WorldWideScience

Sample records for anaerobic bacteria regulation

  1. Oxygen regulated gene expression in facultatively anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unden, G; Becker, S; Bongaerts, J; Schirawski, J; Six, S

    1994-01-01

    In facultatively anaerobic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, oxygen and other electron acceptors fundamentally influence catabolic and anabolic pathways. E. coli is able to grow aerobically by respiration and in the absence of O2 by anaerobic respiration with nitrate, nitrite, fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide and trimethylamine N-oxide as acceptors or by fermentation. The expression of the various catabolic pathways occurs according to a hierarchy with 3 or 4 levels. Aerobic respiration at the highest level is followed by nitrate respiration (level 2), anaerobic respiration with the other acceptors (level 3) and fermentation. In other bacteria, different regulatory cascades with other underlying principles can be observed. Regulation of anabolism in response to O2 availability is important, too. It is caused by different requirements of cofactors or coenzymes in aerobic and anaerobic metabolism and by the requirement for different O2-independent biosynthetic routes under anoxia. The regulation mainly occurs at the transcriptional level. In E. coli, 4 global regulatory systems are known to be essential for the aerobic/anaerobic switch and the described hierarchy. A two-component sensor/regulator system comprising ArcB (sensor) and ArcA (transcriptional regulator) is responsible for regulation of aerobic metabolism. The FNR protein is a transcriptional sensor-regulator protein which regulates anaerobic respiratory genes in response to O2 availability. The gene activator FhlA regulates fermentative formate and hydrogen metabolism with formate as the inductor. ArcA/B and FNR directly respond to O2, FhlA indirectly by decreased levels of formate in the presence of O2. Regulation of nitrate/nitrite catabolism is effected by two 2-component sensor/regulator systems NarX(Q)/NarL(P) in response to nitrate/nitrite. Co-operation of the different regulatory systems at the target promoters which are in part under dual (or manifold) transcriptional control causes the expression

  2. Anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook I, Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 297. Stedman's Online ...

  3. Regulation of multiple carbon monoxide consumption pathways in anaerobic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Techtmann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO, well known as a toxic gas, is increasingly recognized as a key metabolite and signaling molecule. Microbial utilization of CO is quite common, evidenced by the rapid escalation in description of new species of CO-utilizing bacteria and archaea. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH, the protein complex that enables anaerobic CO utilization has been well-characterized from an increasing number of microorganisms, however the regulation of multiple CO-related gene clusters in single isolates remains unexplored. Many species are extroraordinarily resistant to high CO concentrations, thiriving under pure CO at more than one atmosphere. We hypothesized that, in strains that can grow exclusively on CO, both carbon acquisition via the CODH/Acetyl CoA synthase complex and energy conservation via a CODH-linked hydrogenase must be differentially regulated in response to the availability of CO. The CO-sensing transcriptional activator, CooA is present in most CO-oxidizing bacteria. Here we present a genomic and phylogenetic survey of CODH operons and cooA genes found in CooA-containing bacteria. Two distinct groups of CooA homologs were found: One clade (CooA-1 is found in the majority of CooA containing bacteria, whereas the other clade (CooA-2 is found only in genomes that encode multiple CODH clusters, suggesting that the CooA-2 might be important for cross-regulation of competing CODH operons. Recombinant CooA-1 and CooA-2 regulators from the prototypical CO-utilizing bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans were purified, and promoter binding analyses revealed that CooA-1 specifically regulates the hydrogenase-linked CODH, whereas CooA-2 is able to regulate both the hydrogenase-linked CODH and the CODH/ACS operons. These studies point to the ability of dual CooA homologs to partition CO into divergent CO-utilizing pathways resulting in efficient consumption of a single limiting growth substrate available across a wide range of

  4. O2-sensing and O2-dependent gene regulation in facultatively anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unden, G; Becker, S; Bongaerts, J; Holighaus, G; Schirawski, J; Six, S

    1995-08-01

    Availability of O2 is one of the most important regulatory signals in facultatively anaerobic bacteria. Various two- or one-component sensor/regulator systems control the expression of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in response to O2. Most of the sensor proteins contain heme or Fe as cofactors that interact with O2 either by binding or by a redox reaction. The ArcA/ArcB regulator of aerobic metabolism in Escherichia coli may use a different sensory mechanism. In two-component regulators, the sensor is located in the cytoplasmic membrane, whereas one-component regulators are located in the cytoplasm. Under most conditions, O2 can readily reach the cytoplasm and could provide the signal in the cytoplasm. The transcriptional regulator FNR of E. Coli controls the expression of many genes required for anaerobic metabolism in response to O2. Functional homologs of FNR are present in facultatively anaerobic Proteobacteria and presumably also in gram-positive bacteria. The target genes of FNR are mostly under multiple regulation by FNR and other regulators that respond to O2, nitrate, or glucose. FNR represents a 'one-component' sensor/regulator and contains Fe for signal perception. In response to O2 availability, FNR is converted reversibly from the aerobic (inactive) state to the anaerobic (active) state. Experiments suggest that the Fe cofactor is bound by four essential cysteine residues. The O2-triggered transformation between active and inactive FNR presumably is due to a redox reaction at the Fe cofactor, but other modes of interaction cannot be excluded. O2 seems to affect the site-specific DNA binding of FNR at target genes or the formation of an active transcriptional complex with RNA polymerase.

  5. Understanding how commensal obligate anaerobic bacteria regulate immune functions in the large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Eva; Anderson, Rachel C; Roy, Nicole C

    2014-12-24

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by trillions of commensal bacteria, most of which are obligate anaerobes residing in the large intestine. Appropriate bacterial colonisation is generally known to be critical for human health. In particular, the development and function of the immune system depends on microbial colonisation, and a regulated cross-talk between commensal bacteria, intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells is required to maintain mucosal immune homeostasis. This homeostasis is disturbed in various inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. Several in vitro and in vivo studies indicate a role for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides fragilis, Akkermansia muciniphila and segmented filamentous bacteria in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. These obligate anaerobes are abundant in the healthy intestine but reduced in several inflammatory diseases, suggesting an association with protective effects on human health. However, knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the effects of obligate anaerobic intestinal bacteria remains limited, in part due to the difficulty of co-culturing obligate anaerobes together with oxygen-requiring human epithelial cells. By using novel dual-environment co-culture models, it will be possible to investigate the effects of the unstudied majority of intestinal microorganisms on the human epithelia. This knowledge will provide opportunities for improving human health and reducing the risk of inflammatory diseases.

  6. One carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria: Regulation of carbon and electron flow during organic acid production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeikus, J.G.; Jain, M.

    1993-12-31

    The project deals with understanding the fundamental biochemical mechanisms that physiologically control and regulate carbon and electron flow in anaerobic chemosynthetic bacteria that couple metabolism of single carbon compounds and hydrogen to the production of organic acids (formic, acetic, butyric, and succinic) or methane. The authors compare the regulation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen metabolism by fermentation, enzyme, and electron carrier analysis using Butyribacterium methylotrophicum, Anaeroblospirillum succiniciproducens, Methanosarcina barkeri, and a newly isolated tri-culture composed of a syntrophic butyrate degrader strain IB, Methanosarcina mazei and Methanobacterium formicicum as model systems. To understand the regulation of hydrogen metabolism during butyrate production or acetate degradation, hydrogenase activity in B. methylotrophicum or M. barkeri is measured in relation to growth substrate and pH; hydrogenase is purified and characterized to investigate number of hydrogenases; their localization and functions; and, their sequences are determined. To understand the mechanism for catabolic CO{sub 2} fixation to succinate the PEP carboxykinase enzyme and gene of A. succiniciproducens are purified and characterized. Genetically engineered strains of Escherichia coli containing the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase gene are examined for their ability to produce succinate in high yield. To understand the mechanism of fatty acid degradation by syntrophic acetogens during mixed culture methanogenesis formate and hydrogen production are characterized by radio tracer studies. It is intended that these studies provide strategies to improve anaerobic fermentations used for the production of organic acids or methane and, new basic understanding on catabolic CO{sub 2} fixation mechanisms and on the function of hydrogenase in anaerobic bacteria.

  7. Anaerobic bacteria in otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulghum, R S; Daniel, H J; Yarborough, J G

    1977-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria, Peptostrepotococcus intermedius and Propionibacterium acnes, were found in mixed culture specimens from four to ten tested cases of chronic secretory otitis media. These anaerobic bacteria were in a mixed infection flora with aerobic bacteria most often Staphylococcus epidermidis and Cornybacterium sp. which do not fit any established species. The findings of anaerobic bacteria in otitis media is consistent with the sporadic report of the involvement of anaerobic bacteria in otitis media in the literature since 1898.

  8. Simple and convenient method for culturing anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Behbehani, M J; Jordan, H. V.; Santoro, D L

    1982-01-01

    A simple and convenient method for culturing anaerobic bacteria is described. Cultures can be grown in commercially available flasks normally used for preparation of sterile external solutions. A special disposable rubber flask closure maintains anaerobic conditions in the flask after autoclaving. Growth of a variety of anaerobic oral bacteria was comparable to that obtained after anaerobic incubation of broth cultures in Brewer Anaerobic Jars.

  9. Anaerobic bacteria, the colon and colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, W E

    1980-02-01

    Anaerobic bacteria constitute more than 90% of the bacteria in the colon. An anaerobic environment is needed to maintain their growth and the production of short-chain fatty acids by these bacteria from carbohydrates. Short-chain fatty acids are rapidly absorbed and essential for metabolic as well as functional welfare of the colonic mucosa. The importance of these acids in water absorption and in the patogenesis of colitis is discussed in relation to the concept of "energy deficiency diseases" of the colonic mucosa.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Audrey N

    2014-09-01

    Infections due to anaerobic bacteria can be severe and life-threatening. Susceptibility testing of anaerobes is not frequently performed in laboratories, but such testing is important to direct appropriate therapy. Anaerobic resistance is increasing globally, and resistance trends vary by geographic region. An overview of a variety of susceptibility testing methods for anaerobes is provided, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are reviewed. Specific clinical situations warranting anaerobic susceptibility testing are discussed.

  11. Cellulose fermentation by nitrogen-fixing anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canale-Parola, E.

    1992-12-13

    In anaerobic natural environments cellulose is degraded to methane, carbon dioxide and other products by the combined activities of many diverse microorganisms. We are simulating processes occurring in natural environments by constructing biologically-defined, stable, heterogeneous bacterial communities (consortia) that we use as in vitro systems for quantitative studies of cellulose degradation under conditions of combined nitrogen deprivation. These studies include the investigation of (i) metabolic interactions among members of cellulose-degrading microbial populations, and (ii) processes that regulate the activity or biosynthesis of cellulolytic enzymes. In addition, we are studying the sensory mechanisms that, in natural environments, may enable motile cellulolytic bacteria to migrate toward cellulose. This part of our work includes biochemical characterization of the cellobiose chemoreceptor of cellulolytic bacteria. Finally, an important aspect of our research is the investigation of the mechanisms by which multienzyme complexes of anaerobic bacteria catalyze the depolymerization of crystalline cellulose and of other plant cell wall polysacchaddes. The research will provide fundamental information on the physiology and ecology of cellulose-fermenting, N{sub 2}-fixing bacteria, and on the intricate processes involved in C and N cycling in anaerobic environments. Furthermore, the information will be valuable for the development of practical applications, such as the conversion of plant biomass (e.g., agricultural, forestry and municipal wastes) to automotive fuels such as ethanol.

  12. Metabolic interactions between methanogenic consortia and anaerobic respiring bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stams, A.J.; Oude Elferink, S.J.; Westermann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Most types of anaerobic respiration are able to outcompete methanogenic consortia for common substrates if the respective electron acceptors are present in sufficient amounts. Furthermore, several products or intermediate compounds formed by anaerobic respiring bacteria are toxic to methanogenic...... consortia. Despite the potentially adverse effects, only few inorganic electron acceptors potentially utilizable for anaerobic respiration have been investigated with respect to negative interactions in anaerobic digesters. In this chapter we review competitive and inhibitory interactions between anaerobic...... respiring populations and methanogenic consortia in bioreactors. Due to the few studies in anaerobic digesters, many of our discussions are based upon studies of defined cultures or natural ecosystems...

  13. [Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, José E; García-Sánchez, Enrique; García-García, María Inmaculada

    2014-02-01

    The anaerobic bacteria resistance to antibiotics is increasing, and even has appeared against the most active of those, like metronidazol and carbapenems. This fact forces to make and periodical sensibility tests -at least in the most aggressive and virulent species, in cases that they are isolated from life locations and in the absence of therapeutic response- to check the local sensibility and to establish suitable empiric therapies, all based on multicentric studies carried out in order to this or well to check the activity of new antibiotics. For the laboratory routine, the easiest sensibility method is the E-test/MIC evaluator. Another alternative is microdilution, that's only normalized for Bacteroides. There are preliminary facts that allow the use of disc diffusion method in some species of Bacteroides and Clostridium. For the temporal and multicentric studies, the procedure is dilution in agar plate, the reference method.

  14. Methane and hydrogen production by human intestinal anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, L F; Holbrook, W P; Eastwood, M A

    1982-06-01

    The gas above liquid cultures of a variety of human intestinal anaerobic bacteria was sampled and analysed by headspace gas chromatography. Hydrogen production was greatest with strains of the genus Clostridium, intermediate with anaerobic cocci and least with Bacteroides sp. Very few strains produced methane although small amounts were detected with one strain of B. thetaiotaomicron, C. perfringens and C. histolyticum. There may be a relationship between these anaerobic bacteria and several gastrointestinal disorders in which there is a build up of hydrogen or methane in the intestines.

  15. The identification of anaerobic bacteria using MALDI-TOF MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veloo, A. C. M.; Welling, G. W.; Degener, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption and Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has gained more and more popularity for the identification of bacteria. Several studies show that bacterial diagnosticis is being revolutionized by the application of MALDI-TOF MS. For anaerobic bacteria,

  16. Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-18

    We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

  17. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the occurrenc

  18. Anaerobic degradation of benzoate by sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, S.P.; Adorno, M.A.T.; Moraes, E.M.; Varesche, M.B.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Biological Processes Laboratory

    2004-07-01

    Anaerobic processes are an efficient way to degrade aromatic compounds in industrial wastewater, such as phenol, cresol and benzoate. This study characterized the bacteria that degrades benzoate, an anaerobic degradation intermediate of several complex aromatic compounds. In particular, the study assessed the capacity to use benzoate with sulfate reducing bacteria in mesophilic conditions. Biofilm from polyurethane foam matrices of a fixed bed reactor was used as the cellular inoculum to treat industrial wastewater containing organic peroxide. Dilution techniques were used to purify the material and obtain cultures of cocci. The benzoate consumption capacity in sulfidogenic conditions was observed when the purified inoculum was applied to batch reactors with different benzoate/sulfate relations. Results indicate that purification was positive to bacteria that can degrade aromatic compounds. Desulfococcus multivorans bacteria was identified following the physiologic and kinetic experiments. The 0.6 benzoate/sulfate relation was considered ideal for complete consumption of carbon and total use of sulfur. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Robust regulation of anaerobic digestion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailleret, L; Bernard, O; Steyer, J P

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling anaerobic digestion processes. A two-step (i.e. acidogenesis-methanization) mass balance model is considered for a 1 m3 fixed bed digester treating industrial wine distillery wastewater. The control law aims at regulating the organic pollution level while avoiding washout of biomass. To this end, a simple output feedback controller is considered which regulates a variable strongly related to the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Numerical simulations assuming noisy measurements first illustrate the robustness of this control procedure. Then, the regulating procedure is implemented on the considered anaerobic digestion process in order to validate and demonstrate its efficiency in real life experiments.

  20. Cultivation of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria from spacecraft-associated clean rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglmeier, Michaela; Wirth, Reinhard; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2009-06-01

    In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a significant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough oxygen for fully aerobic microbial growth. A broad assortment of anaerobic media was used in our cultivation strategies, which focused on microorganisms with special metabolic skills. The majority of the isolated strains grew on anaerobic, complex, nutrient-rich media. Autotrophic microorganisms or microbes capable of fixing nitrogen were also cultivated. A broad range of facultatively anaerobic bacteria was detected during this study and also, for the first time, some strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium and Propionibacterium) were isolated from spacecraft-associated clean rooms. The multiassay cultivation approach was the basis for the detection of several bacteria that had not been cultivated from these special environments before and also led to the discovery of two novel microbial species of Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus.

  1. A simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tage; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of a strict anaerobic atmosphere is essential for the culture of strict anaerobic bacteria. We describe a simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere, based on the measurement of the zone diameter around a 5-μg metronidazole disk when testing an aerotol...

  2. [Anaerobic bacteria 150 years after their discovery by Pasteur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, José Elías; García-Sánchez, Enrique; Martín-Del-Rey, Ángel; García-Merino, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    In 2011 we celebrated the 150th anniversary of the discovery of anaerobic bacteria by Louis Pasteur. The interest of the biomedical community on such bacteria is still maintained, and is particularly focused on Clostridium difficile. In the past few years important advances in taxonomy have been made due to the genetic, technological and computing developments. Thus, a significant number of new species related to human infections have been characterised, and some already known have been reclassified. At pathogenic level some specimens of anaerobic microflora, that had not been isolated from human infections, have been now isolated in some clinical conditions. There was emergence (or re-emergence) of some species and clinical conditions. Certain anaerobic bacteria have been associated with established infectious syndromes. The virulence of certain strains has increased, and some hypotheses on their participation in certain diseases have been given. In terms of diagnosis, the routine use of MALDI-TOF has led to a shortening of time and a cost reduction in the identification, with an improvement directly related to the improvement of data bases. The application of real-time PCR has been another major progress, and the sequencing of 16srRNA gene and others is currently a reality for several laboratories. Anaerobes have increased their resistance to antimicrobial agents, and the emergence of resistance to carbapenems and metronidazole, and multi-resistance is a current reality. In this situation, linezolid could be an effective alternative for Bacteroides. Fidaxomicin is the only anti-anaerobic agent introduced in the recent years, specifically for the diarrhoea caused by C.difficile. Moreover, some mathematical models have also been proposed in relation with this species.

  3. Anaerobic bacteria in the intestinal microbiota of Brazilian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarico, Silvia T; Santos, Florenza E; Brandt, Katia Galeão; Martinez, Marina B; Taddei, Carla R

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Changes in the neonatal gut environment allow for the colonization of the mucin layer and lumen by anaerobic bacteria. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Lactococcus colonization through the first year of life in a group of 12 Brazilian infants and to correlate these data with the levels of Escherichia coli. The presence of anaerobic members of the adult intestinal microbiota, including Eubacterium limosum and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, was also evaluated. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected during the first year of life, and 16S rRNA from anaerobic and facultative bacteria was detected by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Bifidobacterium was present at the highest levels at all of the studied time points, followed by E. coli and Lactobacillus. E. limosum was rarely detected, and F. prausnitzii was detected only in the samples from the latest time points. CONCLUSION: These results are consistent with reports throughout the world on the community structure of the intestinal microbiota in infants fed a milk diet. Our findings also provide evidence for the influence of the environment on intestinal colonization due to the high abundance of E. coli. The presence of important anaerobic genera was observed in Brazilian infants living at a low socioeconomic level, a result that has already been well established for infants living in developed countries.

  4. Enrichment culture of marine anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Yong-jie

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the enrichment of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria in the marine environment using sediment samples obtained from the East China Sea and discusses the nitrogen removal efficiency of marine anammox bioreactor. Enrichment of anammox bacteria with simultaneous removal of nitrite and ammonium ions was observed in the Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor under a total nitrogen loading rate of 0.37kg-N m-3day-1. In this study, The nitrogen removal efficiency was up to 80% and the molar-reaction ratio of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate was 1.0:1.22:0.22 which was a little different from a previously reported ratio of 1.0:1.32:0.26 in a freshwater system.

  5. Oxidation and methylation of dissolved elemental mercury by anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyan; Lin, Hui; Zheng, Wang; Tomanicek, Stephen J.; Johs, Alexander; Feng, Xinbin; Elias, Dwayne A.; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2013-09-01

    Methylmercury is a neurotoxin that poses significant health risks to humans. Some anaerobic sulphate- and iron-reducing bacteria can methylate oxidized forms of mercury, generating methylmercury. One strain of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulphuricans ND132) can also methylate elemental mercury. The prevalence of this trait among different bacterial strains and species remains unclear, however. Here, we compare the ability of two strains of the sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio and one strain of the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter to oxidize and methylate elemental mercury in a series of laboratory incubations. Experiments were carried out under dark, anaerobic conditions, in the presence of environmentally relevant concentrations of elemental mercury. We report differences in the ability of these organisms to oxidize and methylate elemental mercury. In line with recent findings, we show that D.desulphuricans ND132 can both oxidize and methylate elemental mercury. We find that the rate of methylation of elemental mercury is about one-third the rate of methylation of oxidized mercury. We also show that Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 can oxidize, but not methylate, elemental mercury. Geobacter sulphurreducens PCA is able to oxidize and methylate elemental mercury in the presence of cysteine. We suggest that the activity of methylating and non-methylating bacteria may together enhance the formation of methylmercury in anaerobic environments.

  6. Effect of anaerobic bovine colostrum fermentation on bacteria growth inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Helena Saalfeld

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Efficient handling programs that provide high quality colostrum in adequate amounts to dairy farm calves are needed to assure their health and survival. Replacers (or milk substitutes often become necessary when colostrum presents inadequate quality, or in order to break the cycle of infectious disease transmission. In this study we aimed to assess the effect of anaerobic fermentation processing (colostrum silage on bacterial that represent interest to animal health. Colostrum samples were inoculated with cultures of Brucella abortus , Escherichia coli , Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni , Mycobacterium bovis , Salmonella Enteritidis , Salmonella Typhimurium , Staphylococcus aureus , and Bacillus cereus and then subjected to anaerobic fermentation. On the first day, and every seven days until 30th days after fermentation, the samples were cultured and colony forming units counted. At seven days of fermentation, B. abortus , L. interrogans , and M. bovis were not detected. At 14th days of fermentation, E. coli , S. aureus , S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium were no longer detected. However, we were able to detect both lactic acid bacteria and B. cereus until 30th days of fermentation. From this study we suggested that anaerobic fermentation processing can inhibit important bacteria that cause economical losses for the cattle industry. The observations suggested that colostrum silage is a promising form to conserve bovine colostrum.

  7. Overcoming the hypoxic barrier to radiation therapy with anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettegowda, Chetan; Dang, Long H; Abrams, Ross; Huso, David L; Dillehay, Larry; Cheong, Ian; Agrawal, Nishant; Borzillary, Scott; McCaffery, J Michael; Watson, E Latice; Lin, Kuo-Shyan; Bunz, Fred; Baidoo, Kwamena; Pomper, Martin G; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Vogelstein, Bert; Zhou, Shibin

    2003-12-09

    The low level of oxygenation within tumors is a major cause of radiation treatment failures. We theorized that anaerobic bacteria that can selectively destroy the hypoxic regions of tumors would enhance the effects of radiation. To test this hypothesis, we used spores of Clostridium novyi-NT to treat transplanted tumors in mice. The bacteria were found to markedly improve the efficacy of radiotherapy in several of the mouse models tested. Enhancement was noted with external beam radiation derived from a Cs-137 source, systemic radioimmunotherapy with an I-131-conjugated monoclonal antibody, and a previously undescribed form of experimental brachytherapy using plaques loaded with I-125 seeds. C. novyi-NT spores added little toxicity to the radiotherapeutic regimens, and the combination resulted in long-term remissions in a significant fraction of animals.

  8. Effects of gamma ray and electron-beam irradiations on survival of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Michiko; Miyahara, Makoto [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    An extension of the approval for food irradiation is desired due to the increase in the incidence of food poisoning in the world. One anaerobic (Clostridium perfringens) and four facultatively anaerobic (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Enteritidis) bacteria irradiated with gamma ray or electron beam (E-beam) were tested in terms of survival on agar under packaging atmosphere. Using pouch pack, effects of two irradiations on survival of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria were evaluated comparatively. E-beam irradiation was more effective than gamma ray irradiation in decreasing the lethal dose 10% (D{sub 10}) value of B. cereus at 4 deg C, slightly more effective in that of E. coli O157, and similarly effective in that of the other three bacteria at 4 deg C. The gamma irradiation of the bacteria without incubation at 4 deg C before irradiation was more effective than that of the bacteria with incubation overnight at 4 deg C before irradiation in decreasing the D10 values of these bacteria (B. cereus, E. coli O157, and L. monocytogenes). Furthermore, ground beef patties inoculated with bacteria were irradiated with 1 kGy by E-beam (5 MeV) at 4 deg C. The inoculated bacteria in the 1-9 mm beef patties were killed by 1 kGy E-beam irradiation and some bacteria in more than 9 mm beef patties were not killed by the irradiation. (author)

  9. Biological hydrogen production by moderately thermophilic anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HP Goorissen; AJM Stams [Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University and Research centre Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    This study focuses on the biological production of hydrogen at moderate temperatures (65-75 C) by anaerobic bacteria. A survey was made to select the best (moderate) thermophiles for hydrogen production from cellulolytic biomass. From this survey we selected Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (a gram-positive bacterium) and Thermotoga elfii (a gram-negative bacterium) as potential candidates for biological hydrogen production on mixtures of C{sub 5}-C{sub 6} sugars. Xylose and glucose were used as model substrates to describe growth and hydrogen production from hydrolyzed biomass. Mixed substrate utilization in batch cultures revealed differences in the sequence of substrate consumption and in catabolites repression of the two microorganisms. The regulatory mechanisms of catabolites repression in these microorganisms are not known yet. (authors)

  10. Technique for preparation of anaerobic microbes: Rodshaped cellulolytic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlius Thalib

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of anaerobic-rod cellulolytic bacteria with coating technique has been conducted. Steps of the processes involved were cultivation, coating, evaporation, and drying. Coating agent used was Gum Arabic, and drying techniquesconducted were freeze drying and sun drying. pH of culture media was firstly optimized to obtain the maximal population ofbacteria. Both coated and uncoated preparates were subjected to drying. Morphological and Gram type identifications showed that uncoated preparate dried with freeze drying is not contaminated (ie. all bacteria are rod shape with Gram-negative type while the one dried with sun drying is not morphologically pure (ie. containing of both rod and coccus shapes with Gram negative and positive. The coated preparates dried by both freeze and sun drying, were not contaminated (ie. all are rods with Gram-negative. The coating and drying processes decreased viability of preparates significantly. However, the decreasing of viability of coated preparate are lower than uncoated preparate (ie. 89 vs. 97%. Total count of bacteria in sun-drying coated preparate are higher (P<0.05 than the uncoated preparate (ie. 3.38 x 1010 vs. 1.97 x 1010 colony/g DM. Activity of sun-drying coated preparate to digest elephant grass and rice straw was higher (P<0.01 than the sun-drying uncoated preparate with the in vitro DMD values were 42.7 vs. 35.5% for elephant grass substrate and 29.3 vs. 24.6% for rice straw substrate. Therefore, it is concluded that coating technique has a positive effects on the preparation of rumen bacteria.

  11. STUDY OF AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA

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    Satyanarayana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One hundred six patients with clinical diagnosis of CSOM were investigated bacteriologically using appropriate aerobic and anaerobic techniques. Positive cultures were obtained in 100 specimens. Aerobic bacteria alone were present in 51%, anaerobic bacteria alone in 10% and a combination of both in 34% of aural swabs . The anaerobes isolated were Bacteroides 30%, Peptostreptococci 26%, followed by others. Aerobic bacteriology showed the predominance of Pseudomonas 30.4% followed by Staphylococcus aureus 21.4%. Metronidazole was found to be most effective (87% drug aga inst anaerobes and Amikacin (98% against aerobes.

  12. Porphyromonas gingivalis as a Model Organism for Assessing Interaction of Anaerobic Bacteria with Host Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Christopher M; Lewis, Janina P

    2015-12-17

    Anaerobic bacteria far outnumber aerobes in many human niches such as the gut, mouth, and vagina. Furthermore, anaerobic infections are common and frequently of indigenous origin. The ability of some anaerobic pathogens to invade human cells gives them adaptive measures to escape innate immunity as well as to modulate host cell behavior. However, ensuring that the anaerobic bacteria are live during experimental investigation of the events may pose challenges. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram-negative anaerobe, is capable of invading a variety of eukaryotic non-phagocytic cells. This article outlines how to successfully culture and assess the ability of P. gingivalis to invade human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Two protocols were developed: one to measure bacteria that can successfully invade and survive within the host, and the other to visualize bacteria interacting with host cells. These techniques necessitate the use of an anaerobic chamber to supply P. gingivalis with an anaerobic environment for optimal growth. The first protocol is based on the antibiotic protection assay, which is largely used to study the invasion of host cells by bacteria. However, the antibiotic protection assay is limited; only intracellular bacteria that are culturable following antibiotic treatment and host cell lysis are measured. To assess all bacteria interacting with host cells, both live and dead, we developed a protocol that uses fluorescent microscopy to examine host-pathogen interaction. Bacteria are fluorescently labeled with 2',7'-Bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein acetoxymethyl ester (BCECF-AM) and used to infect eukaryotic cells under anaerobic conditions. Following fixing with paraformaldehyde and permeabilization with 0.2% Triton X-100, host cells are labeled with TRITC phalloidin and DAPI to label the cell cytoskeleton and nucleus, respectively. Multiple images taken at different focal points (Z-stack) are obtained for temporal

  13. Anaerobic degradation of benzene by marine sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musat, Florin; Wilkes, Heinz; Musat, Niculina; Kuypers, Marcel; Widdel, Friedrich

    2010-05-01

    Benzene, the archetypal aromatic hydrocarbon is a common constituent of crude oil and oil-refined products. As such, it can enter the biosphere through natural oil seeps or as a consequence of exploitation of fossil fuel reservoirs. Benzene is chemically very stable, due to the stabilizing aromatic electron system and to the lack of functional groups. Although the anaerobic degradation of benzene has been reported under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions, the microorganisms involved and the initial biochemical steps of degradation remain insufficiently understood. Using marine sediment from a Mediterranean lagoon a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with benzene as the sole organic substrate was obtained. Application of 16S rRNA gene-based methods showed that the enrichment was dominated (more than 85% of total cells) by a distinct phylotype affiliated with a clade of Deltaproteobacteria that include degraders of other aromatic hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, ethylbenzene and m-xylene. Using benzoate as a soluble substrate in agar dilution series, several pure cultures closely related to Desulfotignum spp. and Desulfosarcina spp. were isolated. None of these strains was able to utilize benzene as a substrate and hybridizations with specific oligonucleotide probes showed that they accounted for as much as 6% of the total cells. Incubations with 13C-labeled benzene followed by Halogen in situ Hybridization - Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (HISH-SIMS) analysis showed that cells of the dominant phylotype were highly enriched in 13C, while the accompanying bacteria had little or no 13C incorporation. These results demonstrate that the dominant phylotype was indeed the apparent benzene degrader. Dense-cell suspensions of the enrichment culture did not show metabolic activity toward added phenol or toluene, suggesting that benzene degradation did not proceed through anaerobic hydroxylation or methylation. Instead, benzoate was identified in

  14. Anaerobic bacteria in the gut of terrestrial isopod Crustacean Porcellio scaber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanjsek, R; Lapanje, A; Rupnik, M; Strus, J; Drobne, D; Avgustin, G

    2004-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria from Porcellio scaber hindgut were identified and, subsequently, isolated using molecular approach. Phylogenetic affiliation of bacteria associated with the hindgut wall was determined by analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences which were retrieved directly from washed hindguts of P. scaber. Sequences from bacteria related to obligate anaerobic bacteria from genera Bacteroides and Enterococcus were retrieved, as well as sequences from 'A1 subcluster' of the wall-less mollicutes. Bacteria from the genus Desulfotomaculum were isolated from gut wall and cultivated under anaerobic conditions. In contrast to previous reports which suggested the absence of anaerobic bacteria in the isopod digestive system due to short retention time of the food in the tube-like hindgut, frequent renewal of the gut cuticle during the moulting process, and unsuccessful attempts to isolate anaerobic bacteria from this environment our results indicate the presence of resident anaerobic bacteria in the gut of P. scaber, in spite of apparently unsuitable, i.e. predominantly oxic, conditions.

  15. Culturing aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and mammalian cells with a microfluidic differential oxygenator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Raymond H W; Kim, Min-Cheol; Thorsen, Todd

    2009-07-15

    In this manuscript, we report on the culture of anaerobic and aerobic species within a disposable multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device with an integrated differential oxygenator. A gas-filled microchannel network functioning as an oxygen-nitrogen mixer generates differential oxygen concentration. By controlling the relative flow rate of the oxygen and nitrogen input gases, the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in proximal microchannels filled with culture media are precisely regulated by molecular diffusion. Sensors consisting of an oxygen-sensitive dye embedded in the fluid channels permit dynamic fluorescence-based monitoring of the DO concentration using low-cost light-emitting diodes. To demonstrate the general utility of the platform for both aerobic and anaerobic culture, three bacteria with differential oxygen requirements (E. coli, A. viscosus, and F. nucleatum), as well as a model mammalian cell line (murine embryonic fibroblast cells (3T3)), were cultured. Growth characteristics of the selected species were analyzed as a function of eight discrete DO concentrations, ranging from 0 ppm (anaerobic) to 42 ppm (fully saturated).

  16. Nitrogen removal by autotrophic ammonium oxidizing bacteria enrichment under anaerobic conditions

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    Pongsak (Lek Noophan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Sludge from an anoxic tank at the centralized wastewater treatment plant, Nong Khaem, Bangkok, Thailand, was inoculatedin an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR. The optimal compositions and operating conditions of the stock of autotrophic ammonium oxidizing bacteria medium were determined. The process of oxidizing ammonium with bacteria under anaerobic conditions is often referred to as the Anammox process (NO2- to N2 gas, using NH4+ as the electron donor and NO2- as the electron acceptor. The startup period for the anammox culture took more than three months. With ammoniumand nitrite concentration ratios of 1:1.38 and 1:1.6, the nitrogen conversion rate zero order. Fluorescent in situ hybridization(FISH was used to identify specific autotrophic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomonas spp., Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans, and Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. Results from this work demonstrated a shift in the species of ammonium oxidizing bacteria from Nitrosomonas spp. to Candidati Brocadia anammoxidans and Kuenenia stuttgartiensis, with increased ammonium concentrations from 3 mM to 15 mM. Under NH4+:NO2- ratios of 1:1.38 and 1:1.6 the ammoniumoxidizing bacteria were able to remove both ammonium and nitrite simultaneously. The specific nitrogen removal rate of theanammox bacteria (Candidati Brocadia anammoxidans and Kuenenia stuttgartiensis was significantly higher than that of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomonas spp.. Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (Candidati Brocadia anammoxidans and Kuenenia stuttgartiensis are strict anaerobes.

  17. Anaerobic bacteria grow within Candida albicans biofilms and induce biofilm formation in suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Emily P; Cowley, Elise S; Nobile, Clarissa J; Hartooni, Nairi; Newman, Dianne K; Johnson, Alexander D

    2014-10-20

    The human microbiome contains diverse microorganisms, which share and compete for the same environmental niches. A major microbial growth form in the human body is the biofilm state, where tightly packed bacterial, archaeal, and fungal cells must cooperate and/or compete for resources in order to survive. We examined mixed biofilms composed of the major fungal species of the gut microbiome, Candida albicans, and each of five prevalent bacterial gastrointestinal inhabitants: Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis. We observed that biofilms formed by C. albicans provide a hypoxic microenvironment that supports the growth of two anaerobic bacteria, even when cultured in ambient oxic conditions that are normally toxic to the bacteria. We also found that coculture with bacteria in biofilms induces massive gene expression changes in C. albicans, including upregulation of WOR1, which encodes a transcription regulator that controls a phenotypic switch in C. albicans, from the "white" cell type to the "opaque" cell type. Finally, we observed that in suspension cultures, C. perfringens induces aggregation of C. albicans into "mini-biofilms," which allow C. perfringens cells to survive in a normally toxic environment. This work indicates that bacteria and C. albicans interactions modulate the local chemistry of their environment in multiple ways to create niches favorable to their growth and survival.

  18. Metabolism of Hydrocarbons in n-Alkane-Utilizing Anaerobic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Heinz; Buckel, Wolfgang; Golding, Bernard T; Rabus, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The glycyl radical enzyme-catalyzed addition of n-alkanes to fumarate creates a C-C-bond between two concomitantly formed stereogenic carbon centers. The configurations of the two diastereoisomers of the product resulting from n-hexane activation by the n-alkane-utilizing denitrifying bacterium strain HxN1, i.e. (1-methylpentyl)succinate, were assigned as (2S,1'R) and (2R,1'R). Experiments with stereospecifically deuterated n-(2,5-2H2)hexanes revealed that exclusively the pro-S hydrogen atom is abstracted from C2 of the n-alkane by the enzyme and later transferred back to C3 of the alkylsuccinate formed. These results indicate that the alkylsuccinate-forming reaction proceeds with an inversion of configuration at the carbon atom (C2) of the n-alkane forming the new C-C-bond, and thus stereochemically resembles a SN2-type reaction. Therefore, the reaction may occur in a concerted manner, which may avoid the highly energetic hex-2-yl radical as an intermediate. The reaction is associated with a significant primary kinetic isotope effect (kH/kD ≥3) for hydrogen, indicating that the homolytic C-H-bond cleavage is involved in the first irreversible step of the reaction mechanism. The (1-methylalkyl)succinate synthases of n-alkane-utilizing anaerobic bacteria apparently have very broad substrate ranges enabling them to activate not only aliphatic but also alkyl-aromatic hydrocarbons. Thus, two denitrifiers and one sulfate reducer were shown to convert the nongrowth substrate toluene to benzylsuccinate and further to the dead-end product benzoyl-CoA. For this purpose, however, the modified β-oxidation pathway known from alkylbenzene-utilizing bacteria was not employed, but rather the pathway used for n-alkane degradation involving CoA ligation, carbon skeleton rearrangement and decarboxylation. Furthermore, various n-alkane- and alkylbenzene-utilizing denitrifiers and sulfate reducers were found to be capable of forming benzyl alcohols from diverse alkylbenzenes

  19. DIRECT FLOW-CYTOMETRY OF ANAEROBIC-BACTERIA IN HUMAN FECES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERWAAIJ, LA; MESANDER, G; LIMBURG, PC; VANDERWAAIJ, D

    1994-01-01

    We describe a flow cytometry method for analysis of noncultured anaerobic bacteria present in human fecal suspensions. Nonbacterial fecal compounds, bacterial fragments, and large aggregates could be discriminated from bacteria by staining with propidium iodide (PI) and setting a discriminator on PI

  20. Anaerobic facultative bacteria isolated from the gut of rabbits fed different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canganella, F; Zirletta, G; Gualterio, L; Massa, S; Trovatelli, L D

    1992-11-01

    Anaerobic facultative bacteria colonizing the intestinal tract of conventional rabbits fed three different diets (standard pellet, hay and pellet/hay mixture) were enumerated in brain heart infusion agar. Colony counts recovered from homogenized samples of small intestine, caecum and rectum differed with reference to the diet given. Among anaerobic groups, identified from rabbit fed pellet/hay mixture, Enterococci (E. faecalis, E. avium, E. faecium and E. durans) represented the predominant flora. Enterobacters (E. cloacae and E. aerogenes) accounted for about 10 to 25% of the bacteria in the rectum and colon respectively, whereas Staphylococci (S. intermedius, S. epidermidis and S. lentus) represented 11% of the bacteria isolated from colon.

  1. EVALUATION OF THE TEA TREE OIL ACTIVITY TO ANAEROBIC BACTERIA--IN VITRO STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska-Klinkosz, Marta; Kedzia, Anna; Meissner, Hhenry O; Kedzia, Andrzej W

    2016-01-01

    The study of the sensitivity to tea tree oil (Australian Company TTD International Pty. Ltd. Sydney) was carried out on 193 strains of anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients with various infections within the oral cavity and respiratory tracts. The susceptibility (MIC) of anaerobes was determined by means of plate dilution technique in Brucella agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated sheep blood, menadione and hemin. Inoculum contained 10(5) CFU per spot was cultured with Steers replicator upon the surface of agar with various tea tree oil concentrations or without oil (anaerobes growth control). Incubation the plates was performed in anaerobic jars under anaerobic conditions at 37 degrees C for 48 h. MIC was defined as the lowest concentrations of the essential oil completely inhibiting growth of anaerobic bacteria. Test results indicate, that among Gram-negative bacteria the most sensitive to essential oil were strains of Veillonella and Porphyromonas species. Essential oil in low concentrations (MIC in the range of = 0.12 - 0.5 mg/mL) inhibited growth of accordingly 80% and 68% strains. The least sensitive were strains of the genus Tannerella, Parabacteroides and Dialister (MIC 1.0 - 2.0 mg/mL). In the case of Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria the tea tree oil was the most active to strains of cocci of the genus Anaerococcus and Ruminococcus (MIC in range = 0.12 - 0.5 mg/mL) or strains of rods of the genus Eubacterium and Eggerthella (MIC = 0.25 mg/mL). Among Gram-positive rods the least sensitive were the strains of the genus Bifidobacterium ( MIC = 2.0 mg/mL). The tea tree oil was more active to Gram-positive than to Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria.

  2. New techniques for growing anaerobic bacteria: Experiments with Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium acetobutylicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, H.I.; Crow, W.D.; Hadden, C.T.; Hall, J.; Machanoff, R.

    1983-01-01

    Stable membrane fragments derived from Escherichia coli produce and maintain strict anaerobic conditions when added to liquid or solid bacteriological media. Techniques for growing Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium acetobutylicum in membrane containing media are described. Liquid cultures initiated by very small inocula can be grown in direct contact with air. In solid media, colonies develop rapidly from individual cells even without incubation in anaerobic jars or similar devices. Observations on growth rates, spontaneous mutations, radiation and oxygen sensitivity of anaerobic bacteria have been made using these new techniques.

  3. Mastoiditis and Gradenigo’s Syndrome with anaerobic bacteria

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    Jacobsen Chris

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gradenigo’s syndrome is a rare disease, which is characterized by the triad of the following conditions: suppurative otitis media, pain in the distribution of the first and the second division of trigeminal nerve, and abducens nerve palsy. The full triad may often not be present, but can develop if the condition is not treated correctly. Case presentation We report a case of a 3-year-old girl, who presented with fever and left-sided acute otitis media. She developed acute mastoiditis, which was initially treated by intravenous antibiotics, ventilation tube insertion and cortical mastoidectomy. After 6 days the clinical picture was complicated by development of left-sided abducens palsy. MRI-scanning showed osteomyelitis within the petro-mastoid complex, and a hyper intense signal of the adjacent meninges. Microbiological investigations showed Staphylococcus aureus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. She was treated successfully with intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy with anaerobic coverage. After 8 weeks of follow-up there was no sign of recurrent infection or abducens palsy. Conclusion Gradenigo’s syndrome is a rare, but life-threatening complication to middle ear infection. It is most commonly caused by aerobic microorganisms, but anaerobic microorganisms may also be found why anaerobic coverage should be considered when determining the antibiotic treatment.

  4. Anaerobic carboxydotrophic bacteria in geothermal springs identified using stable isotope probing

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    Allyson Lee Brady

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a potential energy and carbon source for thermophilic bacteria in geothermal environments. Geothermal sites ranging in temperature from 45–65°C were investigated for the presence and activity of anaerobic CO-oxidizing bacteria. Anaerobic CO oxidation potentials were measured at up to 48.9 µmoles CO day-1 g (wet weight-1 within 5 selected sites. Active anaerobic carboxydotrophic bacteria were identified using 13CO DNA stable isotope probing (SIP combined with pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified from labeled DNA. Bacterial communities identified in heavy DNA fractions were predominated by Firmicutes, which comprised up to 95% of all sequences in 13CO incubations. The predominant bacteria that assimilated 13C derived from CO were closely related (>98% to genera of known carboxydotrophs including Thermincola, Desulfotomaculum, Thermolithobacter and Carboxydocella, although a few species with lower similarity to known bacteria were also found that may represent previously unconfirmed CO-oxidizers. While the distribution was variable, many of the same OTUs were identified across sample sites from different temperature regimes. These results show that bacteria capable of using CO as a carbon source are common in geothermal springs, and that thermophilic carboxydotrophs are probably already quite well known from cultivation studies.

  5. STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEPTH OF PERIODONTAL POCKETS, ANAEROBIC BACTERIA AND INFLAMMATORY CELLS IN PERIODONTITIS

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    P. Owlia

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study 100 cases of advanced periodontitis were compared with a control group of 100 persons. The parameters were the depth of the periodontal pockets, radiographic images, presence of inflammatory cells and different types of anaerobic bacteria in the pockets. The depth of pocket was measured by a sterile probe and the presence of inflammatory cells was determined through sterile curettage. The smears were stained by Gimsa and Gram methods. For the purpose of microbiological studies, subgingival plaque samples were taken on paper points and were plated on brucella agar medium supplemented with rabbit blood, haemin and vitamin K1. The results indicated that with increasing depth of the pocket, the number of mixed anaerobic infections increases, and the presence of inflammatory cells especially polymorphonuclears is more prominent in comparison to the control group. As the pocket depth increases the conditions become more favourable for anaerobic bacteria and in consequence the incidence of isolation of these bacteria increases. On the other hand as the number of anaerobic bacteria and inflammatory cells and the secretion of destructive enzymes increases, the resultant injury to periodontal tissue increases.

  6. Immobilization of anaerobic bacteria on rubberized-coir for psychrophilic digestion of night soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaked, Ram Kumar; Ramana, Karna Venkat; Tomar, Arvind; Waghmare, Chandrakant; Kamboj, Dev Vrat; Singh, Lokendra

    2005-08-01

    Low-ambient temperatures, biodigesters due to low-growth rate of the constituent bacterial consortium. Immobilization of anaerobic bacteria has been attempted in the biodigester operating at 10 degrees C. Various matrices were screened and evaluated for the immobilization of bacteria in digesters. Anaerobic digestion of night soil was carried out with hydraulic retention time in the range of 9-18 days. Among the tested matrices, rubberized-coir was found to be the most useful at 10 degrees C with optimum hydraulic retention time of 15 days. Optimum amount of coir was found as 25 g/L of the working volume of biodigesters. Immobilization of bacteria on the coir was observed by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent microscopy. The study indicates that rubberized-coir can be utilized to increase biodegradation of night soil at higher organic loading. Another advantage of using this matrix is that it is renewable and easily available in comparison to other synthetic polymeric matrices.

  7. Binary Interactions of Antagonistic Bacteria with Candida albicans Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benadé, Eliska; Stone, Wendy; Mouton, Marnel; Postma, Ferdinand; Wilsenach, Jac; Botha, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    We used both aerobic and anaerobic liquid co-cultures, prepared with Luria Bertani broth, to study the effect of bacteria on the survival of Candida albicans in the external environment, away from an animal host. The bacteria were represented by Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Kluyvera ascorbata and Serratia marcescens. Under aerobic conditions, the yeast's growth was inhibited in the presence of bacterial growth; however, under anaerobic conditions, yeast and bacterial growth in co-cultures was similar to that observed for pure cultures. Subsequent assays revealed that the majority of bacterial strains aerobically produced extracellular hydrolytic enzymes capable of yeast cell wall hydrolysis, including chitinases and mannan-degrading enzymes. In contrast, except for the A. hydrophila strain, these enzymes were not detected in anaerobic bacterial cultures, nor was the antimicrobial compound prodigiosin found in anaerobic cultures of S. marcescens. When we suspended C. albicans cells in crude extracellular enzyme preparations from K. pneumoniae and S. marcescens, we detected no negative effect on yeast viability. However, we found that these preparations enhance the toxicity of prodigiosin towards the yeast, especially in combination with mannan-degrading enzymes. Analyses of the chitin and mannan content of yeast cell walls revealed that less chitin was produced under anaerobic than aerobic conditions; however, the levels of mannan, known for its low permeability, remained the same. The latter phenomenon, as well as reduced production of the bacterial enzymes and prodigiosin, may contribute to anaerobic growth and survival of C. albicans in the presence of bacteria.

  8. Electron transfer in syntrophic communities of anaerobic bacteria and archaea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Plugge, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Interspecies electron transfer is a key process in methanogenic and sulphate-reducing environments. Bacteria and archaea that live in syntrophic communities take advantage of the metabolic abilities of their syntrophic partner to overcome energy barriers and break down compounds that they cannot dig

  9. Bacteremia due to anaerobic bacteria: epidemiology in a northern Bari Hospital, Italy

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    Maria Antonietta Distasi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anaerobic bacteria are part of the commensal bacterial flora of skin and mucosae. Iatrogenic and pathological conditions altering this commensal relationship cause life-threatening diseases. Materials and Methods. We analysed the blood cultures sent to the microbiology of our hospital between 2008 and the first quarter of 2013 to measure the frequency of bacteraemia caused by anaerobia. We examined 3138 vials of blood cultures for anaerobia, inoculated following in-house standard procedures. The colonies grown in absence of air were subjected to biochemical analysis. The MICs of metronidazole for 23 of the 26 organisms was tested. Results. Twelve bacteria of the Bacteroides genus were identified, 9 Propionibacterium acnes, 1 Peptosctreptococcus micros, 1 Lactobacillus acidophilus, 1 Clostridium perfringens, 1 Prevotella oralis, 1 Eubacterium lentum. Conclusions. The analysis of the results suggests that the incidence of cultures positive to anaerobia was constant across the years. We note that advanced age, altered mucocutaneous tropism, alterations to the oral and intestinal bacterial flora intensify the risk of anaerobial pathogenicity. The analysis of the metronidazole-determined MIC suggests that the intestinal anaerobic flora responds well to therapy and prophylaxis with Metronidazole, while the anaerobic bacteria residing on skin and other mucosae are resistant. It is however hard to determine the clinical impact of anaerobic bacteremiae and their effect on the outcome of the patient, due to the scarcity of available clinical data.

  10. A review on regulation methods of nitrite oxidizing bacteria in one-stage anaerobic ammonia oxidation process%一段式厌氧氨氧化工艺亚硝酸盐氧化菌抑制方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽; 殷紫; 尹志轩; 王悦超; 周琪

    2016-01-01

    近年来,厌氧氨氧化工艺(anaerobic ammonium oxidation, Anammox)作为一种新型的脱氮技术,由于其耗能少、效率高而被应用于高氨氮废水的处理中。然而,实际运行的厌氧氨氧化工程中有时会出现亚硝酸盐氧化菌(nitrite oxidizing bacteria, NOB)大量繁殖的情况,导致硝酸盐积累,脱氮效率下降。在一段式 Anammox 反应器中,通过控制某些影响因素,如调节体系中的溶解氧,控制游离氨和游离亚硝酸的浓度,调控碳源浓度以及外加中间产物(N2H4、NO 和 NH2OH)等方式,能够在维持 Anammox 工艺脱氮效率的同时有效抑制 NOB。除了系统地综述一段式 Anammox 工艺中 NOB 抑制手段以外,将进一步讨论实际 Anammox 工程应用中抑制 NOB 大量繁殖行之有效的手段。%In recent years,anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox), a new technology for nitrogen removal, has been used in the treatment of high-strength ammonia wastewater due to its low energy consumption and high treatment efficiency. Whereas, the accumulation of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) often occurs in full-scale Anammox process, leading to the accumulation of nitrate and deterioration of nitrogen removal effectiveness. In two-stage Anammox processes, NOB accumulation often occurs in partial nitritation stage, the inhibition of which has been discussed in details. While in one-stage Anammox process, NOB accumulation is more common and fatal due to the complexity brought by the coexistence of functional bacteria like ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB), NOB, anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) and denitrifiers. It has been reported that NOB could be effectively suppressed in the one-stage Anammox process by some methods, e.g. regulating dissolved oxygen, altering the free ammonia and free nitrous acid concentration, adjusting carbon source and adding externally intermediate products (N2H4, NO, NH2OH), etc. The regulation methods

  11. Glycosaminoglycan-depolymerizing enzymes produced by anaerobic bacteria isolated from the human mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, L S; Embery, G

    1985-01-01

    A number of obligately anaerobic bacteria, some implicated in periodontal disease, were screened for their ability to produce enzymes capable of degrading hyaluronic acid and chondroitin-4-sulphate. Two screening methods were used following anaerobic incubation at 37 degrees C for 7 days. One involved incorporating the respective substrates and bovine-serum albumin into agar plates and, after incubation, flooding the plates with 2 M acetic acid. Clear zones were produced around colonies which produced enzymes capable of depolymerizing the substrates. The second was a sensitive spectrophotometric procedure based on the ability of certain bacteria to produce eliminase enzymes, which degrade the substrates to unsaturated products having a characteristic u.v. absorption at 232 nm. Strains of Bacteroides gingivalis and Bacteroides melaninogenicus degraded both substrates whereas Bacteroides asaccharolyticus degraded neither substrate by either method. Some bacteria gave negative results with the plate method whereas the more sensitive spectrophotometric assay proved positive. The number of anaerobic bacteria capable of degrading hyaluronic acid and chondroitin-4-sulphate in vitro may therefore have been underestimated in previous studies.

  12. Biogas production from brewery spent grain enhanced by bioaugmentation with hydrolytic anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čater, Maša; Fanedl, Lijana; Malovrh, Špela; Logar, Romana Marinšek

    2015-06-01

    Lignocellulosic substrates are widely available but not easily applied in biogas production due to their poor anaerobic degradation. The effect of bioaugmentation by anaerobic hydrolytic bacteria on biogas production was determined by the biochemical methane potential assay. Microbial biomass from full scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating brewery wastewater was a source of active microorganisms and brewery spent grain a model lignocellulosic substrate. Ruminococcus flavefaciens 007C, Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans Mz5(T), Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 and Clostridium cellulovorans as pure and mixed cultures were used to enhance the lignocellulose degradation and elevate the biogas production. P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) was the most successful in elevating methane production (+17.8%), followed by the coculture of P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) and F. succinogenes S85 (+6.9%) and the coculture of C. cellulovorans and F. succinogenes S85 (+4.9%). Changes in microbial community structure were detected by fingerprinting techniques.

  13. Unraveling the Specific Regulation of the Central Pathway for Anaerobic Degradation of 3-Methylbenzoate*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Javier F.; Liu, Huixiang; Zamarro, María T.; McMahon, Stephen; Liu, Huanting; Naismith, James H.; Eberlein, Christian; Boll, Matthias; Carmona, Manuel; Díaz, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The mbd cluster encodes the anaerobic degradation of 3-methylbenzoate in the β-proteobacterium Azoarcus sp. CIB. The specific transcriptional regulation circuit that controls the expression of the mbd genes was investigated. The PO, PB1, and P3R promoters responsible for the expression of the mbd genes, their cognate MbdR transcriptional repressor, as well as the MbdR operator regions (ATACN10GTAT) have been characterized. The three-dimensional structure of MbdR has been solved revealing a conformation similar to that of other TetR family transcriptional regulators. The first intermediate of the catabolic pathway, i.e. 3-methylbenzoyl-CoA, was shown to act as the inducer molecule. An additional MbdR-dependent promoter, PA, which contributes to the expression of the CoA ligase that activates 3-methylbenzoate to 3-methylbenzoyl-CoA, was shown to be necessary for an efficient induction of the mbd genes. Our results suggest that the mbd cluster recruited a regulatory system based on the MbdR regulator and its target promoters to evolve a distinct central catabolic pathway that is only expressed for the anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds that generate 3-methylbenzoyl-CoA as the central metabolite. All these results highlight the importance of the regulatory systems in the evolution and adaptation of bacteria to the anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds. PMID:25795774

  14. Clinically significant anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients in a South African academic hospital: antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, S; Perovic, O; Richards, G A; Duse, A G

    2011-09-27

    BACKGROUND. Increasing resistance to some antimicrobial agents among anaerobic bacteria has made susceptibility patterns less predictable. METHOD. This was a prospective study of the susceptibility data of anaerobic organisms isolated from clinical specimens from patients with suspected anaerobic infections from June 2005 until February 2007. Specimens were submitted to the microbiology laboratory at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, where microscopy, culture and susceptibility testing were performed the using E test® strip minimum inhibitory concentration method. Results were interpreted with reference to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines for amoxicillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, metronidazole, penicillin, ertapenem, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol and piperacillin-tazobactam. RESULTS. One hundred and eighty anaerobic isolates were submitted from 165 patients. The most active antimicrobial agents were chloramphenicol (100% susceptible), ertapenem (97.2%), piperacillin-tazobactam (99.4%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (96.7%). Less active were metronidazole (89.4%), cefoxitin (85%), clindamycin (81.7%), ceftriaxone (68.3%) and penicillin (33.3%). CONCLUSION. Susceptibility testing should be performed periodically to identify emerging trends in resistance and to modify empirical treatment of anaerobic infections.

  15. STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEPTH OF PERIODONTAL POCKETS, ANAEROBIC BACTERIA AND INFLAMMATORY CELLS IN PERIODONTITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Owlia, P.; Salari MH.; Saderi, H; Z. Kadkhoda

    2000-01-01

    In this study 100 cases of advanced periodontitis were compared with a control group of 100 persons. The parameters were the depth of the periodontal pockets, radiographic images, presence of inflammatory cells and different types of anaerobic bacteria in the pockets. The depth of pocket was measured by a sterile probe and the presence of inflammatory cells was determined through sterile curettage. The smears were stained by Gimsa and Gram methods. For the purpose of microbiological studies, ...

  16. [Necrotizing mucosal ulcers cause by anaerobic bacteria. Fusiform bacterial and spirochete infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollandt, J H; Hollandt, H

    1996-12-01

    Vincent's angina (Plaut-Vincent) is the most prominent disease caused by coinciding infections from fusibacteria and spirochaeta both belonging to obligate anaerobic bacteria. A possible symbiotic infection of both anaerobics may become manifest on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity and the oropharynx beside the tonsillas. The clinical outcome may be different and pose difficulties in the differential diagnosis. We report the case of a 29 year old female patient with necrotizing ulcera of the soft palate suspicious for stomatitis ulceromembranacea. In case necrotizing inflammations of the oral cavity area were to be found infections due to anaerobic bacteria should be considered mostly occurring as mixed infections. The correct identification by cultivation turns out to be difficult in that it requires special conditions. Furthermore, reliable detection of these bacteria necessitates careful collection and transport of patients specimens. In case of Fusospirochaetosis (Fusotreponematose) a specimen should be prepared for microscopic examination beside setting up a special culture. This is because the staining is the most suitable procedure for bacteril identification to support the clinical diagnosis of stomatitis ulceromembranacea.

  17. [Utility of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of anaerobic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Mariela S; Romano, Vanesa; Nievas, Jimena; Smayevsky, Jorgelina

    2014-01-01

    The analysis by MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix-assited laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) has become a reference method for the identification of microorganisms in Clinical Microbiology. However, data on some groups of microorganisms are still controversial. The aim of this study is to determine the utility of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria. One-hundred and six anaerobic bacteria isolates were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS and by conventional biochemical tests. In those cases where identification by conventional methodology was not applicable or in the face of discordance between sequencing methodologies, 16 S rRNA gene sequence analysis was performed. The conventional method and MALDI-TOF MS agreed at genus and species level by 95.3 %. Concordance in gram-negative bacilli was 91.4% and 100% among gram-positive bacilli; there was also concordance both in the 8 isolates studied in gram-positive cocci and in the single gram-negative cocci included. The data obtained in this study demonstrate that MALDI-TOF MS offers the possibility of adequate identification of anaerobic bacteria.

  18. The anammoxosome organelle is crucial for the energy metabolism of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Teeseling, Muriel C F; Neumann, Sarah; van Niftrik, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Anammox bacteria convert ammonium and nitrite to dinitrogen gas under anaerobic conditions to obtain their energy for growth. The anammox reaction was deemed impossible until its discovery in the early 1990s. Now, anammox bacteria are recognized as major players in the global nitrogen cycle and estimated to be responsible for up to 50% of the nitrogen in the air that we breathe. In addition, anammox bacteria are extremely valuable for wastewater treatment where they are applied for the removal of ammonium. Besides their importance in industry and the environment, anammox bacteria defy some basic biological concepts. Whereas most other bacteria have only one cell compartment, the cytoplasm, anammox bacteria have three independent cell compartments bounded by bilayer membranes, from out- to inside; the paryphoplasm, riboplasm and anammoxosome. The anammoxosome is the largest compartment of the anammox cell and is proposed to be dedicated to energy conservation. As such it would be analogous to the mitochondria of eukaryotes. This review will discuss the anammox cell plan in detail, with the main focus on the anammoxosome. The identity of the anammoxosome as a prokaryotic organelle and the importance of this organelle for anammox bacteria are discussed as well as challenges these bacteria face by having three independent cell compartments.

  19. Decoloration of textile wastewater by means of a fluidized-bed loop reactor and immobilized anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiou, D. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Demokritos University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)]. E-mail: dgeorgio@env.duth.gr; Aivasidis, A. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Demokritos University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2006-07-31

    Textile wastewater was treated by means of a fluidized-bed loop reactor and immobilized anaerobic bacteria. The main target of this treatment was decoloration of the wastewater and transformation of the non-biodegradable azo-reactive dyes to the degradable, under aerobic biological conditions, aromatic amines. Special porous beads (Siran'' (registered)) were utilized as the microbial carriers. Acetic acid solution, enriched with nutrients and trace elements, served both as a pH-regulator and as an external substrate for the growth of methanogenic bacteria. The above technique was firstly applied on synthetic wastewater (an aqueous solution of a mixture of different azo-reactive dyes). Hydraulic residence time was gradually decreased from 24 to 6 h over a period of 3 months. Full decoloration of the wastewater could be achieved even at such a low hydraulic residence time (6 h), while methane-rich biogas was also produced. The same technique was then applied on real textile wastewater with excellent results (full decoloration at a hydraulic residence time of 6 h). Furthermore, the effluent proved to be highly biodegradable by aerobic microbes (activated-sludge). Thus, the above-described anaerobic/aerobic biological technique seems to be a very attractive method for treating textile wastewater since it is cost-effective and environment-friendly.

  20. Significance of anaerobes and oral bacteria in community-acquired pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Yamasaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular biological modalities with better detection rates have been applied to identify the bacteria causing infectious diseases. Approximately 10-48% of bacterial pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia are not identified using conventional cultivation methods. This study evaluated the bacteriological causes of community-acquired pneumonia using a cultivation-independent clone library analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and compared the results with those of conventional cultivation methods. METHODS: Patients with community-acquired pneumonia were enrolled based on their clinical and radiological findings. Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were collected from pulmonary pathological lesions using bronchoscopy and evaluated by both a culture-independent molecular method and conventional cultivation methods. For the culture-independent molecular method, approximately 600 base pairs of 16S ribosomal RNA genes were amplified using polymerase chain reaction with universal primers, followed by the construction of clone libraries. The nucleotide sequences of 96 clones randomly chosen for each specimen were determined, and bacterial homology was searched. Conventional cultivation methods, including anaerobic cultures, were also performed using the same specimens. RESULTS: In addition to known common pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia [Streptococcus pneumoniae (18.8%, Haemophilus influenzae (18.8%, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (17.2%], molecular analysis of specimens from 64 patients with community-acquired pneumonia showed relatively higher rates of anaerobes (15.6% and oral bacteria (15.6% than previous reports. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that anaerobes and oral bacteria are more frequently detected in patients with community-acquired pneumonia than previously believed. It is possible that these bacteria may play more important roles in community-acquired pneumonia.

  1. A rapid method for the detection of tryptophanase in anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M R; Qadri, S M; Flournoy, D J

    1981-01-01

    A total of 633 anaerobic bacteria were examined for tryptophanase production using a rapid method which distinguishes within 5 to 180 minutes between anaerobes that contain tryptophanase and those that do not. Of the 196 tryptophanase-positive isolates tested, 99% showed tryptophanase activity within 2 hours as compared with 94.4% in 24 hours by a conventional method. A total of 299 tryptophanase-negative organisms were tested. Ninety three percent of these remained negative after 24 hours as compared with 95.3% when tested within a 24-h conventional method. Additional information was obtained on the sensitivity of this test and the time-dependent production of indole by tryptophanase.

  2. Colonizing the embryonic zebrafish gut with anaerobic bacteria derived from the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Michael C; Goodyear, Mara; Daigneault, Michelle; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Van Raay, Terence J

    2013-06-01

    The zebrafish has become increasingly popular for microbiological research. It has been used as an infection model for a variety of pathogens, and is also emerging as a tool for studying interactions between a host and its resident microbial communities. The mouse microbiota has been transplanted into the zebrafish gut, but to our knowledge, there has been no attempt to introduce a bacterial community derived from the human gut. We explored two methods for colonizing the developing gut of 5-day-old germ-free zebrafish larvae with a defined anaerobic microbial community derived from a single human fecal sample. Both environmental exposure (static immersion) and direct microinjection into the gut resulted in the establishment of two species-Lactobacillus paracasei and Eubacterium limosum-from a community of 30 strains consisting of 22 anaerobic species. Of particular interest is E. limosum, which, as a strict anaerobe, represents a group of bacteria which until now have not been shown to colonize the developing zebrafish gut. Our success here indicates that further investigation of zebrafish as a tool for studying human gut microbial communities is warranted.

