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Sample records for anadromous salmonids volume

  1. Stock Summary Reports for Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids, Volume V; Idaho Subbasins, 1992 CIS Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keifer, Sharon (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID); Rowe, Mike (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Hatch, Keith (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    1993-05-01

    An essential component of the effort to rebuild the Columbia Basin's anadromous fish resources is that available information and experience be organized and shared among numerous organizations and individuals. Past experience and knowledge must form the basis for actions into the future. Much of this knowledge exists only in unpublished form in agency and individual files. Even that information which is published in the form of technical and contract reports receives only limited distribution and is often out of print and unavailable after a few years. Only a small fraction of the basin's collective knowledge is captured in permanent and readily available databases (such as the Northwest Environmental Database) or in recognized journals. State, tribal, and federal fishery managers have recognized these information management problems and have committed to a program, the Coordinated Information System Project, to capture and share more easily the core data and other information upon which management decisions are based. That project has completed scoping and identification of key information needs and development of a project plan. Work performed under the CIS project will be coordinated with and extend information contained in the Northwest Environmental Database. Construction of prototype systems will begin in Phase 3. This report is one in a series of seven describing the results of the Coordinated Information System scoping and needs identification phase. A brief description of each of these reports is given.

  2. Stock Assessment of Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids : Final Report, Volume I, Chinook, Coho, Chum and Sockeye Salmon Summaries.

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    Howell, Philip J.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose was to identify and characterize the wild and hatchery stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia River Basin on the basis of currently available information. This report provides a comprehensive compilation of data on the status and life histories of Columbia Basin salmonid stocks.

  3. Stock Summary Reports for Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids, Volume II; Oregon Subbasins Above Bonneville Dam, 1992 CIS Summary Report.

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    Olsen, Eric; Pierce, Paige (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR); Hatch, Keith (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    1993-05-01

    An essential component of the effort to rebuild the Columbia Basin's anadromous fish resources is that available information and experience be organized and shared among numerous organizations and individuals. Past experience and knowledge must form the basis for actions into the future. Much of this knowledge exists only in unpublished form in agency and individual files. Even that information which is published in the form of technical and contract reports receives only limited distribution and is often out of print and unavailable after a few years. Only a small fixtion of the basin's collective knowledge is captured in permanent and readily available databases (such as the Northwest Environmental Database) or in recognized journals. State, tribal, and fedend fishery managers have recognized these information management problems and have committed to a program, the Coordinated Information System Project, to capture and share more easily the core data and other information upon which management decisions am based. That project has completed scoping and identification of key information needs and development of a project plan. Work performed under the CM project will be coordinated with and extend information contained in the Northwest Environmental Database. Construction of prototype systems will begin in Phase 3. This report is one in a series of seven describing the results of the Coordinated Information System scoping and needs identification phase. A brief description of each of these reports follows. This report (Roger 1992) summarizes and integrates the results of the next five reports and relates them to deliverables identified in the Phase II cooperative agreement. Broader issues of organization and operation which are not appropriate for the more focused reports are also discussed. This report should be viewed as an executive summary for the CM project to date. If one wants a quick overview of the CIS project, this report and the project plan

  4. Stock Summary Reports for Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids, Volume 1; Oregon Subbasins Below Bonneville Dam, 1992 CIS Summary Report.

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    Olsen, Eric; Pierce, Paige (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR); Hatch, Keith (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    1993-05-01

    An essential component of the effort to rebuild the Columbia Basin's anadromous fish resources is that available information and experience be organized and shared among numerous organizations and individuals. Past experience and knowledge must form the basis for actions into the future. Much of this knowledge exists only in unpublished form in agency and individual files. Even that information which is published in the form of technical and contract reports receives only limited distribution and is often out of print and unavailable after a few years. Only a small fraction of the basin's collective knowledge is captured in permanent and readily available databases (such as the Northwest Environmental Database) or in recognized journals. State, tribal, and federal fishery managers have recognized these information management problems and have committed to a program, the Coordinated Information System Project, to capture and share more easily the core data and other information upon which management decisions are based. That project has completed scoping and identification of key information needs and development of a project plan. Work performed under the CIS project will be coordinated with and extend information contained in the Northwest Environmental Database. Construction of prototype systems will begin in Phase 3. This report is one in a series of seven describing the results of the Coordinated Information System scoping and needs identification phase. A brief description of each of these reports follows. This report (Roger 1992) summarizes and integrates the results of the next five reports and relates them to deliverables identified in the Phase II cooperative agreement. Broader issues of organization and operation which are not appropriate for the more focused reports are also discussed. This report should be viewed as an executive summary for the CIS project to date. If one wants a quick overview of the CIS project, this report and the project

  5. Anadromous fish inventory: Summary volume

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary volume, with discussion, on anadromous fish inventories, species lists, histories of fisheries, habitat, key spawning and rearing areas, runs/escapements,...

  6. Outplanting Anadromous Salmonids, A Lilterature Study.

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    Smith, Eugene M.

    1985-10-01

    This paper presents a list of more than 200 references on topics associated with offstation releases of hatchery stocks of anadromous fish used to supplement or reestablish wild rearing. The narrative briefly reviews influences of genetics, rearing density of fish in the natural environment, survival rates observed from outplanted stocks, and estimation procedures for stocking rates and rearing densities. We have attempted to summarize guidelines and recommendations for fishery managers to consider. Based on tagging studies, a typical smolt release from a Willamette River hatchery would return 0.29% of the smolts to the stream of release as adults. Catch to escapement ratios for adult Willamette chinook vary widely between broods, but on average two fish are caught for each fish that escapes. The catch is about evenly divided between offshore and freshwater harvest. British Columbia is the primary location of offshore harvest, and the lower Willamette River is the primary location of freshwater harvest. Review of departmental policy indicates that only Willamette stock spring chinook are currently acceptable for use in a proposed outplant study within the Willamette basin. Further, most Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife district management biologists would prefer not to transfer any stocks of spring chinook between drainage subbasins. State fishery managers identified 16 Willamette basin streams as being suitable for supplementation with spring chinook from hatcheries. We reviewed the potential for rearing salmon in reservoirs throughout the basin. Use of the Carmen-Smith spawning channel, which was constructed on the upper McKenzie River in 1960, has generally declined with the decline in populations of chinook salmon in this river. The Carmen-Smith channel still provides a spawning place for those relatively few adult chinook that still return each year, but more fishery benefits may result from other uses of this facility. 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Stock Summary Reports for Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids, Volume III; Washington Subbasin Below McNary Dam, 1992 CIS Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, Keith (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR); Hymer, Joe (Washington Department of Fisheries, Battleground, WA); Wastel, Mike (Washington Department of Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    1993-05-01

    An essential component of the effort to rebuild the Columbia Basin's anadromous fish resources is that available information and experience be organized and shared among numerous organizations and individuals. Past experience and knowledge must form the basis for actions into the future. Much of this knowledge exists only in unpublished form in agency and individual files. Even that information which is published in the form of technical and contract reports receives only limited distribution and is often out of print and unavailable after a few years. Only a small fraction of the basin's collective knowledge is captured in permanent and readily available databases (such as the Northwest Environmental Database) or in recognized journals. State, tribal, and federal fishery managers have recognized these information management problems and have committed to a program, the Coordinated Information System Project, to capture and share more easily the core data and other information upon which management decisions are based. That project has completed scoping and identification of key information needs and development of a project plan. Work performed under the CIS project will be coordinated with and extend information contained in the Northwest Environmental Database. Construction of prototype systems will begin in Phase 3. This report is one in a series of seven describing the results of the Coordinated Information System scoping and needs identification phase. A brief description of each of these reports is given.

  8. Marine effect of introduced salmonids: Prey consumption by exotic steelhead and anadromous brown trout in the Patagonian Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancio, J.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Pascual, M.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of stable isotope analysis, we estimated the marine diet of the most abundant anadromous salmonid species in Patagonian Atlantic basins. The results were coupled with bioenergetic and population models to estimate the consumption of food by salmonids and was compared with that by seabirds, the most abundant top predators in the area. Amphipods were the main salmonid prey, followed by sprat, silversides, squid, and euphausiids. The total consumption, even assuming large anadromous salmonid populations, represented <5% of the total consumption by seabirds. We also identified the particular seabird colonies and artisanal fisheries with which salmonid trophic interactions at a more local scale could be significant. ?? 2010, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  9. Intestinal fluid absorption in anadromous salmonids: importance of tight junctions and aquaporins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eSundell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The anadromous salmonid life cycle includes both fresh water (FW and seawater (SW stages. The parr-smolt transformation (smoltification pre–adapt the fish to SW while still in FW. The osmoregulatory organs change their mode of action from a role of preventing water inflow in FW, to absorb ions to replace water lost by osmosis in SW. During smoltification, the drinking rate increases, in the intestine the ion and fluid transport increases and is further elevated after SW entry. In SW, the intestine absorbs ions to create an inwardly directed water flow which is accomplished by increased Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA activity in the basolateral membrane, driving ion absorption via ion channels and/or co-transporters. This review will aim at discussing the expression patterns of the ion transporting proteins involved in intestinal fluid absorption in the FW stage, during smoltification and after SW entry. Of equal importance for intestinal fluid absorption as the active absorption of ions, is the permeability of the epithelium to ions and water. During the smoltification the increase in NKA activity and water uptake in SW is accompanied by decreased paracellular permeability suggesting a redirection of the fluid movement from a paracellular route in FW, to a transcellular route in SW. Increased transcellular fluid absorption could be achieved by incorporation of aquaporins (AQPs into the enterocyte membranes and/or by a change in fatty acid profile of the enterocyte lipid bilayer. An increased incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids into the membrane phospholipids will increase water permeability by enhancing the fluidity of the membrane. A second aim of the present review is therefore to discuss the presence and regulation of expression of AQPs in the enterocyte membrane as well as to discuss the profile of fatty acids present in the membrane phospholipids during different stages of the salmonid lifecycle.

  10. Predicting recolonization patterns and interactions between potamodromous and anadromous salmonids in response to dam removal in the Elwha River, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkman, S.J.; Pess, G.R.; Torgersen, C.E.; Kloehn, K.K.; Duda, J.J.; Corbett, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The restoration of salmonids in the Elwha River following dam removal will cause interactions between anadromous and potamodromous forms as recolonization occurs in upstream and downstream directions. Anadromous salmonids are expected to recolonize historic habitats, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) isolated above the dams for 90 years are expected to reestablish anadromy. We summarized the distribution and abundance of potamodromous salmonids, determined locations of spawning areas, and mapped natural barriers to fish migration at the watershed scale based on data collected from 1993 to 2006. Rainbow trout were far more abundant than bull trout throughout the watershed and both species were distributed up to river km 71. Spawning locations for bull trout and rainbow trout occurred in areas where we anticipate returning anadromous fish to spawn. Nonnative brook trout were confined to areas between and below the dams, and seasonal velocity barriers are expected to prevent their upstream movements. We hypothesize that the extent of interaction between potamodromous and anadromous salmonids will vary spatially due to natural barriers that will limit upstream-directed recolonization for some species of salmonids. Consequently, most competitive interactions will occur in the main stem and floodplain downstream of river km 25 and in larger tributaries. Understanding future responses of Pacific salmonids after dam removal in the Elwha River depends upon an understanding of existing conditions of the salmonid community upstream of the dams prior to dam removal.

  11. Impact of beaver dams on abundance and distribution of anadromous salmonids in two lowland streams in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virbickas, Tomas; Stakėnas, Saulius; Steponėnas, Andrius

    2015-01-01

    European beaver dams impeded movements of anadromous salmonids as it was established by fishing survey, fish tagging and redd counts in two lowland streams in Lithuania. Significant differences in abundancies of other litophilic fish species and evenness of representation by species in the community were detected upstream and downstream of the beaver dams. Sea trout parr marked with RFID tags passed through several successive beaver dams in upstream direction, but no tagged fish were detected above the uppermost dam. Increase in abundances of salmonid parr in the stream between the beaver dams and decrease below the dams were recorded in November, at the time of spawning of Atlantic salmon and sea trout, but no significant changes were detected in the sections upstream of the dams. After construction of several additional beaver dams in the downstream sections of the studied streams, abundance of Atlantic salmon parr downstream of the dams decreased considerably in comparison with that estimated before construction.

  12. Influence of Habitat Modifications on Habitat Composition and Anadromous Salmonid Populations in Fish Creek, Oregon, 1983-1988 Annual Report.

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    Reeves, Gordon H.; Everest, Fred H. (Oregon State University, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Corvallis, OR); Hohler, David B. (Mount Hood National Forest, Clackamas River Ranger District, Estacada, OR)

    1990-05-01

    Modification of degraded habitats to increase populations of anadromous salmonids is a major focus of management agencies throughout the Pacific Northwest. Millions of dollars are spent annually on such efforts. Inherent in implementing habitat improvements is the need for quantitative evaluation of the biological and physical effects of such work. Reeves et al. (in press), however, noted that such evaluations are rare, making it difficult to assess the true results of habitat work. While it is not economically possible to thoroughly evaluate every habitat project, it is essential that intensive evaluations be done on selected representative projects. One such evaluation program has been underway since 1982 on Fish Creek, a tributary of the Clackamas River near Estacada, OR. Habitat modification has been done by the USDA Forest Service, Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest with funding provided in part by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The USDA Forest Service, Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit, Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), Corvallis, OR is charged with: (1) evaluating the biological and physical responses to habitat modifications on a basin scale; and (2) developing a cost-benefit analysis of the program. Preliminary results have been reported in a series of annual publications, Everest and Sedell 1983, 1984 and Everest et al. 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) report 1988 observations of biological and physical changes in habitat, salmonid populations, and smolt production in Fish Creek, and (2) examine preliminary trends in fish habitat and populations related to habitat improvement over the period 1983-1988. We have prefaced the trends in the latter objective as preliminary because we believe it could take a minimum of 10 years before the full biological and physical responses to habitat work are realized. We therefore urge caution in interpreting these preliminary results.

  13. Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Policies and Procedures for Columbia Basin Anadromous Salmonid Hatcheries, 1994 Annual Report.

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    Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (Northwest Power Planning Council, Portland, OR)

    1995-01-01

    This document outlines regional policies and procedures for hatchery operations in the Columbia River Basin. The purpose of these policies is to provide regional guidelines by which all anadromous fish hatcheries will be operated. These policies will be adopted by the fisheries co-managers, and will provide guidance to operate hatcheries in an efficient and biologically sound manner. The hatchery policies presented in this manual are not intended to establish production priorities. Rather, the intent is to guide hatchery operations once production numbers are established. Hatchery operations discussed in this report include broodstock collection, spawning, incubation of eggs, fish rearing and feeding, fish release, equipment maintenance and operations, and personnel training. Decisions regarding production priorities must be provided by fishery managers through a comprehensive plan that addresses both natural and hatchery fish production. The Integrated Hatchery Operations Team is a multi-agency group called for by the Northwest Power Planning Council. This team was directed to develop new basinwide policies for managing and operating all existing and future anadromous fish hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin. The parties pledge to confer with each other and to use their authorities and resources to accomplish these mutually acceptable hatchery practices.

  14. Predation by Northern Pikeminnow and tiger muskellunge on juvenile salmonids in a high–head reservoir: Implications for anadromous fish reintroductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorel, Mark H.; Hansen, Adam G.; Connelly, Kristin A.; Wilson, Andrew C.; Lowery, Erin D.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of reintroducing anadromous salmonids into reservoirs above high-head dams is affected by the suitability of the reservoir habitat for rearing and the interactions of the resident fish with introduced fish. We evaluated the predation risk to anadromous salmonids considered for reintroduction in Merwin Reservoir on the North Fork Lewis River in Washington State for two reservoir use-scenarios: year-round rearing and smolt migration. We characterized the role of the primary predators, Northern Pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis and tiger muskellunge (Northern Pike Esox lucius × Muskellunge E. masquinongy), by using stable isotopes and stomach content analysis, quantified seasonal, per capita predation using bioenergetics modeling, and evaluated the size and age structures of the populations. We then combined these inputs to estimate predation rates of size-structured population units. Northern Pikeminnow of FL ≥ 300 mm were highly cannibalistic and exhibited modest, seasonal, per capita predation on salmonids, but they were disproportionately much less abundant than smaller, less piscivorous, conspecifics. The annual predation on kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka (in biomass) by a size-structured unit of 1,000 Northern Pikeminnow having a FL ≥ 300 mm was analogous to 16,000–40,000 age-0 spring Chinook Salmon O. tshawytscha rearing year-round, or 400–1,000 age-1 smolts migrating April–June. The per capita consumption of salmonids by Northern Pikeminnow having a FL ≥ 200 mm was relatively low, due in large part to spatial segregation during the summer and the skewed size distribution of the predator population. Tiger muskellunge fed heavily on Northern Pikeminnow, other nonsalmonids, and minimally on salmonids. In addition to cannibalism within the Northern Pikeminnow population, predation by tiger muskellunge likely contributed to the low recruitment of larger (more piscivorous) Northern Pikeminnow, thereby decreasing the risk of predation to

  15. Trophic feasibility of reintroducing anadromous salmonids in three reservoirs on the north fork Lewis River, Washington: Prey supply and consumption demand of resident fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorel, Mark H.; Hansen, Adam G.; Connelly, Kristin A.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The reintroduction of anadromous salmonids in reservoirs is being proposed with increasing frequency, requiring baseline studies to evaluate feasibility and estimate the capacity of reservoir food webs to support reintroduced populations. Using three reservoirs on the north fork Lewis River as a case study, we demonstrate a method to determine juvenile salmonid smolt rearing capacities for lakes and reservoirs. To determine if the Lewis River reservoirs can support reintroduced populations of juvenile stream-type Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, we evaluated the monthly production of daphniaDaphnia spp. (the primary zooplankton consumed by resident salmonids in the system) and used bioenergetics to model the consumption demand of resident fishes in each reservoir. To estimate the surplus of Daphnia prey available for reintroduced salmonids, we assumed a maximum sustainable exploitation rate and accounted for the consumption demand of resident fishes. The number of smolts that could have been supported was estimated by dividing any surplus Daphnia production by the simulated consumption demand of an individual Chinook Salmon fry rearing in the reservoir to successful smolt size. In all three reservoirs, densities of Daphnia were highest in the epilimnion, but warm epilimnetic temperatures and the vertical distribution of planktivores suggested that access to abundant epilimnetic prey was limited. By comparing accessible prey supply and demand on a monthly basis, we were able to identify potential prey supply bottlenecks that could limit smolt production and growth. These results demonstrate that a bioenergetics approach can be a valuable method of examining constraints on lake and reservoir rearing capacity, such as thermal structure and temporal food supply. This method enables numerical estimation of rearing capacity, which is a useful metric for managers evaluating the feasibility of reintroducing Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. in lentic systems.

  16. Survey of Artificial Production of Anadromous Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1981-1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, Percy M.

    1985-11-25

    The overall objective of this project is to collect, organize, and summarize data concerning anadromous fish culture stations of the Columbia River system for 1981, 1982, and 1983 and to create a data archive system with a means of making this information available to the public.

  17. Fish population and habitat analysis in Buck Creek, Washington, prior to recolonization by anadromous salmonids after the removal of Condit Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. Brady; Burkhardt, Jeanette; Munz, Carrie; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the physical and biotic conditions in the part of Buck Creek, Washington, potentially accessible to anadromous fishes. This creek is a major tributary to the White Salmon River upstream of Condit Dam, which was breached in October 2011. Habitat and fish populations were characterized in four stream reaches. Reach breaks were based on stream gradient, water withdrawals, and fish barriers. Buck Creek generally was confined, with a single straight channel and low sinuosity. Boulders and cobble were the dominant stream substrate, with limited gravel available for spawning. Large-cobble riffles were 83 percent of the available fish habitat. Pools, comprising 15 percent of the surface area, mostly were formed by bedrock with little instream cover and low complexity. Instream wood averaged 6—10 pieces per 100 meters, 80 percent of which was less than 50 centimeters in diameter. Water temperature in Buck Creek rarely exceeded 16 degrees Celsius and did so for only 1 day at river kilometer (rkm) 3 and 11 days at rkm 0.2 in late July and early August 2009. The maximum temperature recorded was 17.2 degrees Celsius at rkm 0.2 on August 2, 2009. Minimum summer discharge in Buck Creek was 3.3 cubic feet per second downstream of an irrigation diversion (rkm 3.1) and 7.7 cubic feet per second at its confluence with the White Salmon River. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was the dominant fish species in all reaches. The abundance of age-1 or older rainbow trout was similar between reaches. However, in 2009 and 2010, the greatest abundance of age-0 rainbow trout (8 fish per meter) was in the most downstream reach. These analyses in Buck Creek are important for understanding the factors that may limit fish abundance and productivity, and they will help identify and prioritize potential restoration actions. The data collected constitute baseline information of pre-dam removal conditions that will allow assessment of changes in fish populations now that Condit Dam has

  18. 50 CFR 223.203 - Anadromous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contractors of the ODFW, WDFW (Agencies), IDFG, or CDFG (Agencies), or as a part of a monitoring and research... Screening Criteria for Anadromous Salmonids, January 1997” or with any subsequent revision. (ii) The owner... require a commitment of compensatory mitigation if implementation of the plan and schedule is...

  19. Cle Elum Lake Anadromous Salmon Restoration Feasibility Study: Summary of Research, 1986-1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Douglas

    2000-04-01

    The focus of this research was to study the feasibility for anadromous salmonids to recolonize the habitat above reservoirs in the Yakima River without disruption to irrigation withdrawals. A primary concern was whether anadromous fish could successfully exit reservoirs and survive downstream passage through the Yakima and Columbia Rivers to the ocean.

  20. Increased Levels of Harvest and Habitat Law Enforcement and Public Awareness for Anadromous Salmonids and Resident Fish in the Columbia River Basin -- Demonstration Period, 1992--1994, Final Report.

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    NeSmith, Frank (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID); Long, Mack (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Paks, Kalispell, MT); Matthews, Dayne (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    1995-06-01

    This report was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), US Department of Energy, as part of BPA`s program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Illegal harvest and violation of habitat protection regulations are factors affecting the survival of many native species of anadromous and resident fish in the Columbia Basin.

  1. Synthesis of Juvenile Salmonid Passage Studies at The Dalles Dam, Volume II, 2001-05

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    Johnson, Gary E.; Beeman, John W.; Duran, Ian; Puls, Andrew

    2007-08-15

    The overall goal of juvenile salmonid research at The Dalles Dam is to provide data to inform decisions on strategies to improve smolt survival rates at the project. Survival improvement strategies address the three primary passage routes at The Dalles Dam -- spillway, sluiceway, and turbines – with the general intent to increase spill and sluice passage and decrease turbine passage. Since the review by Ploskey et al. (2001a) of research during 1982-2000 at The Dalles Dam, the Corps funded over $20M of research in at least 39 studies during 2001-2006. The purpose of the current review is to synthesize juvenile salmonid passage data at The Dalles Dam (TDA) collected from 2001 through 2006. The data we synthesize comes from numerous research techniques employed to address particular study objectives at The Dalles Dam. The suite of techniques includes acoustic and radio telemetry, acoustic cameras, acoustic Doppler current profilers, balloon tags, computational fluid dynamics models, drogues, fixed and mobile hydroacoustics, fyke nets, physical scale models, PIT-tags, sensor fish, sonar trackers, and underwater video. Hydraulic data involves flow patterns and water velocities. Biological data involve forebay approach paths and residence times, horizontal and diel distributions, passage efficiencies and effectiveness, fish behaviors, tailrace egress and predation rates, and route-specific and total project survival rates. Data for 2001-2006 are synthesized in this report to provide, in conjunction with Ploskey et al. (2001a), resources for engineers, biologists, and dam operators to use when making decisions about fish protection measures for juvenile salmonids at The Dalles Dam. This review covers the major fish passage research efforts during 2001-2006 and includes sections on the Environmental Setting, Forebay and Project Passage Studies, Spill Studies, Sluiceway Studies, Turbine Studies, Smolt Survival Studies, and a Discussion.

  2. Comparative transcriptomics of anadromous and resident brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis before their first salt water transition

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Most salmonid taxa have an anadromous life history strategy, whereby fish migrate to saltwater habitats for a growth period before returning to freshwater habitats for spawning. Moreover, several species are characterized by different life history tactics whereby resident and anadromous forms may occur in genetically differentiated populations within a same species, as well as polymorphism within a population. The molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological differences between anadromou...

  3. The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Volume II: Experiment Salmonid Survival with Combined PIT-CWT Tagging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Ken

    1997-06-01

    Experiment designs to estimate the effect of transportation on survival and return rates of Columbia River system salmonids are discussed along with statistical modeling techniques. Besides transportation, river flow and dam spill are necessary components in the design and analysis otherwise questions as to the effects of reservoir drawdowns and increased dam spill may never be satisfactorily answered. Four criteria for comparing different experiment designs are: (1) feasibility, (2) clarity of results, (3) scope of inference, and (4) time to learn. In this report, alternative designs for conducting experimental manipulations of smolt tagging studies to study effects of river operations such as flow levels, spill fractions, and transporting outmigrating salmonids around dams in the Columbia River system are presented. The principles of study design discussed in this report have broad implications for the many studies proposed to investigate both smolt and adult survival relationships. The concepts are illustrated for the case of the design and analysis of smolt transportation experiments. The merits of proposed transportation studies should be measured relative to these principles of proper statistical design and analysis.

  4. Comparative transcriptomics of anadromous and resident brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis before their first salt water transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylène BOULET, Éric NORMANDEAU, Bérénice BOUGAS, Céline AUDET,Louis BERNATCHEZ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Most salmonid taxa have an anadromous life history strategy, whereby fish migrate to saltwater habitats for a growth period before returning to freshwater habitats for spawning. Moreover, several species are characterized by different life history tactics whereby resident and anadromous forms may occur in genetically differentiated populations within a same species, as well as polymorphism within a population. The molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological differences between anadromous and resident forms during the first transition from freshwater to saltwater environments are only partially understood. Insofar research has typically focused on species of the genus Salmo. Here, using a 16,000 cDNA array, we tested the hypothesis that anadromous brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis are characterized by differences in their transcriptome relative to resident brook charr before the anadromous fish migration. Families originating from parapatric populations of anadromous and resident charr were reared in controlled environments mimicking natural temperature and photoperiod, and sampled in spring, while still in fresh water. While anadromous and resident charr showed similar transcriptome profiles in white muscle, they were characterized by striking differences in their gill transcriptome profiles. Genes that were upregulated in the gills of anadromous charr were principally involved in metabolism (mitochondrial electron transport chain, glucose metabolism, and protein synthesis, development (tissue differentiation and innate immunity. We discuss the nature of these transcriptomic differences in relation to molecular mechanisms underlying the expression of anadromous and resident life history tactics and suggest that the anadromous charr express some of the molecular processes present in other migratory salmonids [Current Zoology 58 (1: 158–170, 2012].

  5. Comparative transcriptomics of anadromous and resident brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis before their first salt water transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marylène BOULET; (E)ric NORMANDEAU; Bérénice BOUGAS; Cé1ine AUDET; Louis BERNATCHEZ

    2012-01-01

    Most salmonid taxa have an anadromous life history strategy,whereby fish migrate to saltwater habitats for a growth period before returning to freshwater habitats for spawning.Moreover,several species are characterized by different life history tactics whereby resident and anadromous forms may occur in genetically differentiated populations within a same species,as well as polymorphism within a population.The molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological differences between anadromous and resident forms during the first transition from freshwater to saltwater environments are only partially understood.Insofar research has typically focused on species of the genus Salmo.Here,using a 16,000 cDNA array,we tested the hypothesis that anadromous brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis are characterized by differences in their transcriptome relative to resident brook charr before the anadromous fish migration.Families originating from parapatric populations of anadromous and resident charr were reared in controlled environments mimicking natural temperature and photoperiod,and sampled in spring,while still in fresh water.While anadromous and resident charr showed similar transcriptome profdes in white muscle,they were characterized by striking differences in their gill transcriptome profiles.Genes that were upregulated in the gills of anadromous charr were principally involved in metabolism (mitochondrial electron transport chain,glucose metabolism,and protein synthesis),development (tissue differentiation) and innate immunity.We discuss the nature of these transcriptomic differences in relation to molecular mechanisms underlying the expression of anadromous and resident life history tactics and suggest that the anadromous chart express some of the molecular processes present in other migratory salmonids [Current Zoology 58 (1):158-170,2012].

  6. Anadromous Salmonids in the Delta: New Science 2006–2016

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Russell W.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Brandes, Patricia L.; Burau, Jon R.; Israel, Joshua A.

    2016-01-01

    doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss2art7 As juvenile salmon enter the Sacramento–SanJoaquin River Delta (“the Delta”) they disperse among its complex channel network where they are subject to channel-specific processes that affect their rate of migration, vulnerability to predation, feeding success, growth rates, and ultimately, survival. In the decades before 2006, tools available to quantify growth, dispersal, and survival of juvenile salmon in this complex c...

  7. Anadromous salmonids in the Delta: New science 2006–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Brandes, Patricia L.; Burau, Jon R.; Israel, Joshua A

    2016-01-01

    As juvenile salmon enter the Sacramento–SanJoaquin River Delta (“the Delta”) they disperse among its complex channel network where they are subject to channel-specific processes that affect their rate of migration, vulnerability to predation, feeding success, growth rates, and ultimately, survival. In the decades before 2006, tools available to quantify growth, dispersal, and survival of juvenile salmon in this complex channel network were limited.Fortunately, thanks to technological advances such as acoustic telemetry and chemical and structural otolith analysis, much has been learned over the past decade about the role of the Delta in the life cycle of juvenile salmon. Here, we review new science between 2006and 2016 that sheds light on how different life stages and runs of juvenile salmon grow, move, and survive in the complex channel network of the Delta. One of the most important advances during the past decade has been the widespread adoption of acoustic telemetry techniques. Use of telemetry has shed light on how survival varies among alternative migration routes and the proportion of fish that use each migration route. Chemical and structural analysis of otoliths has provided insights about when juveniles left their natal river and provided evidence of extended rearing in the brackish or saltwater regions of the Delta. New advancements in genetics now allow individuals captured by trawls to be assigned to specific runs. Detailed information about movement and survival in the Delta has spurred development of agent-based models of juvenile salmon that are coupled to hydrodynamic models. Although much has been learned, knowledge gaps remain about how very small juvenile salmon (fry and parr) use the Delta. Understanding how all life stages of juvenile salmon grow, rear, and survive in the Delta is critical for devising management strategies that support a diversity of life history strategies.

  8. Annual Review of BPA-Funded Anadromous Fish Projects, March 18-20, 1986, Holiday Inn Airport, Portland, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1986-02-01

    This report contains descriptions of projects specifically related to anadromous salmonids. They include projects in the following categories: (1) fish and wildlife projects in western Montana; (2) fish health and physiology; (3) habitat enhancement and passage improvement - Oregon I; (4) passage improvement and natural propagation - Washington; (5) habitat enhancement and passage improvements - Oregon II; (6) future hydroelectric assessments; (7) habitat enhancement and passage improvement - Idaho; (8) downstream migration: flows and monitoring; (9) downstream migration: reservoir impacts; and (10) habitat evaluation and monitoring. (ACR)

  9. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Evaluating Wetland Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary using Hydroacoustic Telemetry Arrays to Estimate Movement, Survival, and Residence Times of Juvenile Salmonids, Volume XXII (22).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Russell W.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-08-01

    Wetlands in the Columbia River estuary are actively being restored by reconnecting these habitats to the estuary, making more wetland habitats available to rearing and migrating juvenile salmon. Concurrently, thousands of acoustically tagged juvenile salmonids are released into the Columbia River to estimate their survival as they migrate through the estuary. Here, we develop a release-recapture model that makes use of these tagged fish to measure the success of wetland restoration projects in terms of their contribution to populations of juvenile salmon. Specifically, our model estimates the fraction of the population that enter the wetland, survival within the wetland, and the mean residence time of fish within the wetland. Furthermore, survival in mainstem Columbia River downstream of the wetland can be compared between fish that remained the mainstem and entered the wetland. These conditional survival estimates provide a means of testing whether the wetland improves the subsequent survival of juvenile salmon by fostering growth or improving their condition. Implementing such a study requires little additional cost because it takes advantage of fish already released to estimate survival through the estuary. Thus, such a study extracts the maximum information at minimum cost from research projects that typically cost millions of dollars annually.

  10. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin. Volume III, Experiment Designs and Statistical Models to Estimate the Effect of Transportation on Survival of Columbia River System Salmonids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Ken

    1997-06-01

    Experiment designs to estimate the effect of transportation on survival and return rates of Columbia River system salmonids are discussed along with statistical modeling techniques. Besides transportation, river flow and dam spill are necessary components in the design and analysis, otherwise questions as to the effects of reservoir drawdowns and increased dam spill may never be satisfactorily answered. Four criteria for comparing different experiment designs are: (1) feasibility; (2) clarity of results; (3) scope of inference; and (4) time to learn. A controlled experiment with treatments that are a combination of transport status (transported or left in-river), river flow level, and dam spill level should provide the clearest results of transport effect. The potential for bias due to interactions between year effects and the treatments is minimized by running as many treatments as possible within a single outmigration year. Relatedly, the most rapid learning will occur if several different treatments are implemented at randomly chosen time periods within thesame outmigration season. If the range of flow and dam manipulation includes scenarios of interest to managers, the scope of inference should be satisfactory. On the other hand these designs may be the least feasible; trying to manage the river system under a sequence of deliberately chosen flow regimes within a single season, for example, may be quite impractical. At the other end of the spectrum are designs that simply have two treatment combinations, transportation and being left in-river, and the influence of flow and spill are controlled for, if possible, in after-the-fact statistical analysis. Because of possible confounding influences of flow and spill on the transportation effect, these designs could yield the most ambiguous results and require the most years of experimentation to learn. If flows and spill are not manipulated in a planned, well defined, and impartial manner the scope and quality of

  11. Predation by Resident Fish on Juvenile Salmonids in John Day Reservoir: Final Report, 1983-1986: Volume 1, Final Report of Research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poe, Thomas P.; Rieman, Bruce E.

    1988-07-01

    In 1982 the NPPC included in its Fish and Wildlife Program a measure that called for studies ''... to investigate juvenile salmon and steelhead losses to predators while these fish are migrating through Columbia and Snake River reservoirs.'' In the same year the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded ODFW and FWS to conduct collaborative studies to estimate the number of juvenile salmonids lost to predators in John Day Reservoir. Also included as study objectives were: (1) a description of the importance of predation losses relative to mortality at the dam and total reservoir mortality; (2) a description of how predation losses might vary (spatially and temporally); and (3) recommendations of measures to control predation on smolts. We studied four species of predator: northern squawfish, walleye, smallmouth bass, and channel catfish. We selected John Day Reservoir as the study site because the following factors led us to believe if predation was a problem in any reservoir, it would be most obvious there because: (1) the reservoir is an important subyearling chinook rearing area; (2) passage and residualism of juvenile salmonids were considered a problem there; and (3) substantial populations of predators were known to reside in the reservoir. Individual reports were processed separately for the data base.

  12. Predation by Resident Fish on Juvenile Salmonids in John Day Reservoir: Final Report, 1983-1986: Volume 2: Supplemental Papers and Data Documentation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poe, Thomas P.; Rieman, Bruce E.

    1988-07-01

    In 1982 the NPPC included in its Fish and Wildlife Program measure that called for studies ''... to investigate juvenile salmon and steelhead losses to predators while these fish are migrating through Columbia and Snake River reservoirs.'' In the same year the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded ODFW and FWS to conduct collaborative studies to estimate the number of juvenile salmoids lost to predators in John Day Reservoir. Also included as study objectives were: (1) a description of the importance of predation losses relative to mortality at the dam and total reservoir mortality; (2) a description of how predation losses might vary (spatially and temporally); and (3) recommendations of measures to control predation on smolts. We studied four species of predator; northern squawfish, walleye, smallmouth bass, and channel catfish. We selected John Day Reservoir as the study site because the following factors led us to believe if predation was a problem in any reservoir, it would be most obvious there because: (1) the reservoir is an important subyearling chinook rearing area; (2) passage and residualism of juvenile salmonids were considered a problem there; and (3) substantial populations of predators were known to reside in the reservoir. Individual reports were processed separately for the data base.

  13. Osmoregulatory actions of the GH/IGF axis in non-salmonid teleosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancera, J.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Salmonid fishes provided the first findings on the influence of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis on osmoregulation in teleost fishes. Recent studies on non-salmonid species, however, indicate that this physiological action of the GH/IGF-I axis is not restricted to salmonids or anadromous fishes. GH-producing cells in the pituitary of fish acclimated to different salinities show different degrees of activation depending on the species studied. Plasma GH levels either increase or do not change after transfer of fish from freshwater to seawater. Treatment with GH or IGF-I increases salinity tolerance and/or increases gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromis niloticus) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis). As in salmonids, a positive interaction between GH and cortisol for improving hypoosmoregulatory capacity has been described in tilapia (O. mossambicus). Research on the osmoregulatory role of the GH/IGF-I axis is derived from a small number of teleost species. The study of more species with different osmoregulary patterns will be necessary to fully clarify the osmoregulatory role of GH/IGF-I axis in fish. The available data does suggest, however, that the influence of the GH/IGF-I axis on osmoregulation may be a common feature of euryhalinity in teleosts. Copyright (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Inc.

  14. Protect Anadromous Salmonids in the Mainstem Corridor, Monitoring and Evaluation, Annual Report 200-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigg, Steven; Johnson, John

    2002-02-01

    In this annual Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) report to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), we summarize significant activities and performance measures resultant from enhanced protection by Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fisheries Enforcement (CRITFE) in the mainstem corridor (BPA Project 2000-056). This report covers the Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 performance period -- May 15, 2000 to May 14, 2001. Quarterly progress reports have previously been submitted to BPA and are posted on the M&E Web site (www.Eco-Law.net) -- for the time period April-December 2000 (Vigg 2000b,c,d) and for the period January-June 2001 (Vigg 2001a,b). We also present comprehensive data representing the first quarter of year 2000 in this report for a pre-project comparison. In addition, we have analyzed specific annual enforcement statistics to evaluate trends during the baseline period 1996-2000. Additional statistics and more years of comprehensive baseline data are now being summarized, and will be presented in future M&E annual reports--to provide a longer time series for evaluation of trends in input, output and outcome performance standards.

  15. marine survival ecosystem indicators - Estimating the ecosystem indicators of anadromous salmonids in the Puget Sound region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this project is to develop a simple approach for estimating the marine survival and causes of trends in survival. Data is a summary of ecosystem...

  16. Enloe Dam Passage Project, Volume I, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanning, M.L.

    1985-07-01

    This report discusses issues related to the provision of fish passage facilities at Enloe Dam and the introduction of anadromous salmonid fish to the upper Similkameen River basin. The species of fish being considered is a summer run of steelhead trout adapted to the upper Columbia basin. (ACR)

  17. Smallmouth bass and largemouth bass predation on juvenile Chinook salmon and other salmonids in the Lake Washington basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, R.A.; Footen, B.A.; Fresh, K.L.; Celedonia, M.T.; Mejia, F.; Low, D.L.; Park, L.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the impact of predation by smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu and largemouth bass M. salmoides on juveniles of federally listed Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and other anadromous salmonid populations in the Lake Washington system. Bass were collected with boat electrofishing equipment in the south end of Lake Washington (February-June) and the Lake Washington Ship Canal (LWSC; April-July), a narrow waterway that smolts must migrate through to reach the marine environment. Genetic analysis was used to identify ingested salmonids to obtain a more precise species-specific consumption estimate. Overall, we examined the stomachs of 783 smallmouth bass and 310 largemouth bass greater than 100 mm fork length (FL). Rates of predation on salmonids in the south end of Lake Washington were generally low for both black bass species. In the LWSC, juvenile salmonids made up a substantial part of bass diets; consumption of salmonids was lower for largemouth bass than for smallmouth bass. Smallmouth bass predation on juvenile salmonids was greatest in June, when salmonids made up approximately 50% of their diet. In the LWSC, overall black bass consumption of salmonids was approximately 36,000 (bioenergetics model) to 46,000 (meal turnover consumption model) juveniles, of which about one-third was juvenile Chinook salmon, one-third was coho salmon O. kisutch, and one-third was sockeye salmon O. nerka. We estimated that about 2,460,000 juvenile Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild sources combined) were produced in the Lake Washington basin in 1999; thus, the mortality estimates in the LWSC range from 0.5% (bioenergetics) to 0.6% (meal turnover). Black bass prey mostly on subyearlings of each salmonid species. The vulnerability of subyearlings to predation can be attributed to their relatively small size; their tendency to migrate when water temperatures exceed 15??C, coinciding with greater black bass activity; and their use of nearshore areas, where overlap

  18. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume I; Assessment of Temporal Trends in Daily Survival Estimates of Spring Chinook, 1994-1996 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Perez-Comas, Jose A.; Lady, Jim

    1998-10-01

    This report if the first of a series of reports produced by the University of Washington for the Bonneville Power Administration under the title ''The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin'', with the purpose of offering new and alternative methods to analyzing data from tagging studies in the Columbia Basin.

  19. A riverscape perspective of Pacific salmonids and aquatic habitats prior to large-scale dam removal in the Elwha River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkman, S.J.; Duda, J.J.; Torgersen, C.E.; Welty, E.; Pess, G.R.; Peters, R.; McHenry, M.L.

    2012-01-01

     Dam removal has been increasingly proposed as a river restoration technique. In 2011, two large hydroelectric dams will be removed from Washington State’s Elwha River. Ten anadromous fish populations are expected to recolonise historical habitats after dam removal. A key to understanding watershed recolonisation is the collection of spatially continuous information on fish and aquatic habitats. A riverscape approach with an emphasis on biological data has rarely been applied in mid-sized, wilderness rivers, particularly in consecutive years prior to dam removal. Concurrent snorkel and habitat surveys were conducted from the headwaters to the mouth (rkm 65–0) of the Elwha River in 2007 and 2008. This riverscape approach characterised the spatial extent, assemblage structure and patterns of relative density of Pacific salmonids. The presence of dams influenced the longitudinal patterns of fish assemblages, and species richness was the highest downstream of the dams, where anadromous salmonids still have access. The percent composition of salmonids was similar in both years for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), coastal cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii (Richardson) (89%; 88%), Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum) (8%; 9%), and bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus (Suckley) (3% in both years). Spatial patterns of abundance for rainbow and cutthroat trout (r = 0.76) and bull trout (r = 0.70) were also consistent between years. Multivariate and univariate methods detected differences in habitat structure along the river profile caused by natural and anthropogenic factors. The riverscape view highlighted species-specific biological hotspots and revealed that 60–69% of federally threatened bull trout occurred near or below the dams. Spatially continuous surveys will be vital in evaluating the effectiveness of upcoming dam removal projects at restoring anadromous salmonids.

  20. Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in Big Canyon Creek Watershed; Anadromous Fish Habitat Restoration in the Nichols Canyon Subwatershed, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziol, Deb (Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District, Lewiston, ID)

    2002-02-01

    Big Canyon Creek historically provided quality spawning and rearing habitat for A-run wild summer steelhead in the Clearwater River subbasin (Fuller, 1986). However, high stream temperatures, excessive sediment and nutrient loads, low summer stream flows, and little instream cover caused anadromous fish habitat constraints in the creek. The primary sources of these nonpoint source pollution and habitat degradations are attributed to agricultural, livestock, and forestry practices (NPSWCD, 1995). Addressing these problems is made more complex due to the large percentage of privately owned lands in the watershed. Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (NPSWCD) seeks to assist private, tribal, county, and state landowners in implementing Best Management Practices (BMPs) to reduce nonpoint source pollutants, repair poorly functioning riparian zones, and increase water retention in the Nichols Canyon subwatershed. The project funds coordination, planning, technical assistance, BMP design and installation, monitoring, and educational outreach to identify and correct problems associated with agricultural and livestock activities impacting water quality and salmonid survival. The project accelerates implementation of the Idaho agricultural water quality management program within the subwatershed.

  1. Seasonal Juvenile Salmonid Presence and Migratory Behavior in the Lower Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Welch, Ian D.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.

    2009-04-30

    To facilitate preparing Biological Assessments of proposed channel maintenance projects, the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to consolidate and synthesize available information about the use of the lower Columbia River and estuary by juvenile anadromous salmonids. The information to be synthesized included existing published documents as well as data from five years (2004-2008) of acoustic telemetry studies conducted in the Columbia River estuary using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System. For this synthesis, the Columbia River estuary includes the section of the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam at river kilometer (Rkm) 235 downstream to the mouth where it enters the Pacific Ocean. In this report, we summarize the seasonal salmonid presence and migration patterns in the Columbia River estuary based on information from published studies as well as relevant data from acoustic telemetry studies conducted by NOAA Fisheries and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) between 2004 and 2008. Recent acoustic telemetry studies, conducted using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS; developed by the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers), provided information on the migratory behavior of juvenile steelhead (O. mykiss) and Chinook salmon in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the Pacific Ocean. In this report, Section 2 provides a summary of information from published literature on the seasonal presence and migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River estuary and plume. Section 3 presents a detailed synthesis of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead migratory behavior based on use of the JSATS between 2004 and 2008. Section 4 provides a discussion of the information summarized in the report as well as information drawn from literature reviews on potential effects of channel maintenance activities to juvenile salmonids rearing in

  2. Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Carter, Jessica A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.

