here, we show that sinking diatom aggregates can host...... anaerobic nitrogen cycling at ambient oxygen levels well above the hypoxic threshold. Aggregates were produced from the ubiquitous diatom Skeletonema marinoi and the natural microbial community of seawater. Microsensor profiling through the center of sinking aggregates revealed internal anoxia at ambient 40......% air saturation (∼100 μmol O2 L-1) and below. Accordingly, anaerobic nitrate turnover inside the aggregates was evident within this range of ambient oxygen levels. In incubations with 15N-labeled nitrate, individual Skeletonema aggregates produced NO2- (up to 10.7 nmol N h-1 per aggregate), N2 (up to 7...

  16. Anaerobe Tolerance to Oxygen and the Potentials of Anaerobic and Aerobic Cocultures for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Kato

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic treatment processes are considered to be well-established methods for the elimination of easily biodegradable organic matter from wastewaters. Some difficulties concerning certain wastewaters are related to the possible presence of dissolved oxygen. The common belief is that anaerobes are oxygen intolerant. Therefore, the common practice is to use sequencing anaerobic and aerobic steps in separate tanks. Enhanced treatment by polishing off the residual biodegradable oxygen demand from effluents of anaerobic reactors, or the biodegradation of recalcitrant wastewater pollutants, usually requires sequenced anaerobic and aerobic bacteria activities. However, the combined activity of both bacteria can also be obtained in a single reactor. Previous experiments with either pure or mixed cultures showed that anaerobes can tolerate oxygen to a certain extent. The oxygen toxicity to methanogens in anaerobic sludges was quantified in batch experiments, as well as in anaerobic reactors. The results showed that methanogens have a high tolerance to oxygen. In practice, it was confirmed that dissolved oxygen does not constitute any detrimental effect on reactor treatment performance. This means that the coexistence of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in one single reactor is feasible and increases the potentials of new applications in wastewater treatment

  17. Direct Hydroxylation of Benzene to Phenol over TS-1 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuecheng Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized a TS-1 catalyst to directly hydroxylate benzene to phenol with H2O2 as oxidant and water as solvent. The samples were characterized by FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared, DR UV-Vis (Diffused Reflectance Ultraviolet Visible, XRD (X-ray diffraction, SEM(scanning electron microscope, TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope, XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ICP (inductively coupled plasma spectrum, and N2 adsorption-desorption. A desirable phenol yield of 39% with 72% selectivity was obtained under optimized conditions: 0.15 g (0.34 to the mass of benzene TS-1, 5.6 mmol C6H6, reaction time 45 min, 0.80 mL H2O2 (30%, 40.0 mL H2O, and reaction temperature 70 °C. The reuse of the TS-1 catalyst illustrated that the catalyst had a slight loss of activity resulting from slight Ti leaching from the first run and then kept stable. Almost all of the Ti species added in the preparation were successfully incorporated into the TS-1 framework, which were responsible for the good catalytic activity. Extraframework Ti species were not selective for hydroxylation.

  18. Bis(2-formylphenyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaaban K. Mohamed

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C22H14O6, consists of two independent molecules differing in the orientations of the ester groups. In one molecule, the two terminal benzene rings are inclined to the central benzene ring by 4.99 (13 and 77.46 (13°, while in the other the corresponding angles are 11.03 (13 and 88.09 (12°. In the crystal, molecules are connected into a ribbon structure running along [101] via C—H...O and C—H...π interactions. Adjacent ribbons are further linked by additional C—H...O and C—H...π interactions. The crystal studied was a non-merohedral twin [twin law (0.986 − 0.073 − 0.008, 0.323 1.036 0.148, −0.121 − 0.102 0.942], the ratio of components being 0.937 (4:0.063 (4.

  19. Computer simulations of homogeneous nucleation of benzene from the melt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manas; Santiso, Erik E; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2011-09-08

    Nucleation is the key step in crystallization by which the molecules (or atoms or ions) aggregate together, find the right relative orientations, and start to grow to form the final crystal structure. Since nucleation is an activated step involving a large gap in time scales between molecular motions and the nucleation event itself, nucleation must be studied using rare events methods. We employ a technique developed previously in our group known as aimless shooting [Peters, B.; Trout, B. L. J. Chem. Phys., 2006, 125, 054108], which is based on transition path sampling, to generate reactive trajectories between the disordered and ordered phases of benzene. Using the likelihood maximization algorithm, we analyze the aimless shooting trajectories to identify the key order parameters or collective variables to describe the reaction coordinate for the nucleation of benzene from the melt. We find that the local bond orientation and local relative orientation order parameters are the most important collective variables in describing the reaction coordinate for homogeneous nucleation from the melt, as compared to cluster size and space-averaged order parameters. This study also demonstrates the utility of recently developed order parameters for molecular crystals [Santiso, E. E.; Trout, B. L. J. Chem. Phys., 2011, 134, 064109].

  20. Irradiated Benzene Ice Provides Clues to Meteoritic Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael Patrick; Gerakines, Perry Alexander; Martin, Mildred G.; Hudson, Reggie L.; Peeters, Zan

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons account for a significant portion of the organic matter in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, as a component of both the low molecular weight, solvent-extractable compounds and the insoluble organic macromolecular material. Previous work has suggested that the aromatic compounds in carbonaceous chondrites may have originated in the radiation-processed icy mantles of interstellar dust grains. Here we report new studies of the organic residue made from benzene irradiated at 19 K by 0.8 MeV protons. Polyphenyls with up to four rings were unambiguously identified in the residue by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry was used to determine molecular composition, and accurate mass measurements suggested the presence of polyphenyls, partially hydrogenated polyphenyls, and other complex aromatic compounds. The profile of low molecular weight compounds in the residue compared well with extracts from the Murchison and Orgueil meteorites. These results are consistent with the possibility that solid phase radiation chemistry of benzene produced some of the complex aromatics found in meteorites.