  3. Anammox bacteria and the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium in the oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Alexander; Molina, Verónica; Thamdrup, Bo; Woebken, Dagmar; Lavik, Gaute; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Ulloa, Osvaldo

    2009-07-01

    Anammox is the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium by nitrite or nitrate to yield N 2. This process, along with conventional denitrification, contributes to nitrogen loss in oxygen-deficient systems. Anammox is performed by a special group of bacteria belonging to the Planctomycetes phylum. However, information about the distribution, activity, and controlling factors of these anammox bacteria is still limited. Herein, we examine the phylogenetic diversity, vertical distribution, and activity of anammox bacteria in the coastal upwelling region and oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile. The phylogeny of anammox bacteria was studied using primers designed to specifically target 16S rRNA genes from Planctomycetes in samples taken during a cruise in 2004. Anammox bacteria-like sequences affiliated with Candidatus "Scalindua spp." dominated the 16S rRNA gene clone library. However, 62% of the sequences subgrouped separately within this cluster and together with a single sequence retrieved from the suboxic zone of the freshwater Lake Tanganyika. The vertical distribution and activity of anammox bacteria were explored through CARD-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization with catalyzed reporter deposition) and 15N labeling incubations, respectively, at two different open-ocean stations during a second cruise in 2005. Anammox bacterial CARD-FISH counts (up to 3000 cells ml -1) and activity (up to 5.75 nmol N 2 L -1 d -1) were only detected at the station subjected directly to the upwelling influence. Anammox cell abundance and activity were highest at 50 m depth, which is the upper part of the OMZ. In this layer, a high abundance of cyanobacteria and a marked nitrogen deficit were also observed. Thus, our results show the presence of a new subcluster within the marine anammox phylogeny and indicate high vertical variability in the abundance and activity of anammox bacteria that could be related to an intensification of carbon and nitrogen cycling in the upper part of the OMZ.

  4. Diversity and enrichment of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidizing bacteria from wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luesken, Francisca A; van Alen, Theo A; van der Biezen, Erwin; Frijters, Carla; Toonen, Ger; Kampman, Christel; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Zeeman, Grietje; Temmink, Hardy; Strous, Marc; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M

    2011-11-01

    Recently discovered microorganisms affiliated to the bacterial phylum NC10, named "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera", perform nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation. These microorganisms could be important players in a novel way of anaerobic wastewater treatment where ammonium and residual dissolved methane might be removed at the expense of nitrate or nitrite. To find suitable inocula for reactor startup, ten selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in The Netherlands were screened for the endogenous presence of M. oxyfera using molecular diagnostic methods. We could identify NC10 bacteria with 98% similarity to M. oxyfera in nine out of ten WWTPs tested. Sludge from one selected WWTP was used to start a new enrichment culture of NC10 bacteria. This enrichment was monitored using specific pmoA primers and M. oxyfera cells were visualized with fluorescence oligonucleotide probes. After 112 days, the enrichment consumed up to 0.4 mM NO(2)(-) per day. The results of this study show that appropriate sources of biomass, enrichment strategies, and diagnostic tools existed to start and monitor pilot scale tests for the implementation of nitrite-dependent methane oxidation in wastewater treatment at ambient temperature.

  5. Degradation of phenolic contaminants in ground water by anaerobic bacteria: St. Louis Park, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, G.G.; Goerlitz, D.F.; Godsy, E.M.; Hult, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    Coal-tar derivatives from a coal-tar distillation and wood-treating plant that operated from 1918 to 1972 at St. Louis Park, Minnesota contaminated the near-surface ground water. Solutions of phenolic compounds and a water-immiscible mixture of polynuclear aromatic compounds accumulated in wetlands near the plant site and entered the aquifer. The concentration of phenolic compounds in the aqueous phase under the wetlands is about 30 mg/1 but decreases to less than 0.2 mg/1 at a distance of 430 m immediately downgradient from the source. Concentrations of naphthalene (the predominant polynuclear compound in the ground water) and sodium (selected as a conservative tracer) range from about 20 mg/1 and 430 mg/1 in the aqueous phase at the source to about 2 mg/1 and 120 mg/1 at 430 m downgradient, respectively. Phenolic compounds and naphthalene are disappearing faster than expected if only dilution were occurring. Sorption of phenolic compounds on aquifer sediments is negligible but naphthalene is slightly sorbed. Anaerobic biodegradation of phenolic compounds is primarily responsible for the observed attenuation. Methane was found only in water samples from the contaminated zone (2-20 mg/1). Methane-producing bacteria were found only in water from the contaminated zone. Methane was produced in laboratory cultures of contaminated water inoculated with bacteria from the contaminated zone. Evidence for anaerobic biodegradation of naphthalene under either field or laboratory conditions was not obtained.

  6. Cultivation of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria: impact of reactor configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Baolan; He, Zhanfei; Geng, Sha; Cai, Chen; Lou, Liping; Zheng, Ping; Xu, Xinhua

    2014-09-01

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) is mediated by bacteria that anaerobically oxidize methane coupled with nitrite reduction and is a potential bioprocess for wastewater treatment. In this work, the effect of reactor configuration on n-damo bacterial cultivation was investigated. A magnetically stirred gas lift reactor (MSGLR), a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), and a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) were selected to cultivate the bacteria. Microbial community was monitored by using quantitative PCR, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, pmoA gene sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The effects of substrate inhibition, methane mass transfer, and biomass washout in the three reactors were focused on. The results indicated that the MSGLR had the best performance among the three reactor systems, with the highest total and specific n-damo activities. Its maximum volumetric nitrogen removal rate was up to 76.9 mg N L(-1) day(-1), which was higher than previously reported values (5.1-37.8 mg N L(-1) d(-1)).

  7. Conversion of hemicelluloses and D-xylose into ethanol by the use of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Ethanol is a CO{sub 2} neutral liquid fuel that can substitute the use of fossil fuels in the transportation sector, thereby reducing the CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere. CO{sub 2} emission is suspected to contribute significantly to the so-called greenhouse effect, the global heating. Substrates for production of ethanol must be cheap and plentiful. This can be met by the use of lignocellulosic biomass such as willow, wheat straw, hardwood and softwood. However, the complexity of these polymeric substrates and the presence of several types of carbohydrates (glucose, xylose, mannose, galactose, arabinose) require additional treatment to release the useful carbohydrates and ferment the major carbohydrates fractions. The costs related to the ethanol-production must be kept at a minimum to be price competitive compared to gasoline. Therefore all of the carbohydrates present in lignocellulose need to be converted into ethanol. Glucose can be fermented to ethanol by yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which, however, is unable to ferment the other major carbohydrate fraction, D-xylose. Thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producing bacteria can be used for fermentation of the hemicelluloses fraction of lignocellulosic biomass. However, physiological studies of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria have shown that the ethanol yield decreases at increasing substrate concentration. The biochemical limitations causing this phenomenon are not known in detail. Physiological and biochemical studies of a newly characterized thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producing bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter mathranii, was performed. This study included extraction of intracellular metabolites and enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis. These studies revealed several bottlenecks in the D-xylose metabolism. This knowledge makes way for physiological and genetic engineering of this strain to improve the ethanol yield and productivity at high concentration of D-xylose. (au)

  8. Quantification of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in enrichment cultures by quantitative competitive PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Chun; WANG Huan; LIU Qinhua; LI Xudong

    2009-01-01

    The anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (ANAMMOX) bacteria were enriched from a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) biofilm.We successfully developed a quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR) system to detect and quantify ANAMMOX bacteria in environmental samples.For QC-PCR system,PCR primer sets targeting 16S ribosomal RNA genes of ANAMMOX bacteria were designed and used.The quantification range of this system was 4 orders of magnitude,from 10~3 to 10~6 copies per PCR,corresponding to the detection limit of 300 target copies per mL.A 312-bp internal standard (IS) was constructed,which showed very similar amplification efficiency with the target amxC fragment (349 bp) over 4 orders of magnitude (10~3-10~6).The linear regressions were obtained with a R~2 of 0.9824 for 10~3 copies,R~2 of 0.9882 for 10~4 copies,0.9857 for 10~5 copies and 0.9899 for 10~6 copies.Using this method,we quantified ANAMMOX bacteria in a shortcut nitrification/denitrification-anammox system which is set for piggery wastewater treatment.

  9. Distribution and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria in natural freshwater wetland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li-dong; Wu, Hong-sheng; Gao, Zhi-qiu; Cheng, Hai-xiang; Li, Ji; Liu, Xu; Ren, Qian-qi

    2016-04-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process plays a significant role in the marine nitrogen cycle. However, the quantitative importance of this process in nitrogen removal in wetland systems, particularly in natural freshwater wetlands, is still not determined. In the present study, we provided the evidence of the distribution and activity of anammox bacteria in a natural freshwater wetland, located in southeastern China, by using (15)N stable isotope measurements, quantitative PCR assays and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. The potential anammox rates measured in this wetland system ranged between 2.5 and 25.5 nmol N2 g(-1) soil day(-1), and up to 20% soil dinitrogen gas production could be attributed to the anammox process. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that anammox bacteria related to Candidatus Brocadia, Candidatus Kuenenia, Candidatus Anammoxoglobus and two novel anammox clusters coexisted in the collected soil cores, with Candidatus Brocadia and Candidatus Kuenenia being the dominant anammox genera. Quantitative PCR of hydrazine synthase genes showed that the abundance of anammox bacteria varied from 2.3 × 10(5) to 2.2 × 10(6) copies g(-1) soil in the examined soil cores. Correlation analyses suggested that the soil ammonium concentration had significant influence on the activity of anammox bacteria. On the basis of (15)N tracing technology, it is estimated that a total loss of 31.1 g N m(-2) per year could be linked the anammox process in the examined wetland.

  10. Nitrate removal by organotrophic anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria with C2/C3 fatty acid in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuhai; Li, Dong; Zhang, Xiaojing; Zeng, Huiping; Yang, Yin; Zhang, Jie

    2015-10-01

    In anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process, a harsh ratio of nitrite to ammonia in influent was demanded, and the max nitrogen removal efficiency could only achieve to 89%, both of which limited the development of Anammox. The aim of this work was to study the nitrate removal by organotrophic anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AAOB) with C2/C3 fatty acid in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. In this study, organotrophic AAOB was successfully enriched by adding acetate and propionate with the total organic carbon to nitrogen (TOC/N) ratio of 0.1. In the condition of low substrate, the TN removal efficiency reached 90%, with the effluent TN of around 11.8 mg L(-1). After the addition of acetate and propionate, the predominant species in Anammox granular sludge transformed to Candidatus Jettenia that belonging to organotrophic AAOB from the Candidatus Kuenenia relating to general AAOB.

  11. Do bacteria need to be regulated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silley, P

    2006-09-01

    Additives for use in animal nutrition are regulated under Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003. The scope of this paper addresses the specific microbiological issues relevant to a microbial feed additive, containing a Bacillus spp. and uses as an example a product with the trade name, Calsporin. Bacillus subtilis C-3102 is the active ingredient in Calsporin and is added to animal feed to favourably affect animal production and performance (growth and feed efficiency), by modulating the gastrointestinal flora. It is not the purpose of this review to present the raw data for Calsporin but rather to use Calsporin as an example of the type of data required by the European regulatory authorities. At the time of preparation of this manuscript Calsporin has yet to be reviewed by the authorities. The regulatory system under the auspices of the EFSA FEEDAP Panel is clearly attempting to move in line with development of scientific opinion and is to be applauded for such efforts. Bacteria do need to be regulated, and the regulations clearly provide adequate and appropriate protection to human health and to environmental considerations.

  12. Growth of silicone-immobilized bacteria on polycarbonate membrane filters, a technique to study microcolony formation under anaerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Ole; Binnerup, S. J.; Sørensen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    A technique was developed to study microcolony formation by silicone- immobilized bacteria on polycarbonate membrane filters under anaerobic conditions. A sudden shift to anaerobiosis was obtained by submerging the filters in medium which was depleted for oxygen by a pure culture of bacteria....... The technique was used to demonstrate that preinduction of nitrate reductase under low-oxygen conditions was necessary for nonfermenting, nitrate-respiring bacteria, e.g., Pseudomonas spp., to cope with a sudden lack of oxygen. In contrast, nitrate-respiring, fermenting bacteria, e.g., Bacillus and Escherichia...

  13. Adaptation of Bacteria of Anaerobic Digestion to Higher Salinity for the Application to Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Ivanova, Yanina; Spirov, Pavel

    g/L in the volume of 350 g/L. To revitalize bacteria and activate gas production, 200 mL salty water and 5 mL molasses were added. On the 6th day of the experiment, the maximum production was 1300 mL at 90 g/L and the minimum of 400 mL at 80 g/L. The experiment showed that bacteria of anaerobic...

  14. Anaerobic benzene degradation by Gram-positive sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Laban, Nidal; Selesi, Drazenka; Jobelius, Carsten; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2009-06-01

    Despite its high chemical stability, benzene is known to be biodegradable with various electron acceptors under anaerobic conditions. However, our understanding of the initial activation reaction and the responsible prokaryotes is limited. In the present study, we enriched a bacterial culture that oxidizes benzene to carbon dioxide under sulfate-reducing conditions. Community analysis using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and FISH revealed 95% dominance of one phylotype that is affiliated to the Gram-positive bacterial genus Pelotomaculum showing that sulfate-reducing Gram-positive bacteria are involved in anaerobic benzene degradation. In order to get indications of the initial activation mechanism, we tested the substrate utilization, performed cometabolism tests and screened for putative metabolites. Phenol, toluene, and benzoate could not be utilized as alternative carbon sources by the benzene-degrading culture. Cometabolic degradation experiments resulted in retarded rates of benzene degradation in the presence of phenol whereas toluene had no effect on benzene metabolism. Phenol, 2-hydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, and benzoate were identified as putative metabolites in the enrichment culture. However, hydroxylated aromatics were shown to be formed abiotically. Thus, the finding of benzoate as an intermediate compound supports a direct carboxylation of benzene as the initial activation mechanism but additional reactions leading to its formation cannot be excluded definitely.

  15. Acetobacterium, a new genus of hydrogen-oxidizing, carbon dioxide-reducing, anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balch, W.E.; Schoberth, S.; Tanner, R.S.; Wolfe, R.S.

    1977-10-01

    A new genus of fastidiously anaerobic bacteria which produce a homoacetic fermentation is described. Cells are gram-positive, oval-shaped, short rods which are actively motile by means of one or two subterminal flagella. Hydrogen is oxidized, and carbon dioxide is reduced to acetic acid. Organic substrates which are fermented in a mineral medium include frutose, glucose, lactate, glycerate, and formate. Pantothenate is required as a growth factor. The deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of the type species is 39 mol% guanine plus cytosine. The name Acetobacterium is proposed for this new genus, which is tentatively placed in the family Propionibacteriaceae. The type species, Acetobacterium woodii sp. nov., is named in honor of Harland G. Wood. The type strain of A. woodii is WB1 (= ATCC 29683 and DSM 1030).

  16. 16S rRNA gene sequencing in routine identification of anaerobic bacteria isolated from blood cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Knudsen, Elisa;

    2010-01-01

    A comparison between conventional identification and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of anaerobic bacteria isolated from blood cultures in a routine setting was performed (n = 127). With sequencing, 89% were identified to the species level, versus 52% with conventional identification. The times...

  17. The contribution of fermentative bacteria and methanogenic archaea to azo dye reduction by a thermophilic anaerobic consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, dos A.B.; Cervantes, F.J.; Madrid, de M.P.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2006-01-01

    The contribution of fermentative bacteria and methanogenic archaea to azo dye reduction by a thermophilic anaerobic consortium was studied. Additionally, the effects of different electron-donating substrates and the redox mediator riboflavin on dye reduction were assessed by using either a methanoge

  18. Candidatus "Scalindua brodaea", spec. nov., Candidatus "Scalindua wagneri", spec. nov., two new species of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schmid, M.; Walsh, K.; Webb, R.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Pas-Schoonen, K. van de; Verbruggen, M.J.; Hill, T.; Moffett, B.; Fuerst, J.; Schouten, S.; Harris, James; Shaw, P.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Strous, M.

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is both a promising process in wastewater treatment and a long overlooked microbial physiology that can contribute significantly to biological nitrogen cycling in the world's oceans. Anammox is mediated by a monophyletic group of bacteria that branches deeply i

  19. Evaluating primers for profiling anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria within freshwater environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puntipar Sonthiphand

    Full Text Available Anaerobic ammonia oxidizing (anammox bacteria play an important role in transforming ammonium to nitrogen gas and contribute to fixed nitrogen losses in freshwater environments. Understanding the diversity and abundance of anammox bacteria requires reliable molecular tools, and these are not yet well established for these important Planctomycetes. To help validate PCR primers for the detection of anammox bacteria within freshwater ecosystems, we analyzed representative positive controls and selected samples from Grand River and groundwater sites, both from Ontario, Canada. The objectives of this study were to identify a suitable anammox denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE fingerprint method by using GC-clamp modifications to existing primers, and to verify the specificity of anammox-specific primers used for DGGE, cloning and qPCR methods. Six primer combinations were tested from four published primer sets (i.e. A438f/A684r, Amx368f/Amx820r, An7f/An1388r, and Pla46/1392r for both direct and nested PCR amplifications. All PCR products were run subsequently on DGGE gels to compare the resulting patterns. Two anammox-specific primer combinations were also used to generate clone libraries and quantify anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes with qPCR. The primer set A438f/A684r was highly specific to anammox bacteria, provided reliable DGGE fingerprints and generated a high proportion of anammox-related clones. A second primer set (Amx368f/Amx820r was anammox specific, based on clone library analysis, but PCR products from different candidate species of anammox bacteria resolved poorly using DGGE analysis. Both DGGE and cloning results revealed that Ca. Brocadia and an uncharacterized anammox bacterial cluster represented the majority of anammox bacteria found in Grand River sediment and groundwater samples, respectively. Together, our results demonstrate that although Amx368f/Amx820r was useful for anammox-specific qPCR and clone library

  20. Evaluating primers for profiling anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria within freshwater environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonthiphand, Puntipar; Neufeld, Josh D

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonia oxidizing (anammox) bacteria play an important role in transforming ammonium to nitrogen gas and contribute to fixed nitrogen losses in freshwater environments. Understanding the diversity and abundance of anammox bacteria requires reliable molecular tools, and these are not yet well established for these important Planctomycetes. To help validate PCR primers for the detection of anammox bacteria within freshwater ecosystems, we analyzed representative positive controls and selected samples from Grand River and groundwater sites, both from Ontario, Canada. The objectives of this study were to identify a suitable anammox denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint method by using GC-clamp modifications to existing primers, and to verify the specificity of anammox-specific primers used for DGGE, cloning and qPCR methods. Six primer combinations were tested from four published primer sets (i.e. A438f/A684r, Amx368f/Amx820r, An7f/An1388r, and Pla46/1392r) for both direct and nested PCR amplifications. All PCR products were run subsequently on DGGE gels to compare the resulting patterns. Two anammox-specific primer combinations were also used to generate clone libraries and quantify anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes with qPCR. The primer set A438f/A684r was highly specific to anammox bacteria, provided reliable DGGE fingerprints and generated a high proportion of anammox-related clones. A second primer set (Amx368f/Amx820r) was anammox specific, based on clone library analysis, but PCR products from different candidate species of anammox bacteria resolved poorly using DGGE analysis. Both DGGE and cloning results revealed that Ca. Brocadia and an uncharacterized anammox bacterial cluster represented the majority of anammox bacteria found in Grand River sediment and groundwater samples, respectively. Together, our results demonstrate that although Amx368f/Amx820r was useful for anammox-specific qPCR and clone library analysis, A438f/A684r

  1. Conversion of hemicellulose and D-xylose into ethanol by the use of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Peter

    1998-02-01

    Ethanol is a CO{sub 2} neutral liquid fuel that can substitute the use of fossil fuels in the transportation sector, thereby reducing the CO{sub 2} emission to the atmoshpere. CO{sub 2} emission is suspected to contribute significantly to the so-called greenhouse effect, the global heating. Substrates for production of ethanol must be cheap and plentiful. This can be met by the use of lignocellulosic biomass such as willow, wheat straw, hardwood and softwood. However, the complexity of these polymeric substrates and the presence of several types of carbohydrates (glucose, xylose, mannose, galactose, arabinose) require additional treatment to release the useful carbohydrates and ferment the major carbohydrates fractions. The costs related to the ethanol-production must be kept at a minimum to be price competitive compared to gasoline. Therefore all of the carbohydrates present in lignocellulose need to be converted into ethanol. Glucose can be fermented to ethanol by yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which, however, is unable to ferment the other major carbohydrate fraction, D-xylose. The need for a microorganism able to ferment D-xylose is therefore apparent. Thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producing bacteria can therefore be considered for fermentation of D-xylose. Screening of 130 thermophilic anaerobic bacterial strains, from hot-springs, mesophilic and thermophilic biogas plants, paper pulp industries and brewery waste, were examined for production of ethanol from D-xylose and wet-oxidized hemicellulose hydrolysate. Several strains were isolated and one particular strain was selected for best performance during the screening test. This strain was characterized as a new species, Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. However, the ethanol yield on wet-oxidized hemicellulose hydrolysate was not satisfactory. The bacterium was adapted by isolation of mutant strains, now resistant to the inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate. Growth and ethanol yield

  2. Electricity generation by anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from hypersaline soda lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from soda lakes produced electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). No electricity was generated in the absence of bacterial metabolism. Arsenate respiring bacteria isolated from moderately hypersaline Mono Lake (Bacillus selenitireducens), and salt-saturated Searles Lake, CA (strain SLAS-1) oxidized lactate using arsenate as the electron acceptor. However, these cultures grew equally well without added arsenate using the MFC anode as their electron acceptor, and in the process oxidized lactate more efficiently. The decrease in electricity generation by consumption of added alternative electron acceptors (i.e. arsenate) which competed with the anode for available electrons proved to be a useful indicator of microbial activity and hence life in the fuel cells. Shaken sediment slurries from these two lakes also generated electricity, with or without added lactate. Hydrogen added to sediment slurries was consumed but did not stimulate electricity production. Finally, electricity was generated in statically incubated "intact" sediment cores from these lakes. More power was produced in sediment from Mono Lake than from Searles Lake, however microbial fuel cells could detect low levels of metabolism operating under moderate and extreme conditions of salt stress. ?? 2008 US Government.

  3. Insights into the global regulation of anaerobic metabolism for improved biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan; Zhao, Hongxin; Zhang, Chong; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2016-01-01

    To improve the biohydrogen yield in bacterial dark fermentation, a new approach of global anaerobic regulation was introduced. Two cellular global regulators FNR and NarP were overexpressed in two model organisms: facultatively anaerobic Enterobacter aerogenes (Ea) and strictly anaerobic Clostridium paraputrificum (Cp). The overexpression of FNR and NarP greatly altered anaerobic metabolism and increased the hydrogen yield by 40%. Metabolic analysis showed that the global regulation caused more reducing environment inside the cell. To get a thorough understanding of the global metabolic regulation, more genes (fdhF, fhlA, ppk, Cb-fdh1, and Sc-fdh1) were overexpressed in different Ea and Cp mutants. For the first time, it demonstrated that there were approximately linear relationships between the relative change of hydrogen yield and the relative change of NADH yield or ATP yield. It implied that cellular reducing power and energy level played vital roles in the biohydrogen production.

  4. Anaerobic Growth of Haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii by Denitrification Is Controlled by the Transcription Regulator NarO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Tatsuya; Shiba, Hiromichi; Ashiki, Ken-ichi; Araki, Takuma; Nagashima, Yoh-kow; Yoshimatsu, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The extremely halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii grows anaerobically by denitrification. A putative DNA-binding protein, NarO, is encoded upstream of the respiratory nitrate reductase gene of H. volcanii. Disruption of the narO gene resulted in a loss of denitrifying growth of H. volcanii, and the expression of the recombinant NarO recovered the denitrification capacity. A novel CXnCXCX7C motif showing no remarkable similarities with known sequences was conserved in the N terminus of the NarO homologous proteins found in the haloarchaea. Restoration of the denitrifying growth was not achieved by expression of any mutant NarO in which any one of the four conserved cysteines was individually replaced by serine. A promoter assay experiment indicated that the narO gene was usually transcribed, regardless of whether it was cultivated under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Transcription of the genes encoding the denitrifying enzymes nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase was activated under anaerobic conditions. A putative cis element was identified in the promoter sequence of haloarchaeal denitrifying genes. These results demonstrated a significant effect of NarO, probably due to its oxygen-sensing function, on the transcriptional activation of haloarchaeal denitrifying genes. IMPORTANCE H. volcanii is an extremely halophilic archaeon capable of anaerobic growth by denitrification. The regulatory mechanism of denitrification has been well understood in bacteria but remains unknown in archaea. In this work, we show that the helix-turn-helix (HTH)-type regulator NarO activates transcription of the denitrifying genes of H. volcanii under anaerobic conditions. A novel cysteine-rich motif, which is critical for transcriptional regulation, is present in NarO. A putative cis element was also identified in the promoter sequence of the haloarchaeal denitrifying genes. PMID:26787768

  5. Transcription factors FabR and FadR regulate both aerobic and anaerobic pathways for unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in Shewanella oneidensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixia eLuo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As genes for type II fatty acid synthesis are essential to the growth of Escherichia coli, its sole (anaerobic pathway has significant potential as a target for novel antibacterial drug, and has been extensively studied. Despite this, we still know surprisingly little about fatty acid synthesis in bacteria because this anaerobic pathway in fact is not widely distributed. In this study, we show a novel model of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA synthesis in Shewanella, emerging human pathogens in addition to well-known metal reducers. We identify both anaerobic and aerobic UFA biosynthesis pathways in the representative species, S. oneidensis. Uniquely, the bacterium also contains two regulators FabR and FadR, whose counterparts in other bacteria control the anaerobic pathway. However, we show that in S. oneidensis these two regulators are involved in regulation of both pathways, in either direct or indirect manner. Overall, our results indicate that the UFA biosynthesis and its regulation are far more complex than previously expected, and S. oneidensis serves as a good research model for further work.

  6. Experimental modelling of Calcium carbonate precipitation in the presence of phototrophic anaerobic bacteria Rhodovulum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundeleva, Irina; Shirokova, Liudmila; Benezeth, Pascale; Pokrovsky, Oleg; Kompantseva, Elena

    2010-05-01

    -potential of the cells. To characterise the link between the rate of bacterial growth (biomass production) and the rate of CaCO3 precipitation, batch kinetic experiments were performed. These experiments were carried out in closed (anaerobic) bottles with initial concentration of calcium from 1 to 20 mM and from 5 to 20 mM bicarbonate. The biomass of cells, pH, [Ca2+] and [Alk] were measured as a function of time. Blank experiments (without cell or autoclaved cells) were always carried out. We found that the optimal conditions for both CaCO3 precipitation and biomass increase for the culture Rhodovulum sp. A-20s, is calcium concentration of 3 mM, whatever the concentration of bicarbonate (5, 10, 15 mM). Note also that for calcium concentration higher than 3 mM, the biomass production decreases. In the case of strictly anaerobic Rhodovulum sp. S-1765 bacteria, the optimal conditions for calcium carbonate precipitation is observed for the bicarbonate concentration of 10 mM, whatever the calcium concentration (3, 5, 10 mM). Overall, the present study allows quantitative modeling of bacterially-induced CaCO3 precipitation. It helps to distinguish between the effect of cell surface functional groups, surface electrical charge, soluble organic matter and metabolic change of solution pH on the rate and nature of precipitating calcium carbonate solid phase.

  7. Acid resistance of methanogenic bacteria in a two-stage anaerobic process treating high concentration methanol Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xuefei; REN Nanqi

    2007-01-01

    In this study,the two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket(UASB)system and batch experiments were employed to evaluate the performance of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of high concentration methanol wastewater.The acid resistance of granular sludge and methanogenic bacteria and their metabolizing activity were investigated.The results show that the pH of the first UASB changed from 4.9 to 5.8 and 5.5 to 6.2 for the second reactor.Apparently,these were not the advisable pH levels that common metha nogenic bacteria could accept.The methanogenic bacteria of the system,viz.Methanosarcina barkeri,had some acid resistance and could still degrade methanol at pH 5.0.If the methanogenic bacteria were trained further,their acid resistance would be improved somewhat.Granular sludge of the system could protect the methanogenic bacteria within its body against the impact of the acidic environment and make them degrade methanol at pH 4.5.The performance of granular sludge was attributed to its structure,bacteria species,and the distribution of bacterium inside the granule.

  8. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria and associated activity in fixed-film biofilters of a marine recirculating aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Yossi; Watts, Joy E M; Schreier, Harold J

    2006-04-01

    Microbial communities in the biological filter and waste sludge compartments of a marine recirculating aquaculture system were examined to determine the presence and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Community DNA was extracted from aerobic and anaerobic fixed-film biofilters and the anaerobic sludge waste collection tank and was analyzed by amplifying 16S rRNA genes by PCR using anammox-selective and universal GC-clamped primers. Separation of amplified PCR products by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of the different phylotypes revealed a diverse biofilter microbial community. While Planctomycetales were found in all three communities, the anaerobic denitrifying biofilters contained one clone that exhibited high levels of sequence similarity to known anammox bacteria. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies using an anammox-specific probe confirmed the presence of anammox Planctomycetales in the microbial biofilm from the denitrifying biofilters, and anammox activity was observed in these biofilters, as detected by the ability to simultaneously consume ammonia and nitrite. To our knowledge, this is the first identification of anammox-related sequences in a marine recirculating aquaculture filtration system, and our findings provide a foundation for incorporating this important pathway for complete nitrogen removal in such systems.

  9. Distribution of secretory inhibitor of platelet microbiddal protein among anaerobic bacteria isolated from stool of children with diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iuri B Ivanov; Viktor A Gritsenko

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the secretory inhibitor of platelet microbicidal protein (SIPHP) phenotypes of faecal anaerobic isolates from patients with diarrhea.METHODS: Faecal isolates of anaerobic bacteria(B.fragiliS,n=42; B.longum,n=70;A.israelii,n=21;E.lentum,n=12) from children with diarrhea were tested.SlPHP production was tested by inhibition of platelet microbicidal protein (PHP) bioactivity against B.subtilis and was expressed as percentage of inhibition of PMP bactericidal activity.RESULTS: Among anaerobic isolates 80% of B.Iongum strains,85.7% of A.israelii strains,50%of E.lentum strains and 92.86% of B.fragilis strains were SIPMP-positive.The isolated anaerobic organisms demonstrated SIPHP production at a mean level of 13.8%±0.7%,14.7%±1.8%,3.9%±0.9% (P<0.05) and 26.8%±7.5% (P<0.05) for bifidobacteria,A.israelii,E.lentum and B.fragilis,respectively.CONCLUSION: Data from the present study may have significant implications in understanding the pathogenesis of microecological disorders in the intestine,as well as for future improvement in the prevention and therapy of anaerobe-associated infections.

  10. Sodium ion pumps and hydrogen production in glutamate fermenting anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiangiu, Clara D; Jayamani, Elamparithi; Brügel, Daniela; Herrmann, Gloria; Kim, Jihoe; Forzi, Lucia; Hedderich, Reiner; Vgenopoulou, Irini; Pierik, Antonio J; Steuber, Julia; Buckel, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria ferment glutamate via two different pathways to ammonia, carbon dioxide, acetate, butyrate and molecular hydrogen. The coenzyme B12-dependent pathway in Clostridium tetanomorphum via 3-methylaspartate involves pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and a novel enzyme, a membrane-bound NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase. The flavin- and iron-sulfur-containing enzyme probably uses the energy difference between reduced ferredoxin and NADH to generate an electrochemical Na+ gradient, which drives transport processes. The other pathway via 2-hydroxyglutarate in Acidaminococcus fermentans and Fusobacterium nucleatum involves glutaconyl-CoA decarboxylase, which uses the free energy of decarboxylation to generate also an electrochemical Na+ gradient. In the latter two organisms, similar membrane-bound NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductases have been characterized. We propose that in the hydroxyglutarate pathway these oxidoreductases work in the reverse direction, whereby the reduction of ferredoxin by NADH is driven by the Na+ gradient. The reduced ferredoxin is required for hydrogen production and the activation of radical enzymes. Further examples show that reduced ferredoxin is an agent, whose reducing energy is about 1 ATP 'richer' than that of NADH.

  11. Optimization of biohydrogen production from beer lees using anaerobic mixed bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Maojin; Yuan, Zhuliang; Zhi, Xiaohua; Shen, Jianquan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Laboratory of New Materials, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun North First Street 2, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Beer lees are the main by-product of the brewing industry. Biohydrogen production from beer lees using anaerobic mixed bacteria was investigated in this study, and the effects of acidic pretreatment, initial pH value and ferrous iron concentration on hydrogen production were studied at 35 C in batch experiments. The hydrogen yield was significantly enhanced by optimizing environmental factors such as hydrochloric acid (HCl) pretreatment of substrate, initial pH value and ferrous iron concentration. The optimal environmental factors of substrate pretreated with 2% HCl, pH = 7.0 and 113.67 mg/l Fe{sup 2+} were observed. A maximum cumulative hydrogen yield of 53.03 ml/g-dry beer lees was achieved, which was approximately 17-fold greater than that in raw beer lees. In addition, the degradation efficiency of the total reducing sugar, and the contents of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin and metabolites are presented, which showed a strong dependence on the environmental factors. (author)

  12. Stoke's and anti-Stoke's characteristics of anaerobic and aerobic bacterias at excitation of fluorescence by low-intensity red light: I. Research of anaerobic bacterias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masychev, Victor I.; Alexandrov, Michail T.

    2000-04-01

    Biopsy or photo dynamic therapy of tumors are usually investigated by fluorescent diagnostics methods. Information on modified method of fluorescence diagnostics of inflammatory diseases is represented in this research. Anaerobic micro organisms are often the cause of these pathological processes. These micro organisms also accompany disbiotic processes in intestines.

  13. Detection of periodontopathogenic bacteria in pregnant women by traditional anaerobic culture method and by a commercial molecular genetic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbán, Edit; Terhes, Gabriella; Radnai, Márta; Gorzó, István; Nagy, Elisabeth

    2010-06-01

    To culture facultative and strict anaerobic bacteria is a well-established method for analyzing subgingival plaque samples. Micro-IDent and micro-IDent Plus (HAIN Lifescience GmbH, Nehren, Germany) tests are two commercially available rapid PCR-based methods for the identification and quantification of putative periodontopathogen bacteria. In this study, we compared these commercial PCR-based hybridization methods with conventional anaerobic culture technique. A total of 36 subgingival plaque samples were collected from periodontal pockets of pregnant women with chronic localized periodontitis. Aliquots of these samples were evaluated with species-specific probes provided by micro-IDent and micro-IDent Plus tests simultaneously, and from the same samples anaerobic and capnophylic bacteria were cultured on selective media. The overall agreement between both methods was excellent for Eubacterium nodatum, Tannerella forsythia and Porphyromonas gingivalis (97-92%), fair for Capnocytophaga sp, Eikenella corrodens, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Prevotella intermedia (91-89%) and poor for Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra (Micromonas micros), and Campylobacter rectus (86-78%). Discrepancies in the results may be explained by inability of culture method to distinguish between closely related taxa (e.i P. intermedia/Prevotella. nigrescens), and problems of keeping periodontopathogen bacteria viable, which is required for successful detection by standard culture method. Nucleic acid-based methods may replace cultivation method as frequently used methods in microbiological diagnosis of progressive periodontitis, thus micro-IDent and micro-IDent Plus tests can be recommended where culture of periodontopathogenic bacteria is not performed in routine microbiology laboratories to analyze subgingival plaque samples.

  14. [First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans/ Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaria, María C; Bianchini, Hebe M; Castello, Liliana; Carloni, Graciela; Di Martino, Ana; Fernández Canigia, Liliana; Litterio, Mirta; Rollet, Raquel; Rossetti, Adelaida; Predari, Silvia C

    2011-01-01

    Through time, anaerobic bacteria have shown good susceptibility to clinically useful antianaerobic agents. Nevertheless, the antimicrobial resistance profile of most of the anaerobic species related to severe infections in humans has been modified in the last years and different kinds of resistance to the most active agents have emerged, making their effectiveness less predictable. With the aim of finding an answer and for the purpose of facilitating the detection of anaerobic antimicrobial resistance, the Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología developed the First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans. This document resulted from the compatibilization of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations, the international literature and the work and experience of the Subcommittee. The Consensus document provides a brief taxonomy review, and exposes why and when anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests should be conducted, and which antimicrobial agents can be used according to the species involved. The recommendations on how to perform, read and interpret in vitro anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests with each method are exposed. Finally, the antibiotic susceptibility profile, the classification of antibiotics according to their in vitro activities, the natural and acquired mechanisms of resistance, the emerging resistance and the regional antibiotic resistance profile of clinically relevant anaerobic species are shown.

  15. Concerning the role of cell lysis-cryptic growth in anaerobic side-stream reactors: the single-cell analysis of viable, dead and lysed bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, P; Velho, V F; Costa, R H R; Bruni, L; Quaranta, A; Andreottola, G

    2015-05-01

    In the Anaerobic Side-Stream Reactor (ASSR), part of the return sludge undergoes alternating aerobic and anaerobic conditions with the aim of reducing sludge production. In this paper, viability, enzymatic activity, death and lysis of bacterial cells exposed to aerobic and anaerobic conditions for 16 d were investigated at single-cell level by flow cytometry, with the objective of contributing to the understanding of the mechanisms of sludge reduction in the ASSR systems. Results indicated that total and viable bacteria did not decrease during the anaerobic phase, indicating that anaerobiosis at ambient temperature does not produce a significant cell lysis. Bacteria decay and lysis occurred principally under aerobic conditions. The aerobic decay rate of total bacteria (bTB) was considered as the rate of generation of lysed bacteria. Values of bTB of 0.07-0.11 d(-1) were measured in anaerobic + aerobic sequence. The enzymatic activity was not particularly affected by the transition from anaerobiosis to aerobiosis. Large solubilisation of COD and NH4(+) was observed only under anaerobic conditions, as a consequence of hydrolysis of organic matter, but not due to cell lysis. The observations supported the proposal of two independent mechanisms contributing equally to sludge reduction: (1) under anaerobic conditions: sludge hydrolysis of non-bacterial material, (2) under aerobic conditions: bacterial cell lysis and oxidation of released biodegradable compounds.

  16. The regulatory role of ferric uptake regulator (Fur during anaerobic respiration of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Wei Yang

    Full Text Available Ferric uptake regulator (Fur is a global regulator that controls bacterial iron homeostasis. In this study, a fur deletion mutant of the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 was constructed. Physiological studies revealed that the growth rate of this mutant under aerobic conditions was only slightly lower than that of wild type (WT, but severe growth defects were observed under anaerobic conditions when different electron acceptors (EAs were provided. Comparative transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that Fur is involved not only in classical iron homeostasis but also in anaerobic respiration. Fur exerted pleiotropic effects on the regulation of anaerobic respiration by controlling anaerobic electron transport, the heme biosynthesis system, and the cytochrome c maturation system. Biochemical assays demonstrated that levels of c-type cytochromes were lower in the fur mutant, consistent with the transcriptional profiling. Transcriptomic analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a primary regulation network for Fur in WP3. These results suggest that Fur may act as a sensor for anoxic conditions to trigger and influence the anaerobic respiratory system.

  17. 新型OxyPlateTM厌氧系统隔离眼部厌氧菌的评估%Evaluation of the new OxyPlateTM Anaerobic System for the isolation of ocular anaerobic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emily K. Deschler; Paul P. Thompson; Regis Paul Kowalski

    2013-01-01

    目的:厌氧细菌可引起眼部感染,我们测试OxyPlateTM厌氧系统(OxyPlateTM Anaerobic System,OXY)隔离可引起眼部疾病的厌氧细菌.方法:OXY不需要直接的厌氧条件(比如厌氧袋,罐),将其与常规的厌氧袋培养基相比.琼脂培养基上眼部厌氧细菌菌株在好氧和厌氧条件下(厌氧袋)行标准的菌落计数:(1)OXY(好氧);(2)5%羊血(sheep blood,SB);(3)巧克力琼脂;(4)Schaedler琼脂.测试的眼部体外培养细菌来自眼内炎,泪囊炎,包括10个丙酸杆菌和3个放线菌种类.在每个培养条件下,每个细菌菌落计数隔离,排名从大到小,并在非参数比较下确定最佳的培养条件.结果:所有的厌氧条件对于厌氧菌株呈阳性反应.厌氧菌在有氧条件下的SB和Schaedler的琼脂中无法增长.痤疮丙酸杆菌在巧克力琼脂中生长稀疏.作为一种厌氧系统,在厌氧袋SB分离比OXY(P=0.0028)和巧克力琼脂(P=0.0028)分离出更多的菌落数.结论:虽然OXY经测试并没比其他的厌氧系统更高效,它似乎是一个合理隔离厌氧细菌的替代方法.其琼脂培养基在一个专门设计的盘并不需要厌氧袋使得OXY优于其他厌氧系统.%AIM: Anaerobic bacteria can cause ocular infections. We tested the OxyPlateTM Anaerobic System (OXY) to isolate pertinent anaerobic bacteria that can cause ocular disease.METHODS: OXY, which does not require direct anaerobic conditions (i.e. bags, jars), was compared to conventional isolation of incubating culture media in anaerobic bags. Standard colonies counts were performed on anaerobic ocular bacterial isolates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions (anaerobic bags) using agar media: 1) OXY (aerobic only), 2) 5% sheep blood (SB), 3) Chocolate, and 4) Schaedler. The bacteria tested were de-identified ocular isolates cultured from endophthalmitis and dacryocystitis that include 10 Propionibacterium acnes and 3 Actinomyces species. The colony counts for each bacteria isolate, on each

  18. Comparative study of biological hydrogen production by pure strains and consortia of facultative and strict anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiligsmann, Serge; Masset, Julien; Hamilton, Christopher; Beckers, Laurent; Thonart, Philippe

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, a simple and rapid method was developed in order to assess in comparative tests the production of binary biogas mixtures containing CO(2) and another gaseous compound such as hydrogen or methane. This method was validated and experimented for the characterisation of the biochemical hydrogen potential of different pure strains and mixed cultures of hydrogen-producing bacteria (HPB) growing on glucose. The experimental results compared the hydrogen production yield of 19 different pure strains and sludges: facultative and strict anaerobic HPB strains along with anaerobic digester sludges thermally pre-treated or not. Significant yields variations were recorded even between different strains of the same species by i.e. about 20% for three Clostridium butyricum strains. The pure Clostridium butyricum and pasteurianum strains achieved the highest yields i.e. up to 1.36 mol H(2)/mol glucose compared to the yields achieved by the sludges and the tested Escherichia and Citrobacter strains.

  19. An automated blood culture system: the detection of anaerobic bacteria using a Malthus Microbiological Growth Analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, J P; Barr, J G; Campbell, R R; Bennett, R B; Smyth, E T

    1985-10-01

    The Malthus Microbiological Growth Analyser has proved to be sensitive in detecting conductivity changes due to anaerobic metabolism in a number of widely used blood culture media. Freshly prepared cooked meat media and Thiol medium yielded the greatest gross conductivity changes, and were more sensitive of anaerobic metabolism than other media. Failure of the instrument to detect anaerobic metabolism was a problem particularly associated with growth in the thioglycollate medium. False positive detections of growth were attributed to a number of factors including electrode instability (6.0%) and bacterial contamination (8.75%).

  20. Degradation Action of the Anaerobic Bacteria and Oxygen to the Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiang-Guo; ZHANG Ke

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen could prohibit anaerobic bacterium in the produced water and degrade the polymer molecular chains.Aiming at problems making up aerobic polymer solution by the produced water in Daqing Oil Field, some evaluations were done on the viscosity characteristics of polymer solution and bactericide in anaerobic and aerobic environments. Reasonable aerobic concentration of the produced water was obtained. The experimental results indicate that the viscosity of polymer solution confected by the produced water in the aerobic environment is higher than that of the polymer solution confected by the produced water in the anaerobic environment, and the reasonable ments, but the sterilization effect is better in the aerobic environment.

  1. Simultaneous enrichment of denitrifying anaerobic methane-oxidizing microorganisms and anammox bacteria in a hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhao-Wei; Lu, Yong-Ze; Fu, Liang; Ding, Jing; Zeng, Raymond J

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the coculture system of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) microbes and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria was successfully enriched in a hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor (HfMBR) using freshwater sediment as the inoculum. The maximal removal rates of nitrate and ammonium were 78 mg N/L/day (131 mg N/m(2)/day) and 26 mg N/L/day (43 mg N/m(2)/day), respectively. Due to the high rate of methane mass transfer in HfMBR, the activity of DAMO archaea continued to increase during the enrichment period, indicating that HfMBR could be a powerful tool to enrich DAMO microorganisms. Effects of partial methane pressure, temperature, and pH on the cocultures were obvious. However, the microbial activity in HfMBR could be recovered quickly after the shock change of environmental factors. Furthermore, the result also found that DAMO bacteria likely had a stronger competitive advantage than anammox bacteria under the operating conditions in this study. High-throughput sequencing 16S rRNA genes illustrated that the dominant microbes were NC10, Euryarchaeota, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Chlorobi with relative abundance of 38.8, 26.2, 13.78, 6.2, and 3.6 %, respectively.

  2. Isolation and identification of bacteria responsible for simultaneous anaerobic ammonium and sulfate removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation is a novel biological reaction,in which ammonium is oxidized with sulfate as the electron acceptor under anoxic conditions.Ammonium and sulfate are cosmopolitan chemical species which are an integral part of the global nitrogen and sulfur cycles.A detailed exploration of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation is quite practical.In this work,a bacterial strain named ASR has been isolated from an anaerobic ammonia and sulfate removing reactor working under steady-state.On the basis of electron microscopy,physiological tests and 16S rDNA phylogenetic sequence analysis,the strain ASR is found to be related to Bacillus benzoevorans.According to the biological carbon source utilization test,the strain ASR could use many carbon sources.Its optimum pH value and temperature were 8.5 and 30 °C,respectively.The test proves that the strain ASR is able to use sulfate to oxidize ammonia anaerobically.The maximum ammonia and sulfate removal rates were 44.4% and 40.0%,respectively.The present study provided biological evidence for the confirmation and development of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation and brought new insights into the global nitrogen and sulfur cycles.

  3. Reduction and Immobilization of Radionuclides and Toxic Metal Ions Using Combined Zero Valent Iron and Anaerobic Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenly J. Weathers; Lynn E. Katz

    2002-05-29

    The use of zero valent iron, permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for groundwater remediation continues to increase. AN exciting variation of this technology involves introducing anaerobic bacteria into these barriers so that both biological and abiotic pollutant removal processes are functional. This work evaluated the hypothesis that a system combining a mixed culture of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) with zero valent iron would have a greater cr(VI) removal efficiency and a greater total Cr(VI) removal capacity than a zero valent iron system without the microorganisms. Hence, the overall goal of this research was to compare the performance of these types of systems with regard to their Cr(VI) removal efficiency and total Cr(VI) removal capacity. Both batch and continuous flow reactor systems were evaluated.

  4. [H+-K+-exchange in anaerobically grown Escherichia coli bacteria during use of various sugars as exogenous energy sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trchunian, A A; Ogandzhanian, E S

    1998-01-01

    E.coli bacteria, grown in anaerobic conditions, in the medium with glucose, lactose or maltose, upon transferring into a fresh medium with the same sugar acidify it and accumulate potassium ions with a fixed stoichiometry for the N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-inhibited cation fluxes, which is equal to 2H+ of the cytoplasm per one K+ of the medium. Such an H(+)-K(+)-exchange is sensitive to osmotic shock. In the medium with lactose or maltose cation fluxes are less and the intracellular K+ activity at the moment of maximal accumulation is lower. The H(+)-K(+)-exchange with a variable stoichiometry of cation fluxes is lost in bacteria, grown in a medium with lactose or maltose.

  5. Co-metabolic conversion of toluene in anaerobic n-alkane-degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabus, Ralf; Jarling, René; Lahme, Sven; Kühner, Simon; Heider, Johann; Widdel, Friedrich; Wilkes, Heinz

    2011-09-01

    Diverse microorganisms have been described to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons anaerobically. Strains able to utilize n-alkanes do not grow with aromatic hydrocarbons, whereas strains able to utilize aromatic hydrocarbons do not grow with n-alkanes. To investigate this specificity in more detail, three anaerobic n-alkane degraders (two denitrifying, one sulfate-reducing) and eight anaerobic alkylbenzene degraders (five denitrifying, three sulfate-reducing) were incubated with mixtures of n-alkanes and toluene. Whereas the toluene degradationers formed only the characteristic toluene-derived benzylsuccinate and benzoate, but no n-alkane-derived metabolites, the n-alkane degraders formed toluene-derived benzylsuccinate, 4-phenylbutanoate, phenylacetate and benzoate besides the regular n-alkane-derived (1-methylalkyl)succinates and methyl-branched alkanoates. The co-metabolic conversion of toluene by anaerobic n-alkane degraders to the level of benzoate obviously follows the anaerobic n-alkane degradation pathway with C-skeleton rearrangement and decarboxylation rather than the β-oxidation pathway of anaerobic toluene metabolism. Hence, petroleum-derived aromatic metabolites detectable in anoxic environments may not be exclusively formed by genuine alkylbenzene degraders. In addition, the hitherto largely unexplored fate of fumarate hydrogen during the activation reactions was examined with (2,3-(2) H(2) )fumarate as co-substrate. Deuterium was completely exchanged with hydrogen at the substituted carbon atom (C-2) of the succinate adducts of n-alkanes, whereas it is retained in toluene-derived benzylsuccinate, regardless of the type of enzyme catalysing the fumarate addition reaction.

  6. Anaerobic bacteria in upper respiratory tract and head and neck infections: microbiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Itzhak

    2012-04-01

    Anaerobes are the predominant components of oropharyngeal mucous membranes bacterial flora, and are therefore a common cause of bacterial infections of endogenous origin of upper respiratory tract and head and neck. This review summarizes the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology and antimicrobials therapy of these infections. These include acute and chronic otitis media, mastoiditis and sinusitis, pharyngo-tonsillitis, peritonsillar, retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscesses, suppurative thyroiditis, cervical lymphadenitis, parotitis, siliadenitis, and deep neck infections including Lemierre Syndrome. The recovery from these infections depends on prompt and proper medical and when indicated also surgical management.

  7. Respiratory Ammonification of Nitrate Coupled to Anaerobic Oxidation of Elemental Sulfur in Deep-Sea Autotrophic Thermophilic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodkina, Galina B.; Mardanov, Andrey V.; Ravin, Nikolai V.; Frolova, Anastasia A.; Chernyh, Nikolay A.; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A.; Slobodkin, Alexander I.

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory ammonification of nitrate is the microbial process that determines the retention of nitrogen in an ecosystem. To date, sulfur-dependent dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium has been demonstrated only with sulfide as an electron donor. We detected a novel pathway that couples the sulfur and nitrogen cycles. Thermophilic anaerobic bacteria Thermosulfurimonas dismutans and Dissulfuribacter thermophilus, isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents, grew autotrophically with elemental sulfur as an electron donor and nitrate as an electron acceptor producing sulfate and ammonium. The genomes of both bacteria contain a gene cluster that encodes a putative nitrate ammonification enzyme system. Nitrate reduction occurs via a Nap-type complex. The reduction of produced nitrite to ammonium does not proceed via the canonical Nrf system because nitrite reductase NrfA is absent in the genomes of both microorganisms. The genome of D. thermophilus encodes a complete sulfate reduction pathway, while the Sox sulfur oxidation system is missing, as shown previously for T. dismutans. Thus, in high-temperature environments, nitrate ammonification with elemental sulfur may represent an unrecognized route of primary biomass production. Moreover, the anaerobic oxidation of sulfur compounds coupled to growth has not previously been demonstrated for the members of Thermodesulfobacteria or Deltaproteobacteria, which were considered exclusively as participants of the reductive branch of the sulfur cycle. PMID:28194142

  8. Anaerobic nitrite-dependent methane-oxidizing bacteria - novel participants in methane cycling of drained peatlands ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Irina; Sukhacheva, Marina; Menko, Ekaterina; Sirin, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Northern peatlands are one of the key sources of atmospheric methane. Process-based studies of methane dynamic are based on the hypothesis of the balance between microbial methane production and oxidation, but this doesn't explain all variations in and constraints on peatland CH4 emissions. One of the reasons for this discrepancy could be anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) - the process which is still poorly studied and remained controversial. Very little is known about AOM in peatlands, where it could work as an important 'internal' sink for CH4. This lack of knowledge primarily originated from researchers who generally consider AOM quantitatively insignificant or even non-existent in northern peatland ecosystems. But not far ago, Smemo and Yavitt (2007) presented evidence for AOM in freshwater peatlands used indirect techniques including isotope dilution assays and selective methanogenic inhibitors. Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation NC10 group bacteria (n-damo) were detected in a minerotrophic peatland in the Netherlands that is infiltrated by nitrate-rich ground water (Zhu et al., 2012). Present study represents the first, to our knowledge, characterization of AOM in human disturbed peatlands, including hydrological elements of artificial drainage network. The experiments were conducted with samples of peat from drained peatlands, as well as of water and bottom sediments of ditches from drained Dubnensky mire massif, Moscow region (Chistotin et al., 2006; Sirin et al., 2012). This is the key testing area of our research group in European part of Russia for the long-term greenhouse gases fluxes measurements supported by testing physicochemical parameters, intensity and genomic diversity of CH4-cycling microbial communities. Only in sediments of drainage ditches the transition anaerobic zone was found, where methane and nitrate occurred, suggested the possible ecological niche for n-damo bacteria. The NC10 group methanotrophs were analyzed by PCR

  9. Detection, phylogeny and population dynamics of syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria in anaerobic granular sludge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, H.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The research described this thesis concerns the diversity and phylogeny of syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria and their ecology in granular sludge, from which they were obtained. 16S rRNA was used as a molecular marker to study both the phylogeny and the ecology of these bacteria. Sequence ana

  10. Organism-adapted specificity of the allosteric regulation of pyruvate kinase in lactic acid bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Veith

    Full Text Available Pyruvate kinase (PYK is a critical allosterically regulated enzyme that links glycolysis, the primary energy metabolism, to cellular metabolism. Lactic acid bacteria rely almost exclusively on glycolysis for their energy production under anaerobic conditions, which reinforces the key role of PYK in their metabolism. These organisms are closely related, but have adapted to a huge variety of native environments. They include food-fermenting organisms, important symbionts in the human gut, and antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In contrast to the rather conserved inhibition of PYK by inorganic phosphate, the activation of PYK shows high variability in the type of activating compound between different lactic acid bacteria. System-wide comparative studies of the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria are required to understand the reasons for the diversity of these closely related microorganisms. These require knowledge of the identities of the enzyme modifiers. Here, we predict potential allosteric activators of PYKs from three lactic acid bacteria which are adapted to different native environments. We used protein structure-based molecular modeling and enzyme kinetic modeling to predict and validate potential activators of PYK. Specifically, we compared the electrostatic potential and the binding of phosphate moieties at the allosteric binding sites, and predicted potential allosteric activators by docking. We then made a kinetic model of Lactococcus lactis PYK to relate the activator predictions to the intracellular sugar-phosphate conditions in lactic acid bacteria. This strategy enabled us to predict fructose 1,6-bisphosphate as the sole activator of the Enterococcus faecalis PYK, and to predict that the PYKs from Streptococcus pyogenes and Lactobacillus plantarum show weaker specificity for their allosteric activators, while still having fructose 1,6-bisphosphate play the main activator role in vivo. These differences in the specificity of allosteric

  11. Bioaugmentation of anaerobic sludge digestion with iron-reducing bacteria: process and microbial responses to variations in hydraulic retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Gahyun; Kim, Jaai; Shin, Seung Gu; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-01-01

    Although anaerobic digestion (AD) is a widely used option to manage waste activated sludge (WAS), there are some drawbacks related to its slow reaction rate and low energy productivity. This study examined an anaerobic WAS digester, augmented with an iron-reducing microbial consortium, relative to changes in microbial community structure and process performance at decreasing hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 20 to 10 days. The enhanced methanation performance (approximately 40 % increase in methane yield) by the bioaugmentation was sustained until the HRT was decreased to 12.5 days, under Fe(3+)-rich conditions (ferric oxyhydroxide, 20 mM Fe). Enhanced iron-reducing activity was evidenced by the increased Fe(2+) to total Fe ratio maintained above 50 % during the stable operational phases. A further decrease in HRT to 10 days resulted in a significant performance deterioration, along with a drop in the Fe(2+) to total Fe ratio to <35 %, after four turnovers of operation. Prevailing existence of putative iron-reducing bacteria (IRBs) was identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), with Spirochaetaceae- and Thauera-related organisms being dominant members, and clear dominance shifts among them with respect to decrease in HRT were observed. Lowering HRT led to evident shifts in bacterial community structure likely associated with washout of IRBs, leading to decreases in iron respiration activity and AD performance at a lower HRT. The bacterial community structure shifted dynamically over phases, and the community transitions correlated well with the changes in process performance. Overall, the combined biostimulation and bioaugmentation investigated in this study proved effective for enhanced methane recovery from anaerobic WAS digestion, which suggests an interesting potential for high-rate AD.

  12. The determination of the real nano-scale sizes of bacteria in chernozem during microbial succession by means of hatching of a soil in aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbacheva, M.

    2012-04-01

    M.A. Gorbacheva,L.M. Polyanskaya The Faculty of Soil Science, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, GSP-1, Moscow,119991,Russia In recent years there's been particular attention paid to the smallest life's forms- bacteria which size can be measured in nanometer. These are the forms of bacteria with diameter of 5-200 nm. Theoretical calculations based on the content of the minimum number of DNA, enzyme, lipids in and ribosome in cells indicates impossibility of existence of a living cells within diameter less than 300 nm. It is theoretically possible for a living cell to exist within possible diameter of approximately 140 nm. Using a fluorescence microscope there's been indicated in a number of samples from lakes, rivers, soil, snow and rain water that 200 nm is the smallest diameter of a living cell. Supposingly, such a small size of bacteria in soil is determined by natural conditions which limit their development by nutritious substances and stress-factors. Rejuvenescence of nanobacteria under unfavourable natural conditions and stress-factors is studied in laboratory environment. The object of the current study has become the samples of typical arable chernozem of the Central Chernozem State Biosphere Reserve in Kursk. The detailed morphological description of the soil profile and its basic analytical characteristics are widely represented in scientific publications. The soil is characterized by a high carbon content which makes up 3,96% ,3,8% , and 2,9% for the upper layers of the A horizon, and 0,79% for the layer of the B horizon. A microbial succession was studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by means of experiments with microcosms in upper A horizons and B horizon of a chernozem. The final aim is to identify the cells size of bacteria in aerobic and anaerobic soil conditions in chernozem during the microbial succession, by dampening and application of chitin by means of «cascade filtration» method. The study of the microcosms is important for

  13. Peyer's patch innate lymphoid cells regulate commensal bacteria expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Masaaki; Kashiwakura, Yuji; Kojima, Hidefumi; Kobayashi, Ayano; Kanno, Yumiko; Kobata, Tetsuji

    2015-05-01

    Anatomical containment of commensal bacteria in the intestinal mucosa is promoted by innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). However, the mechanism by which ILCs regulate bacterial localization to specific regions remains unknown. Here we show that Peyer's patch (PP) ILCs robustly produce IL-22 and IFN-γ in the absence of exogenous stimuli. Antibiotic treatment of mice decreased both IL-22+ and IFN-γ+ cells in PPs. Blockade of both IL-2 and IL-23 signaling in vitro lowered IL-22 and IFN-γ production. PP ILCs induced mRNA expression of the antibacterial proteins RegIIIβ and RegIIIγ in intestinal epithelial cells. Furthermore, in vivo depletion of ILCs rather than T cells altered bacterial composition and allowed bacterial proliferation in PPs. Collectively, our results show that ILCs regulate the expansion of commensal bacteria in PPs.

  14. Pretreatment of wheat straw and conversion of xylose and xylan to ethanol by thermophilic anaerobic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Jensen, K.; Nielsen, P.

    1996-01-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by wet oxidation (oxygen pressure, alkaline conditions, elevated temperature) or hydrothermal processing (without oxygen) in order to solubilize the hemicellulose, facilitating bio-conversion. The effect of oxygen pressure and sodium carbonate addition on hemicellulose...... solubilization was investigated. The two process parameters had little effect on the solubilization of hemicellulose. However alkaline conditions affected the furfural formation whereas oxygen had no effect. After pretreatment, the filtrate was used as a fermentation medium for thermophilic anaerobic bacterin...... of the microorganism to the wet oxidized filtrate was also examined. Copyright (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  15. Temperature regulates methane production through the function centralization of microbial community in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiang; De Vrieze, Jo; He, Guihua; Li, Xiangzhen; Li, Jiabao

    2016-09-01

    Temperature is crucial for the performance of anaerobic digestion process. In this study of anaerobic digestion of swine manure, the relationship between the microbial gene expression and methane production at different temperatures (25-55°C) was revealed through metatranscriptomic analysis. Daily methane production and total biogas production increased with temperature up to 50°C, but decreased at 55°C. The functional gene expression showed great variation at different temperatures. The function centralization (opposite to alpha-diversity), assessed by the least proportions of functional pathways contributing for at least 50% of total reads positively correlated to methane production. Temperature regulated methane production probably through reducing the diversity of functional pathways, but enhancing central functional pathways, so that most of cellular activities and resource were invested in methanogenesis and related pathways, enhancing the efficiency of conversion of substrates to methane. This research demonstrated the importance of function centralization for efficient system functioning.

  16. A novel mechanism controls anaerobic and catabolite regulation of the Escherichia coli tdc operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, G

    2001-03-01

    The tdc operon is subject to CRP-controlled catabolite repression. Expression of the operon is also induced anaerobically, although this regulation does not rely on direct control by either FNR or ArcA. Recently, the anaerobic expression of the tdc operon was found to be fortuitously induced in the presence of glucose by a heterologous gene isolated from the Gram-positive anaerobe Clostridium butyricum. The gene, termed tcbC, encoded a histone-like protein of 14.5 kDa. Using tdc-lacZ fusions, it was shown that TcbC did not activate tdc expression by functionally replacing any of the operon regulators. In vitro transcription analyses with RNA polymerase and CRP revealed that faithful CRP-dependent transcription initiation occurred only on supercoiled templates. No specific, CRP-dependent transcription initiation was observed on relaxed or linear DNA templates. Surprisingly, purified His-tagged TcbC activated transcription from a relaxed, circular template, but not from supercoiled or linear templates. Examination of the CRP binding site of the tdc promoter revealed that it was located 43.5 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site. Repositioning of the CRP site at -41.5 bp abolished activation by the TcbC protein and allowed CRP-dependent transcription to occur on linear, relaxed and supercoiled templates. TcbC bound DNA non-specifically; however, in topoisomerase I relaxation assays, it was demonstrated that TcbC imposed torsional constraints on negatively supercoiled DNA, which influenced the ability of the enzyme to relax the topoisomers. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that TcbC activates transcription of tdc by altering the local topological status of the tdc promoter and that, in the wild-type tdc promoter, the CRP binding site is misaligned to allow transcription to occur only under optimal conditions. Indeed, in vivo transcription analyses revealed that repositioning of the CRP binding site to -41.5 bp resulted in high-level, CRP

  17. Potential for using thermophilic anaerobic bacteria for bioethanol production from hemicellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, P.; Georgieva, Tania I.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    A limited number of bacteria, yeast and fungi can convert hemicellulose or its monomers (xylose, arabinose, mannose and galactose) into ethanol with a satisfactory yield and productivity. In the present study we tested a number of thermophilic enrichment cultures, and new isolates of thermophilic...

  18. Constitutive and regulated expression vectors to construct polyphosphate deficient bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerez Carlos A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP, a polymer of tens or hundreds of phosphate residues linked by ATP-like bonds, is found in all organisms and performs a wide variety of functions. PolyP is synthesized in bacterial cells by the actions of polyphosphate kinases (PPK1 and PPK2 and degraded by an exopolyphosphatase (PPX. Bacterial cells with polyP deficiencies are impaired in many structural and important cellular functions such as motility, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and virulence. Knockout mutants of the ppk1 gene have been the most frequent strategy employed to generate polyP deficient cells. Results As an alternative method to construct polyP-deficient bacteria we developed constitutive and regulated broad-host-range vectors for depleting the cellular polyP content. This was achieved by the overexpression of yeast exopolyphosphatase (PPX1. Using this approach in a polyphosphate accumulating bacteria (Pseudomonas sp. B4, we were able to eliminate most of the cellular polyP (>95%. Furthermore, the effect of overexpression of PPX1 resembled the functional defects found in motility and biofilm formation in a ppk1 mutant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The plasmids constructed were also successfully replicated in other bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Burkholderia and Salmonella. Conclusion To deplete polyP contents in bacteria broad-host-range expression vectors can be used as an alternative and more efficient method compared with the deletion of ppk genes. It is of great importance to understand why polyP deficiency affects vital cellular processes in bacteria. The construction reported in this work will be of great relevance to study the role of polyP in microorganisms with non-sequenced genomes or those in which orthologs to ppk genes have not been identified.

  19. [Effect of temperature on H+-K+ exchange in Escherichia coli bacteria during their anaerobic growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardanian, V; Trchunian, A

    1998-01-01

    The H(+)-K(+)-exchange in E.coli grown under anaerobic conditions at temperatures from 17 to 37 degrees C was studied. The Arrhenius plots for both the N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-sensitive release of H+ and K+ uptake by cells transferred into a fresh medium containing a carbon source (glucose) are nonlinear. The activation energy values for the transport of these cations at different temperatures significantly differ. It is shown that as the temperature decreases, the accumulation of K+ by cells is reduced. In this process, the initial rate of K+ absorption through the TrkA system, the time of accumulation of these cations by cells and the osmosensitivity of K+ uptake substantially decrease. At temperatures below 20 degrees C, the absorption becomes insensitive to the secondary osmoshock. However, the stoichiometry of N,N'-dicyclohexylcar-bodiimide-sensitive cation fluxes remains unchanged and is equal to 2H+:K+. It is assumed that the H(+)-K(+)-exchange proceeds by the operation of an ensemble of oligomers, formed from the protomers of F0F1 and TrkA, which rearrange by the action of temperature, whereas F0F1 and TrkA in each protomer do not change.