    2010-08-01

    The study reported herein was funded as part of the Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program, which is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program study code is EST P 02 01: A Study of Salmonid Survival and Behavior through the Columbia River Estuary Using Acoustic Tags. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries for the USACE Portland District. Estimated survival of acoustic-tagged juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead through the lower Columbia River and estuary in 2009 was lowest in the final 50 km of the estuary. Probability of survival was relatively high (>0.90) for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon from the Bonneville Dam forebay (rkm 236) to Three-tree Point (rkm 49.6). Survival of juvenile Chinook salmon declined sharply through the lower 50 km of the estuary. Acoustic-tagged steelhead smolts did not survive as well as juvenile Chinook salmon between Bonneville Dam and the mouth of the Columbia River. Steelhead survival began to decline farther upstream (at rkm 86) relative to that of the Chinook salmon stocks. Subyearling Chinook salmon survival decreased markedly as the season progressed. It remains to be determined whether later migrating subyearling Chinook salmon are suffering increasing mortality as the season progresses or whether some portion of the apparent loss is due to fish extending their freshwater residence. This study provided the first glimpse into what promises to be a very informative way to learn more about how juvenile salmonid passage experiences through the FCRPS may influence their subsequent survival after passing Bonneville Dam. New information regarding the influence of migration pathway through the lower 50 km of the Columbia River estuary on probability of survival of juvenile salmonids, combined with increased understanding regarding the foraging distances and time periods of

  3. Parasites as biological tags of marine, freshwater and anadromous fishes in North America from the Tropics to the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcogliese, David J; Jacobson, Kym C

    2015-01-01

    Parasites have been considered as natural biological tags of marine fish populations in North America for almost 75 years. In the Northwest Atlantic, the most studied species include Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and the redfishes (Sebastes spp.). In the North Pacific, research has centred primarily on salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.). However, parasites have been applied as tags for numerous other pelagic and demersal species on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Relatively few studies have been undertaken in the Arctic, and these were designed to discriminate anadromous and resident salmonids (Salvelinus spp.). Although rarely applied in fresh waters, parasites have been used to delineate certain fish stocks within the Great Lakes-St Lawrence River basin. Anisakid nematodes and the copepod Sphyrion lumpi frequently prove useful indicators in the Northwest Atlantic, while myxozoan parasites prove very effective on the coast and open seas of the Pacific Ocean. Relative differences in the ability of parasites to discriminate between fish stocks on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts may be due to oceanographic and bathymetric differences between regions. Molecular techniques used to differentiate populations and species of parasites show promise in future applications in the field.

  4. Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Lapwai Creek Watershed, Technical Report 2003-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn

    2007-02-01

    The Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Lapwai Creek Watershed is a multi-phase project to enhance steelhead trout in the Lapwai Creek watershed by improving salmonid spawning and rearing habitat. Habitat is limited by extreme high runoff events, low summer flows, high water temperatures, poor instream cover, spawning gravel siltation, and sediment, nutrient and bacteria loading. Funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the project assists in mitigating damage to steelhead runs caused by the Columbia River hydroelectric dams. The project is sponsored by the Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District). Target fish species include steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Steelhead trout within the Snake River Basin were listed in 1997 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Accomplishments for the contract period December 1, 2003 through February 28, 2004 include; seven grade stabilization structures, 0.67 acres of wetland plantings, ten acres tree planting, 500 linear feet streambank erosion control, two acres grass seeding, and 120 acres weed control.

  5. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume V; Analysis of In-River Growth for PIT-Tagged Spring Chinook Smolt, 1999 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Comas, Jose A.; Skalski, John R. (University of Washington, School Fisheries, Seattle, WA)

    1999-07-01

    The length of tagged fish is often measured at the release site and at least one downstream detection site for many PIT-tagged releases, enabling the study of growth of a particular salmonid species, run, year-class and rearing type, during their downstream migration. The purpose of this report is to suggest an approach to analyze the in-river growth of PIT-tagged salmonid yearlings. Since the age of the tagged fish is unknown, its growth must be assessed by means of the relationships between the release and recovery sizes of tagged fish, and between those and the time elapsed between release and recovery. Analyses of this type require adequate samples. A simple three-step protocol for selecting adequate data for unbiased samples is provided. Three methods: Walford's lines, Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests and one-tail paired t-tests, are suggested as analytical tools and applied to detect in-river growth from selected samples of PIT-tagged spring chinook yearlings. Finally, the between-sample comparison of growth rates by means of a simple linear model is discussed.

  6. CTUIR Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project : A Columbia River Basin Fish Habitat Project 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoverson, Eric D.; Amonette, Alexandra

    2009-02-09

    The Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project (UAFHP) is an ongoing effort to protect, enhance, and restore riparian and instream habitat for the natural production of anadromous salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin, Northeast Oregon. Flow quantity, water temperature, passage, and lack of in-stream channel complexity have been identified as the key limiting factors in the basin. During the 2008 Fiscal Year (FY) reporting period (February 1, 2008-January 31, 2009) primary project activities focused on improving instream and riparian habitat complexity, migrational passage, and restoring natural channel morphology and floodplain function. Eight primary fisheries habitat enhancement projects were implemented on Meacham Creek, Birch Creek, West Birch Creek, McKay Creek, West Fork Spring Hollow, and the Umatilla River. Specific restoration actions included: (1) rectifying one fish passage barrier on West Birch Creek; (2) participating in six projects planting 10,000 trees and seeding 3225 pounds of native grasses; (3) donating 1000 ft of fencing and 1208 fence posts and associated hardware for 3.6 miles of livestock exclusion fencing projects in riparian areas of West Birch and Meacham Creek, and for tree screens to protect against beaver damage on West Fork Spring Hollow Creek; (4) using biological control (insects) to reduce noxious weeds on three treatment areas covering five acres on Meacham Creek; (5) planning activities for a levee setback project on Meacham Creek. We participated in additional secondary projects as opportunities arose. Baseline and ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities were also completed on major project areas such as conducting photo point monitoring strategies activities at the Meacham Creek Large Wood Implementation Project site (FY2006) and at additional easements and planned project sites. Fish surveys and aquatic habitat inventories were conducted at project sites prior to implementation. Proper selection and implementation of

  7. Okanogan Subbasin Water Quality and Quantity Report for Anadromous Fish in 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colville Tribes, Department of Fish & Wildlife

    2007-12-01

    Fish need water of sufficient quality and quantity in order to survive and reproduce. The list of primary water quality indicators appropriate for monitoring of anadromous fish, as identified by the Upper Columbia Monitoring Strategy, includes: discharge, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, conductivity, nitrogen, phosphorus and ammonia. The Colville Tribes Fish and Wildlife Department began evaluating these water quality indicators in 2005 and this report represents data collected from October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006. We collected empirical status and trend data from various sources to evaluate each water quality indicator along the main stem Okanogan and Similkameen Rivers along with several tributary streams. Each water quality indicator was evaluated based upon potential impacts to salmonid survival or productivity. Specific conductance levels and all nutrient indicators remained at levels acceptable for growth, survival, and reproduction of salmon and steelhead. These indicators were also considered of marginal value for monitoring environmental conditions related to salmonids within the Okanogan subbasin. However, discharge, temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and pH in that order represent the water quality indicators that are most useful for monitoring watershed health and habitat changes and will help to evaluate threats or changes related to salmon and steelhead restoration and recovery. On the Okanogan River minimum flows have decreased over the last 12 years at a rate of -28.3CFS/year as measured near the town of Malott, WA. This trend is not beneficial for salmonid production and efforts to reverse this trend should be strongly encouraged. Turbidity levels in Bonaparte and Omak Creek were a concern because they had the highest monthly average readings. Major upland disturbance in the Bonaparte Creek watershed has occurred for decades and agricultural practices within the riparian areas along this creek have lead to major

  8. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-04-01

    The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been proposed to offset this nutrient deficit including: allowing greater salmon spawning escapement, stocking hatchery salmon carcasses, and stocking inorganic nutrients. Unfortunately, each of these methods has some ecological or socio-economic shortcoming. We intend to overcome many of these shortcomings by making and evaluating a pathogen free product that simulates a salmon carcass (analog). Abundant sources of marine derived nutrients are available such as fish offal from commercial fishing and salmon carcasses from hatcheries. However, a method for recycling these nutrients into a pathogen free analog that degrades at a similar rate as a natural salmon carcass has never been developed. We endeavored to (1) develop a salmon carcass analog that will increase the food available to salmonids, (2) determine the pathways that salmonids use to acquire food from analogs, and (3) determine the benefits to salmonids and the potential for application to salmonid restoration. We used a before-after-control-impact-paired design in six tributaries of the upper Yakima basin to determine the utility of stocking carcass analogs. Our preliminary results suggest that the introduction of carcass analogs into food-limited streams can be used to restore food pathways previously provided by anadromous salmon. The analogs probably reproduced both of the major food pathways that salmon carcasses produce: direct consumption and food chain enhancement. Trout and salmon fed directly on the carcass analogs during the late summer and presumably benefited from the increased

  9. Elwha genetics - Elwha river salmonid genetics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Elwha Dam is in the process of being removed, with fish restoration to occur in areas previously inaccessible to salmonids. Fish recovery anticipates that...

  10. Non-Salmonid Abundance - Line Features [ds186

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. The "Other Fish" category contains data collected...

  11. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Klickitat River Tributaries, 2001-2005 Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zendt, Joe; Sharp, Bill (Yakama Nation Fisheries, Toppenish, WA)

    2006-09-01

    This report describes the work completed by the Yakama Nation Fisheries Program (YNFP) in the Klickitat subbasin in south-central Washington under BPA innovative project No.200105500--Influences of stocking salmon carcass analogs on salmonids in Columbia River Tributaries. Salmon carcasses historically provided a significant source of marine-derived nutrients to many stream systems in the Columbia basin, and decreased run sizes have led to a loss of this nutrient source in many streams. Partners in this project developed a pathogen-free carcass analog and stocked the analogs in streams with the following objectives: restoring food availability to streams with reduced anadromous salmon returns; mimicking the natural pathways and timing of food acquisition by salmonids; minimizing unintended negative ecological effects; and increasing the growth and survival of salmonids. In the Klickitat subbasin, carcass analogs were stocked in two streams in 2002 and 2003; a third stream was used as a control. Salmonid fish abundance, growth, and stomach contents were monitored in all three streams before and after carcass analog placement. Fish, invertebrate, and periphyton samples were also collected for stable isotope analysis (to determine if nutrients from carcass analogs were incorporated into the stream food web). Water quality samples were also collected to determine if nutrient overloading occurred in streams. Significant differences in growth were found between fish in treated and untreated stream reaches. Fish in treatment reaches exhibited higher instantaneous growth rates approximately one month after the first carcass analog stocking. Stomach contents sampling indicated that salmonid fish routinely consumed the carcass analog material directly, and that stomach fullness of fish in treatment reaches was higher than in untreated reaches in the first few weeks following carcass analog stockings. No significant differences were detected in fish abundance between

  12. A review of the likely effects of climate change on anadromous Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and brown trout Salmo trutta, with particular reference to water temperature and flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, B; Jonsson, N

    2009-12-01

    The present paper reviews the effects of water temperature and flow on migrations, embryonic development, hatching, emergence, growth and life-history traits in light of the ongoing climate change with emphasis on anadromous Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and brown trout Salmo trutta. The expected climate change in the Atlantic is for milder and wetter winters, with more precipitation falling as rain and less as snow, decrease in ice-covered periods and frequent periods with extreme weather. Overall, thermal limits for salmonids are species specific. Scope for activity and growth and optimal temperature for growth increase with temperature to an optimal point before constrain by the oxygen content of the water. The optimal temperature for growth decreases with increasing fish size and varies little among populations within species, whereas the growth efficiency may be locally adapted to the temperature conditions of the home stream during the growth season. Indirectly, temperature influences age and size at smolting through its effect on growth. Time of spawning, egg hatching and emergence of the larvae vary with temperature and selective effects on time of first feeding. Traits such as age at first maturity, longevity and fecundity decrease with increasing temperature whilst egg size increases with temperature. Water flow influences the accessibility of rivers for returning adults and speed of both upstream and downstream migration. Extremes in water flow and temperature can decrease recruitment and survival. There is reason to expect a northward movement of the thermal niche of anadromous salmonids with decreased production and population extinction in the southern part of the distribution areas, migrations earlier in the season, later spawning, younger age at smolting and sexual maturity and increased disease susceptibility and mortality. Future research challenges are summarized at the end of the paper.

  13. Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in Big Canyon Creek Watershed, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn (Nez Perce Soil and Conservation District, Lewiston, ID)

    2006-07-01

    The ''Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Big Canyon Creek Watershed'' is a multi-phase project to enhance steelhead trout in the Big Canyon Creek watershed by improving salmonid spawning and rearing habitat. Habitat is limited by extreme high runoff events, low summer flows, high water temperatures, poor instream cover, spawning gravel siltation, and sediment, nutrient and bacteria loading. Funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the project assists in mitigating damage to steelhead runs caused by the Columbia River hydroelectric dams. The project is sponsored by the Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District. Target fish species include steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Steelhead trout within the Snake River Basin were listed in 1997 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Accomplishments for the contract period September 1, 2004 through October 31, 2005 include; 2.7 riparian miles treated, 3.0 wetland acres treated, 5,263.3 upland acres treated, 106.5 riparian acres treated, 76,285 general public reached, 3,000 students reached, 40 teachers reached, 18 maintenance plans completed, temperature data collected at 6 sites, 8 landowner applications received and processed, 14 land inventories completed, 58 habitat improvement project designs completed, 5 newsletters published, 6 habitat plans completed, 34 projects installed, 2 educational workshops, 6 displays, 1 television segment, 2 public service announcements, a noxious weed GIS coverage, and completion of NEPA, ESA, and cultural resources requirements.

  14. Introduced northern pike consumption of salmonids in Southcentral Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Dupuis, Aaron W; Shields, Patrick A; Dunker, Kristine J.

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of introduced northern pike (Esox lucius) on salmonid populations have attracted much attention because salmonids are popular subsistence, sport and commercial fish. Concern over the predatory effects of introduced pike on salmonids is especially high in Southcentral Alaska, where pike were illegally introduced to the Susitna River basin in the 1950s. We used pike abundance, growth, and diet estimates and bioenergetics models to characterise the realised and potential consumptive impacts that introduced pike (age 2 and older) have on salmonids in Alexander Creek, a tributary to the Susitna River. We found that juvenile salmonids were the dominant prey item in pike diets and that pike could consume up to 1.10 metric tons (realised consumption) and 1.66 metric tons (potential consumption) of juvenile salmonids in a summer. Age 3–4 pike had the highest per capita consumption of juvenile salmonids, and age 2 and age 3–4 pike had the highest overall consumption of juvenile salmonid biomass. Using historical data on Chinook salmon and pike potential consumption of juvenile salmonids, we found that pike consumption of juvenile salmonids may lead to collapsed salmon stocks in Alexander Creek. Taken together, our results indicate that pike consume a substantial biomass of juvenile salmonids in Alexander Creek and that coexistence of pike and salmon is unlikely without management actions to reduce or eliminate introduced pike.

  15. Next-generation salmonid alphavirus vaccine development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikke, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aquaculture is essential to meet the current and future demands for seafood to feed the world population. Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout are two of the most cultured aquaculture species. A pathogen that threatens these species is salmonid alphavirus (SAV). A current inactivated virus vac

  16. Some myxosporidia found in Pacific Northwest salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, W.T.; Wood, E.M.

    1957-01-01

    During the histological examination of a group of wild and hatchery salmonids undescribed sporazoans were frequently observed. This was not unexpected, since Myxosporidia are typical fish parasites (Kudo, 1920). Myxidium were observed in kidney tubules, Cholromyxum in glomeruli, and Myxobous in the spinal cord and on epidermal scales. The present paper will deal with the description and indentification of these unclassified Myxosporodia.

  17. Confederated Tribes Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project : A Columbia River Basin Fish Habitat Project : Annual Report Fiscal Year 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoverson, Eric D.; Amonette, Alexandra

    2008-12-02

    The Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project (UAFHP) is an ongoing effort to protect, enhance, and restore riparian and instream habitat for the natural production of anadromous salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin, Northeast Oregon. Flow quantity, water temperature, passage, and lack of in-stream channel complexity have been identified as the key limiting factors in the basin. During the 2007 Fiscal Year (FY) reporting period (February 1, 2007-January 31, 2008) primary project activities focused on improving instream and riparian habitat complexity, migrational passage, and restoring natural channel morphology and floodplain function. Eight fisheries habitat enhancement projects were implemented on Meacham Creek, Camp Creek, Greasewood Creek, Birch Creek, West Birch Creek, and the Umatilla River. Specific restoration actions included: (1) rectifying five fish passage barriers on four creeks, (2) planting 1,275 saplings and seeding 130 pounds of native grasses, (3) constructing two miles of riparian fencing for livestock exclusion, (4) coordinating activities related to the installation of two off-channel, solar-powered watering areas for livestock, and (5) developing eight water gap access sites to reduce impacts from livestock. Baseline and ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities were also completed on major project areas such as conducting photo point monitoring strategies activities at the Meacham Creek Large Wood Implementation Project site (FY2006) and at all existing easements and planned project sites. Fish surveys and aquatic habitat inventories were conducted at project sites prior to implementation. Monitoring plans will continue throughout the life of each project to oversee progression and inspire timely managerial actions. Twenty-seven conservation easements were maintained with 23 landowners. Permitting applications for planned project activities and biological opinions were written and approved. Project activities were based on a variety

  18. Effectiveness of a redesigned water diversion using rock vortex weirs to enhance longitudinal connectivity for small Salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Kyle D.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    For nearly 100 years, water diversions have affected fish passage in Beaver Creek, a tributary of the lower Methow River in north-central Washington State. From 2000 to 2004, four dam-style water diversions were replaced with a series of rock vortex weirs (RVWs). The weirs were designed to allow fish passage while maintaining the ability to divert water into irrigation canals. We observed the new appearance of three species (juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, juvenile coho salmon O. kisutch, and mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni) upstream of the RVWs, indicating successful restoration of longitudinal connectivity. We used passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and instream PIT tag interrogation systems during 2004–2007 to evaluate upstream passage of small salmonids (<240 mm fork length) through one series of RVWs. We documented 109 upstream passage events by small salmonids through the series of RVWs; most of the events (81%) involved passage of rainbow trout O. mykiss or juvenile steelhead (anadromous rainbow trout). Small rainbow trout or steelhead ranging from 86 to 238 mm (adjusted fork length) were able to pass upstream through the RVWs, although a delay in fish passage at discharges below 0.32 m3/s was detected in comparison with nearby control sections.

  19. 76 FR 6401 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... opportunity for public comment. The Puget Sound Treaty Tribes and the Washington Department of Fish...

  20. Demonstration of the salmonid humoral response to Renibacterium salmoninarum using a monoclonal antibody against salmonid immunoglobulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, J.L.; Arkoosh , M.R.; Rohovec, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    The specificity of the antibody response of salmonids to Renibacterium salmoninarum antigens was demonstrated by western blotting techniques that utilized a monoclonal antibody against salmonid immunoglobulin. In this study, the specificity of the response in immunized chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytschawas compared with the response in naturally infected chinook salmon and coho salmon O. kisutch, and immunized rabbits. The antibody response in immunized salmon and rabbits and the naturally infected fish was primarily against the 57–58kilodalton protein complex. In addition to recognizing these proteins in the extracellular fraction and whole-cell preparations, antibody from the immunized salmon and rabbits detected four proteins with lower molecular masses. Western blotting techniques allow identification of the specific antigens recognized and are a useful tool for comparing the immunogenicity of different R. salmoninarumpreparations. Immunofluorescent techniques with whole bacteria were less sensitive than western blotting in detecting salmonid anti-R. salmoninarumantibody.

  1. Introduced northern pike predation on salmonids in southcentral Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Ivey, Sam S.; Dunker, Kristine J.; Gross, Jackson A.

    2013-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius) are opportunistic predators that can switch to alternative prey species after preferred prey have declined. This trophic adaptability allows invasive pike to have negative effects on aquatic food webs. In Southcentral Alaska, invasive pike are a substantial concern because they have spread to important spawning and rearing habitat for salmonids and are hypothesised to be responsible for recent salmonid declines. We described the relative importance of salmonids and other prey species to pike diets in the Deshka River and Alexander Creek in Southcentral Alaska. Salmonids were once abundant in both rivers, but they are now rare in Alexander Creek. In the Deshka River, we found that juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) dominated pike diets and that small pike consumed more of these salmonids than large pike. In Alexander Creek, pike diets reflected the distribution of spawning salmonids, which decrease with distance upstream. Although salmonids dominated pike diets in the lowest reach of the stream, Arctic lamprey (Lampetra camtschatica) and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) dominated pike diets in the middle and upper reaches. In both rivers, pike density did not influence diet and pike consumed smaller prey items than predicted by their gape-width. Our data suggest that (1) juvenile salmonids are a dominant prey item for pike, (2) small pike are the primary consumers of juvenile salmonids and (3) pike consume other native fish species when juvenile salmonids are less abundant. Implications of this trophic adaptability are that invasive pike can continue to increase while driving multiple species to low abundance.

  2. A highly permeable species boundary between two anadromous fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, I; Rountree, V; King, J J; Roche, W K; Mariani, S

    2010-10-01

    Meristic identification, mitochondrial DNA and a suite of microsatellite markers were employed to estimate the incidence of hybridization in wild populations of anadromous Allis shad Alosa alosa and twaite shad Alosa fallax in southern Irish riverine and estuarine waters. It was shown that 16% of the fishes examined were misclassified using meristic count of gill rakers. Next, a significant proportion of fishes that were robustly assigned to a species using nuclear markers were shown to possess the mtDNA of the other. The genomes of A. alosa and A. fallax in Ireland are extensively introgressed, which suggests a complex history of hybridization between these species, which can only partially be explained by recent man-made habitat changes.

  3. An economic evaluation of Columbia River anadromous fish programs: A preliminary study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper evaluates the economics of the Columbia River anadromous fish programs. The paper begins with a description of the Columbia River watershed and discusses...

  4. Characterizing the distribution of an endangered salmonid using environmental DNA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramie, Matthew B.; Pilliod, David S.; Goldberg, Caren S.

    2015-01-01

    Determining species distributions accurately is crucial to developing conservation and management strategies for imperiled species, but a challenging task for small populations. We evaluated the efficacy of environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis for improving detection and thus potentially refining the known distribution of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Methow and Okanogan Subbasins of the Upper Columbia River, which span the border between Washington, USA and British Columbia, Canada. We developed an assay to target a 90 base pair sequence of Chinook DNA and used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to quantify the amount of Chinook eDNA in triplicate 1-L water samples collected at 48 stream locations in June and again in August 2012. The overall probability of detecting Chinook with our eDNA method in areas within the known distribution was 0.77 (±0.05 SE). Detection probability was lower in June (0.62, ±0.08 SE) during high flows and at the beginning of spring Chinook migration than during base flows in August (0.93, ±0.04 SE). In the Methow subbasin, mean eDNA concentration was higher in August compared to June, especially in smaller tributaries, probably resulting from the arrival of spring Chinook adults, reduced discharge, or both. Chinook eDNA concentrations did not appear to change in the Okanogan subbasin from June to August. Contrary to our expectations about downstream eDNA accumulation, Chinook eDNA did not decrease in concentration in upstream reaches (0–120 km). Further examination of factors influencing spatial distribution of eDNA in lotic systems may allow for greater inference of local population densities along stream networks or watersheds. These results demonstrate the potential effectiveness of eDNA detection methods for determining landscape-level distribution of anadromous salmonids in large river systems.

  5. Fish Remains from Nahas Cave: Archaeological Evidence of Anadromous Fishes in Southwestern Idaho

    OpenAIRE

    Plew, Mark G.

    1980-01-01

    The anadromous fish runs of the Snake and Owyhee rivers and their tributaries have provided an important element of interpretations of native subsistence in southwestern Idaho (see Butler 1978:30-31; Pavesic 1978; Swanson 1965). Prior to the development of major water control systems in the Northwest, anadromous fishes migrated as far east in the Snake River as Shoshone Falls, located adjacent to the present city of Twin Falls, Idaho, and into the Owyhee River (Evermann 1896, 1897; see also S...

  6. Virulence of Renibacterium salmoninarum to salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, C.E.; Smith, D.R.; Shatzer, T.

    1997-01-01

    Virulence of Renibacterium salmoninarum isolates representing five origins was evaluated in eight salmonid hosts; four origins were of Lake Michigan and the fifth was of the Pacific Northwest. The species type strain, ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) 33209, was also included. Each isolate was grown in a kidney disease medium (KDM2) supplemented with 1 % ATCC 33209 culture metabolite; serial 10-fold dilutions were prepared, and groups of fish were challenged by intraperitoneal injection with 0.1 mL of each dilution. A 70-d observation period followed, and bacterial kidney disease (BKD) was diagnosed by the fluorescent antibody technique. Virulence of isolates was quantified as a dose lethal to 50% of fish (LD50) for each host–isolate challenge. In the first set of experiments, 23 isolates were used to challenge groups of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. The mean LD50 was 1.087 x 106 colony-forming units per milliliter (cfu/mL; SD = 2.022 x 106), and the LD50 values ranged from 8.457 x 106 to 2.227 x 104 cfu/mL. Analysis of variance to evaluate the effect of isolate origin on virulence in brook trout revealed no significant difference (F = 1.502; P = 0.243). Susceptibilities of the other salmonid hosts were evaluated by challenge with six isolates of R. salmoninarum representing each origin and the species type strain. For many of the host–isolate challenge combinations, time to death was highly dependent on the dilution (number of bacteria) injected. In general, the isolates MCO4M, B26, and A34 (all of Lake Michigan origin) tended to be more virulent. Also, LD50 values were dispersed throughout a wider range among the more susceptible hosts. Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and brook trout were relatively resistant to challenge with the strains, whereas coho salmon O. kisutch, domestic Atlantic salmon Saltno salar, and chinook salmon O. tshawytscha were relatively susceptible. Another challenge evaluated the effect of

  7. Ultrastructural morphogenesis of salmonid alphavirus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, T K; Ferguson, H W; Thompson, K D; Adams, A; Richards, R H

    2012-11-01

    Studies on the ultrastructural morphogenesis of viruses give an insight into how the host cell mechanisms are utilized for new virion synthesis. A time course examining salmonid alphavirus 1 (SAV 1) assembly was performed by culturing the virus on Chinook salmon embryo cells (CHSE-214). Different stages of viral replication were observed under electron microscopy. Virus-like particles were observed inside membrane-bound vesicles as early as 1 h following contact of the virus with the cells. Membrane-dependent replication complexes were observed in the cytoplasm of the cells, with spherules found at the periphery of late endosome-like vacuoles. The use of intracellular membranes for RNA replication is similar to other positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses. The number of Golgi apparatus and associated vacuoles characterized by 'fuzzy'-coated membranes was greater in virus-infected cells. The mature enveloped virions started to bud out from the cells at approximately 24 h post-infection. These observations suggest that the pathway used by SAV 1 for the generation of new virus particles in vitro is comparable to viral replication observed with mammalian alphaviruses but with some interesting differences.

  8. Salmonid-egg floating boxes as bioindication for riverine water quality and stocking success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pander, J; Geist, J

    2010-06-01

    The salmonid-egg floating box provides an easy bioindication tool for an assessment of water quality, as demonstrated here for the reintroduction of Europe's largest salmonid species, the huchen Hucho hucho.

  9. Contribution of anadromous fish to the diet of European catfish in a large river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syväranta, Jari; Cucherousset, Julien; Kopp, Dorothée; Martino, Aurélia; Céréghino, Régis; Santoul, Frédéric

    2009-05-01

    Many anadromous fish species, when migrating from the sea to spawn in fresh waters, can potentially be a valuable prey for larger predatory fish, thereby efficiently linking these two ecosystems. Here, we assess the contribution of anadromous fish to the diet of European catfish ( Silurus glanis) in a large river system (Garonne, southwestern France) using stable isotope analysis and allis shad ( Alosa alosa) as an example of anadromous fish. Allis shad caught in the Garonne had a very distinct marine δ13C value, over 8‰ higher after lipid extraction compared to the mean δ13C value of all other potential freshwater prey fish. The δ13C values of European catfish varied considerably between these two extremes and some individuals were clearly specializing on freshwater prey, whereas others specialized on anadromous fish. The mean contribution of anadromous fish to the entire European catfish population was estimated to be between 53% and 65%, depending on the fractionation factor used for δ13C.

  10. Turbulence Investigation and Reproduction for Assisting Downstream Migrating Juvenile Salmonids, Part II of II; Effects of Induced Turbulence on Behavior of Juvenile Salmon, 2001-2005 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Russell W.; Farley, M. Jared; Hansen, Gabriel S. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

    2005-07-01

    Passage through dams is a major source of mortality of anadromous juvenile salmonids because some populations must negotiate up to eight dams in Columbia and Snake rivers. Dams cause direct mortality when fish pass through turbines, but dams may also cause indirect mortality by altering migration conditions in rivers. Forebays immediately upstream of dams have decreased the water velocity of rivers and may contribute substantially to the total migration delay of juvenile salmonids. Recently, Coutant (2001a) suggested that in addition to low water velocities, lack of natural turbulence may contribute to migration delay by causing fish to lose directional cues. Coutant (2001a) further hypothesized that restoring turbulence in dam forebays may reduce migration delay by providing directional cues that allow fish to find passage routes more quickly (Coutant 2001a). Although field experiments have yielded proof of the concept of using induced turbulence to guide fish to safe passage routes, little is known about mechanisms actually causing behavioral changes. To test hypotheses about how turbulence influences movement and behavior of migrating juvenile salmonids, we conducted two types of controlled experiments at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington. A common measure of migration delay is the elapsed time between arrival at, and passage through, a dam. Therefore, for the first set of experiments, we tested the effect of induced turbulence on the elapsed time needed for fish to traverse through a raceway and pass over a weir at its downstream end (time trial experiment). If turbulence helps guide fish to passage routes, then fish should pass through the raceway quicker in the presence of appropriately scaled and directed turbulent cues. Second, little is known about how the physical properties of water movement provide directional cues to migrating juvenile salmonids. To examine the feasibility of guiding fish with turbulence, we tested whether directed turbulence could guide

  11. Turbulence investigation and reproduction for assisting downstream migrating juvenile salmonids, Part II of II: Effects of induced turbulence on behavior of juvenile salmon, 2001-2005 final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R.; Farley , M.; Hansen, G.; Morse , J.; Rondorf, D.

    2005-01-01

    Passage through dams is a major source of mortality of anadromous juvenile salmonids because some populations must negotiate up to eight dams in Columbia and Snake rivers. Dams cause direct mortality when fish pass through turbines, but dams may also cause indirect mortality by altering migration conditions in rivers. Forebays immediately upstream of dams have decreased the water velocity of rivers and may contribute substantially to the total migration delay of juvenile salmonids. Recently, Coutant (2001a) suggested that in addition to low water velocities, lack of natural turbulence may contribute to migration delay by causing fish to lose directional cues. Coutant (2001a) further hypothesized that restoring turbulence in dam forebays may reduce migration delay by providing directional cues that allow fish to find passage routes more quickly (Coutant 2001a). Although field experiments have yielded proof of the concept of using induced turbulence to guide fish to safe passage routes, little is known about mechanisms actually causing behavioral changes. To test hypotheses about how turbulence influences movement and behavior of migrating juvenile salmonids, we conducted two types of controlled experiments at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington. A common measure of migration delay is the elapsed time between arrival at, and passage through, a dam. Therefore, for the first set of experiments, we tested the effect of induced turbulence on the elapsed time needed for fish to traverse through a raceway and pass over a weir at its downstream end (time trial experiment). If turbulence helps guide fish to passage routes, then fish should pass through the raceway quicker in the presence of appropriately scaled and directed turbulent cues. Second, little is known about how the physical properties of water movement provide directional cues to migrating juvenile salmonids. To examine the feasibility of guiding fish with turbulence, we tested whether directed turbulence could guide

  12. Sustaining salmonid populations: A caring understanding of naturalness of taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J.L.; Regier, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Species of the family of Salmonidae occur naturally in Northern Hemisphere waters that remain clear and cool to cold in summer. For purposes of reproduction, salmonids generally behaviorally respond to the currents of streams and lakes in recently glaciated areas. For feeding and maturation, many larger species migrate into existing systems of large lakes, seas, and oceans. The subfamilies include Salmoninae, Coregoninae, and Thymallinae. In many locales and regions of the hemisphere, numerous species of these subfamilies evolved and self-organized into species flocks or taxocenes of bewildering complexity. For example, any individual species may play different or unique ecological roles in different taxocenes. The northern Pacific and Atlantic Ocean ecosystems, with their seas and tributaries, each contained a metacomplex of such taxocenes that, in their natural state some centuries ago, resembled each other but differed in many ways. Humans have valued all species of this family for subsistence, ceremonial, naturalist, gustatory, angling, and commercial reasons for centuries. Modern progressive humans (MPHs), whose industrial and commercial enterprises have gradually spread over this hemisphere in recent time, now affect aquatic ecosystems at all scales from local to global. These human effects mingle in complex ways that together induce uniquely natural salmonid taxocenes to disintegrate with the loss of species, including those groups least tolerant to human manipulations, but extending more recently to those taxa more adapted to anthropogenic change. As we leave the modern era, dominated by MPHs, will we find ways to live sustainably with salmonid taxocenes that still exhibit self-organizational integrity, or will only individual, isolated populations of salmonid species, derived from those most tolerant of MPHs, survive? To achieve future sustainability of salmonids, we suggest implementation of a search for intuitive knowledge based on faith in the wisdom of

  13. A salmonid EST genomic study: genes, duplications, phylogeny and microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmbhatt Sonal

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonids are of interest because of their relatively recent genome duplication, and their extensive use in wild fisheries and aquaculture. A comprehensive gene list and a comparison of genes in some of the different species provide valuable genomic information for one of the most widely studied groups of fish. Results 298,304 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from Atlantic salmon (69% of the total, 11,664 chinook, 10,813 sockeye, 10,051 brook trout, 10,975 grayling, 8,630 lake whitefish, and 3,624 northern pike ESTs were obtained in this study and have been deposited into the public databases. Contigs were built and putative full-length Atlantic salmon clones have been identified. A database containing ESTs, assemblies, consensus sequences, open reading frames, gene predictions and putative annotation is available. The overall similarity between Atlantic salmon ESTs and those of rainbow trout, chinook, sockeye, brook trout, grayling, lake whitefish, northern pike and rainbow smelt is 93.4, 94.2, 94.6, 94.4, 92.5, 91.7, 89.6, and 86.2% respectively. An analysis of 78 transcript sets show Salmo as a sister group to Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus within Salmoninae, and Thymallinae as a sister group to Salmoninae and Coregoninae within Salmonidae. Extensive gene duplication is consistent with a genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids. Using all of the available EST data, a new expanded salmonid cDNA microarray of 32,000 features was created. Cross-species hybridizations to this cDNA microarray indicate that this resource will be useful for studies of all 68 salmonid species. Conclusion An extensive collection and analysis of salmonid RNA putative transcripts indicate that Pacific salmon, Atlantic salmon and charr are 94–96% similar while the more distant whitefish, grayling, pike and smelt are 93, 92, 89 and 86% similar to salmon. The salmonid transcriptome reveals a complex history of gene duplication that is

  14. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XIV; Appraisal of the Relationship between Tag Detection Efficiency at Bonneville Dam and the Precision in Estuarine and Marine Survival Estimates on Returning PIT Tagged Chinook Salmon, 2000 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Comas, Jose A.; Skalski, John R. (University of Washington, School of Fisheries, Seattle, WA)

    2000-07-01

    In the advent of the installation of a PIT-tag interrogation system in the Cascades Island fish ladder at Bonneville Dam, this report provides guidance on the anticipated precision of salmonid estuarine and marine survival estimates, for various levels of system-wide adult detection probability at Bonneville Dam. Precision was characterized by the standard error of the survival estimates and the coefficient of variation of the survival estimates. The anticipated precision of salmonid estuarine and marine survival estimates was directly proportional to the number of PIT-tagged smolts released and to the system-wide adult detection efficiency at Bonneville Dam, as well as to the in-river juvenile survival above Lower Granite Dam. Moreover, for a given release size and system-wide adult detection efficiency, higher estuarine and marine survivals did also produce more precise survival estimates. With a system-wide detection probability of P{sub BA} = 1 at Bonneville Dam, the anticipated CVs for the estuarine and marine survival ranged between 41 and 88% with release sizes of 10,000 smolts. Only with the 55,000 smolts being released from sites close to Lower Granite Dam and under high estuarine and marine survival, could CVs of 20% be attained with system detection efficiencies of less than perfect detection (i.e., P{sub BA} < 1).

  15. Occurrence and significance of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in non-salmonid and salmonid fish species : A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1998-01-01

    information is available about the ecology, spread and survival of atypical strains in water. The commonly used therapeutic methods for the control of diseases in farmed fish caused by atypical A. salmonicida are generally effective against the atypical strains. Resistance to different antibiotics......, non-salmonids as well as salmonids, inhabiting fresh water, brackish water and marine environments in northern and central Europe, South Africa, North America, Japan and Australia. In non-salmonid fish species, infections with atypical strains often manifest themselves as superficial skin ulcerations....... The best known diseases associated with atypical A. salmonicida are carp Cyprinus carpio erythrodermatitis, goldfish Carassius auratus ulcer disease, and ulcer disease of flounder Platichthys flesus, but atypical strains are apparently involved in more disease outbreaks than previously suspected...

  16. 76 FR 57717 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... different geographic populations and identify potential salmonid sources for introduction into the San... sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) for scientific research purposes. NRSI will collect fish entrainment data... of the study are: to determine correlation of fish entrainment with river diversion flows,...

  17. 76 FR 71315 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... salmonids while studying habitat occurrence, diet, contaminant concentrations, and health indicators in... effective fish- conscious forest management practices and regulations. The research would benefit listed... the Portland Watershed Management Plan (Plan). The purpose of the Plan is to improve watershed...

  18. Adaptive trade-offs in juvenile salmonid metabolism associated with habitat partitioning between coho salmon and steelhead trout in coastal streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Travis E; Rosenfeld, Jordan S; Richards, Jeffrey G

    2011-09-01

    1. Adaptive trade-offs are fundamental to the evolution of diversity and the coexistence of similar taxa and occur when complimentary combinations of traits maximize efficiency of resource exploitation or survival at different points on environmental gradients. 2. Standard metabolic rate (SMR) is a key physiological trait that reflects adaptations to baseline metabolic performance, whereas active metabolism reflects adaptations to variable metabolic output associated with performance related to foraging, predator avoidance, aggressive interactions or migratory movements. Benefits of high SMR and active metabolism may change along a resource (productivity) gradient, indicating that a trade-off exists among active metabolism, resting metabolism and energy intake. 3. We measured and compared SMR, maximal metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS), swim performance (UCrit) and growth of juvenile hatchery and wild steelhead and coho salmon held on high- and low-food rations in order to better understand the potential significance of variation in SMR to growth, differentiation between species, and patterns of habitat use along a productivity gradient. 4. We found that differences in SMR, MMR, AS, swim performance and growth rate between steelhead trout and coho salmon were reduced in hatchery-reared fish compared with wild fish. Wild steelhead had a higher MMR, AS, swim performance and growth rate than wild coho, but adaptations between species do not appear to involve differences in SMR or to trade-off increased growth rate against lower swim performance, as commonly observed for high-growth strains. Instead, we hypothesize that wild steelhead may be trading off higher growth rate for lower food consumption efficiency, similar to strategies adopted by anadromous vs. resident brook trout and Atlantic salmon vs. brook trout. This highlights potential differences in food consumption and digestion strategies as cryptic adaptations ecologically differentiating salmonid species

  19. 75 FR 76400 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... analysis as part of Project 3, in Pescadero Lagoon. Project 1 is a study on the summer ecology of juvenile... significance of estuary rearing on the timing of ocean entry. Project 3 is a study on the ecology of...

  20. 78 FR 31518 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Genetic Management Plans (HGMPs), pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA). The... the draft environmental assessment should be sent to Brett Farman, National Marine Fisheries...

  1. 77 FR 34349 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric..., the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) announced the availability for public review of four Hatchery and Genetic Management Plans (HGMPs) submitted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife...

  2. 76 FR 6400 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... accordance with section 10(a)(1)(A) of the ESA (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and regulations governing listed fish... Received On September 30, 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) submitted an application...

  3. Endocrine systems in juvenile anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Seasonal development and seawater acclimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsen, Tom O; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Kiilerich, Pia

    2008-01-01

    between strains, or any increase during smoltification. Gill IGF-I and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) mRNA levels increased in anadromous salmon during smoltification, with no changes observed in landlocked fish. Gill PRLR mRNA levels remained stable in both strains during spring. Plasma cortisol levels...

  4. An experimental field evaluation of winter carryover effects in semi-anadromous Brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midwood, Jonathan D.; Larsen, Martin Hage; Boel, Mikkel;

    2015-01-01

    For semi-anadromous brown trout, the decision whether or not to smoltify and migrate to the sea is believed to be made at the end of the preceding summer in response to both local environmental conditions and individual physiological status. Stressors experienced during the fall may therefore inf...

  5. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XV; Appraisal of the Relationship between Tag Detection Efficiency at Bonneville Dam and the Precision of In-River Survival Estimates of Returning PIT-Tagged Chinook Salmon, 2000 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Comas, Joes A.; Skalski, John R. (University of Washington, School of Fisheries, Seattle, WA)

    2000-07-01

    In the advent of the installation of a PIT-tag interrogation system in the Cascades Island fish ladder at Bonneville Dam, this report provides guidance on the anticipated precision of in-river survival estimates for returning adult salmonids, between Bonneville and Lower Granite dams, for various levels of system-wide adult detection probability at Bonneville Dam. Precision was characterized by the standard error of the survival estimates and the coefficient of variation of the survival estimates. The anticipated precision of in-river survival estimates for returning adult salmonids was directly proportional to the number of PIT-tagged smolts released and to the system-wide adult detection efficiency at Bonneville Dam, as well as to the in-river juvenile survival above Lower Granite Dam. Moreover, for a given release size and system-wide adult detection efficiency at Bonneville Dam, higher estuarine and marine survival rates also produced more precise survival estimates. With a system-wide detection probability of P{sub BA} = 1 at Bonneville Dam, the anticipated CVs for in-river survival estimate ranged between 9.4 and 20% with release sizes of 10,000 smolts. Moreover, if the system-wide adult detection efficiency at Bonneville Dam is less than maximum (i.e., P{sub BA} < 1), precision of CV {le} 20% could still be attained. For example, for releases of 10,000 PIT-tagged fish a CV of 20% in the estimates of in-river survival for returning adult salmon could be reach with system-wide detection probabilities of 0.2 {le} P{sub BA} {le} 0.6, depending on the tagging scenario.

  6. Polyphasic characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates recovered from salmonid and non-salmonid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanka, A.; Loch, T.P.; Cipriano, R.C.; Faisal, M.

    2013-01-01

    Michigan's fisheries rely primarily upon the hatchery propagation of salmonid fish for release in public waters. One limitation on the success of these efforts is the presence of bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of A. salmonicida in Michigan fish, as well as to determine whether biochemical or gene sequence variability exists among Michigan isolates. A total of 2202 wild, feral and hatchery-propagated fish from Michigan were examined for the presence of A. salmonicida. The examined fish included Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), coho salmon, O. kisutcha (Walbaum), steelhead trout, O. mykiss (Walbaum), Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), and yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill). Among these, 234 fish yielded a brown pigment-producing bacterium that was presumptively identified as A. salmonicida. Further phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses identified representative isolates as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and revealed some genetic and biochemical variability. Logistic regression analyses showed that infection prevalence varied according to fish species/strain, year and gender, whereby Chinook salmon and females had the highest infection prevalence. Moreover, this pathogen was found in six fish species from eight sites, demonstrating its widespread nature within Michigan.

  7. Endocrine systems in juvenile anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Seasonal development and seawater acclimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Tom O.; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.; Kiilerich, P.; Bjornsson, B. Th; Madsen, Steffen S.; McCormick, S.D.; Stefansson, S.O.

    2008-01-01

    The present study compares developmental changes in plasma levels of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and cortisol, and mRNA levels of their receptors and the prolactin receptor (PRLR) in the gill of anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon during the spring parr-smolt transformation (smoltification) period and following four days and one month seawater (SW) acclimation. Plasma GH and gill GH receptor (GHR) mRNA levels increased continuously during the spring smoltification period in the anadromous, but not in landlocked salmon. There were no differences in plasma IGF-I levels between strains, or any increase during smoltification. Gill IGF-I and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) mRNA levels increased in anadromous salmon during smoltification, with no changes observed in landlocked fish. Gill PRLR mRNA levels remained stable in both strains during spring. Plasma cortisol levels in anadromous salmon increased 5-fold in May and June, but not in landlocked salmon. Gill glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA levels were elevated in both strains at the time of peak smoltification in anadromous salmon, while mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mRNA levels remained stable. Only anadromous salmon showed an increase of gill 11??-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-2 (11??-HSD2) mRNA levels in May. GH and gill GHR mRNA levels increased in both strains following four days of SW exposure in mid-May, whereas only the anadromous salmon displayed elevated plasma GH and GHR mRNA after one month in SW. Plasma IGF-I increased after four days in SW in both strains, decreasing in both strains after one month in SW. Gill IGF-I mRNA levels were only increased in landlocked salmon after 4 days in SW. Gill IGF-IR mRNA levels in SW did not differ from FW levels in either strain. Gill PRLR mRNA did not change after four days of SW exposure, and decreased in both strains after one month in SW. Plasma cortisol levels did not change following SW exposure in either strain. Gill GR, 11

  8. Wildlife risks associated with passage of contaminated, anadromous fish at Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Licensed Dams in Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this paper is to assess the issue of anadromous fish passage at Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) licensed hydropower dams in Michigan and...