  20. Studies on some characteristics of hydrogen production by cell-free extracts of rumen anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, A E; Winter, W T; Godbout, D M

    1977-03-01

    Hydrogen production was studied in the following rumen anaerobes: Bacteroides clostridiiformis, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Enbacterium limosum, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Megasphaera elsdenii, Ruminococcus albus, and Ruminococcus flavefaciens. Clostridium pasteurianum and Escherichia coli were included for comparative purposes. Hydrogen production from dithionite, dithionite-reduced methyl viologen, pyruvate, and formate was determined. All species tested produced hydrogen from dithionite-reduce methyl viologen, but only C. pasteurianum, B. clostridiiformis, E. limosum, and M. elsdenii produced hydrogen from dithionite. All species except E. coli produced hydrogen from pyruvate, but activity was low or absent in extracts of E. limosum, F. necrophorum, R. albus, and R. flavefaciens unless methyl viologen was added. Hydrogen was produced from formate only by E. coli, B. clostridiiformis, E. limosum, F. necrophorum, and R. flavefaciens. Extracts were subjected to ultracentrifugation in an effort to determine the solubility of hydrogenase. The hydrogenase of all species except E. coli appeared to be soluble, although variable amounts of hydrogenase activity were detected in the pellet. Treatment of extracts of the rumen microbial species with DEAE-cellulose resulted in loss ofhydrogen production from pyruvate. Activity was restored by the addition of methyl viologen. It is concluded that hydrogen production in these rumen microorganisms is similar to that in the saccharolytic clostridia.

  1. Direct observation and quantification of extracellular long-range electron flow in anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvankar, Nikhil; Yalcin, Sibel; Vargas, Madeline; Tuominen, Mark; Lovley, Derek

    2013-03-01

    Some anaerobic microorganisms are capable of transporting electrons outside their cell to distant electron acceptors such as metals, minerals or partner species. Previous studies have focused primarily on transport over short distances ( 10 μm) using pili filaments that show organic metal-like conductivity. Pili also enable direct exchange of electrons among syntrophic Geobacter co-cultures. In order to establish the physical principles underlying this remarkable electron transport, we have employed a novel scanning probe microscopy-based method to perform quantitative measurements of electron flow at a single cell level under physiological conditions. Using this nanoscopic approach, we have directly observed the propagation and distribution of injected electrons in individual native bacterial extracellular proteins. Our direct measurements demonstrate unambiguously for the first time that the pili of G. sulfurreducens are a novel class of electronically functional proteins that can sustain electron flow in a surprising manner that has not been observed previously in any other natural protein. Funded by Office of Naval Research, DOE Genomic Sciences and NSF-NSEC Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing grant no. CMMI-1025020.

  2. Comprehensive analysis of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria found on dental bib clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt-Holland, Addy; Murphy, Christina M; Powers, Anne; Kublin, Claire L; Jeong, Youjin Natalie; DiMattia, Michelle; Pham, Linh; Park, Angel; Finkelman, Matthew; Lombard, Maureen; Hanley, James B; Paster, Bruce J; Kugel, Gerard

    2013-04-01

    Multiple-use dental bib clips are considered to present relatively low risks for transmitting infections and, thus, are thought to only require disinfection between patient visits. This study was designed to: 1) determine the presence and composition of bacterial contaminants on reusable rubber-faced metal bib clips after dental treatment at the hygiene clinic at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine and 2) evaluate the effectiveness of the disinfection for this clip type. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial contaminant loads on the surfaces of the clips were investigated immediately after hygiene treatments were rendered and again after clips were disinfected. The species and strains of bacterial isolates were identified using 16S rDNA sequencing and Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray analyses. The results demonstrated that although the use of disinfection proved to be significantly effective, some clips retained at least one bacterium on their surfaces after disinfection. Although the bacterial species present on disinfected clips were typical skin or environmental isolates, some were oral in origin. In the study's settings, bacterial presence on the clips did not indicate an infectious disease problem. The different bacterial loads on clips suggest that cross-contamination risks may not be the same for all clinics, and that this difference may be related to the type of treatments and services performed.

  3. Kinetic analysis of hydrogen production using anaerobic bacteria in reverse micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi, Xiaohua; Yang, Haijun; Yuan, Zhuliang; Shen, Jianquan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Laboratory of New Materials, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun North First Street 2, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-04-15

    The micellar formation and entrapment of bacteria cell in reverse micelles were investigated by ultraviolet spectrum (UV), fluorescence spectrum, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hydrogen production in reverse micelles was confirmed. The Gompertz equation was employed to evaluate the hydrogen-producing behavior in reverse micellar systems. Different systems including dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT)-isooctane, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-benzene and SDS-carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) reverse micelles were analysized. The results revealed that the maximum rate of hydrogen production (R{sub m}) was also suitable to formulate the relationship between hydrogen-producing rate and hydrogen productivity in reverse micelles. (author)

  4. Anaerobic hydrocarbon and fatty acid metabolism by syntrophic bacteria and their impact on carbon steel corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Neil Lyles

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The microbial metabolism of hydrocarbons is increasingly associated with the corrosion of carbon steel in sulfate-rich marine waters. However, how such transformations influence metal biocorrosion in the absence of an electron acceptor is not fully recognized. We grew a marine alkane-utilizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfoglaeba alkanexedens, with either sulfate or Methanospirillum hungatei as electron acceptors, and tested the ability of the cultures to catalyze metal corrosion. Axenically, D. alkanexedens had a higher instantaneous corrosion rate and produced more pits in carbon steel coupons than when the same organism was grown in syntrophic co-culture with the methanogen. Since anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation pathways converge on fatty acid intermediates, the corrosive ability of a known fatty acid-oxidizing syntrophic bacterium, Syntrophus aciditrophicus was compared when grown in pure culture or in co-culture with a H2-utilizing sulfate-reducing bacterium (Desulfovibrio sp., strain G11 or a methanogen (M. hungatei. The instantaneous corrosion rates in the cultures were not substantially different, but the syntrophic, sulfate-reducing co-culture produced more pits in coupons than other combinations of microorganisms. Lactate-grown cultures of strain G11 had higher instantaneous corrosion rates and coupon pitting compared to the same organism cultured with hydrogen as an electron donor. Thus, if sulfate is available as an electron acceptor, the same microbial assemblages produce sulfide and low molecular weight organic acids that exacerbated biocorrosion. Despite these trends, a surprisingly high degree of variation was encountered with the corrosion assessments. Differences in biomass, initial substrate concentration, rates of microbial activity or the degree of end product formation did not account for the variations. We are forced to ascribe such differences to the metallurgical properties of the coupons.

  5. Anaerobic hydrocarbon and fatty acid metabolism by syntrophic bacteria and their impact on carbon steel corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Christopher N; Le, Huynh M; Beasley, William Howard; McInerney, Michael J; Suflita, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The microbial metabolism of hydrocarbons is increasingly associated with the corrosion of carbon steel in sulfate-rich marine waters. However, how such transformations influence metal biocorrosion in the absence of an electron acceptor is not fully recognized. We grew a marine alkane-utilizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfoglaeba alkanexedens, with either sulfate or Methanospirillum hungatei as electron acceptors, and tested the ability of the cultures to catalyze metal corrosion. Axenically, D. alkanexedens had a higher instantaneous corrosion rate and produced more pits in carbon steel coupons than when the same organism was grown in syntrophic co-culture with the methanogen. Since anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation pathways converge on fatty acid intermediates, the corrosive ability of a known fatty acid-oxidizing syntrophic bacterium, Syntrophus aciditrophicus was compared when grown in pure culture or in co-culture with a H2-utilizing sulfate-reducing bacterium (Desulfovibrio sp., strain G11) or a methanogen (M. hungatei). The instantaneous corrosion rates in the cultures were not substantially different, but the syntrophic, sulfate-reducing co-culture produced more pits in coupons than other combinations of microorganisms. Lactate-grown cultures of strain G11 had higher instantaneous corrosion rates and coupon pitting compared to the same organism cultured with hydrogen as an electron donor. Thus, if sulfate is available as an electron acceptor, the same microbial assemblages produce sulfide and low molecular weight organic acids that exacerbated biocorrosion. Despite these trends, a surprisingly high degree of variation was encountered with the corrosion assessments. Differences in biomass, initial substrate concentration, rates of microbial activity or the degree of end product formation did not account for the variations. We are forced to ascribe such differences to the metallurgical properties of the coupons.

  6. Redox regulation by reversible protein S-thiolation in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Van Loi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Low molecular weight (LMW thiols function as thiol-redox buffers to maintain the reduced state of the cytoplasm. The best studied LMW thiol is the tripeptide glutathione (GSH present in all eukaryotes and Gram-negative bacteria. Firmicutes bacteria, including Bacillus and Staphylococcus species utilize the redox buffer bacillithiol (BSH while Actinomycetes produce the related redox buffer mycothiol (MSH. In eukaryotes, proteins are post-translationally modified to S-glutathionylated proteins under conditions of oxidative stress. S-glutathionylation has emerged as major redox-regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes and protects active site cysteine residues against overoxidation to sulfonic acids. First studies identified S-glutathionylated proteins also in Gram-negative bacteria. Advances in mass spectrometry have further facilitated the identification of protein S-bacillithiolations and S-mycothiolation as BSH- and MSH-mixed protein disulfides formed under oxidative stress in Firmicutes and Actinomycetes, respectively. In Bacillus subtilis, protein S-bacillithiolation controls the activities of the redox-sensing OhrR repressor and the methionine synthase MetE in vivo. In Corynebacterium glutamicum, protein S-mycothiolation was more widespread and affected the functions of the maltodextrin phosphorylase MalP and thiol peroxidase (Tpx. In addition, novel bacilliredoxins (Brx and mycoredoxins (Mrx1 were shown to function similar to glutaredoxins in the reduction of BSH- and MSH-mixed protein disulfides. Here we review the current knowledge about the functions of the bacterial thiol-redox buffers glutathione, bacillithiol and mycothiol and the role of protein S-thiolation in redox regulation and thiol protection in model and pathogenic bacteria.

  7. Redox regulation by reversible protein S-thiolation in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Vu Van; Rossius, Martina; Antelmann, Haike

    2015-01-01

    Low molecular weight (LMW) thiols function as thiol-redox buffers to maintain the reduced state of the cytoplasm. The best studied LMW thiol is the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) present in all eukaryotes and Gram-negative bacteria. Firmicutes bacteria, including Bacillus and Staphylococcus species utilize the redox buffer bacillithiol (BSH) while Actinomycetes produce the related redox buffer mycothiol (MSH). In eukaryotes, proteins are post-translationally modified to S-glutathionylated proteins under conditions of oxidative stress. S-glutathionylation has emerged as major redox-regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes and protects active site cysteine residues against overoxidation to sulfonic acids. First studies identified S-glutathionylated proteins also in Gram-negative bacteria. Advances in mass spectrometry have further facilitated the identification of protein S-bacillithiolations and S-mycothiolation as BSH- and MSH-mixed protein disulfides formed under oxidative stress in Firmicutes and Actinomycetes, respectively. In Bacillus subtilis, protein S-bacillithiolation controls the activities of the redox-sensing OhrR repressor and the methionine synthase MetE in vivo. In Corynebacterium glutamicum, protein S-mycothiolation was more widespread and affected the functions of the maltodextrin phosphorylase MalP and thiol peroxidase (Tpx). In addition, novel bacilliredoxins (Brx) and mycoredoxins (Mrx1) were shown to function similar to glutaredoxins in the reduction of BSH- and MSH-mixed protein disulfides. Here we review the current knowledge about the functions of the bacterial thiol-redox buffers glutathione, bacillithiol, and mycothiol and the role of protein S-thiolation in redox regulation and thiol protection in model and pathogenic bacteria.

  8. Vertical profiles of community abundance and diversity of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and bacteria in a simple waste landfill in north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Ding, Linjie; Wang, Xu; Chi, Zifang; Lei, Jiansen

    2015-03-01

    Anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) is considered to be an important sink of CH4 in habitats as marine sediments. But, few studies focused on AMO in landfills which may be an important sink of CH4 derived from waste fermentation. To show evidence of AMO and to uncover function anaerobic methanotroph (ANME) community in landfill, different age waste samples were collected in Jinqianpu landfill located in north China. Through high-throughput sequencing, Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales archaea associated with ANME and reverse methanogenic archaea of Methanosarcina and Methanobacterium were detected. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) (Desulfobulbus and Desulfococcus) which could couple with ANME-conducting AMO were also found. But, the community structure of ANME had no significant difference with depths. From the results of investigation, we can come to a conclusion that sulfate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (SR-DAMO) would be the dominant AMO process in the landfill, while iron-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (M/IR-DAMO) process was weak though concentration of ferric iron was large in the landfill. Denitrification-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (NR-DAMO) was negative because of lack of nitrate and relevant function microorganisms in the landfill. Results also indicate that CH4 mitigation would have higher potential by increasing electron acceptor contents and promoting the growth of relevant function microorganisms.

  9. Shifts in the community structure and activity of anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria along an estuarine salinity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanling; Jiang, Xiaofen; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Lin, Xianbiao; Gao, Juan; Li, Xiaofei; Yin, Guoyu; Yu, Chendi; Wang, Rong

    2016-06-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a major microbial pathway for nitrogen (N) removal in estuarine and coastal environments. However, understanding of anammox bacterial dynamics and associations with anammox activity remains scarce along estuarine salinity gradient. In this study, the diversity, abundance, and activity of anammox bacteria, and their potential contributions to total N2 production in the sediments along the salinity gradient (0.1-33.8) of the Yangtze estuarine and coastal zone, were studied using 16S rRNA gene clone library, quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, and isotope-tracing technique. Phylogenetic analysis showed a significant change in anammox bacterial community structure along the salinity gradient (P important factor in controlling the relative role of anammox to total N2 production in the Yangtze estuarine and coastal zone. Overall, our data demonstrated a biogeographical distribution of anammox bacterial diversity, abundance, and activity along the estuarine salinity gradient and suggested that salinity is a major environmental control on anammox process in the estuarine and coastal ecosystems.

  10. Anaerobic thermophilic bacteria isolated from a Venezuelan oil field and its potential use in microbial improved oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebbau, G.; Fernandez, B.; Marin, A. [INTEVEP S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this work is to determine the ability of indigenous bacteria from a Venezuelan oil field to grow under reservoir conditions inside a porous media, and to produce metabolites capable of recovering residual crude oil. For this purpose, samples of formation waters from a central-eastern Venezuelan oil reservoir were enriched with different carbon sources and a mineral basal media. Formation water was used as a source of trace metals. The enrichments obtained were incubated at reservoir temperature (71{degrees}C), reservoir pressure (1,200 psi), and under anaerobic conditions for both outside and inside porous media (Berea core). Growth and metabolic activity was followed outside porous media by measuring absorbance at 660 nm, increases in pressure, and decreases in pH. Inside porous media bacterial activity was determined by visual examination of the produced waters (gas bubbles and bacterial cells). All the carbohydrates tested outside porous media showed good growth at reservoir conditions. The pH was lowered, gases such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were identified by GC. Surface tension was lowered in some enrichments by 30% when compared to controls. Growth was decreased inside porous media, but gases were produced and helped displace oil. In addition, 10% residual oil was recovered from the Berea core. Mathematical modeling was applied to the laboratory coreflood experiment to evaluate the reproducibility of the results obtained.

  11. Laboratory identification of anaerobic bacteria isolated on Clostridium difficile selective medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Cristina; Warszawski, Nathalie; Korsak, Nicolas; Taminiau, Bernard; Van Broeck, Johan; Delmée, Michel; Daube, Georges

    2016-06-01

    Despite increasing interest in the bacterium, the methodology for Clostridium difficile recovery has not yet been standardized. Cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose taurocholate (CCFT) has historically been the most used medium for C. difficile isolation from human, animal, environmental, and food samples, and presumptive identification is usually based on colony morphologies. However, CCFT is not totally selective. This study describes the recovery of 24 bacteria species belonging to 10 different genera other than C. difficile, present in the environment and foods of a retirement establishment that were not inhibited in the C. difficile selective medium. These findings provide insight for further environmental and food studies as well as for the isolation of C. difficile on supplemented CCFT.

  12. Dissimilatory Reduction of Elemental Selenium to Selenide in Sediments and Anaerobic Cultures of Selenium Respiring Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, M. J.; Switzer-Blum, J.; Oremland, R. S.

    2001-12-01

    Selenium contaminated environments often contain elemental Se (Se0) in their sediments that originates from dissimilatory reduction of Se oxyanions. The forms of Se in sedimentary rocks similarly contain high proportions of Se0, but much of the Se is also in the form of metal selenides, Se-2. It is not clear if the occurrence of these selenides is due to microbial reduction of Se0, or some other biological or chemical process. In this investigation we examined the possibility that bacterial respiratory reduction of Se0 to Se-2 could explain the presence of the latter species in sedimentary rocks. We conducted incubations of anoxic sediment slurries amended with different forms of Se0. High levels of Se0 (mM) were added to San Francisco Bay sediments in order to enhance the detection of soluble HSe-, which was precipitated with Cu2+ then redissolved and quantified by ICP-MS. Concentrations of HSe- were highest in live samples amended with red amorphous Se0 formed by either microbial reduction of Se+4 ("biogenic Se0") or by chemical oxidation of H2Se(g) ("chem. Se0"); very little HSe- was formed in those amended with black crystalline Se0, indicating the general lack of reactivity of this allotrope. Controls poisoned with 10% formalin did not produce HSe- from additions of chem. Se0. Reduction of both forms of red amorphous Se0 to HSe- occurred vigorously in growing cultures of Bacillus selenitireducens, an anaerobic halophile previously isolated from sediments of Mono Lake, CA. Up to 73% and 68% of red amorphous, biogenic Se0 or chem. Se0, respectively, was reduced to HSe- during growth of B. selenitireducens, (incubation time ~ 200 hrs): oxidation of lactate to acetate as well as cell density increases indicated that a dissimilatory reduction pathway was likely. Reduction was most enhanced when cells were previously grown on elemental sulfur or Se+4. In contrast to the growth experiments, washed cell suspensions of B. selenitireducens exhibited no HSe- production

  13. Regulation of the organic pollution level in anaerobic digesters by using off-line COD measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Acosta, H O; García-Sandoval, J P; González-Álvarez, V; Alcaraz-González, V; Jáuregui-Jáuregui, J A

    2011-09-01

    A sampled delayed scheme is proposed to regulate the organic pollution level in anaerobic digestion processes by using off-line COD measurements. The proposed scheme is obtained by combining an error feedback control with a steady state estimator to track constant references and attenuate process load disturbances. The controller performance is tested experimentally for the treatment of tequila vinasses over a period of 68days under different set-point values and several uncertain scenarios which include badly known kinetic parameters and load disturbances. Experimental results show that the COD concentration can be effectively regulated under the influence of set-point changes and high load disturbances by using only a daily off-line COD measurement, which makes the industrial application of the proposed control scheme feasible.

  14. Anaerobic degradation of cyclohexane by sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eJaekel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fate of cyclohexane, often used as a model compound for the biodegradation of cyclic alkanes due to its abundance in crude oils, in anoxic marine sediments has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we obtained an enrichment culture of cyclohexane-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated intertidal marine sediments. Microscopic analyses showed an apparent dominance by oval cells of 1.5×0.8 m. Analysis of a 16S rRNA gene library, followed by whole-cell hybridization with group- and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that these cells belonged to a single phylotype, and were accounting for more than 80% of the total cell number. The dominant phylotype, affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster of the Deltaproteobacteria, is proposed to be responsible for the degradation of cyclohexane. Quantitative growth experiments showed that cyclohexane degradation was coupled with the stoichiometric reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Substrate response tests corroborated with hybridization with a sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe suggested that the dominant phylotype apparently was able to degrade other cyclic and n-alkanes, including the gaseous alkanes propane and n-butane. Based on GC-MS analyses of culture extracts cyclohexylsuccinate was identified as a metabolite, indicating an activation of cyclohexane by addition to fumarate. Other metabolites detected were 3-cyclohexylpropionate and cyclohexanecarboxylate providing evidence that the overall degradation pathway of cyclohexane under anoxic conditions is analogous to that of n-alkanes.

  15. Evaluation the anaerobic hydrolysis acidification stage of kitchen waste by pH regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaya; Zang, Bing; Li, Guoxue; Liu, Yu

    2016-07-01

    This study analyzed the composition and characteristic of kitchen waste (KW) from closed cleaning station of Chaoyang District, Beijing. It was featured by high vegetables and peels contents. This study investigated effect of pH regulation and uncontrolled pH (CK) on the lab-scale anaerobic hydrolysis acidification stage of KW. The optimal adjusting mode by NaOH (including dosage and frequency) was evaluated according to indexes of pH, VFAs, NH4(+)-N, TS, VS, TS/VS, TS and VS removal rate. The treatment 4 as first two days adjusting per 16h and then one time per day at pH 7 was chosen as the optimal mode with high VFAs content(47.31g/L), TS and VS removal rate (42.95% and 54.01%, respectively), low adjusting frequency, fewer dosage and practical operability. Thus, adjusting mode of treatment 4 could be considered using in anaerobic hydrolysis acidification stage on engineering.

  16. Ethanol and hydrogen production by two thermophilic, anaerobic bacteria isolated from Icelandic geothermal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Perttu E P; Beck, Steinar R; Orlygsson, Jóhann; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2008-11-01

    Microbial fermentations are potential producers of sustainable energy carriers. In this study, ethanol and hydrogen production was studied by two thermophilic bacteria (strain AK15 and AK17) isolated from geothermal springs in Iceland. Strain AK15 was affiliated with Clostridium uzonii (98.8%), while AK17 was affiliated with Thermoanaerobacterium aciditolerans (99.2%) based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Both strains fermented a wide variety of sugar residues typically found in lignocellulosic materials, and some polysaccharides. In the batch cultivations, strain AK17 produced ethanol from glucose and xylose fermentations of up to 1.6 mol-EtOH/mol-glucose (80% of the theoretical maximum) and 1.1 mol-EtOH/mol-xylose (66%), respectively. The hydrogen yields by AK17 were up to 1.2 mol-H2/ mol-glucose (30% of the theoretical maximum) and 1.0 mol-H2/mol-xylose (30%). The strain AK15 produced hydrogen as the main fermentation product from glucose (up to 1.9 mol-H2/mol-glucose [48%]) and xylose (1.1 mol-H2/mol-xylose [33%]). The strain AK17 tolerated exogenously added ethanol up to 4% (v/v). The ethanol and hydrogen production performance from glucose by a co-culture of the strains AK15 and AK17 was studied in a continuous-flow bioreactor at 60 degrees C. Stable and continuous ethanol and hydrogen co-production was achieved with ethanol yield of 1.35 mol-EtOH/mol-glucose, and with the hydrogen production rate of 6.1 mmol/h/L (H2 yield of 0.80 mol-H2/mol-glucose). PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that the AK17 became the dominant bacterium in the bioreactor. In conclusion, strain AK17 is a promising strain for the co-production of ethanol and hydrogen with a wide substrate utilization spectrum, relatively high ethanol tolerance, and ethanol yields among the highest reported for thermoanaerobes.

  17. Thermotoga profunda sp. nov. and Thermotoga caldifontis sp. nov., anaerobic thermophilic bacteria isolated from terrestrial hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Koji; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Hosoyama, Akira; Ohji, Shoko; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro

    2014-06-01

    Two thermophilic, strictly anaerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, designated strains AZM34c06(T) and AZM44c09(T), were isolated from terrestrial hot springs in Japan. The optimum growth conditions for strain AZM34c06(T) were 60 °C, pH 7.4 and 0% additional NaCl, and those for strain AZM44c09(T) were 70 °C, pH 7.4 and 0% additional NaCl. Complete genome sequencing was performed for both strains, revealing genome sizes of 2.19 Mbp (AZM34c06(T)) and 2.01 Mbp (AZM44c09(T)). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and the concatenated predicted amino acid sequences of 33 ribosomal proteins showed that both strains belonged to the genus Thermotoga. The closest relatives of strains AZM34c06(T) and AZM44c09(T) were the type strains of Thermotoga lettingae (96.0% similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and 84.1% similarity based on ribosomal proteins) and Thermotoga hypogea (98.6 and 92.7% similarity), respectively. Using blast, the average nucleotide identity was 70.4-70.5% when comparing strain AZM34c06(T) and T. lettingae TMO(T) and 76.6% when comparing strain AZM44c09(T) and T. hypogea NBRC 106472(T). Both values are far below the 95% threshold value for species delineation. In view of these data, we propose the inclusion of the two isolates in the genus Thermotoga within two novel species, Thermotoga profunda sp. nov. (type strain AZM34c06(T) = NBRC 106115(T) = DSM 23275(T)) and Thermotoga caldifontis sp. nov. (type strain AZM44c09(T) = NBRC 106116(T) = DSM 23272(T)).

  18. Characterization of specific membrane fatty acids as chemotaxonomic markers for sulfate-reducing bacteria involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvert, M.; Boetius, A.; Knittel, K.;

    2003-01-01

    Membrane fatty acids were extracted from a sediment core above marine gas hydrates at Hydrate Ridge, NE Pacific. Anaerobic sediments from this environment are characterized by high sulfate reduction rates driven by the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The assimilation of methane carbon into ...

  19. Application of real-time PCR to determination of combined effect of antibiotics on Bacteria, Methanogenic Archaea, Archaea in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the long-term effects of erythromycin-tetracycline-sulfamethoxazole (ETS) and sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline (ST) antibiotic combinations on the microbial community and examined the ways in which these antimicrobials impact the performance of anaerobic reactors. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine the effect that different antibiotic combinations had on the total and active Bacteria, Archae and Methanogenic Archae. Three primer sets that targeted metabolic genes encoding formylterahydrofolate synthetase, methyl-coenzyme M reductase and acetyl-coA synthetase were also used to determine the inhibition level on the mRNA expression of the homoacetogens, methanogens and specifically acetoclastic methanogens, respectively. These microorganisms play a vital role in the anaerobic degradation of organic waste and targeting these gene expressions offers operators or someone at a treatment plant the potential to control and the improve the anaerobic system. The results of the investigation revealed that acetogens have a competitive advantage over Archaea in the presence of ETS and ST combinations. Although the efficiency with which methane production takes place and the quantification of microbial populations in both the ETS and ST reactors decreased as antibiotic concentrations increased, the ETS batch reactor performed better than the ST batch reactor. According to the expression of genes results, the syntrophic interaction of acetogens and methanogens is critical to the performance of the ETS and ST reactors. Failure to maintain the stability of these microorganisms resulted in a decrease in the performance and stability of the anaerobic reactors.

  20. A comparative evaluation of antibacterial effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite, Curcuma longa, and Camellia sinensis as irrigating solutions on isolated anaerobic bacteria from infected primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Shashikant Dhariwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In endodontics, most of the commercial intra-canal medicaments have cytotoxic reactions and because of their inability to eliminate bacteria from dentinal tubules, recent medicine has turned its attention to the usage of biologic medication prepared from natural plants. The literature to testify the efficacy of natural alternatives in primary teeth is meagre and its effects as irrigating solutions need to be evaluated. Aim: To evaluate the antibacterial effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite, ethanolic extracts of Curcuma longa (turmeric and Camellia sinensis (green tea as irrigating solutions against the anaerobic bacteria isolated from the root canals of infected primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients were selected based on the selected inclusion and exclusion criteria. Preoperative radiographs were taken. Rubber dam isolation and working length estimation were done, following which thirty samples were taken from the root canals of infected primary teeth using sterile absorbent paper points and transferred to tubes containing thioglycolate transport medium. The bacteria were then isolated using standard microbiological protocols and were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity testing using the three test irrigants. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 18 software using Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The most commonly isolated bacteria included Porphyromonas sp., Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus. Sodium hypochlorite and C. longa (turmeric showed good antibacterial effect and were effective against most of the isolated bacteria. There was statistically significant difference in the antibacterial effect among the three tested groups (P < 0.001. The least effective was C. sinensis (green tea. Conclusion: The infected primary teeth almost always present with a polymicrobial structure with a wide variety of anaerobic bacteria. The chemo-mechanical preparation plays an important

  1. Applications of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in the fields of biological degradation of contaminants and biological wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jovcic, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    In the work here presented four distinctly different problems were investigated. The first problem was an investigation into the degradation of Dichloroethylene (DCE) and 1,1-bis (p-Chlorophenyl)-2-dichloroethylene (DDE) utilising pure bacterial cultures. The second investigation dealt with the degradation of DDE and polychlorinated Biphenyl’s (PCB’s) utilising anaerobic sediments and soils from New Zealand. The third investigation worked on the Granulation of anaerobic River-sediments in Upf...

  2. In vitro efficacy of cefovecin against anaerobic bacteria isolated from subgingival plaque of dogs and cats with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazandi, Manouchehr; Bird, Philip S; Owens, Jane; Wilson, Gary; Meyer, James N; Trott, Darren J

    2014-08-01

    Periodontal disease is a common disease of dogs and cats often requiring antimicrobial treatment as an adjunct to mechanical debridement. However, correct compliance with oral antimicrobial therapy in companion animals is often difficult. Cefovecin is a recently introduced veterinary cephalosporin that has demonstrated prolonged concentrations in extracellular fluid, allowing for dosing intervals of up to 14 days. Subgingival samples were collected from the oral cavity of 29 dogs and eight cats exhibiting grade 2 or grade 3 periodontal disease. Samples were cultivated on Wilkin Chalgrens agar and incubated in an anaerobic chamber for seven days. Selected anaerobic bacteria were isolated and identified to species level using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for cefovecin and six additional antimicrobials using the agar dilution methodology recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The 65 clinical isolates were identified as Porphyromonas gulae (n = 45), Porphyromonas crevioricanis (n = 12), Porphyromonas macacae (n = 1), Porphyromonas cangingivalis (n = 1) Fusobacterium nucleatum (n = 2), Fusobacterium russii (n = 1) and Solobacterium moorei (n = 3). This is the first report of S. moorei being isolated from companion animals with periodontal disease. All isolates were highly susceptible to cefovecin, with a MIC90 of ≤0.125 μg/ml. Conversely, different resistance rates to ampicillin, amoxicillin and erythromycin between isolates were detected. Cefovecin is thus shown to be effective in vitro against anaerobic bacteria isolated from dogs and cats with periodontal disease.

  3. Experimental otitis media in gerbils and chinchillas with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and other aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulghum, R S; Brinn, J E; Smith, A M; Daniel, H J; Loesche, P J

    1982-01-01

    To ascertain the usefulness of Mongolian gerbils as an inbred model for otitis media, 52 Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus, strain MONT/Tum) were compared with 26 chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) for susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3. Haemophilus influenzae type b, and a polymicrobic culture including anaerobes (Streptococcus intermedius, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Corynebacterium sp.). Organisms were inoculated percutaneously into the supe...

  4. Biomarker evidence for widespread anaerobic methane oxidation in Mediterranean sediments by a consortium of methanogenic archae and bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Pancost, R.D.; Lint, S. de; Maarel, M.J.E.C. van der; Gottschal, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Although abundant geochemical data indicate that anaerobic methane oxidation occurs in marine sediments, the linkage to specific microorganisms remains unclear. In order to examine processes of methane consumption and oxidation, sediment samples from mud volcanoes at two distinct sites on the Medite

  5. Regulation of anaerobic methane oxidation in sediments of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Knab

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM and sulfate reduction (SRR were investigated in sediments of the western Black Sea, where methane transport is controlled by diffusion. To understand the regulation and dynamics of methane production and oxidation in the Black Sea, rates of methanogenesis, AOM, and SRR were determined using radiotracers in combination with pore water chemistry and stable isotopes. On the shelf of the Danube paleo-delta and the Dnjepr Canyon, AOM did not consume methane effectively and upwards diffusing methane created an extended sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ that spread over more than 2.5 m and was located in formerly limnic sediment. Measurable AOM rates occurred mainly in the lower part of the SMTZ, sometimes even at depths where sulfate seemed to be unavailable. The inefficiency of methane oxidation appears to be linked to the limnic history of the sediment, since in all cores methane was completely oxidized at the limnic-marine transition. The upward tailing of methane was less pronounced in a core from the deep sea in the area of the Dnjepr Canyon, the only station with a SMTZ close to the marine deposits. Sulfate reduction rates were mostly extremely low, and in the SMTZ were even lower than AOM rates. Rates of bicarbonate-based methanogenesis were below detection limit in two of the cores, but δ13C values of methane indicate a biogenic origin. The most depleted δ13C-signal was found in the SMTZ of the core from the deep sea, most likely as a result of carbon recycling between AOM and methanogenesis.

  6. Influence of decontamination on induction of arthritis in Lewis rats by cell wall fragments of Eubacterium aerofaciens. Arthropathic properties of indigenous anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, J; Severijnen, A J; Klasen, I S; Gerrits-Boeye, M Y; Hazenberg, M P

    1992-01-01

    Although the cause (or causes) of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown, many workers have suggested that microorganisms play a part. The intestinal flora in particular has been related to the development of joint inflammation. It has been shown previously that cell wall fragments of several anaerobic Gram positive intestinal bacteria of human origin are arthritogenic after a single intraperitoneal injection in Lewis rats. The part played by indigenous microflora in this model has now been studied by decontaminating Lewis rats before the injection of Eubacterium aerofaciens cell wall fragments. The pattern and severity of arthritis appeared to be comparable in decontaminated and control rats. The second goal of this work was to isolate arthritogenic bacteria from the autochthonous intestinal flora of rats. Only a limited number of bacteria showing a resemblance to arthritogenic strains from human intestinal flora (i.e. E aerofaciens and Bifidobacterium adolescentis) could be isolated. These strains did not induce chronic arthritis after intraperitoneal injection. This may explain why spontaneous arthritis did not develop in Lewis rats. Images PMID:1586251

  7. Regulation and biosynthesis of carbapenem antibiotics in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthurst, Sarah J; Barnard, Anne M L; Salmond, George P C

    2005-04-01

    Carbapenem antibiotics are members of the beta-lactam family of antibiotics, the most important class of antibiotics currently in clinical use. They are active against many important Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. One important feature of carbapenem antibiotics is their resistance to several beta-lactamases. Thienamycin, isolated from Streptomyces cattleya, was the first carbapenem described. Other well-studied carbapenems were isolated from the Gram-negative bacteria Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, Serratia sp. strain ATCC39006 and Photorhabdus luminescens strain TT01. Here, we review the genetics and biochemistry of carbapenem production in these bacteria. Research into carbapenems could uncover a new repertoire of bioactive molecules and biosynthetic enzymes, and exploiting these novel enzymes could lead to development of new classes of antibiotics with useful chemotherapeutic activities.

  8. Indigenous cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria enhanced rapid co-composting of lignocellulose oil palm empty fruit bunch with palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Tokura, Mitsunori; Shirai, Yoshihito

    2013-11-01

    The composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) with continuous addition of palm oil mill (POME) anaerobic sludge which contained nutrients and indigenous microbes was studied. In comparison to the conventional OPEFB composting which took 60-90 days, the rapid composting in this study can be completed in 40 days with final C/N ratio of 12.4 and nitrogen (2.5%), phosphorus (1.4%), and potassium (2.8%), respectively. Twenty-seven cellulolytic bacterial strains of which 23 strains were closely related to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus firmus, Thermobifida fusca, Thermomonospora spp., Cellulomonas sp., Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Paenibacillus barengoltzii, Paenibacillus campinasensis, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Pseudoxanthomonas byssovorax which were known as lignocellulose degrading bacteria and commonly involved in lignocellulose degradation. Four isolated strains related to Exiguobacterium acetylicum and Rhizobium sp., with cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activities. The rapid composting period achieved in this study can thus be attributed to the naturally occurring cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic strains identified.

  9. A hybrid cascade control scheme for the VFA and COD regulation in two-stage anaerobic digestion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Acosta, H O; Campos-Rodríguez, A; González-Álvarez, V; García-Sandoval, J P; Snell-Castro, R; Latrille, E

    2016-10-01

    A hybrid (continuous-discrete) cascade control is proposed to regulate both, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations in two-stage (acidogenic-methanogenic) anaerobic digestion (TSAD) processes. The outer loop is a discrete controller that regulates the COD concentration of the methanogenic bioreactor by using a daily off-line measurement and that modifies the set-point tracked by inner loop, which manipulates the dilution rate to regulate the VFA concentration of the acidogenic bioreactor, estimated by continuous on-line conductivity measurements, avoiding acidification. The experimental validation was conducted in a TSAD process for the treatment of tequila vinasses during 110days. Results showed that the proposed cascade control scheme was able to achieve the VFA and COD regulation by using conventional measurements under different set-point values in spite of adverse common scenarios in full-scale anaerobic digestion processes. Microbial composition analysis showed that the controller also favors the abundance and diversity toward methane production.

  10. Anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds: a genetic and genomic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Manuel; Zamarro, María Teresa; Blázquez, Blas; Durante-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Juárez, Javier F; Valderrama, J Andrés; Barragán, María J L; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo

    2009-03-01

    Aromatic compounds belong to one of the most widely distributed classes of organic compounds in nature, and a significant number of xenobiotics belong to this family of compounds. Since many habitats containing large amounts of aromatic compounds are often anoxic, the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds by microorganisms becomes crucial in biogeochemical cycles and in the sustainable development of the biosphere. The mineralization of aromatic compounds by facultative or obligate anaerobic bacteria can be coupled to anaerobic respiration with a variety of electron acceptors as well as to fermentation and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Since the redox potential of the electron-accepting system dictates the degradative strategy, there is wide biochemical diversity among anaerobic aromatic degraders. However, the genetic determinants of all these processes and the mechanisms involved in their regulation are much less studied. This review focuses on the recent findings that standard molecular biology approaches together with new high-throughput technologies (e.g., genome sequencing, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metagenomics) have provided regarding the genetics, regulation, ecophysiology, and evolution of anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways. These studies revealed that the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds is more diverse and widespread than previously thought, and the complex metabolic and stress programs associated with the use of aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions are starting to be unraveled. Anaerobic biotransformation processes based on unprecedented enzymes and pathways with novel metabolic capabilities, as well as the design of novel regulatory circuits and catabolic networks of great biotechnological potential in synthetic biology, are now feasible to approach.

  11. Molecular Fingerprint and Dominant Environmental Factors of Nitrite-Dependent Anaerobic Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria in Sediments from the Yellow River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Pengze; Li, Mingcong; Wei, Guangshan; Li, Han; Gao, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) is performed by “Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera” (M. oxyfera), which connects the carbon and nitrogen global nutrient cycles. In the present study, M. oxyfera-like bacteria sequences were successfully recovered from Yellow River Estuary sediments using specific primers for 16S rRNA and pmoA genes. A M. oxyfera-like sequences analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed greater diversity compared with the pmoA gene; the 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the Yellow River Estuary sediments belong to groups A as well as B and were mainly found in freshwater habitats. Quantitative PCR showed that 16S rRNA gene abundance varied from 9.28±0.11×103 to 2.10±0.13×105 copies g-1 (dry weight), and the pmoA gene abundance ranged from 8.63±0.50×103 to 1.83±0.18×105 copies g-1 (dry weight). A correlation analysis showed that the total organic carbon (TOC) and ammonium (NH4+) as well as the ratio of total phosphorus to total nitrogen (TP/TN) influenced the M. oxyfera-like bacteria distribution in the Yellow River Estuary sediments. These findings will aid in understanding the n-damo bacterial distribution pattern as well as their correlation with surrounding environmental factors in temperate estuarine ecosystems. PMID:26368535

  12. Constraints on mechanisms and rates of anaerobic oxidation of methane by microbial consortia: process-based modeling of ANME-2 archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Orcutt

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM is the main process responsible for the removal of methane generated in Earth's marine subsurface environments. However, the biochemical mechanism of AOM remains elusive. By explicitly resolving the observed spatial arrangement of methanotrophic archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria found in consortia mediating AOM, potential intermediates involved in the electron transfer between the methane oxidizing and sulfate reducing partners were investigated via a consortium-scale reaction transport model that integrates the effect of diffusional transport with thermodynamic and kinetic controls on microbial activity. Model simulations were used to assess the impact of poorly constrained microbial characteristics such as minimum energy requirements to sustain metabolism and cell specific rates. The role of environmental conditions such as the influence of methane levels on the feasibility of H2, formate and acetate as intermediate species, and the impact of the abundance of intermediate species on pathway reversal were examined. The results show that higher production rates of intermediates via AOM lead to increased diffusive fluxes from the methane oxidizing archaea to sulfate reducing bacteria, but the build-up of the exchangeable species can cause the energy yield of AOM to drop below that required for ATP production. Comparison to data from laboratory experiments shows that under the experimental conditions of Nauhaus et al. (2007, none of the potential intermediates considered here is able to support metabolic activity matching the measured rates.

  13. Directed Evolution Reveals Unexpected Epistatic Interactions That Alter Metabolic Regulation and Enable Anaerobic Xylose Use by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremaine, Mary; Hebert, Alexander S.; Myers, Kevin S.; Sardi, Maria; Dickinson, Quinn; Reed, Jennifer L.; Zhang, Yaoping; Coon, Joshua J.; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Gasch, Audrey P.; Landick, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The inability of native Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert xylose from plant biomass into biofuels remains a major challenge for the production of renewable bioenergy. Despite extensive knowledge of the regulatory networks controlling carbon metabolism in yeast, little is known about how to reprogram S. cerevisiae to ferment xylose at rates comparable to glucose. Here we combined genome sequencing, proteomic profiling, and metabolomic analyses to identify and characterize the responsible mutations in a series of evolved strains capable of metabolizing xylose aerobically or anaerobically. We report that rapid xylose conversion by engineered and evolved S. cerevisiae strains depends upon epistatic interactions among genes encoding a xylose reductase (GRE3), a component of MAP Kinase (MAPK) signaling (HOG1), a regulator of Protein Kinase A (PKA) signaling (IRA2), and a scaffolding protein for mitochondrial iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster biogenesis (ISU1). Interestingly, the mutation in IRA2 only impacted anaerobic xylose consumption and required the loss of ISU1 function, indicating a previously unknown connection between PKA signaling, Fe-S cluster biogenesis, and anaerobiosis. Proteomic and metabolomic comparisons revealed that the xylose-metabolizing mutant strains exhibit altered metabolic pathways relative to the parental strain when grown in xylose. Further analyses revealed that interacting mutations in HOG1 and ISU1 unexpectedly elevated mitochondrial respiratory proteins and enabled rapid aerobic respiration of xylose and other non-fermentable carbon substrates. Our findings suggest a surprising connection between Fe-S cluster biogenesis and signaling that facilitates aerobic respiration and anaerobic fermentation of xylose, underscoring how much remains unknown about the eukaryotic signaling systems that regulate carbon metabolism. PMID:27741250

  14. Acid pre-treatment of sewage anaerobic sludge to increase hydrogen producing bacteria HPB: effectiveness and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, T; Sassi, G; Ruggeri, B

    2008-01-01

    The present study is aimed to test the effectiveness and the reproducibility of the acid pre-treatment of sewage sludge to suppress the methanogenic bacteria activity, in order to increase the hydrogen forming bacteria activity, mainly Clostridium species. The treated sludge has been tested on glucose reach medium under mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C), in batch mode to quantify the biological fermentative hydrogen production. In the whole series of experiments, the main components of biogas are hydrogen (52-60%) and carbon dioxide (40-48%); no methane and hydrogen sulphide were present in it. The rate of biogas production reached a maximum of 75 ml/lh. An overall mean hydrogen conversion efficiency was 11.20% on the assumption of maximum of 3 mol H2/mol glucose. Clostridium spp. multiplied ten times after 10 h of fermentation and over that thousand times at the end of fermentation.

  15. Experimental otitis media in gerbils and chinchillas with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and other aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulghum, R S; Brinn, J E; Smith, A M; Daniel, H J; Loesche, P J

    1982-05-01

    To ascertain the usefulness of Mongolian gerbils as an inbred model for otitis media, 52 Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus, strain MONT/Tum) were compared with 26 chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) for susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3. Haemophilus influenzae type b, and a polymicrobic culture including anaerobes (Streptococcus intermedius, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Corynebacterium sp.). Organisms were inoculated percutaneously into the superior chamber of the middle ear bulla. The gerbils and chinchillas shared similar susceptibilities and responses to the inoculated organisms as determined by X-ray, otoscopic, histopathological, and microbiological determinations at 5 to 7 days. Koch's postulate studies proved the role of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae in the pathology found in both animal models. The animals were also susceptible to the polymicrobic culture, although the relative virulence of the individual members of this mixture was low, suggesting that these species potentiated as a polymicrobic mixture. The Corynebacterium sp. appeared to elicit the greatest histopathological response in chronic (8-week) studies in gerbils. The gerbils were found to be useful as an alternative animal model for the study of otitis media of bacterial etiology.

  16. Evolution of transcriptional regulation in closely related bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsoy Olga V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exponential growth of the number of fully sequenced genomes at varying taxonomic closeness allows one to characterize transcriptional regulation using comparative-genomics analysis instead of time-consuming experimental methods. A transcriptional regulatory unit consists of a transcription factor, its binding site and a regulated gene. These units constitute a graph which contains so-called “network motifs”, subgraphs of a given structure. Here we consider genomes of closely related Enterobacteriales and estimate the fraction of conserved network motifs and sites as well as positions under selection in various types of non-coding regions. Results Using a newly developed technique, we found that the highest fraction of positions under selection, approximately 50%, was observed in synvergon spacers (between consecutive genes from the same strand, followed by ~45% in divergon spacers (common 5’-regions, and ~10% in convergon spacers (common 3’-regions. The fraction of selected positions in functional regions was higher, 60% in transcription factor-binding sites and ~45% in terminators and promoters. Small, but significant differences were observed between Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. This fraction is similar to the one observed in eukaryotes. The conservation of binding sites demonstrated some differences between types of regulatory units. In E. coli, strains the interactions of the type “local transcriptional factor gene” turned out to be more conserved in feed-forward loops (FFLs compared to non-motif interactions. The coherent FFLs tend to be less conserved than the incoherent FFLs. A natural explanation is that the former imply functional redundancy. Conclusions A naïve hypothesis that FFL would be highly conserved turned out to be not entirely true: its conservation depends on its status in the transcriptional network and also from its usage. The fraction of positions under selection in

  17. Group-specific PCR-RFLP and real-time PCR methods for detection and tentative discrimination of strictly anaerobic beer-spoilage bacteria of the class Clostridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, Riikka; Koivula, Teija; Haikara, Auli

    2008-07-15

    The strictly anaerobic brewery contaminants of the genera Pectinatus, Megasphaera, Selenomonas and Zymophilus in the class Clostridia constitute an important group of spoilage bacteria of unpasteurised, packaged beers. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate group-specific PCR methods to detect and differentiate these bacteria in beer. A group-specific primer pair targeting a 342-bp variable region of the 16S rRNA gene was designed and evaluated in end-point PCR with gel electrophoresis and in real-time PCR with SYBR Green I dye. Significant cross-reactions with DNAs from any of the forty-two brewery-related, non-target microbes or from real brewery samples were not detected in either PCR system. The group-specific end-point and real-time PCR products could be differentiated according to species/genus and spoilage potential using restriction fragment length polymorphism (KpnI, XmnI, BssHII, ScaI) and melting point curve analysis, respectively. In combination with a rapid DNA extraction method, the PCR reactions detected ca 10(0)-10(3) CFU per 25 ml of beer depending on the strain and on the PCR system. The end-point and real-time PCR analysis took 6-7 h and 2-3 h, respectively. Pre-PCR enrichment of beer samples for 1-3 days ensured the detection of even a single cultivable cell. The PCR and cultivation results of real brewery samples were mostly congruent but the PCR methods were occasionally more sensitive. The PCR methods developed allow the detection of all the nine beer-spoilage Pectinatus, Megasphaera, Selenomonas and Zymophilus species in a single reaction and their differentiation below group level and reduce the analysis time for testing of their presence in beer samples by 1-2 days. The methods can be applied for brewery routine quality control and for studying occurrence, diversity and numbers of the strictly anaerobic beer spoilers in the brewing process.

  18. Anaerobic regulation of transcription initiation in the arcDABC operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Gamper, M; Zimmermann, A.; Haas, D.

    1991-01-01

    The arcDABC operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes the enzymes of the arginine deiminase pathway, which is inducible under conditions of oxygen limitation and serves to generate ATP from arginine. The 5' end of arc mRNA extracted from anaerobically grown cells was determined by S1 and primer extension mapping. The transcription initiation site was located upstream of the arcD gene and 41.5 bp downstream of the center of the sequence TTGAC....ATCAG. This sequence, termed the ANR box, is simi...

  19. Formation of tellurium nanocrystals during anaerobic growth of bacteria that use Te oxyanions as respiratory electron acceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baesman, S.M.; Bullen, T.D.; Dewald, J.; Zhang, Dongxiao; Curran, S.; Islam, F.S.; Beveridge, T.J.; Oremland, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Certain toxic elements support the metabolism of diverse prokaryotes by serving as respiratory electron acceptors for growth. Here, we demonstrate that two anaerobes previously shown to be capable of respiring oxyanions of selenium also achieve growth by reduction of either tellurate [Te(VI)] or tellurite [Te(IV)] to elemental tellurium [Te(0)]. This reduction achieves a sizeable stable-Te-isotopic fractionation (isotopic enrichment factor [??] = -0.4 to -1.0 per ml per atomic mass unit) and results in the formation of unique crystalline Te(0) nanoarchitectures as end products. The Te(0) crystals occur internally within but mainly externally from the cells, and each microorganism forms a distinctly different structure. Those formed by Bacillus selenitireducens initially are nanorods (???10-nm diameter by 200-nm length), which cluster together, forming larger (???1,000-nm) rosettes composed of numerous individual shards (???100-nm width by 1,000-nm length). In contrast, Sulfurospirillium barnesii forms extremely small, irregularly shaped nanospheres (diameter < 50 nm) that coalesce into larger composite aggregates. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction indicate that both biominerals are composed entirely of Te and are crystalline, while Raman spectroscopy confirms that they are in the elemental state. These Te biominerals have specific spectral signatures (UV-visible light, Raman) that also provide clues to their internal structures. The use of microorganisms to generate Te nanomaterials may be an alternative for bench-scale syntheses. Additionally, they may also generate products with unique properties unattainable by conventional physical/chemical methods. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Quantification of enteric viruses, pathogen indicators, and Salmonella bacteria in class B anaerobically digested biosolids by culture and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kelvin; Onan, Brandon M; Xagoraraki, Irene

    2010-10-01

    The most common class B biosolids in the United States are generated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD), and MAD biosolids have been used for land application. However, the pathogen levels in MAD biosolids are still unclear, especially with respect to enteric viruses. In this study, we determined the occurrence and the quantitative levels of enteric viruses and indicators in 12 MAD biosolid samples and of Salmonella enterica in 6 MAD biosolid samples. Three dewatered biosolid samples were also included in this study for purposes of comparison. Human adenoviruses (HAdV) had the highest gene levels and were detected more frequently than other enteric viruses. The gene levels of noroviruses (NV) reported were comparable to those of enteroviruses (EV) and human polyomaviruses (HPyV). The occurrence percentages of HAdV, HAdV species F, EV, NV GI, NV GII, and HPyV in MAD samples were 83, 83, 42, 50, 75, and 58%, respectively. No hepatitis A virus was detected. Infectious HAdV was detected more frequently than infectious EV, and all infectious HAdV were detected when samples were propagated in A549 cells. Based on most-probable-number (MPN) analysis, A549 cells were more susceptible to biosolid-associated viruses than BGM cells. All indicator levels in MAD biosolids were approximately 10(4) MPN or PFU per gram (dry), and the dewatered biosolids had significantly higher indicator levels than the MAD biosolids. Only two MAD samples tested positive for Salmonella enterica, where the concentration was below 1.0 MPN/4 g. This study provides a broad comparison of the prevalence of different enteric viruses in MAD biosolids and reports the first detection of noroviruses in class B biosolids. The observed high quantitative and infectivity levels of adenoviruses in MAD biosolids indicate that adenovirus is a good indicator for the evaluation of sludge treatment efficiency.

  1. Horizontal gene transfer from Bacteria to rumen Ciliates indicates adaptation to their anaerobic, carbohydrates-rich environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenaka Akio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The horizontal transfer of expressed genes from Bacteria into Ciliates which live in close contact with each other in the rumen (the foregut of ruminants was studied using ciliate Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs. More than 4000 ESTs were sequenced from representatives of the two major groups of rumen Cilates: the order Entodiniomorphida (Entodinium simplex, Entodinium caudatum, Eudiplodinium maggii, Metadinium medium, Diploplastron affine, Polyplastron multivesiculatum and Epidinium ecaudatum and the order Vestibuliferida, previously called Holotricha (Isotricha prostoma, Isotricha intestinalis and Dasytricha ruminantium. Results A comparison of the sequences with the completely sequenced genomes of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes, followed by large-scale construction and analysis of phylogenies, identified 148 ciliate genes that specifically cluster with genes from the Bacteria and Archaea. The phylogenetic clustering with bacterial genes, coupled with the absence of close relatives of these genes in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, indicates that they have been acquired via Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT after the colonization of the gut by the rumen Ciliates. Conclusion Among the HGT candidates, we found an over-representation (>75% of genes involved in metabolism, specifically in the catabolism of complex carbohydrates, a rich food source in the rumen. We propose that the acquisition of these genes has greatly facilitated the Ciliates' colonization of the rumen providing evidence for the role of HGT in the adaptation to new niches.

  2. Horizontal gene transfer from Bacteria to rumen Ciliates indicates adaptation to their anaerobic, carbohydrates-rich environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Guénola; McEwan, Neil R; Dutilh, Bas E; Jouany, Jean-Pierre; Macheboeuf, Didier; Mitsumori, Makoto; McIntosh, Freda M; Michalowski, Tadeusz; Nagamine, Takafumi; Nelson, Nancy; Newbold, Charles J; Nsabimana, Eli; Takenaka, Akio; Thomas, Nadine A; Ushida, Kazunari; Hackstein, Johannes HP; Huynen, Martijn A

    2006-01-01

    Background The horizontal transfer of expressed genes from Bacteria into Ciliates which live in close contact with each other in the rumen (the foregut of ruminants) was studied using ciliate Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). More than 4000 ESTs were sequenced from representatives of the two major groups of rumen Cilates: the order Entodiniomorphida (Entodinium simplex, Entodinium caudatum, Eudiplodinium maggii, Metadinium medium, Diploplastron affine, Polyplastron multivesiculatum and Epidinium ecaudatum) and the order Vestibuliferida, previously called Holotricha (Isotricha prostoma, Isotricha intestinalis and Dasytricha ruminantium). Results A comparison of the sequences with the completely sequenced genomes of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes, followed by large-scale construction and analysis of phylogenies, identified 148 ciliate genes that specifically cluster with genes from the Bacteria and Archaea. The phylogenetic clustering with bacterial genes, coupled with the absence of close relatives of these genes in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, indicates that they have been acquired via Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) after the colonization of the gut by the rumen Ciliates. Conclusion Among the HGT candidates, we found an over-representation (>75%) of genes involved in metabolism, specifically in the catabolism of complex carbohydrates, a rich food source in the rumen. We propose that the acquisition of these genes has greatly facilitated the Ciliates' colonization of the rumen providing evidence for the role of HGT in the adaptation to new niches. PMID:16472398

  3. Inducible gene expression and environmentally regulated genes in lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, J

    1996-10-01

    Relatively recently, a number of genes and operons have been identified in lactic acid bacteria that are inducible and respond to environmental factors. Some of these genes/operons had been isolated and analysed because of their importance in the fermentation industry and, consequently, their transcription was studied and found to be regulatable. Examples are the lactose operon, the operon for nisin production, and genes in the proteolytic pathway of Lactococcus lactis, as well as xylose metabolism in Lactobacillus pentosus. Some other operons were specifically targetted with the aim to compare their mode of regulation with known regulatory mechanisms in other well-studied bacteria. These studies, dealing with the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and of the branched chain amino acids in L. lactis, have given new insights in gene regulation and in the occurrence of auxotrophy in these bacteria. Also, nucleotide sequence analyses of a number of lactococcal bacteriophages was recently initiated to, among other things, specifically learn more about regulation of the phage life cycle. Yet another approach in the analysis of regulated genes is the 'random' selection of genetic elements that respond to environmental stimuli and the first of such sequences from lactic acid bacteria have been identified and characterized. The potential of these regulatory elements in fundamental research and practical (industrial) applications will be discussed.

  4. Modeling classic attenuation regulation of gene expression in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubetsky, Vassily A; Pirogov, Sergey A; Rubanov, Lev I; Seliverstov, Alexander V

    2007-02-01

    A model is proposed primarily for the classical RNA attenuation regulation of gene expression through premature transcription termination. The model is based on the concept of the RNA secondary structure macrostate within the regulatory region between the ribosome and RNA-polymerase, on hypothetical equation describing deceleration of RNA-polymerase by a macrostate and on views of transcription and translation initiation and elongation, under different values of the four basic model parameters which were varied. A special effort was made to select adequate model parameters. We first discuss kinetics of RNA folding and define the concept of the macrostate as a specific parentheses structure used to construct a conventional set of hairpins. The originally developed software that realizes the proposed model offers functionality to fully model RNA secondary folding kinetics. Its performance is compared to that of a public server described in Ref. 1. We then describe the delay in RNA-polymerase shifting to the next base or its premature termination caused by an RNA secondary structure or, herefrom, a macrostate. In this description, essential concepts are the basic and excited states of the polymerase first introduced in Ref. 2: the polymerase shifting to the next base can occur only in the basic state, and its detachment from DNA strand - only in excited state. As to the authors' knowledge, such a model incorporating the above-mentioned attenuation characteristics is not published elsewhere. The model was implemented in an application with command line interface for running in batch mode in Windows and Linux environments, as well as a public web server.(3) The model was tested with a conventional Monte Carlo procedure. In these simulations, the estimate of correlation between the premature transcription termination probability p and concentration c of charged amino acyl-tRNA was obtained as function p(c) for many regulatory regions in many bacterial genomes, as well as

  5. Constraints on mechanisms and rates of anaerobic oxidation of methane by microbial consortia: process-based modeling of ANME-2 archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Orcutt

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM is the main process responsible for the removal of methane generated in Earth's marine subsurface environments. However, the biochemical mechanism of AOM remains elusive. By explicitly resolving the observed spatial arrangement of methanotrophic archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria found in consortia mediating AOM, potential intermediates involved in the electron transfer between the methane oxidizing and sulfate reducing partners were investigated via a consortium-scale reaction transport model that integrates the effect of diffusional transport with thermodynamic and kinetic controls on microbial activity. Model simulations were used to assess the impact of poorly constrained microbial characteristics such as minimum energy requirements to sustain metabolism, substrate affinity and cell specific rates. The role of environmental conditions such as the influence of methane levels on the feasibility of H2, formate and acetate as intermediate species, and the impact of the abundance of intermediate species on pathway reversal was examined. The results show that higher production rates of intermediates via AOM lead to increased diffusive fluxes from the methane oxidizing archaea to sulfate reducing bacteria, but the build-up of the exchangeable species causes the energy yield of AOM to drop below that required for ATP production. Comparison to data from laboratory experiments shows that under the experimental conditions of Nauhaus et al. (2007, neither hydrogen nor formate is exchanged fast enough between the consortia partners to achieve measured rates of metabolic activity, but that acetate exchange might support rates that approach those observed.

  6. Influence of an aerobic fungus grown on solid culture on ruminal degradability and on a mixture culture of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Díaz, R; Pimentel-González, D J; Figueira, A C; Viniegra-González, G; Campos-Montiel, R G

    2010-06-01

    In this work, the effect of a solid fungal culture of Aspergillus niger (An) grown on coffee pulp on the in situ ruminal degradability (RD) of corn stover was evaluated. In addition, the effect of its extracts on the in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) and on a mixed culture of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria (MCACB) was also investigated. The solid ferment was a crude culture of An, grown on coffee pulp. Regarding in situ RD, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between treatment with 200 g/day of the solid culture and control (no solid culture added) on dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre on RD. All the water extracts (pH 4, 7 and 10) enhanced IVDMD and stimulated the cellulolytic activity on a MCACB. Ultrafiltration results showed that active compounds with a molecular weight lower than 30 kDa were responsible for the effect on MCACB. Such results suggest that the effects of the solid An culture in RD are related to the presence of water soluble compounds having a molecular weight lower than 30 kDa.

  7. Effect of Growth Promoting Bacteria on the Growth Rate and Lipid Content of Microalgae Chorella sp in Sludge Liquor of Anaerobic Digester of Dairy Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyunanto A. Nugroho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are microorganisms that have potential as biofuel feedstock since it has relatively high content of lipid. To be economically feasible, microalgae has to be cultivated in lower operational cost. Liquor of anaerobic sludge is one of the choices since it contents high concentration in nutrient. To boost its productivity, growth promoting bacteria (GPB was added in the medium. The objective of this research is to observe the influence of GPB on the growth rate and oil content of the algae. The experiment used three treatment in respect to the dose of GPB added to the medium, and was done in triplicate. The three treatments are A3 (spiked with 3 ml of GPB inoculum, A6 (spiked with 6 ml of GPB inoculum and A9 (spiked with 9 ml of GPB inoculum, and one more treatment as a control (A0. Result showed that the higher the dose of GPB added, the higher the lipid content of microalgae. For the growth rate of microalga, the highest growth rate was observed on A6 treatment, while the lowest one was observed on the control.

  8. Carbon conversion efficiency and population dynamics of a marine algae–bacteria consortium growing on simplified synthetic digestate: First step in a bioprocess coupling algal production and anaerobic digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Vasseur, C.; Bougaran, G.; Garnier, M.; Hamelin, J.; Leboulanger, Christophe; Le Chevanton, M.; Mostajir, B; Sialve, B.; Steyer, J. P.; Fouilland, E.

    2012-01-01

    Association of microalgae culture and anaerobic digestion seems a promising technology for sustainable algal biomass and biogas production. The use of digestates for sustaining the growth of microalgae reduces the costs and the environmental impacts associated with the substantial algal nutrient requirements. A natural marine algae–bacteria consortium was selected by growing on a medium containing macro nutrients (ammonia, phosphate and acetate) specific of a digestate, and was submitted to a...

  9. Term-seq reveals abundant ribo-regulation of antibiotics resistance in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Daniel; Shamir, Maya; Mellin, J R; Koutero, Mikael; Stern-Ginossar, Noam; Cossart, Pascale; Sorek, Rotem

    2016-04-01

    Riboswitches and attenuators are cis-regulatory RNA elements, most of which control bacterial gene expression via metabolite-mediated, premature transcription termination. We developed an unbiased experimental approach for genome-wide discovery of such ribo-regulators in bacteria. We also devised an experimental platform that quantitatively measures the in vivo activity of all such regulators in parallel and enables rapid screening for ribo-regulators that respond to metabolites of choice. Using this approach, we detected numerous antibiotic-responsive ribo-regulators that control antibiotic resistance genes in pathogens and in the human microbiome. Studying one such regulator in Listeria monocytogenes revealed an attenuation mechanism mediated by antibiotic-stalled ribosomes. Our results expose broad roles for conditional termination in regulating antibiotic resistance and provide a tool for discovering riboswitches and attenuators that respond to previously unknown ligands.

  10. Regulation and function of versatile aerobic and anaerobic respiratory metabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eArai

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitously distributed opportunistic pathogen that inhabits soil and water as well as animal-, human-, and plant-host-associated environments. The ubiquity would be attributed to its very versatile energy metabolism. P. aeruginosa has a highly branched respiratory chain terminated by multiple terminal oxidases and denitrification enzymes. Five terminal oxidases for aerobic respiration have been identified in the P. aeruginosa cells. Three of them, the cbb3-1 oxidase, the cbb3-2 oxidase, and the aa3 oxidase, are cytochrome c oxidases and the other two, the bo3 oxidase and the cyanide-insensitive oxidase, are quinol oxidases. Each oxidase has a specific affinity for oxygen, efficiency of energy coupling, and tolerance to various stresses such as cyanide and reactive nitrogen species. These terminal oxidases are used differentially according to the environmental conditions. P. aeruginosa also has a complete set of the denitrification enzymes that reduce nitrate to molecular nitrogen via nitrite, nitric oxide (NO, and nitrous oxide. These nitrogen oxides function as alternative electron acceptors and enable P. aeruginosa to grow under anaerobic conditions. One of the denitrification enzymes, NO reductase, is also expected to function for detoxification of NO produced by the host immune defense system. The control of the expression of these aerobic and anaerobic respiratory enzymes would contribute to the adaptation of P. aeruginosa to a wide range of environmental conditions including in the infected hosts. Characteristics of these respiratory enzymes and the regulatory system that controls the expression of the respiratory genes in the P. aeruginosa cells are overviewed in this article.

  11. Immune regulation of a chronic bacteria infection and consequences for pathogen transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathak Ashutosh K

    2010-08-01

    despite being infected. The mechanisms regulating these interactions are still obscure and more studies are needed to understand the persistence of bacteria in the upper respiratory tract and the processes controlling the intensity and duration of shedding.

  12. Bacterial degradation of benzoate: cross-regulation between aerobic and anaerobic pathways

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We have studied for the first time the transcriptional regulatory circuit that controls the expression of the box genes encoding the aerobic hybrid pathway used to assimilate benzoate via coenzyme A (CoA) derivatives in bacteria. The promoters responsible for the expression of the box cluster in the β-proteobacterium Azoarcus sp., their cognate transcriptional repressor, the BoxR protein, and the inducer molecule (benzoyl-CoA) have been characterized. The BoxR protein shows a significant sequ...

  13. Isolation of three anaerobic electrogenic bacteria and their physiological and biochemical properties%3株厌氧产电菌的分离与特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹然; 朱葛夫; 张净瑞; 刘紫璇; 刘超翔; 黄栩

    2014-01-01

    Three anaerobic electrogenic bacteria named as Z1,Z2 and Z3 were isolated from a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) by the method of Hungate roll tube. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA gene sequence indicated that strain Z1 belonged to Citrobacter,while both strain Z2 and Z3 belonged to Clostridium. The physiological and biochemical characteristics showed that Z1 was facultative anaerobe,while Z2 and Z3 were strict anaerobes. Z1,Z2 and Z3 could tolerate acidic pH conditions,and the optimum pH level was 5 to 7.5. The optimum temperature of Z1 was 35 ℃,while the optimum temperature of Z2 and Z3 was 30 ℃. The optimum NaCl concentration range of three strains was 0.1%to 2.0%. Sucrose,starch,sodium propionate,sodium acetate could be used as their carbon sources. The study of electrocatalytic activity showed that these strains all had a reduction peak at voltage of -0.29 V and they were applicable for the cathode of microbial fuel cell (MFC). The adding of a mixture of three kinds of strains might significantly shorten the time of start-up stage of MFC and enhance electricity production efficiency by 18.1%.%采用Hungate厌氧菌培养技术从微生物电解池(MEC)中分离得到3株厌氧产电菌Z1、Z2和Z3。16S rDNA基因测序和系统发育树构建结果表明,Z1属于柠檬酸杆菌属(Citrobacter),Z2和Z3属于梭菌属(Clostridium)。生理生化特性研究表明,Z1为兼性厌氧菌,Z2和 Z3为严格厌氧菌;3种菌株能够耐受较酸的 pH 值条件,在pH值为5~7.5的环境中增殖良好;Z1的最适生长温度为35℃,Z2和Z3的最适生长温度为30℃;3种菌株的最适NaCl浓度为0.1%~2.0%;均能以蔗糖、淀粉、丙酸钠、乙酸钠等为碳源生长。产电活性测试试验表明,3种菌株在-0.29 V时具有较大还原峰,氧化峰不明显,适用于微生物燃料电池(MFC)的阴极。在MFC的启动试验中,加入3种菌株的混合物后,可显著缩短其启动周期

  14. Transcriptional regulation of the outer membrane porin gene ompW reveals its physiological role during the transition from the aerobic to the anaerobic lifestyle of Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minfeng eXiao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding bacterial physiology relies on elucidating the regulatory mechanisms and cellular functions of those differentially expressed genes in response to environmental changes. A widespread Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane protein OmpW has been implicated in the adaptation to stresses in various species. It is recently found to be present in the regulon of the global anaerobic transcription factor FNR and ArcA in E. coli. However, little is known about the physiological implications of this regulatory disposition. In this study, we demonstrate that transcription of ompW is indeed mediated by a series of global regulators involved in the anaerobiosis of E. coli. We show that FNR can both activate and repress the expression of ompW through its direct binding to two distinctive sites, -81.5 and -126.5 bp respectively, on ompW promoter. ArcA also participates in repression of ompW under anaerobic condition, but in an FNR dependent manner. Additionally, ompW is also subject to the regulation by CRP and NarL which senses the availability and types of carbon sources and respiration electron acceptors in the environment respectively, implying a role of OmpW in the carbon and energy metabolism of E. coli during its anaerobic adaptation. Molecular docking reveals that OmpW can bind fumarate, an alternative electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration, with sufficient affinity. Moreover, supplement of fumarate or succinate which belongs to the C4-dicarboxylates family of metabolite, to E. coli culture rescues OmpW-mediated colicin S4 killing. Taken together, we propose that OmpW is involved in anaerobic carbon and energy metabolism to mediate the transition from aerobic to anaerobic lifestyle in E. coli.

  15. Molecular Regulation of Photosynthetic Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Nonsulfur Purple Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabita, Fred Robert [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The overall objective of this project is to determine the mechanism by which a transcriptional activator protein affects CO2 fixation (cbb) gene expression in nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria, with special emphasis to Rhodobacter sphaeroides and with comparison to Rhodopseudomonas palustris. These studies culminated in several publications which indicated that additional regulators interact with the master regulator CbbR in both R. sphaeroides and R. palustris. In addition, the interactive control of the carbon and nitrogen assimilatory pathways was studied and unique regulatory signals were discovered.

  16. Orthologous transcription factors in bacteria have different functions and regulate different genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan N Price

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors (TFs form large paralogous gene families and have complex evolutionary histories. Here, we ask whether putative orthologs of TFs, from bidirectional best BLAST hits (BBHs, are evolutionary orthologs with conserved functions. We show that BBHs of TFs from distantly related bacteria are usually not evolutionary orthologs. Furthermore, the false orthologs usually respond to different signals and regulate distinct pathways, while the few BBHs that are evolutionary orthologs do have conserved functions. To test the conservation of regulatory interactions, we analyze expression patterns. We find that regulatory relationships between TFs and their regulated genes are usually not conserved for BBHs in Escherichia coli K12 and Bacillus subtilis. Even in the much more closely related bacteria Vibrio cholerae and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, predicting regulation from E. coli BBHs has high error rates. Using gene-regulon correlations, we identify genes whose expression pattern differs between E. coli and S. oneidensis. Using literature searches and sequence analysis, we show that these changes in expression patterns reflect changes in gene regulation, even for evolutionary orthologs. We conclude that the evolution of bacterial regulation should be analyzed with phylogenetic trees, rather than BBHs, and that bacterial regulatory networks evolve more rapidly than previously thought.

  17. Transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways, alternative respiration and enterotoxin genes in anaerobic growth of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, van der M.; Abee, T.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To assess genes specifically activated during anaerobic growth that are involved in metabolism and pathogenesis of the foodborne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Methods and Results: Growth under anaerobic conditions in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth revealed a reduced growth rate and lower yield a

  18. Anaerobic Thermophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Canganella

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong

  19. New insights on molecular regulation of biofilm formation in plant-associated bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luisa F. Castiblanco; George W. Sundin

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are complex bacterial assemblages with a defined three-dimensional architecture, attached to solid surfaces, and surrounded by a self-produced matrix generally composed of exopolysaccharides, proteins, lipids and extrac-ellular DNA. Biofilm formation has evolved as an adaptive strategy of bacteria to cope with harsh environmental conditions as well as to establish antagonistic or beneficial interactions with their host. Plant-associated bacteria attach and form biofilms on different tissues including leaves, stems, vasculature, seeds and roots. In this review, we examine the formation of biofilms from the plant-associated bacterial perspective and detail the recently-described mechanisms of genetic regulation used by these organisms to orchestrate biofilm formation on plant surfaces. In addition, we describe plant host signals that bacterial pathogens recognize to activate the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to multi-cellular behavior.

  20. Harnessing single cell sorting to identify cell division genes and regulators in bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Burke

    Full Text Available Cell division is an essential cellular process that requires an array of known and unknown proteins for its spatial and temporal regulation. Here we develop a novel, high-throughput screening method for the identification of bacterial cell division genes and regulators. The method combines the over-expression of a shotgun genomic expression library to perturb the cell division process with high-throughput flow cytometry sorting to screen many thousands of clones. Using this approach, we recovered clones with a filamentous morphology for the model bacterium, Escherichia coli. Genetic analysis revealed that our screen identified both known cell division genes, and genes that have not previously been identified to be involved in cell division. This novel screening strategy is applicable to a wide range of organisms, including pathogenic bacteria, where cell division genes and regulators are attractive drug targets for antibiotic development.

  1. Innate lymphoid cells regulate CD4+ T-cell responses to intestinal commensal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Matthew R; Monticelli, Laurel A; Fung, Thomas C; Ziegler, Carly G K; Grunberg, Stephanie; Sinha, Rohini; Mantegazza, Adriana R; Ma, Hak-Ling; Crawford, Alison; Angelosanto, Jill M; Wherry, E John; Koni, Pandelakis A; Bushman, Frederic D; Elson, Charles O; Eberl, Gérard; Artis, David; Sonnenberg, Gregory F

    2013-06-06

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently characterized family of immune cells that have critical roles in cytokine-mediated regulation of intestinal epithelial cell barrier integrity. Alterations in ILC responses are associated with multiple chronic human diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, implicating a role for ILCs in disease pathogenesis. Owing to an inability to target ILCs selectively, experimental studies assessing ILC function have predominantly used mice lacking adaptive immune cells. However, in lymphocyte-sufficient hosts ILCs are vastly outnumbered by CD4(+) T cells, which express similar profiles of effector cytokines. Therefore, the function of ILCs in the presence of adaptive immunity and their potential to influence adaptive immune cell responses remain unknown. To test this, we used genetic or antibody-mediated depletion strategies to target murine ILCs in the presence of an adaptive immune system. We show that loss of retinoic-acid-receptor-related orphan receptor-γt-positive (RORγt(+)) ILCs was associated with dysregulated adaptive immune cell responses against commensal bacteria and low-grade systemic inflammation. Remarkably, ILC-mediated regulation of adaptive immune cells occurred independently of interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-22 or IL-23. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling and functional analyses revealed that RORγt(+) ILCs express major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) and can process and present antigen. However, rather than inducing T-cell proliferation, ILCs acted to limit commensal bacteria-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses. Consistent with this, selective deletion of MHCII in murine RORγt(+) ILCs resulted in dysregulated commensal bacteria-dependent CD4(+) T-cell responses that promoted spontaneous intestinal inflammation. These data identify that ILCs maintain intestinal homeostasis through MHCII-dependent interactions with CD4(+) T cells that limit pathological adaptive immune cell responses to commensal

  2. Reductive dehalogenation by anaerobic bacteria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holliger, C.

    1992-01-01

    The understanding of the fate of synthetic halogenated hydrocarbons became a matter of major interest over the last two decades. Halogenated compounds may threaten ecosystems due to their biocide properties. The degradability of halocompounds determines whether they will accumulate in a certain envi

  3. Non-coding RNA regulation in pathogenic bacteria located inside eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alvaro D; Quereda, Juan J; Pucciarelli, M Graciela; García-del Portillo, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved distinct lifestyles inside eukaryotic cells. Some pathogens coexist with the infected cell in an obligate intracellular state, whereas others transit between the extracellular and intracellular environment. Adaptation to these intracellular lifestyles is regulated in both space and time. Non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulatory molecules that fine-tune important processes in bacterial physiology including cell envelope architecture, intermediate metabolism, bacterial communication, biofilm formation, and virulence. Recent studies have shown production of defined sRNA species by intracellular bacteria located inside eukaryotic cells. The molecules targeted by these sRNAs and their expression dynamics along the intracellular infection cycle remain, however, poorly characterized. Technical difficulties linked to the isolation of "intact" intracellular bacteria from infected host cells might explain why sRNA regulation in these specialized pathogens is still a largely unexplored field. Transition from the extracellular to the intracellular lifestyle provides an ideal scenario in which regulatory sRNAs are intended to participate; so much work must be done in this direction. This review focuses on sRNAs expressed by intracellular bacterial pathogens during the infection of eukaryotic cells, strategies used with these pathogens to identify sRNAs required for virulence, and the experimental technical challenges associated to this type of studies. We also discuss varied techniques for their potential application to study RNA regulation in intracellular bacterial infections.

  4. Non-coding RNA regulation in pathogenic bacteria located inside eukaryotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro D. Ortega

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved distinct lifestyles inside eukaryotic cells. Some pathogens coexist with the infected cell in an obligate intracellular state, whereas others transit between the extracellular and intracellular environment. Adaptation to these intracellular lifestyles is regulated in both space and time. Non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs are post-transcriptional regulatory molecules that fine-tune important processes in bacterial physiology including cell envelope architecture, intermediate metabolism, bacterial communication, biofilm formation and virulence. Recent studies have shown production of defined sRNA species by intracellular bacteria located inside eukaryotic cells. The molecules targeted by these sRNAs and their expression dynamics along the intracellular infection cycle remain, however, poorly characterized. Technical difficulties linked to the isolation of ‘intact’ intracellular bacteria from infected host cells might explain why sRNA regulation in these specialized pathogens is still a largely unexplored field. Transition from the extracellular to the intracellular lifestyle provides an ideal scenario in which regulatory sRNAs are intended to participate; so much work must be done in this direction. This review focuses on sRNAs expressed by intracellular bacterial pathogens during the infection of eukaryotic cells, strategies used with these pathogens to identify sRNAs required for virulence, and the experimental technical challenges associated to this type of studies. We also discuss varied techniques for their potential application to study RNA regulation in intracellular bacterial infections.

  5. Evolutionary Aspects and Regulation of Tetrapyrrole Biosynthesis in Cyanobacteria under Aerobic and Anaerobic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Fujita

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a (Chl is a light-absorbing tetrapyrrole pigment that is essential for photosynthesis. The molecule is produced from glutamate via a complex biosynthetic pathway comprised of at least 15 enzymatic steps. The first half of the Chl pathway is shared with heme biosynthesis, and the latter half, called the Mg-branch, is specific to Mg-containing Chl a. Bilin pigments, such as phycocyanobilin, are additionally produced from heme, so these light-harvesting pigments also share many common biosynthetic steps with Chl biosynthesis. Some of these common steps in the biosynthetic pathways of heme, Chl and bilins require molecular oxygen for catalysis, such as oxygen-dependent coproporphyrinogen III oxidase. Cyanobacteria thrive in diverse environments in terms of oxygen levels. To cope with Chl deficiency caused by low-oxygen conditions, cyanobacteria have developed elaborate mechanisms to maintain Chl production, even under microoxic environments. The use of enzymes specialized for low-oxygen conditions, such as oxygen-independent coproporphyrinogen III oxidase, constitutes part of a mechanism adapted to low-oxygen conditions. Another mechanism adaptive to hypoxic conditions is mediated by the transcriptional regulator ChlR that senses low oxygen and subsequently activates the transcription of genes encoding enzymes that work under low-oxygen tension. In diazotrophic cyanobacteria, this multilayered regulation also contributes in Chl biosynthesis by supporting energy production for nitrogen fixation that also requires low-oxygen conditions. We will also discuss the evolutionary implications of cyanobacterial tetrapyrrole biosynthesis and regulation, because low oxygen-type enzymes also appear to be evolutionarily older than oxygen-dependent enzymes.

  6. Succession of lignocellulolytic bacterial consortia bred anaerobically from lake sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korenblum, Elisa; Jiménez Avella, Diego; van Elsas, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria degrade lignocellulose in various anoxic and organically rich environments, often in a syntrophic process. Anaerobic enrichments of bacterial communities on a recalcitrant lignocellulose source were studied combining polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresi

  7. Coxiella burnetii transcriptional analysis reveals serendipity clusters of regulation in intracellular bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Leroy

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever, is mainly transmitted to humans through an aerosol route. A spore-like form allows C. burnetii to resist different environmental conditions. Because of this, analysis of the survival strategies used by this bacterium to adapt to new environmental conditions is critical for our understanding of C. burnetii pathogenicity. Here, we report the early transcriptional response of C. burnetii under temperature stresses. Our data show that C. burnetii exhibited minor changes in gene regulation under short exposure to heat or cold shock. While small differences were observed, C. burnetii seemed to respond similarly to cold and heat shock. The expression profiles obtained using microarrays produced in-house were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Under temperature stresses, 190 genes were differentially expressed in at least one condition, with a fold change of up to 4. Globally, the differentially expressed genes in C. burnetii were associated with bacterial division, (pppGpp synthesis, wall and membrane biogenesis and, especially, lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan synthesis. These findings could be associated with growth arrest and witnessed transformation of the bacteria to a spore-like form. Unexpectedly, clusters of neighboring genes were differentially expressed. These clusters do not belong to operons or genetic networks; they have no evident associated functions and are not under the control of the same promoters. We also found undescribed but comparable clusters of regulation in previously reported transcriptomic analyses of intracellular bacteria, including Rickettsia sp. and Listeria monocytogenes. The transcriptomic patterns of C. burnetii observed under temperature stresses permits the recognition of unpredicted clusters of regulation for which the trigger mechanism remains unidentified but which may be the result of a new mechanism of epigenetic regulation.

  8. The Mannitol Operon Repressor MTIR belongs to a new class of transcription regulators in bacteria.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, K.; Borovilos, M.; Zhou, M; Horer, S; Clancy, S; Moy, S; Volkart, LL; Sassoon, J; Baumann, U; Joachimiak, A (Biosciences Division); (Univ. of Berne)

    2009-12-25

    Many bacteria express phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTS). The mannitol-specific PTS catalyze the uptake and phosphorylation of d-mannitol. The uptake system comprises several genes encoded in the single operon. The expression of the mannitol operon is regulated by a proposed transcriptional factor, mannitol operon repressor (MtlR) that was first studied in Escherichia coli. Here we report the first crystal structures of MtlR from Vibrio parahemeolyticus (Vp-MtlR) and its homolog YggD protein from Shigella flexneri (Sf-YggD). MtlR and YggD belong to the same protein family (Pfam05068). Although Vp-MtlR and Sf-YggD share low sequence identity (22%), their overall structures are very similar, representing a novel all {alpha}-helical fold, and indicate similar function. However, their lack of any known DNA-binding structural motifs and their unfavorable electrostatic properties imply that MtlR/YggD are unlikely to bind a specific DNA operator directly as proposed earlier. This structural observation is further corroborated by in vitro DNA-binding studies of E. coli MtlR (Ec-MtlR), which detected no interaction of Ec-MtlR with the well characterized mannitol operator/promoter region. Therefore, MtlR/YggD belongs to a new class of transcription factors in bacteria that may regulate gene expression indirectly as a part of a larger transcriptional complex.

  9. Antisense RNA regulation and application in the development of novel antibiotics to combat multidrug resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yinduo; Lei, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Despite the availability of antibiotics and vaccines, infectious diseases remain one of most dangerous threats to humans and animals. The overuse and misuse of antibacterial agents have led to the emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens. Bacterial cells are often resilient enough to survive in even the most extreme environments. To do so, the organisms have evolved different mechanisms, including a variety of two-component signal transduction systems, which allow the bacteria to sense the surrounding environment and regulate gene expression in order to adapt and respond to environmental stimuli. In addition, some bacteria evolve resistance to antibacterial agents while many bacterial cells are able to acquire resistance genes from other bacterial species to enable them to survive in the presence of toxic antimicrobial agents. The crisis of antimicrobial resistance is an unremitting menace to human health and a burden on public health. The rapid increase in antimicrobial resistant organisms and limited options for development of new classes of antibiotics heighten the urgent need to develop novel potent antibacterial therapeutics in order to combat multidrug resistant infections. In this review, we introduce the regulatory mechanisms of antisense RNA and significant applications of regulated antisense RNA interference technology in early drug discovery. This includes the identification and evaluation of drug targets in vitro and in vivo, the determination of mode of action for antibiotics and new antibacterial agents, as well as the development of peptide-nucleic acid conjugates as novel antibacterials.

  10. RISK FACTORS IN NEONATAL ANAEROBIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Tabib

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic bacteria are well known causes of sepsis in adults but there are few studies regarding their role in neonatal sepsis. In an attempt to define the incidence of neonatal anaerobic infections a prospective study was performed during one year period. A total number of 400 neonates under sepsis study were entered this investigation. Anaerobic as well as aerobic cultures were sent. The patients were subjected to comparison in two groups: anaerobic culture positive and anaerobic culture negative and this comparison were analyzed statistically. There were 7 neonates with positive anaerobic culture and 35 neonates with positive aerobic culture. A significant statistical relationship was found between anaerobic infections and abdominal distention and pneumonia. It is recommended for those neonates with abdominal distention and pneumonia refractory to antibiotic treatment to be started on antibiotics with anaerobic coverage.

  11. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  12. A prebiotic role of Ecklonia cava improves the mortality of Edwardsiella tarda-infected zebrafish models via regulating the growth of lactic acid bacteria and pathogen bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, WonWoo; Oh, Jae Young; Kim, Eun-A; Kang, Nalae; Kim, Kil-Nam; Ahn, Ginnae; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the beneficial prebiotic roles of Ecklonia cava (E. cava, EC) were evaluated on the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and pathogen bacteria and the mortality of pathogen-bacteria infected zebrafish model. The result showed that the original E. cava (EC) led to the highest growth effects on three LABs (Lactobacillus brevis, L. brevis; Lactobacillus pentosus, L. pentosus; Lactobacillus plantarum; L. plantarum) and it was dose-dependent manners. Also, EC, its Celluclast enzymatic (ECC) and 100% ethanol extracts (ECE) showed the anti-bacterial activities on the fish pathogenic bacteria such as (Edwardsiella tarda; E. tarda, Streptococcus iniae; S. iniae, and Vibrio harveyi; V. harveyi). Interestingly, EC induced the higher production of the secondary metabolites from L. plantarum in MRS medium. The secondary metabolites produced by EC significantly inhibited the growth of pathogen bacteria. In further in vivo study, the co-treatment of EC and L. plantarum improved the growth and mortality of E. tarda-infected zebrafish as regulating the expression of inflammatory molecules such as iNOS and COX2. Taken together, our present study suggests that the EC plays an important role as a potential prebiotic and has a protective effect against the infection caused by E. tarda injection in zebrafish. Also, our conclusion from this evidence is that EC can be used and applied as a useful prebiotic.

  13. Competition and coexistence of sulfate-reducing bacteria, acetogens and methanogens in a lab-scale anaerobic bioreactor as affected by changing substrate to sulfate ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dar, S.A.; Kleerebezem, R.; Stams, A.J.M.; Kuenen, J.G.; Muyzer, G.

    2008-01-01

    The microbial population structure and function of natural anaerobic communities maintained in lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactors at different lactate to sulfate ratios and in the absence of sulfate were analyzed using an integrated approach of molecular techniques and chemical analysis. T

  14. HIV-1 Tat regulates the expression of the dcw operon and stimulates the proliferation of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jinsong; Zhang, Yumin; Knapp, Pamela E; Zhao, Tianyong

    2016-01-01

    Infections of pathogenic bacteria are very common in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. However, the biological effects of HIV-1 Tat on bacteria are incompletely understood. In this study, HIV-1 Tat was expressed in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA01) to investigate its biological effects on bacteria. Bacterial cells expressing either HIV-1 Tat1-86 (Tat1-86) or HIV-1 Tat1-72 (Tat1-72) grow significantly faster than those with either only an empty vector or an unrelated control (GFP or Rluc). Supplementation of purified HIV-1 Tat1-86 or Tat1-101 protein into bacterial culture medium stimulated the growth of both E. coli and PA01. The expression profile of certain cell division-associated genes, such as those in the division cell wall (dcw) operon (ftsA, ftsQ, ftsW and ftsZ), yafO and zipA, was altered in HIV-1 Tat1-86 expressing E. coli BL21(DE3). Furthermore, the expression of firefly luciferase (Fluc) reporter gene, when engineered for control by the dcw promoter and terminator, was enhanced by HIV-1 Tat in E. coli, confirming that HIV-1 Tat transcriptionally regulates the expression of the dcw operon. The finding that HIV-1 Tat stimulates bacterial growth whether it is produced intracellularly or applied extracellularly may have relevance for HIV patients who are highly susceptible to opportunistic bacterial infections. Contents category: Viruses -Retroviruses. The GenBank accession number for the sequence of HIV-1 Tat1-86 is AF324439.1.

  15. Biocorrosion: pH regulation by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Biocorrosion: regulation du pH par les bacteries sulfato-reductrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crolet, J.L. (Societe Nationale des Petroles d' Aquitaine (SNPA), 64 - Pau (France)); Daumas, S. (GRAM, 13 - Aix-en-Provence (France)); Magot, M. (Sanofi Elf Bio Recherches, 31 - Labege (France))

    1992-01-01

    Association between microbiology bacteria metabolisms knowledge and water chemistry corrosion in presence of acid gases CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2]S leads to the conclusion that sulfate reducing bacteria regulate their environment pH around a value corresponding to a no acid production. Experimental results of the proposed model are presented with explanation of pitting corrosion, with a theoretical sorting of the most dangerous strains, and for petroleum exploitation: the potential link between the most severe bacteria corrosion and oxygen entrances, thiosulfates presence and other intermediate oxidation compounds of sulfur. (A.B.). 17 refs., 5 figs.

  16. The isolation of anaerobic bacteria from the gut of Camponotus japonicus%日本弓背蚁消化道厌氧细菌的分离培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱卓琳; 南小宁; 王云果; 贺虹

    2015-01-01

    Objectives] An anaerobic device was designed to culture anaerobic bacteria from the digestive tract of Camponotus japonicus. [Methods] A simple anaerobic device; the Interlayer Petri Dish Method, was improved to isolate anaerobic bacteria from the digestive tract of C. japonicus using four kinds of culture media (LB medium, Beef extract peptone, MRS medium and LBS medium). [Results] Twenty-two different bacterial strains were isolated from the guts of C. japonicus. These belonged to 17 genera of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacterium. Four kinds of culture mediums had high selectivity, and isolated different bacterial species. More bacterial species were isolated from LB and beef extract peptone medium (10 and 8 species respectively), less were isolated from LBS and MRS medium (3 and 1 species respectively). In addition, bacterial species isolated from the digestive tracts of major and minor workers differed, which may be related to their functions and responsibilities in the colony. Further research will be required to clarify this. [Conclusion] Several anaerobic bacteria were successfully isolated from the guts of C. japonicus using the Interlayer Petri Dish Method, which provides a reference for isolating the gut bacteria of other insects.%【目的】采用自行设置的厌氧装置,分离培养日本弓背蚁Camponotus japonicus消化道厌氧细菌。【方法】改进了一种简易的厌氧装置——平皿夹层法,利用4种培养基对日本弓背蚁消化道内厌氧或兼性厌氧菌进行分离培养。【结果】从日本弓背蚁消化道共分离到22个不同的菌株,隶属于厚壁菌门、放线菌门和变形菌门3大类群的17个属;4种培养基分离到的细菌种类存在明显差异,选择性较强,其中从LB和牛肉膏蛋白胨培养基上分离到的细菌种类较多,分别为10种和8种;从MRS和LBS培养基上分离到的细菌较少,分别为3种和1种;大工蚁和小工蚁的消化道细

  17. Temperature and Carbon Assimilation Regulate the Chlorosome Biogenesis in Green Sulfur Bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Joseph Kuo-Hsiang; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Enriquez, Miriam M; Huh, Joonsuk; Frank, Harry A; Urban, Volker S; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Green photosynthetic bacteria adjust the structure and functionality of the chlorosome - the light absorbing antenna complex - in response to environmental stress factors. The chlorosome is a natural self-assembled aggregate of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecules. In this study we report the regulation of the biogenesis of the Chlorobaculum tepidum chlorosome by carbon assimilation in conjunction with temperature changes. Our studies indicate that the carbon source and thermal stress culture of Cba. tepidum grows slower and incorporates less BChl c in the chlorosome. Compared with the chlorosome from other cultural conditions we investigated, the chlorosome from the carbon source and thermal stress culture displays: (a) smaller cross-sectional radius and overall size; (b) simplified BChl c homologues with smaller side chains; (c) blue-shifted Qy absorption maxima and (d) a sigmoid-shaped circular dichroism (CD) spectra. Using a theoretical model we analyze how the observed spectral modifications can be assoc...

  18. Anaerobic degradation and toxicity of commercial cationic surfactants in anaerobic screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M T; Campos, E; Sánchez-Leal, J; Ribosa, I

    2000-09-01

    Anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity on anaerobic bacteria of di(hydrogenated tallow) dimethyl ammonium chloride (DHTDMAC) and two esterquats have been investigated. A batch test system containing municipal digester solids as a source of anaerobic bacteria, based on the method proposed by the ECETOC, has been applied. To evaluate the potential toxicity of such surfactants on anaerobic sludge, a co-substrate, an easily biodegradable compound in anaerobic conditions, has been added to the samples to test and the effects on biogas production have been determined. For the esterquats studied high biodegradation levels were obtained and no toxic effects on anaerobic bacteria were observed even at the highest concentrations tested, 100 and 200 mg C/l, respectively. On the contrary, DHTDMAC was not degradated at the same test conditions. However, no inhibitory effects on the biogas production were detected for this surfactant at concentrations <100 mg C/l.

  19. The anaerobic (Class III) ribonucleotide reductase from Lactococcus lactis : Catalytic properties and allosteric regulation of the pure enzyme system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrents, Eduard; Buist, Girbe; Liu, Aimin; Eliasson, Rolf; Kok, Jan; Gibert, Isidre; Gräslund, Astrid; Reichard, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis contains an operon with the genes (nrdD and nrdG) for a class III ribonucleotide reductase, Strict anaerobic growth depends on the activity of these genes. Both were sequenced, cloned, and overproduced in Escherichia coli, The corresponding proteins, NrdD and NrdG, were purified c

  20. Comparison of nitroethane, 2-nitro-1-propanol, lauric acid, Lauricidin and the Hawaiian marine algae, Chaetoceros, for potential broad-spectrum control of anaerobically grown lactic acid bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gastrointestinal tract of bovines often contains bacteria that contribute to disorders of the rumen and may also contain foodborne or opportunistic human pathogens as well as bacteria capable of causing mastitis in cows. Thus, there is a need to develop broad-spectrum therapies that are effecti...

  1. Simple and Versatile Turbidimetric Monitoring of Bacterial Growth in Liquid Cultures Using a Customized 3D Printed Culture Tube Holder and a Miniaturized Spectrophotometer: Application to Facultative and Strictly Anaerobic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Margarida R. G.; Marques, Sara; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Wallace, R. John; Thompson, Gertrude; Fonseca, António J. M.; Oliveira, Hugo M.

    2016-01-01

    Here we introduce a novel strategy for turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid culture. The instrumentation comprises a light source, a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer, connected through optical cables. Due to its small footprint and the possibility to operate with external light, bacterial growth was directly monitored from culture tubes in a simple and versatile fashion. This new portable measurement technique was used to monitor the growth of facultative (Escherichia coli ATCC/25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC/29213) and strictly (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens JW11, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18, and Propionibacterium acnes DSMZ 1897) anaerobic bacteria. For E. coli and S. aureus, the growth rates calculated from normalized optical density values were compared with those ones obtained using a benchtop spectrophotometer without significant differences (P = 0.256). For the strictly anaerobic species, a high precision (relative standard deviation < 3.5%) was observed between replicates up to 48 h. Regarding its potential for customization, this manifold could accommodate further developments for customized turbidimetric monitoring, such as the use of light-emitting diodes as a light source or flow cells. PMID:27630632

  2. Simple and versatile turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid cultures using a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer: application to facultative and strictly anaerobic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida R. G. Maia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we introduce a novel strategy for turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid culture. The instrumentation comprises a light source, a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer, connected through optical cables. Due to its small footprint and the possibility to operate with external light, bacterial growth was directly monitored from culture tubes in a simple and versatile fashion. This new portable measurement technique was used to monitor the growth of facultative (Escherichia coli ATCC/25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC/29213 and strictly (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens JW11, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18, and Propionibacterium acnes DSMZ 1897 anaerobic bacteria. For E. coli and S. aureus, the growth rates calculated from normalized optical density values were compared with those ones obtained using a benchtop spectrophotometer without significant differences (P = 0.256. For the strictly anaerobic species, a high precision (RSD < 3.5% was observed between replicates up to 48 h. Regarding its potential for customization, this manifold could accommodate further developments for customized turbidimetric monitoring, such as the use of light-emitting diodes as a light source or flow cells.

  3. Simple and Versatile Turbidimetric Monitoring of Bacterial Growth in Liquid Cultures Using a Customized 3D Printed Culture Tube Holder and a Miniaturized Spectrophotometer: Application to Facultative and Strictly Anaerobic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Margarida R G; Marques, Sara; Cabrita, Ana R J; Wallace, R John; Thompson, Gertrude; Fonseca, António J M; Oliveira, Hugo M

    2016-01-01

    Here we introduce a novel strategy for turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid culture. The instrumentation comprises a light source, a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer, connected through optical cables. Due to its small footprint and the possibility to operate with external light, bacterial growth was directly monitored from culture tubes in a simple and versatile fashion. This new portable measurement technique was used to monitor the growth of facultative (Escherichia coli ATCC/25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC/29213) and strictly (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens JW11, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18, and Propionibacterium acnes DSMZ 1897) anaerobic bacteria. For E. coli and S. aureus, the growth rates calculated from normalized optical density values were compared with those ones obtained using a benchtop spectrophotometer without significant differences (P = 0.256). For the strictly anaerobic species, a high precision (relative standard deviation < 3.5%) was observed between replicates up to 48 h. Regarding its potential for customization, this manifold could accommodate further developments for customized turbidimetric monitoring, such as the use of light-emitting diodes as a light source or flow cells.

  4. Role of Protein Phosphorylation in the Regulation of Cell Cycle and DNA-Related Processes in Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Garcia, Transito; Poncet, Sandrine; Derouiche, Abderahmane;

    2016-01-01

    replication during the cell cycle, as well as in the mechanisms that cope with stress-induced replication blocks. Similar to eukaryotes, bacteria use Hanks-type kinases and phosphatases for signal transduction, and protein phosphorylation is involved in numerous cellular processes. However, it remains unclear...... the bacterial cell cycle. Recent phosphoproteomics and interactomics studies identified numerous phosphoproteins involved in various aspect of DNA metabolism strongly supporting the existence of such level of regulation in bacteria. Similar to eukaryotes, bacterial scaffolding-like proteins emerged as platforms...... for kinase activation and signaling. This review reports the current knowledge on the phosphorylation of proteins involved in the maintenance of genome integrity and the regulation of cell cycle in bacteria that reveals surprising similarities to eukaryotes....

  5. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans QseBC is activated by catecholamines and iron and regulates genes encoding proteins associated with anaerobic respiration and metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, WA; Demuth, DR; Torres-Escobar, A; Juárez-Rodríguez, MD

    2015-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans QseBC regulates its own expression and is essential for biofilm growth and virulence. However, the signal that activates the QseC sensor has not been identified and the qseBC regulon has not been defined. In this study, we show that QseC is activated by catecholamine hormones and iron but not by either component alone. Activation of QseC requires an EYRDD motif in the periplasmic domain of the sensor and site-specific mutations in EYRDD or the deletion of the periplasmic domain inhibits catecholamine/iron-dependent induction of the ygiW-qseBC operon. Catecholamine/iron-dependent induction of transcription also requires interaction of the QseB response regulator with its binding site in the ygiW-qseBC promoter. Whole genome microarrays were used to compare gene expression profiles of A. actinomycetemcomitans grown in a chemically defined medium with and without catecholamine and iron supplementation. Approximately 11.5% of the A. actinomycetemcomitans genome was differentially expressed by at least two-fold upon exposure to catecholamines and iron. The expression of ferritin was strongly induced, suggesting that intracellular iron storage capacity is increased upon QseBC activation. Consistent with this, genes encoding iron binding and transport proteins were down-regulated by QseBC. Strikingly, 57% of the QseBC up-regulated genes (56/99) encode proteins associated with anaerobic metabolism and respiration. Most of these up-regulated genes were recently reported to be induced during in vivo growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans. These results suggest that detection of catecholamines and iron by QseBC may alter the cellular metabolism of A. actinomycetemcomitans for increased fitness and growth in an anaerobic host environment. PMID:25923132

  6. Regulation of the activity of lactate dehydrogenases from four lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman-Salit, Anna; Hering, Silvio; Messiha, Hanan L; Veith, Nadine; Cojocaru, Vlad; Sieg, Antje; Westerhoff, Hans V; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Wade, Rebecca C; Fiedler, Tomas

    2013-07-19

    Despite high similarity in sequence and catalytic properties, the l-lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs) in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) display differences in their regulation that may arise from their adaptation to different habitats. We combined experimental and computational approaches to investigate the effects of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), phosphate (Pi), and ionic strength (NaCl concentration) on six LDHs from four LABs studied at pH 6 and pH 7. We found that 1) the extent of activation by FBP (Kact) differs. Lactobacillus plantarum LDH is not regulated by FBP, but the other LDHs are activated with increasing sensitivity in the following order: Enterococcus faecalis LDH2 ≤ Lactococcus lactis LDH2 < E. faecalis LDH1 < L. lactis LDH1 ≤ Streptococcus pyogenes LDH. This trend reflects the electrostatic properties in the allosteric binding site of the LDH enzymes. 2) For L. plantarum, S. pyogenes, and E. faecalis, the effects of Pi are distinguishable from the effect of changing ionic strength by adding NaCl. 3) Addition of Pi inhibits E. faecalis LDH2, whereas in the absence of FBP, Pi is an activator of S. pyogenes LDH, E. faecalis LDH1, and L. lactis LDH1 and LDH2 at pH 6. These effects can be interpreted by considering the computed binding affinities of Pi to the catalytic and allosteric binding sites of the enzymes modeled in protonation states corresponding to pH 6 and pH 7. Overall, the results show a subtle interplay among the effects of Pi, FBP, and pH that results in different regulatory effects on the LDHs of different LABs.

  7. [Systematic analysis and metabolic regulation of physiological functions for lactic acid bacteria--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Zhang, Juan; Liu, Liming

    2012-01-01

    As cell factories, lactic acid bacteria are widely used in food, agriculture, medicine and other industries, and play a great role in industrial processes. However, lactic acid bacteria encounter various environmental stresses both in industrial processes and in the gastrointestinal tract, which impair their physiological functions and food manufacture efficiency. Recently, the development of metabolic engineering and system biology brings unprecedented opportunity for the physiological modification of lactic acid bacteria. In this review, we addresses the progress of lactic acid bacterium system biology, and based on this, the metabolic engineering strategies for manipulating and optimizing lactic acid bacteria physiological function were summarized.

  8. [Regulating acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-07-04

    As cell factories, lactic acid bacteria are widely used in food, agriculture, pharmaceutical and other industries. Acid stress is one the important survival challenges encountered by lactic acid bacteria both in fermentation process and in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, the development of systems biology and metabolic engineering brings unprecedented opportunity for further elucidating the acid tolerance mechanisms and improving the acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria. This review addresses physiological mechanisms of lactic acid bacteria during acid stress. Moreover, strategies to improve the acid stress resistance of lactic acid were proposed.

  9. 液相条件下低温常压 DBD 等离子对厌氧细菌的杀灭研究%Study on Anaerobic Bacteria Sterilization by Low Temperature Atmospheric DBD Plasma in Liquid Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨博; 郭斯青; 郭荣; 陈欢欢; 谢博厚

    2015-01-01

    The rules of Anaerobic Bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus sterilization by Low Temperature Atmospheric DBD was studied , in terms of plasma voltage , plasma current and exposure time.It was indicated that there was a linear dependent between plasma parameters and sterilization capacity , and Leakage of cellular protein and DNA was also observed during initial treatment stage of plasma exposure by UV-visible spectrophotometer examination , which meant the bacteria activity was reduced successfully.%采用低温常压DBD等离子灭菌技术,研究了不同等离子体放电参数(电压、电流及放电时间等)对液相中乳酸杆菌的杀灭影响规律。研究发现,等离子体杀灭液相中乳酸杆菌的能力与其放电参数线性相关;紫外可见吸收光谱检测发现等离子体处理初期细胞蛋白质和DNA已经开始泄漏,细菌活性被有效削减。

  10. Oxidation reduction potential as a parameter to regulate micro-oxygen injection into anaerobic digester for reducing hydrogen sulphide concentration in biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Long D; Manassa, Patrick; Dawson, Marcia; Fitzgerald, Shona K

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of oxidation reduction potential (ORP) to regulate the injection of a small amount of oxygen into an anaerobic digester for reducing H2S concentration in biogas. The results confirm that micro-oxygen injection can be effective for controlling H2S formation during anaerobic digestion without disturbing the performance of the digester. Biogas production, composition, and the removal of volatile solids (VS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were monitored to assessment the digester's performance. Six days after the start of the micro-oxygen injection, the ORP values increased to between -320 and -270 mV, from the natural baseline value of -485 mV. Over the same period the H2S concentration in the biogas decreased from over 6000 ppm to just 30 ppm. No discernible changes in the VS and COD removal rates, pH and alkalinity of the digestate or in the biogas production or composition were observed.

  11. Evaluation of surface contamination of bacteria in various dental clinics with special reference to obligate and facultative anaerobic spore bearing bacilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan I, Jessica Yolanda Jeevitha, Sambandam Cecilia, Jayalakshmi M, Premavathy RK and Shantha S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The occupational health and safety is an important prerequisite in dental clinic setup for well being of both the doctor and patient. Both the patient and dentist are always at the risk of infections. Aim and objectives: There is no proper literature on the survey of bacterial spores, especially of Clostridium species in dental clinics. Hence an attempt has been made in the present pilot study to evaluate the surface contamination with special reference to bacterial spores. Materials and methods: Various dental clinics from Chennai city, India were selected for the present study. Samples were collected from two clinics each from endodontic, prosthodontic, orthodontic, and periodontic. In each clinic important places were selected for sampling. The samples were collected in the form of swabs. The swabs thus obtained were inoculated into Robertson Cooked Meat Medium and was incubated in anaerobic condition at 370C for 7 days. Each day the tubes were examined for turbidity and colour change and were noted. At the end of 7th day the smear was prepared from each tube and gram staining was performed. The gram stained slides were examined microscopically for the presence of spore bearing bacilli especially with special reference to terminal spore bearing bacilli. Results and conclusion: From the present study it is clear that the dental clinics invariably posses a lot of aerobic and anaerobic spores irrespective of stringent disinfection procedures. Hence it is mandatory for the dental clinics to undergo periodical microbiological surveillance and to take proper steps in the control of bacterial spores.

  12. Anaerobe Tolerance to Oxygen and the Potentials of Anaerobic and Aerobic Cocultures for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Kato

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic treatment processes are considered to be well-established methods for the elimination of easily biodegradable organic matter from wastewaters. Some difficulties concerning certain wastewaters are related to the possible presence of dissolved oxygen. The common belief is that anaerobes are oxygen intolerant. Therefore, the common practice is to use sequencing anaerobic and aerobic steps in separate tanks. Enhanced treatment by polishing off the residual biodegradable oxygen demand from effluents of anaerobic reactors, or the biodegradation of recalcitrant wastewater pollutants, usually requires sequenced anaerobic and aerobic bacteria activities. However, the combined activity of both bacteria can also be obtained in a single reactor. Previous experiments with either pure or mixed cultures showed that anaerobes can tolerate oxygen to a certain extent. The oxygen toxicity to methanogens in anaerobic sludges was quantified in batch experiments, as well as in anaerobic reactors. The results showed that methanogens have a high tolerance to oxygen. In practice, it was confirmed that dissolved oxygen does not constitute any detrimental effect on reactor treatment performance. This means that the coexistence of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in one single reactor is feasible and increases the potentials of new applications in wastewater treatment

  13. Quantitative fluorescent in-situ hybridization: a hypothesized competition mode between two dominant bacteria groups in hydrogen-producing anaerobic sludge processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C-L; Chen, C-C; Lin, C-Y; Liu, W-T

    2009-01-01

    Two hydrogen-producing continuous flow stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) fed respectively with glucose and sucrose were investigated by polymerase chain reaction-denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH). The substrate was fed in a continuous mode decreased from hydraulic retention time (HRT) 10 hours to 6, 5, 4, 3, and 2 hours. Quantitative fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) observations further demonstrated that two morphotypes of bacteria dominated both microbial communities. One was long rod bacteria which can be targeted either by Chis150 probe designed to hybridize the gram positive low G + C bacteria or the specific oligonucleotide probe Lg10-6. The probe Lg10-6, affiliated with Clostridium pasteurianum, was designed and then checked with other reference organisms. The other type, unknown group, which cannot be detected by Chis150 was curved rod bacteria. Notably, the population ratios of the two predominant groups reflected the different operational performance of the two reactors, such as hydrogen producing rates, substrate turnover rates and metabolites compositions. Therefore, a competition mode of the two dominant bacteria groups was hypothesized. In the study, 16S rRNA-based gene library of hydrogen-producing microbial communities was established. The efficiency of hydrogen yields was correlated with substrates (glucose or sucrose), HRT, metabolites compositions (acetate, propionate, butyrate and ethanol), thermal pre-treatment (seed biomass was heated at 100 degrees C for 45 minutes), and microbial communities in the bioreactor, not sludge sources (municipal sewage sludge, alcohol-processing sludge, or bean-processing sludge). The designed specific oligonucleotide probe Lg10-6 also provides us a useful and fast molecular tool to screen hydrogen-producing microbial communities in the future research.

  14. 血清IgG抗体含量与口腔厌氧菌致牙髓感染的关系%Relationship between contents of serum IgG antibody and pulp infections caused by oral anaerobic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕朋君; 马珅; 刘晓斌

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the relationship between the level of serum IgG antibody and the pulp infections caused by oral anaerobic bacteria by referring to the characteristics of specific response between antigen and anti‐body so as to reduce the infection rate .METHODS The patients with pulp diseases who were treated in the hospi‐tal from Jan 2013 to Jan 2014 were enrolled in the study and divided into the group B ,C ,and D ,with 10 cases in each ;meanwhile 10 healthy subjects were chosen as the group A .The IgG antibody contents in the 10 internation‐al standard anaerobic bacteria strains isolated from the serum of the patients with infections and the healthy sub‐jects were determined by using ELISA method ,the relationship between the pulp infections and the oral anaerobic bacteria was specifically analyzed ,and the statistical analysis of data was performed with the use of SPSS 17 .0 software .RESULTS The average level of serum antibody in Prevotella intermedia was significantly lower in the group A than in the group B ,C ,and D (P<0 .05) .As compared with the group A ,the OD values of other three groups were more than 2 .1 ,and all were positive .There was significant difference in the average level of serum antibody in Porphyromonas gingivalis among the healthy subjects ,the patients with pulp infections ,and the pa‐tients with pulp‐periodontal diseases (P<0 .05) ,as compared with the patients with periodontal disease ,howev‐er ,the difference was not significant .There was no significant difference in the OD value of serum antibody in the anaerobic bacteria among the four groups .CONCLUSION The ELISA ,as is applied for the analysis of the anaero‐bic bacteria causing the pulp infections ,may contribute to considerably higher isolation rate and accuracy than the traditional microbial culture ,and it can be used as a conventional method for the detection of pathogenic bacteria causing pulp infections .%目的:利用抗原与抗体特异反应的

  15. Single-cell analysis of growth and cell division of the anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouchka eFievet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen significant progress in understanding basic bacterial cell cycle properties such as cell growth and cell division. While characterization and regulation of bacterial cell cycle is quite well documented in the case of fast growing aerobic model organisms, no data has been so far reported for anaerobic bacteria. This lack of information in anaerobic microorganisms can mainly be explained by the absence of molecular and cellular tools such as single cell microscopy and fluorescent probes usable for anaerobes and essential to study cellular events and/or subcellular localization of the actors involved in cell cycle.In this study, single-cell microscopy has been adapted to study for the first time, in real time, the cell cycle of a bacterial anaerobe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH. This single-cell analysis provides mechanistic insights into the cell division cycle of DvH, which seems to be governed by the recently discussed so-called incremental model that generates remarkably homogeneous cell sizes. Furthermore, cell division was reversibly blocked during oxygen exposure. This may constitute a strategy for anaerobic cells to cope with transient exposure to oxygen that they may encounter in their natural environment, thereby contributing to their aerotolerance. This study lays the foundation for the first molecular, single-cell assay that will address factors that cannot otherwise be resolved in bulk assays and that will allow visualization of a wide range of molecular mechanisms within living anaerobic cells.

  16. 口腔需氧菌及兼性厌氧菌种分离鉴定系统的建立%Isolation and identification of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria in the oral cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆文昕; 肖丽英; 李燕; 吴凡子; 周辛璇; 吴岚; 李明云; 任彪; 郭强; 黄睿洁; 李继遥

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立口腔需氧菌和兼性菌的系统分离鉴定方法。方法招募20名口腔健康志愿者及8名口腔疾病患者,分别采集唾液、龈下菌斑、龈上菌斑和根尖周肉芽样本,采用形态鉴定、全自动生化鉴定仪及16s rRNA基因测序的多相分类方法,对口腔可培养细菌进行分离鉴定。结果鉴定出口腔菌种63种,共175株,梅里埃生化鉴定与16s rRNA基因鉴定的符合度为22.39%,不符合的菌种以基因测序结果为准。链球菌属、放线菌属和葡萄球菌属检出率占前3位,菌种以咽峡炎链球菌、口腔放线菌、变异链球菌、缓症链球菌检出频率最高。慢性根尖周炎的咽峡炎链球菌检出率最高;放射性龋患者中,中间链球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌检出率较高;猛性龋患者中,变异链球菌远高于其他细菌。结论口腔需氧菌和兼性厌氧菌中以革兰阳性菌检出率最高。对于口腔细菌鉴定来说,梅里埃生化鉴定仪鉴定准确率不高,但可提供菌株生理生化指标,而全长的16s rRNA基因测序鉴定更为可靠。%Objective To establish a systematic method for isolation and identification of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria in the oral cavity. Methods Samples of the saliva, dental plaque and periapical granulation tissue were collected from 20 subjects with healthy oral condition and from 8 patients with different oral diseases. The bacteria in the samples were identified by morphological identification, VITEK automatic microorganism identification and 16s rRNA gene sequencing. Results VITEK automatic microorganism identification and 16s rRNA gene sequencing showed an agreement rate of 22.39%in identifying the bacteria in the samples. We identified altogether 63 bacterial genus (175 species), among which Streptococcus, Actinomyces and Staphylococcus were the most common bacterial genus, and Streptococcus anginosus, Actinomyces oris, Streptococcus mutans

  17. The potential of bacteria isolated from ruminal contents of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep to hydrolyse seaweed components and produce methane by anaerobic digestion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan G; Withers, Susan; Sutherland, Alastair D

    2013-01-01

    The production of methane biofuel from seaweeds is limited by the hydrolysis of polysaccharides. The rumen microbiota of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep was studied for polysaccharidic bacterial isolates degrading brown-seaweed polysaccharides. Only nine isolates out of 65 utilized >90% of the polysaccharide they were isolated on. The nine isolates (eight Prevotella spp. and one Clostridium butyricum) utilized whole Laminaria hyperborea extract and a range of seaweed polysaccharides, including alginate (seven out of nine isolates), laminarin and carboxymethylcellulose (eight out of nine isolates); while two out of nine isolates additionally hydrolysed fucoidan to some extent. Crude enzyme extracts from three of the isolates studied further had diverse glycosidases and polysaccharidase activities; particularly against laminarin and alginate (two isolates were shown to have alginate lyase activity) and notably fucoidan and carageenan (one isolate). In serial culture rumen microbiota hydrolysed a range of seaweed polysaccharides (fucoidan to a notably lesser degree) and homogenates of L. hyperborea, mixed Fucus spp. and Ascophyllum nodosum to produce methane and acetate. The rumen microbiota and isolates represent potential adjunct organisms or enzymes which may improve hydrolysis of seaweed components and thus improve the efficiency of seaweed anaerobic digestion for methane biofuel production.

  18. Comparative genomic analysis of regulation of anaerobic respiration in ten genomes from three families of gamma-proteobacteria (Enterobacteriaceae, Pasteurellaceae, Vibrionaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironov Andrey A

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gamma-proteobacteria, such as Escherichia coli, can use a variety of respiratory substrates employing numerous aerobic and anaerobic respiratory systems controlled by multiple transcription regulators. Thus, in E. coli, global control of respiration is mediated by four transcription factors, Fnr, ArcA, NarL and NarP. However, in other Gamma-proteobacteria the composition of global respiration regulators may be different. Results In this study we applied a comparative genomic approach to the analysis of three global regulatory systems, Fnr, ArcA and NarP. These systems were studied in available genomes containing these three regulators, but lacking NarL. So, we considered several representatives of Pasteurellaceae, Vibrionaceae and Yersinia spp. As a result, we identified new regulon members, functioning in respiration, central metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, citrate cicle, metabolism of pyruvate and lactate, metabolism of carbohydrates and fatty acids, transcriptional regulation and transport, in particular: the ATP synthase operon atpIBEFHAGCD, Na+-exporting NADH dehydrogenase operon nqrABCDEF, the D-amino acids dehydrogenase operon dadAX. Using an extension of the comparative technique, we demonstrated taxon-specific changes in regulatory interactions and predicted taxon-specific regulatory cascades. Conclusion A comparative genomic technique was applied to the analysis of global regulation of respiration in ten gamma-proteobacterial genomes. Three structurally different but functionally related regulatory systems were described. A correlation between the regulon size and the position of a transcription factor in regulatory cascades was observed: regulators with larger regulons tend to occupy top positions in the cascades. On the other hand, there is no obvious link to differences in the species' lifestyles and metabolic capabilities.

  19. ["Quorum sensing" regulation of lux gene expression and the structure of lux operon in marine bacteria Alivibrio logei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrul'nova, S A; Manukhov, I V; Zavil'gel'skiĭ, G B

    2011-12-01

    A group of luminescent strains of marine bacteria Alivibrio logei has been isolated (basins of the Okhotsk, White and Bering Seas). Strains A. logei were shown to be psycrophiic bacteria with an optimal growth temperature of approximately 15 degrees C. Biolumiscent characteristics of strains were studied, and the expression of lux genes was shown to be regulated by the "quorum sensing" system. The A. logei lux operon was cloned in Escherichia coli cells and the structure of this operon and its nucleotide sequence were determined. The structure of A. logei lux operon differs markedly from that in the closely related species of luminescent marine bacteria A. fischeri. In the structure of the A. logei lux operon, the the luxI gene is absent in front of luxC, and a fragment containing luxR2-luxI genes is located immediately after luxG gene. Luminescent psycrophiic marine bacteria of A. logei are assumed to be widely distributed in cold waters of northern seas.

  20. Ammonia effect on hydrogenotrophic methanogens and syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Han; Fotidis, Ioannis; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-rich substrates can cause inhibition on anaerobic digestion process. Syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria (SAOB) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens are important for the ammonia inhibitory mechanism on anaerobic digestion. The roles and interactions of SAOB and hydrogenotrophic methanogens...

  1. Anaerobic Metabolism and Bioremediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathy, Raj

    Nitroaromatic compounds pollute soil, water, and food via use of pesticides, plastics, pharmaceuticals, landfill dumping of industrial wastes, and the military use of explosives. Biotransformation of trinitrotoluene and other nitroaromatics by aerobic bacteria in the laboratory has been frequently reported, but the anaerobic bacterial metabolism of nitroaromatics has not been studied as extensively perhaps due to the difficulty in working with anaerobic cultures and the slow growth of anaerobes. Sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria can metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment.

  2. An investigation into the removal of Salmonella and enteric indicator bacteria from the separated liquid fraction of raw or anaerobically digested pig manure using novel on-farm woodchip biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, G; Lawlor, P G; Carney, K N; Zhan, X; Gutierrez, M; Gardiner, G E

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the removal of Salmonella and enteric indicator bacteria from the liquid fraction of raw and anaerobically digested (AD) pig manure in woodchip biofilters over a 14 week (98 day) period. Antibiotic susceptible Salmonella Infantis was detected in one influent material (liquid fraction of raw manure) on two occasions but was not found in the effluent at any time point. Furthermore, mean coliform reductions of 56% were observed in the biofilters treating the liquid fraction of raw manure. However, a mean increase of 228% was found in those treating the liquid from AD manure, despite the fact that the microbial challenge to these biofilters was lower. In addition, relatively high coliform counts were still present in the effluent from both biofilter treatments, especially in the systems treating the liquid fraction of AD manure. However, findings for Escherichia coli and Enterococcus were more promising, with reductions observed for both treatments (10 and 18.5% for E. coli and 71 and 87% for Enterococcus). Moreover, E. coli and Enterococcus were at, or just above, the limit of detection in the final effluents. Overall, although, there are no microbial limits for discharge or washwaters, the woodchip filter effluent would appear safe for discharge to waterways or use on-farm as regards Salmonella, E. coli and Enterococcus but not coliform. In conclusion, woodchip biofilters offer potential as a low-cost sustainable novel treatment option for the removal of pathogens from the liquid fraction of pig manure.

  3. 硫酸盐还原菌及其在废水厌氧治理中的应用%Application of sulfate-reducing bacteria to anaerobic wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖利萍; 张镭; 李月

    2011-01-01

    硫酸盐还原菌(SRB)在废水处理方面有独特的优势,在厌氧环境中能以硫酸盐作为电子受体降解有机污染物.本文阐明了SRB处理废水中污染物的机理,综述了国内外利用SRB处理重金属离子废水、含硫酸盐有机废水和酸性矿山废水的研究进展.最后总结了目前在工程应用方面尚存在的问题.%Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) has unique advantage in wastewater treatment and can degrade organic pollutants with sulfate as electron acceptor in the anaerobic environment. This paper introduced the SRB mechanism for wastewater treatment, summarized the applications of SRB on the treatment of heavy metal wastewater , organic wastewater containing sulfate and acid mine wastewater at home and abroad. At last, the current problems in engineering application are explained.

  4. An optimized regulating method for composting phosphorus fractions transformation based on biochar addition and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuquan; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Huan; Lu, Qian; Cao, Zhenyu; Cui, Hongyang; Zhu, Longji; Wei, Zimin

    2016-12-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the influence of biochar and/or phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) inoculants on microbial biomass, bacterial community composition and phosphorus (P) fractions during kitchen waste composting amended with rock phosphate (RP). There were distinct differences in the physic-chemical parameters, the proportion of P fractions and bacterial diversity in different treatments. The contribution of available P fractions increased during composting especially in the treatment with the addition of PSB and biochar. Redundancy analysis showed that bacterial compositions were significantly influenced by P content, inoculation and biochar. Variance partitioning further showed that synergy of inoculated PSB and indigenous bacterial communities and the joint effect between biochar and bacteria explained the largest two proportion of the variation in P fractions. Therefore, the combined application of PSB and biochar to improve the inoculation effect and an optimized regulating method were suggested based on the distribution of P fractions.

  5. Inducible gene expression and environmentally regulated genes in lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Relatively recently, a number of genes and operons have been identified in lactic acid bacteria that are inducible and respond to environmental factors. Some of these genes/operons had been isolated and analysed because of their importance in the fermentation industry and, consequently, their transc

  6. Direct identification of bacteria from BacT/ALERT anaerobic positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF MS: MALDI Sepsityper kit versus an in-house saponin method for bacterial extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meex, Cécile; Neuville, Florence; Descy, Julie; Huynen, Pascale; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; De Mol, Patrick; Melin, Pierrette

    2012-11-01

    In cases of bacteraemia, a rapid species identification of the causal agent directly from positive blood culture broths could assist clinicians in the timely targeting of empirical antimicrobial therapy. For this purpose, we evaluated the direct identification of micro-organisms from BacT/ALERT (bioMérieux) anaerobic positive blood cultures without charcoal using the Microflex matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time of flight MS (Bruker), after bacterial extraction by using two different methods: the MALDI Sepsityper kit (Bruker) and an in-house saponin lysis method. Bruker's recommended criteria for identification were expanded in this study, with acceptance of the species identification when the first three results with the best matches with the MALDI Biotyper database were identical, whatever the scores were. In total, 107 monobacterial cultures and six polymicrobial cultures from 77 different patients were included in this study. Among monomicrobial cultures, we identified up to the species level 67 and 66 % of bacteria with the MALDI Sepsityper kit and the saponin method, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two extraction methods. The direct species identification was particularly inconclusive for Gram-positive bacteria, as only 58 and 52 % of them were identified to the species level with the MALDI Sepsityper kit and the saponin method, respectively. Results for Gram-negative bacilli were better, with 82.5 and 90 % of correct identification to the species level with the MALDI Sepsityper kit and the saponin method, respectively. No misidentifications were given by the direct procedures when compared with identifications provided by the conventional method. Concerning the six polymicrobial blood cultures, whatever the extraction method used, a correct direct identification was only provided for one of the isolated bacteria on solid medium in all cases. The analysis of the time-to-result demonstrated a reduction

  7. Anaerobic biodegradability of macropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    A variety of test procedures for determination of anaerobic biodegradability has been reported. This paper reviews the methods developed for determination of anaerobic biodegradability of macro-pollutants. Anaerobic biodegradability of micro-pollutants is not included. Furthermore, factors import...

  8. Why do bacteria regulate public goods by quorum sensing?-How the shapes of cost and benefit functions determine the form of optimal regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Silja; Krishna, Sandeep; Kerr, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Many bacteria secrete compounds which act as public goods. Such compounds are often under quorum sensing (QS) regulation, yet it is not understood exactly when bacteria may gain from having a public good under QS regulation. Here, we show that the optimal public good production rate per cell as a function of population size (the optimal production curve, OPC) depends crucially on the cost and benefit functions of the public good and that the OPC will fall into one of two categories: Either it is continuous or it jumps from zero discontinuously at a critical population size. If, e.g., the public good has accelerating returns and linear cost, then the OPC is discontinuous and the best strategy thus to ramp up production sharply at a precise population size. By using the example of public goods with accelerating and diminishing returns (and linear cost) we are able to determine how the two different categories of OPSs can best be matched by production regulated through a QS signal feeding back on its own production. We find that the optimal QS parameters are different for the two categories and specifically that public goods which provide accelerating returns, call for stronger positive signal feedback.

  9. Capsules of Streptococcus pneumoniae and other bacteria: paradigms for polysaccharide biosynthesis and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yother, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Capsular polysaccharides and exopolysaccharides play critical roles in bacterial survival strategies, and they can have important medical and industrial applications. An immense variety of sugars and glycosidic linkages leads to an almost unlimited diversity of potential polysaccharide structures. This diversity is reflected in the large number of serologically and chemically distinct polysaccharides that have been identified among both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Despite this diversity, however, the genetic loci and mechanisms responsible for polysaccharide biosynthesis exhibit conserved features and can be classified into a small number of groups. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, capsule synthesis occurs by one of two distinct mechanisms that involve the polymerization of either individual sugars in a processive reaction (synthase dependent) or discrete repeat units in a nonprocessive reaction (Wzy dependent). Characterization of these systems has provided novel insights that are applicable to polymers synthesized by many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, as well as eukaryotes.

  10. The VirS/VirR two-component system regulates the anaerobic cytotoxicity, intestinal pathogenicity, and enterotoxemic lethality of Clostridium perfringens type C isolate CN3685.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Menglin; Vidal, Jorge; Saputo, Juliann; McClane, Bruce A; Uzal, Francisco

    2011-01-25

    Clostridium perfringens vegetative cells cause both histotoxic infections (e.g., gas gangrene) and diseases originating in the intestines (e.g., hemorrhagic necrotizing enteritis or lethal enterotoxemia). Despite their medical and veterinary importance, the molecular pathogenicity of C. perfringens vegetative cells causing diseases of intestinal origin remains poorly understood. However, C. perfringens beta toxin (CPB) was recently shown to be important when vegetative cells of C. perfringens type C strain CN3685 induce hemorrhagic necrotizing enteritis and lethal enterotoxemia. Additionally, the VirS/VirR two-component regulatory system was found to control CPB production by CN3685 vegetative cells during aerobic infection of cultured enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells. Using an isogenic virR null mutant, the current study now reports that the VirS/VirR system also regulates CN3685 cytotoxicity during infection of Caco-2 cells under anaerobic conditions, as found in the intestines. More importantly, the virR mutant lost the ability to cause hemorrhagic necrotic enteritis in rabbit small intestinal loops. Western blot analyses demonstrated that the VirS/VirR system mediates necrotizing enteritis, at least in part, by controlling in vivo CPB production. In addition, vegetative cells of the isogenic virR null mutant were, relative to wild-type vegetative cells, strongly attenuated in their lethality in a mouse enterotoxemia model. Collectively, these results identify the first regulator of in vivo pathogenicity for C. perfringens vegetative cells causing disease originating in the complex intestinal environment. Since VirS/VirR also mediates histotoxic infections, this two-component regulatory system now assumes a global role in regulating a spectrum of infections caused by C. perfringens vegetative cells.

  11. 联合型生物反应器填埋场厌氧单元产甲烷规律研究%Study on Methane Generation Regulation in Anaerobic-semiaerobic Bioreactor Anaerobic Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋豪娟; 刘丹; 韩智勇; 王宁

    2013-01-01

    基于模拟实验,研究新型厌氧型生物反应器(ANBL)-准好氧矿化垃圾联合型生物反应器(SAABR)厌氧单元产气速率、产气CH4含量以及累计产CH4量的变化规律.实验证明,由于回灌复氧后的渗滤液甲烷菌的活性受到抑制,AN-SABL中的厌氧填埋单元的产气受到了抑制,但较高的回灌频率使得渗滤液与微生物的接触机会增多,利于垃圾产气;综合分析产气CH4含量、渗滤液COD和渗滤液pH值,在此判断3个ANBL CH4发酵阶段分别为705~820,690~ 800和660~740 d,该阶段产气φ(CH4)最大值分别为78.6%,74.1%和71.5%.建立了ANBL累计产CH4量的指数增长模型,对生物反应器CH.的收集和利用有重要意义.%Alstract:Based on the experimental simulation device,the regulation of the gas production,content of methane and cumulative methane production in the anaerobic-semiaerobic bioreactor landfill were studied.It was proved that,methane germ of the activity was repressed because of leachate recirculation to infuse to reply oxygen,and gas production in the ANSABL was repressed,but higher leachate recirculation frequency improved the contact opportunity of leachate and microorganism,then benefit gas production; comprehensively analyzed the gas methane content,leachate COD and leachate pH,this research judged three ANBL methane ferments stage were 705 ~ 820 d,690 ~ 800 d and 660 ~ 740 d,that stage the biggest content of methane is 78.6%,74.1% and 71.5%.The index number growth model of the ANBL cumulative methane was built up,which was important to collections and exploitation of bioreactor methane.