  9. Sublethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos to salmonid olfaction after hypersaline acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryoung, Lindley A; Blunt, Brian; Tierney, Keith B; Schlenk, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Salmonid habitats can be impacted by several environmental factors, such as salinization, which can also affect salmonid tolerance to anthropogenic stressors, such as pesticides. Previous studies have shown that hypersaline acclimation enhances the acute toxicity of certain organophosphate and carbamate pesticides to euryhaline fish; however, sublethal impacts have been far less studied. The current study aims to determine how hypersaline acclimation and exposure to the organophosphate chlorpyrifos (CPF) impact salmonid olfaction. Combined acclimation and exposure to CPF was shown to impact rainbow trout olfaction at the molecular, physiological, and behavioral levels. Concurrent exposure to hypersalinity and 0.5μg/L CPF upregulated four genes (chloride intracellular channel 4, G protein zgc:101761, calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase II delta, and adrenergic alpha 2C receptor) that inhibit olfactory signal transduction. At the physiological level, hypersalinity and chlorpyrifos caused a decrease in sensory response to the amino acid l-serine and the bile salt taurocholic acid. Combined acclimation and exposure also negatively impacted behavior and reduced the avoidance of a predator cue (l-serine). Thus, acclimation to hypersaline conditions and exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of chlorpyrifos caused an inhibition of olfactory signal transduction leading to a decreased response to odorants and impairment of olfactory mediated behaviors.

  10. Innate immune responses of salmonid fish to viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Bertrand

    2014-04-01

    Viruses are the most serious pathogenic threat to the production of the main aquacultured salmonid species the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. The viral diseases Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN), Pancreatic Disease (PD), Infectious Haemorrhagic Necrosis (IHN), Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (VHS), and Infectious Salmon Anaemia (ISA) cause massive economic losses to the global salmonid aquaculture industry every year. To date, no solution exists to treat livestock affected by a viral disease and only a small number of efficient vaccines are available to prevent infection. As a consequence, understanding the host immune response against viruses in these fish species is critical to develop prophylactic and preventive control measures. The innate immune response represents an important part of the host defence mechanism preventing viral replication after infection. It is a fast acting response designed to inhibit virus propagation immediately within the host, allowing for the adaptive specific immunity to develop. It has cellular and humoral components which act in synergy. This review will cover inflammation responses, the cell types involved, apoptosis, antimicrobial peptides. Particular attention will be given to the type I interferon system as the major player in the innate antiviral defence mechanism of salmonids. Viral evasion strategies will also be discussed.

  11. Comprehensive Plan for Rehabilitation of Anadromous Fish Stocks in the Umatilla River Basin, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, Raymond R.

    1986-01-01

    The goals of the project were to: establish fishery rehabilitation objectives for naturally and hatchery produced salmonids in the Umatilla Basin; estimate potential benefits of each of the rehabilitation and flow enhancement projects to naturally and hatchery produced salmonids; and develop a plan to set priorities, implement, and evaluate projects that will achieve rehabilitation objectives. This document identifies fishery needs, quantifies the contribution of proposed fishery projects under present and enhanced flows, provides cost estimates for projects, and provides a plan for prioritization, implementation, and evaluation of projects.

  12. Enumeration of Juvenile Salmonids in the Okanogan Basin Using Rotary Screw Traps, Performance Period: March 15, 2006 - July 15, 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Peter N.; Rayton, Michael D.

    2007-05-01

    The Colville Tribes identified the need for collecting baseline census data on the timing and abundance of juvenile salmonids in the Okanogan River basin for the purpose of documenting local fish populations, augmenting existing fishery data and assessing natural production trends of salmonids. This report documents and assesses the pilot year of rotary trap capture of salmonid smolts on the Okanogan River. The project is a component of the Colville Tribes Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program (OBMEP) which began in 2004. Trapping for outmigrating fish began on 14 March 2006 and continued through 11 July 2006. Anadromous forms of Oncorhynchus, including summer steelhead (O. mykiss), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), and sockeye (O. nerka), were targeted for this study; all have verified, natural production in the Okanogan basin. Both 8-ft and 5-ft rotary screw traps were deployed on the Okanogan River from the Highway 20 Bridge and typically fished during evening hours or 24 hours per day, depending upon trap position and discharge conditions. Juvenile Chinook salmon were the most abundant species trapped in 2006 (10,682 fry and 2,024 smolts), followed by sockeye (205 parr and 3,291 smolts) and steelhead (1 fry and 333 smolts). Of the trapped Chinook, all fry were wild origin and all but five of the smolts were hatchery-reared. All trapped sockeye were wild origin and 88% of the steelhead smolts were hatchery-reared. Mark-recapture experiments were conducted using Chinook fry and hatchery-reared steelhead smolts (sockeye were not used in 2006 because the peak of the juvenile migration occurred prior to the onset of the mark-recapture experiments). A total of 930 chinook fry were marked and released across eight separate release dates (numbers of marked Chinook fry released per day ranged from 34 to 290 fish). A total of 11 chinook fry were recaptured for an overall trap efficiency of 1.18%. A total of 710 hatchery-reared steelhead were marked and released across

  13. State of Idaho Augmented Anadromous Fish Health Monitoring, 1988 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foott, J. Scott; Hauch, A. Kent

    1989-05-01

    This report documents the progress in the assigned tasks which have occurred during the second year of the Augmented Anadromous Fish Health Monitoring Project. Fish at seven Idaho Department of Fish and Game facilities were monitored for various pathogens and organosomatic analyses were performed on smolts prior to their release in the Spring of 1989. A disease database has been developed and facility impediments to fish health have been identified.

  14. What is "fallback"?: metrics needed to assess telemetry tag effects on anadromous fish behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Holly J.; Mather, Martha E.; Smith, Joseph M.; Muth, Robert M.; Finn, John T.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2009-01-01

    Telemetry has allowed researchers to document the upstream migrations of anadromous fish in freshwater. In many anadromous alosine telemetry studies, researchers use downstream movements (“fallback”) as a behavioral field bioassay for adverse tag effects. However, these downstream movements have not been uniformly reported or interpreted. We quantified movement trajectories of radio-tagged anadromous alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) in the Ipswich River, Massachusetts (USA) and tested blood chemistry of tagged and untagged fish held 24 h. A diverse repertoire of movements was observed, which could be quantified using (a) direction of initial movements, (b) timing, and (c) characteristics of bouts of coupled upstream and downstream movements (e.g., direction, distance, duration, and speed). Because downstream movements of individual fish were almost always made in combination with upstream movements, these should be examined together. Several of the movement patterns described here could fall under the traditional definition of “fallback” but were not necessarily aberrant. Because superficially similar movements could have quite different interpretations, post-tagging trajectories need more precise definitions. The set of metrics we propose here will help quantify tag effects in the field, and provide the basis for a conceptual framework that helps define the complicated behaviors seen in telemetry studies on alewives and other fish in the field.

  15. Occurrence and significance of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in non-salmonid and salmonid fish species: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, T; Dalsgaard, I

    1998-02-26

    Bacterial strains of Aeromonas salmonicida included in the recognized subsp. acromogenes, subsp. masoucida, and subsp. smithia in addition to the large number of strains not included in any of the described subspecies are referred to as atypical A. salmonicida. The atypical strains form a very heterogeneous group with respect to biochemical characteristics, growth conditions, and production of extracellular proteasess. Consequently, the present taxonomy of the species A. salmonicida is rather ambiguous. Atypical A. salmonicida has been isolated from a wide range of cultivated and wild fish species, non-salmonids as well as salmonids, inhabiting fresh water, brackish water and marine environments in northern and central Europe, South Africa, North America, Japan and Australia. In non-salmonid fish species, infections with atypical strains often manifest themselves as superficial skin ulcerations. The best known diseases associated with atypical A. salmonicida are carp Cyprinus carpio erythrodermatitis, goldfish Carassius auratus ulcer disease, and ulcer disease of flounder Platichthys flesus, but atypical strains are apparently involved in more disease outbreaks than previously suspected. Macroscopical and microscopical studies of ulcerated fish indicate internal organs are infrequently invaded by atypical A. salmonicida. This view is supported by the fact that atypical strains are irregularly isolated from visceral organs of ulcerated fish. High mortality caused by atypical A. salmonicida has been observed in populations of wild non-salmonids and farmed salmonids, although the association between the mortality in the wild fish stocks and atypical A. salmonicida has not always been properly assessed. In injection experiments the pathogenicity of the atypical strains examined showed large variation. An extacellular A-layer has been detected in different atypical strains, but virulence mechanisms different from those described for (typical) A. salmonicida subsp

  16. Vertebrae classification models - Validating classification models that use morphometrics to identify ancient salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) vertebrae to species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using morphometric characteristics of modern salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) vertebrae, we have developed classification models to identify salmonid vertebrae to the...

  17. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho; 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    1999-03-01

    Native resident salmonids in the western United States are in decline throughout much of their range. The purpose of the multi-phased project is to restore native salmonids in the upper Snake River basin to self-sustaining, harvestable levels.

  18. Sea lice as a density-dependent constraint to salmonid farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Peder A; Kristoffersen, Anja B; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Jimenez, Daniel; Aldrin, Magne; Stien, Audun

    2012-06-22

    Fisheries catches worldwide have shown no increase over the last two decades, while aquaculture has been booming. To cover the demand for fish in the growing human population, continued high growth rates in aquaculture are needed. A potential constraint to such growth is infectious diseases, as disease transmission rates are expected to increase with increasing densities of farmed fish. Using an extensive dataset from all farms growing salmonids along the Norwegian coast, we document that densities of farmed salmonids surrounding individual farms have a strong effect on farm levels of parasitic sea lice and efforts to control sea lice infections. Furthermore, increased intervention efforts have been unsuccessful in controlling elevated infection levels in high salmonid density areas in 2009-2010. Our results emphasize host density effects of farmed salmonids on the population dynamics of sea lice and suggest that parasitic sea lice represent a potent negative feedback mechanism that may limit sustainable spatial densities of farmed salmonids.

  19. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE BALKAN PENINSULA SALMONIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Georgiev

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward the knowledge of the immigration itineraries of the ancestors of five extant salmonid species on Balkan Peninsula which are the following: Acantholingua ohridana (Steindachner, 1892, Hucho hucho (Linnaeus, 1758, Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758, Salmothymus obtusirostris Heckel, 1851 and Thymallus thymallus (Linnaeus, 1758. The thesis for the migration itineraries is based on the anatomical, molecular and zoogeographical facts recently published. These latest facts complement or reject the previous thesis that considered the origin of separate species, which in this paper are analyzed together. A new position on the origin of some S. trutta populations inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea watershed is proposed. The new thesis is that they did not inhabit it from the west, through the Atlantic Ocean and Gibraltar, but from the North, through the branches of the former Sarmatian Sea, using the continental way. A. ohridana and S. obtusirostris, the only endemic Balkanean salmonids, have developed here from the mutual ancestor with the extant Siberian Brachymystax lenok (Pallas, 1773. This ancestor came first, together with the S. trutta lineage known as »marmorata«. Using the same migration way, the T. thymallus population of Soča River, the North.West boundary of Balkan Peninsula remained restricted at that corner of Adriatic Sea watershed. In the Black Sea watershed (the Danube River flow extension on Balkan Peninsula the distribution of T. thymallus coincides with the distribution of H. hucho. The thesis which has been proposed for this, largest contemporary Balkan Peninsula salmonid fish was that it came here last, after the connections between the Mediterranean Sea basin and once existent Sarmatian Sea disappeared. This occurred after the end of the last glaciations. This has been concluded on the basis of the exclusion of the areas of the »marmorata« lineage of S. trutta (Mediterranean Sea watershed and H. hucho (Black Sea

  20. Some metabolic effects of bacterial endotoxins in salmonid fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, G.A.; Ross, A.J.; Smith, L.

    1968-01-01

    Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were highly resistant to endotoxins from both Escherichia coli and Aeromonas salmonicida (a fish pathogen) at 14 and 18 C.This resistance was investigated with liver tryptophan pyrrolase, liver glycogen depletion in vitro, and the arterial blood pressure as indicators. Liver glycogen depletion was accelerated by both endotoxins, but there was no significant cardiovascular response or effect on liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity. Since the cardiovascular effects of histamine were also limited, it was concluded that the metabolic effects of bacterial endotoxins in salmonids are qualitatively different from those of the higher vertebrates.

  1. A global assessment of salmon aquaculture impacts on wild salmonids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Ford

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1980s, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of the northeastern Pacific south of Alaska. In these areas, there has been a concomitant increase in the production of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have been difficult to translate into predictions of change in wild population survival and abundance. We compared marine survival of salmonids in areas with salmon farming to adjacent areas without farms in Scotland, Ireland, Atlantic Canada, and Pacific Canada to estimate changes in marine survival concurrent with the growth of salmon aquaculture. Through a meta-analysis of existing data, we show a reduction in survival or abundance of Atlantic salmon; sea trout; and pink, chum, and coho salmon in association with increased production of farmed salmon. In many cases, these reductions in survival or abundance are greater than 50%. Meta-analytic estimates of the mean effect are significant and negative, suggesting that salmon farming has reduced survival of wild salmon and trout in many populations and countries.

  2. Survival and progression rates of anadromous brown trout kelts Salmo trutta during downstream migration in freshwater and at sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Baktoft, Henrik; Thorstad, EB;

    2015-01-01

    The marine migration of post-spawning anadromous fish remains poorly understood. The present study examined survival and progression rates of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta L. after spawning (kelts) during downriver, fjord, and sea migration. Kelts (n = 49) were captured in the Danish River...... and returned to the fjord. The duration of the entire marine migration, from leaving to entering the river, was on average 163 d. The fish returned from the Kattegat Sea to the fjord between 22 July and 21 October. Upon return, the fish spent 1−90 d passing through Randers Fjord, with most individuals...... completing the reach within 4 d, suggesting that the kelts spent limited time foraging after returning to the fjord. The total survival during the entire marine migration, including the fjord, was a minimum of 29%. Our study provides data that are important for management of anadromous brown trout...

  3. Molecular epidemiology of salmonid alphavirus (SAV subtype 3 in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Mona D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreas disease (PD is a viral fish disease which in recent years has significantly affected Norwegian salmonid aquaculture. In Norway, the aetiological agent salmonid alphavirus (SAV has been found to be represented by the subtype 3 only. SAV subtype 3 has in previous analyses been found to show a lower genetic divergence than the subtypes found to cause PD in Ireland and Scotland. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nucleotide (nt and amino acid divergence and the phylogenetic relationship of 33 recent SAV subtype 3 sequences. The samples from which the sequences were obtained originated from both PD endemic and non-endemic regions in an attempt to investigate agent origin/spread. Multiple samples throughout the seawater production phase from several salmonid populations were included to investigate genetic variation during an outbreak. The analyses were mainly based on partial sequences from the E2 gene. For some samples, additional partial 6 K and nsP3 gene sequences were available. Results The nucleotide divergence for all gene fragments ranged from total identity (0.0% divergence to 0.45% (1103 nt fragment of E2, 1.11% (451 nt fragment of E2, 0.94% (6 K and 0.28% (nsP3. This low nucleotide divergence corresponded well to previous reports on SAV 3 sequences; however the observed divergence for the short E2 fragment was higher than that previously reported. When compared to SAVH20/03 (AY604235, amino acid substitutions were detected in all assessed gene fragments however the in vivo significance of these on for example disease outbreak mortality could not be concluded on. The phylogenetic tree based on the 451 nt E2 fragment showed that the sequences divided into two clusters with low genetic divergence, representing only a single SAV subtype. Conclusions The analysed sequences represented two clusters of a single SAV subtype; however some of the observed sequence divergence was higher than that previously reported

  4. Evaluation of juvenile salmonid behavior near a prototype weir box at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    Collection of juvenile salmonids at Cowlitz Falls Dam is a critical part of the effort to restore salmon in the upper Cowlitz River because the majority of fish that are not collected at the dam pass downstream and enter a large reservoir where they become landlocked and lost to the anadromous fish population. However, the juvenile fish collection system at Cowlitz Falls Dam has failed to achieve annual collection goals since it first began operating in 1996. Since that time, numerous modifications to the fish collection system have been made and several prototype collection structures have been developed and tested, but these efforts have not substantially increased juvenile fish collection. Studies have shown that juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) tend to locate the collection entrances effectively, but many of these fish are not collected and eventually pass the dam through turbines or spillways. Tacoma Power developed a prototype weir box in 2009 to increase capture rates of juvenile salmonids at the collection entrances, and this device proved to be successful at retaining those fish that entered the weir. However, because of safety concerns at the dam, the weir box could not be deployed near a spillway gate where the prototype was tested, so the device was altered and re-deployed at a different location, where it was evaluated during 2013. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an evaluation using radiotelemetry to monitor fish behavior near the weir box and collection flumes. The evaluation was conducted during April–June 2013. Juvenile steelhead and coho salmon (45 per species) were tagged with a radio transmitter and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag, and released upstream of the dam. All tagged fish moved downstream and entered the forebay of Cowlitz Falls Dam. Median travel times from the release site to the forebay were 0.8 d for steelhead and 1.2 d for coho

  5. Camas Creek (Meyers Cove) Anadromous Species Habitat Improvement: Annual Report 1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaberg, Glen

    1990-06-01

    Populations of wild salmon and steelhead in the Middle Fork of the Salmon River are at historical lows. Until passage and flow problems associated with Columbia River dams are corrected to reduce mortalities of migrating smolts, continuance of habitat enhancements that decrease sediment loads, increase vegetative cover, remove passage barriers, and provide habitat diversity is imperative to maintain surviving populations of these specially adapted fish. In 1987-1988, 4.3 miles of fence was constructed establishing a riparian livestock exclosure. One end-gap and two water-crossing corridors were constructed in 1989 to complete the fence system. Areas within the exclosure have been fertilized to promote tree and shrub root growth and meadow recovery. A stream crossing ford was stabilized with angular cobble. Streambank stabilization/habitat cover work was completed at three sites and three additional habitat structures were placed. Extensive inventories were completed to identify habitat available to anadromous fish. Streambank stabilization work was limited to extremely unstable banks, minimizing radical alterations to an active stream channel. Enhancement activities will improve spawning, incubation, and rearing habitat for wild populations of steelhead trout and chinook salmon. Anadromous species population increases resulting from these enhancement activities will provide partial compensation for downstream losses resulting from hydroelectric developments on the Columbia River system. 10 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Camas Creek (Meyers Cove) Anadromous Species Habitat Improvement: Annual Report 1989.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Terry

    1989-12-01

    Historical agricultural practices and natural events contributed to severe degradation of riparian zones and instream fish habitat in the Meyers Cove area of Camas Creek. In 1984, Salmon National Forest personnel began implementing specific management activities in riparian areas and the stream channel to accelerate habitat recovery. In 1987--88, 4.3 miles of fence was constructed establishing a riparian livestock exclosure in the Meyers Cove area of Camas Creek. One end-gap and two water-crossing corridors were constructed in 1989 to complete the fence system. The riparian exclosure has been fertilized with phosphorous-rich fertilizer to promote root growth. A stream crossing ford was stabilized with angular cobble. Streambank stabilization/habitat cover work was completed at three sites and three additional habitat structures were placed. Extensive habitat inventories were completed to identify quality/quantity of habitat available to anadromous fish. The work accomplished was designed to promote natural revegetation of the riparian area to improve rearing habitat cover and streambank stability. Streambank work was limited to extremely unstable sites. Enhancement activities will improve spawning, incubation, and rearing habitat for wild populations of steelhead trout and chinook salmon. Anadromous species population increases resulting from these enhancement activities will provide partial compensation for downstream losses resulting from hydroelectric developments on the Columbia River system. 9 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. NIS occurrence - Non-native species impacts on threatened and endangered salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of this project: a) Identify the distribution of non-natives in the Columbia River Basin b) Highlight the impacts of non-natives on salmonids c)...

  8. Genetic detection of sex-specific dispersal in historical and contemporary populations of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    2004-01-01

    The study of sex-biased dispersal has attracted considerable attention in birds and mammals, but less in other taxa, including fishes. We analysed sex-specific dispersal in historical (1910s and 1950s) and contemporary (1990s) samples of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta. We tested the hypothesis...

  9. 76 FR 20558 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 44 Marine and Anadromous Taxa: Adding 10 Taxa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... from Texas to Gulf of Mexico) Florida and along and the Southwest the east coast Atlantic. from Florida... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AW09 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 44 Marine and Anadromous Taxa: Adding 10 Taxa, Delisting 1 Taxon, Reclassifying 1 Taxon, and...

  10. A review of the past and present status of anadromous fish species in the Netherlands: is restocking the Rhine feasible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de S.J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews the past, present and future of eight anadromous fish species inhabiting the Lower Rhine (The Netherlands), viz. -sturgeon (Acipenser sturio), whitefish and houting (Coregonus lavaretus, C. oxyrinchus), smelt (Osmerus eperlanus), allis and twaite shad (Alosa alosa, A. fallax), sea

  11. EFFECT OF NON-ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS (MERCURY. ARSENIC ON SALMONIDS (SALMONIDAE (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. Hrytsyniak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The problem of water ecosystem pollution with heavy metals achieved great actuality during recent years, both because of their significant distribution in environment, and wide spectrum of their toxic effects on fish organism. Much attention in modern scientific literature is given to the problem of the effects of heavy metals, including mercury and arsenic, on fish organism. However, investigations in this field are conducted mainly on cyprinids, while physiological and biochemical mechanisms of the effects of heavy metals on salmonids are less studied. According to this, the studies of the sources of heavy metals in water ecosystems, peculiarities of their action in salmonid organism on subcellular, cellular, tissue and organ levels, species and age-related peculiarities of the effects of heavy metals are of great scientific and practical importance. The purpose of this work is to review the mentioned problems. Findings. The work characterizes the effects of mercury and arsenic on salmonids on subcellular, cellular, tissue and organ levels. The article contains characteristic of conditions, under which toxic or lethal action of the mentioned xenobiotics on different species of salmonids was observed. Originality. The paper summarizes literature data concerning the effect of mercury and arsenic on salmonids. Attention is accented on the sources of the mentioned pollutants in surface waters, physiological and biochemical mechanisms of their effects on salmonids, and on factors, which determine the level of their toxicity. Lethal concentrations of mercury and arsenic to salmonids, depending on experiment duration, species and age-related peculiarities are presented. Practical value. Data presented in the review can be used for the explanation of physiological and biochemical mechanisms of the adaptation of salmonids to surface water pollution with heavy metals, diagnostics of fish pathologies caused by toxic effects of mercury and

  12. Anadromous sea lampreys recolonize a Maine coastal river tributary after dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Robert; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Sedgeunkedunk Stream, a third-order tributary to the Penobscot River, Maine, historically supported several anadromous fishes, including the Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, AlewifeAlosa pseudoharengus, and Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus. However, two small dams constructed in the 1800s reduced or eliminated spawning runs entirely. In 2009, efforts to restore marine–freshwater connectivity in the system culminated with removal of the lowermost dam, thus providing access to an additional 4.6 km of lotic habitat. Because Sea Lampreys utilized accessible habitat prior to dam removal, they were chosen as a focal species with which to quantify recolonization. During spawning runs of 2008–2011 (before and after dam removal), individuals were marked with PIT tags and their activity was tracked with daily recapture surveys. Open-population mark–recapture models indicated a fourfold increase in the annual abundance of spawning-phase Sea Lampreys, with estimates rising from 59±4 () before dam removal (2008) to 223±18 and 242±16 after dam removal (2010 and 2011, respectively). Accompanying the marked increase in annual abundance was a greater than fourfold increase in nesting sites: the number of nests increased from 31 in 2008 to 128 and 131 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. During the initial recolonization event (i.e., in 2010), Sea Lampreys took 6 d to move past the former dam site and 9 d to expand into the furthest upstream reaches. Conversely, during the 2011 spawning run, Sea Lampreys took only 3 d to penetrate into the upstream reaches, thus suggesting a potential positive feedback in which larval recruitment into the system may have attracted adult spawners via conspecific pheromone cues. Although more research is needed to verify the migratory pheromone hypothesis, our study clearly demonstrates that small-stream dam removal in coastal river systems has the potential to enhance recovery of declining anadromous fish populations.

  13. Modeling Food Delivery Dynamics For Juvenile Salmonids Under Variable Flow Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, L.; Utz, R.; Anderson, K.; Nisbet, R.

    2010-12-01

    Traditional approaches for assessing instream flow needs for salmonids have typically focused on the importance of physical habitat in determining fish habitat selection. This somewhat simplistic approach does not account for differences in food delivery rates to salmonids that arise due to spatial variability in river morphology, hydraulics and temporal variations in the flow regime. Explicitly linking how changes in the flow regime influences food delivery dynamics is an important step in advancing process-based bioenergetic models that seek to predict growth rates of salmonids across various life-stages. Here we investigate how food delivery rates for juvenile salmonids vary both spatially and with flow magnitude in a meandering reach of the Merced River, CA. We utilize a two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic model and discrete particle tracking algorithm to simulate invertebrate drift transport rates at baseflow and a near-bankfull discharge. Modeling results indicate that at baseflow, the maximum drift density occurs in the channel thalweg, while drift densities decrease towards the channel margins due to the process of organisms settling out of the drift. During high-flow events, typical of spring dam-releases, the invertebrate drift transport pathway follows a similar trajectory along the high velocity core and the drift concentrations are greatest in the channel centerline, though the zone of invertebrate transport occupies a greater fraction of the channel width. Based on invertebrate supply rates alone, feeding juvenile salmonids would be expected to be distributed down the channel centerline where the maximum predicted food delivery rates are located in this reach. However, flow velocities in these channel sections are beyond maximum sustainable swimming speeds for most juvenile salmonids. Our preliminary findings suggest that a lack of low velocity refuge may prevent juvenile salmonids from deriving energy from the areas with maximum drift density in this

  14. Modelling turnover of Cs-137 in two subarctic salmonid ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordlinder, S.; Bergstroem, U. (Studsvik AB, Ecosafe, Nykoeping (Sweden)); Hammar, J. (Institute of Freshwater Research, Drottningholm (Sweden) Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoology); Notter, M. (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Solna (Sweden))

    1993-01-01

    The turnover of cesium-137 was simulated in two categories of subarctic, alpine lake ecosystems - a natural lake with Gammarus lacustris as major fish prey and a lake reservoir with introduced Mysis relicta as a new fish-food organism. The resulting concentrations of Cs-137 in two salmonid species - Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) - were calculated using a multi-compartment model. Observed data were taken from a major case study evaluating the distribution, pathways and major transport mechanisms of Chernobyl cesium through northern lake ecosystems in 1986-90. The aim of this study was to design a specific conceptual model for calculation of the levels of Cs-137 in fish from simple lake ecosystems, which could be adopted for other more complex types of lakes. A multi-compartment model of the ecosystem was designed and the equations were solved with the BIOPATH-code. The uncertainty of the results due to the uncertainty of input values was examined using the PRISM-system. The model gave good correlations to measured data for Cs-137 in water, zooplankton, macro invertebrates and fish in both lakes. The predicted levels in sediments were, however, considerably lower than the observed values. The inflow of Cs-137 from the drainage area to the two lakes was identified as the main contributor to the uncertainty of the long-term prognoses. 33 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs.

  15. Tissue damage in salmonids caused by Halisidota argentata Packard

    Science.gov (United States)

    1956-01-01

    During the histological examination of a collection of wild and hatchery salmonids, a peculiar foreign body was occasionally observed in various organs, particularly in the viscera. These objects, usually accompanied by a focal inflammation, were observed in 10 of 75 samples of wild trout and salmon collected in Oregon and Washington and were believed to represent an unknown type of parasitism. Their identity remained obscure until a massive concentration was observed in the tissues of wild coho salmon, (Oncorhynchus kisutch), from Minter Creek on the Olympic peninsula of Washington and in hatchery coho salmon from the Minter Creek Biological Station. The distribution of the structures suggested the intestinal tract as a point of origin. Subsequent stomach examinations revealed small, partially digested insect fragments with many long, spine-covered hairs. The insects were identified as second or third instars of the lepidopteran larvae, Halisidota argentata Packard. The spine-covered hairs penetrated the stomach wall and produced the observed lesions by working in an apparent porcupine quill-fashion throughout the body of the fish.

  16. Comparative Analysis of the Shared Sex-Determination Region (SDR) among Salmonid Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber-Hammond, Joshua J; Phillips, Ruth B; Brown, Kim H

    2015-06-25

    Salmonids present an excellent model for studying evolution of young sex-chromosomes. Within the genus, Oncorhynchus, at least six independent sex-chromosome pairs have evolved, many unique to individual species. This variation results from the movement of the sex-determining gene, sdY, throughout the salmonid genome. While sdY is known to define sexual differentiation in salmonids, the mechanism of its movement throughout the genome has remained elusive due to high frequencies of repetitive elements, rDNA sequences, and transposons surrounding the sex-determining regions (SDR). Despite these difficulties, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library clones from both rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon containing the sdY region have been reported. Here, we report the sequences for these BACs as well as the extended sequence for the known SDR in Chinook gained through genome walking methods. Comparative analysis allowed us to study the overlapping SDRs from three unique salmonid Y chromosomes to define the specific content, size, and variation present between the species. We found approximately 4.1 kb of orthologous sequence common to all three species, which contains the genetic content necessary for masculinization. The regions contain transposable elements that may be responsible for the translocations of the SDR throughout salmonid genomes and we examine potential mechanistic roles of each one.

  17. A rapid solid-phase extraction fluorometric method for thiamine and riboflavin in salmonid eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajicek, James L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Brown, Scott B.; Brown, Lisa R.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Fitzsimons, John D.

    2005-01-01

    A new method has been developed and successfully applied to the selective measurement of thiamine (nonphosphorylated), total thiamine (sum of thiamine, thiamine monophosphate [TMP], thiamine diphosphate [TDP], and thiamine triphosphate [TTP]), and potentially interfering riboflavin in acidic (2% trichloroacetic acid) extracts of selected salmonid and walleye egg samples. Acidic extracts of eggs were applied directly to end-capped C18, reversed-phase solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns and separated into three fractions by elution with mixtures of PO4 buffer (pH 2), methanol (10%), and acetonitrile (20%). All thiamine compounds recovered in the first two fractions were oxidized to their corresponding thiochromes with alkaline potassium hexacyanoferrate, and we measured the thiochrome fluorescence (excitation at 360 nm, emission at 460 nm) in a 96-well microplate reader. Riboflavin, recovered in third fraction (eluted with pH 2, 20% acetonitrile), was analyzed directly by measuring the fluorescence of this fraction (excitation at 450 nm, emission at 530 nm). Significant portions of the phosphate esters of thiamine (TMP, TDP, and presumably TTP), when present at low concentrations (thiamine per gram of egg), were not retained by the 100-mg SPE column, and were collected directly during sample loading and in a subsequent phosphoric acid rinse as fraction 1. Free thiamine (nonphosphorylated) and remaining portions of the TDP and TMP were then eluted in the second fraction with 10% methanol/PO4 buffer, whereas the un-ionized, relatively nonpolar riboflavin was eluted in the third fraction with 20% acetonitrile. This new method uses a traditional sample homogenization of egg tissue to extract thiamine compounds into 2% trichlororacetic acid solution; an inexpensive, commercially available SPE column; small amounts of sample (0.5-1 g); microliter volumes of solvents per sample; a traditional, relatively nonhazardous, oxidation of thiamine compounds to fluorescent

  18. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fsh Habitat Enhancement Project : 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, R. Todd

    2001-12-31

    The Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project continued to identify impacted stream reaches throughout the Umatilla River Basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach efforts, biological and physical monitoring, and continued development of a Umatilla River Basin Watershed Assessment assisted the project in fostering public cooperation, targeting habitat deficiencies and determining habitat recovery measures. Habitat enhancement projects continued to be maintained on 44 private properties, four riparian easements and one in-stream enhancement agreement were secured, two new projects implemented and two existing projects improved to enhance anadromous fish habitat and natural fisheries production capabilities in the Umatilla River Basin. New project locations included sites on the mid Umatilla River and Buckaroo Creek. Improvements were implemented at existing project sites on the upper Umatilla River and Wildhorse Creek. A stream bank stabilization project was implemented at approximately River Mile 37.4 Umatilla River to stabilize 760 feet of eroding stream bank and improve in-stream habitat diversity. Habitat enhancements at this site included construction of six rock barbs with one large conifer root wad incorporated into each barb, stinging approximately 10,000 native willow cuttings, planting 195 tubling willows and 1,800 basin wildrye grass plugs, and seeding 40 pounds of native grass seed. Staff time to assist in development of a subcontract and fence materials were provided to establish eight spring sites for off-stream watering and to protect wetlands within the Buckaroo Creek Watershed. A gravel bar was moved and incorporated into an adjacent point bar to reduce stream energy and stream channel confinement within the existing project area at River Mile 85 Umatilla River. Approximately 10,000 native willow cuttings were stung and trenched into the stream channel margins and stream banks, and 360

  19. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin; 1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Suzanne M.; Kern, J. Chris; Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1997-01-01

    This is the second year report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and naturally-produced juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival will assist researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural and restored fish populations. The authors also report on tasks related to evaluating juvenile salmonid passage at Three Mile Falls Dam and West Extension Canal.

  20. Mainstem Clearwater River study: Assessment for Salmonid Spawning, Incubation, and Rearing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnsberg, Billy D.; Connor, William P.; Connor, Edward; Pishl, Markley J.; Whitman, Marc A.

    1992-04-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe sub-contracted with EBASCO Environmental to develop capabilities for predicting fish habitat conditions in the lower mainstem clearwater River under a limited range of discharge regimes from Dworshak Dam. The Nez Perce Tribe used this information to analyze a range of discharges from Dworshak Dam for anadromous fish habitat requirements. The Tribe's analysis does not necessarily reflect views of EBASCO Environmental. Flow analyses provided to the Bonneville Power Administration and/or US Army Corps of Engineers within this report on the lower mainstem Clearwater River shall in no way limit or influence future water rights claims or flow recommendations made by the Nez Perce Tribe for any purposes. Flows analyzed in this report are independent of conditions for upstream or downstream anadromous fish migration and of any other purposes not specifically stated.

  1. Marine Habitat Use by Anadromous Bull Trout from the Skagit River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Michael C.; Rubin, Steve P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald; Goetz, Fred A.; Jeanes, Eric; McBride, Aundrea

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry was used to describe fish positions and marine habitat use by tagged bull trout Salvelinus confluentus from the Skagit River, Washington. In March and April 2006, 20 fish were captured and tagged in the lower Skagit River, while 15 fish from the Swinomish Channel were tagged during May and June. Sixteen fish tagged in 2004 and 2005 were also detected during the study. Fish entered Skagit Bay from March to May and returned to the river from May to August. The saltwater residency for the 13 fish detected during the out-migration and return migration ranged from 36 to 133 d (mean ± SD, 75 ± 22 d). Most bull trout were detected less than 14 km (8.5 ± 4.4 km) from the Skagit River, and several bay residents used the Swinomish Channel while migrating. The bull trout detected in the bay were associated with the shoreline (distance from shore, 0.32 ± 0.27 km) and occupied shallow-water habitats (mean water column depth, Zostera sp.) vegetation classes made up more than 70% of the area used by bull trout. Our results will help managers identify specific nearshore areas that may require further protection to sustain the unique anadromous life history of bull trout.

  2. Landslide-dammed paleolake perturbs marine sedimentation and drives genetic change in anadromous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Benjamin H; Roering, Joshua J; Lamb, Michael P

    2011-11-22

    Large bedrock landslides have been shown to modulate rates and processes of river activity by forming dams, forcing upstream aggradation of water and sediment, and generating catastrophic outburst floods. Less apparent is the effect of large landslide dams on river ecosystems and marine sedimentation. Combining analyses of 1-m resolution topographic data (acquired via airborne laser mapping) and field investigation, we present evidence for a large, landslide-dammed paleolake along the Eel River, CA. The landslide mass initiated from a high-relief, resistant outcrop which failed catastrophically, blocking the Eel River with an approximately 130-m-tall dam. Support for the resulting 55-km-long, 1.3-km(3) lake includes subtle shorelines cut into bounding terrain, deltas, and lacustrine sediments radiocarbon dated to 22.5 ka. The landslide provides an explanation for the recent genetic divergence of local anadromous (ocean-run) steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by blocking their migration route and causing gene flow between summer run and winter run reproductive ecotypes. Further, the dam arrested the prodigious flux of sediment down the Eel River; this cessation is recorded in marine sedimentary deposits as a 10-fold reduction in deposition rates of Eel-derived sediment and constitutes a rare example of a terrestrial event transmitted through the dispersal system and recorded offshore.

  3. Monitoring anadromous fish populations in a context of habitat fragmentation and commercial exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ribeiro Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    A video recording system was used to monitor fishway effectiveness. Simultaneously, eight abiotic parameters were continuously recorded. Boosted Regression Trees (BRTs were applied to relate fishway’s use by sea lamprey and Alosa spp. with abiotic predictors. A passive integrated transponder (PIT antenna system was also used to quantify passage efficiency for sea lampreys. A sample of the professional fisherman population was surveyed, and respective daily catches registered. Data counts, fishway efficiency and professional fishermen surveys allowed the estimation of the number of sea lampreys entering River Mondego to spawn. Video counts revealed that 8333 and 21979 sea lampreys, in 2013 and 2014, respectively, used the fishway, and 7503 and 3404 Alosa spp. passed during the same periods. BRTs identified flow as the most important variable explaining fishway use, suggesting that anadromous species prefer to use the fishway at relatively low flow conditions. About 30% of PIT-tagged lampreys transposed the fishway in the migratory season of 2014. Data surveys indicate a total catch of 11114 and 31746 sea lampreys, during 2013 and 2014, respectively, and 3053 and 6637 allis shads in the same seasons. Hence, we estimated that 38891 and 105006 sea lampreys entered River Mondego to reproduce in 2013 and 2014, respectively.

  4. Some tests of the "migration hypothesis" for anadromous Dolly Varden (southern form)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, D.R.; Hepler, K.R.; Jones, J.D.; Whalen, M.E.; McBride, D.N.

    1995-01-01

    Some aspects of a previously described migratory paradigm for the southern form of anadromous Dolly Varden were investigated with seven 3-year mark-recapture experiments on fish that used lakes in eight watersheds as their winter residence. Weirs on Kodiak Island, around Prince William Sound, and near Juneau, Alaska, were used to capture Dolly Varden as they emigrated to the sea each spring. Dolly Varden (Dolly Varden at sea confirm observations from earlier studies. Our results support the paradigm that Dolly Varden home to the same lacustrine watershed when overwintering in fresh water, as more than 98% of the recaptured fish did so. Our results contradicted the paradigm that Dolly Varden return to lakes each fall, for across study populations, 14-58% failed to return. The most probable explanation for this anomalous behavior is that some Dolly Varden spend the winter as sea. Differences in maturity, size, and growth of Dolly Varden and timing of their entrance into salt water during spring emigration were excluded as causes of this anomalous behavior.

  5. Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie; Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2000-04-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerability of different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

  6. Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie L.

    1998-09-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerabilit2048 different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

  7. Comparison of growth and metabolic regulation between wild, domesticated and transgenic salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To gain a better understanding of the aspects underlying normal and growth hormone enhanced growth in salmonids, quantitative expression analysis was performed for a number of genes related to muscle growth, metabolism, immunology and energy regulation. This analysis was performed in liver and musc...

  8. Salmonid alphavirus replication in mosquito cells: towards a novel vaccine production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikke, M.C.; Verest, M.; Vlak, J.M.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) causes pancreas disease and sleeping disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and confers a major burden to the aquaculture industry. A commercial inactivated whole virus vaccine propagated in a salmon cell line at low temperature pro

  9. Low Temperature-Dependent Salmonid Alphavirus Glycoprotein Processing and Recombinant Virus-Like Particle Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.W.H.; Feenstra, F.; Villoing, S.; Hulten, van M.C.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Koumans, J.; Vlak, J.M.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) and sleeping disease (SD) are important viral scourges in aquaculture of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. The etiological agent of PD and SD is salmonid alphavirus (SAV), an unusual member of the Togaviridae (genus Alphavirus). SAV replicates at lower temperatures in fish. Ou

  10. Modes of salmonid MHC class I and II evolution differ from the primate paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shum, B.P.; Guethlein, L.; Flodin, L.R.; Adkison, M.A.; Hedrick, R.P.; Nehring, R.B.; Stet, R.J.M.; Secombes, C.; Parham, P.

    2001-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) represent two salmonid genera separated for 15-20 million years. cDNA sequences were determined for the classical MHC class I heavy chain gene UBA and the MHC class II β-chain gene DAB from 15 rainbow and 10 brown trout. Both genes a

  11. Influence of intermittent stream connectivity on water quality and salmonid survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, J.; Woelfle-Erskine, C. A.; Larsen, L.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic stress and climate change are causing an increasing number of California streams to become intermittent and are driving earlier and more severe summertime drying. The extent to which emerging water conservation alternatives impact flows or habitat quality (e.g. temperature, DO) for salmonids remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate the proximal drivers of salmonid mortality over a range of connectivity conditions during summertime intermittency in Salmon Creek watershed, Sonoma County, CA. Through extensive sampling in paired subwatersheds over a period of two years, we tested the hypothesis that accumulation of readily bioavailable DOC in poorly flushed pools drives DO decline associated with loss of salmonids. We then traced the origin and flow pathways of DOC throughout the watershed using Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC). We obtained samples for DOC and stable isotope analyses at monthly intervals from 20 piezometers and surface water in the study reaches and from private wells and springs distributed throughout the watersheds. We also obtained in situ DO, conductivity and pH readings within stream study reaches. We determined DOC quality by SUVA (specific UV absorbance) and fluorescence index. We calculated stream metabolism rates using the single station method. In pools instrumented with DO sensors, we compared changing DOC quality during the summer months to changes in DO concentrations and stream metabolism. Our results show that the duration of complete disconnection of pools during the summer months and stream metabolic rates are positively correlated with salmonid mortality. Furthermore, our results indicate that salmonid mortality is greatest in disconnected pools with low DOC fluorescence indices and high SUVA values, indicative of terrestrially derived DOC and little or no groundwater inflow. Conversely low salmonid mortality was found in disconnected pools with high fluorescence index and low SUVA, indicative of microbially

  12. APPLICATION OF SALMONIDS (SALMONIDAE N THE BIOMONITORING OF AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yanovych

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Due to the pollution of fisheries water bodies by industrial and agricultural waste waters, as well as by xenobiotics coming from other sources, taking into account a pridictable increase in the amounts of such effluents in the short and long terms, the problems related to the study of the effects of the pollutants of different nature and origin on aquatic organisms, especially fish, as well as a prediction of possible adverse consequences on aquatic ecosystems, becomes particularly important. The aim of our work was an analysis and synthesis of existing literature data concerning the indication in the biomonitoring of aquatic environments based on biological markers of salmonids as highly sensitive objects of fish fauna to external factors. Findings. The review summarizes and systematizes the data concerning the use of salmonids in biomonitoring studies. Furthermore, we highlighted and characterized the specificity of bioindication parameters of the aquatic environment state, such as the biochemical, genetic, physiological, morphological, histopathological, behavioral and population markers and noted the effects of hydroecosystem ecotoxication on different levels of biological organization (cell, individual, population, fish community. We also described the possibility of biological monitoring based on saprobic indexes identified for indicator species belonging to salmonids. Originality. In the article describes the structure, pros and cons of the use of specific biomarkers of individual salmonid fish and their populations for assessing the ecological status of aquatic environments. Practical value. The data given in the article can be used to improve the system of the ecological monitoring of aquatic environments by extending the range of indicator indices with organism and population biomarkers of highly sensitive salmonid species.

  13. Diversity of Flavobacterium psychrophilum and the potential use of its phages for protection against bacterial cold water disease in salmonids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, D.; Higuera, G.; Villa, M.

    2012-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum causes rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) and cold water disease (CWD) in salmonid aquaculture. We report characterization of F. psychrophilum strains and their bacteriophages isolated in Chilean salmonid aquaculture. Results suggest that under laboratory conditions...... together with the bacteria in a ratio of 10 plaque‐forming units per colony‐forming unit. While we recognize the artificial laboratory conditions used for these protection assays, this work is the first to demonstrate that phages might be able protect salmonids from RTFS or CWD....

  14. Enumeration of Salmonids in the Okanogan Basin Using Underwater Video, Performance Period: October 2005 (Project Inception) - 31 December 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Peter N.; Rayton, Michael D.; Nass, Bryan L.; Arterburn, John E.

    2007-06-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Tribes) identified the need for collecting baseline census data on the timing and abundance of adult salmonids in the Okanogan River Basin in order to determine basin and tributary-specific spawner distributions, evaluate the status and trends of natural salmonid production in the basin, document local fish populations, and augment existing fishery data. This report documents the design, installation, operation and evaluation of mainstem and tributary video systems in the Okanogan River Basin. The species-specific data collected by these fish enumeration systems are presented along with an evaluation of the operation of a facility that provides a count of fish using an automated method. Information collected by the Colville Tribes Fish & Wildlife Department, specifically the Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program (OBMEP), is intended to provide a relative abundance indicator for anadromous fish runs migrating past Zosel Dam and is not intended as an absolute census count. Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program collected fish passage data between October 2005 and December 2006. Video counting stations were deployed and data were collected at two locations in the basin: on the mainstem Okanogan River at Zosel Dam near Oroville, Washington, and on Bonaparte Creek, a tributary to the Okanogan River, in the town of Tonasket, Washington. Counts at Zosel Dam between 10 October 2005 and 28 February 2006 are considered partial, pilot year data as they were obtained from the operation of a single video array on the west bank fishway, and covered only a portion of the steelhead migration. A complete description of the apparatus and methodology can be found in 'Fish Enumeration Using Underwater Video Imagery - Operational Protocol' (Nass 2007). At Zosel Dam, totals of 57 and 481 adult Chinook salmon were observed with the video monitoring system in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Run

  15. Enumeration of Salmonids in the Okanogan Basin Using Underwater Video, Performance Period: October 2005 (Project Inception) - 31 December 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Peter N.; Rayton, Michael D.; Nass, Bryan L.; Arterburn, John E.