  12. Catabolism of Phenol and Its Derivatives in Bacteria: Genes, Their Regulation, and Use in the Biodegradation of Toxic Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nešvera, Jan; Rucká, Lenka; Pátek, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Phenol and its derivatives (alkylphenols, halogenated phenols, nitrophenols) are natural or man-made aromatic compounds that are ubiquitous in nature and in human-polluted environments. Many of these substances are toxic and/or suspected of mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. Bioremediation of the polluted soil and water using various bacteria has proved to be a promising option for the removal of these compounds. In this review, we describe a number of peripheral pathways of aerobic and anaerobic catabolism of various natural and xenobiotic phenolic compounds, which funnel these substances into a smaller number of central catabolic pathways. Finally, the metabolites are used as carbon and energy sources in the citric acid cycle. We provide here the characteristics of the enzymes that convert the phenolic compounds and their catabolites, show their genes, and describe regulatory features. The genes, which encode these enzymes, are organized on chromosomes and plasmids of the natural bacterial degraders in various patterns. The accumulated data on similarities and the differences of the genes, their varied organization, and particularly, an astonishingly broad range of intricate regulatory mechanism may be read as an exciting adventurous book on divergent evolutionary processes and horizontal gene transfer events inscribed in the bacterial genomes. In the end, the use of this wealth of bacterial biodegradation potential and the manipulation of its genetic basis for purposes of bioremediation is exemplified. It is envisioned that the integrated high-throughput techniques and genome-level approaches will enable us to manipulate systems rather than separated genes, which will give birth to systems biotechnology.

  13. Translational regulation of gene expression by an anaerobically induced small non-coding RNA in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Anders; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Kallipolitis, Birgitte H.;

    2010-01-01

    . Furthermore, in previous work most of the potential target genes have been shown to be repressed by FNR through an undetermined mechanism. Collectively, our results provide insight into the mechanism by which FNR negatively regulates genes such as sodA, sodB, cydDC, and metE, thereby demonstrating...

  14. Enumeração e isolamento de bactérias anaeróbias facultativas num reator de fluxo ascendente e manta de lodo tratando efluente de uma indústria de gelatina - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.1977 Enumeration and isolation of facultative anaerobic bacteria in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating wastewater from a gelatine industry- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.1977

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Vataru Nakamura

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram determinados os níveis de bactérias anaeróbias facultativas em Reator de Fluxo Ascendente e Manta de Lodo (UASB utilizado no tratamento de efluente de industria de gelatina. A quantificação dos microrganismos apresentou similar valor na manta de lodo granular e na zona de fluidização. No compartimento de sedimentação do reator as bactérias foram dois logs menores. Estas comunidades são compostas principalmente de bacilos Gram-negativos. Os mais abundantes gêneros foram Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella e Stenotrophomonas. O significado para a saúde pública das bactérias isoladas no reator UASB é desconhecido. Algumas espécies são residentes permanentes, outras são encontradas em somente uma parte da população, e ainda outras espécies são patógenos oportunistas que causam infecção humana. No presente estudo, nenhuma das bactérias predominantes pertence ao grupo dos patógenos estritosThis experiment measured levels of facultative anaerobic bacteria in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB reactor treating wastewater from a gelatin industry. The microorganism quantification showed similar values in granular sludge bed and fluidized zone. In the settling compartment of reactor, the bacteria were two logs lower. These communities are composed mainly of Gram-negative rods. The most abundant genera isolated were Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella and Stenotrophomonas. The significance of the bacteria isolated from UASB reactor for public health is unknown. Some species are permanent residents; other are found only in a fraction of the population, and still other species are opportunistic pathogens that cause human infections. In the present study, none of the predominant bacteria belonged to the group of strict pathogens

  15. Energetics and kinetics of anaerobic aromatic and fatty acid degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, M.J.

    1992-11-16

    The kinetics of benzoate degradation by the anaerobic syntrophic bacterium, Syntrophus buswellii, was studied in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G11. The threshold value for benzoate degradation was dependent on the acetate concentration with benzoate threshold values ranging from 2.4 [mu]M at 20 mM acetate to 30.0 [mu]M at 65 mM acetate. Increasing acetate concentrations also inhibited the rate of benzoate degradation with a apparent K[sub i] for acetate inhibition of 7.0 mM. Lower threshold values were obtained when nitrate rather than sulfate was the terminal electron acceptor. These data are consistent with a thermodynamic explanation for the threshold, and suggest that there is a minimum Gibbs free energy value required for the degradation of benzoate. An acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase has been isolated from Syntrophomonas wolfei; it is apparently a key enzyme controlling the synthesis of poly-B-hydroxyalkanoate from acetyl-CoA in this organism. Kinetic characterization of the acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase from S. wolfei showed that it is similar in its structural, kinetic, and apparent regulatory properties to other biosynthetic acetoacetyl-CoA thiolases from phylogenetically distinct bacteria that synthesize PHA. Intracellular concentrations of CoA and acetyl-CoA are believed to be critical factors regulating the activity of the acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase in S. wolfei. We have also isolated and characterized several new halophilic anaerobic fermentative anaerobes. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that one of these bacteria is a new species in the genus, Haloanaerobium. Two other species appear to be members of the genus, Halobacteroides. Several halophilic acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria have also been isolated and their physiological properties are currently under investigation. We have also isolated an acetate-using dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium.

  16. The Global Regulators Lrp, LeuO, and HexA Control Secondary Metabolism in Entomopathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Yvonne; Windhorst, Carina; Lu, Xiaojun; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi; Bode, Helge B

    2017-01-01

    Photorhabdus luminescens TTO1 and Xenorhabdus nematophila HGB081 are insect pathogenic bacteria and producers of various structurally diverse bioactive natural products. In these entomopathogenic bacteria we investigated the role of the global regulators Lrp, LeuO, and HexA in the production of natural products. Lrp is a general activator of natural product biosynthesis in X. nematophila and for most compounds in TTO1. Microarray analysis confirmed these results in X. nematophila and enabled the identification of additional biosynthesis gene clusters (BGC) regulated by Lrp. Moreover, when promoters of two X. nematophila BGC were analyzed, transcriptional activation by Lrp was observed. In contrast, LeuO in X. nematophila and P. luminescens has both repressing and activating features, depending on the natural product examined. Furthermore, heterologous overexpression of leuO from X. nematophila in the closely related Xenorhabdus szentirmaii resulted in overproduction of several natural products including novel compounds. The presented findings could be of importance for establishing a tool for overproduction of secondary metabolites and subsequent identification of novel compounds.

  17. A super-family of transcriptional activators regulates bacteriophage packaging and lysis in Gram-positive bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Tormo-Más, María Ángeles; Campoy, Susana; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Monedero, Vicente; Lasa, Íñigo; Novick, Richard P.; Christie, Gail E.; Penadés, José R.

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements requires exploitation of the phage mechanisms involved in virion assembly and DNA packaging. Here, we identified and characterized four different families of phage-encoded proteins that function as activators required for transcription of the late operons (morphogenetic and lysis genes) in a large group of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria. These regulators constitute a super-family of proteins, here named late transcriptional regulators (Ltr), which share common structural, biochemical and functional characteristics and are unique to this group of phages. They are all small basic proteins, encoded by genes present at the end of the early gene cluster in their respective phage genomes and expressed under cI repressor control. To control expression of the late operon, the Ltr proteins bind to a DNA repeat region situated upstream of the terS gene, activating its transcription. This involves the C-terminal part of the Ltr proteins, which control specificity for the DNA repeat region. Finally, we show that the Ltr proteins are the only phage-encoded proteins required for the activation of the packaging and lysis modules. In summary, we provide evidence that phage packaging and lysis is a conserved mechanism in Siphoviridae infecting a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23771138

  18. Ecophysiology of the anammox bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartal, Mustafa Boran

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria oxidize ammonium to dinitrogen gas with nitrite as the electron acceptor. These bacteria are the key players in the global nitrogen cycle, responsible for the most of nitrogen production in natural ecosystems. The anammox process is also a cost-effecti

  19. Molecular AND logic gate based on bacterial anaerobic respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arugula, Mary Anitha; Shroff, Namita; Katz, Evgeny; He, Zhen

    2012-10-21

    Enzyme coding genes that integrate information for anaerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were used as input for constructing an AND logic gate. The absence of one or both genes inhibited electrochemically-controlled anaerobic respiration, while wild type bacteria were capable of accepting electrons from an electrode for DMSO reduction.

  20. An ancient riboswitch class in bacteria regulates purine biosynthesis and one-carbon metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Peter B; Nelson, James W; Breaker, Ronald R

    2015-01-22

    Over 30 years ago, ZTP (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside 5'-triphosphate), a modified purine biosynthetic intermediate, was proposed to signal 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate (10f-THF) deficiency in bacteria. However, the mechanisms by which this putative alarmone or its precursor ZMP (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide, also known as AICAR) brings about any metabolic changes remain unexplained. Herein, we report the existence of a widespread riboswitch class that is most commonly associated with genes related to de novo purine biosynthesis and one-carbon metabolism. Biochemical data confirm that members of this riboswitch class selectively bind ZMP and ZTP with nanomolar affinity while strongly rejecting numerous natural analogs. Indeed, increases in the ZMP/ZTP pool, caused by folate stress in bacterial cells, trigger changes in the expression of a reporter gene fused to representative ZTP riboswitches in vivo. The wide distribution of this riboswitch class suggests that ZMP/ZTP signaling is important for species in numerous bacterial lineages.

  1. Regulation of Tight Junction Permeability by Intestinal Bacteria and Dietary Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulluwishewa, D.; Anderson, R.C.; McNabb, W.C.; Moughan, P.J.; Wells, J.; Roy, N.C.

    2011-01-01

    The human intestinal epithelium is formed by a single layer of epithelial cells that separates the intestinal lumen from the underlying lamina propria. The space between these cells is sealed by tight junctions (TJ), which regulate the permeability of the intestinal barrier. TJ are complex protein s

  2. Electron transport chains of lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooijmans, R.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are generally considered facultative anaerobic obligate fermentative bacteria. They are unable to synthesize heme. Some lactic acid bacteria are unable to form menaquinone as well. Both these components are cofactors of respiratory (electron transport) chains of prokaryotic bact

  3. Horizontal gene transfer regulation in bacteria as a "spandrel" of DNA repair mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliou Fall

    might have led the bacteria to hijack DNA repair mechanisms in order to generate genetic diversity without losing too much genomic stability.

  4. Concentrations of antibiotics predicted to select for resistant bacteria: Proposed limits for environmental regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2016-01-01

    There are concerns that selection pressure from antibiotics in the environment may accelerate the evolution and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Nevertheless, there is currently no regulatory system that takes such risks into account. In part, this is due to limited knowledge of environmental concentrations that might exert selection for resistant bacteria. To experimentally determine minimal selective concentrations in complex microbial ecosystems for all antibiotics would involve considerable effort. In this work, our aim was to estimate upper boundaries for selective concentrations for all common antibiotics, based on the assumption that selective concentrations a priori need to be lower than those completely inhibiting growth. Data on Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) were obtained for 111 antibiotics from the public EUCAST database. The 1% lowest observed MICs were identified, and to compensate for limited species coverage, predicted lowest MICs adjusted for the number of tested species were extrapolated through modeling. Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for resistance selection were then assessed using an assessment factor of 10 to account for differences between MICs and minimal selective concentrations. The resulting PNECs ranged from 8 ng/L to 64 μg/L. Furthermore, the link between taxonomic similarity between species and lowest MIC was weak. This work provides estimated upper boundaries for selective concentrations (lowest MICs) and PNECs for resistance selection for all common antibiotics. In most cases, PNECs for selection of resistance were below available PNECs for ecotoxicological effects. The generated PNECs can guide implementation of compound-specific emission limits that take into account risks for resistance promotion.

  5. The bioenergetics of anaerobic bacteria: Evolutionary concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose, K.

    It is widely assumed that the first organisms were fermenting cells growing on prebiotic compounds and that the mode of energy conservation was substrate-level phosphorylation. But the primitive environment was probably relatively short in supply of fermentable substrates. Therefore, new strategies of energy conservation had to be developed relatively early. These include the evolution of membrane-bound phosphorylation systems that were able to use membrane potentials and/or ion gradients for synthesis of energy-rich compounds such as ATP or perhaps inorganic pyrophosphate. A first stage in this development may have been the coupling of membrane-bound decarboxylation to ATP synthesis. The coupling of simple membrane-bound redox reactions to ATP synthesis as modelled by contemporary fumarate or sulfur respiration may have appeared almost simultaneously. In either case, suitable substrates probably were scarce. Therefore the organisms soon may have been forced to develop strategies that were based on less exhaustible resources. These strategies likely included the coupling of membrane-bound ATP synthesis to electron transfer reactions that involved the use of ubiquitous electron acceptors like Fe3+, sulfate or CO2. But with the evolution of more efficient respiratory systems the abiotically produced organic molecules may have become short in supply, so that the evolution of phosphosynthetic CO2 reduction for the production of new biomass must have followed immediately.

  6. Anaerobic infections in the head and neck region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaqchali, S

    1988-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria form the predominant flora of the oral cavity, outnumbering facultative organisms by 10-1,000: 1. The type of anaerobic bacteria and their concentration depend on the anatomical site and the degree of anaerobiosis in the different sites in the mouth. Three groups of anaerobic bacteria inhabit the oral cavity; the strict anaerobes, the moderate anaerobes, and the microaerophilic group of organisms. The majority of anaerobic bacterial infections occurring in the region of the mouth, head and neck are caused by the commensal flora. These infections include dental and periodontal disease where the predominant organisms are Bacteroides species, Veillonella, Bifidobacteria, Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus and Propionibacterium species. More recently, Bacteroides endontalis has been isolated from a periapical abscess of endodontal origin and B. gingivalis, B. intermedius, Haemophilus actinomycetemcomitans and Wollinella species in chronic periodontal disease. Treponema species and other strict anaerobes are seen in smears of severe periodontal disease and acute necrotising gingivitis, but have not yet been isolated in pure culture. Until such time, their role in disease remains uncertain. Fusobacterium nucleatum is specially associated with severe orofacial infections which may extend into the mediastinum. Other anaerobic infections include chronic otitis media, chronic sinusitis and mastoiditis, and brain abscess. Treatment of these conditions should include the use of beta-lactamase resistant antimicrobials, such as clindamycin or one of the nitroimidazoles with penicillin.

  7. The molecular biological characterization of a strain of biohydrogen-producing anaerobe in Clostridium Genus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-feng; REN Nan-qi; ZHENG Guo-xiang; LIU Min; HU Li-jie; CHEN Ying; WANG Xiang-jing

    2005-01-01

    The anaerobic process of biohydrogen production was developed recently. The isolation and identification of biohydrogen producing anaerobic bacteria with high evolution rate and yield is an important foundation of the fermented biohydrogen production process through which anaerobic bacteria digest organic wastewater. By considering physiological and biochemical traits, morphological characteristics and a 16S rDNA sequence, the isolated Rennanqilyf33 is shown to be a new species.

  8. Regulation of dynamic polarity switching in bacteria by a Ras-like G-protein and its cognate GAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardy, Simone; Miertzschke, Mandy; Bulyha, Iryna; Sperling, Eva; Wittinghofer, Alfred; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2010-07-21

    The rod-shaped cells of the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus move uni-directionally and occasionally undergo reversals during which the leading/lagging polarity axis is inverted. Cellular reversals depend on pole-to-pole relocation of motility proteins that localize to the cell poles between reversals. We show that MglA is a Ras-like G-protein and acts as a nucleotide-dependent molecular switch to regulate motility and that MglB represents a novel GTPase-activating protein (GAP) family and is the cognate GAP of MglA. Between reversals, MglA/GTP is restricted to the leading and MglB to the lagging pole defining the leading/lagging polarity axis. For reversals, the Frz chemosensory system induces the relocation of MglA/GTP to the lagging pole causing an inversion of the leading/lagging polarity axis. MglA/GTP stimulates motility by establishing correct polarity of motility proteins between reversals and reversals by inducing their pole-to-pole relocation. Thus, the function of Ras-like G-proteins and their GAPs in regulating cell polarity is found not only in eukaryotes, but also conserved in bacteria.

  9. Theoretical models for the regulation of DNA replication in fast-growing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutziger, Martin; Schmidt, Mischa; Lenz, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Growing in always changing environments, Escherichia coli cells are challenged by the task to coordinate growth and division. In particular, adaption of their growth program to the surrounding medium has to guarantee that the daughter cells obtain fully replicated chromosomes. Replication is therefore to be initiated at the right time, which is particularly challenging in media that support fast growth. Here, the mother cell initiates replication not only for the daughter but also for the granddaughter cells. This is possible only if replication occurs from several replication forks that all need to be correctly initiated. Despite considerable efforts during the last 40 years, regulation of this process is still unknown. Part of the difficulty arises from the fact that many details of the relevant molecular processes are not known. Here, we develop a novel theoretical strategy for dealing with this general problem: instead of analyzing a single model, we introduce a wide variety of 128 different models that make different assumptions about the unknown processes. By comparing the predictions of these models we are able to identify the key quantities that allow the experimental discrimination of the different models. Analysis of these quantities yields that out of the 128 models 94 are not consistent with available experimental data. From the remaining 34 models we are able to conclude that mass growth and DNA replication need either to be truly coupled, by coupling DNA replication initiation to the event of cell division, or to the amount of accumulated mass. Finally, we make suggestions for experiments to further reduce the number of possible regulation scenarios.

  10. New Understanding on Metabolism of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation Bacteria Based on Metagenomics Technology%基于宏基因组技术获得的对厌氧氨氧化菌代谢的新理解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁爽; 郑平; 陆慧锋; 唐崇俭

    2012-01-01

    厌氧氨氧化菌(Anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria,AAOB)是化能自养菌,由于其生理代谢的奇异性、细胞结构的特殊性以及对氮素循环的重要性,已成为环境工程、微生物以及海洋生物学等领域的研究热点.然而.AAOB未能实现纯培养的现状已成为AAOB代谢途径研究的巨大障碍近年来兴起的宏基因组技术(Metagenomics)为AAOB代谢途径的研究提供了新手段.采用宏基因组技术,可直接研究微生物群体中某特定微生物基因组的结构与功能,摆脱了传统微生物学研究对纯培养的依赖,使未培养微生物的认识和开发成为可能本文首先简述获取AAOB宏基因组信息的过程,然后通过比较由传统代谢研究方法和宏基因组技术获得的AAOB代谢途径的研究成果,论述基于宏基因组技术获得的对AAOB代谢的新理解,得出以下结果和结论:1)AAOB的碳素固定途径为乙酰辅酶A途径,碳素固定的还原力来自NADH或者QH2;2)AAOB氮素转化的重要中问产物是NO,而非NH2OH,并提出了以NO为核心的AAOB代谢的改进模型;3)AAOB的ATP合成途径为氧化磷酸化,推测的电子传递途径为N2H4-QH2-细胞色素bc1 复合体;细胞色素bc1复合体再将电子用于NO2还原和N2H4合成AAOB的宏基因组技术使AAOB代谢途径的研究更具方向性.随着分子生物学理论和技术的不断发展,宏基因组学的升级技术(如宏转录组学、宏蛋白质组学)将为AAOB代谢途径的研究提供新的方法与平台.%Anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (AAOB) belong to chemolitho-autotrophs. AAOB have become one of the research hotspots in the field of environmental engineering, microbiology and oceanography because of their specificities in metabolism, cell structure and nitrogen cycle. However, AAOB can not been cultivated in pure culture, which has become a great obstacle to study their metabolic pathways in further. Nowadays, fast-developing metagenomics provides

  11. Location, formation and biosynthetic regulation of cellulases in the gliding bacteria Cytophaga hutchinsonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the recently published genome sequence of Cytophagahutchinsonii revealed an unusual collection of genes for an organism that can attackcrystalline cellulose. Consequently, questions were being raised by cellulase scientists, as towhat mechanism this organism uses to degrade its insoluble substrates. Cellulose, being ahighly polymeric compound and insoluble in water, cannot enter the cell walls ofmicroorganisms. Cellulose-degrading enzymes have therefore to be located on the surface ofthe cell wall or released extracellularly. The location of most cellulase enzymes has beenstudied. However, basic information on C. hutchinsonii cellulases is almost non-existent. Inthe present study, the location, formation and biosynthetic regulation of cellulases in C.hutchinsonii were demonstrated on different substrates. Various fractions isolated from C.hutchinsonii after cell rupture were assayed for carboxymethyl-cellulase activity (CMC.The cellulases were found to be predominantly cell-free during active growth on solka-flok,although 30% of activity was recorded on cell-bound enzymes. Relatively little CM-cellulase was formed when cells were grown on glucose and cellobiose. Apparently glucoseor labile substrates such as cellobiose seem to repress the formation of CM-cellulase. Thesefindings should provide some insight into possible hydrolysis mechanisms by C.hutchinsonii.

  12. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9.......6 addresses the mass balances and environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion....

  13. How to make a living from anaerobic ammonium oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartal, B.; De Almeida, N.M.; Maalcke, W.J.; Op den Camp, H.J.M.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Keltjens, J.T.

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria primarily grow by the oxidation of ammonium coupled to nitrite reduction, using CO2 as the sole carbon source. Although they were neglected for a long time, anammox bacteria are encountered in an enormous species (micro)diversity in virtually any anoxi

  14. Regulation of acid adaptation in Lactic acid bacteria%乳酸菌的适酸性调节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔磊; 崔艳华; 曲晓军

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of acid adaptation mechanisms of LAB will benefit screening the acid-tolerance bacteria, the optimization of procedures in the ferment progress and optimization of culture. This will greatly improve the quality of fermented foods. The acid adaptation mechanisms were discussed, including proton pump, the production of alkali, the changes of membrane, protection or repair of macro-molecules and the regulation of acid tolerance.%探讨了乳酸菌适酸机制有助于抗酸菌株的筛选、发酵过程中工序的优化以及培养基的优化等,进而大大提升发酵产品品质.对质子泵、产碱、细胞膜变化、大分子保护修复以及耐酸调节在内的适酸性调节机制进行了一一阐述.

  15. Immunobiotic lactic acid bacteria beneficially regulate immune response triggered by poly(I:C in porcine intestinal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosoya Shoichi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzed the functional expression of TLR3 in various gastrointestinal tissues from adult swine and shows that TLR3 is expressed preferentially in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC, CD172a+CD11R1high and CD4+ cells from ileal Peyer's patches. We characterized the inflammatory immune response triggered by TLR3 activation in a clonal porcine intestinal epitheliocyte cell line (PIE cells and in PIE-immune cell co-cultures, and demonstrated that these systems are valuable tools to study in vitro the immune response triggered by TLR3 on IEC and the interaction between IEC and immune cells. In addition, we selected an immunobiotic lactic acid bacteria strain, Lactobacillus casei MEP221106, able to beneficially regulate the anti-viral immune response triggered by poly(I:C stimulation in PIE cells. Moreover, we deepened our understanding of the possible mechanisms of immunobiotic action by demonstrating that L. casei MEP221106 modulates the interaction between IEC and immune cells during the generation of a TLR3-mediated immune response.

  16. MODELLING OF BACTERIAL SULPHATE REDUCTION IN ANAEROBIC PONDS : KINETIC INVESTIGATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Harerimana, Casimir; Vasel, Jean-Luc; Jupsin, Hugues; Ouali, Amira

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was first to develop a simple and practical model of anaerobic digestion including sulphate-reduction in anaerobic ponds. The basic microbiology of our model consists of three steps, namely, acidogenesis, methanogenesis, and sulphate reduction. This model includes multiple reaction stoichiometry and substrate utilization kinetics. The second aim was to determine some kinetic parameters associated with this model. The values of these parameters for sulfidogenic bacteria ar...

  17. Enzymes involved in the anaerobic oxidation of n-alkanes: from methane to long-chain paraffins

    OpenAIRE

    Callaghan, Amy V.

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms play key roles in the biogeochemical cycling of methane and non-methane alkanes. To date, there appear to be at least three proposed mechanisms of anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM). The first pathway is mediated by consortia of archaeal anaerobic methane oxidizers and sulfate-reducing bacteria via ‘reverse methanogenesis’ and is catalyzed by a homologue of methyl-coenzyme M reductase. The second pathway is also mediated by anaerobic methane oxidizers and sulfate-red...

  18. Research in anti- anaerobe mechanism of nanometer materials%纳米材料抗厌氧菌机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊德鑫; 梁明

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the antimicrobial spectrum of nanometer materials to 33 strains of ordinary anaerobic pathogenic bacteria isolated from 11 genera. METHODS:The anti anaerobic effects of nanometer materials were examined and measured by test tube dilution method.RESULTS:In most tubes, there were no bacteria growth in nanometer suspension.CONCLUSION: there is a wide antimicrobial spectrum of nanometer materials and it can effectively inhibit the growth of the anaerobic bacteria.

  19. Effects of interactions of auxin-producing bacteria and bacterial-feeding nematodes on regulation of peanut growths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Xu, Wensi; Jiang, Ying; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin

    2015-01-01

    The influences of an IAA (indole-3-acetic acid)-producing bacterium (Bacillus megaterium) and two bacterial-feeding nematodes (Cephalobus sp. or Mesorhabditis sp.) on the growth of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. cv. Haihua 1) after various durations of time were investigated in natural soils. The addition of bacteria and nematodes and incubation time all significantly affected plant growth, plant root growth, plant nutrient concentrations, soil nutrient concentrations, soil microorganisms and soil auxin concentration. The addition of nematodes caused greater increases in these indices than those of bacteria, while the addition of the combination of bacteria and nematodes caused further increases. After 42-day growth, the increases in soil respiration differed between the additions of two kinds of nematodes because of differences in their life strategies. The effects of the bacteria and nematodes on the nutrient and hormone concentrations were responsible for the increases in plant growth. These results indicate the potential for promoting plant growth via the addition of nematodes and bacteria to soil.

  20. Ammonium-dependent regulation of aerobic methane-consuming bacteria in landfill cover soil by leachate irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Lü; Pinjing He; Min Guo; Na Yang; Liming Shao

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of landfill leachate irrigation on methane oxidation activities and methane-consuming bacteria populations were studied by incubation of landfill cover soils with leachate and (NH4)2SO4 solution at different ammonium concentrations.The community structures and abundances of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were examined by PCRDGGE and real-time PCR.Compared with the pure (NH4)2SO4 solution,leachate addition was found to have a positive effect on methane oxidation activity.In terms of the irrigation amount,ammonium in leachate was responsible for the actual inhibition of leachate.The extent of inhibitory effect mainly depended on its ammonium concentration.The suppression of the predominant methaneconsuming bacteria,type Ⅰ MOB,was responsible for the decreased methane oxidation activity by ammonium inhibition.Methaneconsuming bacteria responded diversely in abundance to ammonium.The abundance of type Ⅰ MOB decreased by fivefold; type Ⅱ MOB showed stimulation response of fivefold magnification upon the first addition but lessened to be lower than the original level after the second addition; the amount of AOB was stimulated to increase for 20-30 times gradually.Accumulated nitrate from nitrification strengthened the ammonium inhibition on type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ MOB,as a result,repetitive irrigation was unfavorable for methane oxidation.

  1. Ammonium-dependent regulation of aerobic methane-consuming bacteria in landfill cover soil by leachate irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Fan; He, Pinjing; Guo, Min; Yang, Na; Shao, Liming

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of landfill leachate irrigation on methane oxidation activities and methane-consuming bacteria populations were studied by incubation of landfill cover soils with leachate and (NH4)2SO4 solution at different ammonium concentrations. The community structures and abundances of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were examined by PCR-DGGE and real-time PCR. Compared with the pure (NH4)2SO4 solution, leachate addition was found to have a positive effect on methane oxidation activity. In terms of the irrigation amount, ammonium in leachate was responsible for the actual inhibition of leachate. The extent of inhibitory effect mainly depended on its ammonium concentration. The suppression of the predominant methane-consuming bacteria, type I MOB, was responsible for the decreased methane oxidation activity by ammonium inhibition. Methane-consuming bacteria responded diversely in abundance to ammonium. The abundance of type I MOB decreased by fivefold; type II MOB showed stimulation response of fivefold magnification upon the first addition but lessened to be lower than the original level after the second addition; the amount of AOB was stimulated to increase for 20-30 times gradually. Accumulated nitrate from nitrification strengthened the ammonium inhibition on type I and type II MOB, as a result, repetitive irrigation was unfavorable for methane oxidation.

  2. Catalase (KatA plays a role in protection against anaerobic nitric oxide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengchang Su

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA is a common bacterial pathogen, responsible for a high incidence of nosocomial and respiratory infections. KatA is the major catalase of PA that detoxifies hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, a reactive oxygen intermediate generated during aerobic respiration. Paradoxically, PA displays elevated KatA activity under anaerobic growth conditions where the substrate of KatA, H2O2, is not produced. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon and define the role of KatA in PA during anaerobiosis using genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches. We demonstrated that anaerobic wild-type PAO1 cells yielded higher levels of katA transcription and expression than aerobic cells, whereas a nitrite reductase mutant ΔnirS produced ∼50% the KatA activity of PAO1, suggesting that a basal NO level was required for the increased KatA activity. We also found that transcription of the katA gene was controlled, in part, by the master anaerobic regulator, ANR. A ΔkatA mutant and a mucoid mucA22 ΔkatA bacteria demonstrated increased sensitivity to acidified nitrite (an NO generator in anaerobic planktonic and biofilm cultures. EPR spectra of anaerobic bacteria showed that levels of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC, indicators of NO stress, were increased significantly in the ΔkatA mutant, and dramatically in a ΔnorCB mutant compared to basal levels of DNIC in PAO1 and ΔnirS mutant. Expression of KatA dramatically reduced the DNIC levels in ΔnorCB mutant. We further revealed direct NO-KatA interactions in vitro using EPR, optical spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. KatA has a 5-coordinate high spin ferric heme that binds NO without prior reduction of the heme iron (Kd ∼6 μM. Collectively, we conclude that KatA is expressed to protect PA against NO generated during anaerobic respiration. We proposed that such protective effects of KatA may involve buffering of free NO when potentially toxic

  3. Subculturing of a polychlorinated biphenyl-dechlorinating anaerobic enrichment on solid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, H.D.; Boyle, A.W.; Price, W.A. II.; Blake, C.K. (Celgene Corp., Warren, NJ (United States))

    1992-12-01

    An anaerobic culture capable of dechlorinating polychlorinated biphenyls was subcultured under strict anaerobic conditions on solid media containing sterilized river sediment. The dechlorination activity was transferred as a bacterial colony on a solid medium three times. After two transfers on solid medium, the culture was no longer methanogenic but still dechlorinated a mixture of tri- and tetrachlorobiphenyls. This demonstrates that anaerobic bacteria are responsible for the polychlorinated biphenyl dechlorination and can be grown without polychlorinated biphenyl on solid media.

  4. Molecular characterization and fermentative hydrogen production of a wild anaerobe in clostridium genus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yongfeng; REN Nanqi; YANG Chuanping; LI Jianzheng; LI Peng

    2007-01-01

    Anaerobic process of biohydrogen production is developed in this paper.The isolation and identification of high efficient biohydrogen production anaerobic bacteria are the important foundations for the fermented biohydrogen production process by anaerobic digesting organic wastewater.Taking the physiological and biochemical traits,the morphological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence into consideration,the isolate Rennanqilyf33 is a new species.

  5. Mathematical modeling of the anaerobic fermentation for VFAs production from sludge by C/N ratio regulation%C/N比调控污泥厌氧发酵产酸的数学模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白杰; 刘和; 殷波; 马惠君; 刘宏波

    2015-01-01

    采用改进粒子群算法对 ADM1模型中的关键参数进行了估计,经敏感性分析,确定了 Monod最大比吸收速率、半饱和值、产物对底物的产率等3种参数对产酸速率具有较大影响。应用修正后的动力学参数对ADM1模型在不同C/N比调控下污泥厌氧发酵产酸结果进行了模拟。结果表明,模拟产酸数据和实测数据误差较小,说明修正后的ADM1模型能够很好地描述污泥厌氧发酵中C/N比条件对产酸的影响。%The improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was used to estimate the key parameters of ADM1model. Through sensitivity analysis of key parameters, the Monod maximum uptake rate parameters km,i, half saturation constant Ks,i and the products yield from substrate fi were proved to be significant impact on the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production. The revised kinetic parameters were integrated into the ADM1to modeling the VFAs production from anaerobic fermentation of sewage sludge by C/N regulation. The results indicated that the errors were low between the estimated and experimental determined VFAs production data, suggesting that the modified ADM1 model can be used to describe the effects of C/N regulation on the VFAs production from anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge well.

  6. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  7. Complex community of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation bacteria in coastal sediments of the Mai Po wetland by PCR amplification of both 16S rRNA and pmoA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhou, Zhichao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, both 16S rRNA and pmoA gene-based PCR primers were employed successfully to study the diversity and distribution of n-damo bacteria in the surface and lower layer sediments at the coastal Mai Po wetland. The occurrence of n-damo bacteria in both the surface and subsurface sediments with high diversity was confirmed in this study. Unlike the two other known n-damo communities from coastal areas, the pmoA gene-amplified sequences in the present work clustered not only with some freshwater subclusters but also within three newly erected marine subclusters mostly, indicating the unique niche specificity of n-damo bacteria in this wetland. Results suggested vegetation affected the distribution and community structures of n-damo bacteria in the sediments and n-damo could coexist with sulfate-reducing methanotrophs in the coastal ecosystem. Community structures of the Mai Po n-damo bacteria based on 16S rRNA gene were different from those of either the freshwater or the marine. In contrast, structures of the Mai Po n-damo communities based on pmoA gene grouped with the marine ones and were clearly distinguished from the freshwater ones. The abundance of n-damo bacteria at this wetland was quantified using 16S rRNA gene PCR primers to be 2.65-6.71 × 10(5) copies/g dry sediment. Ammonium and nitrite strongly affected the community structures and distribution of n-damo bacteria in the coastal Mai Po wetland sediments.

  8. Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in Pilot-Scale Anaerobic EGSB Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose threat to aquatic environment due to the presence of very high organic content. The present investigation involved two pilot-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, continuously operated for 1 year to treat POME. Setting HRT at 9.8 d, the anaerobic EGSB reactors reduced COD from 71179 mg/L to 12341 mg/L and recycled half of sludge by a dissolved air flotation (DAF). The average effluent COD was 3587 mg/L with the consistent COD removal efficiency of 94.89%. Adding cationic polymer (PAM) dose of 30 mg/L to DAF unit and recycling its half of sludge caused granulation of anaerobic sludge. Bacilli and small coccid bacteria were the dominant microbial species of the reactor. The reactor produced 27.65 m(3) of biogas per m(3) of POME which was utilized for electricity generation.

  9. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  10. Roles of Dietary Cobalt and Administration of Mixed Rumen Bacteria in Regulating Hematological Parameters of Pre-weaning Twin Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Adelina

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt (Co is required by rumen microorganism for vitamin B12 synthesis. Vitamin B12 is an important cofactor for methionine synthesis and gluconeogenesis. In young ruminants up to 6–8 wk old, the rumen has not been completely developed and rumen microorganisms are not ready to supply vitamin B12. The aim of this research was to determine the potency of mixed rumen bacteria and dietary supplementation of Co and its effect on plasma glucose, blood minerals (Co, Fe, and Zn concentrations, and hematology of pre-weaning twin lambs. Twelve one month-old local twin lambs were assigned to 4 groups in a randomized complete block design. Lambs were fed cow milk at 10% body weight, adjusted weekly for 80 d. Mixed rumen bacteria were offered at 15 mL/d (8.295x1010 cfu. Dietary treatments were: 1 basal diet (Control, 2 basal diet + 1 mg/kg DM cyanocobalamin (VitB12 and 3 basal diet + 1 mg/kg DM of Co + administration of 15 mL mixed rumen bacteria (CoBac. There were no treatment effects on neither plasma glucose and blood mineral concentrations nor hematological profiles. This study demonstrated that pre-weaning twin lambs are not responsive to supplementation of Co and administration of mixed rumen bacteria.

  11. Overview of the anaerobic toxicity caused by organic forest industry wastewater pollutants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Field, J.A.; Kortekaas, S.; Lettinga, G.

    1994-01-01

    Numerous types of organic environmental pollutants are encountered in forest industry effluents which potentially could inhibit consortia of anaerobic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to collect anaerobic bioassay data from the literature to better estimate the impact of these pollutants on a

  12. High ethanol tolerance of the thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producer Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Mikkelsen, Marie Just; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    The low ethanol tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria, generally less than 2% (v/v) ethanol, is one of the main limiting factors for their potential use for second generation fuel ethanol production. In this work, the tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG 1L1 ...

  13. Metabolic Regulation and Coordination of the Metabolism in Bacteria in Response to a Variety of Growth Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Living organisms have sophisticated but well-organized regulation system. It is important to understand the metabolic regulation mechanisms in relation to growth environment for the efficient design of cell factories for biofuels and biochemicals production. Here, an overview is given for carbon catabolite regulation, nitrogen regulation, ion, sulfur, and phosphate regulations, stringent response under nutrient starvation as well as oxidative stress regulation, redox state regulation, acid-shock, heat- and cold-shock regulations, solvent stress regulation, osmoregulation, and biofilm formation, and quorum sensing focusing on Escherichia coli metabolism and others. The coordinated regulation mechanisms are of particular interest in getting insight into the principle which governs the cell metabolism. The metabolism is controlled by both enzyme-level regulation and transcriptional regulation via transcription factors such as cAMP-Crp, Cra, Csr, Fis, P(II)(GlnB), NtrBC, CysB, PhoR/B, SoxR/S, Fur, MarR, ArcA/B, Fnr, NarX/L, RpoS, and (p)ppGpp for stringent response, where the timescales for enzyme-level and gene-level regulations are different. Moreover, multiple regulations are coordinated by the intracellular metabolites, where fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), and acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) play important roles for enzyme-level regulation as well as transcriptional control, while α-ketoacids such as α-ketoglutaric acid (αKG), pyruvate (PYR), and oxaloacetate (OAA) play important roles for the coordinated regulation between carbon source uptake rate and other nutrient uptake rate such as nitrogen or sulfur uptake rate by modulation of cAMP via Cya.

  14. 柑橘黄龙病兼性厌氧型伴生细菌的分离及优势菌群分析%Isolation of facultative anaerobic and entophytic bacteria companioned Huanglongbing pathogen-infected citrus tissues and determination of dominant bacterial populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颜方; 殷幼平; 王玉玺; 李佳; 陈世伟; 王中康

    2011-01-01

    柑橘黄龙病是世界柑橘生产上最具毁灭性的病害,主要由难人工培养的韧皮杆菌所引起(Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus)[1].近年的研究结果表明黄龙病发病组织内除了韧皮杆菌外,还可能有促进或抑制黄龙病菌生长的伴生性细菌[2,3].国内外已有不少关于植物内生细菌的研究报道[4],但关于柑橘内生细菌的报道较少.本研究旨在以多年生发病与健康柑橘植株的内生细菌为研究对象,采用定向分离方法培养兼性厌氧型内生细菌,利用基于16S rRNA的PCR-DGGE宏基因组学方法分析比较柑橘健株与病株内生菌群的差异,旨在发现与黄龙病伴生的功能性内生细菌.%To analyze the diversity of entophytic bacteria and find the companion microbe in Huanglongbing pathogen-infected and healthy citrus plant tissues, various parts of citrus tissues were collected from different locations of citrus planting areas. The facultative anaerobic and entophytic bacteria were isolated and identified based on bacterial morphology, physiology, biochemistry characteristics and PCR-DGGE analysis (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, analysis of the sequence of 16S rRNA V6-V8 fragment). By the directional isolation of the facultative anaerobic and entophytic bacteria and 16S rDNA amplification methods, total 12 genera of bacteria were identified from 19 cultivable bacterial populations. The dominant bacterial population were Bacillus sp. (IF: 21.03% ), Planococcus sp. (IF:20.69% ) and Pseudomonas sp. (IF: 17.44% ) in healthy citrus tissues, while Curtobacterium sp. (IF: 29.07% ), Bacillus sp. (IF: 23.12% ) , Microbacterium sp. (IF; 21.09% )in infected citrus plants. Based on the results of DGGE, 9 genera of cultured bacteria were identified. The dominant bacteria population was Serratia sp. (IF: 28% ), and Pantoea sp. (IF: 14% ) was second only to it. ' Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' was found only in tangerine pith of deformed orange fruit

  15. The Pasteur effect in facultative anaerobic metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H; Kamp, G

    1996-05-15

    The existence and the regulatory mechanisms of the Pasteur effect in facultative anaerobic metazoa are discussed. There are three reasons for the controversy surrounding this phenomenon. 1) The different definitions of the Pasteur effect, 2) the antagonistic effect of metabolic depression and its species specific response to hypoxia, as well as 3) the laboratory-specific differences in the experimental procedures for analyzing the Pasteur effect and its regulation. This review aims to clarify the confusion about the existence of the Pasteur effect in facultative anaerobic metazoa and to offer possible molecular mechanisms.

  16. Diversity of anaerobic microbes in spacecraft assembly clean rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Alexander; Vaishampayan, Parag; Osman, Shariff; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Andersen, Gary L; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2010-05-01

    Although the cultivable and noncultivable microbial diversity of spacecraft assembly clean rooms has been previously documented using conventional and state-of-the-art molecular techniques, the occurrence of obligate anaerobes within these clean rooms is still uncertain. Therefore, anaerobic bacterial communities of three clean-room facilities were analyzed during assembly of the Mars Science Laboratory rover. Anaerobic bacteria were cultured on several media, and DNA was extracted from suitable anaerobic enrichments and examined with conventional 16S rRNA gene clone library, as well as high-density phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene microarray (PhyloChip) technologies. The culture-dependent analyses predominantly showed the presence of clostridial and propionibacterial strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from clone libraries revealed distinct microbial populations associated with each clean-room facility, clustered exclusively within gram-positive organisms. PhyloChip analysis detected a greater microbial diversity, spanning many phyla of bacteria, and provided a deeper insight into the microbial community structure of the clean-room facilities. This study presents an integrated approach for assessing the anaerobic microbial population within clean-room facilities, using both molecular and cultivation-based analyses. The results reveal that highly diverse anaerobic bacterial populations persist in the clean rooms even after the imposition of rigorous maintenance programs and will pose a challenge to planetary protection implementation activities.

  17. The structure of a DnaA/HobA complex from Helicobacter pylori provides insight into regulation of DNA replication in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natrajan, Ganesh; Noirot-Gros, Marie Francoise; Zawilak-Pawlik, Anna; Kapp, Ulrike; Terradot, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial DNA replication requires DnaA, an AAA+ ATPase that initiates replication at a specific chromosome region, oriC, and is regulated by species-specific regulators that directly bind DnaA. HobA is a DnaA binding protein, recently identified as an essential regulator of DNA replication in Helicobacter pylori. We report the crystal structure of HobA in complex with domains I and II of DnaA (DnaAI–II) from H. pylori, the first structure of DnaA bound to one of its regulators. Biochemical characterization of the complex formed shows that a tetramer of HobA binds four DnaAI–II molecules, and that DnaAI–II is unable to oligomerize by itself. Mutagenesis and protein–protein interaction studies demonstrate that some of the residues located at the HobA-DnaAI–II interface in the structure are necessary for complex formation. Introduction of selected mutations into H. pylori shows that the disruption of the interaction between HobA and DnaA is lethal for the bacteria. Remarkably, the DnaA binding site of HobA is conserved in DiaA from Escherichia coli, suggesting that the structure of the HobA/DnaA complex represents a model for DnaA regulation in other Gram-negative bacteria. Our data, together with those from other studies, indicate that HobA could play a crucial scaffolding role during the initiation of replication in H. pylori by organizing the first step of DnaA oligomerization and attachment to oriC. PMID:19940251

  18. 两种漱口液对口腔挥发性硫化物及舌背细菌的影响%The effect of two kinds of mouthwash on the volatile sulfur compounds and the anaerobic bacteria of tongue dorsum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金华; 蒋琳; 胡赟

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价常见的两种市售漱口液对口腔挥发性硫化物水平及舌背菌群的影响.方法 采用为期1月的单中心、随机、对照、双盲的临床研究方法.研究对象共60人.分为李斯德林漱口液组(A组),高露洁贝齿漱口液组(B组),阴性对照组(C组).分别在基线、半个月、1个月时检测各组研究对象的口腔挥发性硫化物水平及舌背厌氧菌的数量变化,并进行统计学分析处理.结果 对于口腔挥发性硫化物水平,在半个月及1个月时,A组、B组均有明显的下降,均优于C组,差异具有统计学意义(P0.05).结论 李斯德林漱口液及高露洁贝齿漱口液均能有效降低口腔挥发性硫化物水平及舌背厌氧菌的数量,且李斯德林漱口液降低硫化物的效果更优.%Objective To evaluate the effect of two kinds of mouthwash on the levels of the volatile sulfur compounds and the anaerobic bacteria of tongue dorsum. Method The trial adopted a dual-center, randomized, double-blind,controlled clinical methods, which lasted for one month. A total of 60 subjects were selected and randomly allocated in three groups, Listerine group, Colgate group and placebo group. Recordings were assessed statistically at the baseline, half a month and one month, which included the level of the volatile sulfur compounds and quantitity changes of bacteria of the tongue dorsum. Result At half a month and one month, the Listerine group and Colgate group had a significant reduction in the VSCs scores, which got a better effect in comparison to the placebo group with a significant statistically difference (P < 0.05), and there was a significant statistically difference between Listerine group and Colgate group. At the same time, the Listerine group and Colgate group resulted in a significant reduction in the total anaerobic bacteria of tongue dorsum,which got a better effect in comparison to the placebo group with a significant statistically difference (P < 0

  19. Phylogenetic and metabolic diversity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)-transforming bacteria in strictly anaerobic mixed cultures enriched on RDX as nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-Shen; Spain, Jim; Hawari, Jalal

    2003-11-01

    Five obligate anaerobes that were most closely related to Clostridium bifermentans, Clostridium celerecrescens, Clostridium saccharolyticum, Clostridium butyricum and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans by their 16S rRNA genes sequences were isolated from enrichment cultures using hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) as a nitrogen source. The above isolates transformed RDX at rates of 24.0, 5.4, 6.2, 2.5, 5.5 mumol h(-1) g (dry weight) of cells(-1), respectively, to nitrite, formaldehyde, methanol, and nitrous oxide. The present results indicate that clostridia are major strains responsible for RDX removal, and all isolates seemed to mainly transform RDX via its initial reduction to MNX and subsequent denitration. Since clostridia are commonly present in soil, we suggest that they may contribute to the removal of RDX in the subsurface (anoxic) soil.

  20. Phylogenetic and Metabolic Diversity of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)-transforming Bacteria in Strictly Anaerobic Mixed Cultures Enriched on RDX as Nitrogen Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    the Enterobacteriaceae family ( Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Citrobacter freundii, and Escherichia coli) [10,11... wastewater to methane (70% of the total gas released). The following compounds were added to the basic salts and vitamins medium to enrich bacteria using RDX...RDX biodegradation by a methanogenic enrichment culture obtained from an explosives man- ufacturing wastewater treatment plant. Technical report, pp. 99

  1. Impact of fertilizing with raw or anaerobically digested sewage sludge on the abundance of antibiotic-resistant coliforms, antibiotic resistance genes, and pathogenic bacteria in soil and on vegetables at harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahube, Teddie O; Marti, Romain; Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Zhang, Yun; Duenk, Peter; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward

    2014-11-01

    The consumption of crops fertilized with human waste represents a potential route of exposure to antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria. The present study evaluated the abundance of bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes by using both culture-dependent and molecular methods. Various vegetables (lettuce, carrots, radish, and tomatoes) were sown into field plots fertilized inorganically or with class B biosolids or untreated municipal sewage sludge and harvested when of marketable quality. Analysis of viable pathogenic bacteria or antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria by plate counts did not reveal significant treatment effects of fertilization with class B biosolids or untreated sewage sludge on the vegetables. Numerous targeted genes associated with antibiotic resistance and mobile genetic elements were detected by PCR in soil and on vegetables at harvest from plots that received no organic amendment. However, in the season of application, vegetables harvested from plots treated with either material carried gene targets not detected in the absence of amendment. Several gene targets evaluated by using quantitative PCR (qPCR) were considerably more abundant on vegetables harvested from sewage sludge-treated plots than on vegetables from control plots in the season of application, whereas vegetables harvested the following year revealed no treatment effect. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that producing vegetable crops in ground fertilized with human waste without appropriate delay or pretreatment will result in an additional burden of antibiotic resistance genes on harvested crops. Managing human exposure to antibiotic resistance genes carried in human waste must be undertaken through judicious agricultural practice.

  2. Anaerobic Digestion Foaming Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ganidi, Nafsika

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water utilities due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been suggested over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases site specific. The present report aimed to provide a better understanding of the anaerobic di...

  3. Regulation by gut commensal bacteria of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule expression in the intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Yasuaki; Murata, Yoji; Park, Jung-Ha; Kotani, Takenori; Imada, Shinya; Saito, Yasuyuki; Okazawa, Hideki; Azuma, Takeshi; Matozaki, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) 1 and CEACAM20, immunoglobulin superfamily members, are predominantly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and co-localized at the apical surface of these cells. We here showed that the expression of mouse CEACAM1 and CEACAM20 at both mRNA and protein levels was markedly reduced in IECs of the small intestine by the treatment of mice with antibiotics against Gram-positive bacteria. The expression of both proteins was also decreased in IECs of the small intestine from germ-free mice, compared with that from control specific-pathogen-free mice. Exposure of intestinal organoids to IFN-γ markedly increased the expression of either CEACAM1 or CEACAM20, whereas the exposure to TNF-α increased the expression of the former protein, but not that of the latter. In contrast, the expression of CEACAM20, but not of CEACAM1, in intestinal organoids was markedly increased by exposure to butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced by bacterial fermentation in the intestine. Collectively, our results suggest that Gram-positive bacteria promote the mRNA expression of CEACAM1 or CEACAM20 in the small intestine. Inflammatory cytokines or butyrate likely participates in such effects of commensal bacteria.

  4. ISOLATION OF ANAEROBES IN DEEP SEATED PRESSURE ULCERS USING A NOVEL INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUE OF ANAEROBE ISOLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalbiaktluangi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Isolation of an anaerobe is usually neglected in hospitals with limited resources due to the expensive and complicated technique of anaerobic isolation methods, which is difficult to arrange in such resource poor settings. Conventionally adopted anaerobic culture methods such as Anaerobic jar, Gas-Pak, Anoxomat or Automated glove-box systems are extremely costly and cumbersome for single unit testing, but not suitable for small scale laboratories. However, anaerobic bacteria are not to be overlooked as they have made a comeback in clinical settings and are even showing resistance to Metronidazole, once thought to be the gold standard bullet against anaerobes. Deep seated pressure ulcers are usually the site where anaerobe causes an infection in synergy with aerobes. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Isolation of anaerobes in deep seated pressure ulcers using a novel innovative technique and to study their antibiogram profile. MATERIALS AND METHODS Swabs taken from depth of deep seated pressure ulcers were immediately inoculated in Brucella blood agar at bedside and placed in polycarbonate airtight jar for anaerobic incubation using a novel innovative Modified Candle Jar technique. In this technique five grams of grease-free grade zero steel wool were dipped in 50ml freshly prepared acidified copper sulphate solution until the copper colour appeared. Excess solution was drained and the steel wool was moulded into a loose pad to fit on an open Petri plate placed on top of the inoculated Brucella blood agar plates. A white-wax candle was placed at the centre of this plate. A small test tube containing mixture of 0.5g sodium-bicarbonate and 0.5g magnesium carbonate was kept ready to be placed inside the jar, just after placing the inoculated plate and incubated for 48 hours. RESULTS Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and Bacteroides fragilis were successfully isolated from deep seated pressure ulcers by this method. Antibiogram studies were done using the

  5. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa

  6. Characteristics, Process Parameters, and Inner Components of Anaerobic Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgadir, Awad; Chen, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jianshe; Xie, Xuehui; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Heng; Liu, Na

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic bioreactor applies the principles of biotechnology and microbiology, and nowadays it has been used widely in the wastewater treatment plants due to their high efficiency, low energy use, and green energy generation. Advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic process were shown, and three main characteristics of anaerobic bioreactor (AB), namely, inhomogeneous system, time instability, and space instability were also discussed in this work. For high efficiency of wastewater treatment, the process parameters of anaerobic digestion, such as temperature, pH, Hydraulic retention time (HRT), Organic Loading Rate (OLR), and sludge retention time (SRT) were introduced to take into account the optimum conditions for living, growth, and multiplication of bacteria. The inner components, which can improve SRT, and even enhance mass transfer, were also explained and have been divided into transverse inner components, longitudinal inner components, and biofilm-packing material. At last, the newly developed special inner components were discussed and found more efficient and productive. PMID:24672798

  7. Tar water digestion in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skibsted Mogensen, A.; Angelidaki, I.; Schmidt, J.E.; Ahring, B.K. [Technical Univ., Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1998-08-01

    The water from the gasification and wet oxidised tar water has been digested anaerobically in UASB reactors and were digested in respectively 10 and 50% in batches. Though the tar water show inhibition at very low concentrations to aerobic microorganisms, the granular sludge used in UASB reactors degrades tar water in concentrations that reveal total inhibition of e.g. bacteria conducting the nitrification process. The value of waste waters are determined, showing that the tar water produces more biogas in the anaerobic digestion. A wide range of xenobiotics, especially phenolic compounds can be transformed in the anaerobic digestion process. Seven phenolic are followed in batch experiments and UASB reactor experiments, and their particular fate in the anaerobic systems embody large differences in the transformation pattern. (au) 24 refs.

  8. Prospective study of the clinical performance of three BACTEC media in a modern emergency department: Plus Aerobic/F, Plus Anaerobic/F, and Anaerobic Lytic/F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchetti, Andrea; Di Matteo, Luigi; Bottino, Paolo; Foret, Benjamin; Gamalero, Elisa; Calabresi, Alessandra; Guido, Gianluca; Casagranda, Ivo

    2016-11-01

    The performance of 3 blood culture bottles (BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F, Plus Anaerobic/F, and Anaerobic Lytic/F) were analyzed with clinical specimens collected from 688 Emergency Department patients. A total of 270 strains belonging to 33 species were identified, with E. coli and S. aureus as the most frequently detected. Overall recovery rate (RR) of bacteria and yeast was equivalent in the Plus Aerobic/F vials (208 of 270 isolates; 77.0%) and Anaerobic Lytic/F vials (206 isolates; 76.3%) and significantly better than in the Plus Anaerobic/F vials (189 isolates; 70.0%). Median time to detection (TTD) was earliest with the Anaerobic Lytic/F vials (12.0h) compared with the Plus Aerobic/F (14.6h) and Plus Anaerobic/F vials (15.4h). Positivity rate (PR) was similar for Anaerobic Lytic/F vials (76.9%) and Plus Aerobic/F vials (76.5%), but better if compared with Plus Anaerobic/F vials (69.4%). The PR and TTD for the combination of Plus Aerobic/F with Anaerobic Lytic/F (94.5% and 12.3h, respectively) was significantly better than with Plus Aerobic/F with Plus Anaerobic/F (87.8% and 14.1h).

  9. Variation of EPS,enzyme activity,and bacteria density in sewage sludge during the anaerobic/aerobic digestion processes by ultrasonic sludge treatment%超声波-缺氧/好氧消化过程污泥EPS、酶活性及菌落数的变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚炜婷; 孙水裕; 郑莉; 尹光彩; 李楚华; 蔡明山; 许燕滨; 童文锦

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the sludge anaerobic/aerobic digestion mechanism by ultrasonic sludge treatment,the index proportion of EPS and dissolved substances(polysaccharides,protein and DNA),enzyme activities(protease activity and dehydorgenase activity) were measured in the anaerobic/aerobic digestion by the optimal ultrasonic treatment(28 kHz ultrasonic frequency,0.1 W·mL-1 ultrasonic density,15 min ultrasonic time and 12 h ultrasonic interval time).It showed that the performances of anaerobic/aerobic digestion were greatly improved by ultrasonic treatment,with the removal rate of VSS reaching 40.14% after digestion for 10 days,20% more than that of the controlled,and at the same time great amount of soluble organics was released.The index proportions of EPS and dissolved substances in the ultrasonic sludge and the control were almost the same,indicating that ultrasonic could promote oxygen/aerobic sludge digestion but would not change the index proportion of EPS and their dissolved substances.The variation trend of enzyme activities increased at the beginning and then dropped off after 10 days' digestion,with the maximum value appearing on the fourth day.The protease activity of ultrasonic sludge was more than that of the controlled during 0~5 d digestion,due to the markedly improved protease activity and the high-speed biological reaction.Organic matter degradation ratio was also improved greatly,leading to the improved VSS removal rate in ultrasonic sludge.While the variation of dehydrogenase activity in ultrasonic sludge was almost the same compared with the controlled,it was therefore unable to represent ultrasonic promotion by sludge anaerobic/aerobic digestibility.The variation trend of sludge bacteria density also increased at the beginning and then dropped off after 10 days' digestion,but it is controversial for the measurement of bacteria density.Further study is needed.%为研究超声波促进污泥缺氧/好氧消化的机理,采用

  10. Isolation and characterization of endophytic plant growth-promoting (PGPB) or stress homeostasis-regulating (PSHB) bacteria associated to the halophyte Prosopis strombulifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgroy, Verónica; Cassán, Fabricio; Masciarelli, Oscar; Del Papa, María Florencia; Lagares, Antonio; Luna, Virginia

    2009-11-01

    This study was designed to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria from halophyte Prosopis strombulifera grown under extreme salinity and to evaluate in vitro the bacterial mechanisms related to plant growth promotion or stress homeostasis regulation. Isolates obtained from P. strombulifera were compared genotypically by BOX-polymerase chain reaction, grouped according to similarity, and identified by amplification and partial sequences of 16S DNAr. Isolates were grown until exponential growth phase to evaluate the atmospheric nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, siderophores, and phytohormones, such as indole-3-acetic acid, zeatin, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid production, as well as antifungal, protease, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. A total of 29 endophytic strains were grouped into seven according to similarity. All bacteria were able to grow and to produce some phytohormone in chemically defined medium with or without addition of a nitrogen source. Only one was able to produce siderophores, and none of them solubilized phosphate. ACC deaminase activity was positive for six strains. Antifungal and protease activity were confirmed for two of them. In this work, we discuss the possible implications of these bacterial mechanisms on the plant growth promotion or homeostasis regulation in natural conditions.

  11. Pathways and bioenergetics of anaerobic carbon monoxide fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Fons; Machado de Sousa, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the poten

  12. Comparison of nitroethane, 2-nitro-1-propanol, lauric acid, Lauricidin® and the Hawaiian marine algae, Chaetoceros, for potential broad-spectrum control of anaerobically grown lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božic, Aleksandar K; Anderson, Robin C; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G; O'Bryan, Corliss A

    2012-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of bovines often contains bacteria that contribute to disorders of the rumen, and may also contain foodborne or opportunistic human pathogens as well as bacteria capable of causing mastitis in cows. Thus there is a need to develop broad-spectrum therapies that are effective while not leading to unacceptably long antibiotic withdrawal times. The effects of the CH(4)-inhibitors nitroethane (2 mg/mL), 2-nitro-1-propanol (2 mg/mL), lauric acid (5 mg/mL), the commercial product Lauricidin® (5 mg/mL), and a finely ground product of the Hawaiian marine algae, Chaetoceros (10 mg/mL), were compared in pure cultures of Streptococcus agalactia, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus bovis, and in a mixed lactic acid rumen bacterial culture. Lauricidin® and lauric acid exhibited the most bactericidal acidity against all bacteria. These results suggest potential animal health benefits from supplementing cattle diets with lauric acid or Lauricidin® to improve the health of the rumen and help prevent shedding of human pathogens.

  13. A Comprehensive Review of Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation by Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-06-01

    Hydrocarbons are relatively recalcitrant compounds and are classified as high-priority pollutants. However, these compounds are slowly degraded by a large variety of microorganisms. Bacteria are able to degrade aliphatic saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons via both aerobic and anaerobic pathways. Branched hydrocarbons and cyclic hydrocarbons are also degraded by bacteria. The aerobic bacteria use different types of oxygenases, including monooxygenase, cytochrome-dependent oxygenase and dioxygenase, to insert one or two atoms of oxygen into their targets. Anaerobic bacteria, on the other hand, employ a variety of simple organic and inorganic molecules, including sulphate, nitrate, carbonate and metals, for hydrocarbon oxidation.

  14. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Detergent Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Jelen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Detergent surfactantscan be found in wastewater in relevant concentrations. Most of them are known as ready degradable under aerobic conditions, as required by European legislation. Far fewer surfactants have been tested so far for biodegradability under anaerobic conditions. The natural environment is predominantly aerobic, but there are some environmental compartments such as river sediments, sub-surface soil layer and anaerobic sludge digesters of wastewater treatment plants which have strictly anaerobic conditions. This review gives an overview on anaerobic biodegradation processes, the methods for testing anaerobic biodegradability, and the anaerobic biodegradability of different detergent surfactant types (anionic, nonionic, cationic, amphoteric surfactants.

  15. Combined anaerobic ammonium and methane oxidation for nitrogen and methane removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baoli; Sánchez, Jaime; van Alen, Theo A; Sanabria, Janeth; Jetten, Mike S M; Ettwig, Katharina F; Kartal, Boran

    2011-12-01

    Anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) is an environment-friendly and cost-efficient nitrogen-removal process currently applied to high-ammonium-loaded wastewaters such as anaerobic digester effluents. In these wastewaters, dissolved methane is also present and should be removed to prevent greenhouse gas emissions into the environment. Potentially, another recently discovered microbial pathway, n-damo (nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation) could be used for this purpose. In the present paper, we explore the feasibility of simultaneously removing methane and ammonium anaerobically, starting with granules from a full-scale anammox bioreactor. We describe the development of a co-culture of anammox and n-damo bacteria using a medium containing methane, ammonium and nitrite. The results are discussed in the context of other recent studies on the application of anaerobic methane- and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria for wastewater treatment.

  16. The Fur regulon in anaerobically grown Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium: identification of new Fur targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porwollik Steffen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ferric uptake regulator (Fur is a transcriptional regulator that controls iron homeostasis in bacteria. Although the regulatory role of Fur in Escherichia coli is well characterized, most of the studies were conducted under routine culture conditions, i.e., in ambient oxygen concentration. To reveal potentially novel aspects of the Fur regulon in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium under oxygen conditions similar to that encountered in the host, we compared the transcriptional profiles of the virulent wild-type strain (ATCC 14028s and its isogenic Δfur strain under anaerobic conditions. Results Microarray analysis of anaerobically grown Δfur S. Typhimurium identified 298 differentially expressed genes. Expression of several genes controlled by Fnr and NsrR appeared to be also dependent on Fur. Furthermore, Fur was required for the activity of the cytoplasmic superoxide disumutases (MnSOD and FeSOD. The regulation of FeSOD gene, sodB, occurred via small RNAs (i.e., the ryhB homologs, rfrA and rfrB with the aid of the RNA chaperone Hfq. The transcription of sodA was increased in Δfur; however, the enzyme was inactive due to the incorporation of iron instead of manganese in SodA. Additionally, in Δfur, the expression of the gene coding for the ferritin-like protein (ftnB was down-regulated, while the transcription of the gene coding for the nitric oxide (NO· detoxifying flavohemoglobin (hmpA was up-regulated. The promoters of ftnB and hmpA do not contain recognized Fur binding motifs, which indicated their probable indirect regulation by Fur. However, Fur activation of ftnB was independent of Fnr. In addition, the expression of the gene coding for the histone-like protein, H-NS (hns was increased in Δfur. This may explain the observed down-regulation of the tdc operon, responsible for the anaerobic degradation of threonine, and ftnB in Δfur. Conclusions This study determined that Fur is a positive factor in ftn

  17. Regulation of chitinase genes expression in bacteria%细菌几丁质酶基因的表达调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢池楚; 贾海云; 陈月华

    2011-01-01

    Chitinases, which can hydrolyze chitin, occur in a wide range of microorganisms including viruses, bacteria, and fungi. The derivatives of chitin are potentially useful in several areas such as food processing, medicines, and biological control in agriculture. Some bacteria can uptake and utilize chitin as carbon source by secreting chitinase. The chitin is degraded into chito-oligosaccharides [(GlcNAc)n] or N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) by chitinases, and then the chitin derivatives are transferred into cells by specific transport systems of bacteria. The intracellular chitin derivatives activate or suppress the transcription of a series of chi genes and affect the amount of chitinase. The expression of chitinase genes are strictly regulated by various regulatory factors and responsive cw-acting elements. The present review will focus on the transport system and the regulation of chitinase genes expression in bacteria.%几丁质酶可以降解几丁质,广泛存在于各类微生物中.几丁质的降解产物几丁寡糖在医药、食品及农业生防领域有很重要的应用价值及广泛的应用前景.细菌在利用几丁质时,需要先分泌几丁质酶,将几丁质降解成几丁寡糖或单体,再通过特异的转运系统送进细胞而被利用.胞内的几丁质降解产物作为特定的信号分子,可以激活或阻遏相应chi基因的转录,从而影响细菌几丁质酶的合成.在各种调节蛋白及应答元件的参与下,细菌几丁质酶的合成受到精密的控制,文章以链霉菌和大肠杆菌为代表综述了细菌在转运系统和基因表达两个层面上控制几丁质酶合成的最新研究进展.