    2007-06-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Tribes) identified the need for collecting baseline census data on the timing and abundance of adult salmonids in the Okanogan River Basin in order to determine basin and tributary-specific spawner distributions, evaluate the status and trends of natural salmonid production in the basin, document local fish populations, and augment existing fishery data. This report documents the design, installation, operation and evaluation of mainstem and tributary video systems in the Okanogan River Basin. The species-specific data collected by these fish enumeration systems are presented along with an evaluation of the operation of a facility that provides a count of fish using an automated method. Information collected by the Colville Tribes Fish & Wildlife Department, specifically the Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program (OBMEP), is intended to provide a relative abundance indicator for anadromous fish runs migrating past Zosel Dam and is not intended as an absolute census count. Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program collected fish passage data between October 2005 and December 2006. Video counting stations were deployed and data were collected at two locations in the basin: on the mainstem Okanogan River at Zosel Dam near Oroville, Washington, and on Bonaparte Creek, a tributary to the Okanogan River, in the town of Tonasket, Washington. Counts at Zosel Dam between 10 October 2005 and 28 February 2006 are considered partial, pilot year data as they were obtained from the operation of a single video array on the west bank fishway, and covered only a portion of the steelhead migration. A complete description of the apparatus and methodology can be found in 'Fish Enumeration Using Underwater Video Imagery - Operational Protocol' (Nass 2007). At Zosel Dam, totals of 57 and 481 adult Chinook salmon were observed with the video monitoring system in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Run

  16. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, R. Todd; Sexton, Amy D.

    2003-02-01

    The Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project continued to identify impacted stream reaches throughout the Umatilla River Basin for habitat improvements during the 2001 project period. Public outreach efforts, biological and physical monitoring, and continued development of a Umatilla Subbasin Watershed Assessment assisted the project in fostering public cooperation, targeting habitat deficiencies and determining habitat recovery measures. Projects continued to be maintained on 49 private properties, one 25-year Non-Exclusive Bureau of Indian Affairs' Easement was secured, six new projects implemented and two existing project areas improved to enhance anadromous fish habitat. New project locations included sites on the mid Umatilla River, upper Umatilla River, Mission Creek, Cottonwood Creek and Buckaroo Creek. New enhancements included: (1) construction of 11,264 feet of fencing between River Mile 43.0 and 46.5 on the Umatilla River, (2) a stream bank stabilization project implemented at approximately River Mile 63.5 Umatilla River to stabilize 330 feet of eroding stream bank and improve instream habitat diversity, included construction of eight root wad revetments and three boulder J-vanes, (3) drilling a 358-foot well for off-stream livestock watering at approximately River Mile 46.0 Umatilla River, (4) installing a 50-foot bottomless arch replacement culvert at approximately River Mile 3.0 Mission Creek, (5) installing a Geoweb stream ford crossing on Mission Creek (6) installing a 22-foot bottomless arch culvert at approximately River Mile 0.5 Cottonwood Creek, and (7) providing fence materials for construction of 21,300 feet of livestock exclusion fencing in the Buckaroo Creek Drainage. An approximate total of 3,800 native willow cuttings and 350 pounds of native grass seed was planted at new upper Umatilla River, Mission Creek and Cottonwood Creek project sites. Habitat improvements implemented at existing project sites included

  17. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, R. Todd; Sexton, Amy D.

    2003-02-01

    The Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project continued to identify impacted stream reaches throughout the Umatilla River Basin for habitat improvements during the 2001 project period. Public outreach efforts, biological and physical monitoring, and continued development of a Umatilla Subbasin Watershed Assessment assisted the project in fostering public cooperation, targeting habitat deficiencies and determining habitat recovery measures. Projects continued to be maintained on 49 private properties, one 25-year Non-Exclusive Bureau of Indian Affairs' Easement was secured, six new projects implemented and two existing project areas improved to enhance anadromous fish habitat. New project locations included sites on the mid Umatilla River, upper Umatilla River, Mission Creek, Cottonwood Creek and Buckaroo Creek. New enhancements included: (1) construction of 11,264 feet of fencing between River Mile 43.0 and 46.5 on the Umatilla River, (2) a stream bank stabilization project implemented at approximately River Mile 63.5 Umatilla River to stabilize 330 feet of eroding stream bank and improve instream habitat diversity, included construction of eight root wad revetments and three boulder J-vanes, (3) drilling a 358-foot well for off-stream livestock watering at approximately River Mile 46.0 Umatilla River, (4) installing a 50-foot bottomless arch replacement culvert at approximately River Mile 3.0 Mission Creek, (5) installing a Geoweb stream ford crossing on Mission Creek (6) installing a 22-foot bottomless arch culvert at approximately River Mile 0.5 Cottonwood Creek, and (7) providing fence materials for construction of 21,300 feet of livestock exclusion fencing in the Buckaroo Creek Drainage. An approximate total of 3,800 native willow cuttings and 350 pounds of native grass seed was planted at new upper Umatilla River, Mission Creek and Cottonwood Creek project sites. Habitat improvements implemented at existing project sites included

  18. PCB impairs smoltification and seawater performance in anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, E.H.; Aas-Hansen, O.; Maule, A.G.; Strand, J.E.T.; Vijayan, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    The impacts of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure on smoltification and subsequent seawater performance were investigated in hatchery-reared, anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The fish were subjected to a 2-month summer seawater residence, after which they were orally dosed with 0 (Control, C), 1 (Low Dose, LD) or 100 mg Aroclor 1254 kg-1 body mass (High Dose, HD) in November. They were then held in fresh water, without being fed (to mimic their natural overwintering in freshwater), until they had smolted in June the next year. The smolts were then transferred to seawater and fed to mimic their summer feeding residence in seawater, followed by a period without food in freshwater from August until maturation in October. Compared with C and LD charr, the HD charr had either a transient or a permanent reduction in plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and thyroxin and triiodothyronine titers during the period of smoltification. These hormonal alterations in the HD charr corresponded with impaired hyposmoregulatory ability in May and June, as well as reduced growth rate and survival after transference to seawater. Consequently, fewer fish in the HD group matured in October compared to the other two treatments. The HD fish had a liver PCB concentration ranging between 14 and 42 mg kg-1 wet mass, whereas there were similar, and very low, liver PCB concentrations in LD and C fish throughout the smolting period. Our findings suggest that PCB might compromise mechanisms important for fitness in a fish species living in an extreme environment. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genomic population structure of freshwater-resident and anadromous ide (Leuciscus idus) in north-western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovrind, Mikkel; Olsen, Morten Tange; Vieira, Filipe Garrett;

    2016-01-01

    Climate change experts largely agree that future climate change and associated rises in oceanic water levels over the upcoming decades, will affect marine salinity levels. The subsequent effects on fish communities in estuarine ecosystems however, are less clear. One species that is likely...... species. In addition to providing a first insight into the population structure of north-western European ide, our data also (1) provide indications of a single illegal introduction by man; (2) suggest limited genetic effects of heavy pollution in the past; and (3) indicate possible historical anadromous...

  20. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix C: Anadromous Fish and Juvenile Fish Transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings.

  1. Operation Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin : Annual Report 1995 : Volume II, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; US Fish and Wildlife Service

    1996-06-01

    Big Creek Hatchery is located 16 miles east of Astoria, Oregon and is approximately 3 miles upstream from Big Creek`s confluence with the Columbia River. The site elevation is approximately 75 feet above sea level. The facility includes 2 adult holding ponds, 30 raceways, 1 rearing pond, 64 troughs and 8 stacks of egg incubators. The adult collection and holding ponds are in poor condition and are inadequate to meet current program objectives. There are four water sources for the hatchery: Big Creek, Mill Creek and two springs. Current water rights total 36,158 gpm plus an additional 4.2 cfs reservoir water right. All water supplies are delivered by gravity but can be pumped for reuse if required. The facility is staffed with 9.25 FTE`s. Current practices at the hatchery are described.

  2. The signatures of stable isotopes δ 15N and δ 13C in anadromous and non-anadromous Coilia nasus living in the Yangtze River, and the adjacent sea waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Tang, Wenqiao; Dong, Wenxia

    2015-12-01

    Stable isotopes are increasingly used to investigate seasonal migrations of aquatic organisms. This study employed stable isotopes ( δ 13C and δ 15N) for Coilia nasus from the lower Yangtze River and the adjacent East China Sea to distinguish different ecotypic groups, ascertain trophic nutrition positions, and reflect environmental influences on C. nasus. δ 13C signatures of C. nasus sampled from Zhoushan (ZS), Chongming (CM), and Jingjiang (JJ) waters were significantly higher than those from the Poyang Lake (PYL) ( P nutrition positions in the marine and Poyang Lake food webs, respectively. C. nasus in Poyang Lake were significantly more enriched in δ 15N but depleted in δ 13C, suggesting that anthropogenic nutrient inputs and terrigenous organic carbon are important to the Poyang Lake food web. This study is the first to apply δ 15N and δ 13C to population assignment studies of C. nasus in the Yangtze River and its affiliated waters. Analysis of stable isotopes ( δ 15N and δ 13C) is shown to be a useful tool for discriminating anadromous and non-anadromous C. nasus.

  3. The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin; Volume XII; A Multinomial Model for Estimating Ocean Survival from Salmonid Coded Wire-Tag Data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryding, Kristen E.; Skalski, John R.

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to illustrate the development of a stochastic model using coded wire-tag (CWT) release and age-at-return data, in order to regress first year ocean survival probabilities against coastal ocean conditions and climate covariates.

  4. Inflammatory and regenerative responses in salmonids following mechanical tissue damage and natural infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Lunder, Tor; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2010-01-01

    Locale responses in muscle tissue against either a sterile tissue damage or infection were compared in salmonid fish in order to examine the inflammatory responses and regeneration of tissue. From higher vertebrates both damage and infection are known to cause inflammation since DAMPs released from....... Samples were obtained from site of lesions and from locations without clinical signs of disease and lesions. The tissue damage was performed in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by applying sterile needles to skin and muscle tissue to one side of the fish. Samples were taken 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days...... injured cells as well as PAMPs from the surface of pathogens are immunogenic. To examine this in salmonid fishes, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were infected with Moritella viscosus, the causative agent of winter ulcer. Muscle tissue was sampled from infected fish at 4, 7 and 14 days post infection...

  5. Modification of a salmonid alphavirus replicon vector for enhanced expression of heterologous antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tz-Chun; Johansson, Daniel X; Liljeström, Peter; Evensen, Øystein; Haugland, Øyvind

    2015-03-01

    A salmonid alphavirus (SAV) replicon has been developed to express heterologous antigens but protein production was low to modest compared with terrestrial alphavirus replicons. In this study, we have compared several modifications to a SAV replicon construct and analysed their influence on foreign gene expression. We found that an insertion of a translational enhancer consisting of the N-terminal 102 nt of the capsid gene, together with a nucleotide sequence encoding the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A peptide, caused a significant increase in EGFP reporter gene expression. The importance of fusing a hammerhead (HH) ribozyme sequence at the 5' end of the viral genome was also demonstrated. In contrast, a hepatitis D virus ribozyme (HDV-RZ) sequence placed at the 3' end did not augment expression of inserted genes. Taken together, we have developed a platform for optimized antigen production, which can be applied for immunization of salmonid fish in the future.

  6. Physiological Assessment of Wild and Hatchery Juvenile Salmonids : Final Report, 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Donald A.; Beckman, Brian R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2003-08-01

    It is generally held that hatchery-reared salmonids are of inferior quality and have lower smolt-to-adult survival compared to naturally-reared salmon. The overall objectives of the work performed under this contract were the following: (1) Characterize the physiology and development of naturally rearing juvenile salmonids to: (2) Allow for the design of effective rearing programs for producing wild-like smolts in supplementation and production hatchery programs. (3) Examine the relationship between growth rate and size on the physiology and migratory performance of fish reared in hatchery programs. (4) Examine the interaction of rearing temperature and feed rate on the growth and smoltification of salmon for use in producing a more wild-like smolt in hatchery programs.

  7. Effect of Multiple Turbine Passage on Juvenile Snake River Salmonid Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Kenneth D.; Anderson, James J.; Vucelick, Jessica A.

    2005-10-14

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to identify populations of migrating juvenile salmonids with a potential to be impacted by repeated exposure to turbine passage conditions. This study is part of a research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Wind/Hydropower Program. The program's goal is to increase hydropower generation and capacity while enhancing environmental performance. Our study objective is to determine whether the incremental effects of turbine passage during downstream migration impact populations of salmonids. When such a potential is found to exist, a secondary objective is to determine what level of effect of passing multiple turbines is required to decrease the number of successful migrants by 10%. This information will help identify whether future laboratory or field studies are feasible and design those studies to address conditions that present the greatest potential to improve dam survival and thus benefit fish and power generation.

  8. Gas Bubble Trauma Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids, 1994-1995 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans, Karen M.

    1997-07-01

    This report describes laboratory and field monitoring studies of gas bubble trauma (GBT) in migrating juvenile salmonids in the Snake and Columbia rivers. The first chapter describes laboratory studies of the progression of GBT signs leading to mortality and the use of the signs for GBT assessment. The progression and severity of GBT signs in juvenile salmonids exposed to different levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) and temperatures was assessed and quantified. Next, the prevalence, severity, and individual variation of GBT signs was evaluated to attempt to relate them to mortality. Finally, methods for gill examination in fish exposed to high TDG were developed and evaluated. Primary findings were: (1) no single sign of GBT was clearly correlated with mortality, but many GBT signs progressively worsened; (2) both prevalence and severity of GBT signs in several tissues is necessary; (3) bubbles in the lateral line were the earliest sign of GBT, showed progressive worsening, and had low individual variation but may develop poorly during chronic exposures; (4) fin bubbles had high prevalence, progressively worsened, and may be a persistent sign of GBT; and (5) gill bubbles appear to be the proximate cause of death but may only be relevant at high TDG levels and are difficult to examine. Chapter Two describes monitoring results of juvenile salmonids for signs of GBT. Emigrating fish were collected and examined for bubbles in fins and lateral lines. Preliminary findings were: (1) few fish had signs of GBT, but prevalence and severity appeared to increase as fish migrated downstream; (2) there was no apparent correlation between GBT signs in the fins, lateral line, or gills; (3) prevalence and severity of GBT was suggestive of long-term, non-lethal exposure to relatively low level gas supersaturated water; and (4) it appeared that GBT was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids. 24 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at John Day Dam with Emphasis on the Prototype Surface Flow Outlet, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Monter, Tyrell J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.

    2009-12-01

    The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of Top Spill Weirs installed at two spillbays at John Day Dam and evaluate the effectiveness of these surface flow outlets at attracting juvenile salmon away from the powerhouse and reducing turbine passage. The Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was used to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids passing the dam and also for calculating performance metrics used to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the dam at passing juvenile salmonids.

  10. Differential invasion success of salmonids in southern Chile: patterns and hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arismendi, Ivan; Penaluna, Brooke E.; Dunham, Jason B.; García de Leaniz, Carlos; Soto, Doris; Fleming, Ian A.; Gomez-Uchidam, Daniel; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Vargas, Pamela V.; León-Muñoz, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Biological invasions create complex ecological and societal issues worldwide. Most of the knowledge about invasions comes only from successful invaders, but less is known about which processes determine the differential success of invasions. In this review, we develop a framework to identify the main dimensions driving the success and failure of invaders, including human influences, characteristics of the invader, and biotic interactions. We apply this framework by contrasting hypotheses and available evidence to explain variability in invasion success for 12 salmonids introduced to Chile. The success of Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo trutta seems to be influenced by a context-specific combination of their phenotypic plasticity, low ecosystem resistance, and propagule pressure. These well-established invaders may limit the success of subsequently introduced salmonids, with the possible exception of O. tshawytscha, which has a short freshwater residency and limited spatial overlap with trout. Although propagule pressure is high for O. kisutch and S. salar due to their intensive use in aquaculture, their lack of success in Chile may be explained by environmental resistance, including earlier spawning times than in their native ranges, and interactions with previously established and resident Rainbow Trout. Other salmonids have also failed to establish, and they exhibit a suite of ecological traits, environmental resistance, and limited propagule pressure that are variably associated with their lack of success. Collectively, understanding how the various drivers of invasion success interact may explain the differential success of invaders and provide key guidance for managing both positive and negative outcomes associated with their presence.

  11. Anadromous char as an alternate food choice to marine animals: A synthesis of Hg concentrations, population features and other influencing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Marlene S., E-mail: marlene.evans@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon SK S7N 3H5 (Canada); Muir, Derek C.G. [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Keating, Jonathan [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon SK S7N 3H5 (Canada); Wang, Xiaowa [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    This study was conducted to confirm sporadic measurements made over the late 1970s to the early 1990s which determined that mercury (Hg) concentrations were low in anadromous char across Arctic and subarctic Canada including northern Québec and Labrador. Over 2004–2013, anadromous char populations across northern Canada were investigated at 20 sites for Hg concentrations and life history characteristics. Hg concentrations were extremely low in anadromous char muscle, typically < 0.05 μg/g (wet weight) and, at each location, generally increased with fish length, age and nitrogen isotope (δ{sup 15}N) ratio and decreased with condition factor and %lipid; correlations with carbon isotope (δ{sup 13}C) ratio were inconsistent. Location and year were significant variables influencing Hg concentrations over the study area; longitude and latitude also were significant influencing variables. Char length, weight, age, condition factor and lipid content explained additional variance. A tendency towards higher Hg concentrations with increasing latitude may be partially related to decreasing growth of char towards the north. However, Hg concentrations in char were positively correlated with growth rates suggesting that Hg concentrations in char also were higher in the more productive study areas, including to the west where mainland riverine inputs of terrestrial carbon, nutrients, and Hg were greater. The data base for assessing time trends in char was limited by the small number of years investigated at most locations, variable fish size across years, small sample size, etc. Where temporal trends were detected, they were of increase on the long term (1970s, 1980s or early 1990s to the present) but of decrease on the short term (early 2000s to present) with Nain (Labrador) showing the converse pattern. Higher Hg concentrations were also related to lower condition factor and cooler springs. Hg concentrations in anadromous char are compared with other terrestrial, aquatic

  12. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, US Fish and Wildlife Hatcheries, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighing 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs., 25 tabs.

  13. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Washington Department of Wildlife Hatcheries, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighing 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs., 25 tabs.

  14. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1983 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, John L.

    1984-11-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration conducted a study relating to the epidemiology and control of three fish diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These three diseases were ceratomyxosis which is caused by the myxosporidan parasite Ceratomyxa shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the etiological agent of which is Renibacterium salmoninarum, and infectious hematopoietic necrosis, which is caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is highly destructive and difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The presence of ceratomyxosis in rainbow trout exposed at McNary and Little Goose Dams extends the range of this disease about 200 miles further up the Columbia River and into the Snake River drainage. Wallowa steelhead trout were less resistant to this disease than other upriver stocks tested. Juvenile salmonids entering the Columbia River estuary were collected periodically between May to September, 1983. Nine percent of the beach seined chinook salmon and 5, 11 and 12%, respectively, of the purse seined coho and chinook salmon and steelhead trout were infected with Ceratomyxa shasta. Experiments indicated ceratomyxosis progresses in salt water at the same rate as in fresh water once the fish have become infected. These data indicate a longer exposure to infective stages of C. shasta than previously identified and that approximately 10% of the migrating salmonids are infected and will probably die from this organism after entering salt water. Since sampling began in 1981 the bacterial kidney disease organism, Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been detected by the fluorescent antibody test in seven salmonid species caught in the open ocean off the coasts of Washington and Oregon. The bacterium has been found primarily in chinook salmon (11%) with lesions in 2.5% of these fish. This disease was also detected at levels ranging from 17% in coho salmon to 25% in chinook

  15. Froude Number is the Single Most Important Hydraulic Parameter for Salmonid Spawning Habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, E.; Moir, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Many gravel-bed rivers exhibit historic straightening or embanking, reducing river complexity and the available habitat for key species such as salmon. A defensible method for predicting salmonid spawning habitat is an important tool for anyone engaged in assessing a river restoration. Most empirical methods to predict spawning habitat use lookup tables of depth, velocity and substrate. However, natural site selection is different: salmon must pick a location where they can successfully build a redd, and where eggs have a sufficient survival rate. Also, using dimensional variables, such as depth and velocity, is problematic: spawning occurs in rivers of differing size, depth and velocity range. Non-dimensional variables have proven useful in other branches of fluid dynamics, and instream habitat is no different. Empirical river data has a high correlation between observed salmon redds and Froude number, without insight into why. Here we present a physics based model of spawning and bedform evolution, which shows that Froude number is indeed a rational choice for characterizing the bedform, substrate, and flow necessary for spawning. It is familiar for Froude to characterize surface waves, but Froude also characterizes longitudinal bedform in a mobile bed river. We postulate that these bedforms and their hydraulics perform two roles in salmonid spawning: allowing transport of clasts during redd building, and oxygenating eggs. We present an example of this Froude number and substrate based habitat characterization on a Scottish river for which we have detailed topography at several stages during river restoration and subsequent evolution of natural processes. We show changes to the channel Froude regime as a result of natural process and validate habitat predictions against redds observed during 2014 and 2015 spawning seasons, also relating this data to the Froude regime in other, nearby, rivers. We discuss the use of the Froude spectrum in providing an indicator of

  16. Gas Bubble Disease Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids : Annual Report 1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maule, Alec G.; Beeman, John W.; Hans, Karen M.; Mesa, M.G.; Haner, P.; Warren, J.J. [Geological Survey, Cook, WA (United States). Columbia River Research Lab.

    1997-10-01

    This document describes the project activities 1996--1997 contract year. This report is composed of three chapters which contain data and analyses of the three main elements of the project: field research to determine the vertical distribution of migrating juvenile salmonids, monitoring of juvenile migrants at dams on the Snake and Columbia rivers, and laboratory experiments to describe the progression of gas bubble disease signs leading to mortality. The major findings described in this report are: A miniature pressure-sensitive radio transmitter was found to be accurate and precise and, after compensation for water temperature, can be used to determine the depth of tagged-fish to within 0.32 m of the true depth (Chapter 1). Preliminary data from very few fish suggest that depth protects migrating juvenile steelhead from total dissolved gas supersaturation (Chapter 1). As in 1995, few fish had any signs of gas bubble disease, but it appeared that prevalence and severity increased as fish migrated downstream and in response to changing gas supersaturation (Chapter 2). It appeared to gas bubble disease was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids when total dissolved gas supersaturation was < 120% (Chapter 2). Laboratory studies suggest that external examinations are appropriate for determining the severity of gas bubble disease in juvenile salmonids (Chapter 3). The authors developed a new method for examining gill arches for intravascular bubbles by clamping the ventral aorta to reduce bleeding when arches were removed (Chapter 3). Despite an outbreak of bacterial kidney disease in the experimental fish, the data indicate that gas bubble disease is a progressive trauma that can be monitored (Chapter 3).

  17. Microhabitat preference of Anisakis simplex in three salmonid species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahlool, Qusay Zuhair Mohammad; Skovgaard, Alf; Kania, Per Walter

    2012-01-01

    Three salmonid fish species, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmo salar and Salmo trutta, were infected experimentally with the parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex (A. simplex) and the difference between in vivo behaviour of the nematode in the three fish species was investigated. Infection success rate....... simplex larvae were attached to the digestive tract (stomach, pyloric caeca, intestine), while the majority of larvae found in rainbow trout were located between the pyloric caeca. In Baltic salmon, nematodes were dispersed in and on spleen, head kidney, liver, swim bladder and musculature. Encapsulation...

  18. Microhabitat preference of Anisakis simplex in 3 salmonid species: Immunological Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahlool, Qusay Zuhair Mohammad; Buchmann, Kurt

    different salmonid species to investigate the in vivo behavioural difference of experimentally inoculated Anisakis parasite inside these fishes. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) were used in this experiment. Infection success differed between...... species. Baltic salmon showed a higher number of nematodes successfully established, whereas brown trout and rainbow trout showed a higher natural resistance. Microhabitat results were also different according to the fish species. Anisakis simplex found in brown trout where attached to the digestive tract...

  19. Contrasting population genetic structure among freshwater-resident and anadromous lampreys: the role of demographic history, differential dispersal and anthropogenic barriers to movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Fiona S A; Hoelzel, A Rus; Hume, John B; Lucas, Martyn C

    2015-01-01

    The tendency of many species to abandon migration remains a poorly understood aspect of evolutionary biology that may play an important role in promoting species radiation by both allopatric and sympatric mechanisms. Anadromy inherently offers an opportunity for the colonization of freshwater environments, and the shift from an anadromous to a wholly freshwater life history has occurred in many families of fishes. Freshwater-resident forms have arisen repeatedly among lampreys (within the Petromyzontidae and Mordaciidae), and there has been much debate as to whether anadromous lampreys, and their derived freshwater-resident analogues, constitute distinct species or are divergent ecotypes of polymorphic species. Samples of 543 European river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis (mostly from anadromous populations) and freshwater European brook lamprey Lampetra planeri from across 18 sites, primarily in the British Isles, were investigated for 13 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci, and 108 samples from six of these sites were sequenced for 829 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We found contrasting patterns of population structure for mtDNA and microsatellite DNA markers, such that low diversity and little structure were seen for all populations for mtDNA (consistent with a recent founder expansion event), while fine-scale structuring was evident for nuclear markers. Strong differentiation for microsatellite DNA loci was seen among freshwater-resident L. planeri populations and between L. fluviatilis and L. planeri in most cases, but little structure was evident among anadromous L. fluviatilis populations. We conclude that postglacial colonization founded multiple freshwater-resident populations with strong habitat fidelity and limited dispersal tendencies that became highly differentiated, a pattern that was likely intensified by anthropogenic barriers. PMID:25689694

  20. Pathogenesis of experimental salmonid alphavirus infection in vivo: an ultrastructural insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Tharangani K; Ferguson, Hugh W; Weidmann, Manfred W; Bron, James E; Thompson, Kimberly D; Adams, Alexandra; Muir, Katherine F; Richards, Randolph H

    2016-01-08

    Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus belonging to the family Togaviridae. It causes economically devastating disease in cultured salmonids. The characteristic features of SAV infection include severe histopathological changes in the heart, pancreas and skeletal muscles of diseased fish. Although the presence of virus has been reported in a wider range of tissues, the mechanisms responsible for viral tissue tropism and for lesion development during the disease are not clearly described or understood. Previously, we have described membrane-dependent morphogenesis of SAV and associated apoptosis-mediated cell death in vitro. The aims of the present study were to explore ultrastructural changes associated with SAV infection in vivo. Cytolytic changes were observed in heart, but not in gill and head-kidney of virus-infected fish, although they still exhibited signs of SAV morphogenesis. Ultrastructural changes associated with virus replication were also noted in leukocytes in the head kidney of virus-infected fish. These results further describe the presence of degenerative lesions in the heart as expected, but not in the gills and in the kidney.

  1. Salmonid alphavirus replication in mosquito cells: towards a novel vaccine production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikke, Mia C; Verest, Marjan; Vlak, Just M; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2014-09-01

    Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) causes pancreas disease and sleeping disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and confers a major burden to the aquaculture industry. A commercial inactivated whole virus vaccine propagated in a salmon cell line at low temperature provides effective protection against SAV infections. Alphaviruses (family Togaviridae) are generally transmitted between vertebrate hosts via blood-sucking arthropod vectors, typically mosquitoes. SAV is unique in this respect because it can be transmitted directly from fish to fish and has no known invertebrate vector. Here, we show for the first time that SAV is able to complete a full infectious cycle within arthropod cells derived from the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus. Progeny virus is produced in C6/36 and U4.4. cells in a temperature-dependent manner (at 15 °C but not at 18 °C), can be serially passaged and remains infectious to salmonid Chinook salmon embryo cells. This suggests that SAV is not a vertebrate-restricted alphavirus after all and may have the potential to replicate in invertebrates. The current study also shows the ability of SAV to be propagated in mosquito cells, thereby possibly providing an alternative SAV production system for vaccine applications.

  2. Assessing Juvenile Salmonid Passage Through Culverts: Field Research in Support of Protocol Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Greg D.; Evans, Nathan R.; Pearson, Walter H.; Southard, John A.

    2001-10-30

    The primary goal of our research this spring/ summer was to refine techniques and examine scenarios under which a standardized protocol could be applied to assess juvenile coho salmon (O. kisutch) passage through road culverts. Field evaluations focused on capture-mark- recapture methods that allowed analysis of fish movement patterns, estimates of culvert passability, and potential identification of cues inducing these movements. At this stage, 0+ age coho salmon fry 30 mm to 65 mm long (fork length) were the species and age class of interest. Ultimately, the protocol will provide rapid, statistically rigorous methods for trained personnel to perform standardized biological assessments of culvert passability to a number of juvenile salmon species. Questions to be addressed by the research include the following: ? Do hydraulic structures such as culverts restrict habitat for juvenile salmonids? ? How do existing culverts and retrofits perform relative to juvenile salmonid passage? ? Do some culvert characteristics and hydraulic conditions provide better passage than others? ? Does the culvert represent a barrier to certain size classes of fish? Recommendations addressed issues of study site selection, initial capture, marking, recapture/observations, and estimating movement.

  3. Decompression-induced bubble formation in salmonids: comparison to gas bubble disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, D L; D'Aoust, B G; Smith, L S

    1976-12-01

    The relationship of gas bubble disease (GBD) in fish to decompression-induced bubble formation was investigated with salmonids. Acute bioassays were used to determine equilibration times for critical effects in fish decompressed from depths to 200 fsw. It was found that equilibration of critical tissues was complete in 60-90 min. Salmonids and air-breathers are sensitive to decompressions at similar levels of supersaturation if elimination of excess gas following decompression is unrestricted. However, if elimination is restricted, bubble formation and growth increase accordingly. Tests with mixtures of He-O2, Ar-O2, N2-O2 (80% inert gas: 20% O2) and pure oxygen demonstrated that gas solubility as well as supersaturation (delta P), pressure ratio (initial pressure: final pressure), and absolute pressure must be considered in setting tolerance limits for any decompression. Gases with higher solubility are more likely to produce bubbles upon decompression. Oxygen, however, does not follow this relationship until higher pressures are reached, probably owing to its function in metabolism and in binding with hemoglobin. Tissue responses observed in both GBD and decompressed fish involved similar pathological effects at acute exposures. The circulatory system was consistently affected by bubbles that occluded vessels and blocked flow through the heart.

  4. Evolutionary relationships among sympatric life history forms of Dolly Varden inhabiting the landlocked Kronotsky Lake, Kamchatka, and a neighboring anadromous population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, C.O.; Pavlov, S.D.; Hauser, L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the evolutionary relationships among five sympatric morphs of Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma (white, Schmidti, longhead, river, and dwarf) inhabiting landlocked Kronotsky Lake on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, and an anadromous population below the barrier waterfall on the outflowing Kronotsky River. Morphological analyses indicated phenotypic differentiation corresponding to preferred habitat, the longhead (a limnetic piscivorous morph) having a fusiform body, long jaw, and short fins and the Schmidti (a benthic morph) having a robust body, small jaw, and long fins. Analysis of molecular variance among the Kronotsky Lake morphs indicated that contemporary gene flow is restricted both among morphs within locations and among locations within morphs. Gene flow from Kronotsky Lake into the anadromous population also appears to be restricted. Our findings indicate that there are two divergent evolutionary lineages, one consisting of the white, Schmidti, river, and dwarf morphs and the other of the longhead morph and the anadromous population, which suggests that Kronotsky Lake was subject to separate waves of immigration. The Kronotsky Lake Dolly Varden morphs may represent an example of ecological speciation in progress, and we present a working hypothesis for the diversification of morphs within Kronotsky Lake.

  5. Salmonid alphavirus glycoprotein E2 requires low temperature and E1 for virion formation and induction of protective immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikke, M.C.; Braaen, S.; Villoing, S.; Hodneland, K.; Geertsema, C.; Verhagen, L.; Frost, P.; Vlak, J.M.; Rimstad, E.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonid alphavirus (SAV; also known as Salmon pancreas disease virus; family Togaviridae) causes pancreas disease and sleeping disease in Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout, respectively, and poses a major burden to the aquaculture industry. SAV infection in vivo is temperature-restricted and progen

  6. The potential impacts of migratory difficulty, including warmer waters and altered flow conditions, on the reproductive success of salmonid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenkes, Miriam; Shiels, Holly A; Fitzpatrick, John L; Nudds, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    Climate change and urbanisation of watercourses affect water temperatures and current flow velocities in river systems on a global scale. This represents a particularly critical issue for migratory fish species with complex life histories that use rivers to reproduce. Salmonids are migratory keystone species that provide substantial economical value to ecosystems and human societies. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of the effects of environmental stressors on their reproductive success is critical in order to ensure their continued abundance during future climatic change. Salmonids are capital breeders, relying entirely on endogenous energy stores to fuel return migration to their natal spawning sites and reproduction upon arrival. Metabolic rates and cost of transport en-route increase with temperature and at extreme temperatures, swimming is increasingly fuelled anaerobically, resulting in an oxygen debt and reduced capacity to recover from exhaustive exercise. Thermally challenged salmonids also produce less viable gametes, which themselves are affected by water temperature after release. Passage through hydrological barriers and temperature changes both affect energy expenditure. As a result, important energetic tradeoffs emerge between extra energy used during migration and that available for other facets of the reproductive cycle, such as reproductive competition and gamete production. However, studies identifying these tradeoffs are extremely sparse. This review focuses on the specific locomotor responses of salmonids to thermal and hydrological challenges, identifying gaps in our knowledge and highlighting the potential implications for key aspects of their reproduction.

  7. Application of neural networks to prediction of fish diversity and salmonid production in the Lake Ontario basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, James E.

    2005-01-01

    Diversity and fish productivity are important measures of the health and status of aquatic systems. Being able to predict the values of these indices as a function of environmental variables would be valuable to management. Diversity and productivity have been related to environmental conditions by multiple linear regression and discriminant analysis, but such methods have several shortcomings. In an effort to predict fish species diversity and estimate salmonid production for streams in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario, I constructed neural networks and trained them on a data set containing abiotic information and either fish diversity or juvenile salmonid abundance. Twenty percent of the original data were retained as a test data set and used in the training. The ability to extend these neural networks to conditions throughout the streams was tested with data not involved in the network training. The resulting neural networks were able to predict the number of salmonids with more than 84% accuracy and diversity with more than 73% accuracy, which was far superior to the performance of multiple regression. The networks also identified the environmental variables with the greatest predictive power, namely, those describing water movement, stream size, and water chemistry. Thirteen input variables were used to predict diversity and 17 to predict salmonid abundance.

  8. Assessment of Salmonids and their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin within Washington, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, Glen Wesley; Trump, Jeremy; Karl, David

    2002-12-01

    Concerns about the decline of native salmon and trout populations have increased among natural resource managers and the public in recent years. As a result, a multitude of initiatives have been implemented at the local, state, and federal government levels. These initiatives include management plans and actions intended to protect and restore salmonid fishes and their habitats. In 1998 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) were listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), as ''Threatened'', for the Walla Walla River and its tributaries. Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were listed as ''Threatened'' in 1999 for the mid-Columbia River and its tributaries. These ESA listings emphasize the need for information about these threatened salmonid populations and their habitats. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) is entrusted with ''the preservation, protection, and perpetuation of fish and wildlife....[and to] maximize public recreational or commercial opportunities without impairing the supply of fish and wildlife (WAC 77.12.010).'' In consideration of this mandate, the WDFW submitted a proposal in December 1997 to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a study to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of salmonid habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. The primary purposes of this project are to collect baseline biological and habitat data, to identify major data gaps, and to draw conclusions whenever possible. The study reported herein details the findings of the 2001 field season (March to November, 2001).

  9. White River Falls Fish Passage Project, Tygh Valley, Oregon : Final Technical Report, Volume III, Appendix B, Fisheries Report; Appendix C, Engineering Alternative Evaluation; Appendix D, Benefit/Cost Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oregon. Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Mount Hood National Forest (Or.)

    1985-06-01

    Studies were conducted to describe current habitat conditions in the White River basin above White River Falls and to evaluate the potential to produce anadromous fish. An inventory of spawning and rearing habitats, irrigation diversions, and enhancement opportunities for anadromous fish in the White River drainage was conducted. Survival of juvenile fish at White River Falls was estimated by releasing juvenile chinook and steelhead above the falls during high and low flow periods and recapturing them below the falls in 1983 and 1984. Four alternatives to provide upstream passage for adult salmon and steelhead were developd to a predesign level. The cost of adult passage and the estimated run size of anadromous fish were used to determine the benefit/cost of the preferred alternative. Possible effects of the introduction of anadromous fish on resident fish and on nearby Oak Springs Hatchery were evaluated. This included an inventory of resident species, a genetic study of native rainbow, and the identification of fish diseases in the basin. This volume contains appendices of habitat survey data, potential production, resident fish population data, upstream passage designs, and benefit/cost calculations. (ACR)

  10. System-Wide Significance of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs : Annual Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, James H.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1993-12-01

    Northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) predation on juvenile salmonids was characterized during 1992 at ten locations in the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam and at three locations in John Day Reservoir. During the spring and summer, 1,487 northern squawfish were collected in the lower Columbia River and 202 squawfish were sampled in John Day Reservoir. Gut content data, predator weight, and water temperature were used to compute a consumption index (CI) for northern squawfish, and overall diet was also described. In the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam, northern squawfish diet was primarily fish (spring 69%; summer 53%), most of which were salmonids. Salmonids were also the primary diet component in the Bonneville Dam tailrace, John Day Dam forebay, and the McNary Dam tailrace. Crustaceans were the dominant diet item at the John Day mid-reservoir location, although sample sizes were small. About half of the non-salmonid preyfish were sculpins. The consumption index (CI) of northern squawfish was generally higher during summer than during spring. The highest CI`s were observed during summer in the tailrace boat restricted zones of Bonneville Dam (CI = 7.8) and McNary Dam (CI = 4.6). At locations below Bonneville Dam, CI`s were relatively low near Covert`s Landing and Rooster Rock, higher at four locations between Blue Lake and St. Helens, and low again at three downriver sites (Kalama, Ranier, and Jones Beach). Northern squawfish catches and CI`s were noticeably higher throughout the lower Columbia compared to mid-reservoir sites further upriver sampled during 1990--92. Predation may be especially intense in the free-flowing section of the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui; N = 198) ate mostly fish -- 25% salmonids, 29% sculpins, and 46% other fish. Highest catches of smallmouth bass were in the John Day Dam forebay.

  11. Divergence with gene flow between Ponto-Caspian refugia in an anadromous cyprinid Rutilus frisii revealed by multiple gene phylogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlík, Petr; Marková, Silvia; Choleva, Lukás; Bogutskaya, Nina G; Ekmekçi, F Guler; Ivanova, Petya P

    2008-02-01

    The Black and Caspian Seas have experienced alternating periods of isolation and interconnection over many Milankovitch climate oscillations and most recently became separated when the meltwater overflow from the Caspian Sea ceased at the end of the last glaciation. Climate-induced habitat changes have indisputably had profound impacts on distribution and demography of aquatic species, yet uncertainties remain about the relative roles of isolation and dispersal in the response of species shared between the Black and Caspian Sea basins. We examined these issues using phylogeographical analysis of an anadromous cyprinid fish Rutilus frisii. Bayesian coalescence analyses of sequence variation at two nuclear and one mitochondrial genes suggest that the Black and Caspian Seas supported separate populations of R. frisii during the last glaciation. Parameter estimates from the fitted isolation-with-migration model showed that their separation was not complete, however, and that the two populations continued to exchange genes in both directions. These analyses also suggested that majority of migrations occurred during the Pleistocene, showing that the variation shared between the Black and Caspian Seas is the result of ancient dispersal along the temporary natural connections between the basins, rather than of incomplete lineage sorting or recent human-mediated dispersal. Gene flow between the refugial populations was therefore an important source of genetic variation, and we suggest that it facilitated the evolutionary response of the populations to changing climate.

  12. Total mercury concentrations in anadromous Northern Dolly Varden from the northwestern Canadian Arctic: a historical baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, L; Reist, J D; Power, M

    2015-03-15

    Previous research has documented the significance of total mercury (THg) as a northern contaminant in general and of fish in particular. While much research has been devoted to documenting both spatial and temporal changes in THg in consumed fish, little effort has been directed at understanding patterns of THg in Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma), a prized subsistence species throughout the western North American Arctic. Here we report historical THg concentrations for anadromous Dolly Varden from 10 populations in the Yukon and Northwest Territories sampled across a range of latitudes (67-69°N) and longitudes (136-141°W) between the years 1988-91. Unadjusted mean THg concentrations ranged from 15 to 254 ng/g wet weight. Length-adjusted THg concentrations were significantly different among sites, but were not related to latitude or longitude. Within and among populations, THg was significantly related to fork-length, age, δ(15)N, and δ(13)C, with the variation in THg found among populations being best explained by size. The data serve as an important baseline against which future changes in THg levels in this important subsistence fishery may be compared to determine the significance of any observed trends.

  13. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, John L.

    1989-01-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration has been conducting a study concerning the epidemiology and control of three fish pathogens which cause major disease problems in salmonids of the Columbia River basin. The pathogens studied include Cera to myxa Shasta, the myxosporean parasite which causes ceratomyxosis; Renibacterium salmoninarum, the bacterium which is the etiological agent of bacterial kidney disease; and the rhabdovirus which causes infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN). During this project, the host and geographic range of C. Shasta have been more precisely determined and the known geographic range has been significantly expanded. The effects of the parasite on fish migrating through the Columbia River and on their introduction into salt water have been examined. Similar studies have been conducted with R. salmoninarum and it has been shown that bacterial kidney disease occurs at all life stages of salmonids and is responsible for mortality in both fresh and salt water. It has also been demonstrated that different isolates of R. salmoninarum have different antigenic composition. Results of demonstration projects designed to control IHN by using UV treated water for early rearing of salmonid fry were equivocal. The scope of the project was considerably narrowed and focused during the past two years The project has concentrated on a study concerning the biology of C. Shasta and the identification of potential chemotherapeutants for control of bacterial kidney disease. The emphasis of work on C. Shasta has been its pathogenesis. This aspect of the parasite has been investigated using histopathologic and immunologic methodology. Mode of transmission, the nature of the infectious stage, and potential intermediate hosts of the parasite have also been areas of active research. Classes of chemotherapeutants with the highest potential for efficacy against R. salmoninarum have been

  14. The physiology and toxicology of salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finn, Roderick Nigel [Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Allegaten 41, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)]. E-mail: nigel.finn@bio.uib.no

    2007-03-30

    The purpose of this review is to collate physiological knowledge on salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria. Salmonid genera reviewed include Coregonus, Thymallus, Salvelinus, Salmo, and Oncorhynchus spp. When physiological data for salmonids are lacking, the zebrafish and medaka models are included. The primary focus is on the underlying mechanisms involved in the hydro-mineral, thermal, and respiratory biology with an extended section on the xenobiotic toxicology of the early stages. Past and present data reveal that the eggs of salmonids are among the largest shed by any broadcast spawning teleost. Once ovulated, the physicochemical properties of the ovarian fluid provide temporary protection from external perturbations and maintain the eggs in good physiological condition until spawning. Following fertilisation and during early development the major structures protecting the embryo from poor water quality are the vitelline membrane, the enveloping layer and the chorion. The vitelline membrane is one of the least permeable membranes known, while the semi-permeable chorion provides both physical and chemical defense against metals, pathogens, and xenobiotic chemicals. In part these structures explain the lower sensitivity of the eggs to chemical imbalance compared to the larvae, however the lower metabolic rate and the chronology of gene expression and translational control suggest that developmental competence also plays a decisive role. In addition, maternal effect genes provide a defense potential until the mid-blastula transition. The transition between maternal effect genes and zygotic genes is a critical period for the embryo. The perivitelline fluids are an important trap for cations, but are also the major barrier to diffusion of gases and solutes. Acidic environmental pH interferes with acid-base and hydromineral balance but also increases the risk of aluminium and heavy metal intoxication. These risks are ameliorated somewhat by

  15. Comparative study of genome divergence in salmonids with various rates of genetic isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubina, Elena A; Nikitin, Mikhail A; Ponomareva, Ekaterina V; Goryunov, Denis V; Gritsenko, Oleg F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is a comparative investigation of changes that certain genome parts undergo during speciation. The research was focused on divergence of coding and noncoding sequences in different groups of salmonid fishes of the Salmonidae (Salmo, Parasalmo, Oncorhynchus, and Salvelinus genera) and the Coregonidae families under different levels of reproductive isolation. Two basic approaches were used: (1) PCR-RAPD with a 20-22 nt primer design with subsequent cloning and sequencing of the products and (2) a modified endonuclease restriction analysis. The restriction fragments were shown with sequencing to represent satellite DNA. Effects of speciation are found in repetitive sequences. The revelation of expressed sequences in the majority of the employed anonymous loci allows for assuming the adaptive selection during allopatric speciation in isolated char forms.