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exhibits Deficient Biofilm Formation in the Absence of Class II and III Ribonucleotide Reductases Due to Hindered Anaerobic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Anna; Pedraz, Lucas; Astola, Josep; Torrents, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lung infections by the ubiquitous and extremely adaptable opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa correlate with the formation of a biofilm, where bacteria grow in association with an extracellular matrix and display a wide range of changes in gene expression and metabolism. This leads to increased resistance to physical stress and antibiotic therapies, while enhancing cell-to-cell communication. Oxygen diffusion through the complex biofilm structure generates an oxygen concentration gradient, leading to the appearance of anaerobic microenvironments. Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are a family of highly sophisticated enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the deoxyribonucleotides, and they constitute the only de novo pathway for the formation of the building blocks needed for DNA synthesis and repair. P. aeruginosa is one of the few bacteria encoding all three known RNR classes (Ia, II, and III). Class Ia RNRs are oxygen dependent, class II are oxygen independent, and class III are oxygen sensitive. A tight control of RNR activity is essential for anaerobic growth and therefore for biofilm development. In this work we explored the role of the different RNR classes in biofilm formation under aerobic and anaerobic initial conditions and using static and continuous-flow biofilm models. We demonstrated the importance of class II and III RNR for proper cell division in biofilm development and maturation. We also determined that these classes are transcriptionally induced during biofilm formation and under anaerobic conditions. The molecular mechanism of their anaerobic regulation was also studied, finding that the Anr/Dnr system is responsible for class II RNR induction. These data can be integrated with previous knowledge about biofilms in a model where these structures are understood as a set of layers determined by oxygen concentration and contain cells with different RNR expression profiles, bringing us a step closer to the understanding of this

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits deficient biofilm formation in the absence of class II and III ribonucleotide reductases due to hindered anaerobic growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eCrespo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lung infections by the ubiquitous and extremely adaptable opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa correlate with the formation of a biofilm, where bacteria grow in association with an extracellular matrix and display a wide range of changes in gene expression and metabolism. This leads to increased resistance to physical stress and antibiotic therapies, while enhancing cell-to-cell communication. Oxygen diffusion through the complex biofilm structure generates an oxygen concentration gradient, leading to the appearance of anaerobic microenvironments.Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs are a family of highly sophisticated enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the deoxyribonucleotides, and they constitute the only de novo pathway for the formation of the building blocks needed for DNA synthesis and repair. P. aeruginosa is one of the few bacteria encoding all three known RNR classes (Ia, II and III. Class Ia RNRs are oxygen dependent, class II are oxygen independent, and class III are oxygen sensitive. A tight control of RNR activity is essential for anaerobic growth and therefore for biofilm development.In this work we explored the role of the different RNR classes in biofilm formation under aerobic and anaerobic initial conditions and using static and continuous-flow biofilm models. We demonstrated the importance of class II and III RNR for proper cell division in biofilm development and maturation. We also determined that these classes are transcriptionally induced during biofilm formation and under anaerobic conditions. The molecular mechanism of their anaerobic regulation was also studied, finding that the Anr/Dnr system is responsible for class II RNR induction. These data can be integrated with previous knowledge about biofilms in a model where these structures are understood as a set of layers determined by oxygen concentration and contain cells with different RNR expression profiles, bringing us a step closer to the

  20. Long-chain acyl-CoA-dependent regulation of gene expression in bacteria, yeast and mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, P N; Færgeman, Nils J.; DiRusso, C C

    2000-01-01

    signal that modulates gene expression. In the bacteria Escherichia coli, long-chain fatty acyl-CoA bind directly to the transcription factor FadR. Acyl-CoA binding renders the protein incapable of binding DNA, thus preventing transcription activation and repression of many genes and operons. In the yeast......). Both repression and activation are dependent upon the function of either of the acyl-CoA synthetases Faa1p or Faa4p. In mammals, purified hepatocyte nuclear transcription factor 4alpha (HNF-4alpha) like E. coli FadR, binds long chain acyl-CoA directly. Coexpression of HNF-4alpha and acyl-CoA synthetase...

  1. Research Progress on Microbial Properties of Nitrite-Dependent Anaerobic Methane-Oxidising Bacteria%亚硝酸盐型甲烷厌氧氧化微生物特性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈李东

    2015-01-01

    亚硝酸盐型甲烷厌氧氧化( nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation, N-DAMO)是新近发现的生物反应,是偶联碳氮循环的关键环节,是环境领域和微生物领域的重大发现. N-DAMO的发现对于完善碳氮生物地球化学循环、丰富微生物学内容和研发新型生物脱氮除碳工艺均具有巨大的推动作用.催化N-DAMO反应的微生物为Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera ( M. oxyfera),其隶属于一新发现的细菌门———NC10门.近年来,M. oxyfera的生物学研究取得了许多突破性进展,如初步探明了其个体形态特征、细胞化学组分特征、富集培养特征、生理生化特征及生态学特征,最突出的例子包括发现了M. oxyfera独特的细胞(星状)形态及特殊的脂肪酸(10MeC16:1△7)组分等.最近,N-DAMO的机制研究方面也有了突破性进展:发现了地球上第4种生物产氧途径.目前认为,M. oxyfera具有内产氧功能,其首先将NO2-还原为NO,然后将2分子NO进行歧化反应生成N2和O2,最后利用生成的O2对甲烷进行氧化.本文系统地介绍了M. oxyfera各方面的微生物特性.%Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation ( N-DAMO ) is a recently discovered process that constitutes a unique association between the two major global elements essential for life, carbon and nitrogen. This process is one of the most important discoveries in the fields of environmental science and microbiology. The discovery of N-DAMO process supplements biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen in nature, extends microbial diversity and urges development of novel simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal process. The N-DAMO process is mediated by the bacterium “Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera” (M. oxyfera), which belongs to the candidate phylum NC10. Currently, a series of breakthroughs have been made in the research of M. oxyfera. The properties of M. oxyfera morphology, chemical composition, enrichment culture

  2. [Ability of representatives of Pantoea agglomerans, as well as Bacillus subtilis and some Pseudomonas species to suppress the development of phytopathgenic bacteria and micromycetes in regulating plant growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, V M; Alimov, D M

    2000-01-01

    The ability of representatives of Pantoea agglomerans (Erwinia herbicola (Lohnis) Dye [21]), Bacillus subtilis and some species of Pseudomonas genus to inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic bacteria and micromycetes and to regulate the growth of plants has been comparatively studied. The ability to inhibit the growth of mycellium of phytopathogenic Fusarium avenaceum, F. gibbosum, F. oxysporum was found out in all of 13 investigated strains of P. agglomerans, while the growth of F. culmorum is inhibited by 2 strains and Bipolaris sorokiniana is inhibited by 7 strains. The strains of P. agglomerans and Bacillus subtilis inhibit the growth of mycellium of these mycromycetes to the greater extent than the representatives of Pseudomonas genus. The mycellium growth of B. sorokiniana is better inhibited by B. subtilis and representatives of Pseudomonas genus. Besides the antifungal action 8 strains of P. agglomerans manifested the antagonistic activity in respect to phytopathogenic Agrobacterium tumefaciens and representatives of genera Clavibacter, Erwinia, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas and also in respect to the microflora which is present in the cabbage and wheat seeds. The strains have been revealed which, parallel with high antagonistic activity in respect to phytopathogenic micromycetes and bacteria, stimulate the seed germination and increase the weight of the cabbage and wheat sprouts.

  3. Protein export according to schedule: architecture, assembly, and regulation of type III secretion systems from plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Daniela

    2012-06-01

    Flagellar and translocation-associated type III secretion (T3S) systems are present in most gram-negative plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria and are often essential for bacterial motility or pathogenicity. The architectures of the complex membrane-spanning secretion apparatuses of both systems are similar, but they are associated with different extracellular appendages, including the flagellar hook and filament or the needle/pilus structures of translocation-associated T3S systems. The needle/pilus is connected to a bacterial translocon that is inserted into the host plasma membrane and mediates the transkingdom transport of bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. During the last 3 to 5 years, significant progress has been made in the characterization of membrane-associated core components and extracellular structures of T3S systems. Furthermore, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulators that control T3S gene expression and substrate specificity have been described. Given the architecture of the T3S system, it is assumed that extracellular components of the secretion apparatus are secreted prior to effector proteins, suggesting that there is a hierarchy in T3S. The aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of T3S system components and associated control proteins from both plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria.

  4. Production of NO, N2O and N2 by extracted soil bacteria, regulation by NO2(-) and O2 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Nicholas; Baggs, Elizabeth M; Dörsch, Peter; Bakken, Lars

    2008-07-01

    The oxygen control of denitrification and its emission of NO/N2O/N2 was investigated by incubation of Nycodenz-extracted soil bacteria in an incubation robot which monitors O2, NO, N2O and N2 concentrations (in He+O2 atmosphere). Two consecutive incubations were undertaken to determine (1) the regulation of denitrification by O2 and NO2(-) during respiratory O2 depletion and (2) the effects of re-exposure to O2 of cultures with fully expressed denitrification proteome. Early denitrification was only detected (as NO and N2O) at modelling of denitrification and N2O emission. Short anoxic spells caused by transient flooding during rainfall, could lead to subsequent unbalanced aerobic denitrification, in which N2O is a major end product.

  5. Investigations on the inactivation of selected bacteria and viruses during mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic alkaline cofermentation of biological waste materials, food residues and other animal residues; Seuchenhygienische Untersuchungen zur Inaktivierung ausgewaehlter Bakterien und Viren bei der mesophilen und thermophilen anaeroben alkalischen Faulung von Bio- und Kuechenabfaellen sowie anderen Rest- und Abfallstoffen tierischer Herkunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoferer, M. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelt- und Tierhygiene sowie Tiermedizin mit Tierklinik

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the inactivation kinetics of a number of different bacteria (Salmonella Senftenberg, Escherichia coli O157, Enterococcus faecium) and viruses (Bovine Enterovirus (ECBO), Equine Rhinovirus (ERV), Poliovirus, Bovine Parvovirus (BPV)) during the process of anaerobic cofermentation. Experiments were conducted in a semi-technical biogas plant at the University of Hohenheim. The fermenter was fed with a mixture of slurry from pigs or cattle (75%) and leftovers (25%) and was run under mesophilic (30 C + 35 C) as well as under thermophilic temperature conditions (50 C + 55 C). Volume and filter-sandwich germ-carriers were specifically developed and/or optimised for these analyses. Parallel to the experiments at the University of Hohenheim and under almost identical process conditions, various viruses (African Swine Fever Virus, Pseudorabies Virus, Classical Swine Fever Virus, Foot and Mouth Disease Virus, Swine Vesicular Disease Virus) were examined at the Federal Research Centre for Virus Diseases of Animals in Tuebingen. The results obtained at each research institution are directly compared. (orig.)

  6. 一个硫酸盐还原细菌富集物对丁草胺的厌氧降解%Anaerobic degradation of butachlor by sulfate-reducing bacteria enrichment culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶央芳; 杜宇峰

    2000-01-01

    An enrichment culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria,capable of anaerabic degrading butachlor,was obtained.The degradation kinetics of butachlor by the enrichment culture was determined and the optimum concentration of butachlor,the optimum pH and temperature for degradation of butachlor were observed..%通过多次富集培养,得到一个能有效厌氧降解丁草胺的硫酸盐还原细菌(SRB)富集物,并对该富集物的生长动力学以及生长的最适丁草胺浓度、最适pH和最适温度作了探讨.

  7. Anaerobic digestion without biogas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, R.; Joosse, B.; Rozendaal, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion for the production of methane containing biogas is the classic example of a resource recovery process that combines stabilization of particulate organic matter or wastewater treatment with the production of a valuable end-product. Attractive features of the process include the pr

  8. 1株高温型厌氧产氢细菌的分离与鉴定%Isolation and Identification of an Anaerobic Bacteria with Thermophilic Hydrogen Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 肖军; 肇莹; 王红; 陈珣; 龚娜; 杨涛

    2012-01-01

    Eight stains were isolated from racks in oilfield by the way of interlayer culture and anaerobic bottle. Two strains could produce hydrogen detected by gas chromatograph and ability. ZX-1 strain had the highest yield of hydrogen which was l.Smol H2-mor' glucose at 60^. It was 0.35fjLm~0.45u.mx2n,m-8|Ain, bacilliform sharp without flagellum, gram-negative and with spore. The colonies of ZX-1 were round, creamy, ganoid, opaque. They had smooth surface, not transparent. The results of physiological biochemical test showed that gelatin liquefaction, nitrate reduction test, citrate utilization and glucose were positive, and oxidase reaction, starch hydrolysis and VP reaction were negative. The result of comparing its 16S rDNA sequence with known seguence showed that it was identified as Brevibacillus borsieleruis.%利用平面夹层和平板培养瓶厌氧法从油田区的岩石中分离到8株细菌,经气体组成及产氢能力检测,发现其中2株细菌具有产氢能力.在60℃高温条件下,菌株ZX-1的氢转化率最高,为1.8mol H2·mol-1葡萄糖.该菌为革兰氏阴性、杆菌、有芽孢、无鞭毛,菌体大小为(0.35 -0.45) μm× (2~8)μm;菌落特征表现为圆形、乳白色、表面光滑、不透明;生理生化试验结果表明,明胶液化、硝酸盐还原、柠檬酸盐利用、葡萄糖为阳性,氧化酶、淀粉水解、V-P反应为阴性,初步鉴定为短芽孢杆菌属(Brevibacillus).经16S rDNA PCR扩增及测序结果表明,该菌序列与Brevibacillus borstelensis的序列相似性达100%,进一步确定该菌为波茨坦短芽孢杆菌.

  9. Hemicellulases from anaerobic thermophiles. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegel, J.

    1994-05-01

    The longterm goal of this research effort is to obtain an anaerobic thermophilic bacterium that efficiently converts various hemicellulose-containing biomass to ethanol over a broad pH range. The strategy is to modify the outfit and regulation of the rate-limiting xylanases, glycosidases and xylan esterases in the ethanologenic, anaerobic thermophile Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, which grows between pH 4.5 and 9.5. Although it utilizes xylans, the xylanase, acetyl(xylan) esterase and O-methylglucuronidase activities in T. ethanolicus are barely measurable and regarded as the rate limiting steps in its xylan utilization. Thus, and also due to the presently limited knowledge of hemicellulases in anaerobic thermophiles, we characterize the hemicellulolytic enzymes from this and other anaerobic thermophiles as enzyme donors. Beside the active xylosidase/arabinosidase from T. ethanolicus, exhibiting the two different activities, we characterized 2 xylosidases, two acetyl(xylan) esterases, and an O-methylglucuronidase from Thermoanaerobacterium spec. We will continue with the characterization of xylanases from novel isolated slightly acidophilic, neutrophilic and slightly alkalophilic thermophiles. We have cloned, subcloned and partially sequenced the 165,000 Da (2 x 85,000) xylosidase/arabinosidase from T. ethanolicus and started with the cloning of the esterases from Thermoanaerobacterium spec. Consequently, we will develop a shuttle vector and continue to apply electroporation of autoplasts as a method for cloning into T. ethanolicus.

  10. Effects of short chain fatty acid producing bacteria on epigenetic regulation of FFAR3 in type 2 diabetes and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remely, Marlene; Aumueller, Eva; Merold, Christine; Dworzak, Simone; Hippe, Berit; Zanner, Julia; Pointner, Angelika; Brath, Helmut; Haslberger, Alexander G

    2014-03-01

    The human gut microbiota and microbial influences on lipid and glucose metabolism, satiety, and chronic low-grade inflammation are known to be involved in metabolic syndrome. Fermentation end products, especially short chain fatty acids, are believed to engage the epigenetic regulation of inflammatory reactions via FFARs (free fatty acid receptor) and other short chain fatty acid receptors. We studied a potential interaction of the microbiota with epigenetic regulation in obese and type 2 diabetes patients compared to a lean control group over a four month intervention period. Intervention comprised a GLP-1 agonist (glucagon-like peptide 1) for type 2 diabetics and nutritional counseling for both intervention groups. Microbiota was analyzed for abundance, butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene and for diversity by polymerase chain reaction and 454 high-throughput sequencing. Epigenetic methylation of the promoter region of FFAR3 and LINE1 (long interspersed nuclear element 1) was analyzed using bisulfite conversion and pyrosequencing. The diversity of the microbiota as well as the abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were significantly lower in obese and type 2 diabetic patients compared to lean individuals. Results from Clostridium cluster IV and Clostridium cluster XIVa showed a decreasing trend in type 2 diabetics in comparison to the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene and according to melt curve analysis. During intervention no significant changes were observed in either intervention group. The analysis of five CpGs in the promoter region of FFAR3 showed a significant lower methylation in obese and type 2 diabetics with an increase in obese patients over the intervention period. These results disclosed a significant correlation between a higher body mass index and lower methylation of FFAR3. LINE-1, a marker of global methylation, indicated no significant differences between the three groups or the time points, although methylation of type 2

  11. Hemicellulases from the ethanologenic thermophile, Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus and related anaerobic thermophiles. Final report, September 1992--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegel, J.

    1998-09-01

    The short term goals of this application were to characterize hemicellulases from anaerobic thermophiles on the biochemical and molecular level to extend the presently limited knowledge of hemicellulases in anaerobic thermophilic bacteria. This objective includes the following tasks: (1) Traditional purification and biochemical/biophysical characterization of xylanases from the newly isolated, slightly alkalitolerant strain NDF190, and the slightly acid-tolerant strain YS485, both with high xylanolytic activities, and of the 4-O-methyl glucuronidase and arabinosidase from strain NDF190 and the acetyl (xylan) esterase from T. ethanolicus. This also includes determining the N-terminal sequences and obtaining gene probes. (2) Elucidation of the regulation of hemicellulolytic enzymes in anaerobic thermophiles. (3) To clone into E. coli and identify the multiplicity of the enzymes involved in hemicellulose degradation by T. ethanolicus and other suitable organisms. (4) To purify and characterize the recombinant enzymes with the goal of identifying the best enzymes for cloning into the ethanologenic T. ethanolicus to obtain an optimized hemicellulose utilization by this bacterium.

  12. Hemicellulases from the ethanologenic thermophile Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus and related anaerobic thermophiles. Final report, September 1992--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegel, J.

    1998-05-01

    The SHORT TERM GOALS of this application were to characterize hemicellulases from anaerobic thermophiles on the biochemical and molecular level to extend the presently limited knowledge of hemicellulases in anaerobic thermophilic bacteria. This objective includes the following TASKS: (1) Traditional purification and biochemical/biophysical characterization of xylanases from the newly isolated, slightly alkalitolerant strain NDF190, and the slightly acid-tolerant strain YS485, both with high xylanolytic activities, and of the 4-0-methyl glucuronidase and arabinosidase from strain NDF190 and the acetyl (xylan) esterase from T. ethanolicus. This also includes determining the N-terminal sequences and obtaining gene probes. (2) Elucidation of the regulation of hemicellulolytic enzymes in anaerobic thermophiles. (3) To clone into E. coli and identify the multiplicity of the enzymes involved in hemicellulose degradation by T. ethanolicus and other suitable organisms. (4) To purify and characterize the recombinant enzymes with the goal of identifying the best enzymes for cloning into the ethanologenic T. ethanolicus to obtain an optimized hemicellulose utilization by this bacterium (one of our long term goals).

  13. Molecular analysis of the biomass of a fluidized bed reactor treating synthetic vinasse at anaerobic and micro-aerobic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, E.; Lopes, A.; Fdz-Polanco, M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Garcia Encina, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial communities (Bacteria and Archaea) established in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor used to treat synthetic vinasse (betaine, glucose, acetate, propionate, and butyrate) were characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phylogenetic analysis. This study was focu

  14. Effects of ferric iron on the anaerobic treatment and microbial biodiversity in a coupled microbial electrolysis cell (MEC)--anaerobic reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxin; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo

    2013-10-01

    Adding Fe(III) into a MEC - anaerobic reactor enhanced the degradation of organic matters. To clarify the respective effects of combining Fe(III) dosage and a MEC and Fe(III) dosage only on strengthening anaerobic digestion, three anaerobic reactors were operated in parallel: a MEC - anaerobic reactor with dosing Fe(OH)3 (R1), an anaerobic reactor with dosing Fe(OH)3 (R2) and a common anaerobic reactor (R3). With increasing influent COD from 1500 to 4000 mg/L, the COD removal in R1 was maintained at 88.3% under a voltage of 0.8 V, which was higher than that in reactor R2 and R3. When the power was cut off, the COD removal in R1 decreased by 5.9%. The addition of Fe(OH)3 enhanced both anaerobic digestion and anodic oxidation, resulting in the effective mineralization of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The reduced Fe(II) combined with electric field resulted more extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production. Quantitative real - time PCR showed a higher abundance of bacteria in the anodic biofilm and R1. Pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that the dominant bacteria and archaea communities were richer and more abundant in the anode biofilm and R1.

  15. NanR, a Transcriptional Regulator That Binds to the Promoters of Genes Involved in Sialic Acid Metabolism in the Anaerobic Pathogen Clostridium perfringens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair Therit

    Full Text Available Among many other virulence factors, Clostridium perfringens produces three sialidases NanH, NanI and NanJ. NanH lacks a secretion signal peptide and is predicted to be an intracellular enzyme, while NanI and NanJ are secreted. Previously, we had identified part of an operon encoding NanE (epimerase and NanA (sialic acid lyase enzymes. Further analysis of the entire operon suggests that it encodes a complete pathway for the transport and metabolism of sialic acid along with a putative transcriptional regulator, NanR. The addition of 30 mM N-acetyl neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac to a semi-defined medium significantly enhanced the growth yield of strain 13, suggesting that Neu5Ac can be used as a nutrient. C. perfringens strain 13 lacks a nanH gene, but has NanI- and NanJ-encoding genes. Analysis of nanI, nanJ, and nanInanJ mutants constructed by homologous recombination revealed that the expression of the major sialidase, NanI, was induced by the addition of Neu5Ac to the medium, and that in separate experiments, the same was true of a nanI-gusA transcriptional fusion. For the nanI and nanJ genes, primer extension identified three and two putative transcription start sites, respectively. Gel mobility shift assays using purified NanR and DNA from the promoter regions of the nanI and nanE genes showed high affinity, specific binding by NanR. We propose that NanR is a global regulator of sialic acid-associated genes and that it responds, in a positive feedback loop, to the concentration of sialic acid in the cell.

  16. Anaerobic Nitrogen Fixers on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B. G.

    2000-07-01

    The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen gas to the protein of living systems is an amazing process of nature. The first step in the process is biological nitrogen fixation, the transformation of N2 to NH3. The phenomenon is crucial for feeding the billions of our species on Earth. On Mars, the same process may allow us to discover how life can adapt to a hostile environment, and render it habitable. Hostile environments also exist on Earth. For example, nothing grows in coal refuse piles due to the oxidation of pyrite and marcasite to sulfuric acid. Yet, when the acidity is neutralized, alfalfa and soybean plants develop root nodules typical of symbiotic nitrogen fixation with Rhizobium species possibly living in the pyritic material. When split open, these nodules exhibited the pinkish color of leghemoglobin, a protein in the nodule protecting the active nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase against the toxic effects of oxygen. Although we have not yet obtained direct evidence of nitrogenase activity in these nodules (reduction of acetylene to ethylene, for example), these findings suggested the possibility that nitrogen fixation was taking place in this hostile, non-soil material. This immediately raises the possibility that freeliving anaerobic bacteria which fix atmospheric nitrogen on Earth, could do the same on Mars.

  17. CD4(+) T-cell activation is differentially modulated by bacteria-primed dendritic cells, but is generally down-regulated by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Susanne; Lund, Pia; Kjaer, Tanja M R; Straarup, Ellen M; Hellgren, Lars I; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2010-03-01

    Appropriate activation of CD4(+) T cells is fundamental for efficient initiation and progression of acquired immune responses. Here, we showed that CD4(+) T-cell activation is dependent on changes in membrane n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and is dynamically regulated by the type of signals provided by dendritic cells (DCs). Upon interaction with DCs primed by different concentrations and species of gut bacteria, CD4(+) T cells were activated according to the type of DC stimulus. The levels of CD80 were found to correlate to the levels of expression of CD28 and to the proliferation of CD4(+) T cells, while the presence of CD40 and CD86 on DCs inversely affected inducible costimulator (ICOS) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) levels in CD4(+) T cells. For all DC stimuli, cells high in n-3 PUFAs showed reduced ability to respond to CD28 stimulation, to proliferate, and to express ICOS and CTLA-4. Diminished T-cell receptor (TCR) and CD28 signalling was found to be responsible for n-3 PUFA effects. Thus, the dietary fatty acid composition influences the overall level of CD4(+) T-cell activation induced by DCs, while the priming effect of the DC stimuli modulates CD80, CD86 and CD40 levels, thereby affecting and shaping activation of acquired immunity by differential regulation of proliferation and costimulatory molecule expression in CD4(+) T cells.

  18. SAR11 bacteria linked to ocean anoxia and nitrogen loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsementzi, Despina; Wu, Jieying; Deutsch, Samuel;

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the SAR11 clade constitute up to one half of all microbial cells in the oxygen-rich surface ocean. SAR11 bacteria are also abundant in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), where oxygen falls below detection and anaerobic microbes have vital roles in converting bioavailable nitrogen to N2 gas....... Anaerobic metabolism has not yet been observed in SAR11, and it remains unknown how these bacteria contribute to OMZ biogeochemical cycling. Here, genomic analysis of single cells from the world’s largest OMZ revealed previously uncharacterized SAR11 lineages with adaptations for life without oxygen...

  19. My Lifelong Passion for Biochemistry and Anaerobic Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thauer, Rudolf Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Early parental influence led me first to medical school, but after developing a passion for biochemistry and sensing the need for a deeper foundation, I changed to chemistry. During breaks between semesters, I worked in various biochemistry labs to acquire a feeling for the different areas of investigation. The scientific puzzle that fascinated me most was the metabolism of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium kluyveri, which I took on in 1965 in Karl Decker's lab in Freiburg, Germany. I quickly realized that little was known about the biochemistry of strict anaerobes such as clostridia, methanogens, acetogens, and sulfate-reducing bacteria and that these were ideal model organisms to study fundamental questions of energy conservation, CO2 fixation, and the evolution of metabolic pathways. My passion for anaerobes was born then and is unabated even after 50 years of study.

  20. Phototrophic bacteria and their role in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueper, H. G.

    1985-01-01

    An essential step that cannot be bypassed in the biogeochemical cycle of sulfur today is dissimilatory sulfate reduction by anaerobic bacteria. The enormous amounts of sulfides produced by these are oxidized again either anaerobically by phototrophic bacteria or aerobically by thiobacilli and large chemotrophic bacteria (Beggiatoa, Thiovulum, etc.). Phototrophic bacteria use sulfide, sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite as electron donors for photosynthesis. The most obvious intermediate in their oxidative sulfur metabolism is a long chain polysulfide that appears as so called sulfur globules either inside (Chromatiaceae) or outside (Ectothiorhodospiraceae, Chlorobiaceae, and some of the Rhodospirillaceae) the cells. The assimilation of sulfur compounds in phototrophic bacteria is in principle identical with that of nonphototrophic bacteria. However, the Chlorobiaceae and some of the Chromatiaceae and Rhodospirillaceae, unable to reduce sulfate, rely upon reduced sulfur for biosynthetic purposes.

  1. Potential application of anaerobic extremophiles for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-11-01

    In processes of the substrate fermentation most anaerobes produce molecular hydrogen as a waste end product, which often controls the culture growth as an inhibitor. Usually in nature the hydrogen is easily removed from an ecosystem, due to its physical features, and an immediate consumption by the secondary anaerobes that sometimes behave as competitors for electron donors; a classical example of this kind of substrate competition in anaerobic microbial communities is the interaction between methanogens and sulfate- or sulfur-reducers. Previously, on the mixed cultures of anaerobes at neutral pH, it was demonstrated that bacterial hydrogen production could provide a good alternative energy source. At neutral pH the original cultures could easily contaminated by methanogens, and the most unpleasant side effect of these conditions is the development of pathogenic bacteria. In both cases the rate of hydrogen production was dramatically decreased since some part of the hydrogen was transformed to methane, and furthermore, the cultivation with pathogenic contaminants on an industrial scale would create an unsafe situation. In our laboratory the experiments with obligately alkaliphilic bacteria producing hydrogen as an end metabolic product were performed at different conditions. The mesophilic, haloalkaliphilic and obligately anaerobic bacterium Spirochaeta americana ASpG1T was studied and various cultivation regimes were compared for the most effective hydrogen production. In a highly mineralized media with pH 9.5-10.0 not many known methanogens are capable of growth, and the probability of developing pathogenic contaminants is theoretically is close to zero (in medicine carbonate- saturated solutions are applied as antiseptics). Therefore the cultivation of alkaliphilic hydrogen producing bacteria could be considered as a safe and economical process for large-scale industrial bio-hydrogen production in the future. Here we present and discuss the experimental data

  2. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern...... requirements. In fact, most advances were achieved during the last three decades, when high-rate reactor systems were developed and a profound insight was obtained in the microbiology of the anaerobic communities. This insight led to a better understanding of anaerobic treatment and, subsequently, to a broader...

  3. Evidence for PAH Removal Coupled to the First Steps of Anaerobic Digestion in Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Cea-Barcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has been brought to the fore, but information on removal kinetics and anaerobic degrading bacteria is still lacking. In order to explore the organic micropollutants removal kinetics under anaerobic conditions in regard to the methane production kinetics, the removal rate of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was measured in two anaerobic batch reactors series fed with a highly loaded secondary sludge as growth substrate. The results underscore that organic micropollutants removal is coupled to the initial stages of anaerobic digestion (acidogenesis and acetogenesis. In addition, the organic micropollutants kinetics suggest that the main removal mechanisms of these hydrophobic compounds are biodegradation and/or sequestration depending on the compounds.

  4. The influence of biofilm formation by Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobes on bacterial vaginosis

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, António; Cerca, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the worldwide leading vaginal disorder in women of reproductive age. BV is characterized by the replacement of beneficial lactobacilli and the augmentation of anaerobic bacteria. Gardnerella vaginalis is a predominant bacterial species, however, BV is also associated with other numerous anaerobes, such as Atopobium vaginae, Mobiluncus mulieris, Prevotella bivia, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Peptoniphilus sp.. Currently, the role of G. vaginalis in the etiology of BV...

  5. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus thermophilic bacteria AT07-1 and its application in sludge solubilization and bio-hydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation%嗜热菌株AT07-1的分离鉴定及其在污泥溶解预处理厌氧发酵产氢中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤迎; 李小明; 杨永林; 杨麒; 曾光明; 郭亮; 朱小峰; 李焕利; 潘维

    2009-01-01

    A novel strain of thermophilic bacteria with high efficiency for sludge dissolution was isolated from garden soil by the method of dilution spread. The strain's colony morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics were observed. Results showed that the strain was a small, Gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming, aerobic or facultative aerobic bacterium. The strain grew optimally at 651 and pH 6. 8 ~7.5. The 16S rDNA analysis showed that the strain has not been previously reported and therefore it was labeled Bacillus thermophilic bacteria AT07-1 (registration number: FJ231108). The pure culture of the strain was then used in sludge solubilization tests ( S-TE tests) and an enhanced solubilization process was obtained. The volatile suspended solid ( VSS) solubilization rate reached 59.41% at 2.5 d after the inoculation, 25.58% higher than the process without it, which meets the standard of sludge stability suggested by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Preliminary investigations on hydrogen production from anaerobic fermentation of sludge showed that bio-hydrogen production after pretreatment with Bacillus thermophilic bacteria AT07-lwas 26.4% higher than without it, and the biogas was only composed of hydrogen and carbon dioxide.%从湖南大学花园土壤中采集样品,用稀释涂布法分离和纯化适于污泥溶解的典型嗜热菌菌株,从中选出一株高效菌进行形态观察,并对其进行生理生化鉴定.结果表明,该菌株的革兰氏染色为阳性,呈细杆状,产芽孢,为好氧或兼性需氧细菌,最适生长温度为65℃,最适生长pH值为6.8~7.5.通过16SrDNA碱基测序和对比证实,该菌株是目前尚未报道过的一株嗜热菌,GenBank中注册命名为Bacillus thermophilic bacteria AT07-1(注册号:FJ231108).同时,将其纯种菌用于嗜热酶溶解(solubilization by thermophilic enzyme,S-TE)污泥稳定化处理,接种该嗜热菌可促进污泥中悬浮固体的溶解,2.5d时接种

  6. Screening of compound bacteria for anaerobic fermentation with piggery biogas slurry and study the treatment effect of compound bacteria static test%猪场厌氧发酵沼液复合菌群的筛选及静态试验效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林标声; 何玉琴; 黄燕翔; 邱丰艳

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to directional select the compound bacteria from water samples which collected by the river and coastal pollution of pig farm biogas slurry discharge, and then enrichment them. These compound bacteria was used in treatment of piggery biogas slurry, it can effectively decompose harmful substances, suspended matte, but nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients can not decompose too much. The result indicated that 5%dosage of the compound bacteria treatment biogas slurry was best, on this condition, it can degrade the CODcr of biogas slurry, but did not use large amount of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus. After treatment, the biogas slurry turbidity reduced and reaches the standards for irrigation water quality as it can effectively reduce ascaris egg, fecal coliform bacteria and other harmful substances and suspended matter of biogas slurry. Moreover, toxicity test results showed that after compound bacteria treatment, it can obviously reduce the initial biogas slurry toxicity as the germination rate and germination index of radish seed in biogas slurry were significantly improved. Therefore, after compound bacteria treatment, the piggery biogas slurry can use as fertilizer as it was nutrition, harmless, suspended matter less.%通过对猪场沼液排放的河流及沿岸收集污染的水样进行定向分离、富集培养,获得能有效分解沼液有害物质、悬浮物,但又不会过多利用氮、磷等营养成分的复合菌群。处理沼液的试验结果表明,选定添加0.5%复合菌群,其处理沼液CODcr效果最好,不会大量降解氨氮和磷,且能有效降低沼液中的蛔虫卵、粪大肠杆菌等有害物质,还能去除沼液中的悬浮物,降低沼液浊度,达到农田灌溉标准。毒性试验结果表明,经复合菌群处理后的沼液,其萝卜种子的发芽率和发芽指数均有显著提高,明显降低始沼液毒性。结果表明,猪场沼液经复合菌群处理后,营

  7. Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in Pilot-Scale Anaerobic EGSB Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose threat to aquatic environment due to the presence of very high organic content. The present investigation involved two pilot-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, continuously operated for 1 year to treat POME. Setting HRT at 9.8 d, the anaerobic EGSB reactors reduced COD from 71179 mg/L to 12341 mg/L and recycled half of sludge by a dissolved air flotation (DAF). The average effluent COD was 3587 mg/L with the consistent COD removal efficiency of 94.89%. Adding cationic polymer (PAM) dose of 30 mg/L to DAF unit and recycling its half of sludge caused granulation of anaerobic sludge. Bacilli and small coccid bacteria were the dominant microbial species of the reactor. The reactor produced 27.65 m3 of biogas per m3 of POME which was utilized for electricity generation. PMID:26167485

  8. Anaerobic biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, José L; Culubret, Elayne; de Ferrer, Juan; Moreno, Alfonso; Berna, José L

    2003-01-01

    The anaerobic biodegradation of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) was studied in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactors (UASB). One reactor was fed with easily degradable substrates and commercial LAS solution during a period of 3 months (Reactor 1), meanwhile a second reactor was fed with a commercial LAS solution without co-substrate (Reactor 2) during 4 months. Both reactors were operated with an organic loading rate of 4-5 mg-LAS/l x day and a hydraulic retention time of one day. The LAS biodegradation was determined by full mass balance. LAS was analysed by HPLC in the liquid phase (influent and effluent streams of the reactors) as well as in the solid phase (granular sludge used as biomass). The results indicate a high level of removal (primary biodegradation: 64-85%). Biodegradation was higher in the absence of external co-substrates than in the presence of additional sources of carbon. This indicates that the surfactant can be partially used as carbon and energy source by anaerobic bacteria. Under the operating conditions used, inhibition of the methanogenic activity or any other negative effects on the biomass due to the presence of LAS were not observed. The methanogenic activity remained high and stable throughout the experiment.

  9. Anaerobic Mercury Methylation and Demethylation by Geobacter bemidjiensis Bem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xia; Liu, Yurong; Johs, Alexander; Zhao, Linduo; Wang, Tieshan; Yang, Ziming; Lin, Hui; Elias, Dwayne A; Pierce, Eric M; Liang, Liyuan; Barkay, Tamar; Gu, Baohua

    2016-04-19

    Microbial methylation and demethylation are two competing processes controlling the net production and bioaccumulation of neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) in natural ecosystems. Although mercury (Hg) methylation by anaerobic microorganisms and demethylation by aerobic Hg-resistant bacteria have both been extensively studied, little attention has been given to MeHg degradation by anaerobic bacteria, particularly the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter bemidjiensis Bem. Here we report, for the first time, that the strain G. bemidjiensis Bem can mediate a suite of Hg transformations, including Hg(II) reduction, Hg(0) oxidation, MeHg production and degradation under anoxic conditions. Results suggest that G. bemidjiensis utilizes a reductive demethylation pathway to degrade MeHg, with elemental Hg(0) as the major reaction product, possibly due to the presence of genes encoding homologues of an organomercurial lyase (MerB) and a mercuric reductase (MerA). In addition, the cells can strongly sorb Hg(II) and MeHg, reduce or oxidize Hg, resulting in both time and concentration-dependent Hg species transformations. Moderate concentrations (10-500 μM) of Hg-binding ligands such as cysteine enhance Hg(II) methylation but inhibit MeHg degradation. These findings indicate a cycle of Hg methylation and demethylation among anaerobic bacteria, thereby influencing net MeHg production in anoxic water and sediments.

  10. Microbial Ecology of Anaerobic Digesters: The Key Players of Anaerobiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Shah, Fayyaz; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Ahmad Asad, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is the method of wastes treatment aimed at a reduction of their hazardous effects on the biosphere. The mutualistic behavior of various anaerobic microorganisms results in the decomposition of complex organic substances into simple, chemically stabilized compounds, mainly methane and CO2. The conversions of complex organic compounds to CH4 and CO2 are possible due to the cooperation of four different groups of microorganisms, that is, fermentative, syntrophic, acetogenic, and methanogenic bacteria. Microbes adopt various pathways to evade from the unfavorable conditions in the anaerobic digester like competition between sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and methane forming bacteria for the same substrate. Methanosarcina are able to use both acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic pathways for methane production. This review highlights the cellulosic microorganisms, structure of cellulose, inoculum to substrate ratio, and source of inoculum and its effect on methanogenesis. The molecular techniques such as DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) utilized for dynamic changes in microbial communities and FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) that deal with taxonomy and interaction and distribution of tropic groups used are also discussed. PMID:24701142

  11. [Anaerobic biodegradation of phthalic acid esters (Paes) in municipal sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhi-Feng; Zhou, Wen; Lin, Qing-Qi; Yang, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Shi-Zhong; Cai, Xin-De; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2014-04-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs), a class of organic pollutants with potent endocrine-disrupting properties, are widely present in municipal sludge. Study of PAEs biodegradation under different anaerobic biological treatment processes of sludge is, therefore, essential for a safe use of sludge in agricultural practice. In this study, we selected two major sludge PAEs, i.e. di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-enthylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), to investigate their biodegradation behaviors in an anaerobic sludge digestion system and a fermentative hydrogen production system. The possible factors influencing PAEs biodegradation in relation to changes of sludge properties were also discussed. The results showed that the biodegradation of DBP reached 99.6% within 6 days, while that of DEHP was 46.1% during a 14-day incubation period in the anaerobic digestion system. By comparison, only 19.5% of DBP was degraded within 14 days in the fermentative hydrogen production system, while no degradation was detected for DEHP. The strong inhibition of the degradation of both PAEs in the fermentative hydrogen production system was ascribed to the decreases in microbial biomass and ratios of gram-positive bacteria/gram-negative bacteria and fungi/ bacteria, and the increase of concentrations of volatile fatty acids (e. g. acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) during the fermentative hydrogen-producing process.

  12. Microbial Ecology of Anaerobic Digesters: The Key Players of Anaerobiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ali Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is the method of wastes treatment aimed at a reduction of their hazardous effects on the biosphere. The mutualistic behavior of various anaerobic microorganisms results in the decomposition of complex organic substances into simple, chemically stabilized compounds, mainly methane and CO2. The conversions of complex organic compounds to CH4 and CO2 are possible due to the cooperation of four different groups of microorganisms, that is, fermentative, syntrophic, acetogenic, and methanogenic bacteria. Microbes adopt various pathways to evade from the unfavorable conditions in the anaerobic digester like competition between sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB and methane forming bacteria for the same substrate. Methanosarcina are able to use both acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic pathways for methane production. This review highlights the cellulosic microorganisms, structure of cellulose, inoculum to substrate ratio, and source of inoculum and its effect on methanogenesis. The molecular techniques such as DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis utilized for dynamic changes in microbial communities and FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization that deal with taxonomy and interaction and distribution of tropic groups used are also discussed.

  13. Anaerobic Digestion of Piggery Waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsen, van A.F.M.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process by which organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide by microbes in the absence of air (oxygen). In nature, anaerobic conversions occur at all places where organic material accumulates and the supply of oxygen is deficient, e.g. in marshes an

  14. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  15. Anaerobic digestion of solid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavilin, V.A.; Lokshina, L.Y.; Flotats, X.

    2007-01-01

    A new multidimensional (3 and 2D) anaerobic digestion model for cylindrical reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions was developed to study the way in which mixing intensity affects the efficiency of continuous-flow anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments reported and simulate...

  16. Alternating Current Influences Anaerobic Electroactive Biofilm Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhou, Lean; Lu, Lu; Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Li, Nan; Wang, Heming; Park, Jaedo; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-09-06

    Alternating current (AC) is known to inactivate microbial growth in suspension, but how AC influences anaerobic biofilm activities has not been systematically investigated. Using a Geobacter dominated anaerobic biofilm growing on the electrodes of microbial electrochemical reactors, we found that high frequency AC ranging from 1 MHz to 1 kHz (amplitude of 5 V, 30 min) showed only temporary inhibition to the biofilm activity. However, lower frequency (100 Hz, 1.2 or 5 V) treatment led to 47 ± 19% permanent decrease in limiting current on the same biofilm, which is attributed to the action of electrohydrodynamic force that caused biofilm damage and loss of intercellular electron transfer network. Confocal microscopy images show such inactivation mainly occurred at the interface between the biofilm and the electrode. Reducing the frequency further to 1 Hz led to water electrolysis, which generated gas bubbles that flushed all attached cells out of the electrode. These findings provide new references on understanding and regulating biofilm growth, which has broader implications in biofouling control, anaerobic waste treatment, energy and product recovery, and general understanding of microbial ecology and physiology.

  17. Application of bacteria involved in the biological sulfur cycle for paper mill effluent purification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.H.; Lens, P.N.L.; Stams, A.J.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Muyzer, G.; Dijkman, H.; Zessen, van E.; Luimes, F.J.T.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    In anaerobic wastewater treatment, the occurrence of biological sulfate reduction results in the formation of unwanted hydrogen sulfide, which is odorous, corrosive and toxic. In this paper, the role and application of bacteria in anaerobic and aerobic sulfur transformations are described and exempl

  18. Mimicking the oxygen minimum zones: stimulating interaction of aerobic archaeal and anaerobic bacterial ammonia oxidizers in a laboratory-scale model system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, J.; Haaijer, S.C.M.; Op den Camp, H.J.M.; van Niftrik, L.; Stahl, D.A.; Könneke, M.; Rush, D.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hu, Y.Y.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2012-01-01

    In marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) rather than marine ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) may provide nitrite to anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Here we demonstrate the cooperation between marine anammox bacteria and nitrifiers in a laboratory-scale

  19. Consequences of introducing requirements for tanks prepared for solar heating in the building regulations including examinations of bacteria risks; Konsekvenser ved solvarmeforberedte beholdere i bygningsreglementet herunder undersoegelse af risici for bakteriegener

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K.; Kaersgaard, K. [Teknologisk Inst., SolEnergiCentret, Taastrup (Denmark); Bagh, L. [Teknologisk Inst., Miljoedivisionen (Denmark)

    2000-07-01

    A larger dissemination of solar heating units must be expected, if requirements for tanks prepared for solar heating are introduced in the building regulations. However, this may have effects, which have to be discussed beforehand, just as it has to be decided how the regulations can be put into practice. 1) The aim is to examine and discuss the consequences of introducing requirements for tanks prepared for solar heating in the building regulations including connections with other legislation, potential, consequences for the building services sector and proposals for rules in the building regulations (exceptions etc.) 2) Furthermore, the aim is to explain the risk of bacteria in tanks prepared for solar heating according to existing or new additional studies. It must be explained whether tanks prepared for solar heating will result in an increased number of bacteria in the water compared to traditional hot water tanks and - if possible - whether the change is caused by the increased volume of the tank (the water stays in the tank for a longer period) or changed temperature conditions which favours growth of bacteria at a certain incubation temperature. (EHS)

  20. Anaerobic treatment performance and microbial population of thermophilic upflow anaerobic filter reactor treating awamori distillery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yue-Qin; Fujimura, Yutaka; Shigematsu, Toru; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2007-10-01

    Distillery wastewater from awamori making was anaerobically treated for one year using thermophilic upflow anaerobic filter (UAF) reactors packed with pyridinium group-containing nonwoven fabric material. The microbial structure and spatial distribution of microorganisms on the support material were characterized using molecular biological methods. The reactor steadily achieved a high TOC loading rate of 18 g/l/d with approximately 80% TOC removal efficiency when non-diluted wastewater was fed. The maximum TOC loading rate increased to 36 g/l/d when treating thrice-diluted wastewater. However, the TOC removal efficiency and gas evolution rate decreased compared with that when non-diluted wastewater was used. Methanogens closely related to Methanosarcina thermophila and Methanoculleus bourgensis and bacteria in the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were predominant methanogens and bacteria in the thermophilic UFA reactor, as indicated by 16S rRNA gene clone analysis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results showed that a large quantity of bacterial cells adhered throughout the whole support, and Methanosarcina-like methanogens existed mainly in the relative outside region while Methanoculleus cells were located in the relative inner part of the support. The support material used proved to be an excellent carrier for microorganisms, and a UAF reactor using this kind of support can be used for high-rate treatment of awamori/shochu distillery wastewater.

  1. Anaerobic growth of a "strict aerobe" (Bacillus subtilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, M M; Zuber, P

    1998-01-01

    There was a long-held belief that the gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a strict aerobe. But recent studies have shown that B. subtilis will grow anaerobically, either by using nitrate or nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor, or by fermentation. How B. subtilis alters its metabolic activity according to the availability of oxygen and alternative electron acceptors is but one focus of study. A two-component signal transduction system composed of a sensor kinase, ResE, and a response regulator, ResD, occupies an early stage in the regulatory pathway governing anaerobic respiration. One of the essential roles of ResD and ResE in anaerobic gene regulation is induction of fnr transcription upon oxygen limitation. FNR is a transcriptional activator for anaerobically induced genes, including those for respiratory nitrate reductase, narGHJI.B. subtilis has two distinct nitrate reductases, one for the assimilation of nitrate nitrogen and the other for nitrate respiration. In contrast, one nitrite reductase functions both in nitrite nitrogen assimilation and nitrite respiration. Unlike many anaerobes, which use pyruvate formate lyase, B. subtilis can carry out fermentation in the absence of external electron acceptors wherein pyruvate dehydrogenase is utilized to metabolize pyruvate.

  2. Big bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Jørgensen, BB

    2001-01-01

    A small number of prokaryotic species have a unique physiology or ecology related to their development of unusually large size. The biomass of bacteria varies over more than 10 orders of magnitude, from the 0.2 mum wide nanobacteria to the largest cells of the colorless sulfur bacteria......, Thiomargarita namibiensis, with a diameter of 750 mum. All bacteria, including those that swim around in the environment, obtain their food molecules by molecular diffusion. Only the fastest and largest swimmers known, Thiovulum majus, are able to significantly increase their food supply by motility...... and by actively creating an advective flow through the entire population. Diffusion limitation generally restricts the maximal size of prokaryotic cells and provides a selective advantage for mum-sized cells at the normally low substrate concentrations in the environment. The largest heterotrophic bacteria...

  3. Degradation of benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons by anaerobic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Accidental spills, industrial discharges and gasoline leakage from underground storage tanks have resulted in serious pollution of the environment with monoaromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (so-called BTEX). High concentrations of BTEX have been detected in soi

  4. Degradation of BTEX by anaerobic bacteria: physiology and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.; Eekert, van M.H.A.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pollution of the environment with aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (so-called BTEX) is often observed. The cleanup of these toxic compounds has gained much attention in the last decades. In situ bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated soils and gr

  5. Immunochemical Investigations of Cell Surface Antigens of Anaerobic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-15

    Peptococcus micros 5.8 Fusobacterium varium 5.2 Clostridium sartagoformum 5.2 Clostridium tyrobutyricum 5.0 Bacteriological studies were also performed on...4.5 Non-sooreforming Gram- Corynebacterium sp. 4.4 positive rod 6.3 c-hemolytic streptococcus 4.0 Clostridium perfringens 6.1 Proteus mirabilis 4.0... Clostridium paraputrificum 6.0 Proteus morganii 3.9 Clostridium species 6.0 Moraxella sp. 3.1 Bacteroides fragilis 5.8 Peptococcus morbillorum 5.7

  6. Production of Bioethanol From Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.

    2006-01-01

    xylose conversion, effective glucose/xylose co-fermentation, and ethanol productivity of 1 g/l/h required for an economically viable bioethanol process. Furthermore, the fermentation of two undetoxified feed streams of industrial interest (acid hydrolyzed corn stover and wet-exploded wheat straw...... steps, various inhibitors towards microbial fermentation are generated along with the monomeric sugars. The inhibitors can be removed by various detoxification methods but the inclusion of this extra process step increases significantly the ethanol production cost. Compared with glucose, which can....... In order to keep ethanol production cost at a minimum, the major sugars in lignocellulosic biomass (glucose and xylose) must be converted into ethanol due to high raw material cost, typically about 40% of the total ethanol production cost. The need for a microorganism able to utilize both glucose...

  7. Isolation and Cultivation of Anaerobes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aragao Börner, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms play important roles in different biotechnological processes. Their complex metabolism and special cultivation requirements have led to less isolated representatives in comparison to their aerobic counterparts.In view of that, the isolation and cultivation of anaerobic...... microorganisms is still a promising venture, and conventional methodologies as well as considerations and modifications are presented here. An insight into new methodologies and devices as well as a discussion on future perspectives for the cultivation of anaerobes may open the prospects of the exploitation...

  8. THE EFFECT OF CEFTRIAXONE ON THE ANAEROBIC BACTERIAL-FLORA AND THE BACTERIAL ENZYMATIC-ACTIVITY IN THE INTESTINAL-TRACT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WELLING, GW; MEIJERSEVERS, GJ; HELMUS, G; VANSANTEN, E; TONK, RHJ; DEVRIESHOSPERS, HG; VANDERWAAIJ, D

    1991-01-01

    The normal flora of the intestinal tract, mainly consisting of anaerobic bacteria, protects the host against colonization by pathogenic microorganisms. Antimicrobial treatment with ceftriaxone may influence the colonic microflora and as a consequence, the protective effect. Ten healthy volunteers re

  9. The Function of Gas Vesicles in Halophilic Archaea and Bacteria: Theories and Experimental Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon Oren

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A few extremely halophilic Archaea (Halobacterium salinarum, Haloquadratum walsbyi, Haloferax mediterranei, Halorubrum vacuolatum, Halogeometricum borinquense, Haloplanus spp. possess gas vesicles that bestow buoyancy on the cells. Gas vesicles are also produced by the anaerobic endospore-forming halophilic Bacteria Sporohalobacter lortetii and Orenia sivashensis. We have extensive information on the properties of gas vesicles in Hbt. salinarum and Hfx. mediterranei and the regulation of their formation. Different functions were suggested for gas vesicle synthesis: buoying cells towards oxygen-rich surface layers in hypersaline water bodies to prevent oxygen limitation, reaching higher light intensities for the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin, positioning the cells optimally for light absorption, light shielding, reducing the cytoplasmic volume leading to a higher surface-area-to-volume ratio (for the Archaea and dispersal of endospores (for the anaerobic spore-forming Bacteria. Except for Hqr. walsbyi which abounds in saltern crystallizer brines, gas-vacuolate halophiles are not among the dominant life forms in hypersaline environments. There only has been little research on gas vesicles in natural communities of halophilic microorganisms, and the few existing studies failed to provide clear evidence for their possible function. This paper summarizes the current status of the different theories why gas vesicles may provide a selective advantage to some halophilic microorganisms.

  10. Proteomic evidences for rex regulation of metabolism in toxin-producing Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laouami, Sabrina; Clair, Géremy; Armengaud, Jean; Duport, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The facultative anaerobe, Bacillus cereus, causes diarrheal diseases in humans. Its ability to deal with oxygen availability is recognized to be critical for pathogenesis. The B. cereus genome comprises a gene encoding a protein with high similarities to the redox regulator, Rex, which is a central regulator of anaerobic metabolism in Bacillus subtilis and other Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we showed that B. cereus rex is monocistronic and down-regulated in the absence of oxygen. The protein encoded by rex is an authentic Rex transcriptional factor since its DNA binding activity depends on the NADH/NAD+ ratio. Rex deletion compromised the ability of B. cereus to cope with external oxidative stress under anaerobiosis while increasing B. cereus resistance against such stress under aerobiosis. The deletion of rex affects anaerobic fermentative and aerobic respiratory metabolism of B. cereus by decreasing and increasing, respectively, the carbon flux through the NADH-recycling lactate pathway. We compared both the cellular proteome and exoproteome of the wild-type and Δrex cells using a high throughput shotgun label-free quantitation approach and identified proteins that are under control of Rex-mediated regulation. Proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000886. The data suggest that Rex regulates both the cross-talk between metabolic pathways that produce NADH and NADPH and toxinogenesis, especially in oxic conditions.

  11. Proteomic evidences for rex regulation of metabolism in toxin-producing Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Laouami

    Full Text Available The facultative anaerobe, Bacillus cereus, causes diarrheal diseases in humans. Its ability to deal with oxygen availability is recognized to be critical for pathogenesis. The B. cereus genome comprises a gene encoding a protein with high similarities to the redox regulator, Rex, which is a central regulator of anaerobic metabolism in Bacillus subtilis and other Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we showed that B. cereus rex is monocistronic and down-regulated in the absence of oxygen. The protein encoded by rex is an authentic Rex transcriptional factor since its DNA binding activity depends on the NADH/NAD+ ratio. Rex deletion compromised the ability of B. cereus to cope with external oxidative stress under anaerobiosis while increasing B. cereus resistance against such stress under aerobiosis. The deletion of rex affects anaerobic fermentative and aerobic respiratory metabolism of B. cereus by decreasing and increasing, respectively, the carbon flux through the NADH-recycling lactate pathway. We compared both the cellular proteome and exoproteome of the wild-type and Δrex cells using a high throughput shotgun label-free quantitation approach and identified proteins that are under control of Rex-mediated regulation. Proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000886. The data suggest that Rex regulates both the cross-talk between metabolic pathways that produce NADH and NADPH and toxinogenesis, especially in oxic conditions.

  12. Sulfate inhibition effect on sulfate reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Al Zuhair

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in the potential of bacterial sulfate reduction as an alternative method for sulfate removal from wastewater. Under anaerobic conditions, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB utilize sulfate to oxidize organic compounds and generate sulfide (S2-. SRB were successfully isolated from sludge samples obtained from a local petroleum refinery, and used for sulfate removal. The effects of initial sulfate concentration, temperature and pH on the rate of bacterial growth and anaerobic sulfate removal were investigated and the optimum conditions were identified. The experimental data were used to determine the parameters of two proposed kinetic model, which take into consideration substrate inhibition effect. Keywords: Sulfate Reducing Bacteria, Sulfate, Kinetic Model, Biotreatement, Inhibition Received: 31 August 2008 / Received in revised form: 18 September 2008, Accepted: 18 September 2008 Published online: 28 September 2008

  13. Biotransformation of nonylphenol ethoxylates during sewage treatment under anaerobic and aerobic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Biotransformation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) during continuous anaerobic sewage treatment was compared with the aerobic treatment of sewage spiked with 23 μmol/L technical NPEOs over a period of 90 d. Immediate degradation of NPEOs was observed under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, indicating that the enzymes and bacteria required for NPEO degradation existed abundantly in both aerobic and anaerobic sludge. Both treatments achieved high removal (>92%) of the spiked NPEO9 mixture.Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis showed that short-chain NPEOs (NPEO1-NPEO3) accumulated in anaerobic (2.01-2.56 μmol/L) and aerobic (1.62-2.03 μmol/L) effluents, with nonylphenol (NP) (0.24-0.31 μmol/L) as another group of metabolites in the anaerobic effluent, and nonylphenoxy carboxylates (NPECs) (2.79-3.30 μmol/L) in the aerobic effluent. Significant accumulation of NP in the anaerobic sludge and NPEO1-3 in the sludge of two reactors was observed. These results indicated that it was difficult to control these harmful metabolites in the conventional treatment processes. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of sludge samples support the speculation that the NPEO degradation bacteria might be the dominant indigenous species.

  14. Community structure and denitrification ability of aerobic and anaerobic denitrifying bacteria from mangrove wetland%红树林湿地中好氧-厌氧反硝化菌脱氮特性及其种群结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林娜; 郭楚玲; 郭延萍; 柯林; 党志; 谭凤仪

    2012-01-01

    Mangrove wetlands dominate the coastline of tropical and subtropical regions. With the expansion of human activity along riverine and coastal shorelines, mangroves are subject to anthropogenic inputs, which introduee additional nitrogen to mangrove ecosystems. In the present study, both traditional cultivation and molecular method ( clone library and RFLP) were used to investigate the community strueture and abilities of denitrifying microorganism from Mai Po mangrove sediment. Twenty aerobic and anaerobic denitrifying bacteria strains were obtained and most of them had the abilities to remove 98% NO3- -N in 2 days. The aerobic denitrifying bacterial strains belonged to the genera of Pseudomonas, Comamonas and Acinetobacter. The anaerobie denitrifying bacterial strains were Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium, Uncultured Betaproteobacteria bacterium. To investigate the diversity of denitrifying bacteria in the mangrove sediments, nosZ gene clone library were constructed. 26 out of 50 clones belonged to 11 unknown groups, while the others were the Pennisetum (26%) , the β-proteobacterium (10%) , the Entandrophragma ( 4 % ) , the Pseudomonas ( 4 % ) and the denitrifying bacterium (4%). This indicated that Mai Po mangrove had high degree of taxonomic diversity of denitrifiers.%随着沿岸水体氮素富营养化的加剧,生物脱氮作用越来越受重视,位于海陆交界的湿地红树林生态系统作为一个自然脱氮体系备受关注.本研究以典型亚热带湿地红树林(香港Mai Po)作为对象,结合传统的富集筛选和分子生物学方法--建立nosZ基因克隆文库和RFLP分析技术对红树林沉积物中反硝化细菌脱氮能力、种群结构和丰度进行研究.从Mai Po红树林沉积物中共筛选到12株好氧反硝化菌和8株厌氧反硝化菌,其中好氧反硝化菌包括Pseudomonas(4株)、Comamonas(2株)和Acinetobacter(2株)等7个菌属,厌

  15. Redesigning Escherichia coli metabolism for anaerobic production of isobutanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Cong T; Li, Johnny; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S

    2011-07-01

    Fermentation enables the production of reduced metabolites, such as the biofuels ethanol and butanol, from fermentable sugars. This work demonstrates a general approach for designing and constructing a production host that uses a heterologous pathway as an obligately fermentative pathway to produce reduced metabolites, specifically, the biofuel isobutanol. Elementary mode analysis was applied to design an Escherichia coli strain optimized for isobutanol production under strictly anaerobic conditions. The central metabolism of E. coli was decomposed into 38,219 functional, unique, and elementary modes (EMs). The model predictions revealed that during anaerobic growth E. coli cannot produce isobutanol as the sole fermentative product. By deleting 7 chromosomal genes, the total 38,219 EMs were constrained to 12 EMs, 6 of which can produce high yields of isobutanol in a range from 0.29 to 0.41 g isobutanol/g glucose under anaerobic conditions. The remaining 6 EMs rely primarily on the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDHC) and are typically inhibited under anaerobic conditions. The redesigned E. coli strain was constrained to employ the anaerobic isobutanol pathways through deletion of 7 chromosomal genes, addition of 2 heterologous genes, and overexpression of 5 genes. Here we present the design, construction, and characterization of an isobutanol-producing E. coli strain to illustrate the approach. The model predictions are evaluated in relation to experimental data and strategies proposed to improve anaerobic isobutanol production. We also show that the endogenous alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase AdhE is the key enzyme responsible for the production of isobutanol and ethanol under anaerobic conditions. The glycolytic flux can be controlled to regulate the ratio of isobutanol to ethanol production.

  16. A characterization of anaerobic colonization and associated mucosal adaptations in the undiseased ileal pouch.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, F M

    2012-02-03

    INTRODUCTION: The resolution of pouchitis with metronidazole points to an anaerobic aetiology. Pouchitis is mainly seen in patients with ulcerative colitis pouches (UCP). We have recently found that sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB), a species of strict anaerobe, colonize UCP exclusively. Herein, we aimed to correlate levels of different bacterial species (including SRB) with mucosal inflammation and morphology. METHODS: Following ethical approval, fresh faecal samples and mucosal biopsies were taken from 9 patients with UCP and 5 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis pouches (FAPP). For the purposes of comparison, faecal samples and mucosal biopsies were also taken from the stomas of 7 of the 9 patients with UC (UCS). Colonization by four types of strict anaerobes (SRB, Clostridium perfringens, Bifidobacteria and Bacteroides) as well as by three types of facultative anaerobes (Enterococci, Coliforms and Lactobacilli) was evaluated. Inflammatory scores and mucosal morphology were assessed histologically in a blinded fashion by a pathologist. RESULTS: In general, strict anaerobes predominated over facultative in the UCP (P = 0.041). SRB were present in UCP exclusively. Even after exclusion of SRB from total bacterial counts, strict anaerobes still predominated. In the UCS, facultative anaerobes predominated. Strict and facultative anaerobes were present at similar levels in the FAPP. Enterococci were present at significantly reduced levels in the UCP when compared with the UCS (P = 0.031). When levels of SRB and other anaerobic species were individually correlated with mucosal inflammation and morphology, no trends were observed. CONCLUSION: We have previously identified that SRB exclusively colonize UCP. In addition we have now identified a novel increase in the strict\\/facultative anaerobic ratio within the UCP compared to UCS. These stark differences in bacterial colonization, however, appear to have limited impact on mucosal inflammation or morphology.

  17. Involvement of protozoa in anaerobic wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, M; Haridas, Ajit; Manilal, V B

    2007-12-01

    It is only very rarely recognised in literature that anaerobic reactors may contain protozoa in addition to various bacterial and archeal groups. The role of protozoa in anaerobic degradation was studied in anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and batch tests. Anaerobic protozoa, especially the ciliated protozoa, have direct influence on the performance of CSTR at all organic loading rates (1-2g CODl(-1)d(-1)) and retention times (5-10 days). The studies revealed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal is strongly correlated to ciliate density in CSTR fed with oleate (suspended COD) and acetate (soluble COD). There was no significant difference in COD removal between reactors fed suspended COD and those fed soluble COD. However, the diversity and number of ciliates is greater in CSTR fed with particulate feed. The mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) representing biomass was significantly lower (16-34%) in CSTR with protozoa. In batch tests, increased COD removal and methane production was observed in sludge having ciliates as compared with sludge without protozoa. Methane production increased linearly with number of ciliates (R(2)=0.96) in batch tests with protozoa. Direct utilization of COD by flagellates and ciliates was observed in bacteria-suppressed cultures. The technological importance of these results is that reactors with protozoa-rich sludge can enhance the rate of mineralization of complex wastewater, especially wastewater containing particulate COD.

  18. Enhanced biogas yield from energy crops with rumen anaerobic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochazka, Jindrich; Zabranska, Jana; Dohanyos, Michal [Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Mrazek, Jakub; Strosova, Lenka; Fliegerova, Katerina [Laboratory of Anaerobic Microbiology, Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, CAS, v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-06-15

    Anaerobic fungi (AF) are able to degrade crop substrates with higher efficiency than commonly used anaerobic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate ways of use of rumen AF to improve biogas production from energy crops under laboratory conditions. In this study, strains of AF isolated from feces or rumen fluid of cows and deer were tested for their ability to integrate into the anaerobic bacterial ecosystem used for biogas production, in order to improve degradation of substrate polysaccharides and consequently the biogas yield. Batch culture, fed batch culture, and semicontinuous experiments have been performed using anaerobic sludge from pig slurry fermentation and different kinds of substrates (celluloses, maize, and grass silage) inoculated by different genera of AF. All experiments showed a positive effect of AF on the biogas yield and quality. AF improved the biogas production by 4-22%, depending on the substrate and AF species used. However, all the cultivation experiments indicated that rumen fungi do not show long-term survival in fermenters with digestate from pig slurry. The best results were achieved during fed batch experiment with fungal culture Anaeromyces (KF8), in which biogas production was enhanced during the whole experimental period of 140 days. This result has not been achieved in semicontinuous experiment, where increment in biogas production in fungal enriched reactor was only 4% after 42 days. (copyright 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Detergent Surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    Erich Jelen; Ute Merrettig-Bruns

    2009-01-01

    Detergent surfactantscan be found in wastewater in relevant concentrations. Most of them are known as ready degradable under aerobic conditions, as required by European legislation. Far fewer surfactants have been tested so far for biodegradability under anaerobic conditions. The natural environment is predominantly aerobic, but there are some environmental compartments such as river sediments, sub-surface soil layer and anaerobic sludge digesters of wastewater treatment plants which have str...