  16. Comparative Study of Genome Divergence in Salmonids with Various Rates of Genetic Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Shubina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is a comparative investigation of changes that certain genome parts undergo during speciation. The research was focused on divergence of coding and noncoding sequences in different groups of salmonid fishes of the Salmonidae (Salmo, Parasalmo, Oncorhynchus, and Salvelinus genera and the Coregonidae families under different levels of reproductive isolation. Two basic approaches were used: (1 PCR-RAPD with a 20–22 nt primer design with subsequent cloning and sequencing of the products and (2 a modified endonuclease restriction analysis. The restriction fragments were shown with sequencing to represent satellite DNA. Effects of speciation are found in repetitive sequences. The revelation of expressed sequences in the majority of the employed anonymous loci allows for assuming the adaptive selection during allopatric speciation in isolated char forms.

  17. THE RAPID DIAGNOSTICS OF SEX OF SALMONIDS USING DNA-MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Rud

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on nucleotide sequences of sex-specific DNA-markers of salmonid fishes the oligonucleotide primers for polymerase chain reaction were selected with purpose on rapid diagnostic of sex in rainbow trout Onchorhynchus mykiss, brown trout Salmo trutta, huchen Hucho hucho and grayling Thymallus thymallus. The specify of amplification was determined by nucleotide sequence analysis of PCR-products. All amplified fragments were referred to sex-specific locuses of Y chromosomes in males of investigated fish species. The PCR-products were in size of 880, 607, 521 and 558 for rainbow trout, brown trout, grayling and huchen respectively. Thus the sex determination in above mentioned fish species and identification of genotypic males under process of hormonal sex reversion can be provided using conventional PCR. Present method relates to rapid diagnostics because the data analysis and return of results back to fish farm take one single day.

  18. Mapping of linear antibody epitopes of the glycoprotein of VHSV, a salmonid rhabdovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Alonso, M.; Lorenzo, G.; Perez, L.

    1998-01-01

    Antibody Linear epitopes of the glycoprotein G (gpG) of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), a rhabdovirus of salmonids, were mapped by pepscan using overlapping 15-mer peptides covering the entire gpG sequence and ELISA with polyclonal and monoclonal murine and polyclonal trout...... antibodies. Among the regions recognized in the pepscan by the polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) were the previously identified phosphatidylserine binding heptad-repeats (Estepa & Coll 1996; Virology 216:60-70) and leucocyte stimulating peptides (Lorenzo et al. 1995; Virology 212:348-355). Among 17 monoclonal...... antibodies (MAbs), only 2 non-neutralizing MAbs, I10 (aa 139-153) and IP1H3 (aa 399-413), could be mapped to specific peptides in the pepscan of the gpG. Mapping of these MAbs was confirmed by immunoblotting with recombinant proteins and/or other synthetic peptides covering those sequences. None...

  19. Non-native salmonids affect amphibian occupancy at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Hossack, Blake R.; Bahls, Peter F.; Bull, Evelyn L.; Corn, Paul Stephen; Hokit, Grant; Maxell, Bryce A.; Munger, James C.; Wyrick, Aimee

    2010-01-01

    Aim The introduction of non-native species into aquatic environments has been linked with local extinctions and altered distributions of native species. We investigated the effect of non-native salmonids on the occupancy of two native amphibians, the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), across three spatial scales: water bodies, small catchments and large catchments. Location Mountain lakes at ≥ 1500 m elevation were surveyed across the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Methods We surveyed 2267 water bodies for amphibian occupancy (based on evidence of reproduction) and fish presence between 1986 and 2002 and modelled the probability of amphibian occupancy at each spatial scale in relation to habitat availability and quality and fish presence. Results After accounting for habitat features, we estimated that A. macrodactylum was 2.3 times more likely to breed in fishless water bodies than in water bodies with fish. Ambystoma macrodactylum also was more likely to occupy small catchments where none of the water bodies contained fish than in catchments where at least one water body contained fish. However, the probability of salamander occupancy in small catchments was also influenced by habitat availability (i.e. the number of water bodies within a catchment) and suitability of remaining fishless water bodies. We found no relationship between fish presence and salamander occupancy at the large-catchment scale, probably because of increased habitat availability. In contrast to A. macrodactylum, we found no relationship between fish presence and R. luteiventris occupancy at any scale. Main conclusions Our results suggest that the negative effects of non-native salmonids can extend beyond the boundaries of individual water bodies and increase A. macrodactylum extinction risk at landscape scales. We suspect that niche overlap between non-native fish and A. macrodactylum at higher elevations in the northern Rocky

  20. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, John L.

    1986-12-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration conducted a study relating to the epidemiology and control of three fish diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These three diseases were ceratomyxosis caused by the myxosporidan parasite Ceratomyxa Shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the causative agent Renibacterium salmoninarum, and infectious hematopoietic necrosis, caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is highly destructive and difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The geographic range of the infectious stage of C. Shasta has been extended to include the Snake River to the Oxbow and Hells Canyon Dams. These are the farthest upriver sites tested. Infections of ceratomyxosis were also initiated in the east fork of the Lewis River and in the Washougal River in Washington. Laboratory studies with this parasite failed to indicate that tubeficids are required in its life cycle. Bacterial kidney disease has been demonstrated in all life stages of salmonids: in the eggs, fry, smolts, juveniles and adults in the ocean, and in fish returning to fresh water. Monoclonal antibodies produced against R. salmoninarum demonstrated antigenic differences among isolates of the bacterium. Monoclonal antibodies also showed antigens of R. salmoninarum which are similar to those of a wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. A demonstration project at Round Butte Hatchery showed U V treatment to be an effective method for reducing the microbial population of the water supply and could reduce risks of IHNV. Tangential flow filtration was used successfully to concentrate IHNV from environmental water. At Round Butte Hatchery the carrier rate of IHNV in adults was very low and there was no subsequent mortality resulting from IHN in juveniles.

  1. Earlier migration timing, decreasing phenotypic variation, and biocomplexity in multiple salmonid species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Kovach

    Full Text Available Climate-induced phenological shifts can influence population, evolutionary, and ecological dynamics, but our understanding of these phenomena is hampered by a lack of long-term demographic data. We use a multi-decade census of 5 salmonid species representing 14 life histories in a warming Alaskan stream to address the following key questions about climate change and phenology: How consistent are temporal patterns and drivers of phenology for similar species and alternative life histories? Are shifts in phenology associated with changes in phenotypic variation? How do phenological changes influence the availability of resource subsidies? For most salmonid species, life stages, and life histories, freshwater temperature influences migration timing--migration events are occurring earlier in time (mean = 1.7 days earlier per decade over the 3-5 decades, and the number of days over which migration events occur is decreasing (mean = 1.5 days per decade. Temporal trends in migration timing were not correlated with changes in intra-annual phenotypic variation, suggesting that these components of the phenotypic distribution have responded to environmental change independently. Despite commonalities across species and life histories, there was important biocomplexity in the form of disparate shifts in migration timing and variation in the environmental factors influencing migration timing for alternative life history strategies in the same population. Overall, adult populations have been stable during these phenotypic and environmental changes (λ ≈ 1.0, but the temporal availability of salmon as a resource in freshwater has decreased by nearly 30 days since 1971 due to changes in the median date of migration timing and decreases in intra-annual variation in migration timing. These novel observations advance our understanding of phenological change in response to climate warming, and indicate that climate change has influenced the ecology of

  2. Alpha interferon and not gamma interferon inhibits salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 replication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Guo, Tz-Chun; Mutoloki, Stephen; Haugland, Øyvind; Marjara, Inderjit S; Evensen, Øystein

    2010-09-01

    Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is an emerging virus in salmonid aquaculture, with SAV-3 being the only subtype found in Norway. Until now, there has been little focus on the alpha interferon (IFN-alpha)-induced antiviral responses during virus infection in vivo or in vitro in fish. The possible involvement of IFN-gamma in the response to SAV-3 is also not known. In this study, the two IFNs were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins (recombinant IFN-alpha [rIFN-alpha] and rIFN-gamma) and used for in vitro studies. SAV-3 infection in a permissive salmon cell line (TO cells) results in IFN-alpha and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) mRNA upregulation. Preinfection treatment (4 to 24 h prior to infection) with salmon rIFN-alpha induces an antiviral state that inhibits the replication of SAV-3 and protects the cells against virus-induced cytopathic effects (CPE). The antiviral state coincides with a strong expression of Mx and ISG15 mRNA and Mx protein expression. When rIFN-alpha is administered at the time of infection and up to 24 h postinfection, virus replication is not inhibited, and cells are not protected against virus-induced CPE. By 40 h postinfection, the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha) is phosphorylated concomitant with the expression of the E2 protein as assessed by Western blotting. Postinfection treatment with rIFN-alpha results in a moderate reduction in E2 expression levels in accordance with a moderate downregulation of cellular protein synthesis, an approximately 65% reduction by 60 h postinfection. rIFN-gamma has only a minor inhibitory effect on SAV-3 replication in vitro. SAV-3 is sensitive to the preinfection antiviral state induced by rIFN-alpha, while postinfection antiviral responses or postinfection treatment with rIFN-alpha is not able to limit viral replication.

  3. Gene expression studies of host response to Salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 experimental infections in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Guo, Tz-Chun; Mutoloki, Stephen; Haugland, Oyvind; Evensen, Oystein

    2012-11-01

    Salmonid alphavirus subtype-3 (SAV-3) infection in Atlantic salmon is exclusively found in Norway. The salmonid alphaviruses have been well characterized at the genome level but there is limited information about the host-pathogen interaction phenomena. This study was undertaken to characterize the replication and spread of SAV-3 in internal organs of experimentally infected Atlantic salmon and the subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition, suitability of a cohabitation challenge model for this virus was also examined. Groups of fish were infected by intramuscular injection (IM), cohabited (CO) or kept uninfected in a separate tank. Samples of pancreas, kidney, spleen, heart and skeletal muscles were collected at 2, 4 and 8 weeks post infection (wpi). Pathological changes were assessed by histology concurrently with viral loads and mRNA expression of immune genes by real time RT-PCR. Pathological changes were only observed in the pancreas and heart (target organs) of both IM and CO groups, with changes appearing first in the pancreas (2 wpi) in the former. Lesions with increasing severity over time coincided with high viral loads despite significant induction of IFN-α, Mx and ISG15. IFN-γ and MHC-I were expressed in all tissues examined and their induction appeared in parallel with that of IL-10. Inflammatory genes TNF-α, IL-12 and IL-8 were only induced in the heart during pathology while T cell-related genes CD3ε, CD4, CD8, TCR-α and MHC-II were expressed in target organs at 8 wpi. These findings suggest that the onset of innate responses came too late to limit virus replication. Furthermore, SAV-3 infections in Atlantic salmon induce Th1/cytotoxic responses in common with other alphaviruses infecting higher vertebrates. Our findings demonstrate that SAV-3 can be transmitted via the water making it suitable for a cohabitation challenge model.

  4. Efficacy, fate, and potential effects on salmonids of mosquito larvicides in catch basins in Seattle, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Morgan; Grue, Christian; Conquest, Loveday; Grassley, James; King, Kerensa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy, fate, and potential for direct effects on salmonids of 4 common mosquito larvicides (Mosquito Dunks® and Bits® (AI: Bacillis thuringiensis var. israelensis, [Bti]), VectoLex® WSP (AI: Bacillus sphaericus [Bs], VectoLex CG [AI: Bs], and Altosid® Briquets [AI: s-methoprene]) in Seattle, WA, during 3 summers. During efficacy trials in 2006, all treatments resulted in a rapid reduction in number of mosquito pupae (Mosquito Dunks and Bits and VectoLex WSP) or emergence success (Altosid Briquets). VectoLex CG was chosen for city-wide application in 2007 and 2008. The average counts of pupae within round-top basins remained significantly below the control average for 11 wk in 2007, whereas efficacy in grated-top basins was short-lived. In 2008 the average counts of pupae within grated-top basins remained significantly below the control average for 10 wk. Altosid XR was also effective in reducing adult emergence within grated basins in 2008. In 2007 and 2008, frequent precipitation events made the evaluation of efficacy difficult due to reductions in pupae across control and treated basins. Four separate analyses of VectoLex products revealed that the product was a combination of Bs and Bti. Both Bs and Bti were detected in 3 urban creeks connected to treated basins in 2007 and 2008. Laboratory toxicity test results suggest that concentrations of Bs and Bti detected in each of the watersheds pose little direct hazard to juvenile salmonids.

  5. The contribution of molecular epidemiology to the understanding and control of viral diseases of salmonid aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snow Michael

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular epidemiology is a science which utilizes molecular biology to define the distribution of disease in a population (descriptive epidemiology and relies heavily on integration of traditional (or analytical epidemiological approaches to identify the etiological determinants of this distribution. The study of viral pathogens of aquaculture has provided many exciting opportunities to apply such tools. This review considers the extent to which molecular epidemiological studies have contributed to better understanding and control of disease in aquaculture, drawing on examples of viral diseases of salmonid fish of commercial significance including viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV, salmonid alphavirus (SAV and infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV. Significant outcomes of molecular epidemiological studies include: Improved taxonomic classification of viruses A better understanding of the natural distribution of viruses An improved understanding of the origins of viral pathogens in aquaculture An improved understanding of the risks of translocation of pathogens outwith their natural host range An increased ability to trace the source of new disease outbreaks Development of a basis for ensuring development of appropriate diagnostic tools An ability to classify isolates and thus target future research aimed at better understanding biological function While molecular epidemiological studies have no doubt already made a significant contribution in these areas, the advent of new technologies such as pyrosequencing heralds a quantum leap in the ability to generate descriptive molecular sequence data. The ability of molecular epidemiology to fulfil its potential to translate complex disease pathways into relevant fish health policy is thus unlikely to be limited by the generation of descriptive molecular markers. More likely, full realisation of the potential to better explain viral transmission pathways will be dependent on the

  6. Relationship between channel morphology and foraging habitat for stream salmonids: Effects of body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienciala, P.; Hassan, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Channel morphology and dynamics strongly influence fish populations in running waters by defining habitat template for movement, spawning, incubation, and foraging. In this research we adopted a modeling approach to investigate how body size controls the relationship between salmonid fish and their foraging habitat in streams. Body size is a fundamental ecological parameter which affects resource acquisition, locomotory costs, metabolic rates, and competitive abilities. We focus on two specific questions. First, we examined how distinct types of channel morphology and associated flow fields shape specific growth potential for different body size classes of trout. Second, we modeled these fish-habitat relationships in a size-structured population in the presence of intraspecific competition. In the latter scenario, fish may not be able to occupy energetically optimal foraging habitat and the predicted specific growth potential may differ from the intrinsic habitat quality. To address the research questions, we linked a 2D hydrodynamic model with a bioenergetic foraging model for drift-feeding trout. Net energy intake, simulated for four study reaches with different channel morphology, was converted into maps of specific growth rate potential. We extended this model by including a component that enabled us to estimate territory size for fish of a given body size and account for the effects of competition on spatial distribution of fish. The predictions that emerge from our simulations highlight that fish body size is an important factor that determines the relationship between channel morphology and the quality of foraging habitat. The results also indicate that distinct types of channel morphology may give rise to different energetic conditions for different body size classes of drift-feeding salmonids.

  7. Gene expression studies of host response to Salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 experimental infections in Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Cheng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salmonid alphavirus subtype-3 (SAV-3 infection in Atlantic salmon is exclusively found in Norway. The salmonid alphaviruses have been well characterized at the genome level but there is limited information about the host-pathogen interaction phenomena. This study was undertaken to characterize the replication and spread of SAV-3 in internal organs of experimentally infected Atlantic salmon and the subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition, suitability of a cohabitation challenge model for this virus was also examined. Groups of fish were infected by intramuscular injection (IM, cohabited (CO or kept uninfected in a separate tank. Samples of pancreas, kidney, spleen, heart and skeletal muscles were collected at 2, 4 and 8 weeks post infection (wpi. Pathological changes were assessed by histology concurrently with viral loads and mRNA expression of immune genes by real time RT-PCR. Pathological changes were only observed in the pancreas and heart (target organs of both IM and CO groups, with changes appearing first in the pancreas (2 wpi in the former. Lesions with increasing severity over time coincided with high viral loads despite significant induction of IFN-α, Mx and ISG15. IFN-γ and MHC-I were expressed in all tissues examined and their induction appeared in parallel with that of IL-10. Inflammatory genes TNF-α, IL-12 and IL-8 were only induced in the heart during pathology while T cell-related genes CD3ε, CD4, CD8, TCR-α and MHC-II were expressed in target organs at 8 wpi. These findings suggest that the onset of innate responses came too late to limit virus replication. Furthermore, SAV-3 infections in Atlantic salmon induce Th1/cytotoxic responses in common with other alphaviruses infecting higher vertebrates. Our findings demonstrate that SAV-3 can be transmitted via the water making it suitable for a cohabitation challenge model.

  8. Co-Speciation of the Ectoparasite Gyrodactylus teuchis (Monogenea, Platyhelminthes) and Its Salmonid Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Christoph; Weiss, Steven J; Stojanovski, Stojmir; Bachmann, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Co-speciation is a fundamental concept of evolutionary biology and intuitively appealing, yet in practice hard to demonstrate as it is often blurred by other evolutionary processes. We investigate the phylogeographic history of the monogenean ectoparasites Gyrodactylus teuchis and G. truttae on European salmonids of the genus Salmo. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 were sequenced for 189 Gyrodactylus individuals collected from 50 localities, distributed across most major European river systems, from the Iberian- to the Balkan Peninsula. Despite both anthropogenic and naturally caused admixture of the principal host lineages among major river basins, co-phylogenetic analyses revealed significant global congruence for host and parasite phylogenies, providing firm support for co-speciation of G. teuchis and its salmonid hosts brown trout (S. trutta) and Atlantic salmon (S. salar). The major split within G. teuchis, coinciding with the initial divergence of the hosts was dated to ~1.5 My BP, using a Bayesian framework based on an indirect calibration point obtained from the host phylogeny. The presence of G. teuchis in Europe thus predates some of the major Pleistocene glaciations. In contrast, G. truttae exhibited remarkably low intraspecific genetic diversity. Given the direct life cycle and potentially high transmission potential of gyrodactylids, this finding is interpreted as indication for a recent emergence (<60 ky BP) of G. truttae via a host-switch. Our study thus suggests that instances of two fundamentally different mechanisms of speciation (co-speciation vs. host-switching) may have occurred on the same hosts in Europe within a time span of less than 1.5 My in two gyrodactylid ectoparasite species.

  9. Co-Speciation of the Ectoparasite Gyrodactylus teuchis (Monogenea, Platyhelminthes and Its Salmonid Hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Hahn

    Full Text Available Co-speciation is a fundamental concept of evolutionary biology and intuitively appealing, yet in practice hard to demonstrate as it is often blurred by other evolutionary processes. We investigate the phylogeographic history of the monogenean ectoparasites Gyrodactylus teuchis and G. truttae on European salmonids of the genus Salmo. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 were sequenced for 189 Gyrodactylus individuals collected from 50 localities, distributed across most major European river systems, from the Iberian- to the Balkan Peninsula. Despite both anthropogenic and naturally caused admixture of the principal host lineages among major river basins, co-phylogenetic analyses revealed significant global congruence for host and parasite phylogenies, providing firm support for co-speciation of G. teuchis and its salmonid hosts brown trout (S. trutta and Atlantic salmon (S. salar. The major split within G. teuchis, coinciding with the initial divergence of the hosts was dated to ~1.5 My BP, using a Bayesian framework based on an indirect calibration point obtained from the host phylogeny. The presence of G. teuchis in Europe thus predates some of the major Pleistocene glaciations. In contrast, G. truttae exhibited remarkably low intraspecific genetic diversity. Given the direct life cycle and potentially high transmission potential of gyrodactylids, this finding is interpreted as indication for a recent emergence (<60 ky BP of G. truttae via a host-switch. Our study thus suggests that instances of two fundamentally different mechanisms of speciation (co-speciation vs. host-switching may have occurred on the same hosts in Europe within a time span of less than 1.5 My in two gyrodactylid ectoparasite species.

  10. Genetic characterization of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus of coastal salmonid stocks in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

    2002-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a pathogen that infects many Pacific salmonid stocks from the watersheds of North America. Previous studies have thoroughly characterized the genetic diversity of IHNV isolates from Alaska and the Hagerman Valley in Idaho. To enhance understanding of the evolution and viral transmission patterns of IHNV within the Pacific Northwest geographic range, we analyzed the G gene of IHNV isolates from the coastal watersheds of Washington State by ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) and nucleotide sequencing. The RPA analysis of 23 isolates indicated that the Skagit basin IHNV isolates were relatively homogeneous as a result of the dominance of one G gene haplotype (S). Sequence analysis of 303 bases in the middle of the G gene (midG region) of 61 isolates confirmed the high frequency of a Skagit River basin sequence and identified another sequence commonly found in isolates from the Lake Washington basin. Overall, both the RPA and sequence analysis showed that the Washington coastal IHNV isolates are genetically homogeneous and have little genetic diversity. This is similar to the genetic diversity pattern of IHNV from Alaska and contrasts sharply with the high genetic diversity demonstrated for IHNV isolates from fish farms along the Snake River in Idaho. The high degree of sequence and haplotype similarity between the Washington coastal IHNV isolates and those from Alaska and British Columbia suggests that they have a common viral ancestor. Phylogenetic analyses of the isolates we studied and those from different regions throughout the virus's geographic range confirms a conserved pattern of evolution of the virus in salmonid stocks north of the Columbia River, which forms Washington's southern border.

  11. Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River, Estuary, and Plume in 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Skalski, John R.; Deters, Katherine A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Townsend, Richard L.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.; Kim, Jin A.; Trott, Donna M.

    2011-09-01

    Uncertainty regarding the migratory behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids passing through the lower Columbia River and estuary after negotiating dams on the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) prompted the development and application of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS). The JSATS has been used to investigate the survival of juvenile salmonid smolts between Bonneville Dam (river kilometer (rkm) 236) and the mouth of the Columbia River annually since 2004. In 2010, a total of 12,214 juvenile salmonids were implanted with both a passive integrated transponder (PIT) and a JSATS acoustic transmitter. Using detection information from JSATS receiver arrays deployed on dams and in the river, estuary, and plume, the survival probability of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts tagged at John Day Dam was estimated form multiple reaches between rkm 153 and 8.3 during the spring. During summer, the survival probability of subyearling Chinook salmon was estimated for the same reaches. In addition, the influence of routes of passage (e.g., surface spill, deep spill, turbine, juvenile bypass system) through the lower three dams on the Columbia River (John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville) on juvenile salmonid smolt survival probability from the dams to rkm 153 and then between rkm 153 and 8.3 was examined to increase understanding of the immediate and latent effects of dam passage on juvenile salmon survival. Similar to previous findings, survival probability was relatively high (>0.95) for most groups of juvenile salmonids from the Bonneville Dam tailrace to about rkm 50. Downstream of rkm 50 the survival probability of all species and run types we examined decreased markedly. Steelhead smolts suffered the highest mortality in this lower portion of the Columbia River estuary, with only an estimated 60% of the tagged fish surviving to the mouth of the river. In contrast, yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon smolts survived to the mouth

  12. Evaluation of Behavioral Guidance Structure on Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at Bonneville Dam in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Derrek M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Hughes, James S.; Kim, Jin A.; Fu, Tao; Fischer, Eric S.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, J. R.

    2011-03-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an acoustic-telemetry study at Bonneville Dam in 2009 to evaluate the effects of a behavioral guidance structure (BGS) in the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse forebay on fish passage and survival through the second powerhouse (B2), the dam as a whole, and through the first powerhouse and spillway combined. The BGS was deployed to increase the survival of fish passing through B2 by increasing the percentage of outmigrating smolts entering the B2 Corner Collector (B2CC)—a surface flow outlet known to be a relatively benign route for downstream passage at this dam. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. Study results indicated that having turbine 11 in service is important for providing flow conditions that are comparable to those observed in pre-BGS years (2004 and 2005) and in 2008. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  13. Mainstem Clearwater River study: Assessment for Salmonid Spawning, Incubation, and Rearing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, William P.; Pishl, Markley J.; Whitman, Marc A.

    1990-06-01

    This is the second annual progress report for studies conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe to evaluate the potential for increasing fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations and establishing summer chinook salmon spawning in the lower 57.5 km of the mainstem Clearwater River (LMCR) of Idaho. The report presents study methods and preliminary results for the 1988--1989 phase of the study. The overall study plan was designed to quantitatively evalulate the available spawning, incubation and rearing habitat for fall and summer chinook salmon. We also studied steelhead trout (O. mykiss) rearing habitat since there is a stable population of these fish in the LMCR's tributaries and their parr are known to rear periodically in the mainstem. Resident fish were studied to assess the potential for habitat overlap with that of anadromous fish. Based on these findings the Nez Perce Tribe could determine chinook salmon habitat conditions for selected stocks under existing flow and temperature regimes and consult with the US Army Corps of Engineering concerning the effects of Dworshak Dam operation on flows and measures to restore or establish stocks identified in this study. 38 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Linking ecosystems, food webs, and fish production: subsidies in salmonid watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Mark S.; Baxter, Colden V.

    2010-01-01

    Physical characteristics of riverine habitats, such as large wood abundance, pool geometry and abundance, riparian vegetation cover, and surface flow conditions, have traditionally been thought to constrain fish production in these ecosystems. Conversely, the role of food resources (quantity and quality) in controlling fish production has received far less attention and consideration, though they can also be key productivity drivers. Traditional freshwater food web illustrations have typically conveyed the notion that most fish food is produced within the local aquatic habitat itself, but the concepts and model we synthesize in this article show that most fish food comes from external or very distant sources—including subsidies from marine systems borne from adult returns of anadromous fishes, from fishless headwater tributaries that transport prey to downstream fish, and from adjacent streamside vegetation and associated habitats. The model we propose further illustrates how key trophic pathways and food sources vary through time and space throughout watersheds. Insights into how food supplies affect fishes can help guide how we view riverine ecosystems, their structure and function, their interactions with marine and terrestrial systems, and how we manage natural resources, including fish, riparian habitats, and forests.

  15. Total mercury concentrations in anadromous Northern Dolly Varden from the northwestern Canadian Arctic: A historical baseline study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, L., E-mail: l5tran@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Reist, J.D. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Power, M., E-mail: m3power@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Previous research has documented the significance of total mercury (THg) as a northern contaminant in general and of fish in particular. While much research has been devoted to documenting both spatial and temporal changes in THg in consumed fish, little effort has been directed at understanding patterns of THg in Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma), a prized subsistence species throughout the western North American Arctic. Here we report historical THg concentrations for anadromous Dolly Varden from 10 populations in the Yukon and Northwest Territories sampled across a range of latitudes (67–69°N) and longitudes (136–141°W) between the years 1988–91. Unadjusted mean THg concentrations ranged from 15 to 254 ng/g wet weight. Length-adjusted THg concentrations were significantly different among sites, but were not related to latitude or longitude. Within and among populations, THg was significantly related to fork-length, age, δ{sup 15}N, and δ{sup 13}C, with the variation in THg found among populations being best explained by size. The data serve as an important baseline against which future changes in THg levels in this important subsistence fishery may be compared to determine the significance of any observed trends. - Highlights: • THg were measured in Dolly Varden from the Yukon and Northwest Territories. • Length-adjusted THg concentrations were not related to latitude or longitude. • Among-population variation in THg was best explained by fork-length. • Length-adjusted THg concentrations were related to age, δ{sup 15}N, and δ{sup 13}C. • Mean THg were below Health Canada’s consumption guideline for commercial fish.

  16. Distribution and abundance of anadromous Sea Lamprey Spawners in a fragmented stream: Current status and potential range expansion following barrier removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Gardner, Cory; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Dams fragment watersheds and prevent anadromous fishes from reaching historic spawning habitat. Sedgeunkedunk Stream, a small tributary to the Penobscot River (Maine), has been the focus of efforts to reestablish marine-freshwater connectivity and restore anadromous fishes via the removal of two barriers to fish migration. Currently, Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey) is the only anadromous fish known to spawn successfully in the stream downstream of the lowermost dam. Here, we describe the distribution and abundance of a spawning population of Sea Lamprey in Sedgeunkedunk Stream, prior to and in anticipation of habitat increase after the completion of one barrier removal. In 2008, we estimated the abundance of Sea Lamprey and its nests using daily stream surveys and an open-population mark-recapture model. We captured 47 Sea Lamprey and implanted each with a PIT tag so that we could track movements and nest associations of individual fish. The spawning migration began on 18 June, and the last living individual was observed on 27 June. We located 31 nests, distributed from head-of-tide to the lowermost dam; no spawners or nests were observed in the tidally influenced zone or upstream of this dam. Mean longevity in the stream and the number of nests attended were correlated with arrival date; early migrants were alive longer and attended more nests than later migrants. Males were more likely to be observed away from a nest, or attending three or more nests, than were females, which attended usually one or two nests. We observed a negative association between nest abundance and substrate cover by fine sediment. Based on their observed movements in the system, and the extent of their habitat use, we anticipate that spawning Sea Lamprey will recolonize formerly inaccessible habitat after dam removals.

  17. The potential influence of changing climate on the persistence of salmonids of the inland west

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, A.L.; Williams, J.E.; Isaak, D.; Todd, A.; Muhlfeld, C.C.; Kershner, J.L.; Gresswell, R.E.; Hostetler, S.W.; Neville, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's climate warmed steadily during the 20th century, and mean annual air temperatures are estimated to have increased by 0.6°C (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007). Although many cycles of warming and cooling have occurred in the past, the most recent warming period is unique in its rate and magnitude of change (Siegenthaler and others, 2005) and in its association with anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , 2007). The climate in the western United States warmed in concert with the global trend but at an accelerated rate (+0.8°C during the 20th century; Saunders and others, 2008). The region could also prove especially sensitive to future changes because the relatively small human population is growing rapidly, as are demands on limited water supplies. Regional hydrological patterns are dominated by seasonal snow accumulation at upper elevations. Most of the region is relatively dry, and both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are strongly constrained b y water availability (Barnett and others, 2008; Brown and others, 2008). Stream environments are dynamic and climatically extreme, and salmonid fishes are the dominant elements of the native biodiversity (McPhail and Lindsey, 1986; Waples and others, 2008). Salmonids have broad economic and ecologic importance, but a century of intensive water resource development, nonnative fish stocking, and land use has significantly reduced many populations and several taxa are now protected under the Endangered Species Act (Thurow and others, 1997; Trotter, 2008). Because salmonids require relatively pristine, cold water environments and are often isolated in headwater habitats, members of this group may be especially vulnerable to the effects of a warming climate (Keleher and Rahel, 1996; Rieman and others, 2007; Williams and others, 2009). Warming during the 20th century drove a series of environmental trends that have profound implications for many

  18. Differential expression of gill Na+,K+-ATPaseα - and β-subunits, Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter and CFTR anion channel in juvenile anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Tom O.; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.; Madsen, Steffen S.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Andersson, Eva; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; Prunet, Patrick; Stefansson, Sigurd O.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines changes in gill Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) α- and β-subunit isoforms, Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR I and II) in anadromous and landlocked strains of Atlantic salmon during parr-smolt transformation, and after seawater (SW) transfer in May/June. Gill NKA activity increased from February through April, May and June among both strains in freshwater (FW), with peak enzyme activity in the landlocked salmon being 50% below that of the anadromous fish in May and June. Gill NKA-α1b, -α3, -β1 and NKCC mRNA levels in anadromous salmon increased transiently, reaching peak levels in smolts in April/May, whereas no similar smolt-related upregulation of these transcripts occurred in juvenile landlocked salmon. Gill NKA-α1a mRNA decreased significantly in anadromous salmon from February through June, whereas α1a levels in landlocked salmon, after an initial decrease in April, remained significantly higher than those of the anadromous smolts in May and June. Following SW transfer, gill NKA-α1b and NKCC mRNA increased in both strains, whereas NKA-α1a decreased. Both strains exhibited a transient increase in gill NKA α-protein abundance, with peak levels in May. Gill α-protein abundance was lower in SW than corresponding FW values in June. Gill NKCC protein abundance increased transiently in anadromous fish, with peak levels in May, whereas a slight increase was observed in landlocked salmon in May, increasing to peak levels in June. Gill CFTR I mRNA levels increased significantly from February to April in both strains, followed by a slight, though not significant increase in May and June. CFTR I mRNA levels were significantly lower in landlocked than anadromous salmon in April/June. Gill CFTR II mRNA levels did not change significantly in either strain. Our findings demonstrates that differential expression of gill NKA-α1a, -α1b and -α3 isoforms may be important for potential functional

  19. Salmonid Council of Newfoundland and Labrador comments on public discussion paper : Developing an energy plan for Newfoundland and Labrador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hustins, D.

    2006-02-02

    The Government of Newfoundland and Labrador has promoted public debate on the future energy needs of the province in order to assess all alternatives. The Salmonid Council of Newfoundland and Labrador (SCNL) supports this effort and recognizes that new energy needs are necessary to support the developing economy. The SCNL has provided advice on preserving the valuable sport fishery for Atlantic salmon and trout in the province. The Council is dedicated to the conservation and wise management of salmonids and their habitat. The 12 affiliated members of the Council were identified along with other organizations that actively support the objectives of the SCNL. The Council has been active in the following activities: development of salmon and trout management plants; establishment of the Cooperation Agreement for Salmonid Enhancement; moratorium on the commercial exploitation of wild salmon; moratorium on small hydroelectric development; growth and development of community stewardship groups; conservation and restoration of salmon stocks in the province; and, the promotion of catch and release angling. This document reviewed issues such as the value of the sport fishing industry; stock status; effects of hydroelectric development on salmon; candidate rivers for hydroelectric development; and, recent investments in restoring salmonid habitat and stocks. This document also presented the Council's 12 recommendations to the government to develop the maximum amount of power with the least environmental damage. The Council's vision is to double the growth of sport fishery over the next 10 years through improved management of this resource which generates economic wealth throughout the province, particularly in rural areas that are greatly challenged in available economic opportunities.

  20. A 6K-deletion variant of salmonid alphavirus is non-viable but can be rescued through RNA recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tz-Chun Guo

    Full Text Available Pancreas disease (PD of Atlantic salmon is an emerging disease caused by Salmonid alphavirus (SAV which mainly affects salmonid aquaculture in Western Europe. Although genome structure of SAV has been characterized and each individual viral protein has been identified, the role of 6K protein in viral replication and infectivity remains undefined. The 6K protein of alphaviruses is a small and hydrophobic protein which is involved in membrane permeabilization, protein processing and virus budding. Because these common features are shared across many viral species, they have been named viroporins. In the present study, we applied reverse genetics to generate SAV3 6K-deleted (Δ6K variant and investigate the role of 6K protein. Our findings show that the 6K-deletion variant of salmonid alphavirus is non-viable. Despite viral proteins of Δ6K variant are detected in the cytoplasm by immunostaining, they are not found on the cell surface. Further, analysis of viral proteins produced in Δ6K cDNA clone transfected cells using radioimmunoprecipitation (RIPA and western blot showed a protein band of larger size than E2 of wild-type SAV3. When Δ6K cDNA was co-transfected with SAV3 helper cDNA encoding the whole structural genes including 6K, the infectivity was rescued. The development of CPE after co-transfection and resolved genome sequence of rescued virus confirmed full-length viral genome being generated through RNA recombination. The discovery of the important role of the 6K protein in virus production provides a new possibility for the development of antiviral intervention which is highly needed to control SAV infection in salmonids.

  1. A 6K-deletion variant of salmonid alphavirus is non-viable but can be rescued through RNA recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tz-Chun; Johansson, Daniel X; Haugland, Øyvind; Liljeström, Peter; Evensen, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) of Atlantic salmon is an emerging disease caused by Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) which mainly affects salmonid aquaculture in Western Europe. Although genome structure of SAV has been characterized and each individual viral protein has been identified, the role of 6K protein in viral replication and infectivity remains undefined. The 6K protein of alphaviruses is a small and hydrophobic protein which is involved in membrane permeabilization, protein processing and virus budding. Because these common features are shared across many viral species, they have been named viroporins. In the present study, we applied reverse genetics to generate SAV3 6K-deleted (Δ6K) variant and investigate the role of 6K protein. Our findings show that the 6K-deletion variant of salmonid alphavirus is non-viable. Despite viral proteins of Δ6K variant are detected in the cytoplasm by immunostaining, they are not found on the cell surface. Further, analysis of viral proteins produced in Δ6K cDNA clone transfected cells using radioimmunoprecipitation (RIPA) and western blot showed a protein band of larger size than E2 of wild-type SAV3. When Δ6K cDNA was co-transfected with SAV3 helper cDNA encoding the whole structural genes including 6K, the infectivity was rescued. The development of CPE after co-transfection and resolved genome sequence of rescued virus confirmed full-length viral genome being generated through RNA recombination. The discovery of the important role of the 6K protein in virus production provides a new possibility for the development of antiviral intervention which is highly needed to control SAV infection in salmonids.

  2. Turbulence Investigation and Reproduction for Assisting Downstream Migrating Juvenile Salmonids, Part I of II, 2001-2002 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkiss, Rollin H. (Washington State University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineers, Albrook Hydraulics Laboratory)

    2002-12-01

    Turbulence in gravel bed rivers plays a critical role in most stream processes including contaminant and nutrient transport, aquatic habitat selection, and natural channel design. While most hydraulic designs and fluid models are based on bulk velocity, migrating juvenile salmon experience and react to the temporally varied turbulent fluctuations. Without properly understanding and accounting for the continuous turbulent motions proper fishway design and guidance are impossible. Matching temporally varied flow to fish reactions is the key to guiding juvenile salmonids to safe passageways. While the ideal solution to fish guidance design would be to use specific fluid action-fish reaction mechanisms, such concrete cause and effect relations have not been established. One way to approach the problem of guidance is to hypothesize that in an environment lacking obvious bulk flow cues (like the reservoir environment), turbulent flow conditions similar to those experienced by juvenile salmonids in natural migration corridors will be attractive to juvenile salmonids. Proof of this hypothesis requires three steps: (1) gathering data on turbulence characteristics in natural migration corridors, (2) reproduction of the turbulence parameters in a controlled environment, and (3) testing the reproduced turbulence on actively migrating juvenile salmonids for increased passage efficiencies. The results from the third step have not been finalized, therefore this report will focus on understanding turbulent processes in gravel bed rivers and reproduction of turbulence in controlled environments for use in fish passage technologies. The purposes of this report are to (1) present data collected in natural gravel bed rivers, (2) present a simple method for reproduction of appropriate turbulence levels in a controlled environment, (3) compare these results to those from one prototype surface collector (PSC), and (4) discuss the implications on fish passage design.

  3. BIOCHEMICAL AND MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF PRE-LARVAE OF THREE SALMONIDS SPECIES AT ONE-DAY AGE

    OpenAIRE

    Ye. Barylo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To study and analyze the morphometric and some biochemical parameters of pre-larval brown trout, rainbow trout and brook trout in post-embryonic period under the conditions of "Rybnyi Potik” farm in the Transcarpathian region for further use of the obtained data in scientific and practical works related to the cultivation of the juveniles of valuable salmonid species. Methodology. One-day free embryos (pre-larvae) of brown trout, rainbow trout and brook trout we used as study mat...

  4. Assessment of Salmonids and their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin of Washington : 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, Glen Wesley; Karl, David; Coyle, Terrence

    2001-11-01

    Concerns about the decline of native salmon and trout populations have increased among natural resource managers and the public in recent years. As a result, a multitude of initiatives have been implemented at the local, state, and federal government levels. These initiatives include management plans and actions intended to protect and restore salmonid fishes and their habitats. In 1998 bull trout were listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), as ''Threatened'', for the Walla Walla River and its tributaries. Steelhead were listed as ''Threatened'' in 1999 for the mid-Columbia River and its tributaries. These ESA listings emphasize the need for information about the threatened salmonid populations and their habitats. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) is entrusted with ''the preservation, protection, and perpetuation of fish and wildlife....[and to] maximize public recreational or commercial opportunities without impairing the supply of fish and wildlife (WAC 77. 12.010).'' In consideration of this mandate, the WDFW submitted a proposal in December 1997 to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a study to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of their habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. The primary purposes of this project are to collect baseline biological and habitat data, to identify major data gaps, and to draw conclusions whenever possible. The study reported herein details the findings of the 2000 field season (March to November, 2000).

  5. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The goal of the study was to provide fish passage and distribution data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. During the year-long study period - February 1, 2010 to January 31, 2011the objectives of the hydroacoustic evaluation of fish passage and distribution at LOP were to: 1. Estimate passage rates, run timing, horizontal distribution, and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for smolt-size fish. 2. Estimate passage rates, run timing and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for small-size fish. 3. Estimate passage rates and run timing at the regulating outlets for smolt-size fish. 4. Estimate vertical distribution of smolt-size fish in the forebay near the upstream face of the dam. The fixed-location hydroacoustic technique was used to accomplish the objectives of this study. Transducers (420 kHz) were deployed in each penstock intake, above each RO entrance, and on the dam face; a total of nine transducers (2 single-beam and 7 split-beam) were used. We summarize the findings from the hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011 as follows. • Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> ~90 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. • During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish ± 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt

  6. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Sluiceway, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate fish passage at The Dalles Dam powerhouse in 2005. The goal of the study was to provide information on smolt passage that will inform decisions on long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. The study addressed one of the main programs dedicated to improving juvenile salmonid survival at The Dalles Dam: Surface Flow Bypass. The study objectives (see below) were met using a combination of hydroacoustic and hydraulic data. The study incorporated fixed-location hydroacoustic methods across the entire powerhouse, with especially intense sampling using multiple split-beam transducers at all sluiceway portals. We did not sample fish passage at the spillway in 2005. In the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish movements. The fish data were interpreted with hydraulic data from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Fish passage data were collected in the framework of an “experiment” using a randomized block design (3-day treatments; two treatments) to compare two sluiceway operational configurations: Sluice 2+5 and Sluice 2+19 (six gates open for each configuration). Total project outflow was 76% of the 10-year average for spring and 71% of the 10-year average for summer. Based on these findings, we make the following recommendations: 1) The sluice should be operated 24 h/d from April until November. 2) Open six rather than three sluice gates to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. 3) Open the three gates above the western-most operating main turbine unit and the three gates at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high. 4) Operate the turbine units below open sluice gates as a standard fish operations procedure. 5) Develop hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway to tap the potential of The

  7. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-08-01

    In the western United States, exotic brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis frequently have a deleterious effect on native salmonids, and biologists often attempt to remove brook trout in streams using electrofishing. Although the success of electrofishing removal projects typically is low, few studies have assessed the underlying mechanisms of failure, especially in terms of compensatory responses. We evaluated the effectiveness of a three-year removal project in reducing brook trout and enhancing native salmonids in 7.8 km of an Idaho stream and looked for brook trout compensatory responses such as decreased natural mortality, increased growth, increased fecundity at length, or earlier maturation. Due to underestimates of the distribution of brook trout in the first year and personnel shortages in the third year, the multiagency watershed advisory group that performed the project fully treated the stream (i.e. multipass removals over the entire stream) in only one year. In 1998, 1999, and 2000, a total of 1,401, 1,241, and 890 brook trout were removed, respectively. For 1999 and 2000, an estimated 88 and 79% of the total number of brook trout in the stream were removed. For the section of stream that was treated in all years, the abundance of age-1 and older brook trout decreased by 85% from 1998 to 2003. In the same area, the abundance of age-0 brook trout decreased 86% from 1998 to 1999 but by 2003 had rebounded to near the original abundance. Abundance of native redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss decreased for age-1 and older fish but did not change significantly for age-0 fish. Despite high rates of removal, total annual survival rate for brook trout increased from 0.08 {+-} 0.02 in 1998 to 0.20 {+-} 0.04 in 1999 and 0.21 {+-} 0.04 in 2000. Growth of age-0 brook trout was significantly higher in 2000 (the year after their abundance was lowest) compared to other years, and growth of age-1 and age-2 brook trout was significantly lower following the initial removal

  8. Comparative Performance of Acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged Juvenile Salmonids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hockersmith, Eric E.; Brown, Richard S.; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2008-02-01

    Numerous research tools and technologies are currently being used to evaluate fish passage and survival to determine the impacts of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) on endangered and threatened juvenile salmonids, including PIT tags, balloon tags, hydroacoustic evaluations, radio telemetry, and acoustic telemetry. Each has advantages and disadvantages, but options are restricted in some situations because of limited capabilities of a specific technology, lack of detection capability downstream, or availability of adequate numbers of fish. However, there remains concern about the comparative effects of the tag or the tagging procedure on fish performance. The recently developed Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic transmitter is the smallest active acoustic tag currently available. The goal of this study was to determine whether fish tagged with the JSATS acoustic-telemetry tag can provide unbiased estimates of passage behavior and survival within the performance life of the tag. We conducted both field and laboratory studies to assess tag effects. For the field evaluation we released a total of 996 acoustic-tagged fish in conjunction with 21,026 PIT-tagged fish into the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam on 6 and 13 May. Travel times between release and downstream dams were not significantly different for the majority of the reaches between acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged fish. In addition to the field evaluation, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine if growth and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon surgically implanted with acoustic transmitters is different than untagged or PIT tagged juvenile Chinook salmon. Only yearling fish with integrated and non-integrated transmitters experienced mortalities, and these were low (<4.5%). Mortality among sub-yearling control and PIT-tag treatments ranged up to 7.7% while integrated and non-integrated treatments had slightly higher rates (up to 8.3% and 7

  9. Application of molecular endpoints in early life stage salmonid environmental biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlatt, Vicki L; Sherrard, Ryan; Kennedy, Chris J; Elphick, James R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2016-04-01

    Molecular endpoints can enhance existing whole animal bioassays by more fully characterizing the biological impacts of aquatic pollutants. Laboratory and field studies were used to examine the utility of adopting molecular endpoints for a well-developed in situ early life stage (eyed embryo to onset of swim-up fry) salmonid bioassay to improve diagnostic assessments of water quality in the field. Coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) were exposed in the laboratory to the model metal (zinc, 40μg/L) and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pyrene, 100μg/L) in water to examine the resulting early life stage salmonid responses. In situ field exposures and bioassays were conducted in parallel to evaluate the water quality of three urban streams in British Columbia (two sites with anthropogenic inputs and one reference site). The endpoints measured in swim-up fry included survival, deformities, growth (weight and length), vitellogenin (vtg) and metallothionein (Mt) protein levels, and hepatic gene expression (e.g., metallothioneins [mta and mtb], endocrine biomarkers [vtg and estrogen receptors, esr] and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes [cytochrome P450 1A3, cyp1a3 and glutathione transferases, gstk]). No effects were observed in the zinc treatment, however exposure of swim-up fry to pyrene resulted in decreased survival, deformities and increased estrogen receptor alpha (er1) mRNA levels. In the field exposures, xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (cyp1a3, gstk) and zinc transporter (zntBigM103) mRNA were significantly increased in swim-up fry deployed at the sites with more anthropogenic inputs compared to the reference site. Cluster analysis revealed that gene expression profiles in individuals from the streams receiving anthropogenic inputs were more similar to each other than to the reference site. Collectively, the results obtained in this study suggest that molecular endpoints may be useful, and potentially more sensitive, indicators of site

  10. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program Final EIS (DOE EIS /SA-156) - Upper Salmon River Anadromous Fish Passage Improvement Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Carl J. [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2004-07-13

    BPA proposes to fund IDFG to plan and complete construction of fish passage improvements and water conservation activities that are contained within IDFG’s Statement of Work (SOW) for the period 7/1/04 to 6/30/05. The funding request contained in their SOW is part of an ongoing IDFG effort to fund anadromous fish passage projects that fall outside the scope of the Mitchell Act. The proposed SOW activities fall within the following four categories: Phase I-Planning and Design (gather data, perform investigations, and exchange information; perform surveys and assessments to be compliant; survey project sites and perform engineering designs; perform contract and project management); Phase II-Construction and Implementation (procure materials and supplies, prepare contracts and solicit bids, plant native seedlings, complete capital improvements); Phase III-Operation and Maintenance (maintain office operations); and Phase IV- Monitoring and Evaluation (monitor and evaluate post-project effects, reporting). The SOW culminates with proposed construction of 18 capital improvement projects (Table 1 attached). The types of capital improvements include: screening gravity water diversions; consolidating and/or eliminating ditches; evaluating and screening pump diversions; evaluating and implementing water conservation activities; constructing screens along migration routes and rearing areas for hatchery and wild salmon; improving upstream and downstream passage for anadromous fish; and maximize benefits to aquatic habitat. Because each of the proposed projects in the SOW is still in the planning stages, the specifics of each still need to be completed.

  11. Designing a Monitoring Program to Estimate Estuarine Survival of Anadromous Salmon Smolts: Simulating the Effect of Sample Design on Inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D Romer

    Full Text Available A number of researchers have attempted to estimate salmonid smolt survival during outmigration through an estuary. However, it is currently unclear how the design of such studies influences the accuracy and precision of survival estimates. In this simulation study we consider four patterns of smolt survival probability in the estuary, and test the performance of several different sampling strategies for estimating estuarine survival assuming perfect detection. The four survival probability patterns each incorporate a systematic component (constant, linearly increasing, increasing and then decreasing, and two pulses and a random component to reflect daily fluctuations in survival probability. Generally, spreading sampling effort (tagging across the season resulted in more accurate estimates of survival. All sampling designs in this simulation tended to under-estimate the variation in the survival estimates because seasonal and daily variation in survival probability are not incorporated in the estimation procedure. This under-estimation results in poorer performance of estimates from larger samples. Thus, tagging more fish may not result in better estimates of survival if important components of variation are not accounted for. The results of our simulation incorporate survival probabilities and run distribution data from previous studies to help illustrate the tradeoffs among sampling strategies in terms of the number of tags needed and distribution of tagging effort. This information will assist researchers in developing improved monitoring programs and encourage discussion regarding issues that should be addressed prior to implementation of any telemetry-based monitoring plan. We believe implementation of an effective estuary survival monitoring program will strengthen the robustness of life cycle models used in recovery plans by providing missing data on where and how much mortality occurs in the riverine and estuarine portions of smolt

  12. Designing a monitoring program to estimate estuarine survival of anadromous salmon smolts: simulating the effect of sample design on inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Jeremy D.; Gitelman, Alix I.; Clements, Shaun; Schreck, Carl B.

    2015-01-01

    A number of researchers have attempted to estimate salmonid smolt survival during outmigration through an estuary. However, it is currently unclear how the design of such studies influences the accuracy and precision of survival estimates. In this simulation study we consider four patterns of smolt survival probability in the estuary, and test the performance of several different sampling strategies for estimating estuarine survival assuming perfect detection. The four survival probability patterns each incorporate a systematic component (constant, linearly increasing, increasing and then decreasing, and two pulses) and a random component to reflect daily fluctuations in survival probability. Generally, spreading sampling effort (tagging) across the season resulted in more accurate estimates of survival. All sampling designs in this simulation tended to under-estimate the variation in the survival estimates because seasonal and daily variation in survival probability are not incorporated in the estimation procedure. This under-estimation results in poorer performance of estimates from larger samples. Thus, tagging more fish may not result in better estimates of survival if important components of variation are not accounted for. The results of our simulation incorporate survival probabilities and run distribution data from previous studies to help illustrate the tradeoffs among sampling strategies in terms of the number of tags needed and distribution of tagging effort. This information will assist researchers in developing improved monitoring programs and encourage discussion regarding issues that should be addressed prior to implementation of any telemetry-based monitoring plan. We believe implementation of an effective estuary survival monitoring program will strengthen the robustness of life cycle models used in recovery plans by providing missing data on where and how much mortality occurs in the riverine and estuarine portions of smolt migration. These data

  13. Salmonid alphavirus infection causes skin dysbiosis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) post-smolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kristin M.; Patel, Sonal; Robinson, Aaron J.; Bu, Lijing; Jarungsriapisit, Jiraporn; Moore, Lindsey J.; Salinas, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Interactions among host, microbiota and viral pathogens are complex and poorly understood. The goal of the present study is to assess the changes in the skin microbial community of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in response to experimental infection with salmonid alphavirus (SAV). The salmon skin microbial community was determined using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing in five different experimental groups: control, 7 days after infection with low-dose SAV, 14 days after infection with low-dose SAV, 7 days after infection with high-dose SAV, and 14 days after infection with high-dose SAV. Both infection treatment and time after infection were strong predictors of the skin microbial community composition. Skin samples from SAV3 infected fish showed an unbalanced microbiota characterized by a decreased abundance of Proteobacteria such as Oleispira sp. and increased abundances of opportunistic taxa including Flavobacteriaceae, Streptococcaceae and Tenacibaculum sp. These results demonstrate that viral infections can result in skin dysbiosis likely rendering the host more susceptible to secondary bacterial infections. PMID:28264056

  14. Efficiency of Portable Antennas for Detecting Passive Integrated Transponder Tags in Stream-Dwelling Salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banish, Nolan P; Burdick, Summer M; Moyer, Katherine R

    2016-01-01

    Portable antennas have become an increasingly common technique for tracking fish marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We used logistic regression to evaluate how species, fish length, and physical habitat characteristics influence portable antenna detection efficiency in stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii) marked with 12-mm PIT tags. We redetected 56% (20/36) of brown trout, 34% (68/202) of bull trout, and 33% (20/61) of redband trout after a recovery period of 21 to 46 hours. Models indicate support for length and species and minor support for percent boulder, large woody debris, and percent cobble as parameters important for describing variation in detection efficiency, although 95% confidence intervals for estimates were large. The odds of detecting brown trout (1.5 ± 2.2 [mean ± SE]) are approximately four times as high as bull trout (0.4 ± 1.6) or redband trout (0.3 ± 1.8) and species-specific differences may be related to length. Our reported detection efficiency for brown trout falls within the range of other studies, but is the first reported for bull trout and redband trout. Portable antennas may be a relatively unbiased way of redetecting varying sizes of all three salmonid species.

  15. Efficiency of portable antennas for detecting passive integrated transponder tags in stream-dwelling salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banish, Nolan P.; Burdick, Summer M.; Moyer, Katherine R.

    2016-01-01

    Portable antennas have become an increasingly common technique for tracking fish marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We used logistic regression to evaluate how species, fish length, and physical habitat characteristics influence portable antenna detection efficiency in stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii) marked with 12-mm PIT tags. We redetected 56% (20/36) of brown trout, 34% (68/202) of bull trout, and 33% (20/61) of redband trout after a recovery period of 21 to 46 hours. Models indicate support for length and species and minor support for percent boulder, large woody debris, and percent cobble as parameters important for describing variation in detection efficiency, although 95% confidence intervals for estimates were large. The odds of detecting brown trout (1.5 ± 2.2 [mean ± SE]) are approximately four times as high as bull trout (0.4 ± 1.6) or redband trout (0.3 ± 1.8) and species-specific differences may be related to length. Our reported detection efficiency for brown trout falls within the range of other studies, but is the first reported for bull trout and redband trout. Portable antennas may be a relatively unbiased way of redetecting varying sizes of all three salmonid species.

  16. Incipient toxicity of lithium to freshwater organisms representing a salmonid habitat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, R.; Klopfer, D.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1981-07-01

    Because the eventual development of fusion power reactors could increase the mining, use and disposal of lithium five-fold by the year 2000, potential effects from unusual amounts of lithium in aquatic environments were investigated. Freshwater oganisms representing a Pacific Northwest salmonid habitat were exposed to elevated conentrations of lithium. Nine parameters were used to determine the incipient toxicity of lithium to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), insect larvae (Chironomus sp.), and Columbia River periphyton. All three groups of biota were incipiently sensitive to lithium at concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1 mg/L. These results correspond with the incipient toxicity of beryllium, a chemically similar component of fusion reactor cores. A maximum lithium concentration of 0.01 mg/L occurs naturally in most freshwater environments (beryllium is rarer). Therefore, a concentration range of 0.01 to 0.1 mg/L may be regarded as approaching toxic concentrations when assessing the hazards of lithium in freshwaters.

  17. Development of a rapid and efficient microinjection technique for gene insertion into fertilized salmonid eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, D.P.; Welt, M.; Leung, F.C.

    1990-10-01

    An efficient one-step injection technique for gene insertion into fertilized rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs is described, and basic parameters affecting egg survival are reported. Freshly fertilized rainbow trout eggs were injected in the perivitelline space with a recombinant mouse metallothionein-genomic bovine growth hormone (bGH) DNA construct using a 30-gauge hypodermic needle and a standard microinjection system. Relative to control, site of injection and DNA concentration did not affect the egg survival, but injections later than 3--4 hours post fertilization were detrimental. The injection technique permitted treatment of 100 eggs/hr with survivals up to 100%, resulting in a 4% DNA uptake rate as indicated by DNA dot blot analysis. Positive dot blot results also indicated that the injected DNA is able to cross the vitelline membrane and persist for 50--60 days post hatching, obviating the need for direct injection into the germinal disk. Results are consistent with previous transgenic fish work, underscoring the usefulness of the technique for generating transgenic trout and salmonids. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Isolation, Characterization and Virulence Potential of Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi in Salmonid Cultures in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño-Herrera, R; Irgang, R; Sandoval, C; Moreno-Lira, P; Houel, A; Duchaud, E; Poblete-Morales, M; Nicolas, P; Ilardi, P

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we isolated, identified and characterized isolates of Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farmed in Chile for the first time. In 2010 and 2014, mortalities were observed in Atlantic salmon (average weight 25-30 and 480-520 g, respectively) at an aquaculture centre in Puerto Montt, Chile. Severe tail rots, frayed fins and, in some cases, damaged gills were detected. Wet smear analyses of these lesions revealed a high occurrence of Gram-negative, filamentous bacteria. Microbiological analysis of infected gill and tail tissues yielded six bacterial isolates. All were identified as T. dicentrarchi through polyphasic taxonomy, which included phenotypic characterization, 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing. The latter method revealed a close relationship of the Chilean genotype with the T. dicentrarchi type strain and two Norwegian Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) isolates. The pathogenic potential of the TdChD05 isolate was assessed by challenging Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for one hour, which resulted in mean cumulative mortality rates of 65% and 93%, respectively, as well as clinical signs 14 days post-challenge. However, challenged Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) presented no mortalities or clinical signs of infection. These findings indicate that the geographical and host distribution of T. dicentrarchi is wider than previously established and that this bacterium may have negative impacts on salmonid cultures.

  19. Ecological aspects of nematode parasites of introduced salmonids from Valdivia river basin, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Torres

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Between 1986 and 1987 fishes distributed among the following species introduced in Chile, and from different sectors of the Valdivia river basin (39º30' - 40º00', 73º30' - 71º45'W, were examined: 348 Salmo trutta, 242 Salmo gairdneri, 24 Cyprinus carpio and 52 Gambusia affinis holbrooki. The presence of Camallanus corderoi and Contracaecum sp. in S. gairdneri and of C. corderoi in S. trutta is recorded in Chile for the first time. Cyprinus carpio and G. a. holbrooki did not present infections by nematodes. The prevalence and mean intensity of the infections by nematodes presented significant differences among some sectors of the Valdivia river basin. In general, the prevalence and intensity of the infections by C. corderoi were greater than those by Contracaecum sp. The infections in S. gairdneri were higher than in S. trutta. The sex of the hosts had no influence on the prevalence and intensity of the infections by both nematodes. The length of the hosts did have an influence, except in the case of the infections by Contracaecum sp. in S, gairdneri. The infrapopulations of both nematode species showed over dispersion in most cases. The diet of the examined salmonids suggests that they would become infected principally throught the consuption of autochthonous fishes.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls in freshwater salmonids from the Kerguelen Islands in the Southern Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffal, A. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Givaudan, N. [UMR8079, CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France); Univ Paris-Sud, Ecologie Systematique et Evolution, Orsay F-91405 (France); Betoulle, S. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Terreau, A. [IPEV Institut Polaire Francais, F29280 Plouzane (France); Paris-Palacios, S.; Biagianti-Risbourg, S. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Beall, E. [ECOBIOP, UMR 1224 INRA-Universite de Pau-Pays de l' Adour F63310 St-Pee-sur-Nivelle (France); Roche, H., E-mail: helene.roche@u-psud.fr [UMR8079, CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France); Univ Paris-Sud, Ecologie Systematique et Evolution, Orsay F-91405 (France)

    2011-05-15

    The Subantarctic Kerguelen Islands (49{sup o}S, 70{sup o}E) contain freshwater ecosystems among the most isolated in the world. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in the muscle of 48 brook trout and 38 brown trout caught during summer and spring 2006 in the rivers, lakes and ponds of Kerguelen. The sum of 29 PCBs averaged 404 and 358 ng g{sup -1} lipid, and dioxin-like PCB was 19 and 69 ng g{sup -1} lipid, in brook and brown trout, respectively. The values showed a high variability and some fish accumulated PCBs at levels similar to those of fish from impacted areas. While inter-sex differences were limited, the season and the morphotype appeared to have the most influence. Fish captured in summer had muscle PCB concentrations about three times higher than those caught in spring and the 'river' morphotype of brook trout showed the highest PCB levels. - Highlights: > First assessment of PCB contamination of biota in Kerguelen Islands, Sub-Antarctica. > PCB bioaccumulation level in trout varies from very high to undetectable. > Habitat and morphotype are the most influential factors on the variability. > Distribution pattern of PCBs in the muscle of fish is morphotype dependent. - Salmonids in hydrosystems of the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean) show a high PCB bioaccumulation.

  1. Low temperature-dependent salmonid alphavirus glycoprotein processing and recombinant virus-like particle formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W Metz

    Full Text Available Pancreas disease (PD and sleeping disease (SD are important viral scourges in aquaculture of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. The etiological agent of PD and SD is salmonid alphavirus (SAV, an unusual member of the Togaviridae (genus Alphavirus. SAV replicates at lower temperatures in fish. Outbreaks of SAV are associated with large economic losses of ~17 to 50 million $/year. Current control strategies rely on vaccination with inactivated virus formulations that are cumbersome to obtain and have intrinsic safety risks. In this research we were able to obtain non-infectious virus-like particles (VLPs of SAV via expression of recombinant baculoviruses encoding SAV capsid protein and two major immunodominant viral glycoproteins, E1 and E2 in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells. However, this was only achieved when a temperature shift from 27°C to lower temperatures was applied. At 27°C, precursor E2 (PE2 was misfolded and not processed by host furin into mature E2. Hence, E2 was detected neither on the surface of infected cells nor as VLPs in the culture fluid. However, when temperatures during protein expression were lowered, PE2 was processed into mature E2 in a temperature-dependent manner and VLPs were abundantly produced. So, temperature shift-down during synthesis is a prerequisite for correct SAV glycoprotein processing and recombinant VLP production.

  2. International and United States documents on oceans law and policy. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.N. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    Volume 2 of the five-volume series continues the major international documents of Volume 1 relating to ocean issues. It groups the documents under three major headings: Cooperative agreements for port regulation and development, Living resources, and Environmental protection. The Living resources section is further divided into Coastal fisheries, Anadromous species, Highly migratory species, and Marine Mammals. Subdivisions under the Environmental protection section are General principles, Regional protection, Vessel-source pollution, Ocean dumping, Land-based pollution, Civil liability and compensation, and Endangered species. The title page for each document includes full citations, although some documents have been edited. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the seven sections under Environmental protection.

  3. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-05-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE), to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE's Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. We conducted a hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011. Findings from this 1 year of study should be applied carefully because annual variation can be expected due to variability in adult salmon escapement, egg-to-fry and fry-to-smolt survival rates, reservoir rearing and predation, dam operations, and weather. Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> {approx}90 mm and < 300 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. Passage peaks were also evident in early spring, early summer, and late fall. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish {+-} 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt-size fish passed through turbine penstock intakes. Of this total, 84% passed during December-January. Run timing for small-size fish ({approx}65-90 mm) peaked (702 fish) on December 18. Diel periodicity of smolt-size fish showing crepuscular peaks was evident in fish passage into turbine penstock intakes. Relatively few fish passed into the Regulating Outlets (ROs) when they were open in summer (2 fish/d) and winter (8 fish/d). Overall, when the ROs were open, RO efficiency (RO passage divided by total project passage) was 0.004. In linear regression analyses, daily fish passage (turbines and ROs combined) for smolt-size fish was significantly related to

  4. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Detroit Dam, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ham, Kenneth D.

    2012-11-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Detroit Dam (DET) on the North Santiam River, Oregon for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at DET and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to regulatory requirements necessitated by the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. The goal of the study was to provide information of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at DET from February 2011 through February 2012. The results of the hydroacoustic study provide new and, in some cases, first-ever data on passage estimates, run timing, distributions, and relationships between fish passage and environmental variables at the dam. This information will inform management decisions on the design and development of surface passage and collection devices to help restore Chinook salmon populations in the North Santiam River watershed above DET. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 182,526 smolt-size fish (±4,660 fish, 95% CI) passed through turbine penstock intakes. Run timing peaked in winter and early spring months. Passage rates were highest during late fall, winter and early spring months and low during summer. Horizontal distribution for hours when both turbine units were operated simultaneously indicated Unit 2 passed almost twice as much fish as Unit 1. Diel distribution for smolt-size fish during the study period was fairly uniform, indicating fish were passing the turbines at all times of the day. A total of 5,083 smolt-size fish (± 312 fish, 95% CI) were estimated passed via the spillway when it was open between June 23 and September 27, 2011. Daily passage was low at the spillway during the June-August period, and

  5. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle satellite cells are targets of salmonid alphavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biacchesi, Stéphane; Jouvion, Grégory; Mérour, Emilie; Boukadiri, Abdelhak; Desdouits, Marion; Ozden, Simona; Huerre, Michel; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel; Brémont, Michel

    2016-01-08

    Sleeping disease in rainbow trout is characterized by an abnormal swimming behaviour of the fish which stay on their side at the bottom of the tanks. This sign is due to extensive necrosis and atrophy of red skeletal muscle induced by the sleeping disease virus (SDV), also called salmonid alphavirus 2. Infections of humans with arthritogenic alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), are global causes of debilitating musculoskeletal diseases. The mechanisms by which the virus causes these pathologies are poorly understood due to the restrictive availability of animal models capable of reproducing the full spectrum of the disease. Nevertheless, it has been shown that CHIKV exhibits a particular tropism for muscle stem cells also known as satellite cells. Thus, SDV and its host constitute a relevant model to study in details the virus-induced muscle atrophy, the pathophysiological consequences of the infection of a particular cell-type in the skeletal muscle, and the regeneration of the muscle tissue in survivors together with the possible virus persistence. To study a putative SDV tropism for that particular cell type, we established an in vivo and ex vivo rainbow trout model of SDV-induced atrophy of the skeletal muscle. This experimental model allows reproducing the full panel of clinical signs observed during a natural infection since the transmission of the virus is arthropod-borne independent. The virus tropism in the muscle tissue was studied by immunohistochemistry together with the kinetics of the muscle atrophy, and the muscle regeneration post-infection was observed. In parallel, an ex vivo model of SDV infection of rainbow trout satellite cells was developed and virus replication and persistence in that particular cell type was followed up to 73 days post-infection. These results constitute the first observation of a specific SDV tropism for the muscle satellite cells.

  6. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2004-03-01

    We assessed the relationships between specific stream attributes and Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri distribution and biomass at 773 stream reaches (averaging 100 m in length) throughout the Upper Snake River Basin in Idaho, in an effort to identify possible limiting factors. Because limiting factors were expected to vary across the range of cutthroat trout distribution in Idaho, separate logistic and multiple regression models were developed for each of the nine major river drainages to relate stream conditions to occurrence and biomass of cutthroat trout. Adequate stream flow to measure fish and habitat existed at 566 sites, and of those, Yellowstone cutthroat trout were present at 322 sites, while rainbow trout O. mykiss (or rainbow x cutthroat hybrids) and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis occurred at 108 and 181 sites, respectively. In general, cutthroat trout presence at a specific site within a drainage was associated with a higher percentage of public property, higher elevation, more gravel and less fine substrate, and more upright riparian vegetation. However, there was much variation between drainages in the direction and magnitude of the relationships between stream characteristics and Yellowstone cutthroat trout occurrence and biomass, and in model strength. This was especially true for biomass models, in which we were able to develop models for only five drainages that explained more than 50% of the variation in cutthroat trout biomass. Sample size appeared to affect the strength of the biomass models, with a higher explanation of biomass variation in drainages with lower sample sizes. The occurrence of nonnative salmonids was not strongly related to cutthroat trout occurrence, but their widespread distribution and apparent ability to displace native cutthroat trout suggest they may nevertheless pose the largest threat to long-term cutthroat trout persistence in the Upper Snake River Basin.

  7. Effect of multiple turbine passage on juvenile Snake River salmonid survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, K. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, J. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vucellck, J. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Juvenile salmonids originating in the Snake River upstream of Lower Granite Dam must pass up to eight hydroelectric projects during their downstream migration to the Pacific Ocean. Fish may pass a project through a turbine or a spillbay or be screened into a bypass system that either collects fish into a barge or releases them downstream of the project. Previous reviews of studies of downstream passage for salmon at hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River basin found higher mean mortality at turbines than for spillways or bypass systems. The potential mechanisms of mortality during turbine passage may include pressure changes, cavitation, shear, turbulence, strike, or grinding. Observing those mechanisms is challenging in the field, but laboratory studies have demonstrated that a single exposure to shear or pressure changes similar to turbine passage conditions can result in injury for some individuals. Because fish pass several dams along their migration, individuals experience a series of passage events. If estimates of surviving the passage of a single project are applied to each passage event, then the underlying assumption is that the mortality at each project is independent of previous exposure. If individuals approaching a project were already sub-lethally stressed, higher than expected mortality rates might occur upon subsequent passage events. Report presents the hypothesis that fish passing more than one turbine will experience a greater than expected rate of mortality. Because measuring an incremental increase in mortality would be challenging in the field, scientists developed an approach to first assess whether such an increment has any potential to influence a fish population. This approach identified populations at risk and will help design laboratory or field experiments to address those risks.

  8. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  9. Determine the Influence of Time Held in “Knockdown” Anesthesia on Survival and Stress of Surgically Implanted Juvenile Salmonids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, Christa M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Knox, Kasey M.

    2012-01-31

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed for the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers Portland District (USACE) to address questions related to survival and performance measures of juvenile salmonids as they pass through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). Researchers using JSATS acoustic transmitters (ATs) were tasked with standardizing the surgical implantation procedure to ensure that the stressors of handling and surgery on salmonids were consistent and less likely to cause effects of tagging in survival studies. Researchers questioned whether the exposure time in 'knockdown' anesthesia (or induction) to prepare fish for surgery could influence the survival of study fish (CBSPSC 2011). Currently, fish are held in knockdown anesthesia after they reach Stage 4 anesthesia until the completion of the surgical implantation of a transmitter, varies from 5 to 15 minutes for studies conducted in the Columbia Basin. The Columbia Basin Surgical Protocol Steering Committee (CBSPSC ) expressed concern that its currently recommended 10-minute maximum time limit during which fish are held in anesthetic - tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222, 80 mg L-1 water) - could increase behavioral and physiological costs, and/or decrease survival of outmigrating juvenile salmonids. In addition, the variability in the time fish are held at Stage 4 could affect the data intended for direct comparison of fish within or among survival studies. Under the current recommended protocol, if fish exceed the 10-minute time limit, they are to be released without surgical implantation, thereby increasing the number of fish handled and endangered species 'take' at the bypass systems for FCRPS survival studies.

  10. Large scale modelling of salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis infection pressure based on lice monitoring data from Norwegian salmonid farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja B. Kristoffersen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection by parasitic sea lice is a substantial problem in industrial scale salmon farming. To control the problem, Norwegian salmonid farms are not permitted to exceed a threshold level of infection on their fish, and farms are required to monitor and report lice levels on a weekly basis to ensure compliance with the regulation. In the present study, we combine the monitoring data with a deterministic model for salmon lice population dynamics to estimate farm production of infectious lice stages. Furthermore, we use an empirical estimate of the relative risk of salmon lice transmission between farms, that depend on inter-farm distances, to estimate the external infection pressure at a farm site, i.e. the infection pressure from infective salmon lice of neighbouring farm origin. Finally, we test whether our estimates of infection pressure from neighbouring farms as well as internal within farm infection pressure, predicts subsequent development of infection in cohorts of farmed salmonids in their initial phase of marine production. We find that estimated external infection pressure is a main predictor of salmon lice population dynamics in newly stocked cohorts of salmonids. Our results emphasize the importance of keeping the production of infectious lice stages at low levels within local networks of salmon farms. Our model can easily be implemented for real time estimation of infection pressure at the national scale, utilizing the masses of data generated through the compulsory lice monitoring in salmon farms. The implementation of such a system should give the salmon industry greater predictability with respect to salmon lice infection levels, and aid the decision making process when the development of new farm sites are planned.

  11. Comparative evaluation of molecular diagnostic tests for Nucleospora salmonis and prevalence in migrating juvenile salmonids from the Snake River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badil, Samantha; Elliott, Diane G.; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Clemens, Kathy; Blair, Marilyn; Purcell, Maureen K.

    2011-01-01

    Nucleospora salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian that primarily infects lymphoblast cells and contributes to chronic lymphoblastosis and a leukemia-like condition in a range of salmonid species. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of N. salmonis in out-migrating juvenile hatchery and wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss from the Snake River in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. To achieve this goal, we first addressed the following concerns about current molecular diagnostic tests for N. salmonis: (1) nonspecific amplification patterns by the published nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) test, (2) incomplete validation of the published quantitative PCR (qPCR) test, and (3) whether N. salmonis can be detected reliably from nonlethal samples. Here, we present an optimized nPCR protocol that eliminates nonspecific amplification. During validation of the published qPCR test, our laboratory developed a second qPCR test that targeted a different gene sequence and used different probe chemistry for comparison purposes. We simultaneously evaluated the two different qPCR tests for N. salmonis and found that both assays were highly specific, sensitive, and repeatable. The nPCR and qPCR tests had good overall concordance when DNA samples derived from both apparently healthy and clinically diseased hatchery rainbow trout were tested. Finally, we demonstrated that gill snips were a suitable tissue for nonlethal detection of N. salmonis DNA in juvenile salmonids. Monitoring of juvenile salmonid fish in the Snake River over a 3-year period revealed low prevalence of N. salmonis in hatchery and wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead but significantly higher prevalence in hatchery-derived steelhead. Routine monitoring of N. salmonis is not performed for all hatchery steelhead populations. At present, the possible contribution of this pathogen to delayed mortality of steelhead has not been determined.

  12. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 1999-2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Suzanne M.; Carmichael, Richard W.; Ehlers, Danette L.

    2002-04-01

    This is the sixth annual report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and natural juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival assists researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal and fish ladder operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural and restored fish populations. Findings from this study also measure the success of upriver habitat improvement projects and provide an overall evaluation of the Umatilla River fisheries restoration program.

  13. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, William D.

    1995-02-01

    In 1994, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the second year of a multi-year study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through the dams and reservoirs of the Snake River. Actively migrating smolts were collected at selected locations above, at, and below Lower Granite Dam, tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, and released to continue their downstream migration. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release, Modified Single-Release, and Paired-Release Models.

  14. Long-term effective population sizes, temporal stability of genetic composition and potential for local adaptation in anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Ruzzante, D.E.; Eg Nielsen, Einar;

    2002-01-01

    (3 km) river showed Ne greater than or equal to 300. Assuming a stepping-stone model of gene flow we considered the relative roles of gene flow, random genetic drift and selection to assess the possibilities for local adaptation. The requirements for local adaptation were fulfilled, but only......We examined the long-term temporal (1910s to 1990s) genetic variation at eight microsatellite DNA loci in brown trout (Salmo trutta L) collected from five anadromous populations in Denmark to assess the long-term stability of genetic composition and to estimate effective population sizes (N......-e). Contemporary and historical samples consisted of tissue and archived scales, respectively. Pairwise Theta(ST) estimates, a hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and multidimensional scaling analysis of pairwise genetic distances between samples revealed much closer genetic relationships among...

  15. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Idaho Department of Fish and Game Hatcheries, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighting 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs., 25 figs.

  16. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Hatcheries, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighing 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs, 25 figs.

  17. Assessment of pulsed DC electric field to guide downstream migrating sea lamprey in experimental flume at USGS Conte Anadromous Fish Lab, Turners Falls, MA (December 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miehls, Scott M.; Johnson, Nicholas; Haro, Alexander J.

    2017-01-01

    This is a tabular data set that contains records of water velocity, depth, temperature and trial information such as start and stop times and date for experimental trials testing the effect of an electric field on the movement patterns and distribution of juvenile sea lamprey moving downstream in an experimental flume. Distribution is recorded for each individual lamprey as presence (1) or absence (0) in a series of downstream collection nets positions laterally across the flume. The data is formatted as comma delimited and contains no special characters. The trails were conducted during December 2 through December 15, 2013 in a 6 meter wide experimental flume at the Conte Anadromous Fish Research Lab in Turners Falls, MA.

  18. Natural Propagation and Habitat improvement, Volume 2B, Washington, Similkameen River Habitat Inventory, 1983 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown Author

    1984-04-01

    During the summer low flow period, a habitat assessment of the Similkameen, Tulameen, Ashnola and Pasayten rivers in British Columbia and Washington State was conducted between August 10 and October 10, 1983. The biophysical survey assessed 400 km (250 mi) of stream at 77 stations. Fish sampling was conducted at each station to assess the resident fish populations and standing crop. Rainbow trout populations and standing crops were found to be very low. Large populations of mountain whitefish and bridgelip suckers were present in the manstem Similkameen River below Similkameen Falls. High densities of sculpins and longnose dace were found throughout the system except for sculpins above the falls, where none were captured. Approximately 961,000 m/sup 2/ (1,150,000 yd/sup 2/) of spawnable area for steelhead trout were estimated for the entire system which could accommodate 98,000 spawners. Nearly 367,000 m/sup 2/ (439,000 yd/sup 2/) of chinook salmon spawnable area was also estimated, capable of accommodating 55,000 chinook. Rearing area for steelhead trout smolts was estimated for the whole system at 1.8 million m/sup 2/ (2.2 million yd/sup 2/). Chinook salmon smolt rearing area was estimated at 700,000 m/sup 2/ (837,000 yd/sup 2/). Rearing area was found to be a limiting factor to anadromous production in a Similkameen River system. Smolt production from the system was estimated 610,000 steelhead trout and between 1.6 million and 4.8 million chinook salmon. No water quality, temperature or flow problems for anadromous salmonids were evident from the available data and the habitat inventory. In addition to an impassable falls on the Tulameen River at river mile 32.5, only two other areas of difficult passage exist in the system, Similkameen Falls (a series of chutes) and the steep, narrow lower section of the Ashnola River. 51 references, 18 figures, 25 tables.

  19. Assessment of Salmonids and Their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin within Washington, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, Glen; Trump, Jeremy; Gembala, Mike

    2003-09-01

    This study began in 1998 to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of salmonid habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. Stream flows in the Walla Walla Basin continue to show a general trend that begins with a sharp decline in discharge in late June, followed by low summer flows and then an increase in discharge in fall and winter. Manual stream flow measurements at Pepper bridge showed an increase in 2002 of 110-185% from July-September, over flows from 2001. This increase is apparently associated with a 2000 settlement agreement between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the irrigation districts to leave minimum flows in the river. Stream temperatures in the Walla Walla basin were similar to those in 2001. Upper montane tributaries maintained maximum summer temperatures below 65 F, while sites in mid and lower Touchet and Walla Walla rivers frequently had daily maximum temperatures well above 68 F (high enough to inhibit migration in adult and juvenile salmonids, and to sharply reduce survival of their embryos and fry). These high temperatures are possibly the most critical physiological barrier to salmonids in the Walla Walla basin, but other factors (available water, turbidity or sediment deposition, cover, lack of pools, etc.) also play a part in salmonid survival, migration, and breeding success. The increased flows in the Walla Walla, due to the 2000 settlement agreement, have not shown consistent improvements to stream temperatures. Rainbow/steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout represent the most common salmonid in the basin. Densities of Rainbow/steelhead in the Walla Walla River from the Washington/Oregon stateline to Mojonnier Rd. dropped slightly from 2001, but are still considerably higher than before the 2000 settlement agreement. Other salmonids including; bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and brown trout (Salmo

  20. Predation on Pacific salmonid eggs and carcass's by subyearling Atlantic salmon in a tributary of Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Abbett, Ross; Verdoliva, Francis

    2016-01-01

    A binational effort to reintroduce Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that were extirpated in the Lake Ontario ecosystem for over a century is currently being undertaken by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Reintroduction actions include the release of several life stages including fry, fall fingerlings, and yearling smolts. In this study we describe the diet of recently released fall fingerling Atlantic salmon in a tributary of the Salmon River, New York. A specific objective of the study was to determine if juvenile Atlantic salmon would utilize the high caloric food source provided by introduced Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) that includes eggs and carcass flesh. Salmon eggs and carcass flesh comprised 20.5% of the October to January diet in 2013–14 and 23.9% in 2014–15. The consumption of steelhead (O. mykiss) eggs was a major part of the diet in April in both 2014 (54.1%) and 2015 (33.2%). This study documented that recently released Atlantic salmon will consume the high caloric food material provided by Pacific salmonids and that the consumption of this material extends for several months.

  1. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of astaxanthin (CAROPHYLL® Pink 10% CWS for salmonids and ornamental fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin is a pigmenting carotenoid naturally occurring in plankton, crustaceans and fish. The FEEDAP Panel considers synthetic astaxanthin safe for salmonids up to 100 mg/kg complete diet. This conclusion is extrapolated to ornamental fish at the same dose. Based on a BMDL10 of 3.4 mg/kg bw per day (calculated for liver hypertrophy in female rat in a carcinogenicity study and applying an uncertainty factor of 100, it is possible to set an ADI of 0.034 mg ATX/kg bw (equivalent to 2.0 mg ATX per 60 kg person per day. The use of astaxanthin up to the maximum permitted dietary level for salmon and trout is of no concern for the safety of the consumer. Skin or eye exposure to astaxanthin is unlikely to be irritant to workers. Sensitisation is unlikely to occur subsequent to skin exposure. The risk of inhalation toxicity is minimal for the formulation under assessment, but the risk for other formulations cannot be assessed. The FEEDAP Panel considers that the use of synthetic astaxanthin (100 mg astaxanthin/kg fish feed does not pose a significant additional risk to the environment compared with natural astaxanthin. Astaxanthin is efficacious in colouring the flesh of salmonids and in pigmenting the skin of ornamental fish.

  2. Characterization of untranslated regions of the salmonid alphavirus 3 (SAV3 genome and construction of a SAV3 based replicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimstad Espen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salmonid alphavirus (SAV causes disease in farmed salmonid fish and is divided into different genetic subtypes (SAV1-6. Here we report the cloning and characterization of the 5'- and 3'- untranslated regions (UTR of a SAV3 isolated from Atlantic salmon in Norway. The sequences of the UTRs are very similar to those of SAV1 and SAV2, but single nucleotide polymorphisms are present, also in the 3' - conserved sequence element (3'-CSE. Prediction of the RNA secondary structure suggested putative stem-loop structures in both the 5'- and 3'-ends, similar to those of alphaviruses from the terrestrial environment, indicating that the general genome replication initiation strategy for alphaviruses is also utilized by SAV. A DNA replicon vector, pmSAV3, based upon a pVAX1 backbone and the SAV3 genome was constructed, and the SAV3 non-structural proteins were used to express a reporter gene controlled by the SAV3 subgenomic promoter. Transfection of pmSAV3 into CHSE and BF2 cell lines resulted in expression of the reporter protein, confirming that the cloned SAV3 replication apparatus and UTRs are functional in fish cells.

  3. Characterization of untranslated regions of the salmonid alphavirus 3 (SAV3) genome and construction of a SAV3 based replicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Marius; Villoing, Stephane; Rimstad, Espen; Nylund, Are

    2009-10-27

    Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) causes disease in farmed salmonid fish and is divided into different genetic subtypes (SAV1-6). Here we report the cloning and characterization of the 5'- and 3'- untranslated regions (UTR) of a SAV3 isolated from Atlantic salmon in Norway. The sequences of the UTRs are very similar to those of SAV1 and SAV2, but single nucleotide polymorphisms are present, also in the 3' - conserved sequence element (3'-CSE). Prediction of the RNA secondary structure suggested putative stem-loop structures in both the 5'- and 3'-ends, similar to those of alphaviruses from the terrestrial environment, indicating that the general genome replication initiation strategy for alphaviruses is also utilized by SAV. A DNA replicon vector, pmSAV3, based upon a pVAX1 backbone and the SAV3 genome was constructed, and the SAV3 non-structural proteins were used to express a reporter gene controlled by the SAV3 subgenomic promoter. Transfection of pmSAV3 into CHSE and BF2 cell lines resulted in expression of the reporter protein, confirming that the cloned SAV3 replication apparatus and UTRs are functional in fish cells.

  4. Piscine Reovirus: Genomic and Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis from Farmed and Wild Salmonids Collected on the Canada/US Pacific Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Siah

    Full Text Available Piscine reovirus (PRV is a double stranded non-enveloped RNA virus detected in farmed and wild salmonids. This study examined the phylogenetic relationships among different PRV sequence types present in samples from salmonids in Western Canada and the US, including Alaska (US, British Columbia (Canada and Washington State (US. Tissues testing positive for PRV were partially sequenced for segment S1, producing 71 sequences that grouped into 10 unique sequence types. Sequence analysis revealed no identifiable geographical or temporal variation among the sequence types. Identical sequence types were found in fish sampled in 2001, 2005 and 2014. In addition, PRV positive samples from fish derived from Alaska, British Columbia and Washington State share identical sequence types. Comparative analysis of the phylogenetic tree indicated that Canada/US Pacific Northwest sequences formed a subgroup with some Norwegian sequence types (group II, distinct from other Norwegian and Chilean sequences (groups I, III and IV. Representative PRV positive samples from farmed and wild fish in British Columbia and Washington State were subjected to genome sequencing using next generation sequencing methods. Individual analysis of each of the 10 partial segments indicated that the Canadian and US PRV sequence types clustered separately from available whole genome sequences of some Norwegian and Chilean sequences for all segments except the segment S4. In summary, PRV was genetically homogenous over a large geographic distance (Alaska to Washington State, and the sequence types were relatively stable over a 13 year period.

  5. Salmonid alphavirus replicon is functional in fish, mammalian and insect cells and in vivo in shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Christel M; Pemula, Anand Kumar; Braaen, Stine; Sankaran, Krishnan; Rimstad, Espen

    2013-11-19

    The Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is the etiological agent of pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Sleeping disease in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). SAV differs from alphaviruses infecting terrestrial animals in that it infects salmonid fish at low temperatures and does not use an arthropod vector for transmission. In this study we have shown that a SAVbased replicon could express proteins when driven by the subgenomic promoter in vitro in cells from fish, mammals and insects, as well as in vivo in shrimps (Litopanaeus vannamei). The SAV-replicon was found to be functional at temperatures ranging from 4 to 37°C. Protein expression was slow and moderate compared to that reported from terrestrial alphavirus replicons or from vectors where protein expression was under control of the immediate early CMV-promoter. No cytopathic effect was visually observable in cells transfected with SAV-replicon vectors. Double stranded RNA was present for several days after transfection of the SAV-replicon in fish cell lines and its presence was indicated also in shrimp. The combination of prolonged dsRNA production, low toxicity, and wide temperature range for expression, may potentially be advantageous for the use of the SAV replicon to induce immune responses in aquaculture of fish and shrimp.

  6. Phylogeography of the salmonid fish, Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma: multiple glacial refugia in the North Pacific Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shoichiro; Maekawa, Koji; Morita, Kentaro; Crane, Penelope A; Oleinik, Alla G

    2014-10-01

    The geographic distribution pattern of mitochondrial DNA (control region) sequence polymorphisms from 73 populations of a salmonid fish, Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma, over most of its range in the North Pacific rim, was examined to assess how its spatial population genetic structure has been molded. The observed 68 haplotypes were grouped into three main lineages, which correspond to western, central, and eastern regions in the North Pacific. The two outlier-haplotype groups gave close agreement with DNA types from two congeneric species, white-spotted charr S. leucomaenis and Arctic charr S. alpinus, respectively. These results suggest that the present-day genetic structure of S. malma reflects historical patterns of isolation and re-colonization, and also historical hybridization with co-distributed species. We also placed the haplotypes of S. malma within our study areas into a pre-existing evolutionary relationship of S. alpinus and S. malma throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Western Lineage S. malma was basal to all other lineages of S. malma and S. alpinus. Our data serve as a biogeographic hypothesis for salmonid fishes that the Sea of Japan and/or Sea of Okhotsk regions represents a place of origin for S. malma and S. alpinus groups currently distributed in circumpolar regions.

  7. Debaryomyces hansenii and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa comprised the yeast core gut microbiota of wild and reared carnivorous salmonids, croaker and yellowtail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Patricia; Lopez, Paulina; Diaz, Angélica; Carrasco, Diana; Silva, Alfonso; Velez, Antonio; Opazo, Rafael; Magne, Fabien; Navarrete, Paola A

    2014-09-01

    This is the first study using molecular and culture-based methods aimed at investigating the composition of the intestinal yeast microbiota of wild and reared carnivorous salmonids, croaker and yellowtail, to characterize their cores and to evaluate the enzymatic activities of the cultivated yeast. Among 103 samples from salmonids, croaker and yellowtail, yeast were detected in 85.4%, with 43 species identified. The core of reared fish was composed of eight species, in contrast to the wild fish core, which consisted of two species: Debaryomyces hansenii and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Despite the smaller diversity of the wild fish core, similar enzymatic profiles were detected for the species from the wild and reared cores. For principal component analysis, samples grouped together independently of host species, domestication status and location. A high proportion of yeast produced aminopeptidases and lipases, which may be explained by the high proportion of protein and lipids in the carnivorous diet. This study reveals the presence of a yeast community in the fish gut that appears to be strongly shaped by a carnivorous diet. Yeast in the gut increases the repertoire of microorganisms interacting with the host intestine, which could influence health and disease.

  8. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul

    2002-06-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. Along with reduced population and genetic variability, the loss of biodiversity means a diminished environmental adaptability. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2001 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2001, a total of 398 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 295 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program stores 680 cryopreserved samples at the University of Idaho as a long-term archive, half of the total samples. A total of 3,206 cryopreserved samples from Snake River basin steelhead and

  9. Evaluation of Low and High Frequency Sound for Enhancing Fish Screening Facilities to Protect Outmigrating Salmonids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Neitzel, Duane A.; Mavros, William V.

    1998-02-01

    evaluations needed to produce, deploy or install sound equipment at existing or planned fish screening facilities. The focus of this study is to determine if fish, specifically juvenile salmonids, can be guided by sound.