  20. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, A S; Dhagat, N N

    2001-04-01

    inorganic matter in the absence of molecular oxygen. Complex polymeric materials such as polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids (fat and grease) are first hydrolyzed to soluble products by extracellular enzymes, secreted by microorganisms, so as to facilitate their transport or diffusion across the cell membrane. These relatively simple, soluble compounds are fermented or anaerobically oxidized, further to short-chain fatty acids, alcohols, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and ammonia. The short-chain fatty acids (other than acetate) are converted to acetate, hydrogen gas, and carbon dioxide. Methanogenesis finally occurs from the reduction of carbon dioxide and acetate by hydrogen. The initial stage of anaerobic degradation, i.e. acid fermentation is essentially a constant BOD stage because the organic molecules are only rearranged. The first stage does not stabilize the organics in the waste. However this step is essential for the initiation of second stage methane fermentation as it converts the organic material to a form, usable by the methane producing bacteria. The second reaction is initiated when anaerobic methane forming bacteria act upon the short chain organic acids produced in the 1st stage. Here these acids undergo methane fermentation with carbon dioxide acting as hydrogen acceptor and getting reduced to methane. The methane formed, being insoluble in water, escapes from the system and can be tapped and used as an energy source. The production and subsequent escape of methane causes the stabilization of the organic material. The methane-producing bacteria consist of several different groups. Each group has the ability to ferment only specific compounds. Therefore, the bacterial consortia in a methane producing system should include a number of different groups. When the rate of bacterial growth is considered, then the retention time of the solids becomes important parameter. The acid fermentation stage is faster as compared to the methane fermentation stage. This

  1. The fecal bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The Fecal Bacteria offers a balanced, integrated discussion of fecal bacteria and their presence and ecology in the intestinal tract of mammals, in the environment, and in the food supply. This volume covers their use in examining and assessing water quality in order to offer protection from illnesses related to swimming in or ingesting contaminated water, in addition to discussing their use in engineering considerations of water quality, modeling, monitoring, and regulations. Fecal bacteria are additionally used as indicators of contamination of ready-to-eat foods and fresh produce. The intestinal environment, the microbial community structure of the gut microbiota, and the physiology and genomics of this broad group of microorganisms are explored in the book. With contributions from an internationally recognized group of experts, the book integrates medicine, public health, environmental, and microbiological topics in order to provide a unique, holistic understanding of fecal bacteria. Moreover, it shows how the latest basic science and applied research findings are helping to solve problems and develop effective management strategies. For example, readers will discover how the latest tools and molecular approaches have led to our current understanding of fecal bacteria and enabled us to improve human health and water quality. The Fecal Bacteria is recommended for microbiologists, clinicians, animal scientists, engineers, environmental scientists, food safety experts, water quality managers, and students. It will help them better understand fecal bacteria and use their knowledge to protect human and environmental health. They can also apply many of the techniques and molecular tools discussed in this book to the study of a broad range of microorganisms in a variety of habitats.

  2. Anaerobic oxidation of methane above gas hydrates at Hydrate Ridge, NE Pacific Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treude, T.; Boetius, A.; Knittel, K.;

    2003-01-01

    At Hydrate Ridge (HR), Cascadia convergent margin, surface sediments contain massive gas hydrates formed from methane that ascends together with fluids along faults from deeper reservoirs. Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), mediated by a microbial consortium of archaea and sulfate-reducing...... bacteria, generates high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in the surface sediments. The production of sulfide supports chemosynthetic communities that gain energy from sulfide oxidation. Depending on fluid flow, the surface communities are dominated either by the filamentous sulfur bacteria Beggiatoa...

  3. Metagenomic and proteomic analyses to elucidate the mechanism of anaerobic benzene degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu Laban, Nidal [Helmholtz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the mechanism of anaerobic benzene degradation using metagenomic and proteomic analyses. The objective of the study is to find out the microbes and biochemistry involved in benzene degradation. Hypotheses are proposed for the initial activation mechanism of benzene under anaerobic conditions. Two methods for degradation, molecular characterization and identification of benzene-degrading enzymes, are described. The physiological and molecular characteristics of iron-reducing enrichment culture are given and the process is detailed. Metagenome analysis of iron-reducing culture is presented using a pie chart. From the metagenome analysis of benzene-degrading culture, putative mobile element genes were identified in the aromatic-degrading configurations. Metaproteomic analysis of iron-reducing cultures and the anaerobic benzene degradation pathway are also elucidated. From the study, it can be concluded that gram-positive bacteria are involved in benzene degradation under iron-reducing conditions and that the catalysis mechanism of putative anaerobic benzene carboxylase needs further investigation.

  4. Effects of Oxytetracycline on Methane Production and the Microbial Communities During Anaerobic Digestion of Cow Manure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Xin; WANG Chun-yong; LI Run-dong; ZHANG Yun

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC) on the dynamics of bacterial and archaeal communities during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion (37°C) of cow manure were investigated. Before anaerobic digestion, OTC was added to digesters at concentrations of 20, 50, and 80 mg L-1, respectively. Compared with no-antibiotic control, all methane productions underwent different levels of inhibition at different concentrations of OTC. Changes in the bacterial and archaeal communities were discussed by using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Results showed that OTC affected the richness and diversity of bacterial and archaeal communities. The bacterial genus Flavobacterium and an uncultured bacterium (JN256083.1) were detected throughout the entire process of anaerobic digestion and seemed to be the functional bacteria. Methanobrevibacter boviskoreani and an uncultured archaeon (FJ230982.1) dominated the archaeal communities during anaerobic digestion. These microorganisms may have high resistance to OTC and may play vital roles in methane production.

  5. Anaerobic biofilm reactors for dark fermentative hydrogen production from wastewater: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Cristian; Soric, Audrey; Ranava, David; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérèse; Ferrasse, Jean-Henry

    2015-06-01

    Dark fermentation is a bioprocess driven by anaerobic bacteria that can produce hydrogen (H2) from organic waste and wastewater. This review analyses a relevant number of recent studies that have investigated dark fermentative H2 production from wastewater using two different types of anaerobic biofilm reactors: anaerobic packed bed reactor (APBR) and anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR). The effect of various parameters, including temperature, pH, carrier material, inoculum pretreatment, hydraulic retention time, substrate type and concentration, on reactor performances was investigated by a critical discussion of the results published in the literature. Also, this review presents an in-depth study on the influence of the main operating parameters on the metabolic pathways. The aim of this review is to provide to researchers and practitioners in the field of H2 production key elements for the best operation of the reactors. Finally, some perspectives and technical challenges to improve H2 production were proposed.

  6. Pathway of Fermentative Hydrogen Production by Sulfate-reducing Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2015-02-16

    Biofuels are a promising source of sustainable energy. Such biofuels are intermediate products of microbial metabolism of renewable substrates, in particular, plant biomass. Not only are alcohols and solvents produced in this degradative process but energy-rich hydrogen as well. Non photosynthetic microbial hydrogen generation from compounds other than sugars has not been fully explored. We propose to examine the capacity of the abundant soil anaerobes, sulfate-reducing bacteria, for hydrogen generation from organic acids. These apparently simple pathways have yet to be clearly established. Information obtained may facilitate the exploitation of other microbes not yet readily examined by molecular tools. Identification of the flexibility of the metabolic processes to channel reductant to hydrogen will be useful in consideration of practical applications. Because the tools for genetic and molecular manipulation of sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio are developed, our efforts will focus on two strains, D. vulgaris Hildenborough and Desulfovibrio G20.Therefore total metabolism, flux through the pathways, and regulation are likely to be limiting factors which we can elucidate in the following experiments.

  7. Anaerobic degradation of landfill leachate using an upflow anaerobic fixed-bed reactor with microbial sulfate reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Olfa Ben Dhia; Bouallagui, Hassib; Cayol, Jean-luc; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Hamdi, Moktar

    2009-08-15

    This study evaluated the anaerobic degradation of landfill leachate and sulfate reduction as a function of COD/(SO(4)(2-)) ratio in an upflow anaerobic fixed-bed reactor. The reactor, which was inoculated with a mixed consortium, was operated under a constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5 days. We investigated the effect of COD/(SO(4)(2-)) ratio variation on the sulfate reduction efficiency, hydrogen sulfide production, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, conductivity, and pH variation. The best reactor performance, with significant sulfate reduction efficiency and COD removal efficiency of 91% and 87%, respectively, was reached under a COD/(SO(4)(2-)) ratio of 1.17. Under these conditions, microscopic analysis showed the abundance of vibrios and rod-shaped bacterial cells. Two anaerobic bacteria were isolated from the reactor sludge. Phylogenetic studies performed on these strains identified strain A1 as affiliated to Clostridium genus and strain H1 as a new species of sulfate-reducing bacteria affiliated to the Desulfovibrio genus. The closest phylogenetic relative of strain H1 was Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, at 96% similarity for partial 16S RNA gene sequence data. Physiological and metabolic characterization was performed for this strain.

  8. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

    2003-12-01

    's surface area, they have a profound influence on the biogeochemistry of the planet. This is evident from the observation that the O2 and CH4 content of Earth's atmosphere are in extreme disequilibrium (Sagan et al., 1993). The combination of high aerobic primary production and anoxic sediments provided the large deposits of fossil fuels that have become vital and contentious sources of energy for modern industrialized societies. Anaerobic metabolism is responsible for the abundance of N2 in the atmosphere; otherwise N2-fixing bacteria would have consumed most of the N2 pool long ago (Schlesinger, 1997). Anaerobic microorganisms are common symbionts of termites, cattle, and many other animals, where they aid digestion. Nutrient and pollutant chemistry are strongly modified by the reduced conditions that prevail in wetland and aquatic ecosystems.This review of anaerobic metabolism emphasizes aerobic oxidation, because the two processes cannot be separated in a complete treatment of the topic. It is process oriented and highlights the fascinating microorganisms that mediate anaerobic biogeochemistry. We begin this review with a brief discussion of CO2 assimilation by autotrophs, the source of most of the reducing power on Earth, and then consider the biological processes that harness this potential energy. Energy liberation begins with the decomposition of organic macromolecules to relatively simple compounds, which are simplified further by fermentation. Methanogenesis is considered next because CH4 is a product of acetate fermentation, and thus completes the catabolism of organic matter, particularly in the absence of inorganic electron acceptors. Finally, the organisms that use nitrogen, manganese, iron, and sulfur for terminal electron acceptors are considered in order of decreasing free-energy yield of the reactions.

  9. Integrated Anaerobic-Aerobic Biodegradation of Multiple Contaminants Including Chlorinated Ethylenes, Benzene, Toluene, and Dichloromethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Miho; Zhang, Ming; Toyota, Koki

    2017-01-01

    Complete bioremediation of soils containing multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) remains a challenge. To explore the possibility of complete bioremediation through integrated anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation, laboratory feasibility tests followed by alternate anaerobic-aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic biodegradation tests were performed. Chlorinated ethylenes, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC), and dichloromethane (DCM) were used for anaerobic biodegradation, whereas benzene, toluene, and DCM were used for aerobic biodegradation tests. Microbial communities involved in the biodegradation tests were analyzed to characterize the major bacteria that may contribute to biodegradation. The results demonstrated that integrated anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation was capable of completely degrading the seven VOCs with initial concentration of each VOC less than 30 mg/L. Benzene and toluene were degraded within 8 days, and DCM was degraded within 20 to 27 days under aerobic conditions when initial oxygen concentrations in the headspaces of test bottles were set to 5.3% and 21.0%. Dehalococcoides sp., generally considered sensitive to oxygen, survived aerobic conditions for 28 days and was activated during the subsequent anaerobic biodegradation. However, degradation of cis-DCE was suppressed after oxygen exposure for more than 201 days, suggesting the loss of viability of Dehalococcoides sp., as they are the only known anaerobic bacteria that can completely biodegrade chlorinated ethylenes to ethylene. Anaerobic degradation of DCM following previous aerobic degradation was complete, and yet-unknown microbes may be involved in the process. The findings may provide a scientific and practical basis for the complete bioremediation of multiple contaminants in situ and a subject for further exploration.

  10. Present and past contribution of anaerobic ammonium oxidation to nitrogen cycling as revealed by ladderane lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeschke, A.

    2009-01-01

    Anammox, the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium to dinitrogen gas with nitrite as the electron acceptor, constitutes a novel route to convert biologically available (fixed) nitrogen to gaseous N2. This process is mediated by specific bacteria belonging to the Planctomycetes that were initially discover

  11. Present and past contribution of anaerobic ammonium oxidation to nitrogen cycling as revealed by ladderane lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeschke, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Anammox, the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium to dinitrogen gas with nitrite as the electron acceptor, constitutes a novel route to convert biologically available (fixed) nitrogen to gaseous N2. This process is mediated by specific bacteria belonging to the Planctomycetes that were initially

  12. Sulfide removal by moderate oxygenation of anaerobic sludge environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Zee, F.P.; Villaverde, S.; Polanco, F. [Valladolid Univ., Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Garcia, P.A.

    2004-07-01

    Treating wastewater through anaerobic bioreactors results in the formation of hydrogen sulfide. The sulfide can be removed from the biogas by introducing air directly into the anaerobic bioreactor system. This study presents the results of batch experiments that provided a better insight into the fate of sulfur compounds and oxygen during microaerobic sulfide oxidation in granular sludge. It was shown that sulfide could be removed rapidly upon introduction of low amounts of oxygen to the sulfide-amended batch vials with granular sludge treating vinasse. Initially, the sulfide was oxidized to elemental sulfur, thiosulfate and polysulfide. Significant production of sulfate did not occur. The introduction of oxygen, however, could result in the growth of aerobic organic-chemical oxygen demand-oxidizing bacteria that compete with sulfide oxidation for oxygen. 6 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  13. An experimental study on short-term changes in the anaerobic oxidation of methane in response to varying methane and sulfate fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wegener

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A major role in regulation of global methane fluxes has been attributed to the process of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM, which is performed by consortia of methanotrophic archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria. An important question remains how these energy limited, slow growing microorganisms with generation times of 3–7 months respond to rapid natural variations in methane fluxes at cold seeps. We used an experimental flow-through column system filled with cold seep sediments naturally enriched in methanotrophic communities, to test their responses to short-term variations in methane and sulfate fluxes. At stable methane and sulfate concentrations of ~2 mM and 28 mM, respectively, we measured constant rates of AOM and sulfate reduction (SR for up to 160 days of incubation. When percolated with methane-free medium, the anaerobic methanotrophs ceased to produce sulfide. After a starvation phase of 40 days, the addition of methane restored former AOM and SR rates immediately. At methane concentrations between 0–2.3 mM we measured a linear correlation between methane availability, AOM and SR. At constant fluid flow velocities of 30 m yr−1, ca. 50% of the methane was consumed by the anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME population at all concentrations tested. Reducing the sulfate concentration from 28 to 1 mM, a decrease in AOM and SR by 50% was observed, and 45% of the methane was consumed. Hence, the marine anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME are capable of oxidizing substantial amounts of methane over a wide and variable range of fluxes of the reaction educts.

  14. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of biologically pretreated abattoir wastewaters in an upflow anaerobic filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannoun, H; Bouallagui, H; Okbi, A; Sayadi, S; Hamdi, M

    2009-10-15

    The hydrolysis pretreatment of abattoir wastewaters (AW), rich in organic suspended solids (fats and protein) was studied in static and stirred batch reactors without aeration in the presence of natural microbial population acclimated in a storage tank of AW. Microbial analysis showed that the major populations which contribute to the pretreatment of AW belong to the genera Bacillus. Contrary to the static pretreatment, the stirred conditions favoured the hydrolysis and solubilization of 80% of suspended matter into soluble pollution. The pretreated AW, in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 days, was fed to an upflow anaerobic filter (UAF) at an HRT of 2 days. The performance of anaerobic digestion of biologically pretreated AW was examined under mesophilic (37 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) conditions. The shifting from a mesophilic to a thermophilic environment in the UAF was carried out with a short start-up of thermophilic condition. The UAF ran at organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 0.9 to 6g COD/Ld in mesophilic conditions and at OLRs from 0.9 to 9 g COD/Ld in thermophilic conditions. COD removal efficiencies of 80-90% were achieved for OLRs up to 4.5 g COD/Ld in mesophilic conditions, while the highest OLRs i.e. 9 g COD/Ld led to efficiencies of 70-72% in thermophilic conditions. The biogas yield in thermophilic conditions was about 0.32-0.45 L biogas/g of COD removed for OLRs up to 4.5 g COD/Ld. For similar OLR, the UAF in mesophilic conditions showed lower percentage of methanization. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion has been shown to destroy pathogens partially, whereas the thermophilic process was more efficient in the removal of indicator microorganisms and pathogenic bacteria at different organic loading rates.

  15. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of biologically pretreated abattoir wastewaters in an upflow anaerobic filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gannoun, H.; Bouallagui, H.; Okbi, A. [Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology, Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology, B.P. 676, 1080 Tunis (Tunisia); Sayadi, S. [Laboratory of bioprocesses, Centre of Biotechnology of Sfax, Sfax (Tunisia); Hamdi, M., E-mail: moktar.hamdi@insat.rnu.tn [Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology, Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology, B.P. 676, 1080 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2009-10-15

    The hydrolysis pretreatment of abattoir wastewaters (AW), rich in organic suspended solids (fats and protein) was studied in static and stirred batch reactors without aeration in the presence of natural microbial population acclimated in a storage tank of AW. Microbial analysis showed that the major populations which contribute to the pretreatment of AW belong to the genera Bacillus. Contrary to the static pretreatment, the stirred conditions favoured the hydrolysis and solubilization of 80% of suspended matter into soluble pollution. The pretreated AW, in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 days, was fed to an upflow anaerobic filter (UAF) at an HRT of 2 days. The performance of anaerobic digestion of biologically pretreated AW was examined under mesophilic (37 deg. C) and thermophilic (55 deg. C) conditions. The shifting from a mesophilic to a thermophilic environment in the UAF was carried out with a short start-up of thermophilic condition. The UAF ran at organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 0.9 to 6 g COD/L d in mesophilic conditions and at OLRs from 0.9 to 9 g COD/L d in thermophilic conditions. COD removal efficiencies of 80-90% were achieved for OLRs up to 4.5 g COD/L d in mesophilic conditions, while the highest OLRs i.e. 9 g COD/L d led to efficiencies of 70-72% in thermophilic conditions. The biogas yield in thermophilic conditions was about 0.32-0.45 L biogas/g of COD removed for OLRs up to 4.5 g COD/L d. For similar OLR, the UAF in mesophilic conditions showed lower percentage of methanization. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion has been shown to destroy pathogens partially, whereas the thermophilic process was more efficient in the removal of indicator microorganisms and pathogenic bacteria at different organic loading rates.

  16. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The photosynthetic spectrum of solar energy could be exploited for the production of chemical energy of methane through the combined algal-bacterial process. In this process, the algae are mass produced from light and from carbon in the first step. The algal biomass is then used as a nutrient for feeding the anaerobic digester, in the second step, for the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria. The carbon source for the production of algal biomass could be either organic carbon from wastewaters (for eucaryotic algae), or carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the combustion exhaust gases (for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae). The technical feasibility data on the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass have been reported for many species of algae including macroscopic algae and microscopic algae. Research being conducted in the authors' laboratory consists of using the semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima as the sole substrate for this combined algal-bacterial process. This species of alga is very attractive for the process because of its capability of using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as carbon source and its simple harvesting methods. Furthermore, it appeared that the fermentability of S. maxima is significantly higher than other microscopic algae. This communication presents the results on the anaerobic inoculum development by the adaptation technique. This inoculum was then used for the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of S. maxima algal biomass. The evolutions of biogas production and composition, biogas yield, total volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, pH, and electrode potential were followed.

  17. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eTechtmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is commonly known as a toxic gas, yet it is used by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and many archaea. In this study, we determined the prevalence of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (anaerobic CODHs, or [Ni,Fe]-CODHs in currently available genomic sequence databases. More than 6% (185 genomes out of 2887 bacterial and archaeal genome sequences in the IMG database possess at least one gene encoding [Ni,Fe]-CODH, the key enzyme for anaerobic CO utilization. The phylogenetic study of this extended protein family revealed nine distinct clades of [Ni,Fe]-CODHs. These clades consisted of [Ni,Fe]-CODHs that, while apparently monophyletic within the clades, were encoded by microorganisms of disparate phylogeny, based on 16S rRNA sequences, and widely ranging physiology. Following this discovery, it was therefore of interest to examine the extent and possible routes of horizontal gene transfer (HGT affecting [Ni,Fe]-CODH genes and gene clusters that include [Ni,Fe]-CODHs.The genome sequence of the extreme thermophile Thermosinus carboxydivorans was used as a case study for HGT. The [Ni,Fe]-CODH operon of T. carboxydivorans differs from its whole genome in its G+C content by 8.2 mol%. Here, we apply statistical methods to establish acquisition by T. carboxydivorans of the gene cluster including [Ni,Fe]-CODH via HGT. Analysis of tetranucleotide frequency and codon usage with application of the Kullback-Leibler divergence metric showed that the [Ni,Fe]-CODH-1 operon of T. carboxidyvorans is quite dissimilar to the whole genome. Using the same metrics, the T. carboxydivorans [Ni,Fe]-CODH-1 operon is highly similar to the genome of the phylogenetically distant anaerobic carboxydotroph Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans. These results allow to assume recent HTG of the gene cluster from a relative of C. hydrogenoformans to T. carboxydivorans or a more ancient transfer from a C. hydrogenoformans ancestor to a T. carboxydivorans

  18. Microbial degradation of 4-monobrominated diphenyl ether with anaerobic sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Yang-hsin, E-mail: yhs@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chou, Hsi-Ling [Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 407, Taiwan, ROC (China); Peng, Yu-Huei [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDE-3 was degraded with two anaerobes in different rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glucose addition augment the debromination efficiencies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen gas was detected and relative microbes were identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extra-carbon source enhanced degradation partial due to H{sub 2}-generation bacteria. - Abstract: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardant additives for many plastic and electronic products. Owing to their ubiquitous distribution in the environment, multiple toxicity to humans, and increasing accumulation in the environment, the fate of PBDEs is of serious concern for public safety. In this study, the degradation of 4-monobrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-3) in anaerobic sludge and the effect of carbon source addition were investigated. BDE-3 can be degraded by two different anaerobic sludge samples. The by-products, diphenyl ether (DE) and bromide ions, were monitored, indicating the reaction of debromination within these anaerobic samples. Co-metabolism with glucose facilitated BDE-3 biodegradation in terms of kinetics and efficiency in the Jhongsing sludge. Through the pattern of amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments in denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), the composition of the microbial community was analyzed. Most of the predominant microbes were novel species. The fragments enriched in BDE-3-degrading anaerobic sludge samples are presumably Clostridium sp. This enrichment coincides with the H{sub 2} gas generation and the facilitation of debromination during the degradation process. Findings of this study provide better understanding of the biodegradation of brominated DEs and can facilitate the prediction of the fate of PBDEs in the environment.

  19. Microbial decolorization of reactive black-5 in a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic reactor using acclimatized activated textile sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sagarika; Dafale, Nishant; Rao, Nageswara Neti

    2006-10-01

    A two-stage anaerobic-aerobic treatment process based on mixed culture of bacteria isolated from textile dye effluent was used to degrade reactive black 5 dye (RB-5). The anaerobic step was studied in more detail by varying the dye concentration from 100 to 3000 mg l(-1). The results showed that major decolorization was achieved during the anaerobic process. The time required for decolorization by > 90% increased as the concentration of the dye increased. It was also found that maintaining dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration below 0.5 mg l(-1 )and addition of a co-substrate viz., glucose, facilitates anaerobic decolorization reaction remarkably. An attempt was made to identify the metabolites formed in anaerobic process by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV-VIS spectrophotometry. A plate assay was performed for the detection of dominant decolorizing bacteria. Only a few bacterial colonies with high clearing zones (decolorization zones) were found. The results showed that under anaerobic condition RB-5 molecules were reduced and aromatic amines were generated. The aromatic amine metabolite was partly removed in subsequent aerobic bio-treatment. It was possible to achieve more than 90% decolorization and approximately 46% reduction in amine metabolite concentration through two-stage anaerobic-aerobic treatment after a reaction period of 2 days.

  20. Effects of microbial inhibitors on anaerobic degradation of DDT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.S.; Chiu, T.C.; Yen, J.H. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Chlorinated insecticide DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] was extensively used for controlling pests in the agricultural field and human-being living environments in the past several decades. Due to the chemical stability, DDT was extremely persistent and recalcitrant in soils and sediments and it was banned by nations. Microorganisms usually play important roles in reducing organochlorine compounds in the environments. Under low-oxygen conditions, microbial dechlorination is thought as the onset of highly chlorinated compounds. Methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria participate in microbial dechlorination under anaerobic condition has been reported. In this study, a mixed anaerobic culture enabling to dechlorinate DDT was obtained from river sediment in Taiwan. In order to understand the effect of these microorganisms on DDT dechlorination, microbial inhibitors BESA (2-bromoethanesulfonate) and molybdate, for inhibiting methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria, respectively, were chosen to investigate the interaction between specific microbial communities and their degradation activities. Besides, a molecular technique, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), based on analyzing the 16S rDNA of bacteria, was used for monitoring the bacterial community structure in this study.

  1. Presence and diversity of anammox bacteria in cold hydrocarbon-rich seeps and hydrothermal vent sediments of the Guaymas Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russ, L.; Kartal, B.; Op den Camp, H.J.M.; Sollai, M.; Le Bruchec, J.; Caprais, J.-C.; Godfroy, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrothermally active sediments are highly productive, chemosynthetic areas which are characterized by the rapid turnover of particulate organic matter under extreme conditions in which ammonia is liberated. These systems might be suitable habitats for anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria

  2. A microdiversity study of anammox bacteria reveals a novel Candidatus Scalindua phylotype in marine oxygen minimum zones

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Woebken, D.; Lam, P.; Kuypers, M.M.M.; Naqvi, S.W.A; Kartal, B.; Strous, M.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Fuchs, B.M.; Amann, R.

    The anaerobic oxidation of ammonium (anammox) contributes significantly to the global loss of fixed nitrogen and is carried out by a deep branching monophyletic group of bacteria within the phylum Planctomycetes. Various studies have implicated...

  3. Anaerobic co-culture of mesenchymal stem cells and anaerobic pathogens - a new in vitro model system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Kriebel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs are multipotent by nature and are originally isolated from bone marrow. In light of a future application of hMSCs in the oral cavity, a body compartment with varying oxygen partial pressures and an omnipresence of different bacterial species i.e. periodontitis pathogens, we performed this study to gain information about the behavior of hMSC in an anaerobic system and the response in interaction with oral bacterial pathogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We established a model system with oral pathogenic bacterial species and eukaryotic cells cultured in anaerobic conditions. The facultative anaerobe bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were studied. Their effects on hMSCs and primary as well as permanent gingival epithelial cells (Ca9-22, HGPEC were comparatively analyzed. We show that hMSCs cope with anoxic conditions, since 40% vital cells remain after 72 h of anaerobic culture. The Ca9-22 and HGPEC cells are significantly more sensitive to lack of oxygen. All bacterial species reveal a comparatively low adherence to and internalization into hMSCs (0.2% and 0.01% of the initial inoculum, respectively. In comparison, the Ca9-22 and HGPEC cells present better targets for bacterial adherence and internalization. The production of the pro-inflammatory chemokine IL-8 is higher in both gingival epithelial cell lines compared to hMSCs and Fusobacterium nucleatum induce a time-dependent cytokine secretion in both cell lines. Porphyromonas gingivalis is less effective in stimulating secretion of IL-8 in the co-cultivation experiments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HMSCs are suitable for use in anoxic regions of the oral cavity. The interaction with local pathogenic bacteria does not result in massive pro-inflammatory cytokine responses. The test system established in this study allowed further investigation of parameters prior to set up of

  4. The ecology and biotechnology of sulphate-reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muyzer, G.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are anaerobic microorganisms that use sulphate as a terminal electron acceptor in, for example, the degradation of organic compounds. They are ubiquitous in anoxic habitats, where they have an important role in both the sulphur and carbon cycles. SRB can cause a seri

  5. Nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in aerobic granules formed in sequencing batch airlift reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fang; YANG Fenglin; QI Aijiu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria isolated from aerobic granules.Aerobic granules were formed in an internal-circulate sequencing batch airlift reactor(SBAR)and biodegradation of NH3 -N was analyzed in the reactor.Bacteria were isolated and determined from aerobic granules using selected media.The growth properties and morphology of bacteria colonies were observed by controlling aerobic or anaerobic conditions in the culture medium.It was found that bacteria in aerobic granules were diverse and some of them were facultative aerobes.The diversity of bacteria in aerobic granules was a premise of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

  6. 益生菌兼或益生元对牛肠道菌群调节作用研究进展%Progress on Effect of Probiotics/Prebiotics on Regulation of Gastrointestinal Bacteria Flora of Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱鹏; 龙淼

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics/prebiotics have the ability to regulate gastrointestinal (GI)microflora balance and ac-tivity.They can significantly affect the structure and activities within the intestinal flora of livestock.The beneficial bacteria (mainly lactic acid bacteria)can occupy the niche,become the dominant bacteria,and can inhibit the growth of molds and their production of mycotoxin.After feeding probiotic bacteria,bovine in-testinal flora diversity are increased,the community of the bacteria in the gastrointestinal become more complexity,and the stability of bovine intestinal flora was enhanced.As the bacteria growth promoting a-gents,maltose oligosaccharides,galactooligosaccharides and other prebiotics are able to be used at different levels by the beneficial bacteria.Currently probiotics/prebiotics have been widely used in various fields such as food,medical care and feed.With its in-depth understanding and mature market or industrial develop-ment,the era of the probiotics/prebiotics will come.%益生菌/益生元具有调节胃肠(GI)菌群平衡及活动的能力,能够显著地影响家畜肠道内菌群的结构和活动,使有益菌(主要是乳酸菌)占有生态位,成为优势菌群,抑制霉菌生长和霉菌毒素的产生。饲喂益生菌后,牛肠道中的菌群呈现多样性,群落的复杂程度增高,牛肠道菌群的微生态稳定性增强。低聚麦芽糖、低聚半乳糖等益生元则能不同程度的被有益菌分解利用,作为有益菌的生长促进剂,发挥其益生作用。目前,益生菌/益生元已被广泛应用于食品、医药保健和饲料等各个领域。随着对其深入的了解和成熟的市场或产业化发展,益生菌/益生元的应用前景很好。

  7. Potential for anaerobic conversion of xenobiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Dolfing, J.; Haagensen, Frank;

    2003-01-01

    This review covers the latest research on the anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic xenobiotic compounds, with emphasis on surfactants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalate esters, polychlorinated biphenyls, halogenated phenols, and pesticides. The versatility of anaerobic reactor systems...

  8. Truce with oxygen - A naerobiosis outcompete aerobiosis in the Antarctic lacustrine bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.; DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Chandramohan, D.

    The total number of bacteria counted directly by epifluorescent microscopy showed that they ranged from 10 sup(8)-10 sup(-1) in Antarctic lake water samples. The percentages of retrievable viable counts (RVC) of anaerobic bacteria (AnB) was greater...

  9. Occurrence and activity of anammox bacteria in surface sediments of the southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bale, N.J.; Villanueva, L.; Fan, H.; Stal, L.J.; Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence and activity of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) bacteria in sandy and muddy sand sediments of the southern North Sea. The presence of anammox bacteria was established through the detection of specific phosphocholine-monoether ladderane lipids, 16S rRNA gene, and

  10. Bacteria Isolated from Post-Partum Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Arianpour

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was undertaken with an aim to determine bacterial species involved in post partum infections and also their abundance in patients admitted to at Khanevadeh hospital. In this study out of three different kinds of postpartum infections (i.e. genital, breast and urinary tract, only genital infection is considered.Materials and Methods: Post partum infection among 6077 patients (inpatients and re-admitted patients of Khanevadeh hospital from 2003 till 2008 was studied in this descriptive study. Samples were collected from patients for laboratory diagnosis to find out the causative organisms.Results: Follow up of mothers after delivery revealed 7.59% (461 patients had post partum infection, out of which 1.03% (63 patients were re-hospitalized. Infection was more often among younger mothers. Bacteria isolated and identified were both aerobic and anaerobic cocci and bacilli, majority of which were normal flora of the site of infection. Though, some pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis,were also the causative agents. The commonest infection was infection at the site of episiotomy. Conclusion: Puerperal infection was detected in of 7.59% mothers. Bacteria isolated were both aerobic and anaerobic cocci and bacilli, majority of which were normal flora. However; some pathogenic bacteria were isolated.

  11. Metal concentrations of simulated aerobic and anaerobic pilot scale landfill reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinan Bilgili, M. [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: mbilgili@yildiz.edu.tr; Demir, Ahmet [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ahmetd@yildiz.edu.tr; Ince, Mahir [Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, 41400 Gebze (Turkey)]. E-mail: mahirince@gyte.edu.tr; Ozkaya, Bestamin [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: bozkaya@yildiz.edu.tr

    2007-06-25

    Leachate and solid waste samples from aerobic and anaerobic simulated landfill reactors operated with and without leachate recirculation were characterized in terms of metals such as Fe, Ca, K, Na, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn. Metal concentrations of aerobic landfill reactor leachate samples are always below the regulation limits. The higher concentrations in anaerobic landfill leachate samples decreased to regulation limits after the landfill becomes methanogenic. The effect of leachate recirculation is determined in anaerobic landfills more clearly than aerobic landfills. Metal precipitation resulted in a decrease in leachate metal content and an increase in solid waste metal content as expected. Result of the study show that the metal content of landfill leachate samples is not a major concern for both aerobic and anaerobic landfills.

  12. Anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactor and process for wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Amy, Gary

    2015-07-09

    An anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactor (AnEMBR) can include a vessel into which wastewater can be introduced, an anode electrode in the vessel suitable for supporting electrochemically active microorganisms (EAB, also can be referred to as anode reducing bacteria, exoelectrogens, or electricigens) that oxidize organic compounds in the wastewater, and a cathode membrane electrode in the vessel, which is configured to pass a treated liquid through the membrane while retaining the electrochemically active microorganisms and the hydrogenotrophic methanogens (for example, the key functional microbial communities, including EAB, methanogens and possible synergistic fermenters) in the vessel. The cathode membrane electrode can be suitable for catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction to generate hydro en.

  13. Status on Science and Application of Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1994-01-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic processes are often regarded as less stable than mesophilic processes. In the paper this postulate is examined and disproved based on real operational data from of full-scale mesophilic and thermophilic biogas plants. The start-up produce for the thermophilic plants was......, however, found to be crucial for determining the period needed before full capacity of the thermophilic plant could be achived. The importance of balanced loading, determined by the concentration of active biomass, is discussed. Finally, data will be shown on the optimal and maximal temperature...... for thermophilic digestion along with the implications for the methanogenic bacteria active at these temperatures....

  14. Pathways and Bioenergetics of Anaerobic Carbon Monoxide Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Alfons J M; Sousa, Diana Z

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO-rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis, and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved.

  15. Pathways and bioenergetics of anaerobic carbon monoxide fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn eDiender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved.

  16. Anaerobic treatment of lactic waste and goat manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Luís Magaña-Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion was carried out to obtain biogas from lactic waste in combination with goat manure. Waste from lactic products such as cream, cheese and whey was mixed with goat manure using three formulations; the quantity of waste from cream and cheese was maintained, and only the quantity of manure and whey was varied. Methanogenic bacteria obtained from predigestion of goat manure were used as inoculants. Temperature was 35ºC and pH 7.0.Biogas methane percentage was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed that the highest methane concentration obtained was 82% with formulation III.

  17. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a device intended for medical purposes to maintain an anaerobic...

  18. The phenomenon of granulation of anaerobic sludge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshoff Pol, L.W.

    1989-01-01

    Successful high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment can only be accomplished when the slowgrowing anaerobic biomass is efficiently held back in the anaerobic treatment system. This biomass retention can be achieved in various ways including immobilization of the organisms on fixed materials and immo

  19. Microbial populations of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating wastewater from a gelatin industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A M; Bergamasco, R; Gimenes, M L; Nakamura, C V; Dias Filho, B P

    2001-12-01

    The microbial populations of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor, used for treating wastewater from the gelatin industry, were studied by microbiological methods and phase-contrast and electron microscopy. Microscopy examination of the sludge showed a complex mixture of various rod-shaped and coccoid bacterial pluslong filaments and verymobile curved rods. In addition free-living anaerobic ciliates and flagellates were also observed. The trophic group population observed in decreasing order of dominance were hydrolytic and acetogenic at 10(6) and sulfate reducing and methanogenic at 10(5). The rate of methane production in anaerobic granular sludge cultivated in growth medium supplement with formate pressurized with H2:CO2 showed a significant increase in methane yield compared with theseed culture containingthe same substrate and atmosphere of N2:CO2. Similar rates of methane production were observed when the growth medium was supplemented with acetate pressurized either with H2:CO2 or N2:CO2. The number of total anaerobic bacteria at 10(7), fecal coliforms and total coliforms at 10(6), and fecal streptococci at 10(3) is based on colony counts on solid media. The four prevalent species of facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacteria that belong to the family of Enterobacteriaceae were identified as Escherichia coli, Esherichia fergusonii, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Citrobacter freundii. The species Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii, Acinetobacter iwoffi and Stenotrophomonas maltophila were the most frequently isolated glucose fermenting and nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli.

  20. Anaerobic Treatment of Agricultural Residues and Wastewater - Application of High-Rate Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Parawira, Wilson

    2004-01-01

    The production of methane via anaerobic digestion of agricultural residues and industrial wastewater would benefit society by providing a clean fuel from renewable feedstocks. This would reduce the use of fossil-fuel-derived energy and reduce environmental impact, including global warming and pollution. Limitation of carbon dioxide and other emissions through emission regulations, carbon taxes, and subsidies on biomass energy is making anaerobic digestion a more attractive and competitive tec...

  1. The structure of a DnaA/HobA complex from Helicobacter pylori provides insight into regulation of DNA replication in bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Natrajan, Ganesh; Noirot-Gros, Marie Francoise; Zawilak-Pawlik, Anna; Kapp, Ulrike; Terradot, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial DNA replication requires DnaA, an AAA+ ATPase that initiates replication at a specific chromosome region, oriC, and is regulated by species-specific regulators that directly bind DnaA. HobA is a DnaA binding protein, recently identified as an essential regulator of DNA replication in Helicobacter pylori. We report the crystal structure of HobA in complex with domains I and II of DnaA (DnaAI–II) from H. pylori, the first structure of DnaA bound to one of its regulators. Biochemical c...

  2. Perspectives of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, J.G.; Runia, W.T.; Molendijk, L.P.G.; Bleeker, P.O.

    2010-01-01

    Biological soil disinfestation is an environmentally friendly method to disinfest soil. From now on we refer to it as anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD). With ASD a green manure crop (40 t/ha) is homogeneously incorporated into the topsoil (0-30 cm) after which the field is lightly compacted and ir

  3. Anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2003-01-01

    by the immobilization of the biomass, which forms static biofilms, particle-supported biofilms, or granules depending on the reactor's operational conditions. The advantages of the high-rate anaerobic digestion over the conventional aerobic wastewater treatment methods has created a clear trend for the change......-rate anaerobic treatment systems based on anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm are described in this chapter. Emphasis is given to a) the Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems, b) the main characteristics of the anaerobic granular sludge, and c) the factors that control the granulation process...

  4. Production of a ruminant protein supplement by anaerobic fermentation of feedlot waste filtrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, C.A.; Erdman, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    In studies initiated to develop simple and efficient procedures for the production of feed supplements, it was shown that the filtrate from feedlot wastes diluted with water and filtered could be fermented under anaerobic conditions by mixed rumen bacteria, Lactobacilli, or natural microflora from the feedlot wastes to produce a protein-rich feed supplement. The filtrate is low in carbohydrate and therefore supplemental carbohydrate in the form of whey, molasses, starch from potato processing wastes, or corn starch is necessary. Rigid anaerobic conditions need not be maintained nor must aseptic conditions be observed. (JSR)

  5. Methanethiol Removal from Biogas by Biological Conversion in an Anaerobic Biotrickling Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳佳; 张卫江; 徐姣

    2015-01-01

    In this study, methanethiol(MT)-degradation bacteria were cultivated by using MT, methanol and trimethylamine as carbon sources under anaerobic conditions. It was found that the batch bacteria used MT and metha-nol as carbon sources grew faster than those used trimethylamine. The enriched bacteria used MT and methanol as the carbon sources were respectively inoculated in different biotrickling filters. The biological conversion performance of MT under anaerobic conditions was investigated in biotrickling filters. The results showed that the performance of the biotrickling filter inoculated with the bacteria enriched using MT was better than that inoculated with the bacteria en-riched using methanol. When the inlet concentration of MT was 0.005vol%(50,ppm), the empty bed residence time was 50 s, pH value was 8.0, and the flow rate of the nutrient solution was 10 L/h, the removal efficiency of MT reached 95.3%. Adding methanol stimulated the growth of the biomass and the degradation of MT, but caused that some bacteria only degrading methanol outcompeted the bacteria only degrading MT. The concentration of sodium bicarbonate in the nutrient solution needed to be controlled lower than 30 g/L, otherwise, it would be harmful to the degradation of MT.

  6. Regulatory role for L-arginine in the utilization of amino acids by pig small-intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhao-Lai; Li, Xi-Long; Xi, Peng-Bin; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Guoyao; Zhu, Wei-Yun

    2012-07-01

    We recently reported that bacteria from the pig small intestine rapidly utilize and metabolize amino acids (AA). This study investigated the effect of L-arginine on the utilization of AA by pure bacterial strains (Streptococcus sp., Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp.) and mixed bacterial cultures derived from the pig small intestine. Bacteria were incubated at 37°C for 3 h in anaerobic AA media containing 0-5 mmol/L of arginine to determine the effect of arginine on the bacterial utilization of AA. Amino acids in the medium plus cell extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results indicated concentration-dependent increases in the bacterial utilization of arginine and altered fluxes of arginine into ornithine and citrulline in the bacteria. Net glutamine utilization increased in pure bacterial strains with increased concentrations of arginine. With the addition of arginine, net utilization of threonine, glycine, phenylalanine and branched-chain AA increased (P<0.05) in Streptococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp., but decreased in E. coli. Net utilization of lysine, threonine, isoleucine, leucine, glycine and alanine by jejunal or ileal mixed bacteria decreased (P<0.05) with the addition of arginine. Complete utilization of asparagine, aspartate and serine were observed in pig small-intestinal bacteria after 3 h of incubation. Overall, the addition of arginine affected the metabolism of the arginine-family of AA and the serine- and aspartate-family of AA in small-intestinal bacteria and reduced the utilization of most AA in ileal mixed bacteria. These novel findings indicate that arginine exerts its beneficial effects on swine nutrition partially by regulating AA utilization and metabolism in the small-intestinal microbiota.

  7. Treatment of Chinese Traditional Medicine Wastewater by Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG You-zhi; WANG Feng-jun; BAO Li

    2005-01-01

    The influence factors treating wastewater of Chinese traditional medicine extraction by photosynthetic bacteria are tested and discussed. The results indicate that the method of photosynthetic bacteria can eliminate COD and BCD from wastewater in high efficiency. And it also has high load shock resistance. On the conditions of slight aerobic and semi-darkness, treating wastewater of Chinese traditional medicine extraction, the method has better efficiency to eliminate COD and BOD from the wastewater than those by anaerobic illumination and aerobic darkness treatments. After pretreatment of hydrolytic acidization, the removal rate of COD in the wastewater reached more than 85 %, and that rate of BOD reached more than 90% in the treating system of photosynthetic bacteria. It may be more feasible and advantageous than traditional anaerobic biological process to treat organic wastewater using PSB system.

  8. NC10 bacteria in marine oxygen minimum zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padilla, Cory C; Bristow, Laura A; Sarode, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the NC10 phylum link anaerobic methane oxidation to nitrite denitrification through a unique O2-producing intra-aerobic methanotrophy pathway. A niche for NC10 in the pelagic ocean has not been confirmed. We show that NC10 bacteria are present and transcriptionally active in oceanic....... rRNA and mRNA transcripts assignable to NC10 peaked within the OMZ and included genes of the putative nitrite-dependent intra-aerobic pathway, with high representation of transcripts containing the unique motif structure of the nitric oxide (NO) reductase of NC10 bacteria, hypothesized...

  9. Mechanism of uranium (VI) removal by two anaerobic bacterial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Monica [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, FCT-DQF (edificio 8), Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Faleiro, Maria Leonor [IBB - Centro de Biomedicina Molecular e Estrutural, Universidade do Algarve, FCT, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Costa, Ana M. Rosa da [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica do Algarve, Universidade do Algarve, FCT, DQF, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogerio [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Biodiversidade, Genomica Integrativa e Funcional (BioFIG), Campus de FCUL, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Matos, Antonio Pedro [Servico de Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Curry Cabral, Lisboa (Portugal); Costa, Maria Clara, E-mail: mcorada@ualg.pt [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, FCT-DQF (edificio 8), Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2010-12-15

    The mechanism of uranium (VI) removal by two anaerobic bacterial consortia, recovered from an uncontaminated site (consortium A) and other from an uranium mine (consortium U), was investigated. The highest efficiency of U (VI) removal by both consortia (97%) occurred at room temperature and at pH 7.2. Furthermore, it was found that U (VI) removal by consortium A occurred by enzymatic reduction and bioaccumulation, while the enzymatic process was the only mechanism involved in metal removal by consortium U. FTIR analysis suggested that after U (VI) reduction, U (IV) could be bound to carboxyl, phosphate and amide groups of bacterial cells. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA showed that community A was mainly composed by bacteria closely related to Sporotalea genus and Rhodocyclaceae family, while community U was mainly composed by bacteria related to Clostridium genus and Rhodocyclaceae family.

  10. Modelling of Two-Stage Anaerobic Treating Wastewater from a Molasses-Based Ethanol Distillery with the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittikhun Taruyanon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of ADM1 model to simulate the dynamic behaviour of a two-stage anaerobic treatment process treating the wastewater generated from the ethanol distillery process. The laboratory-scale process comprised an anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB connecting in series, was used to treat wastewater from the ethanol distillery process. The CSTR and UASB hydraulic retention times (HRT were 12 and 70 hours, respectively. The model was developed based on ADM1 basic structure and implemented with the simulation software AQUASIM. The simulated results were compared with measured data obtained from using the laboratory-scale two-stage anaerobic treatment process to treat wastewater. The sensitivity analysis identified maximum specific uptake rate (km and half-saturation constant (Ks of acetate degrader and sulfate reducing bacteria as the kinetic parameters which highly affected the process behaviour, which were further estimated. The study concluded that the model could predict the dynamic behaviour of a two-stage anaerobic treatment process treating the ethanol distillery process wastewater with varying strength of influents with reasonable accuracy.

  11. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and of Pu-EDTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xun, Luying

    2009-11-20

    The enhanced mobility of radionuclides by co-disposed chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), is likely to occur only under anaerobic conditions. Our extensive effort to enrich and isolate anaerobic EDTA-degrading bacteria has failed. Others has tried and also failed. To explain the lack of anaerobic biodegradation of EDTA, we proposed that EDTA has to be transported into the cells for metabolism. A failure of uptake may contribute to the lack of EDTA degradation under anaerobic conditions. We demonstrated that an aerobic EDTA-degrading bacterium strain BNC1 uses an ABC-type transporter system to uptake EDTA. The system has a periplasmic binding protein that bind EDTA and then interacts with membrane proteins to transport EDTA into the cell at the expense of ATP. The bind protein EppA binds only free EDTA with a Kd of 25 nM. The low Kd value indicates high affinity. However, the Kd value of Ni-EDTA is 2.4 x 10^(-10) nM, indicating much stronger stability. Since Ni and other trace metals are essential for anaerobic respiration, we conclude that the added EDTA sequestrates all trace metals and making anaerobic respiration impossible. Thus, the data explain the lack of anaerobic enrichment cultures for EDTA degradation. Although we did not obtain an EDTA degrading culture under anaerobic conditions, our finding may promote the use of certain metals that forms more stable metal-EDTA complexes than Pu(III)-EDTA to prevent the enhanced mobility. Further, our data explain why EDTA is the most dominant organic pollutant in surface waters, due to the lack of degradation of certain metal-EDTA complexes.

  12. Rhizosphere Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Feoktistova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The review deals with the analysis of modern literature data on rhizosphere bacteria and their role in plant life. The structure of rhizosphere has been characterized. The role of plants as the centers of formation of microbial communities has been shown. Data on the main groups of microorganisms inhabiting the rhizosphere have been provided. The associative relationship between rhizobacteria and partner plants has been investigated. The modern concept of holobiont defined as the whole host plant organism and microorganisms associated with it has been reviewed. The role of rhizobacteria in the processes of nitrogen fixation has been discussed in detail. The mechanisms of direct stimulation of plant growth by biosynthesis of phytohormones, improvement of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrition, increase in resistance to stress, and stimulation mediated by antagonism against pathogenic microorganisms have been analyzed. The criteria for selection of rhizobacteria for practical purposes have been discussed.

  13. Anaerobic waste water purification and biogas production in a pulsed bioreactor. Anaerobe Abwasserreinigung mit Biogasgewinnung in einem gepulsten Bioreaktor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, K.Y.

    1986-12-18

    The author's experiments were carried out in a novel type of bioreactor. In view of the advantages in the anaerobic process (high concentrations of biomass), the microorganisms were retained inside the bioreactor by fixation on a carrier. To avoid the problems otherwise encountered in bioreactors with fixed bacteria, in the pulsed bioreactor the block of foamed polymer carrying the bacteria is moved upwards and downwards in a single period at longer intervals of time. The reactor geometry and the pulsed movement assure a uniform and strong flow through the carrier material; gas bubbles are quickly removed from the bacterial surfaces and led out of the bioreactor, thus ensuring uniform bacterial supply and discharge. The biochemical conversion rate was determined using a highly burdened liquid filtrate waste. The conversion rate and gas productivity were found to be a function of the time of residue and room burden.

  14. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and Pu-EDTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, H., Jr.; Rai, D.; Xun, L.

    2005-04-18

    The complexation of radionuclides (e.g., plutonium (Pu) and {sup 60}Co) by codisposed ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) has enhanced their transport in sediments at DOE sites. Our previous NABIR research investigated the aerobic biodegradation and biogeochemistry of Pu(IV)-EDTA. Plutonium(IV) forms stable complexes with EDTA under aerobic conditions and an aerobic EDTA degrading bacterium can degrade EDTA in the presence of Pu and decrease Pu mobility. However, our recent studies indicate that while Pu(IV)-EDTA is stable in simple aqueous systems, it is not stable in the presence of relatively soluble Fe(III) compounds (i.e., Fe(OH){sub 3}(s)--2-line ferrihydrite). Since most DOE sites have Fe(III) containing sediments, Pu(IV) in likely not the mobile form of Pu-EDTA in groundwater. The only other Pu-EDTA complex stable in groundwater relevant to DOE sites would be Pu(III)-EDTA, which only forms under anaerobic conditions. Research is therefore needed in this brand new project to investigate the biotransformation of Pu and Pu-EDTA under anaerobic conditions. The biotransformation of Pu and Pu-EDTA under various anaerobic regimes is poorly understood including the reduction kinetics of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) from soluble (Pu(IV)-EDTA) and insoluble Pu(IV) as PuO2(am) by metal reducing bacteria, the redox conditions required for this reduction, the strength of the Pu(III)-EDTA complex, how the Pu(III)-EDTA complex competes with other dominant anoxic soluble metals (e.g., Fe(II)), and the oxidation kinetics of Pu(III)-EDTA. Finally, the formation of a stable soluble Pu(III)-EDTA complex under anaerobic conditions would require degradation of the EDTA complex to limit Pu(III) transport in geologic environments. Anaerobic EDTA degrading microorganisms have not been isolated. These knowledge gaps preclude the development of a mechanistic understanding of how anaerobic conditions will influence Pu and Pu-EDTA fate and transport to assess, model, and design approaches to stop

  15. Life at extreme limits: the anaerobic halophilic alkalithermophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, Noha M; Wiegel, Juergen

    2008-03-01

    The ability of anaerobic microorganisms to proliferate under extreme conditions is of widespread importance for microbial physiology, remediation, industry, and evolution. The halophilic alkalithermophiles are a novel group of polyextremophiles. Tolerance to alkaline pH, elevated NaCl concentrations, and high temperatures necessitates mechanisms for cytoplasmic pH acidification; permeability control of the cell membrane; and stability of proteins, the cell wall, and other cellular constituents to multiple extreme conditions. Although it is generally assumed that extremophiles growing at more than one extreme combine adaptive mechanisms for each individual extreme, adaptations for individual extremes often counteract each other. However, in alkaline, hypersaline niches heated via intense solar irradiation, culture-independent analyses have revealed the presence of an extensive diversity of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms belonging to Bacteria and Archaea that survive and grow under multiple harsh conditions. Thus, polyextremophiles must have developed novel adaptive strategies enabling them to grow and proliferate under multiple extreme conditions. The recent isolation of two novel anaerobic, halophilic alkalithermophiles, Natranaerobius thermophilus and Halonatronum saccharophilum, will provide a platform for detailed biochemical, genomic, and proteomic experiments, allowing a greater understanding of the novel adaptive mechanisms undoubtedly employed by polyextremophiles. In this review, we highlight growth characteristics, ecology, and phylogeny of the anaerobic halophilic alkalithermophiles isolated. We also describe the bioenergetic and physiological problems posed by growth at the multiple extreme conditions of alkaline pH, high NaCl concentration, and elevated temperature under anoxic conditions and highlight recent findings and unresolved problems regarding adaptation to multiple extreme conditions.

  16. Anaerobic Bacteremia: Impact of Inappropriate Therapy on Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yangsoon; Park, Yongjung; Kim, Myungsook; Choi, Jun Yong; Yong, Dongeun; Jeong, Seok Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Investigation on incidence and mortality of anaerobic bacteremia (AB) is clinically relevant in spite of its infrequent occurrence and not often explored, which report varies according to period and institutions. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the incidence and risk factors related to mortality and assess clinical outcomes of AB in current aspect. Materials and Methods Characteristics of AB patients and anaerobic bacteria from blood culture at a university hospital in 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. The correlation between risk factors and 28-day patient mortality was analyzed. Results A total of 70 non-duplicated anaerobic bacteria were isolated from blood of 70 bacteremia patients in 2012. The history of cardiovascular disease as host's risk factor was statistically significant (P = 0.0344) in univariate and multivariate analysis. Although the inappropriate therapy was not statistically significant in univariate and multivariate analysis, the survival rate of bacteremia was significantly worse in patients who had inappropriate therapy compared with those underwent appropriate therapy (hazard ratio, 5.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.7–6.9; P = 0.004). The most frequently isolated organism was Bacteroides fragilis (32 isolates, 46%), followed by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (10, 14%), and non-perfringens Clostridium (7, 10%). Conclusion The incidence of AB in 2012 was 2.3% (number of AB patients per 100 positive blood culture patients) and the mortality rate in patients with clinically significant AB was 21.4%. In addition, AB was frequently noted in patients having malignancy and the survival rate of AB was significantly worse in patients who received inappropriate therapy compared with those underwent appropriate therapy. PMID:27433379

  17. A regulating method for the distribution of phosphorus fractions based on environmental parameters related to the key phosphate-solubilizing bacteria during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuquan; Wei, Zimin; Cao, Zhenyu; Zhao, Yue; Zhao, Xinyu; Lu, Qian; Wang, Xueqin; Zhang, Xu

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to assess the abundance, incidence and diversity of the culturable phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) community during different organic wastes composting. The key PSB affecting different phosphorus (P) fractions and their relationship with environmental variables were analyzed by redundancy analysis (RDA). The results showed that there were distinct differences in amounts, incidence and community composition of PSB for the composts from different sources. Regression analysis demonstrated significant corrections between the density and incidence of PSB and pH, temperature, OM and DOC/DON. Most of culturable PSB showed high percentages of identity with the phyla of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. There were thirteen key PSB correlated closely (pcomposting based on the relationship between the key PSB and P fractions as well as environmental parameters.

  18. Model-Based Feasibility Assessment of Membrane Biofilm Reactor to Achieve Simultaneous Ammonium, Dissolved Methane, and Sulfide Removal from Anaerobic Digestion Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueming; Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) is proposed to achieve simultaneous removal of ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide from main-stream and side-stream anaerobic digestion liquors. To avoid dissolved methane stripping, oxygen is introduced through gas-permeable membranes, which also from the substratum for the growth of a biofilm likely comprising ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB), anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) bacteria, denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) microorganisms, aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB), and sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB). A mathematical model is developed and applied to assess the feasibility of such a system and the associated microbial community structure under different operational conditions. The simulation studies demonstrate the feasibility of achieving high-level (>97.0%), simultaneous removal of ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide in the MBfRs from both main-stream and side-stream anaerobic digestion liquors through adjusting the influent surface loading (or hydraulic retention time (HRT)) and the oxygen surface loading. The optimal HRT was found to be inversely proportional to the corresponding oxygen surface loading. Under the optimal operational conditions, AOB, DAMO bacteria, MOB, and SOB dominate the biofilm of the main-stream MBfR, while AOB, Anammox bacteria, DAMO bacteria, and SOB coexist in the side-stream MBfR to remove ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide simultaneously.

  19. Programmed survival of soil bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Molin, Søren; Sternberg, Claus

    Biological containment systems have been developed for Pseudomonas putida and related soil bacteria. The systems are based on combinations of lethal genes and regulated gene expression. Two types of killing function have been employed: 1) A membrane protein interfering with the membrane potential...

  20. Anaerobically Grown Escherichia coli Has an Enhanced Mutation Rate and Distinct Mutational Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewaramani, Sonal; Finn, Thomas J.; Kassen, Rees; Rainey, Paul B.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major cause of mutation but little is known about how growth in the absence of oxygen impacts the rate and spectrum of mutations. We employed long-term mutation accumulation experiments to directly measure the rates and spectra of spontaneous mutation events in Escherichia coli populations propagated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. To detect mutations, whole genome sequencing was coupled with methods of analysis sufficient to identify a broad range of mutational classes, including structural variants (SVs) generated by movement of repetitive elements. The anaerobically grown populations displayed a mutation rate nearly twice that of the aerobic populations, showed distinct asymmetric mutational strand biases, and greater insertion element activity. Consistent with mutation rate and spectra observations, genes for transposition and recombination repair associated with SVs were up-regulated during anaerobic growth. Together, these results define differences in mutational spectra affecting the evolution of facultative anaerobes. PMID:28103245

  1. Characterization of membrane foulants at ambient temperature anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating low-strength industrial wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarebska, Agata; Kjerstadius, Hamse; Petrinic, Irena

    2016-01-01

    with anaerobic biological treatment at low temperature could not only reduce the operational cost of AD, but also alleviate environmental problems. However, at low temperature the AnMBR may suffer more fouling due to the increased extracellular polymeric substances production excreted by bacteria hampering......The large volume of industrial low-strength wastewaters has a potential for biogas production through conventional anaerobic digestion (AD), limited though by the need of heating and concentrating of the wastewaters. The use of anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) combining membrane filtration...... the application of the process for the industrial wastewater treatment. In order to solve or reduce the fouling problem it is necessary to have a good insight into the processes that take place both on and in the membrane pores during filtration. Therefore, the objective of this study is to contribute to a better...

  2. Toxicity and biodegradability of olive mill wastewaters in batch anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdi, M. (Centre de Biotechnologie, Sfax (Tunisia) Universite de Provence, Marseille (France))

    1992-11-01

    The anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) were studied in batch anaerobic digestion experiments. Anaerobic digestion of OMW or the supernatant of its centrifugation, the methane production was achieved at up to 5-15% (V/V) dilution corresponding to only 5-20 g/L COD. The washed suspended solids of OMW were toxic at up to 80 g/L COD; however, the kinetic of biodegradability of OMW or the supernatant was faster than for suspended solids, which are constituted mealy of cellulose and lignin. The darkly colored polyphenols induce the problem of biodegradation of OMW, whereas the long chain fatty acids (LCFA), tannins and simple phenolic compounds are responsible for its toxicity for methanogenic bacteria. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Decrease in anaerobe-related bacteraemias and increase in Bacteroides species isolation rate from 1998 to 2007: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarovitch, Tsilia; Freimann, Sarit; Shapira, Galina; Blank, Helena

    2010-06-01

    Conflicting data have accumulated in recent years regarding the incidence of anaerobic bacteraemias. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacteraemias due to anaerobic bacteria and evaluate the importance of anaerobic blood cultures in a university hospital in Israel. A retrospective survey which focused on anaerobic blood culture bottles was performed on blood cultures received in our laboratory during the decade from January 1998 to December 2007. Anaerobic-related bacteraemias decreased during that period, whereas a significant increase was observed in Bacteroides species isolated from the blood cultures (from 18% during 1998-2002 to 43% during 2003-2007). Comparison of the medical records of 54 patients with Bacteroides-related bacteraemia during the two end periods (1998-1999 and 2006-2007) revealed a marked increase in complex underlying diseases. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus type II were found in 29% of the patients in 1998-1999 and increased to 43-45% of the patients in 2006-2007. Ischemic heart disease also increased from 14% of the patients in 1998-1999 to 43% in 2006-2007. We conclude that although positive anaerobic blood cultures account for a small percentage of positive blood samples, the growing involvement of Bacteroides species-related bacteraemias together with an increase in complex underlying diseases in these patients emphasize the importance of anaerobic blood cultures, particularly in patients with co-morbidities.

  4. Invasion of dentinal tubules by oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R M; Jenkinson, H F

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules commonly occurs when dentin is exposed following a breach in the integrity of the overlying enamel or cementum. Bacterial products diffuse through the dentinal tubule toward the pulp and evoke inflammatory changes in the pulpo-dentin complex. These may eliminate the bacterial insult and block the route of infection. Unchecked, invasion results in pulpitis and pulp necrosis, infection of the root canal system, and periapical disease. While several hundred bacterial species are known to inhabit the oral cavity, a relatively small and select group of bacteria is involved in the invasion of dentinal tubules and subsequent infection of the root canal space. Gram-positive organisms dominate the tubule microflora in both carious and non-carious dentin. The relatively high numbers of obligate anaerobes present-such as Eubacterium spp., Propionibacterium spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Peptostreptococcus micros, and Veillonella spp.-suggest that the environment favors growth of these bacteria. Gram-negative obligate anaerobic rods, e.g., Porphyromonas spp., are less frequently recovered. Streptococci are among the most commonly identified bacteria that invade dentin. Recent evidence suggests that streptococci may recognize components present within dentinal tubules, such as collagen type I, which stimulate bacterial adhesion and intra-tubular growth. Specific interactions of other oral bacteria with invading streptococci may then facilitate the invasion of dentin by select bacterial groupings. An understanding the mechanisms involved in dentinal tubule invasion by bacteria should allow for the development of new control strategies, such as inhibitory compounds incorporated into oral health care products or dental materials, which would assist in the practice of endodontics.

  5. Use of the Lactococcal nisA Promoter To Regulate Gene Expression in Gram-Positive Bacteria : Comparison of Induction Level and Promoter Strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichenbaum, Zehava; Federle, Michael J.; Marra, Diana; Vos, Willem M. de; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Scott, June R.

    1998-01-01

    We characterized the regulated activity of the lactococcal nisA promoter in strains of the gram-positive species Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacillus subtilis. nisA promoter activity was dependent on the proteins NisR and Nis

  6. Beneficial bacteria inhibit cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varian, Bernard J; Goureshetti, Sravya; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Lakritz, Jessica R; Levkovich, Tatiana; Kwok, Caitlin; Teliousis, Konstantinos; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Mirabal, Sheyla; Erdman, Susan E

    2016-03-15

    Muscle wasting, known as cachexia, is a debilitating condition associated with chronic inflammation such as during cancer. Beneficial microbes have been shown to optimize systemic inflammatory tone during good health; however, interactions between microbes and host immunity in the context of cachexia are incompletely understood. Here we use mouse models to test roles for bacteria in muscle wasting syndromes. We find that feeding of a human commensal microbe, Lactobacillus reuteri, to mice is sufficient to lower systemic indices of inflammation and inhibit cachexia. Further, the microbial muscle-building phenomenon extends to normal aging as wild type animals exhibited increased growth hormone levels and up-regulation of transcription factor Forkhead Box N1 [FoxN1] associated with thymus gland retention and longevity. Interestingly, mice with a defective FoxN1 gene (athymic nude) fail to inhibit sarcopenia after L. reuteri therapy, indicating a FoxN1-mediated mechanism. In conclusion, symbiotic bacteria may serve to stimulate FoxN1 and thymic functions that regulate inflammation, offering possible alternatives for cachexia prevention and novel insights into roles for microbiota in mammalian ontogeny and phylogeny.

  7. Relationships between anaerobic consortia and removal efficiencies in an UASB reactor degrading 2,4 dichlorophenol (DCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Cigal, Canan

    2008-04-01

    To gain more insight into the interactions between anaerobic bacteria and reactor performances (chemical oxygen demand-COD, 2,4 dichlorophenol-2,4 DCP removals, volatile fatty acid-VFA, and methane gas productions) and how they depended on operational conditions the microbial variations in the anaerobic granular sludge from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating 2,4 DCP was studied. The study was composed of two parts. In the first part, the numbers of methanogens and acedogens in the anaerobic granular sludge were counted at different COD removal efficiencies. The relationships between the numbers of methanogens, the methane gas production and VFA production were investigated. The COD removal efficiencies increased to 74% from 30% while the number of total acedogens decreased to 10 from 30 cfu ml(-1). The number of total methanogens and acedogens varied between 11 x 10(3) and 10 x 10(9)MPN g(-1) and 10 and 30 cfu ml(-1) as the 2,4 DCP removal efficiencies were obtained between 60% and 99%, respectively. It was seen that, as the number of total acedogens decreased, the COD removal efficiencies increased. However, the number of total methanogens increased as the COD removal efficiencies increased. Correlations between the bacterial number and with the removal efficiencies obtained in different operational conditions were investigated. From the results presented in this paper a high correlation between the number of bacteria, COD removals, methane gas percentage, 2,4 DCP removals and VFA was observed. In the second part, methanogen bacteria in the anaerobic granular sludge were identified. Microbial observations and biochemical tests were applied to identify the anaerobic microorganisms from the anaerobic granular sludge. In the reactor treating 2,4 DCP, Methanobacterium bryantii, Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanococcus voltae, Methanosarcina mazei, Methanosarcina acetivorans, Methanogenium bourgense and

  8. Properties of cellulose micro/nanofibers obtained from eucalyptus pulp fiber treated with anaerobic digestate and high shear mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    High production costs remain the single greatest factor limiting wider use of cellulose micro/nanofibers in the industry. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential of using a low-cost bacteria-rich digestate (liquid anaerobic digestate – AD supernatant) on milled eucalyptus...