  10. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, William; Kucera, Paul

    2003-07-01

    In spite of an intensive management effort, chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in the Northwest have not recovered and are currently listed as threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. In addition to the loss of diversity from stocks that have already gone extinct, decreased genetic diversity resulting from genetic drift and inbreeding is a major concern. Reduced population and genetic variability diminishes the environmental adaptability of individual species and entire ecological communities. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), in cooperation with Washington State University and the University of Idaho, established a germplasm repository in 1992 in order to preserve the remaining salmonid diversity in the region. The germplasm repository provides long-term storage for cryopreserved gametes. Although only male gametes can be cryopreserved, conserving the male component of genetic diversity will maintain future management options for species recovery. NPT efforts have focused on preserving salmon and steelhead gametes from the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin. However, the repository is available for all management agencies to contribute gamete samples from other regions and species. In 2002 a total of 570 viable semen samples were added to the germplasm repository. This included the gametes of 287 chinook salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River (Lookingglass Hatchery), Lake Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery), and upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Hatchery) and the gametes of 280 steelhead from the North Fork Clearwater River (Dworshak Hatchery), Fish Creek, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery) and Snake River (Oxbow Hatchery). In addition, gametes from 60 Yakima River spring chinook and 34 Wenatchee River coho salmon were added to the

  11. Characterization of the live salmonid movement network in Ireland: Implications for disease prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatabe, T; More, S J; Geoghegan, F; McManus, C; Hill, A E; Martínez-López, B

    2015-11-01

    Live fish movement is considered as having an important role in the transmission of infectious diseases. For that reason, interventions for cost-effective disease prevention and control rely on a sound understanding of the patterns of live fish movements in a region or country. Here, we characterize the network of live fish movements in the Irish salmonid farming industry during 2013, using social network analysis and spatial epidemiology methods, and identify interventions to limit the risk of disease introduction and spread. In the network there were 62 sites sending and/or receiving fish, with a total of 130 shipments (84 arcs) comprising approx. 17.2 million fish during the year. Atlantic salmon shipments covered longer distances than trout shipments, with some traversing the entire country. The average shipment of Atlantic salmon was 146,186 (SD 194,344) fish, compared to 77,928 (127,009) for trout, however, variability was high. There were 3 periods where shipments peaked (February-April, June-September, and November), which were related to specific stages of fish. The network was disconnected and had two major weak components, the first one with 39 nodes (mostly Atlantic salmon sites), and the second one with 10 nodes (exclusively trout sites). Correlation between in and out-degree at each site and assortativity coefficient were slightly low and non-significant: -0.08 (95% CI: -0.22, 0.06) and -0.13 (95% CI: -0.36, 0.08), respectively, indicating random mixing with regard to node degree. Although competing models also produced a good fit to degree distribution, it is likely that the network possesses both small-world and scale-free topology. This would facilitate the spread and persistence of infection in the salmon production system, but would also facilitate the design of risk-based surveillance strategies by targeting hubs, bridges or cut-points. Using Infomap community detection algorithms, 2 major communities were identified within the giant weak

  12. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Hanks, Michael E.; Khan, Fenton; Cook, Chris B.; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Sargeant, Susan L.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2005-06-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate juvenile salmon passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004 to inform decisions about long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway and spill passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. PNNL used fixed-location hydroacoustic sampling across the entire project, especially at the sluiceway and spillway, using multiple split-beam transducers at selected locations. At the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish. The fish data were interpreted and integrated with hydraulic data from a CFD model and in-field ADCP measurements. Two sluiceway operations were compared: West only (SL 1) vs. West+East (SL 1 + SL 18). Based on our findings, we concluded that The Dalles Dam sluiceway has the potential to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. This potential could be tapped with hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway. We recommended the following: (1) six rather than three sluice gates should be opened to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. (2) The turbine units below open sluice gates should be operated as a standard fish operations procedure. (3) In 2005, the Corps and fisheries agencies should consider operating sluice gates in one or more of the following combinations of six gates: (a) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 18-1, 18-2, 18-3 (repeat 2004 operation), (b) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 11-1, 11-2, 11-3, or (c) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 2-1, 2-2, 2-3. The following elements for surface flow bypasses which should be considered during design of any sluiceway enhancements at The Dalles Dam: (1) form an extensive surface flow bypass flow net (surface bypass discharge greater than {approx}7% of total project discharge), (2) create a gradual increase in water velocity approaching the surface flow bypass (ideally, acceleration < 1 m/s/m), (3) make water

  13. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Progress Report, February 1993-February 1994.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poe, Thomas P.

    1994-08-01

    This report addresses the problem of predator-prey interactions of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River. Six papers are included on selective predation and prey protection. Attention is focused on monitoring the movements, the distribution, and the behavior of juvenile chinook salmon and northern squawfish.

  14. Quantifying the effect of predators on endangered species using a bioenergetics approach : Caspian terns and juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roby, DD; Lyons, DE; Craig, DP; Collis, K; Visser, GH

    2003-01-01

    We estimated the consumption of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) and other forage fishes by Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) nesting on Rice Island in the Columbia River estuary in 1997 and 1998 using a bioenergetics modeling approach. The study was prompted by concern that Caspian tern predation

  15. Improved primer sequences for the mitochondrial ND1, ND3/4 and ND5/6 segments in salmonid fishes : application to RFLP analysis of Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    1998-01-01

    New specific primers for the mtDNA segments ND1, ND3/4 and ND5/6 designed from the rainbow trout sequence, improved PCR amplification for salmonid fishes. RFLP analysis revealed restriction site variation for all three segments in Atlantic salmon. Eleven haplotypes were detected in a screening...

  16. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 2000-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Tara C.; Jewett, Shannon M.; Hanson, Josh T.

    2003-04-11

    This is the seventh year of a multi-year project, monitoring the outmigration and survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project both supplements and complements ongoing and completed work within the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on juvenile outmigration and survival assists researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal and fish ladder operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts of natural and restored fish populations. Findings from this study also measure the success of upriver habitat improvement projects and provide an overall evaluation of the Umatilla River fisheries restoration program. The general objectives for 2001 were to: (1) Estimate migrant abundance and survival and determine migration parameters of PIT-tagged hatchery and natural juvenile salmonids; (2) Monitor natural production and estimate overall abundance of pacific lamprey, chinook and coho salmon and summer steelhead; (3) Assess the condition and health of migrants and determine length-frequency distributions through time; (4) Investigate the effects of canal and fishway operations and environmental conditions on fish migration and survival; (5) Investigate and implement improved tag monitoring capabilities; and (6) Participate in planning and coordination activities within the basin and disseminate results. More specifically, 2001 objectives included the ongoing evaluation of migrant abundance and survival of tagged hatchery fish groups from various species-specific hatchery, rearing, acclimation and release strategies; fourth year reach survival results; continuation of transport evaluation studies; outmigrant monitoring and estimation of natural abundance, and further investigation of the effects of canal operations, environmental factors, fish condition and health on migration, abundance and survival. Some of the key findings for 2001 are: (1) A significant decline in outmigrant abundance of

  17. Catchment source contributions to the sediment-bound organic matter degrading salmonid spawning gravels in a lowland river, southern England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, A.L., E-mail: adrian.collins@adas.co.uk [ADAS, Pendeford House, Wobaston Road, Wolverhampton WV9 5AP (United Kingdom); Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Williams, L.J.; Zhang, Y.S. [ADAS, Pendeford House, Wobaston Road, Wolverhampton WV9 5AP (United Kingdom); Marius, M. [Civil Engineering and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton S017 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dungait, J.A.J. [Department of Sustainable Systems and Grassland Science, Rothamsted Research—North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Smallman, D.J. [Civil Engineering and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton S017 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dixon, E.R. [Department of Sustainable Systems and Grassland Science, Rothamsted Research—North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Stringfellow, A. [Civil Engineering and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton S017 1BJ (United Kingdom); Sear, D.A. [Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Jones, J.I. [School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Naden, P.S. [CEH Wallingford, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    The ingress of particulate material into freshwater spawning substrates is thought to be contributing to the declining success of salmonids reported over recent years for many rivers. Accordingly, the need for reliable information on the key sources of the sediment problem has progressed up the management agenda. Whilst previous work has focussed on apportioning the sources of minerogenic fine sediment degrading spawning habitats, there remains a need to develop procedures for generating corresponding information for the potentially harmful sediment-bound organic matter that represents an overlooked component of interstitial sediment. A source tracing procedure based on composite signatures combining bulk stable {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N isotope values with organic molecular structures detected using near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was therefore used to assess the primary sources of sediment-bound organic matter sampled from artificial spawning redds. Composite signatures were selected using a combination of the Kruskal–Wallis H-test, principal component analysis and GA-driven discriminant function analysis. Interstitial sediment samples were collected using time-integrating basket traps which were inserted at the start of the salmonid spawning season and extracted in conjunction with critical phases of fish development (eyeing, hatch, emergence, late spawning). Over the duration of these four basket extractions, the overall relative frequency-weighted average median (± 95% confidence limits) source contributions to the interstitial sediment-bound organic matter were estimated to be in the order: instream decaying vegetation (39 ± < 1%; full range 0–77%); damaged road verges (28 ± < 1%; full range 0–77%); septic tanks (22 ± < 1%; full range 0–50%), and; farm yard manures/slurries (11 ± < 1%; full range 0–61%). The reported procedure provides a promising basis for understanding the key sources of interstitial sediment-bound organic matter

  18. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XXI; A Summary of Methods for Conducting Salmonid Fry Mark-Recapture Studies for Estimating Survival in Tributaries, Technical Report 2005-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John

    2007-02-01

    Productivity and early fry survival can have a major influence on the dynamics of fish stocks. To investigate the early life history of fish, numerous methods have been developed or adapted to these much smaller fish. Some of the marking techniques provide individual identification; many others, only class identification. Some of the tagging techniques require destructive sampling to identify a mark; other methods permit benign examination and rerelease of captured fish. Sixteen alternative release-recapture designs for conducting fry survival investigations were examined. Eleven approaches were found capable of estimating survival parameters; five were not. Of those methods capable of estimating fry survival, five required unique marks, four required batch-specific marks, and two approaches required remarking and rereleasing captured fry. No approach based on a simple batch mark was capable of statistically estimating survival.

  19. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin : 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A. [Nez Perce Tribe. Dept. of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID (US)

    2001-06-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2000 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2000, a total of 349 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Rapid River Hatchery, Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 283 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Tribe acquired 5 frozen steelhead samples from the Selway River collected in 1994 and 15 from Fish Creek sampled in 1993 from the U.S. Geological Survey, for addition into the germplasm repository. Also, 590 cryopreserved samples from the Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program are being stored at the University of Idaho as

  20. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, John L.

    1985-11-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration has conducted a study since 1983 relating to the epidemiology and control of three diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These diseases are ceratomyxosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Ceratomyxa Shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the etiological agent of which is Renibacterium salmoninarum and infectious hematopoietic necrosis which is caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The presence of the infectious stage of C. shasta was again detected at Little Goose Dam on the Snake River. The prevalence of ceratomyxosis increased from 1.1% in 1984 to 10% in 1985. None of the susceptible rainbow trout exposed in the Yakima and Umatilla Rivers died of this disease. Ceratomyxosis in resistant chinook salmon smolts seined from the Columbia River just above the estuary seems dependent on whether or not they are held after capture in fresh or salt water. In fresh water the disease incidence ranged from 7--19%, whereas in salt water it ranged from 0--3%. These results which suggest that recovery from ceratomyxosis may occur after the smolts enter salt water are different from those obtained with susceptible Alsea steelhead trout where experimental groups in salt water have died at the same rate as those in fresh water. Comparing data from groups of Columbia River chinook smolts held after capture in either fresh or salt water, R. salmoninarum is a much more effective pathogen in the salt water environment. After four years of sampling smolts in the open ocean, numbers of this microorganism sufficient to cause death have been detected in chinook (7%) and, coho salmon (2%) and steelhead trout (1%). Results from three years of sampling have consistently indicated that additional fish infected with R. salmoninarum will be detected if egg washings are included in the procedures for

  1. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hockersmith, Eric E.

    1999-03-01

    This report consists of two parts describing research activities completed during 1997 under Bonneville Power Administration Project Number 93-29. Part 1 provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 1997 for PIT-tagged hatchery steelhead and yearling chinook salmon in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. The results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures with a minimum of text. More detailed information on methodology and the statistical models used in the analysis are provided in previous annual reports cited in the text. Analysis of the relationships among travel time, survival, and environmental factors for 1997 and previous years of the study will be reported elsewhere. Part 2 of this report describes research to determine areas of loss and delay for juvenile hatchery salmonids above Lower Granite Reservoir.

  2. An epidemic model for the interactions between thermal regime of rivers and transmission of Proliferative Kidney Disease in salmonid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Luca; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Gatto, Marino; Strepparava, Nicole; Hartikainen, Hanna; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) affects salmonid populations in European and North-American rivers. It is caused by the endoparasitic myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, which exploits freshwater bryozoans (Fredericella sultana) and salmonids as primary and secondary hosts, respectively. Incidence and mortality, which can reach up to 90-100%, are known to be strongly related to water temperature. PKD has been present in brown trout population for a long time but has recently increased rapidly in incidence and severity causing a decline in fish catches in many countries. In addition, environmental changes are feared to cause PKD outbreaks at higher latitude and altitude regions as warmer temperatures promote disease development. This calls for a better comprehension of the interactions between disease dynamics and the thermal regime of rivers, in order to possibly devise strategies for disease management. In this perspective, a spatially explicit model of PKD epidemiology in riverine host metacommunities is proposed. The model aims at summarizing the knowledge on the modes of transmission of the disease and the life-cycle of the parasite, making the connection between temperature and epidemiological parameters explicit. The model accounts for both local population and disease dynamics of bryozoans and fish and hydrodynamic dispersion of the parasite spores and hosts along the river network. The model is time-hybrid, coupling inter-seasonal and intra-seasonal dynamics, the former being described in a continuous time domain, the latter seen as time steps of a discrete time domain. In order to test the model, a case study is conducted in river Wigger (Cantons of Aargau and Lucerne, Switzerland), where data about water temperature, brown trout and bryozoan populations and PKD prevalence are being collected.

  3. A naturally occurring substitution in the E2 protein of Salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 changes viral fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Marius; Andersen, Linda; Blindheim, Steffen H; Rimstad, Espen; Nylund, Are

    2015-01-22

    Phylogenetic analyses of the Salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV3) epizootic have suggested that a substitution from proline to serine in the receptor binding protein E2 position 206 has occurred after the introduction of virus from a wild reservoir to farmed salmonid fish in Norway. We modelled the 3D structure of P62, the uncleaved E3-E2 precursor, of SAVH20/03 based on its sequence homology to the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and studied in vitro and in vivo effects of the mutation using reverse genetics. E2(206) is located on the surface of the B-domain of E2, which is associated with receptor attachment in alphaviruses. Recombinant virus expressing the E2(206S) codon replicated slower and produced significantly less genomic copies than virus expressing the ancestral E2(206P) codon in vitro in Bluegill Fry (BF2) cells. The E2(206S) mutant was out-competed by the E2(206P) mutant after 5 passages in an in vitro competition assay, confirming that the substitution negatively affects the efficacy of virus multiplication in cell culture. Both mutants were highly infectious to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), produced similar viral RNA loads in gills, heart, kidney and brain, and induced similar histopathologic changes in these organs. The E2(206S) mutant produced a less persistent infection in salmon and was shed more rapidly to water than the E2(206P) mutant. Reduced generation time through more rapid shedding could therefore explain why a serine in this position became dominant in the viral population after SAV3 was introduced to farmed salmon from the wild reservoir.

  4. Detection of salmonid alphavirus RNA in wild marine fish: implications for the origins of salmon pancreas disease in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, M; Black, J; Matejusova, I; McIntosh, R; Baretto, E; Wallace, I S; Bruno, D W

    2010-09-17

    Salmonid alphaviruses (SAVs), which include the aetiological agents of salmon pancreas disease (SPD) in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. and sleeping disease (SD) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), are significant viral pathogens of European salmonid aquaculture. SAV is horizontally transmitted and the virus can survive for extended periods in seawater. A lack of convincing evidence for vertical transmission coupled to the fact that the SPD virus (SPDV) occurs in historically infected sites irrespective of fallow period duration suggests that a substantial reservoir of infection exists in the marine environment. We used a highly sensitive real-time PCR (qPCR) assay targeting a region of the SAV nsP1 gene to screen wild marine fish species for the presence of SAV in an attempt to identify such a potential reservoir. Screened fish species were caught in the vicinity of aquaculture activity in an area with a previous history of SAV infection (Shetland Isles, Scotland). SAV RNA was detected in internal organs (kidney and heart) from the flatfish species common dab Limanda limanda, long rough dab Hippoglossoides platessoides, and plaice Pleuronectes platessa. Based on these findings, sampling was extended to an area remote from aquaculture activity (Stonehaven Bay, NE coast of Scotland) from where heart tissues obtained from common dab also tested positive. While no virus could be cultivated from these samples, qPCR detections were shown to be SAV-specific by sequencing of an alternative gene region (E2) to that targeted by the qPCR assay. Analysis of these nucleotide sequences revealed minor differences to those previously obtained from farmed salmon, and subsequent phylogenetic analysis of an E2 dataset demonstrated a subtype V-like sequence.

  5. Introduction de salmonidés en milieu vierge (Îles Kerguelen, Subantarctique : enjeux, résultats, perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVAINE P.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Les îles Kerguelen (Terres Australes et Antarctiques Françaises sont, à l'origine, vierges de toute espèce de poisson d'eau douce. Les quelques espèces de Salmonidés, introduites à la fin des années cinquante dans le cadre d'une politique d'occupation et de mise en valeur du Territoire, se sont acclimatées à l'environnement subantarctique et naturalisées avec plus ou moins de succès en fonction de leurs stratégies adaptatives respectives. Objet d'un suivi scientifique continu, ces populations apparaissent comme d'excellents modèles pour des études de génétique et de dynamique des populations. Les phénomènes de colonisation, limités dans un premier temps à l'augmentation régulière des densités de population et une extension rapide intra-rivière, ont connu un développement spectaculaire depuis les années quatre-vingt, à la suite des modifications importantes du climat local, dont l'influence sur les populations a été multiple. La vaste superficie de Kerguelen et les caractéristiques de ses réseaux hydrographiques permettent d'envisager de continuer à tirer parti positivement des introductions passées de Salmonidés, sur les plans scientifique et de mise en valeur du territoire, tout en développant une politique de protection des écosystèmes aquatiques et terrestres conforme à l'évolution actuelle des mentalités.

  6. Space-time modelling of the spread of pancreas disease (PD) within and between Norwegian marine salmonid farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrin, M; Huseby, R B; Jansen, P A

    2015-09-01

    Infectious diseases are a constant threat to industrialised farming, which is characterised by high densities of farms and farm animals. Several mathematical and statistical models on spatio-temporal dynamics of infectious diseases in various farmed host populations have been developed during the last decades. Here we present a spatio-temporal stochastic model for the spread of a disease between and within aquaculture farms. The spread between farms is divided into several transmission pathways, including (i) distance related spread and (ii) other types of contagious contacts. The within-farm infection dynamics is modelled by a susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model. We apply this framework to model the spread of pancreas disease (PD) in salmon farming, using data covering all farms producing salmonids over 9 years in Norway. The motivation for the study was partly to unravel the spatio-temporal dynamics of PD in salmon farming and partly to use the model for scenario simulation of PD control strategies. We find, for example, that within-farm infection dynamics vary with season and we provide estimates of the timing from unobserved infection events to disease outbreaks on farms are detected. The simulations suggest that if a strategy involving culling of infectious cohorts is implemented, the number of detected disease outbreaks per year may be reduced by 57% after the full effect has been reached. We argue that the high detail and coverage of data on salmonid production and disease occurrence should encourage the use of simulation modelling as a means of testing effects of extensive control measures before they are implemented in the salmon farming industry.

  7. A Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Detection and Quantification of Epizootic Epitheliotropic Disease Virus (EEDV; Salmonid Herpesvirus 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenney, Gavin W; Barbash, Patricia A; Coll, John A

    2016-03-01

    Epizootic epitheliotropic disease virus (EEDV; salmonid herpesvirus [SalHV3]; family Alloherpesviridae) causes a systemic disease of juvenile and yearling Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush. No cell lines are currently available for the culture and propagation of EEDV, so primary diagnosis is limited to PCR and electron microscopy. To better understand the pervasiveness of EEDV (carrier or latent state of infection) in domesticated and wild Lake Trout populations, we developed a sensitive TaqMan quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to detect the presence of the EEDV terminase gene in Lake Trout tissues. This assay was able to detect a linear standard curve over nine logs of plasmid dilution and was sensitive enough to detect single-digit copies of EEDV. The efficiency of the PCR assay was 99.4 ± 0.06% (mean ± SD), with a 95% confidence limit of 0.0296 (R(2) = 0.994). Methods were successfully applied to collect preliminary data from a number of species and water bodies in the states of Pennsylvania, New York, and Vermont, indicating that EEDV is more common in wild fish than previously known. In addition, through the development of this qPCR assay, we detected EEDV in a new salmonid species, the Cisco Coregonus artedi. The qPCR assay was unexpectedly able to detect two additional herpesviruses, the Atlantic Salmon papillomatosis virus (ASPV; SalHV4) and the Namaycush herpesvirus (NamHV; SalHV5), which both share high sequence identity with the EEDV terminase gene. With these unexpected findings, we subsequently designed three primer sets to confirm initial TaqMan qPCR assay positives and to differentiate among EEDV, ASPV, and NamHV by detecting the glycoprotein genes via SYBR Green qPCR. Received April 20, 2015; accepted November 10, 2015.

  8. Salmonids surveys, number of juvenile fish, fork length, and species diversity conducted in the Little Campbell Creek watershed, Alaska from 2010-11-01 to 2011-03-01 (NCEI Accession 0148761)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Over the past few years biologists and other researchers have encountered noticeable fish die-offs, mostly of young salmonid, in various stretches of Little Campbell...

  9. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach was emphasized during this first year of the project. During the past year we concentrated on satisfying landowner needs, providing cost share alternatives, providing joint projects and starting implementation. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and offstream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements have been signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Some landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and others chose OWEB as a funding source. The exact amount of stream protection due to other funding sources probably exceeds that by BPA, however most would not have entered any program without initial Tribal outreach. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin.

  10. System-Wide Significance of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs : Annual Report of Research 1991.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shively, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    We indexed consumption rates of northern squawfish (Ptychoch oregonensis) preying upon juvenile salmonids in four lower Snake River reservoirs. Stomach contents were also collected from smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), channel catfish (Ictaluris gunctatus), and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum). Northern squawfish digestive tracts were analyzed and the overall diet (% weight) was dominated by fish and crustaceans. Examination of stomach contents smallmouth bass showed that crustaceans (primarily crayfish) dominated their diets. Overall, the consumption rate of juvenile salmonids by smallmouth bass was low. The northern squawfish consumption index (CI) at Snake River locations ranged from zero at all mid-reservoir locations to 1.2 at Lower Granite forebay. In John Day Reservoir, CI values ranged from 0.5 to 1.9 in May and from 0.9 to 3.0 in July. Consumption index values were highest in forebay and tailrace areas, and were slightly higher in BRZs than in non-restricted zones.

  11. The genome and linkage map of the northern pike (Esox lucius): conserved synteny revealed between the salmonid sister group and the Neoteleostei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, Eric B; Minkley, David R; Leong, Jong S; Messmer, Amber M; Jantzen, Johanna R; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Lemon, Craig; Bird, Nathan H; Koop, Ben F

    2014-01-01

    The northern pike is the most frequently studied member of the Esociformes, the closest order to the diverse and economically important Salmoniformes. The ancestor of all salmonids purportedly experienced a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event, making salmonid species ideal for studying the early impacts of genome duplication while complicating their use in wider analyses of teleost evolution. Studies suggest that the Esociformes diverged from the salmonid lineage prior to the WGD, supporting the use of northern pike as a pre-duplication outgroup. Here we present the first genome assembly, reference transcriptome and linkage map for northern pike, and evaluate the suitability of this species to provide a representative pre-duplication genome for future studies of salmonid and teleost evolution. The northern pike genome sequence is composed of 94,267 contigs (N50 = 16,909 bp) contained in 5,688 scaffolds (N50 = 700,535 bp); the total scaffolded genome size is 878 million bases. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that over 96% of the protein-coding genome is present in the genome assembly. The reference transcriptome was constructed from 13 tissues and contains 38,696 transcripts, which are accompanied by normalized expression data in all tissues. Gene-prediction analysis produced a total of 19,601 northern pike-specific gene models. The first-generation linkage map identifies 25 linkage groups, in agreement with northern pike's diploid karyotype of 2N = 50, and facilitates the placement of 46% of assembled bases onto linkage groups. Analyses reveal a high degree of conserved synteny between northern pike and other model teleost genomes. While conservation of gene order is limited to smaller syntenic blocks, the wider conservation of genome organization implies the northern pike exhibits a suitable approximation of a non-duplicated Protacanthopterygiian genome. This dataset will facilitate future studies of esocid biology and empower ongoing examinations of the

  12. Research Advances in Genetics and Breeding in Salmonids%主要养殖鲑科鱼类遗传育种的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    户国; 谷伟; 白庆利; 王炳谦

    2012-01-01

    冷水性鲑科鱼类肉质鲜美,高蛋白、高不饱和脂肪酸、营养丰富、无肌间刺、易加工,是世界性养殖鱼类,其中大西洋鲑、虹鳟和红点鲑属鱼类等主要养殖鲑科鱼类,一直是水产遗传育种领域的重要研究对象。本文简要叙述了鲑科鱼类遗传育种研究的历史和现状,主要介绍了经济性状遗传参数估计、选择育种、分子遗传与标记辅助育种等方面的研究进展,提出了我国鲑科鱼类遗传育种工作重点研究的方向。%Cold water Salmonids as a global culture fish are characterized by high quality flesh,high protein and unsaturated fat acids contents,no intermuscular bones,and easy to be processed,and particularly,Atlantic salmon(Salmo salar),rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss) and charrs are the important object of aquatic breeding and genetics research.The past and current research status of the genetics and breeding of salmonid species are briefly described,and the advances in genetic parameters estimation of economic traits,selective breeding,molecular genetics and marker assisted breeding in salmonid species are introduced in this paper.Some suggestions are made for future directions and priorities of genetics and breeding of salmonid species to provide new ideas for the study and researchers in the field of aquatic breeding and genetics.

  13. Juvenile Salmonid Pit-Tag Studies at Prosser Dam and the Chandler Canal Fish Collection Facility, Yakima River, 1991 and 1992 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehle, Thomas E.; Sandford, Benjamin P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991 and 1992, the National Marine Fisheries Service completed the second and third years of a 3-year study to estimate juvenile salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) timing and survival characteristics related to passage through the Prosser Dam complex, including the Chandler Canal and the Chandler fish collection facility, on the Yakima River. Yearling chinook (O. tshawyacha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) were collected at the Chandler facility, PIT tagged, and released at various locations in the Yakima River, Chandler Canal, and the Chandler facility. Individual fish were subsequently detected at PIT-tag detection monitors at the Chandler facility and/or McNary Dam on the Columbia River. Survival through various reaches, PIT-tag detection efficiency, and Chandler Canal fish entrainment proportion parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood techniques. The research objectives in 1991 and 1992 were to: (1) assess the effects of passage through the Chandler Canal and the Chandler facility on the survival of juvenile salmonids, (2) determine the entrainment rate of juvenile salmonids into the Chandler Canal as a function of river flow, and (3) determine the efficiency and reliability of the PIT-tag monitoring system at the Chandler facility. The initial 1990 research plan was expanded in 1991 and 1992 to include several more release locations and many more release days.

  14. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Report, February 1992-February 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poe, Thomas P.; Gadomski, Dena M.

    1994-09-01

    This document is the 1992 annual report of progress for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) research Project No. 82-003 conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), the Oregon Cooperative Fishery Research Unit (OCFRU), and the Idaho Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (ICFWRU). The approach was to present the progress achieved during 1992 in a series of separate reports for each major project task. Each report is prepared in the format of a scientific paper and is able to stand alone, whatever the state of progress or completion. Reports 1, 2, and 4 consist of the Abstract only (journal papers were submitted in lieu of reports). This project has two major goals. One is to understand the significance of selective predation and prey vulnerability by determining if substandard juvenile salmonids (dead, injured, stressed, diseased, or naive) are more vulnerable to predation by northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, than standard or normal juvenile salmonids. The second goal is to develop and test prey protection measures to control predation on juvenile salmonids by reducing predator-smolt encounters or predator capture efficiency. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for the seven articles in this report.

  15. Movements and Distribution of Northern Squawfish Downstream of Lower Snake River Dams Relative to the Migration of Juvenile Salmonids, 1992-1993 Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaak, D.J.; Bjornn, T.C. (University of Idaho, Idaho Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Moscow, ID)

    1996-03-01

    Northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis movements were monitored downstream of two lower Snake River dams during the juvenile salmonid migrations of 1992 and 1993. During a high flow year in 1993, the abundance of squawfish in the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam peaked in July, after the majority of juveniles had moved past Lower Granite Dam, and peak abundance was inversely related to river discharge. Few squawfish moved into the tailrace of Ice Harbor Dam in 1993 because of the extended period of spill. Distributions of squawfish in the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam varied between and within years and shifted in response to changing prey densities, flow patterns, water temperature, and diel cycles, but fish consistently used low velocity habitats. Data from Ice Harbor Dam is less extensive, but squawfish distributions there appeared to be affected by changing flow patterns and fish used low velocity habitats. The changes in distribution and abundance of squawfish in tailrace areas are evidence that predation on seaward migrating salmonids depends on the timing of migration and size and timing of runoff. Juvenile salmonids migrating in the spring and early summer will probably be less affected by squawfish predation in tailrace areas than salmon that migrate later in the summer.

  16. Magnitude and Dynamics of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs, Annual Report of Research, 1989-1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, J.H.

    1990-07-01

    Three aspects of predation upon juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River are addressed in this report: (1) Indexing predator consumption. During 1989--1990, two indices of northern squawfish consumption upon juvenile salmonids were developed for use throughout the Columbia River Basin. The direct Consumption Index (CI) is based upon the concept of meal turnover time and takes into account number of salmonids, temperature, total gut content weight and predator weight. A Bioenergetics Index (BI) for consumption indexing was also developed to complement the direct CI. In the BI, growth, consumption, excretion/evacuation and respiration processes are modeled to predict the consumption required to produce an observed growth increment. (2) Studies on predator-smolt dynamics. Northern squawfish consumption data were collected in the McNary Dam tailrace during nine days in July 1988 to improve our understanding of the predator-smolt functional response. (3) Selective predation by northern squawfish. Laboratory and field protocols were developed to evaluate northern squawfish selection and prey vulnerability. Results from laboratory studies suggest that northern squawfish prefer dead over live prey and that descaled prey may be more vulnerable to predation than non-descaled prey. Stressed and unstressed prey were consumed in equal proportions when predation occurred for 6 or 24 h. Physiological and behavioral effects of stress on juvenile salmon are presented. 100 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Tara C.; Hanson, Josh T.; Jewett, Shannon M.

    2004-01-01

    The year of 2002 represented the eighth year of a multi-year project, monitoring the outmigration and survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project both supplements and complements various ongoing and completed work within the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on juvenile outmigration and survival assists researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal and fish ladder operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts of natural and restored fish populations. Findings from this study also assist in assessment of the success of upriver habitat improvement projects and provide an overall evaluation of the Umatilla River fisheries restoration program. General project objectives include: Evaluation of the outmigration and survival of natural and hatchery juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River, in an effort to enhance the understanding of migration characteristics, survival bottlenecks, species interactions and effects of management strategies. Specific objectives for 2002 included: (1) Operation of the remote interrogation system at Three Mile Falls Dam, West Extension Canal; (2) Design of improved PIT tag detection capabilities at Three Mile Falls Dam east bank adult fish ladder; (3) Estimates of migrant abundance, migration timing and in-basin survival of tagged juvenile salmonids representing various hatchery, rearing, acclimation and release strategies; (4) Monitoring of abundance and trends in natural production of salmon, steelhead and pacific lamprey; (5) Continuation of transport evaluation studies to evaluate the relative survival between transported and nontransported fish; (6) Assessment of the condition, health, size, growth and smolt status of hatchery and natural migrants; (7) Investigation of the effects of canal and fishway operations and environmental conditions on fish migration and survival; (8) Documentation of temporal distribution and diversity of resident

  18. A comparative study of marine salmonid alphavirus subtypes 1-6 using an experimental cohabitation challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, D A; Frost, P; McLaughlin, K; Rowley, H M; Gabestad, I; Gordon, A; McLoughlin, M F

    2011-04-01

    A comparative challenge study of six marine isolates representing subtypes 1-6 of salmonid alphavirus (salmon pancreas disease virus, Genus Alphavirus, Family Togaviridae) was conducted in Atlantic salmon in a fresh water cohabitation trial. Histopathological lesions typical of pancreas disease were observed with all subtypes, and virus was re-isolated from serum of cohabitant fish in each case. Using a virus neutralization (VN) test neutralizing salmonid alphavirus (SAV) subtype 1 strain F93-125, VN antibodies were detected in all challenge groups, consistent with serological cross-reactivity between these subtypes. Using real-time RT-PCR, SAV RNA was detected in heart tissue from 2 to 3 weeks post-challenge (wpc) in all cohabitant groups excluding controls. The results obtained suggested differences in the dynamics of infection between strains of SAV and potentially between subtypes. Results for SAV subtypes 1 and 3 suggested essentially synchronous infection of cohabitant fish. These two study groups also had the highest virus load in heart tissue as measured by quantitative RT-PCR and also had the most extensive histopathological changes. In contrast, results for SAV subtypes 2 and 6 strains were consistent with asynchronous infection in the cohabitant fish and were characterized by slow spread, low virus loads and mild histopathological changes. The SAV subtype 4 and 5 strains occupied an intermediate position in this regard. Despite the use of concentration procedures, it was not possible to detect SAV RNA in water samples from selected study tanks. However, testing of faeces from the SAV subtypes 1, 3 and 6 challenge groups found positive signals in each beginning at 1-3 wpc and remaining detectable for a further 2-3 weeks. Parallel testing of mucus samples found these became positive at 2-3 wpc and remained positive for a further 1-3 weeks. These results demonstrate for the first time that shedding and transmission of virus may occur by both these routes

  19. BIOCHEMICAL AND MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF PRE-LARVAE OF THREE SALMONIDS SPECIES AT ONE-DAY AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. Barylo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study and analyze the morphometric and some biochemical parameters of pre-larval brown trout, rainbow trout and brook trout in post-embryonic period under the conditions of "Rybnyi Potik” farm in the Transcarpathian region for further use of the obtained data in scientific and practical works related to the cultivation of the juveniles of valuable salmonid species. Methodology. One-day free embryos (pre-larvae of brown trout, rainbow trout and brook trout we used as study materials. Morphometric parameters we studied by the methods of N. O. Lange, E. N. Dmitrieva. The content of total lipids was determined in accordance with Folch. in the tissuesm, which were taken for biochemical studies. Separate classes of lipids were received by thin layer chromatography. Findings. We carried out a comparative analysis of morphometric measurements and biochemical parameters of one-day pre-larval brown trout, rainbow trout and brook trout based on the obtained data. We investigated morphometric and biochemical specific features of pre-larvae in post-embryonic period and showed the species differences of morphometric measurements. Significant differences were observed between the content of lipids in the body and yolk sac of free embryos. In particular, a higher content of phospholipids and triglycerides was observed in the body of brook trout compared to brown trout. We also recorded higher contents of mono- and diacylglycerols, free cholesterol, non-etherified fatty acids (NEFA, triacylglycerols and cholesterol esters in the yolk sac of brook trout. Compared to brown trout, rainbow trout had a significant increase in mono- and diacylglycerols, free cholesterol and NEFA in both body and yolk sac as well higher levels of total lipids, triacylglycerols and cholesterol esters were registered in yolk sac. Originality. For the first time we carried out and compared the specific features of pre-larval brown trout, rainbow trout and brook trout in the

  20. [Developmental abnormalities in salmonids (Salmonidae) under the conditions of large-scale volcanic pollution of their spawning ground (using dolly varden Salvelinus malma as an example)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, E V

    2015-01-01

    Rivers originating from the areas of active volcanism in Kamchatka serve a spawning ground for anadromous and resident populations of dolly varden (Salvelinus malma). In some cases, watercourses with a long-term continuous spawning of S. malma are subjected to chronic pollution with dissolved toxicants and suspended mineral particles. The revealed development conditions range from background ("clean" rivers) to critical (most "polluted" rivers). Medium pollution leads to the development of hatchlings with abnormalities in the ethmoidal head segment, lower jaw, operculum, lobes of the paired fins, and axial skeleton (up to 40% of all specimens). Delayed ossification of skeletal elements takes place. Abnormalities in the development of spinous processes occur more often (up to 49-55% compared to 25-30% in the background areas). The average number of asymmetries per specimen.(in four bilateral structures) increases from 1.1-1.4 to 1.7- 2.5. Similar developmental abnormalities have been registered in underyearlings, both anadromous and resident, influenced by various pollutant combinations. While fish continue to grow, some of them die because of abnormalities; thus, their frequency in 3-year-old specimens nears the background one. Upon extreme pollution, deviant specimens are sampled at earlier developmental stages and characterized by a lower frequency of morphological abnormalities.

  1. A novel liquid medium for the efficient growth of the salmonid pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis and optimization of culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henríquez, Mirtha; González, Ernesto; Marshall, Sergio H; Henríquez, Vitalia; Gómez, Fernando A; Martínez, Irene; Altamirano, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is the bacterium that causes Piscirickettsiosis, a systemic disease of salmonid fish responsible for significant economic losses within the aquaculture industry worldwide. The growth of the bacterium for vaccine formulation has been traditionally accomplished by infecting eukaryotic cell lines, a process that involves high production costs and is time-consuming. Recent research has demonstrated that it is possible to culture pure P. salmonis in a blood containing (cell-free) medium. In the present work we demonstrate the growth of P. salmonis in a liquid medium free from blood and serum components, thus establishing a novel and simplified bacteriological medium. Additionally, the new media reported provides improved growth conditions for P. salmonis, where biomass concentrations of approximately 800 mg cell dry weight L(-1) were obtained, about eight times higher than those reported for the blood containing medium. A 2- level full factorial design was employed to evaluate the significance of the main medium components on cell growth and an optimal temperature range of 23-27°C was determined for the microorganism to grow in the novel liquid media. Therefore, these results represent a breakthrough regarding P. salmonis research in order to optimize pure P. salmonis growth in liquid blood and serum free medium.

  2. Salmonid alphavirus glycoprotein E2 requires low temperature and E1 for virion formation and induction of protective immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikke, Mia C; Braaen, Stine; Villoing, Stephane; Hodneland, Kjartan; Geertsema, Corinne; Verhagen, Lisa; Frost, Petter; Vlak, Just M; Rimstad, Espen; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2014-10-29

    Salmonid alphavirus (SAV; also known as Salmon pancreas disease virus; family Togaviridae) causes pancreas disease and sleeping disease in Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout, respectively, and poses a major burden to the aquaculture industry. SAV infection in vivo is temperature-restricted and progeny virus is only produced at low temperatures (10-15 °C). Using engineered SAV replicons we show that viral RNA replication is not temperature-restricted suggesting that the viral structural proteins determine low-temperature dependency. The processing/trafficking of SAV glycoproteins E1 and E2 as a function of temperature was investigated via baculovirus vectors in Sf9 insect cells and by transfection of CHSE-214 fish cells with DNA constructs expressing E1 and E2. We identified SAV E2 as the temperature determinant by demonstrating that membrane trafficking and surface expression of E2 occurs only at low temperature and only in the presence of E1. Finally, a vaccination-challenge model in Atlantic salmon demonstrates the biological significance of our findings and shows that SAV replicon DNA vaccines encoding E2 elicit protective immunity only when E1 is co-expressed. This is the first study that identifies E2 as the critical determinant of SAV low-temperature dependent virion formation and defines the prerequisites for induction of a potent immune response in Atlantic salmon by DNA vaccination.

  3. A novel liquid medium for the efficient growth of the salmonid pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis and optimization of culture conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtha Henríquez

    Full Text Available Piscirickettsia salmonis is the bacterium that causes Piscirickettsiosis, a systemic disease of salmonid fish responsible for significant economic losses within the aquaculture industry worldwide. The growth of the bacterium for vaccine formulation has been traditionally accomplished by infecting eukaryotic cell lines, a process that involves high production costs and is time-consuming. Recent research has demonstrated that it is possible to culture pure P. salmonis in a blood containing (cell-free medium. In the present work we demonstrate the growth of P. salmonis in a liquid medium free from blood and serum components, thus establishing a novel and simplified bacteriological medium. Additionally, the new media reported provides improved growth conditions for P. salmonis, where biomass concentrations of approximately 800 mg cell dry weight L(-1 were obtained, about eight times higher than those reported for the blood containing medium. A 2- level full factorial design was employed to evaluate the significance of the main medium components on cell growth and an optimal temperature range of 23-27°C was determined for the microorganism to grow in the novel liquid media. Therefore, these results represent a breakthrough regarding P. salmonis research in order to optimize pure P. salmonis growth in liquid blood and serum free medium.

  4. Occurrence of salmonid parr and eel in relation to water quality in small streams on the west coast of Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degerman, E.; Fogelgren, J.E.; Tengelin, B.; Thoerneloef, E.

    1986-10-01

    In the summer of 1983 twelve streams on the west coast of Sweden were electrofished, and water samples were collected. In three of the streams water sampling was continued throughout the winter of 1983-1984. Although summer pH showed little variation between stations there were large differences in fish abundance. The abundances of salmonid parr and eel were correlated with the alkalinity, and were significantly greater at stations with summer alkalinity above 0.25 meq.1/sup -1/. The winter water sampling programme shower drastic and rapid drops in the alkalinity during the snow-melt. Electrofishing data compiled from 7 streams during 1956-1984 showed decreasing parr abundances in small streams (catchment area < 1000 km/sup 2/) with low (< 0.25 meq.1/sup -1/) alkalinity. It is suggested that the negative effect on fish is mainly due to toxic forms of Al and to a lesser extent on the direct toxicity of low pH levels. 9 refs.

  5. Determination of an organic-acid analog of DOC for use in copper toxicity studies on salmonids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacRae, R.K.; Meyer, J.S.; Hansen, J.A.; Bergman, H.L. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Maest, A.; Marr, J.; Beltman, D.; Lipton, J. [Hagler Bailly, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Concentrations of dissolved copper in streams draining mine sites often exceed concentrations shown to cause acute and chronic mortality in salmonids. However, toxicity and impaired behaviors may be modified by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and other inorganic components present in the site water. The effects of DOC on copper speciation, and thus bioavailability and toxicity, were determined by titrating stream waters with copper, using a cupric ion-specific electrode to detect free copper concentrations. Effects of various competing cations (e.g., Ca{sup +2}, Co{sup +2}) on copper-DOC binding were also evaluated. Titration results were evaluated using Scatchard and non-linear regression analyses to quantify the strength and capacity of copper-DOC binding. Inorganic speciation was determined using the geochemical model MINEQL{sup +}. Results of these titrations indicated the presence of two or three distinct copper binding components in site water DOC. Three commercially available organic acids where then chosen to mimic the binding characteristics of natural DOC. This DOC-analog was used successfully in fish toxicity studies to evaluate the influence of DOC on copper bioavailability. Geochemical models were developed to predict copper speciation in both laboratory test waters and site waters, for any typical combination of water chemistry parameters (pH, alkalinity, [DOC], etc.). A combined interpretation of fish toxicity and modeling results indicate that some DOC-bound copper was bioavailable.

  6. Spiral swimming behavior due to cranial and vertebral lesions associated with Cytophaga psychrophila infections in salmonid fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, M.L.; Groff, J.M.; Morrison, J.K.; Yasutake, W.T.; Holt, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    C. psychrophila infections of the cranium and anterior vertebrae in salmonid fishes were associated with ataxia, spiral swimming along the axis of the fish, and death. The syndrome was observed in 2-10% of underyearling coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, rainbow troutSalmo gairdneri, and steelhead trout S. gairdneri at several private, state, and federal hatcheries in Washington and Oregon, USA, between 1963 and 1987. Affected fish did not recover and ultimately died. Histological examination consistently revealed subacute to chronic periostitis, osteitis, meningitis, and ganglioneuritis. Inflammation and periosteal proliferation of the anterior vertebrae at the junction of the vertebral column with the cranium with extension into the cranial case was a consistent feature. The adjacent nervous tissue, particularly the medulla, was often compressed by the proliferative lesion, and this may have caused the ataxia. Though bacteria were seldom observed in these lesions. C. psychrophilawas isolated in culture from the cranial cavity of all affected fish that were tested. Epidemiological observations suggested that this bacterium is the causative agent because the spiral swimming behaviour and lesions were observed only in populations that had recovered from acute C. psychrophila infections.

  7. A hemagglutinin-esterase-expressing salmonid alphavirus replicon protects Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) against infectious salmon anemia (ISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Astrid; Hodneland, Kjartan; Frost, Petter; Braaen, Stine; Rimstad, Espen

    2013-01-11

    A replicon expression system based on the salmonid alphavirus (SAV) that encodes the infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) was constructed and found to be an efficacious vaccine against infectious salmon anemia (ISA). Following a single intramuscular immunization, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were effectively protected against subsequent ISAV challenge. Additional replicons coding for the ISAV fusion glycoprotein (F) or the ISAV matrix protein (M) were created and tested in combination with the replicon that encodes the HE. The ISAV HE was confirmed as a potent antigen, but neither the F nor the M proteins were found to be essential for immunization-induced protection. Innate immune response induced at the site of vaccination illustrated the immunogenicity of the SAV-based replicon and its ability to activate antiviral responses in Atlantic salmon. The successful testing of the SAV-based replicon as a vaccine model against ISA showed that the replicon approach may represent a novel immunization technology for the aquaculture industry. It offers potential benefits in terms of safety, efficacy, flexibility, and vaccine production complexity.