  9. Medium factors on anaerobic production of rhamnolipids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa SG and a simplifying medium for in situ microbial enhanced oil recovery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Jidong; Han, Siqin; Ma, Fang; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Aerobic production of rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was extensively studied. But effect of medium composition on anaerobic production of rhamnolipid by P. aeruginosa was unknown. A simplifying medium facilitating anaerobic production of rhamnolipid is urgently needed for in situ microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Medium factors affecting anaerobic production of rhamnolipid were investigated using P. aeruginosa SG (Genbank accession number KJ995745). Medium composition for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid by P. aeruginosa is different from that for aerobic production of rhamnolipid. Both hydrophobic substrate and organic nitrogen inhibited rhamnolipid production under anaerobic conditions. Glycerol and nitrate were the best carbon and nitrogen source. The commonly used N limitation under aerobic conditions was not conducive to rhamnolipid production under anaerobic conditions because the initial cell growth demanded enough nitrate for anaerobic respiration. But rhamnolipid was also fast accumulated under nitrogen starvation conditions. Sufficient phosphate was needed for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. SO4(2-) and Mg(2+) are required for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. Results will contribute to isolation bacteria strains which can anaerobically produce rhamnolipid and medium optimization for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. Based on medium optimization by response surface methodology and ions composition of reservoir formation water, a simplifying medium containing 70.3 g/l glycerol, 5.25 g/l NaNO3, 5.49 g/l KH2PO4, 6.9 g/l K2HPO4·3H2O and 0.40 g/l MgSO4 was designed. Using the simplifying medium, 630 mg/l of rhamnolipid was produced by SG, and the anaerobic culture emulsified crude oil to EI24 = 82.5 %. The simplifying medium was promising for in situ MEOR applications.

  10. Molecular ecology of anaerobic reactor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H. Jacob Peider; Zheng, D.; Westermann, Peter;

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic reactor systems are essential for the treatment of solid and liquid wastes and constitute a core facility in many waste treatment plants. Although much is known about the basic metabolism in different types of anaerobic reactors, little is known about the microbes responsible...... to the abundance of each microbe in anaerobic reactor systems by rRNA probing. This chapter focuses on various molecular techniques employed and problems encountered when elucidating the microbial ecology of anaerobic reactor systems. Methods such as quantitative dot blot/fluorescence in-situ probing using various...

  11. Evaluation of a prereduced anaerobically sterilized medium (PRAS II) system for identification anaerobic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucage, C M; Onderdonk, A B

    1982-09-01

    A prereduced, anaerobically sterilized system of tubed media (PRAS II; Scott Laboratories, Fiskeville, R.I.) was evaluated for accuracy in the identification of anerobic microorganisms. PRAS II was found to be a rapid and accurate identification system for obligate anaerobes which does not require the use of gas cannula inoculation or incubation in a special anaerobic environment.

  12. Evaluation of a prereduced anaerobically sterilized medium (PRAS II) system for identification anaerobic microorganisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Beaucage, C M; Onderdonk, A B

    1982-01-01

    A prereduced, anaerobically sterilized system of tubed media (PRAS II; Scott Laboratories, Fiskeville, R.I.) was evaluated for accuracy in the identification of anerobic microorganisms. PRAS II was found to be a rapid and accurate identification system for obligate anaerobes which does not require the use of gas cannula inoculation or incubation in a special anaerobic environment.

  13. Antarctic strict anaerobic microbiota from Deschampsia antarctica vascular plants rhizosphere reveals high ecology and biotechnology relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Rafael José Marques; Miranda, Karla Rodrigues; Lobo, Leandro Araujo; Granato, Alessandra; de Carvalho Maalouf, Pedro; de Jesus, Hugo Emiliano; Rachid, Caio T C C; Moraes, Saulo Roni; Dos Santos, Henrique Fragoso; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Domingues, Regina Maria Cavalcanti Pilotto

    2016-11-01

    The Antarctic soil microbial community has a crucial role in the growth and stabilization of higher organisms, such as vascular plants. Analysis of the soil microbiota composition in that extreme environmental condition is crucial to understand the ecological importance and biotechnological potential. We evaluated the efficiency of isolation and abundance of strict anaerobes in the vascular plant Deschampsia antarctica rhizosphere collected in the Antarctic's Admiralty Bay and associated biodiversity to metabolic perspective and enzymatic activity. Using anaerobic cultivation methods, we identified and isolated a range of microbial taxa whose abundance was associated with Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) and presences were exclusively endemic to the Antarctic continent. Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum (73 %), with the genus Clostridium found as the most isolated taxa. Here, we describe two soil treatments (oxygen gradient and heat shock) and 27 physicochemical culture conditions were able to increase the diversity of anaerobic bacteria isolates. Heat shock treatment allowed to isolate a high percentage of new species (63.63 %), as well as isolation of species with high enzymatic activity (80.77 %), which would have potential industry application. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the role of anaerobic microbes regarding ecology, evolutionary, and biotechnological features essential to the Antarctic ecosystem.

  14. Study of the role of anaerobic metabolism in succinate production by Enterobacter aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Yoshinori; Kaida, Kenichi; Hayakawa, Atsushi; Fukui, Keita; Nishio, Yousuke; Hashiguchi, Kenichi; Fudou, Ryosuke; Matsui, Kazuhiko; Usuda, Yoshihiro; Sode, Koji

    2014-09-01

    Succinate is a core biochemical building block; optimizing succinate production from biomass by microbial fermentation is a focus of basic and applied biotechnology research. Lowering pH in anaerobic succinate fermentation culture is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach to reducing the use of sub-raw materials such as alkali, which are needed for neutralization. To evaluate the potential of bacteria-based succinate fermentation under weak acidic (pH Enterobacter aerogenes AJ110637, which rapidly assimilates glucose at pH 5.0. Based on the profile of anaerobic products, we constructed single-gene knockout mutants to eliminate the main anaerobic metabolic pathways involved in NADH re-oxidation. These single-gene knockout studies showed that the ethanol synthesis pathway serves as the dominant NADH re-oxidation pathway in this organism. To generate a metabolically engineered strain for succinate production, we eliminated ethanol formation and introduced a heterogeneous carboxylation enzyme, yielding E. aerogenes strain ΔadhE/PCK. The strain produced succinate from glucose with a 60.5% yield (grams of succinate produced per gram of glucose consumed) at pH <6.2 and anaerobic conditions. Thus, we showed the potential of bacteria-based succinate fermentation under weak acidic conditions.

  15. Bacterial community composition and abundance in leachate of semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Bo Yue; Qi Wang; Zechun Huang; Qifei Huang; Zengqiang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The abundance and phylogenetic composition of bacterial community in leachate of semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfill were compared through real-time polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.In semi-aerobic landfill scenario,the bacterial 16S rRNA copy numbers in leachate had no significant reduction from initial stage to stable period.In the scenario of anaerobic landfill,the largest bacterial 16S rRNA gene copy number was found in leachate at initial stage,but it reduced significantly at stable period.Moreover,methane-oxidizing bacteria population in stable period was lower than that in initial period in both two landfill processes.However,semi-aerobic landfill leachate had more methanotrophic bacteria populations than that in the anaerobic one.Furthermore,according to the sequences and phylogenetic analysis,obvious difference could be detected in bacterial community composition in different scenarios.Proteobacteria and bacteroidetes took up a dominantly higher proportion in semi-aerobic landfill leachate.To summarize up,different landfill methods and its landfill ages had crucial impacts on bacterial abundance and composition in leachate of semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfills.

  16. Effect of thermal hydrolysis and ultrasounds pretreatments on foaming in anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, N; Cano, R; Fdz-Polanco, F

    2014-10-01

    Foam appears regularly in anaerobic digesters producing operational and safety problems. In this research, based on the operational observation at semi-industrial pilot scale where sludge pretreatment mitigated foaming in anaerobic digesters, this study aimed at evaluating any potential relationship between foaming tools applied to activated sludge at lab-scale (foam potential, foam stability and Microthrix parvicella abundance) and the experimental behavior observed in pilot scale and full-scale anaerobic digesters. The potential of thermal hydrolysis and ultrasounds for reducing foaming capacity was also evaluated. Filamentous bacteria abundance was directly linked to foaming capacity in anaerobic processes. A maximum reduction of M.parvicella abundance (from 5 to 2) was reached using thermal hydrolysis with steam explosion at 170°C and ultrasounds at 66.7kWh/m(3), showing both good anti-foaming properties. On the other hand, foam potential and stability determinations showed a lack of consistency with the bacteria abundance results and experimental evidences.

  17. Azoarcus sp. CIB, an anaerobic biodegrader of aromatic compounds shows an endophytic lifestyle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Fernández

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endophytic bacteria that have plant growth promoting traits are of great interest in green biotechnology. The previous thought that the Azoarcus genus comprises bacteria that fit into one of two major eco-physiological groups, either free-living anaerobic biodegraders of aromatic compounds or obligate endophytes unable to degrade aromatics under anaerobic conditions, is revisited here. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Light, confocal and electron microscopy reveal that Azoarcus sp. CIB, a facultative anaerobe β-proteobacterium able to degrade aromatic hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions, is also able to colonize the intercellular spaces of the rice roots. In addition, the strain CIB displays plant growth promoting traits such nitrogen fixation, uptake of insoluble phosphorus and production of indoleacetic acid. Therefore, this work demonstrates by the first time that a free-living bacterium able to degrade aromatic compounds under aerobic and anoxic conditions can share also an endophytic lifestyle. The phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rDNA and nifH genes confirmed that obligate endophytes of the Azoarcus genus and facultative endophytes, such as Azoarcus sp. CIB, locate into different evolutionary branches. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of a bacterium, Azoarcus sp. CIB, able to degrade anaerobically a significant number of aromatic compounds, some of them of great environmental concern, and to colonize the rice as a facultative endophyte. Thus, Azoarcus sp. CIB becomes a suitable candidate for a more sustainable agricultural practice and phytoremediation technology.

  18. Thermophilic fermentative bacteria from a deep borehole in granitic rock in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewzyk, Ulrich; Szewzyk, Regine; Stenstroem, Thor-Axel

    1997-07-01

    A borehole drilled to a final depth of 6779 m in granitic rock in Gravberg, Sweden, was sampled and examined for the presence and activity of anaerobic bacteria. The application of anaerobic enrichment and isolation techniques resulted in pure cultures of various fermenting bacteria. Growth in enrichment cultures was observed only in those cultures inoculated from water samples from a depth of 3500 m. Pure cultures of anaerobic, fermenting bacteria were obtained with the following substrates: glucose, starch, xylane, ethanol, and lactate. All isolated bacteria were so far undiscribed bacteria by means of their physiological properties. One strain of the glucose fermenting bacteria was further characterized concerning its phylogenetic position and was found to be closest related to Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum. However, by means of its characteristic metabolism, it was clearly separated from C. thermohydrosulfuricum. No sulfate-reducing or methanogenic bacteria were found in any of the samples. Fermentative bacteria growing in the presence of hematite often reduced the iron and induced the formation and deposition of insoluble iron sulfides.

  19. Ternary complex formation between AmtB, GlnZ and the nitrogenase regulatory enzyme DraG reveals a novel facet of nitrogen regulation in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huergo, Luciano F; Merrick, Mike; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Chubatsu, Leda S; Araujo, Luíza M; Souza, Emanuel M

    2007-12-01

    Ammonium movement across biological membranes is facilitated by a class of ubiquitous channel proteins from the Amt/Rh family. Amt proteins have also been implicated in cellular responses to ammonium availability in many organisms. Ammonium sensing by Amt in bacteria is mediated by complex formation with cytosolic proteins of the P(II) family. In this study we have characterized in vitro complex formation between the AmtB and P(II) proteins (GlnB and GlnZ) from the diazotrophic plant-associative bacterium Azospirillum brasilense. AmtB-P(II) complex formation only occurred in the presence of adenine nucleotides and was sensitive to 2-oxoglutarate when Mg(2+) and ATP were present, but not when ATP was substituted by ADP. We have also shown in vitro complex formation between GlnZ and the nitrogenase regulatory enzyme DraG, which was stimulated by ADP. The stoichiometry of this complex was 1:1 (DraG monomer : GlnZ trimer). We have previously reported that in vivo high levels of extracellular ammonium cause DraG to be sequestered to the cell membrane in an AmtB and GlnZ-dependent manner. We now report the reconstitution of a ternary complex involving AmtB, GlnZ and DraG in vitro. Sequestration of a regulatory protein by the membrane-bound AmtB-P(II) complex defines a new regulatory role for Amt proteins in Prokaryotes.

  20. Zero valent iron simultaneously enhances methane production and sulfate reduction in anaerobic granular sludge reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Yaobin; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-05-15

    Zero valent iron (ZVI) packed anaerobic granular sludge reactors have been developed for improved anaerobic wastewater treatment. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to describe the enhanced methane production and sulfate reduction in anaerobic granular sludge reactors with the addition of ZVI. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using long-term experimental data sets from two independent ZVI-enhanced anaerobic granular sludge reactors with different operational conditions. The model satisfactorily describes the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, sulfate reduction and methane production data from both systems. Results show ZVI directly promotes propionate degradation and methanogenesis to enhance methane production. Simultaneously, ZVI alleviates the inhibition of un-dissociated H2S on acetogens, methanogens and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) through buffering pH (Fe(0) + 2H(+) = Fe(2+) + H2) and iron sulfide precipitation, which improve the sulfate reduction capacity, especially under deterioration conditions. In addition, the enhancement of ZVI on methane production and sulfate reduction occurs mainly at relatively low COD/ [Formula: see text] ratio (e.g., 2-4.5) rather than high COD/ [Formula: see text] ratio (e.g., 16.7) compared to the reactor without ZVI addition. The model proposed in this work is expected to provide support for further development of a more efficient ZVI-based anaerobic granular system.

  1. Degradation of TCE using sequential anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapatwala, Kirit D.; Babu, G. R. V.; Baresi, Larry; Trunzo, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    Bacteria capable of degrading trichloroethylene (TCE) were isolated from contaminated wastewaters and soil sites. The aerobic cultures were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (four species) and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The optimal conditions for the growth of aerobic cultures were determined. The minimal inhibitory concentration values of TCE for Pseudomonas sps. were also determined. The aerobic cells were immobilized in calcium alginate in the form of beads. Degradation of TCE by the anaerobic and dichloroethylene (DCE) by aerobic cultures was studied using dual reactors - anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor. The minimal mineral salt (MMS) medium saturated with TCE was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the anaerobic reactor. The MMS medium saturated with DCE and supplemented with xylenes and toluene (3 ppm each) was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the fluidized air-uplift-type reactor containing the immobilized aerobic cells. The concentrations of TCE and DCE and the metabolites formed during their degradation by the anaerobic and aerobic cultures were monitored by GC. The preliminary study suggests that the anaerobic and aerobic cultures of our isolates can degrade TCE and DCE.

  2. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati, E-mail: suparnirahayu@yahoo.co.id [Doctoral Program in Environmental Science, University of Diponegoro, Semarang (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Polytechnic of Semarang, Semarang Indonesia (Indonesia); Purwanto,, E-mail: p.purwanto@che.undip.ac.id; Budiyono, E-mail: budiyono@live.undip.ac.id [Doctoral Program in Environmental Science, University of Diponegoro, Semarang (Indonesia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University, Semarang Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH{sub 4}/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH{sub 4}: 81.23% and CO{sub 2}: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  3. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH4/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH4: 81.23% and CO2: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  4. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by pretreatment: effect of volatile to total solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Duan, Xu; Chen, Jianguang; Fang, Kuo; Feng, Leiyu; Yan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effect of volatile to total solids (VS/TS) on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) pretreated by alkaline, thermal and thermal-alkaline strategies was studied. Experimental results showed that the production of methane from sludge was increased with VS/TS. When anaerobic digesters were fed with sludge pretreated by the thermal-alkaline method, the average methane yield was improved from 2.8 L/d at VS/TS 0.35 to 4.7 L/d at VS/TS 0.56. Also, the efficiency of VS reduction during sludge anaerobic digestion varied between 18.9% and 45.6%, and increased gradually with VS/TS. Mechanism investigation of VS/TS on WAS anaerobic digestion suggested that the general activities of anaerobic microorganisms, activities of key enzymes related to sludge hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis, and the ratio of Archaea to Bacteria were all increased with VS/TS, showing good agreement with methane production.

  5. Diversity of Cultured Thermophilic Anaerobes in Hot Springs of Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L.; Lu, Y.; Dong, X.; Liu, X.; Wei, Y.; Ji, X.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Thermophilic anaerobes including Archaea and Bacteria refer to those growing optimally at temperatures above 50°C and do not use oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor for growth. Study on thermophilic anaerobes will help to understand how life thrives under extreme conditions. Meanwhile thermophilic anaerobes are of importance in potential application and development of thermophilic biotechnology. We have surveyed culturable thermophilic anaerobes in hot springs (pH6.5-7.5; 70 - 94°C) in Rehai of Tengchong, Bangnazhang of Longlin, Eryuan of Dali,Yunnan, China. 50 strains in total were cultured from the hot springs water using Hungate anaerobic technique, and 30 strains were selected based on phenotypic diversity for analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 28 strains belonged to the members of five genera: Caldanaerobacter, Calaramator, Thermoanaerobacter, Dictyoglomus and Fervidobacterium, which formed five branches on the phylogenetic tree. Besides, 2 strains of methanogenic archaea were obtained. The majority of the isolates were the known species, however, seven strains were identified as novel species affiliated to the five genera based on the lower 16S rDNA sequence similarities (less than 93 - 97%) with the described species. This work would provide the future study on their diversity, distribution among different regions and the potential application of thermophilic enzyme. Supported by State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences(SKLMR-080605)and the Foundation of State Natural Science (30660009, 30960022, 31081220175).

  6. Factors regulating community composition of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria in brackish marsh sediments in the Min River estuary, southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, C. X.; Zhang, Z. C.; Cadillo-Quiroz, H.; Tong, C.

    2016-11-01

    Assessing the diverse communities of methanogenic Archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is important to understand methane (CH4) production in wetland ecosystems. However, the vertical distribution of composition and diversity, and the effects of environmental factors on the methanogen and SRB communities in the sediments of subtropical estuarine brackish marshes have been poorly characterized. To assess the effects of variable environmental conditions on methanogenic and SRB communities in marshes, we studied three brackish marsh zones dominated by Phragmites australis, Cyperus malaccensis and Spartina alterniflora, respectively, in the Min River estuary, southeastern China. Methanogens of the Methanomicrobiales order was the dominant group at sediment depths of 0-30 cm, which indicated that the main pathway of methane production was H2/CO2 in this zone. In general, methanogens of the genus Methanoregula were dominant in the three marsh zones. For SRB, Desulfobacterales was the dominant group, and Desulfobacterium and Desulfosarcina were the predominant genera at the depth of 0-30 cm. The community composition of methanogens and SRB changed with vegetation type and soil depth. Compared with SRB, vegetation type demonstrated a stronger influence on the community composition of methanogens. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) analysis further revealed that the main factors affecting the methanogens community composition were EC (electric conductivity) and pH, and the main factors affecting SRB community composition were pH, SOC and TN, suggesting that pH is a common factor influencing the community compositions of both methanogen and SRB in the sediments of brackish marshes.

  7. Performance of mesophilic anaerobic granules for removal of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An Chunjiang [Department of Environmental Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada); He Yanling [Department of Environmental Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Huang Guohe, E-mail: gordon.huang@uregina.ca [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada); Sino-Canada Research Academy of Energy and Environmental Studies, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Liu Yonghong [Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an Polytechnic University, Xi' an 710048 (China)

    2010-07-15

    The performance of mesophilic anaerobic granules to degrade octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) was investigated under various conditions. The results of batch experiments showed that anaerobic granules were capable of removing HMX from aqueous solution with high efficiency. Both biotic and abiotic mechanisms contributed to the removal of HMX by anaerobic granules under mesophilic conditions. Adsorption appeared to play a significant role in the abiotic process. Furthermore, HMX could be biodegraded by anaerobic granules as the sole substrate. After 16 days of incubation, 99.04% and 96.42% of total HMX could be removed by 1 g VSS/L acclimated and unacclimated granules, respectively. Vancomycin, an inhibitor of acetogenic bacteria, caused a significant inhibition of HMX biotransformation, while 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid, an inhibitor of methanogenic bacteria, only resulted in a slight decrease of metabolic activity. The presence of the glucose, as a suitable electron donor and carbon source, was found to enhance the degradation of HMX by anaerobic granules. Our study showed that sulfate had little adverse effects on biotransformation of HMX by anaerobic granules. However, nitrate had significant inhibitory effect on the extent of HMX removal especially in the initial period. This study offered good prospects of using high-rate anaerobic technology in the treatment of munition wastewater.

  8. [Aerobic and aero-anaerobic bacterial flora of the nasal cavities of lambs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menoueri, N; Richard, Y; Brunet, J; Oudar, J

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of bacteriological examinations carried out on 415 intranasal swabs, aerobic and aero-anaerobic respiratory microbes were studied in lambs. A great diversity of bacteria has been found (in total 35 bacterial species and genus have been identified). This flora is characterised by the presence of gram positive cocci with a gram negative strain included in genus Moraxella and connected with Moraxella bovis species.

  9. The physicochemical characteristics and anaerobic degradability of desiccated coconut industry waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanakya, H N; Khuntia, Himanshu Kumar; Mukherjee, Niranjan; Aniruddha, R; Mudakavi, J R; Thimmaraju, Preeti

    2015-12-01

    Desiccated coconut industries (DCI) create various intermediates from fresh coconut kernel for cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The mechanized and non-mechanized DCI process between 10,000 and 100,000 nuts/day to discharge 6-150 m(3) of malodorous waste water leading to a discharge of 264-6642 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) daily. In these units, three main types of waste water streams are coconut kernel water, kernel wash water and virgin oil waste water. The effluent streams contain lipids (1-55 g/l), suspended solids (6-80 g/l) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) at concentrations that are inhibitory to anaerobic bacteria. Coconut water contributes to 20-50% of the total volume and 50-60% of the total organic loads and causes higher inhibition of anaerobic bacteria with an initial lag phase of 30 days. The lagooning method of treatment widely adopted failed to appreciably treat the waste water and often led to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (propionic acid) along with long-chain unsaturated free fatty acids. Biogas generation during biological methane potential (BMP) assay required a 15-day adaptation time, and gas production occurred at low concentrations of coconut water while the other two streams did not appear to be inhibitory. The anaerobic bacteria can mineralize coconut lipids at concentrations of 175 mg/l; however; they are severely inhibited at a lipid level of ≥350 mg/g bacterial inoculum. The modified Gompertz model showed a good fit with the BMP data with a simple sigmoid pattern. However, it failed to fit experimental BMP data either possessing a longer lag phase and/or diauxic biogas production suggesting inhibition of anaerobic bacteria.

  10. Development of Electroactive and Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox Biofilms from Digestate in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enea Gino Di Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial Fuel cells (MFCs have been proposed for nutrient removal and energy recovery from different wastes. In this study the anaerobic digestate was used to feed H-type MFC reactors, one with a graphite anode preconditioned with Geobacter sulfurreducens and the other with an unconditioned graphite anode. The data demonstrate that the digestate acts as a carbon source, and even in the absence of anode preconditioning, electroactive bacteria colonise the anodic chamber, producing a maximum power density of 172.2 mW/m2. The carbon content was also reduced by up to 60%, while anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox bacteria, which were found in the anodic compartment of the reactors, contributed to nitrogen removal from the digestate. Overall, these results demonstrate that MFCs can be used to recover anammox bacteria from natural sources, and it may represent a promising bioremediation unit in anaerobic digestor plants for the simultaneous nitrogen removal and electricity generation using digestate as substrate.

  11. REGULATION OF INTESTINAL DYSBACTERIOSIS OF BURNED RATS BY MICROECOSYSTEM REGULATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of using synbiotics and probiotics to prevent and cure intestinal dysbacteriosis after burn. Methods Burned rats were fed with synbiotics and probiotics reagents, and the amounts of major intestinal florae in caecal contents were detected. Results The major physiological anaerobes were mostly stable, and the conditioned pathogens had no abnormal. Conclusion The micro-ecosystem regulator can quickly supplement the decreased physiological anaerobes caused by burning,and avoid the occurrence of dysbacteriosis.

  12. Carbon monoxide conversion by anaerobic bioreactor sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and 55degreesC
    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and

  13. Anaerobic critical velocity in four swimming techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, H P; Fernandes, R J; Vilas-Boas, J P

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess critical velocity in order to control and evaluate anaerobic swimming training. 51 highly trained male swimmers performed maximal 15, 25, 37.5 and 50 m in the 4 swimming techniques to determine critical velocity from the distance-time relationship. Anaerobic critical velocity was compared with 100 m swimming performance and corresponding partials. Complementarily, 9 swimmers performed a 6×50 m (4 min interval) training series at front crawl individual anaerobic critical velocity, capillary blood lactate concentrations being assessed after each repetition. The mean±SD values of anaerobic critical velocity and its relationship with the 100 m event were: 1.61±0.07 (r=0.60, p=0.037), 1.53±0.05 (r=0.81, p=0.015), 1.33±0.05 (r=0.83, p=0.002), and 1.75±0.05 (r=0.74, p=0.001), for butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke and front crawl, respectively. However, differences between anaerobic critical velocity and performance were observed (with exception of the second half of the 100 m swimming events in breaststroke and butterfly). Lactate concentration values at the end of the series were 14.52±1.06 mmol.l (-1), which suggests that it was indeed an anaerobic training set. In this sense, anaerobic critical velocity can be used to prescribe anaerobic training intensities.

  14. Integrated anaerobic and aerobic treatment of sewage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaijun Wang,

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes results of investigations dealing with sequential concept of anaerobic-aerobic treatment of municipal wastewater. The main purposes of the study were 1) to develop a proper anaerobic hydrolytic pretreatment unit, consisting of a Hydrolysis Upflow Sludge Bed (HUSB-) reactor and

  15. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Haagensen, Frank; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    increases during anaerobic stabilization due to transformation of easily degradable organic matter. Hence, LAS is regarded as resistant to biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. We present data from a lab-scale semi-continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) spiked with linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C...

  16. Prospects of Anaerobic Digestion Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As the world's largest developing country, China must face the problem of managing municipal solid waste, and the challenge of organic waste disposal is even more serious. Considering the characteristics of traditional waste disposal technologies and the subsequent secondary pollution, anaerobic digestion has various advantages such as reduction in the land needed for disposal and preservation of environmental quality. In light of the energy crisis, this paper focuses on the potential production of biogas from biowaste through anaerobic digestion processes, the problems incurred by the waste collection system, and the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. Use of biogas in a combined heat and power cogeneration system is also discussed. Finally, the advantages of anaerobic digestion technology for the Chinese market are summarized. The anaerobic digestion is suggested to be a promising treating technology for the organic wastes in China.

  17. Toxicants inhibiting anaerobic digestion: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian Lin; Ortiz, Raphael; Steele, Terry W J; Stuckey, David C

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion is increasingly being used to treat wastes from many sources because of its manifold advantages over aerobic treatment, e.g. low sludge production and low energy requirements. However, anaerobic digestion is sensitive to toxicants, and a wide range of compounds can inhibit the process and cause upset or failure. Substantial research has been carried out over the years to identify specific inhibitors/toxicants, and their mechanism of toxicity in anaerobic digestion. In this review we present a detailed and critical summary of research on the inhibition of anaerobic processes by specific organic toxicants (e.g., chlorophenols, halogenated aliphatics and long chain fatty acids), inorganic toxicants (e.g., ammonia, sulfide and heavy metals) and in particular, nanomaterials, focusing on the mechanism of their inhibition/toxicity. A better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms behind inhibition/toxicity will enhance the wider application of anaerobic digestion.

  18. Chemical communication in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suravajhala, Srinivasa Sandeep; Saini, Deepak; Nott, Prabhu

    Luminescence in Vibrio fischeri is a model for quorum-sensing-gene-regulation in bacteria. We study luminescence response of V. fischeri to both internal and external cues at the single cell and population level. Experiments with ES114, a wild-type strain, and ainS mutant show that luminescence induction in cultures is not always proportional to cell-density and there is always a basal level of luminescence. At any given concentration of the exogenously added signals, C6-HSL and C8-HSL, luminescence per cell reaches a maximum during the exponential phase and decreases thereafter. We hypothesize that (1) C6-HSL production and LuxR activity are not proportional to cell-density, and (2) there is a shift in equilibrium from C6-HSL to C8-HSL during the later stages of growth of the culture. RT-PCR analysis of luxI and luxR shows that the expression of these genes is maximum corresponding to the highest level of luminescence. The shift in equilibrium is shown by studying competitive binding of C6-HSL and C8-HSL to LuxR. We argue that luminescence is a unicellular behaviour, and an intensive property like per cell luminescence is more important than gross luminescence of the population in understanding response of bacteria to chemical signalling. Funding from the Department of Science and Technology, India is acknowledged.

  19. Enzymes involved in the anaerobic oxidation of n-alkanes: from methane to long-chain paraffins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy V. Callaghan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic microorganisms play key roles in the biogeochemical cycling of methane and non-methane alkanes. To date, there appear to be at least three proposed mechanisms of anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM. The first pathway is mediated by consortia of archaeal anaerobic methane oxidizers and sulfate-reducing bacteria via ‘reverse methanogenesis’ and is catalyzed by a homologue of methyl-coenzyme M reductase. The second pathway is also mediated by anaerobic methane oxidizers and sulfate-reducing bacteria, wherein the archaeal members catalyze both methane oxidation and sulfate reduction and zero-valent sulfur is a key intermediate. The third AOM mechanism is a nitrite-dependent, intra-aerobic pathway described for the denitrifying bacterium, ‘Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera.’ It is hypothesized that AOM proceeds via reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide, followed by the conversion of two nitric oxide molecules to dinitrogen and molecular oxygen. The latter can be used to functionalize the methane via a particulate methane monooxygenase. With respect to non-methane alkanes, there also appears to be novel mechanisms of activation. The most well-described pathway is the addition of non-methane alkanes across the double bond of fumarate to form alkyl-substituted succinates via the putative glycyl radical enzyme, alkylsuccinate synthase (also known as methylalkylsuccinate synthase. Other proposed mechanisms include anaerobic hydroxylation via ethylbenzene dehydrogenase-like enzymes and an ‘intra-aerobic’ denitrification pathway similar to that described for ‘M. oxyfera.’

  20. Massive nitrogen loss from the Benguela upwelling system through anaerobic ammonium oxidation RID B-8834-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuypers, MMM; Lavik, G.; Woebken, D.;

    2005-01-01

    ) and is commonly attributed to denitrification (reduction of nitrate to N-2 by heterotrophic bacteria). Here, we show that instead, the anammox process (the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium by nitrite to yield N-2) is mainly responsible for nitrogen loss in the OMZ waters of one of the most productive regions...... that anammox bacteria are responsible for massive losses of fixed nitrogen. We have identified and directly linked anammox bacteria to the removal of fixed inorganic nitrogen in the OMZ waters of an open-ocean setting. We hypothesize that anammox could also be responsible for substantial nitrogen loss from...... other OMZ waters of the ocean....

  1. The inhibition of Clostridium botulinum type C by other bacteria in wetland sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Renee J.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Yuill, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    Bacteria with inhibitory activity against Clostridium botulinum type C were isolated from 32% of sediment samples (n = 1600) collected from 10 marshes in a northern California wetland over a 12 mo period. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria with inhibitory activity were isolated from 12% and 23% of the samples, respectively. Bacteria with inhibitory activity were isolated from all 10 study sites and throughout the year. This study demonstrates that bacteria with inhibitory activity against C. botulinum type C occur naturally in wetland sediments.

  2. Bioinspired anchoring AgNPs onto micro-nanoporous TiO2 orthopedic coatings: Trap-killing of bacteria, surface-regulated osteoblast functions and host responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhaojun; Xiu, Peng; Li, Ming; Xu, Xuchen; Shi, Yuying; Cheng, Yan; Wei, Shicheng; Zheng, Yufeng; Xi, Tingfei; Cai, Hong; Liu, Zhongjun

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic applications of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against biomedical device-associated infections (BAI), by local delivery, are encountered with risks of detachment, instability and nanotoxicity in physiological milieus. To firmly anchor AgNPs onto modified biomaterial surfaces through tight physicochemical interactions would potentially relieve these concerns. Herein, we present a strategy for hierarchical TiO2/Ag coating, in an attempt to endow medical titanium (Ti) with anticorrosion and antibacterial properties whilst maintaining normal biological functions. In brief, by harnessing the adhesion and reactivity of bioinspired polydopamine, silver nanoparticles were easily immobilized onto peripheral surface and incorporated into interior cavity of a micro/nanoporous TiO2 ceramic coating in situ grown from template Ti. The resulting coating protected the substrate well from corrosion and gave a sustained release of Ag(+) up to 28 d. An interesting germicidal effect, termed "trap-killing", was observed against Staphylococcus aureus strain. The multiple osteoblast responses, i.e. adherence, spreading, proliferation, and differentiation, were retained normal or promoted, via a putative surface-initiated self-regulation mechanism. After subcutaneous implantation for a month, the coated specimens elicited minimal, comparable inflammatory responses relative to the control. Moreover, this simple and safe functionalization strategy manifested a good degree of flexibility towards three-dimensional sophisticated objects. Expectedly, it can become a prospective bench to bedside solution to current challenges facing orthopedics.

  3. Cholera Toxin Production Induced upon Anaerobic Respiration is Suppressed by Glucose Fermentation in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Taek; Lee, Kang-Mu; Bari, Wasimul; Kim, Hwa Young; Kim, Hye Jin; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2016-03-01

    The causative agent of pandemic cholera, Vibrio cholerae, infects the anaerobic environment of the human intestine. Production of cholera toxin (CT), a major virulence factor of V. cholerae, is highly induced during anaerobic respiration with trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as an alternative electron acceptor. However, the molecular mechanism of TMAO-stimulated CT production is not fully understood. Herein, we reveal that CT production during anaerobic TMAO respiration is affected by glucose fermentation. When the seventh pandemic V. cholerae O1 strain N16961 was grown with TMAO and additional glucose, CT production was markedly reduced. Furthermore, an N16961 Δcrp mutant, devoid of cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), was defective in CT production during growth by anaerobic TMAO respiration, further suggesting a role of glucose metabolism in regulating TMAO-mediated CT production. TMAO reductase activity was noticeably decreased when grown together with glucose or by mutation of the crp gene. A CRP binding region was identified in the promoter region of the torD gene, which encodes a structural subunit of the TMAO reductase. Gel shift assays further confirmed the binding of purified CRP to the torD promoter sequence. Together, our results suggest that the bacterial ability to respire using TMAO is controlled by CRP, whose activity is dependent on glucose availability. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for the regulation of major virulence factor production by V. cholerae under anaerobic growth conditions.

  4. Enhanced anaerobic digestion of food waste by thermal and ozonation pretreatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariunbaatar, Javkhlan; Panico, Antonio; Frunzo, Luigi; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco

    2014-12-15

    Treatment of food waste by anaerobic digestion can lead to an energy production coupled to a reduction of the volume and greenhouse gas emissions from this waste type. According to EU Regulation EC1774/2002, food waste should be pasteurized/sterilized before or after anaerobic digestion. With respect to this regulation and also considering the slow kinetics of the anaerobic digestion process, thermal and chemical pretreatments of food waste prior to mesophilic anaerobic digestion were studied. A series of batch experiments to determine the biomethane potential of untreated as well as pretreated food waste was carried out. All tested conditions of both thermal and ozonation pretreatments resulted in an enhanced biomethane production. The kinetics of the anaerobic digestion process were, however, accelerated by thermal pretreatment at lower temperatures (food waste, was obtained with thermal pretreatment at 80 °C for 1.5 h. On the basis of net energy calculations, the enhanced biomethane production could cover the energy requirement of the thermal pretreatment. In contrast, the enhanced biomethane production with ozonation pretreatment is insufficient to supply the required energy for the ozonator.

  5. An advanced anaerobic biofilter with effluent recirculation for phenol removal and methane production in treatment of coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajie; Tabassum, Salma; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2016-09-01

    An advanced anaerobic biofilter (AF) was introduced for the treatment of coal gasification wastewater (CGW), and effluent recirculation was adopted to enhance phenol removal and methane production. The results indicated that AF was reliable in treating diluted CGW, while its efficiency and stability were seriously reduced when directly treating raw CGW. However, its performance could be greatly enhanced by effluent recirculation. Under optimal effluent recirculation of 0.5 to the influent, concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenol in the effluent could reach as low as 234.0 and 14.2mg/L, respectively. Also, the rate of methane production reached 169.0mLCH4/L/day. Though CGW seemed to restrain the growth of anaerobic microorganisms, especially methanogens, the inhibition was temporary and reversible, and anaerobic bacteria presented strong tolerance. The activities of methanogens cultivated in CGW could quickly recover on feeding with glucose wastewater (GW). However, the adaptability of anaerobic bacteria to the CGW was very poor and the activity of methanogens could not be improved by long-term domestication. By analysis using the Haldane model, it was further confirmed that high effluent recirculation could result in high activity for hydrolytic bacteria and substrate affinity for toxic matters, but only suitable effluent recirculation could result in high methanogenic activity.

  6. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yi

    Full Text Available The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  7. Hygiene tests in the anaerobic digestion of household refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, H.; Philipp, W.; Wekerle, J.; Strauch, D.

    In a pilot plant the disinfecting effect of composting the effluent of an anaerobic mesophilic digestion process of the organic fraction of household refuse was investigated. The dewatered effluent was mixed with straw as bulking material, put in not aerated windrows and aerobically composted. It was further investigated whether the influent of the digester could be disinfected with lime milk prior to the anaerobic mesophilic digestion process. For the evaluation of the disinfection salmonellas, enterococci, klebsiellas, parvo-, polio- and rotavirus were used as test agents. Temperature, total aerobic germ count, enterobacteriaceae and coliforms were also considered. The effect of lime milk in the influent on the digestion process, survival of the test bacteria and gas production was also studied. Both treatments can result in a hygienically safe product. But composting under the conditions given should not be operated during the winter period. Lime treatment of the influent results in a disinfection of the effluent which immediately can be utilized as liquid sludge in agriculture. (orig.)

  8. Cellulosomes - promising supramolecular machines of anaerobic cellulolytic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodovnik, Maša; Marinšek-Logar, Romana

    2010-12-01

    Cellulose is the main structural component of plant cell wall and thus the most abundant carbohydrate in nature. However, extracting the energy from this abundant source is limited by its recalcitrant nature. The hydrolysis of plant cell wall requires synergystic action of different enzymes, including multiple cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, etc. Meanwhile aerobic cellulolytic microorganisms release large quantities of synergistically acting free enzymes in their environment, most anaerobic microorganisms evolved more efficient strategies to optimize the process of plant cell wall degradation, for example production of extracellular multi-enzyme complexes (cellulosomes). Cellulosomes consist of at least one core structural protein, named scaffoldin, which firmly binds numerous enzymatic subunits, and usually also plays a major role in substrate binding. Although the general structure of cellulosomes seems universal, differences in number and identity of complex components do exist among microorganisms. The article surveys the current knowledge about cellulosomes, focusing on three best investigated cellulolytic clostridia, one representative of ruminal bacteria and novel findings concerning anaerobic fungi. Efforts in construction of artificially engineered cellulosomal systems (designer cellulosomes) as well as their biotechnological potential are also discussed.

  9. Hydrolytic activity of alpha-amylase in anaerobic digested sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Y; Ohashi, A; Imachi, H; Harada, H

    2005-01-01

    Hydrolysis is usually considered to be a rate-limiting step in anaerobic digestion. For improving anaerobic solid waste treatments, it is essential to elucidate the mechanism of hydrolysis. In this study, alpha-amylase, one of the hydrolytic enzymes, was investigated for the elucidation of more precise mechanism of hydrolysis. Alpha-amylase activity of solid starch-degrading bacteria (SDB) was estimated through batch experiments with several different substrates and with distinction between cell-bound and cell-free alpha-amylase. Monitoring of newly isolated strains of SDB was done by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results indicated that cell-bound alpha-amylase is chiefly responsible for the hydrolysis in the digested sludge, providing very useful information that the contact between microbial cells and solids is significantly important. The activity of alpha-amylase of the digested sludge remained quite low when not required, but increased as they recognized appropriate substrates. Several-fold higher activity was obtained for starch or maltose as compared to glucose only.

  10. Deploying anaerobic digesters: Current status and future possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P. [International Energy Agency, Paris (France); Wheeler, P. [ETSU (United Kingdom); Rivard, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Unmanaged pollutants from putrescible farm, industrial, and municipal wastes degrade in the environment, and methane emitted from their decomposition may contribute to global climate change. Under modern environmental regulations, these wastes are becoming difficult to dispose of using traditional means. One waste management system, anaerobic digestion or AD, not only provides pollution prevention but can also convert a disposal problem into a new profit center. This report is drawn from a special session of the Second Biomass Conference of the Americas. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in a bioreactor treating slaughterhouse wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Reginatto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium oxidation was thought to be an exclusively aerobic process; however, as recently described in the literature, it is also possible under anaerobic conditions and this process was named ANAMMOX. This work describes the operation of a system consisting of a denitrifying reactor coupled to a nitrifying reactor used for removal of nitrogen from slaughterhouse wastewater. During operation of the denitrifying reactor an average nitrogen ammonium removal rate of 50 mg/Ld was observed. This biomass was used to seed a second reactor, operated in repeated fed batch mode, fed with synthetic medium specific to the growth of bacteria responsible for the ANAMMOX process. The nitrogen loading rate varied between 33 and 67 mgN/Ld and average nitrogen removal was 95% and 40%, respectively. Results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH confirmed the presence of anammox-like microorganisms in the enriched biomass.

  12. Vertical distribution and anaerobic biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments in Hong Kong, South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chun-Hua [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Zhou, Hong-Wei [Department of Environmental Health Science, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Wong, Yuk-Shan [Department of Biology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); Tam, Nora Fung-Yee, E-mail: bhntam@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2009-10-15

    The vertical distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at different sediment depths, namely 0-2 cm, 2-4 cm, 4-6 cm, 6-10 cm, 10-15 cm and 15-20 cm, in one of the most contaminated mangrove swamps, Ma Wan, Hong Kong was investigated. It was the first time to study the intrinsic potential of deep sediment to biodegrade PAHs under anaerobic conditions and the abundance of electron acceptors in sediment for anaerobic degradation. Results showed that the total PAHs concentrations (summation of 16 US EPA priority PAHs) increased with sediment depth. The lowest concentration (about 1300 ng g{sup -1} freeze-dried sediment) and the highest value (around 5000 ng g{sup -1} freeze-dried sediment) were found in the surface layer (0-2 cm) and deeper layer (10-15 cm), respectively. The percentage of high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (4 to 6 rings) to total PAHs was more than 89% at all sediment depths. The ratio of phenanthrene to anthracene was less than 10 while fluoranthene to pyrene was around 1. Negative redox potentials (Eh) were recorded in all of the sediment samples, ranging from - 170 to - 200 mv, with a sharp decrease at a depth of 6 cm then declined slowly to 20 cm. The results suggested that HMW PAHs originated from diesel-powered fishing vessels and were mainly accumulated in deep anaerobic sediments. Among the electron acceptors commonly used by anaerobic bacteria, sulfate was the most dominant, followed by iron(III), nitrate and manganese(IV) was the least. Their concentrations also decreased with sediment depth. The population size of total anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria increased with sediment depth, reaching the peak number in the middle layer (4-6 cm). In contrast, the aerobic heterotrophic bacterial count decreased with sediment depth. It was the first time to apply a modified electron transport system (ETS) method to evaluate the bacterial activities in the fresh sediment under PAH stress. The vertical drop of the ETS activity suggested that

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of the Anaerobic Halophilic Alkalithermophile Natranaerobius thermophilus JW/NM-WN-LFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesbah, Noha [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wiegel, Juergen [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2011-01-01

    The genome of the anaerobic halophilic alkalithermophile Natranaerobius thermophiles consists of one chromosome and two plasmids.The present study is the first to report the completely sequenced genome of polyextremophile and the harboring genes harboring genes associated with roles in regulation of intracellular osmotic pressure, pH homeostasis, and thermophilic stability.

  14. Effect of methanogenic substrates on anaerobic oxidation of methane and sulfate reduction by an anaerobic methanotrophic enrichment.

    KAUST Repository

    Meulepas, Roel J W

    2010-05-06

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction (SR) is assumed to be a syntrophic process, in which methanotrophic archaea produce an interspecies electron carrier (IEC), which is subsequently utilized by sulfate-reducing bacteria. In this paper, six methanogenic substrates are tested as candidate-IECs by assessing their effect on AOM and SR by an anaerobic methanotrophic enrichment. The presence of acetate, formate or hydrogen enhanced SR, but did not inhibit AOM, nor did these substrates trigger methanogenesis. Carbon monoxide also enhanced SR but slightly inhibited AOM. Methanol did not enhance SR nor did it inhibit AOM, and methanethiol inhibited both SR and AOM completely. Subsequently, it was calculated at which candidate-IEC concentrations no more Gibbs free energy can be conserved from their production from methane at the applied conditions. These concentrations were at least 1,000 times lower can the final candidate-IEC concentration in the bulk liquid. Therefore, the tested candidate-IECs could not have been produced from methane during the incubations. Hence, acetate, formate, methanol, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen can be excluded as sole IEC in AOM coupled to SR. Methanethiol did inhibit AOM and can therefore not be excluded as IEC by this study.

  15. The impacts of triclosan on anaerobic community structures, function, and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Patrick J; LaPara, Timothy M; Novak, Paige J

    2014-07-01

    Triclosan is a widespread antimicrobial agent that accumulates in anaerobic digesters used to treat the residual solids generated at municipal wastewater treatment plants; there is very little information, however, about how triclosan impacts microbial communities in anaerobic digesters. We investigated how triclosan impacts the community structure, function and antimicrobial resistance genes in lab-scale anaerobic digesters. Previously exposed (to triclosan) communities were amended with 5, 50, and 500 mg/kg of triclosan, corresponding to the median, 95th percentile, and 4-fold higher than maximum triclosan concentration that has been detected in U.S. biosolids. Triclosan amendment caused all of the Bacteria and Archaea communities to structurally diverge from that of the control cultures (based on ARISA). At the end of the experiment, all triclosan-amended Archaea communities had diverged from the control communities, regardless of the triclosan concentration added. In contrast, over time the Bacteria communities that were amended with lower concentrations of triclosan (5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) initially diverged and then reconverged with the control community structure. Methane production at 500 mg/kg was nearly half the methane production in control cultures. At 50 mg/kg, a large variability in methane production was observed, suggesting that 50 mg/kg may be a tipping point where function begins to fail in some communities. When previously unexposed communities were exposed to 500 mg triclosan/kg, function was maintained, but the abundance of a gene encoding for triclosan resistance (mexB) increased. This research suggests that triclosan could inhibit methane production in anaerobic digesters if concentrations were to increase and may also select for resistant Bacteria. In both cases, microbial community composition and exposure history alter the influence of triclosan.

  16. Biomarkers of Microbial Metabolism for Monitoring in-situ Anaerobic PAH Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L.; Phelps, C.; Battistelli, J.

    2002-12-01

    Monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic compounds found in petroleum and its products are subject to biodegradation in the absence of oxygen. These anaerobic pathways reveal novel mechanism of microbial transformation through a series of metabolites and intermediates which are unique to the anaerobic degradation process. The presence of these compounds in-situ, then conceptually can serve as indicators that anaerobic degradation is taking place. We have laboratory studies and field samples which support this concept for BTX and PAH compounds. Environments in which these anaerobic degradation processes have been observed include freshwater and estuarine sediments, groundwater from impacted aquifers at a former manufactured gas plant and gasoline station, and a creosote-contaminated aquifer. Analytical protocols were developed to detect nanomolar concentrations from soil slurries and groundwater samples and microcosm studies verified their formation from field samples and use as biomarkers of activity. Recent studies on the mechanisms of anaerobic naphthalene and methylnaphthalene metabolism have identified several unusual compounds that can serve as biomarkers for monitoring in situ PAH biodegradation. For naphthalene these include 2-naphthoic acid (2-NA), tetrahydro-2-naphthoic acid (TH-2-NA), hexahydro-2-naphthoic acid (HH-2-NA) and methylnaphthoic acid (MNA) generated by sulfate-reducing bacteria degrading naphthalene or methylnaphthalene. Groundwater samples were analyzed from wells distributed throughout an anaerobic, creosote-contaminated aquifer and also from a leaking underground storage site. Samples were extracted, derivatized and analyzed by GC/MS. The concentration of 2-NA at each monitoring well was quantified and correlated to the zones of naphthalene contamination. Taken together with measurements of the aquifer's physical characteristics, these biomarker data can be used to describe the extent of naphthalene biodegradation at these site.

  17. The role of acidification in the inhibition of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by vaginal lactobacilli during anaerobic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade Jeremy J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaginal lactobacilli protect the female genital tract by producing lactic acid, bacteriocins, hydrogen peroxide or a local immune response. In bacterial vaginosis, normal lactobacilli are replaced by an anaerobic flora and this may increase susceptibility to Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a facultative anaerobe. Bacterial interference between vaginal lactobacilli and N. gonorrhoeae has not been studied in liquid medium under anaerobic conditions. By co-cultivating N. gonorrhoeae in the presence of lactobacilli we sought to identify the relative contributions of acidification and hydrogen peroxide production to any growth inhibition of N. gonorrhoeae. Methods Three strains of N. gonorrhoeae distinguishable by auxotyping were grown in the presence of high concentrations (107-108 cfu/mL of three vaginal lactobacilli (L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii in an anerobic liquid medium with and without 2-(N-morpholino-ethanesulfonic (MES buffer. Fusobacterium nucleatum was used as an indicator of anaerobiosis. Bacterial counts were performed at 15, 20 and 25 h; at 25 h pH and hydrogen peroxide concentrations were measured. Results Growth of F. nucleatum to >108 cfu/mL at 25 h confirmed anaerobiosis. All bacteria grew in the anaerobic liquid medium and the addition of MES buffer had negligible effect on growth. L. crispatus and L. gasseri produced significant acidification and a corresponding reduction in growth of N. gonorrhoeae. This inhibition was abrogated by the addition of MES. L. jensenii produced less acidification and did not inhibit N. gonorrhoeae. Hydrogen peroxide was not detected in any experiment. Conclusions During anaerobic growth, inhibition of N. gonorrhoeae by the vaginal lactobacilli tested was primarily due to acidification and abrogated by the presence of a buffer. There was no evidence of a specific mechanism of inhibition other than acid production under these conditions and, in particular, hydrogen peroxide was

  18. 血培养厌氧菌实验室鉴定%ANAEROBIC BLOOD CULTURE OF LABORATORY IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭素芳; 王俊瑞; 范文斌; 福泉; 张军力

    2015-01-01

    目的::通过血培养厌氧菌病例的临床及实验室检测资料,掌握厌氧菌鉴定方法,探讨实验室开展厌氧菌检测的重要性。方法:观察血培养仪厌氧血培养瓶阳性报警曲线,转种厌氧血琼脂厌氧环境培养,观察茵落形态,涂片革兰氏染色,VITIE 2鉴定到种。结果:12份血培养出厌氧菌13株。其中2份为需氧菌和厌氧菌混合感染,分别是脆弱拟杆菌混合血液链球菌和中间链球菌;1份血培养分离出2种厌氧菌分别为脆弱拟杆菌和梭形梭菌;其他血培养分别培养出产气荚膜梭菌、脆弱拟杆菌、单形拟杆菌等。结论:厌氧菌感染多为混合感染,且培养、鉴定要求条件较高。加强对厌氧菌感染的认识和实验室检测,对临床诊断、治疗以及合理使用抗生素具有指导作用。%Objective:By the case of anaerobic blood culture of clinical and laboratory test data,to master anaerobes identification methods and explore the importance of laboratory testing of anaerobic bacteria. Methods:Observe positive anaerobic blood culture bottles alarm curve in blood culture system,turn kind of anaerobic blood agar and anaerobic environment to culture,observing colony mor-phology,smearing by Gram staln and using VITIE 2 identified to species. Results:There are 13 anaerobic bacteria stralns of 12 cases of blood culture. Including 2 cases of aerobic and anaerobic mixed infections,respectively are bacteroides fragilis mixed with Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus in-termadius. One case of blood culture isolate two kinds of anaerobic bacteria were Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium fusiform. Other blood cultures were isolated clostridium perfringens, bacteroides fragilis,Bacteroides uniformis and so on. Conclusion:We conclude that anaerobic bacteria infections are mostly mixed infection, the culture and identification of anaerobic bacteria requires a higher condition. Enhance understanding of anaerobic infections

  19. Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Fuqing; Shi Jian [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States); Lv Wen; Yu Zhongtang [Department of Animal Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Li Yebo, E-mail: li.851@osu.edu [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared methane production of solid AD inoculated with different effluents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Food waste effluent (FWE) had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with FWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dairy waste effluent (DWE) was rich of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with DWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 2. - Abstract: Effluents from three liquid anaerobic digesters, fed with municipal sewage sludge, food waste, or dairy waste, were evaluated as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover in mesophilic reactors. Three feedstock-to-effluent (F/E) ratios (i.e., 2, 4, and 6) were tested for each effluent. At an F/E ratio of 2, the reactor inoculated by dairy waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 238.5 L/kgVS{sub feed}, while at an F/E ratio of 4, the reactor inoculated by food waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 199.6 L/kgVS{sub feed}. The microbial population and chemical composition of the three effluents were substantially different. Food waste effluent had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens, while dairy waste effluent had the largest populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Dairy waste also had the highest C/N ratio of 8.5 and the highest alkalinity of 19.3 g CaCO{sub 3}/kg. The performance of solid-state batch anaerobic digestion reactors was closely related to the microbial status in the liquid anaerobic digestion effluents.

  20. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Tirsgård, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.;

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady...... to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3...

  1. Energy from anaerobic methane production. [Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    Since 1970 Swedish researchers have been testing the ANAMET (anaerobic-aerobic-methane) process, which involves converting industrial wastewaters via an initial anaerobic microbiological step followed by an aerobic one. Recycling the biomass material in each step allows shorter hydraulic retention times without decreasing stability or solids reduction. Since the first ANAMET plants began operating at a Swedish sugar factory in 1972, 17 more plants have started up or are under construction. Moreover, the ANAMET process has engendered to offshoot BIOMET (biomass-methane) process, a thermophilic anaerobic scheme that can handle sugar-beet pulp as well as grass and other soft, fast-growing biomasses.

  2. Carious Dentine Provides a Habitat for a Complex Array of Novel Prevotella-Like Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Nadkarni, Mangala A.; Caldon, C. Elizabeth; Chhour, Kim-Ly; Fisher, Ilana P.; Martin, F. Elizabeth; Jacques, Nicholas A.; Hunter, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Previous analysis of the microbiology of advanced caries by culture and real-time PCR emphasized the high incidence and abundance of gram-negative anaerobic species, particularly Prevotella-like bacteria. The diversity of Prevotella-like bacteria was further explored by analyzing pooled bacterial DNA from lesions of carious dentine. This was achieved by amplification of a region of the 16S ribosomal DNA with a Prevotella genus-specific forward primer and a universal bacterial reverse primer, ...

  3. Identification and molecular characterization of YsaL (Ye3555): a novel negative regulator of YsaN ATPase in type three secretion system of enteropathogenic bacteria Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Rakesh; Halder, Pranab Kumar; Datta, Saumen

    2013-01-01

    Type Three Secretion (T3S) ATPases are involved in delivery of virulent factors from bacteria to their hosts (through injectisome) in an energy (ATP) dependent manner during pathogenesis. The activities of these ATPases are tightly controlled by their specific regulators. In Yersinia enterocolitica, YsaN was predicted as a putative ATPase of the Ysa-Ysp Type Three Secretion System (T3SS) based on sequence similarity with other T3S ATPases. However detailed study and characterization of YsaN and its regulation remains largely obscure. Here, in this study, we have successfully cloned, over-expressed, purified and characterized the molecular properties of YsaN from Yersinia enterocolitica. YsaN acts as a Mg(2+) dependent ATPase and exists in solution as higher order oligomer (dodecamer). The ATPase activity of oligomeric YsaN is several fold higher than the monomeric form. Furthermore, by employing in silico studies we have identified the existence of a negative regulator of YsaN--a hypothetical protein YE3555 (termed 'YsaL'). To verify the functionality of YsaL, we have evaluated the biochemical and biophysical properties of YsaL. Purified YsaL is dimeric in solution and strongly associates with YsaN to form a stable heterotrimeric YsaL-YsaN complex (stoichiometry--2∶1). The N terminal 6-20 residues of YsaN are invariably required for stable YsaL-YsaN complex formation. YsaL inhibited the ATPase activity of YsaN with a maximum inhibition at the molar ratio 2∶1 (YsaL: YsaN). In short, our studies provide an insight into the presence of YsaN ATPase in Yersinia enterocolitica and its regulator YsaL. Our studies also correlate the functionality of one of the existing protein interaction networks that possibly is indispensable for the energy dependent process of Ysa-Ysp T3SS in pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica.

  4. Modelling Methane Production and Sulfate Reduction in Anaerobic Granular Sludge Reactor with Ethanol as Electron Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Dai, Xiaohu; Wang, Qilin; Pan, Yuting; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a mathematical model based on growth kinetics of microorganisms and substrates transportation through biofilms was developed to describe methane production and sulfate reduction with ethanol being a key electron donor. The model was calibrated and validated using experimental data from two case studies conducted in granule-based Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactors. The results suggest that the developed model could satisfactorily describe methane and sulfide productions as well as ethanol and sulfate removals in both systems. The modeling results reveal a stratified distribution of methanogenic archaea, sulfate-reducing bacteria and fermentative bacteria in the anaerobic granular sludge and the relative abundances of these microorganisms vary with substrate concentrations. It also indicates sulfate-reducing bacteria can successfully outcompete fermentative bacteria for ethanol utilization when COD/SO42‑ ratio reaches 0.5. Model simulation suggests that an optimal granule diameter for the maximum methane production efficiency can be achieved while the sulfate reduction efficiency is not significantly affected by variation in granule size. It also indicates that the methane production and sulfate reduction can be affected by ethanol and sulfate loading rates, and the microbial community development stage in the reactor, which provided comprehensive insights into the system for its practical operation.

  5. 乳酸菌胞外多糖的生物合成及其遗传调控%Biosynthesis and Genetic Regulation of Exopolysaccharides from Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晶; 任婧; 吴正钧; 王荫榆; 郭本恒

    2011-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides is produced by Lactic acid bacteria which is General Recognized As Safe status (GRAS). As its excellent functions, it is becoming a research hotspot recently. However, its industrial application is limited by the low production level. Therefore, it is significant for studying the genetics to improve the production.This paper mainly concerns about the classification and structure of exopolysaccharides, biosynthesis of homopolysaccharides and heteropolysaccharides, besides the discrepancies between these two exopolysaccharides. Genetic regulation and some effective regulation measures are closely discussed as well. This paper should provide a theoretical reference for further research.%作为食品级的乳酸菌分泌的胞外多糖,由于其具有很多优良的功能特性,成为了近年来的研究热点.胞外多糖产量偏低限制了其工业化应用,因此从基因水平上探索增加乳酸菌胞外多糖产量的途径是大有裨益的.文中详细阐述了胞外多糖的分类、结构,同型多糖和异性多糖生物合成过程及其差异,以及在合成过程中的遗传调控,并介绍了一些增加产量的有效调控手段,为深入的研究提供理论参考.

  6. Nitrogen loss by anaerobic ammonium oxidation in unconfined aquifer soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanyun; Radny, Dirk; Huang, Shuangbing; Zhuang, Linjie; Zhao, Siyan; Berg, Michael; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Zhu, Guibing

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is recognized as an important process for nitrogen cycling, yet little is known about its role in the subsurface biosphere. In this study, we investigated the presence, abundance, and role of anammox bacteria in upland soil cores from Tianjin, China (20 m depth) and Basel, Switzerland (10 m depth), using isotope-tracing techniques, (q)PCR assays, and 16 S rRNA & hzsB gene clone libraries, along with nutrient profiles of soil core samples. Anammox in the phreatic (water-saturated) zone contributed to 37.5–67.6% of the N-loss (up to 0.675 gN m−2 d−1), with anammox activities of 0.005–0.74 nmolN g−1 soil h−1, which were even higher than the denitrification rates. By contrast, no significant anammox was measured in the vadose zone. Higher anammox bacterial cell densities were observed (0.75–1.4 × 107 copies g−1 soil) in the phreatic zone, where ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) maybe the major source of nitrite for anammox bacteria. The anammox bacterial cells in soils of the vadose zone were all <103 copies g−1 soil. We suggest that the subsurface provides a favorable niche for anammox bacteria whose contribution to N cycling and groundwater nitrate removal seems considerably larger than previously known. PMID:28071702

  7. Nitrogen loss by anaerobic ammonium oxidation in unconfined aquifer soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanyun; Radny, Dirk; Huang, Shuangbing; Zhuang, Linjie; Zhao, Siyan; Berg, Michael; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Zhu, Guibing

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is recognized as an important process for nitrogen cycling, yet little is known about its role in the subsurface biosphere. In this study, we investigated the presence, abundance, and role of anammox bacteria in upland soil cores from Tianjin, China (20 m depth) and Basel, Switzerland (10 m depth), using isotope-tracing techniques, (q)PCR assays, and 16 S rRNA & hzsB gene clone libraries, along with nutrient profiles of soil core samples. Anammox in the phreatic (water-saturated) zone contributed to 37.5–67.6% of the N-loss (up to 0.675 gN m‑2 d‑1), with anammox activities of 0.005–0.74 nmolN g‑1 soil h‑1, which were even higher than the denitrification rates. By contrast, no significant anammox was measured in the vadose zone. Higher anammox bacterial cell densities were observed (0.75–1.4 × 107 copies g‑1 soil) in the phreatic zone, where ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) maybe the major source of nitrite for anammox bacteria. The anammox bacterial cells in soils of the vadose zone were all <103 copies g‑1 soil. We suggest that the subsurface provides a favorable niche for anammox bacteria whose contribution to N cycling and groundwater nitrate removal seems considerably larger than previously known.

  8. In situ biodegradation potential of aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic groundwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, D. W.; Barker, J. F.

    1992-04-01

    Three types of experiments were conducted to assess the potential for enhancing the in situ biodegradation of nine aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic, leachate-impacted aquifers at North Bay, Ontario, and at Canada Forces Base Borden. Laboratory micrososms containing authentic aquifer material and groundwater from the North Bay site were amended with nitrate and glucose. No significant losses of aromatic hydrocarbons were observed compared to unamended controls, over a period of 187 days. A total of eight in situ biodegradation columns were installed in the North Bay and Borden aquifers. Remedial additions included electron acceptors (nitrate and sulphate) and primary substrates (acetate, lactate and yeast extract). Six aromatic hydrocarbons [toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, o-xylene, cumene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene ( 1,2,4-TMB)] were completely degraded in at least one in situ column at the North Bay site. Only toluene was degraded in the Borden aquifer. In all cases, aromatic hydrocarbon attenuation was attributed to biodegradation by methanogenic and fermentative bacteria. No evidence of aromatic hydrocarbon degradation was observed in columns remediated with nitrate or primary substrates. A continuous forced gradient injection experiment with sulphate addition was conducted at the North Bay site over a period of 51 days. The concentration of six aromatic hydrocarbons was monitored over time in the injection wells and at piezometer fences located 2, 5 and 10 m downgradient. All compounds except toluene reached injection concentration between 14 and 26 days after pumping began, and showed some evidence of selective retardation. Toluene broke through at a subdued concentration (˜ 50% of injection levels), and eventually declined to undetectable levels on day 43. This attenuation was attributed to adaptation and biodegradation by anaerobic bacteria. The results from these experiments indicate that considerable anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in

  9. Bleach vs. Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Bleach vs. Bacteria By Sharon Reynolds Posted April 2, 2014 Your ... hypochlorous acid to help kill invading microbes, including bacteria. Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health ...

  10. Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Eekert, van M.H.A.; Dolfing, J.; Schraa, G.

    2006-01-01

    Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory

  11. An anaerobic mitochondrion that produces hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, Brigitte; Graaf, Rob M. de; Staay, Georg W.M. van der; Alen, Theo A. van; Ricard, Guenola; Gabaldón, Toni; Hoek, Angela H.A.M. van; Moon-van der Staay, Seung Yeo; Koopman, Werner J.H.; Hellemond, Jaap J. van; Tielens, Aloysius G.M.; Friedrich, Thorsten; Veenhuis, Marten; Huynen, Martijn A.; Hackstein, Johannes H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes are organelles that produce ATP and hydrogen, and are found in various unrelated eukaryotes, such as anaerobic flagellates, chytridiomycete fungi and ciliates. Although all of these organelles generate hydrogen, the hydrogenosomes from these organisms are structurally and metabolicall

  12. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Toxicity data for the impact of nano-silver on anaerobic degradation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Gitipour, A., S. Thiel, K. Scheckel,...

  13. Anaerobic membrane bioreactor under extreme conditions (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz Sierra, J.D.; De Kreuk, M.K.; Spanjers, H.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors ensure biomass retention by the application of micro or ultrafiltration processes. This allows operation at high sludge concentrations. Previous st