  8. A Polyprotein-Expressing Salmonid Alphavirus Replicon Induces Modest Protection in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar Against Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azila Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is an important strategy for the control and prevention of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar in the post-smolt stage in sea-water. In this study, a heterologous gene expression system, based on a replicon construct of salmonid alphavirus (SAV, was used for in vitro and in vivo expression of IPN virus proteins. The large open reading frame of segment A, encoding the polyprotein NH2-pVP2-VP4-VP3-COOH, as well as pVP2, were cloned and expressed by the SAV replicon in Chinook salmon embryo cells (CHSE-214 and epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC cells. The replicon constructs pSAV/polyprotein (pSAV/PP and pSAV/pVP2 were used to immunize Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar by a single intramuscular injection and tested in a subsequent IPN virus (IPNV challenge trial. A low to moderate protection against IPN was observed in fish immunized with the replicon vaccine that encoded the pSAV/PP, while the pSAV/pVP2 construct was not found to induce protection.

  9. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1996 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven G.

    1998-02-01

    In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the fourth year of a multi-year study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. Actively migrating smolts were collected near the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and at Lower Granite Dam, tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, and released to continue their downstream migration. Individual smolts were subsequently detected at PIT-tag detection facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day and Bonneville Dams. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release (SR) and Paired-Release (PR) Models. Timing of releases of tagged hatchery steelhead (O. mykiss) from the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and yearling chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) from Lower Granite Dam in 1996 spanned the major portion of their juvenile migrations. Specific research objectives in 1996 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival in the Snake River using the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations, (2) evaluate the performance of the survival-estimation models under prevailing operational and environmental conditions in the Snake River, and (3) synthesize results from the 4 years of the study to investigate relationships between survival probabilities, travel times, and environmental factors such as flow levels and water temperature.

  10. Sources of variability and comparability between salmonid stomach contents and isotopic analyses: study design lessons and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, M.R.; Budy, P.

    2011-01-01

    We compared sources of variability and cost in paired stomach content and stable isotope samples from three salmonid species collected in September 2001–2005 and describe the relative information provided by each method in terms of measuring diet overlap and food web study design. Based on diet analyses, diet overlap among brown trout, rainbow trout, and mountain whitefish was high, and we observed little variation in diets among years. In contrast, for sample sizes n ≥ 25, 95% confidence interval (CI) around mean δ15Ν and δ13C for the three target species did not overlap, and species, year, and fish size effects were significantly different, implying that these species likely consumed similar prey but in different proportions. Stable isotope processing costs were US$12 per sample, while stomach content analysis costs averaged US$25.49 ± $2.91 (95% CI) and ranged from US$1.50 for an empty stomach to US$291.50 for a sample with 2330 items. Precision in both δ15Ν and δ13C and mean diet overlap values based on stomach contents increased considerably up to a sample size of n = 10 and plateaued around n = 25, with little further increase in precision.

  11. Differential expression of gill Na+,K+-ATPase alpha- and beta-subunits, Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter and CFTR anion channel in juvenile anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsen, Tom O.; Ebbesson, Lars O. E.; Madsen, Steffen S.

    2007-01-01

    , and after seawater (SW) transfer in May/June. Gill NKA activity increased from February through April, May and June among both strains in freshwater (FW), with peak enzyme activity in the landlocked salmon being 50% below that of the anadromous fish in May and June. Gill NKA-alpha1b, -alpha3, -beta(1...... exhibited a transient increase in gill NKA alpha-protein abundance, with peak levels in May. Gill alpha-protein abundance was lower in SW than corresponding FW values in June. Gill NKCC protein abundance increased transiently in anadromous fish, with peak levels in May, whereas a slight increase...

  12. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2008 Draft Season Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roby, Daniel D. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University; Collis, Ken [Real Time Research, Inc.; Lyons, Donald E. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oregon State University

    2009-07-08

    This report describes investigations into predation by piscivorous colonial waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River basin during 2008. East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary again supported the largest known breeding colony of Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) in the world (approximately 10,700 breeding pairs) and the largest breeding colony of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in western North America (approximately 10,950 breeding pairs). The Caspian tern colony increased from 2007, but not significantly so, while the double-crested cormorant colony experienced a significant decline (20%) from 2007. Average cormorant nesting success in 2008, however, was down only slightly from 2007, suggesting that food supply during the 2008 nesting season was not the principal cause of the decline in cormorant colony size. Total consumption of juvenile salmonids by East Sand Island Caspian terns in 2008 was approximately 6.7 million smolts (95% c.i. = 5.8-7.5 million). Caspian terns nesting on East Sand Island continued to rely primarily on marine forage fishes as a food supply. Based on smolt PIT tag recoveries on the East Sand Island Caspian tern colony, predation rates were highest on steelhead in 2008; minimum predation rates on steelhead smolts detected passing Bonneville Dam averaged 8.3% for wild smolts and 10.7% for hatchery-raised smolts. In 2007, total smolt consumption by East Sand Island double-crested cormorants was about 9.2 million juvenile salmonids (95% c.i. = 4.4-14.0 million), similar to or greater than that of East Sand Island Caspian terns during that year (5.5 million juvenile salmonids; 95% c.i. = 4.8-6.2 million). The numbers of smolt PIT tags recovered on the cormorant colony in 2008 were roughly proportional to the relative availability of PIT-tagged salmonids released in the Basin, suggesting that cormorant predation on salmonid smolts in the estuary was less selective than tern

  13. Existence of anadromous Coilia nasus in Xinjiang River of Jiangxi Province as determined by otolith microchemistry%信江发现溯河洄游型刀鲚的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢明杰; 姜涛; 刘洪波; 陈婷婷; 杨健

    2015-01-01

    利用电子探针微区分析技术,对2014年8月1日采自江西省余干县瑞洪镇信江(鄱阳湖水系五大河流之一)江段的刀鲚(Coilia nasus)的矢耳石进行了锶和钙的微化学分析研究。元素定量线分析表明,样品的锶钙比值(Sr/Ca×103)波动显著,不仅具有对应淡水生活的低值(Sr/Ca×103<3),而且出现了对应于海水生活的高值(3anadromous C. nasus in Poyang Lake;this study was conducted to confirm whether there is also anadromous C. nasus in the Xinjiang River. An electron probe microanalyzer was applied to analyze Sr and Ca microchemistry patterns in otoliths of C. nasus collected from the Ruihong section of the Xinjiang River (the most distant branch of Poyang Lake, ~1000 km from the Yangtze River estuary) near Yugan County in Jiangxi Province. Line transect results clearly showed a complex Sr/Ca ratio (i.e., Sr/Ca×103) pattern, including low-ratio freshwater habitat (Sr/Ca×103<3) and high-ratio seawater habitat (3anadromous migration. These two microchemistry patterns verify, for the first time, the existence of anadromous C. nasus in the Xinjiang River. Home spawning is thought to be the main reason for

  14. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2006 Final Season Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roby, Daniel D. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oregon State University; Collis, Ken [Real Time Research, Inc.; Lyons, Donald E. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oregon State University

    2009-06-18

    This study investigates predation by piscivorous waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River Basin. During 2006, study objectives in the Columbia River estuary, work funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, were to (1) monitor and evaluate previous management initiatives to reduce Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) predation on juvenile salmonids (smolts); (2) measure the impact of double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) predation on smolt survival, and assess potential management options to reduce cormorant predation; and (3) monitor large colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds in the estuary (i.e., glaucous-winged/western gulls [Larus glaucescens/occidentalis]) to determine the potential impacts on smolt survival. Study objectives on the mid-Columbia River, work funded by the Walla Walla District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were to (1) measure the impact of predation by Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants on smolt survival; and (2) monitor large nesting colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds (i.e., California gulls [L. californicus], ring-billed gulls [L. delawarensis], American white pelicans [Pelecanus erythrorhynchos]) on the mid-Columbia River to determine the potential for significant impacts on smolt survival. Our efforts to evaluate system-wide losses of juvenile salmonids to avian predation indicated that Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants were responsible for the vast majority of smolt losses to avian predators in the Columbia Basin, with most losses occurring in the Columbia River estuary. In 2006, East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary supported the largest known breeding colonies of Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants in the world. The Caspian tern colony on East Sand Island consisted of about 9,200 breeding pairs in 2006, up slightly (but not significantly so) from the estimate of colony size in 2005 (8,820 pairs). There has not been a

  15. Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassley, James M.; Grue, Christian E. (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Seattle, WA)

    2001-10-01

    equation was used to interpolate gull and Common Merganser abundance on days when surveys were not conducted. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, predation indices were calculated for hotspots and summer river reaches, and the efficacy of aerial surveys for estimating bird abundance within river reaches was evaluated. Primary avian predators were California and Ring-billed Gulls at hotspots and Common Mergansers within upper river reaches. Estimated take (presumed to be salmonids) by gulls at hotspots (22 April-30 May) was 4,084 fish at the Chandler Bypass Outfall and 12,636 fish at Horn Rapids Dam. Combined take was 2.65% of the salmonids passing over Chandler Dam or 0.89 % of all smolts estimated passing or being released from the Chandler Dam area during the 1999 smolt migration season. Estimated take by Common Mergansers within upper river reaches in summer was 4,092 kg between 7 May and 18 August 1999.

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of the host response to early stage salmonid alphavirus (SAV-1) infection in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Tharangani K; Bron, James E; Thompson, Kim D; Taggart, John B; Adams, Alexandra; Ireland, Jacqueline H; Richards, Randolph H

    2012-05-01

    Salmon pancreas disease, caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV) of the family Togaviridae, is an economically important disease affecting farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Scotland, Norway, and Ireland. The virus causes characteristic lesions in the pancreas, heart, kidney and skeletal muscle of infected fish. The mechanisms responsible for the pathology and the immune responses elicited in infected Atlantic salmon are not fully understood. A microarray-based study was therefore performed to evaluate the host transcriptomic response during the early stages of an experimentally-induced SAV-1 infection. Atlantic salmon parr were injected intra-peritoneally with viral cell culture supernatant or cell culture supernatant without virus. RNA, extracted from head kidney sampled from infected and control fish at 1, 3 and 5 days post-injection (d.p.i.), was interrogated with the 17 k TRAITS/SGP cDNA microarray. The greatest number of significantly differentially expressed genes was recorded at 3 d.p.i., mainly associated with immune and defence mechanisms, including genes involved in interferon I pathways and Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I and II responses. Genes associated with apoptosis and cellular stress were also found to be differentially expressed between infected and uninfected individuals, as were genes involved in inhibiting viral attachment and replication. The microarray results were validated by follow-on analysis of eight genes by real-time PCR. The findings of the study reflect mechanisms used by the host to protect itself during the early stages of SAV-1 infection. In particular, there was evidence of rapid induction of interferon-mediated responses similar to those seen during mammalian alphavirus infections, and also early involvement of an adaptive immune response. This study provides essential knowledge to assist in the development of effective control and management strategies for SAV-1 infection.

  17. Feasibility Study for Evaluating Cumulative Exposure of Downstream Migrant Juvenile Salmonids to Total Dissolved Gas. Final Report 1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, C.Scott; Dauble, Dennis D.; Johnson, Robert L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-11-01

    A feasibility study was initiated to determine if downstream migrant salmonids could be monitored to determine potential relationships between total dissolved gas (TDG) exposure and signs of gas bubble trauma (GBT). The primary objectives were to: (1) establish logistical requirements for in-river monitoring of TDG exposure, including net pen design, deployment, and navigation constraints; (2) resolve uncertainties associated with effects of the net pen on fish behavior; (3) test the accuracy and precision of in-river monitoring equipment used to measure fish distribution and water quality; and (4) determine the application of hydrologic/flow models to predictions of TDG exposure. In-river measurements included water velocity, boat position, and selected water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, depth, conductivity). Fish distribution within the net pen was monitored using scanning sonar, and a split-beam echo sounder was used to evaluate vertical distribution of fish m in the river adjacent to the net pen. Three test drifts were conducted from late July through late August. The studies demonstrated that it was feasible to assemble and deploy a large net pen for mobile monitoring of TDG exposure. Accurate monitoring of vertical and lateral distribution of smolts was performed, and diel differences in behavior were documented. Further, the fish sounded in response to researcher activity on the perimeter platform. Thus, in-transit monitoring for GBT or mortality would affect fish depth distribution and exposure to TDG. Principal recommendations for future studies are directed at improving maneuverability of the net pen in adverse weather conditions and applying new acoustics technology to simultaneously collect fish distribution data from within and outside of the pen. 6 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 2003-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Tara

    2007-02-01

    This report summarizes activities conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's Juvenile Outmigration and Survival M&E project in the Umatilla River subbasin between 2004-2006. Information is used to make informed decisions on hatchery effectiveness, natural production success, passage improvement and flow enhancement strategies. Data collected includes annual estimates of smolt abundance, migration timing, and survival, life history characteristics and productivity status and trends for spring and fall Chinook salmon, coho salmon and summer steelhead. Productivity data provided is the key subbasin scale measure of the effectiveness of salmon and steelhead restoration actions in the Umatilla River. Information is also used for regional planning and recovery efforts of Mid-Columbia River (MCR) ESA-listed summer steelhead. Monitoring is conducted via smolt trapping and PIT-tag interrogation at Three Mile Falls Dam. The Umatilla Juvenile Outmigration and Survival Project was established in 1994 to evaluate the success of management actions and fisheries restoration efforts in the Umatilla River Basin. Project objectives for the 2004-2006 period were to: (1) operate the PIT tag detection system at Three Mile Falls Dam (TMFD), (2) enhance provisional PIT-tag interrogation equipment at the east bank adult fish ladder, (3) monitor the migration timing, abundance and survival of naturally-produced juvenile salmonids and trends in natural production, (4) determine migration parameters and survival of hatchery-produced fish representing various rearing, acclimation and release strategies, (5) evaluate the relative survival between transported and non-transported fish, (6) monitor juvenile life history characteristics and evaluate trends over time, (7) investigate the effects of river, canal, fishway operations and environmental conditions on smolt migration and survival, (8) document the temporal distribution and diversity of resident fish species, and (9

  19. Superior protection conferred by inactivated whole virus vaccine over subunit and DNA vaccines against salmonid alphavirus infection in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Mutoloki, Stephen; Evensen, Øystein

    2012-06-06

    Salmonid alphavirus 3 (SAV-3) is an emerging pathogen in Norwegian salmon farming and causes severe annual losses. We studied the immunogenicity and protective ability of subunit and DNA vaccines based on E1 and E2 spike proteins of salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV-3), and compared these to an experimental inactivated, whole virus (IWV) vaccine in Atlantic salmon. The antigens were delivered as water-in-oil emulsions for the subunit and inactivated vaccines and non-formulated for the DNA vaccines. The IWV and the E2 subunit prime-boost groups had circulating neutralizing antibodies at challenge, correlating with high protection against lethal challenge and 3-log(10) reduction of virus titer in heart for the IWV group. Prime-boost with E1 subunit vaccine also conferred significant protection against mortality, but did not correlate with neutralizing antibody levels. Protection against pathology in internal organs was only seen for the IWV group. Prime-boost with E1 and E2 DNA vaccines showed marginal protection in terms of reduction of viral replication in target organs and protection against mortality was not different from controls. The IWV group showed significant upregulation of IFNγ and IL2 mRNA expression at 4 weeks post challenge possibly indicating that other mechanisms in addition to antibody responses play a role in mediating protection against infection. This is the first report comparing the immunogenicity and protection against mortality for IWV vaccines and spike protein subunit and DNA vaccines against salmonid alphavirus infection in Atlantic salmon. The IWV vaccine has superior immunogenicity over sub-unit and DNA vaccines.

  20. Using Satellite Tracking and Isotopic Information to Characterize the Impact of South American Sea Lions on Salmonid Aquaculture in Southern Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Sepúlveda

    Full Text Available Apex marine predators alter their foraging behavior in response to spatial and/or seasonal changes in natural prey distribution and abundance. However, few studies have identified the impacts of aquaculture that represents a spatially and temporally predictable and abundant resource on their foraging behavior. Using satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis we examined the degree of spatial overlap between the South American sea lion (SASL and salmon farms, and quantify the amount of native prey versus farmed salmonids in SASL diets. We instrumented eight SASL individuals with SRDL-GPS tags. Vibrissae, hair and skin samples were collected for δ13C and δ15N analyses from five of the tagged individuals and from four males captured in a haul-out located adjacent to salmon farms. Tracking results showed that almost all the foraging areas of SASL are within close proximity to salmon farms. The most important prey for the individuals analyzed was farmed salmonids, with an estimated median (±SD contribution of 19.7 ± 13.5‰ and 15.3 ± 9.6‰ for hair and skin, respectively. Using vibrissae as a temporal record of diet for each individual, we observed a remarkable switch in diet composition in two SASL, from farmed salmonids to pelagic fishes, which coincided with the decrease of salmon production due to the infectious salmon anemia virus that affected salmon farms in Chile at the end of 2008. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of integrating stable isotope derived dietary data with movement patterns to characterize the impacts of a non-native prey on the foraging ecology of an apex marine predator, providing important applied implications in situations where interactions between aquaculture and wildlife are common.

  1. Using Satellite Tracking and Isotopic Information to Characterize the Impact of South American Sea Lions on Salmonid Aquaculture in Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Maritza; Newsome, Seth D; Pavez, Guido; Oliva, Doris; Costa, Daniel P; Hückstädt, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Apex marine predators alter their foraging behavior in response to spatial and/or seasonal changes in natural prey distribution and abundance. However, few studies have identified the impacts of aquaculture that represents a spatially and temporally predictable and abundant resource on their foraging behavior. Using satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis we examined the degree of spatial overlap between the South American sea lion (SASL) and salmon farms, and quantify the amount of native prey versus farmed salmonids in SASL diets. We instrumented eight SASL individuals with SRDL-GPS tags. Vibrissae, hair and skin samples were collected for δ13C and δ15N analyses from five of the tagged individuals and from four males captured in a haul-out located adjacent to salmon farms. Tracking results showed that almost all the foraging areas of SASL are within close proximity to salmon farms. The most important prey for the individuals analyzed was farmed salmonids, with an estimated median (±SD) contribution of 19.7 ± 13.5‰ and 15.3 ± 9.6‰ for hair and skin, respectively. Using vibrissae as a temporal record of diet for each individual, we observed a remarkable switch in diet composition in two SASL, from farmed salmonids to pelagic fishes, which coincided with the decrease of salmon production due to the infectious salmon anemia virus that affected salmon farms in Chile at the end of 2008. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of integrating stable isotope derived dietary data with movement patterns to characterize the impacts of a non-native prey on the foraging ecology of an apex marine predator, providing important applied implications in situations where interactions between aquaculture and wildlife are common.

  2. Investigation of Head Burns in Adult Salmonids : Phase 1 : Examination of Fish at Lower Granite Dam, July 2, 1996. Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elston, Ralph

    1996-08-01

    Head burn is a descriptive clinical term used by fishery biologists to describe exfoliation of skin and underlying connective tissue of the jaw and cranial region of salmonids, observed at fish passage facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. The observations are usually made on upstream migrant adult salmon or steelhead. An expert panel, convened in 1996, to evaluate the risk and severity of gas bubble disease (GBD) in the Snake and Columbia River system believed that, while head burns appeared to be distinct from GBD, the relationship between dissolved gas saturation in the rivers and head burns was uncertain.

  3. System-Wide Significance of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs and Evaluation of Predation Control Measures : Annual Report 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadomski, Dena M.; Petersen, James H.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1993-12-01

    This project had three major goals. The first was to assist the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife with predation indexing as part of an effort to estimate the relative magnitude of juvenile salmonid losses to northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis in reservoirs throughout the Columbia River Basin. The second goal was to evaluate the northern squawfish control program and test critical assumptions about mid-reservoir predation processes. The final goal was to determine mechanisms underlying northern squawfish recruitment and factors affecting year-class strength.

  4. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XVI; Alternative Designs for Future Adult PIT-Tag Detection Studies, 2000 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Comas, Jose A.; Skalski, John R. (University of Washington, School of Fisheries, Seattle, WA)

    2000-09-25

    In the advent of the installation of a PIT-tag interrogation system in the Cascades Island fish ladder at Bonneville Dam (BON), and other CRB dams, this overview describes in general terms what can and cannot be estimated under seven different scenarios of adult PIT-tag detection capabilities in the CRB. Moreover, this overview attempted to identify minimal adult PIT-tag detection configurations required by the ten threatened Columbia River Basin (CRB) chinook and steelhead ESUs. A minimal adult PIT-tag detection configuration will require the installation of adult PIT-tag detection facilities at Bonneville Dam and another dam above BON. Thus, the Snake River spring/summer and fall chinook salmon, and the Snake River steelhead will require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities to guarantee estimates of ''ocean survival'' and at least of one independent, in-river returning adult survival (e.g., adult PIT-tag detection facilities at BON and LGR dams and at any other intermediary dam such as IHR). The Upper Columbia River spring chinook salmon and steelhead will also require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and two other dams on the BON-WEL reach. The current CRB dam system configuration and BPA's and COE's commitment to install adult PIT-tag detectors only in major CRB projects will not allow the estimation of an ''ocean survival'' and of any in-river adult survival for the Lower Columbia River chinook salmon and steelhead. The Middle Columbia River steelhead ESU will require a minimum of two dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and another upstream dam on the BON-McN reach. Finally, in spite of their importance in terms of releases, PIT-tag survival studies for the Upper Willamette chinook and Upper Willamette steelhead ESUs cannot be perform with the current CRB dam system configuration and PIT-tag detection capabilities.

  5. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  6. Final Report : Anadromous Fish Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A creel census was conducted during the 1981 Russian River sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), sport fishery to determine harvest and angler participation....

  7. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2008 Draft Season Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roby, Daniel D. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University; Collis, Ken [Real Time Research, Inc.; Lyons, Donald E. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oregon State University

    2009-07-08

    This report describes investigations into predation by piscivorous colonial waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River basin during 2008. East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary again supported the largest known breeding colony of Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) in the world (approximately 10,700 breeding pairs) and the largest breeding colony of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in western North America (approximately 10,950 breeding pairs). The Caspian tern colony increased from 2007, but not significantly so, while the double-crested cormorant colony experienced a significant decline (20%) from 2007. Average cormorant nesting success in 2008, however, was down only slightly from 2007, suggesting that food supply during the 2008 nesting season was not the principal cause of the decline in cormorant colony size. Total consumption of juvenile salmonids by East Sand Island Caspian terns in 2008 was approximately 6.7 million smolts (95% c.i. = 5.8-7.5 million). Caspian terns nesting on East Sand Island continued to rely primarily on marine forage fishes as a food supply. Based on smolt PIT tag recoveries on the East Sand Island Caspian tern colony, predation rates were highest on steelhead in 2008; minimum predation rates on steelhead smolts detected passing Bonneville Dam averaged 8.3% for wild smolts and 10.7% for hatchery-raised smolts. In 2007, total smolt consumption by East Sand Island double-crested cormorants was about 9.2 million juvenile salmonids (95% c.i. = 4.4-14.0 million), similar to or greater than that of East Sand Island Caspian terns during that year (5.5 million juvenile salmonids; 95% c.i. = 4.8-6.2 million). The numbers of smolt PIT tags recovered on the cormorant colony in 2008 were roughly proportional to the relative availability of PIT-tagged salmonids released in the Basin, suggesting that cormorant predation on salmonid smolts in the estuary was less selective than tern

  8. Integrating Limiting-Factors Analysis with Process-Based Restoration to Improve Recovery of Endangered Salmonids in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek B. Booth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Two approaches to ecological restoration planning, limiting-factors analysis and process-based restoration, are employed in efforts to recover endangered salmonid species throughout the Pacific Northwest of North America. Limiting-factors analysis seeks to identify physical limitations to fish production that may be addressed by habitat restoration; it is known as the “Field of Dreams” hypothesis (i.e., if you build it, they will come. Process-based restoration, in contrast, assumes that protection and/or restoration of watershed-scale processes will best achieve self-sustaining habitat features that support salmon populations. Two case studies from the Columbia River basin (northwestern USA display current efforts to integrate these two restoration approaches to improve salmonid populations. Although these examples both identify site-specific habitat features to construct, they also recognize the importance of supporting key watershed processes to achieve restoration goals. The challenge in advancing the practice of restoration planning is not in simply acknowledging the conceptual benefits of process-based restoration while maintaining a traditional focus on enumerating site-specific conditions and identifying habitat-construction projects, but rather in following process-based guidance during recovery planning and, ultimately, through implementation of on-the-ground actions. We encourage a realignment of the restoration community to truly embrace a process-based, multi-scalar view of the riverine landscape.

  9. Islands in the ice stream: were spawning habitats for native salmonids in the Great Lakes created by paleo-ice streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Stephen; Binder, Thomas R.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Menzies, John; Eyles, Nick; Janssen, John; Muir, Andrew M.; Esselman, Peter C.; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis and cisco Coregonus artedi are salmonid fishes native to the Laurentian Great Lakes that spawn on rocky substrates in the fall and early winter. After comparing the locations of spawning habitat for these species in the main basin of Lake Huron with surficial substrates and the hypothesized locations of fast-flowing Late Wisconsinan paleo-ice streams, we hypothesize that much of the spawning habitat for these species in Lake Huron is the result of deposition and erosion by paleo-ice streams. This hypothesis may represent a new framework for the identification and protection of spawning habitat for these native species, some of which are currently rare or extirpated in some of the Great Lakes. We further suggest that paleo-ice streams may have been responsible for the creation of native salmonid spawning habitat elsewhere in the Great Lakes and in other glaciated landscapes.

  10. Characterization of Gatewell Orifice Lighting at the Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse and Compendium of Research on Light Guidance with Juvenile Salmonids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Simmons, Mary Ann

    2007-12-29

    The goal of the study described in this report is to provide U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) biologists and engineers with general design guidelines for using artificial lighting to enhance the passage of juvenile salmonids into the collection channel at the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse (B2). During fall 2007, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers measured light levels in the field at one powerhouse orifice through which fish must pass to reach the collection channel. Two light types were evaluated—light-emitting diode (LED) lights and halogen spot lights. Additional measurements with mercury lamps were made at the PNNL Aquatic Research Laboratory to determine baseline intensity of the current lighting. A separate chapter synthesizes the relevant literature related to light and fish guidance for both field and laboratory studies. PNNL will also review the Corps plans for existing lighting protocol at all of the Portland District projects and help develop a uniform lighting scheme which could be implemented. The specific objectives for this study are to 1. Create a synthesis report of existing lighting data for juvenile salmonid attraction and deterrence and how the data are used at fish bypass facilities. 2. Evaluate current B2 orifice lighting conditions with both LED and halogen sources. 3. Make recommendations as to what lighting intensity, source, and configuration would improve passage at the B2 orifices. 4. Review USACE plans for retrofit of existing systems (to be assessed at a later date).

  11. A Multiple Watershed Approach to Assessing the Effects of Habitat Restoration Actions on Anadromous and Resident Fish Populations, Technical Report 2003-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmorek, David

    2004-03-01

    Habitat protection and restoration is a cornerstone of current strategies to restore ecosystems, recover endangered fish species, and rebuild fish stocks within the Columbia River Basin. Strategies featuring habitat restoration include the 2000 Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS BiOp) developed by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the 2000 Biological Opinion on Bull Trout developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Sub-Basin Plans developed under the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NWPCC). There is however little quantitative information about the effectiveness of different habitat restoration techniques. Such information is crucial for helping scientists and program managers allocate limited funds towards the greatest benefits for fish populations. Therefore, it is critical to systematically test the hypotheses underlying habitat restoration actions for both anadromous and resident fish populations. This pilot project was developed through a proposal to the Innovative Projects fund of the NWPCC (ESSA 2002). It was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) following reviews by the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP 2002), the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA 2002), the NWPCC and BPA. The study was designed to respond directly to the above described needs for information on the effectiveness of habitat restoration actions, including legal measures specified in the 2000 FCRPS BiOp (RPA 183, pg. 9-133, NMFS 2000). Due to the urgency of addressing these measures, the timeline of the project was accelerated from a duration of 18 months to 14 months. The purpose of this pilot project was to explore methods for evaluating past habitat restoration actions and their effects on fish populations. By doing so, the project will provide a foundation of retrospective analyses, on which to build prospective, multi-watershed designs

  12. Impact des aménagements sur la migration anadrome du saumon atlantique (Salmo salar L. sur le gave de Pau (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANSEAU M.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Le suivi par radiotélémétrie de la migration anadrome de 114 saumons atlantiques sur le Gave de Pau, réalisé de 1995 à 1997, a permis d'étudier l'impact de 31 des 37 obstacles érigés sur l'axe de migration. Cinq obstacles majeurs ont été identifiés en regard de leur faible perméabilité et/ou des retards qu'ils induisent ainsi que de leur position sur l'axe. La transparence de ces 5 aménagements permettrait à plus de 80 % (contre seulement 13 % dans la situation actuelle des saumons de parvenir sur de bonnes zones de frayères. L'accumulation des retards au niveau de chaque obstacle peut empêcher une proportion non négligeable des poissons de parvenir à temps sur les meilleures zones de frayères, notamment ceux qui se présentent à l'automne sur le gave, ou ceux qui, ralentis par les obstacles, effectuent un arrêt estival sur la partie aval du cours d'eau. Les seuils de stabilisation en enrochements de faible hauteur ( 2,5 m supérieure ont eu des impacts variables, imputables en grande partie au type de passe à poissons. Les passes à bassins et les rivières de contournement ont été les dispositifs de franchissement les plus performants. Les passés à ralentisseurs à chevrons épais se sont révélées peu performantes en raison de leur faible débit d'alimentation et de leur grande sensibilité aux variations des niveaux d'eau amont. L'impact des aménagements hydroélectriques sans dérivation dépend de l'emplacement de l'entrée de la passe à poissons et de son débit d'alimentation : des effets minimums sur la migration ont été observés lorsque les ouvrages étaient équipés d'un dispositif mobilisant des débits importants (2-4 m3/s et dont l'entrée se situait dans le canal de fuite. L'impact des aménagements hydroélectriques munis d'une dérivation, tous équipés d'un dispositif de franchissement au niveau des barrages de prise d'eau, dépend des débits réservés dans les parties court

  13. A Multiple Watershed Approach to Assessing the Effects of Habitat Restoration Actions on Anadromous and Resident Fish Populations, Technical Report 2003-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmorek, David

    2004-03-01

    Habitat protection and restoration is a cornerstone of current strategies to restore ecosystems, recover endangered fish species, and rebuild fish stocks within the Columbia River Basin. Strategies featuring habitat restoration include the 2000 Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS BiOp) developed by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the 2000 Biological Opinion on Bull Trout developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Sub-Basin Plans developed under the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NWPCC). There is however little quantitative information about the effectiveness of different habitat restoration techniques. Such information is crucial for helping scientists and program managers allocate limited funds towards the greatest benefits for fish populations. Therefore, it is critical to systematically test the hypotheses underlying habitat restoration actions for both anadromous and resident fish populations. This pilot project was developed through a proposal to the Innovative Projects fund of the NWPCC (ESSA 2002). It was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) following reviews by the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP 2002), the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA 2002), the NWPCC and BPA. The study was designed to respond directly to the above described needs for information on the effectiveness of habitat restoration actions, including legal measures specified in the 2000 FCRPS BiOp (RPA 183, pg. 9-133, NMFS 2000). Due to the urgency of addressing these measures, the timeline of the project was accelerated from a duration of 18 months to 14 months. The purpose of this pilot project was to explore methods for evaluating past habitat restoration actions and their effects on fish populations. By doing so, the project will provide a foundation of retrospective analyses, on which to build prospective, multi-watershed designs

  14. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulkner, James R.; Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D. [Northwest Fisheries Science Center

    2009-06-23

    In 2008, the National Marine Fisheries Service completed the sixteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,565 hatchery steelhead O. mykiss, 15,991 wild steelhead, and 9,714 wild yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. These included 122,061 yearling Chinook salmon tagged at Lower Granite Dam for evaluation of latent mortality related to passage through Snake River dams. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the single-release model). Primary research objectives in 2008 were to: (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead, (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions, and (3) evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2008 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Survival

  15. Long-term fasting in the anadromous Arctic charr is associated with downregulation of metabolic enzyme activity and upregulation of leptin A1 and SOCS expression in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Even Hjalmar; Martinsen, Mads; Strøm, Vidar; Hansen, Kristin Elisa Ruud; Ravuri, Chandra Sekhar; Gong, Ningping; Jobling, Malcolm

    2013-09-01

    The life strategy of the anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) includes several months of voluntary fasting during overwintering in freshwater, leading to emaciation prior to seawater migration in spring. In this study we compared changes in condition, substrate utilization and liver metabolism between captive anadromous charr subjected to food deprivation during late winter and spring, and conspecifics fed in excess. In March, nine out of the 10 sampled fed fish had not eaten, indicating that they were in a voluntary anorexic state. In June, the fed fish were eating and all had higher body mass, condition factor and adiposity than in March. In fasted fish there were only small decreases in body mass, condition factor and adiposity between March and May, but all these parameters decreased markedly from May to June. The fasted fish were depleted in fat and glycogen in June, had suppressed activity of hepatic enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (G6PDH and HOAD) and seemed to rely on protein-derived glucose as a major energy source. This was associated with upregulated liver gene expression of leptin A1, leptin A2, SOCS1, SOCS2 and SOCS3, and reduced IGF-I expression. In an in vitro study with liver slices it was shown that recombinant rainbow trout leptin stimulated SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression, but not SOCS2, IGF-I or genes of enzymes involved in lipid (G6PDH) and amino acid (AspAT) metabolism. It is concluded that liver leptin interacts with SOCS in a paracrine fashion to suppress lipolytic pathways and depress metabolism when fat stores are depleted.

  16. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-10-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmonid (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower at Cougar Dam in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower for fisheries resource managers to use to make decisions on bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from February 1, 2010 through January 31, 2011 to evaluate juvenile salmonid behavior year-round in the immediate forebay surface layer of the WTC tower (within 20 m, depth 0-5 m). From October 28, 2010 through January 31, 2011 a BlueView acoustic camera was also deployed in an attempt to determine its usefulness for future studies as well as augment the DIDSON data. For the DIDSON data, we processed a total of 35 separate 24-h periods systematically covering every other week in the 12-month study. Two different 24-hour periods were processed for the BlueView data for the feasibility study. Juvenile salmonids were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout 2010. The juvenile salmonid abundance index was low in the spring (<200 fish per sample-day), began increasing in late April and peaked in mid-May. Fish abundance index began decreasing in early June and remained low in the summer months. Fish abundance increased again in the fall, starting in October, and peaked on November 8-9. A second peak occurred on December 22. Afterwards, abundance was low for the rest of the study (through January 2011). Average fish length for juvenile salmonids during early spring 2010 was 214 {+-} 86 mm (standard deviation). From May through early November

  17. Year-round monitoring of contaminants in Neal and Rogers Creeks, Hood River Basin, Oregon, 2011-12, and assessment of risks to salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Whitney B.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Nilsen, Elena B.; Alvarez, David; Masterson, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide presence in streams is a potential threat to Endangered Species Act listed salmonids in the Hood River basin, Oregon, a primarily forested and agricultural basin. Two types of passive samplers, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), were simultaneously deployed at four sites in the basin during Mar. 2011–Mar. 2012 to measure the presence of pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The year-round use of passive samplers is a novel approach and offers several new insights. Currently used pesticides and legacy contaminants, including many chlorinated pesticides and PBDEs, were present throughout the year in the basin’s streams. PCBs were not detected. Time-weighted average water concentrations for the 2-month deployment periods were estimated from concentrations of chemicals measured in the passive samplers. Currently used pesticide concentrations peaked during spring and were detected beyond their seasons of expected use. Summed concentrations of legacy contaminants in Neal Creek were highest during July–Sept., the period with the lowest streamflows. Endosulfan was the only pesticide detected in passive samplers at concentrations exceeding Oregon or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality thresholds. A Sensitive Pesticide Toxicity Index (SPTI) was used to estimate the relative acute potential toxicity among sample mixtures. The acute potential toxicity of the detected mixtures was likely greater for invertebrates than for fish and for all samples in Neal Creek compared to Rogers Creek, but the indices appear to be low overall (<0.1). Endosulfans and pyrethroid insecticides were the largest contributors to the SPTIs for both sites. SPTIs of some discrete (grab) samples from the basin that were used for comparison exceeded 0.1 when some insecticides (azinphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, malathion) were detected at concentrations near or

  18. Clock genes and their genomic distributions in three species of salmonid fishes: Associations with genes regulating sexual maturation and cell cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Moira M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clock family genes encode transcription factors that regulate clock-controlled genes and thus regulate many physiological mechanisms/processes in a circadian fashion. Clock1 duplicates and copies of Clock3 and NPAS2-like genes were partially characterized (genomic sequencing and mapped using family-based indels/SNPs in rainbow trout (RT(Oncorhynchus mykiss, Arctic charr (AC(Salvelinus alpinus, and Atlantic salmon (AS(Salmo salar mapping panels. Results Clock1 duplicates mapped to linkage groups RT-8/-24, AC-16/-13 and AS-2/-18. Clock3/NPAS2-like genes mapped to RT-9/-20, AC-20/-43, and AS-5. Most of these linkage group regions containing the Clock gene duplicates were derived from the most recent 4R whole genome duplication event specific to the salmonids. These linkage groups contain quantitative trait loci (QTL for life history and growth traits (i.e., reproduction and cell cycling. Comparative synteny analyses with other model teleost species reveal a high degree of conservation for genes in these chromosomal regions suggesting that functionally related or co-regulated genes are clustered in syntenic blocks. For example, anti-müllerian hormone (amh, regulating sexual maturation, and ornithine decarboxylase antizymes (oaz1 and oaz2, regulating cell cycling, are contained within these syntenic blocks. Conclusions Synteny analyses indicate that regions homologous to major life-history QTL regions in salmonids contain many candidate genes that are likely to influence reproduction and cell cycling. The order of these genes is highly conserved across the vertebrate species examined, and as such, these genes may make up a functional cluster of genes that are likely co-regulated. CLOCK, as a transcription factor, is found within this block and therefore has the potential to cis-regulate the processes influenced by these genes. Additionally, clock-controlled genes (CCGs are located in other life-history QTL regions within

  19. Year-Round Monitoring of Contaminants in Neal and Rogers Creeks, Hood River Basin, Oregon, 2011-12, and Assessment of Risks to Salmonids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney B Hapke

    Full Text Available Pesticide presence in streams is a potential threat to Endangered Species Act listed salmonids in the Hood River basin, Oregon, a primarily forested and agricultural basin. Two types of passive samplers, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs, were simultaneously deployed at four sites in the basin during Mar. 2011-Mar. 2012 to measure the presence of pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. The year-round use of passive samplers is a novel approach and offers several new insights. Currently used pesticides and legacy contaminants, including many chlorinated pesticides and PBDEs, were present throughout the year in the basin's streams. PCBs were not detected. Time-weighted average water concentrations for the 2-month deployment periods were estimated from concentrations of chemicals measured in the passive samplers. Currently used pesticide concentrations peaked during spring and were detected beyond their seasons of expected use. Summed concentrations of legacy contaminants in Neal Creek were highest during July-Sept., the period with the lowest streamflows. Endosulfan was the only pesticide detected in passive samplers at concentrations exceeding Oregon or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality thresholds. A Sensitive Pesticide Toxicity Index (SPTI was used to estimate the relative acute potential toxicity among sample mixtures. The acute potential toxicity of the detected mixtures was likely greater for invertebrates than for fish and for all samples in Neal Creek compared to Rogers Creek, but the indices appear to be low overall (<0.1. Endosulfans and pyrethroid insecticides were the largest contributors to the SPTIs for both sites. SPTIs of some discrete (grab samples from the basin that were used for comparison exceeded 0.1 when some insecticides (azinphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, malathion were detected at concentrations near or

  20. Biological and Physical Inventory of Clear Creek, Orofino Creek, and the Potlatch River, Tributary Streams of the Clearwater River, Idaho, 1984 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, David B.

    1985-05-01

    Clear Creek, Orofino Creek, and Potlatch Creek, three of the largest tributaries of the lower Clearwater River Basin, were inventoried during 1984. The purpose of the inventory was to identify where anadromous salmonid production occurs and to recommend enhancement alternatives to increase anadromous salmonid habitat in these streams. Anadromous and fluvial salmonids were found in all three drainages. The lower reach of Clear Creek supported a low population of rainbow-steelhead, while the middle reach supported a much greater population of rainbow-steelhead. Substantial populations of cutthroat trout were also found in the headwaters of Clear Creek. Rainbow-steelhead and brook trout were found throughout Orofino Creek. A predominant population of brook trout was found in the headwaters while a predominant population of rainbow-steelhead was found in the mainstem and lower tributaries of Orofino Creek. Rainbow-steelhead and brook trout were also found in the Potlatch River. Generally, the greatest anadromous salmonid populations in the Potlatch River were found within the middle reach of this system. Several problems were identified which would limit anadromous salmonid production within each drainage. Problems affecting Clear Creek were extreme flows, high summer water temperature, lack of riparian habitat, and high sediment load. Gradient barriers prevented anadromous salmonid passage into Orofino Creek and they are the main deterrent to salmonid production in this system. Potlatch River has extreme flows, high summer water temperature, a lack of riparian habitat and high sediment loads. Providing passage over Orofino Falls is recommended and should be considered a priority for improving salmonid production in the lower Clearwater River Basin. Augmenting flows in the Potlatch River is also recommended as an enhancement measure for increasing salmonid production in the lower Clearwater River Basin. 18 refs., 5 figs., 85 tabs.

  1. Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, III, Walter; Grue, Christian E.; Ryding, Kristen E. (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Seattle, WA)

    2002-08-01

    Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of out-migrating juvenile salmonids in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural and artificial production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakima/ Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP)--whose goal is increasing natural production within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon (Phinney et al. 1998), and that under certain conditions could significantly impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (WACFWRU) was asked by the YKFP to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Phinney et al. (1998) were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') has continued each year through 2001. In 2001, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls at hotspots was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by all other piscivorous birds was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, and predation indices were calculated for hotspots and river reaches (for both spring and summer). Changes in survey methods in 2001 included the addition of surveys in the ''Canyon'' reach during spring and altering the method of directly measuring gull feeding rates at hotspots. Primary avian predators in 2001 were &apos

  2. Reduced salinity tolerance in the Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) is associated with rapid development of a gill interlamellar cell mass: implications of high-saline spills on native freshwater salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Salvatore D; Matheson, Derrick; He, Yuhe; Goss, Greg G

    2016-01-01

    Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) are salmonids that have a strict freshwater existence in post-glacial North America. Oil and gas development is associated with production of high volumes of hypersaline water. With planned industrial expansion into northern areas of Canada and the USA that directly overlap grayling habitat, the threat of accidental saline water release poses a significant risk. Despite this, we understand little about the responses of grayling to hypersaline waters. We compared the physiological responses and survivability of Arctic grayling and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to tolerate an acute transfer to higher saline waters. Arctic grayling and rainbow trout were placed directly into 17 ppt salinity and sampled at 24 and 96 h along with control animals in freshwater at 24 h. Serum sodium, chloride and osmolality levels increased significantly in grayling at both 24 and 96 h time points, whereas trout were able to compensate for the osmoregulatory disturbance by 96 h. Sodium-potassium ATPase mRNA expression responses to salinity were also compared, demonstrating the inability of the grayling to up-regulate the seawater isoform nkaα1b. Our results demonstrated a substantially lower salinity tolerance in grayling. We also found a significant salinity-induced morphological gill remodelling by Arctic grayling, as demonstrated by the rapid growth of an interlamellar cell mass by 24 h that persisted at 96 h. We visualized and quantified the appearance of the interlamellar cell mass as a response to high salinity, although the functional significance remains to be understood fully. Compared with rainbow trout, which are used as an environmental regulatory species, Arctic grayling are unable to compensate for the osmotic stressors that would result from a highly saline produced water spill. Given these new data, collaboration between fisheries and the oil and gas industry will be vital in the long-term conservation strategies

  3. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the gene coding for the 57kDa soluble antigen of the salmonid fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Maw-Sheng; Gilbert , Teresa L.; Huang, Chienjin; Landolt, Marsha L.; O'Hara, Patrick J.; Winton, James R.

    1992-01-01

    The complete sequence coding for the 57-kDa major soluble antigen of the salmonid fish pathogen, Renibacterium salmoninarum, was determined. The gene contained an opening reading frame of 1671 nucleotides coding for a protein of 557 amino acids with a calculated Mr value of 57190. The first 26 amino acids constituted a signal peptide. The deduced sequence for amino acid residues 27–61 was in agreement with the 35 N-terminal amino acid residues determined by microsequencing, suggesting the protein in synthesized as a 557-amino acid precursor and processed to produce a mature protein of Mr 54505. Two regions of the protein contained imperfect direct repeats. The first region contained two copies of an 81-residue repeat, the second contained five copies of an unrelated 25-residue repeat. Also, a perfect inverted repeat (including three in-frame UAA stop codons) was observed at the carboxyl-terminus of the gene.

  4. Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Storch, Adam; Jones, Tucker A.; Mallette, Christine; Dawley, Earl M.; Skalski, John R.; Teel, David; Moran, Paul

    2008-03-18

    This document is the first annual report for the study titled “Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta in the Lower Columbia River.” Hereafter, we refer to this research as the Tidal Freshwater Monitoring (TFM) Study. The study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The project is performed under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council’s Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program.

  5. Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobocinski, Kathryn; Johnson, Gary; Sather, Nichole [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2008-03-17

    This document is the first annual report for the study titled 'Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta in the Lower Columbia River'. Hereafter, we refer to this research as the Tidal Freshwater Monitoring (TFM) Study. The study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The project is performed under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The goal of the 2007-2009 Tidal Freshwater Monitoring Study is to answer the following questions: In what types of habitats within the tidal freshwater area of the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE; Figure 1) are yearling and subyearling salmonids found, when are they present, and under what environmental conditions?1 And, what is the ecological importance2 of shallow (0-5 m) tidal freshwater habitats to the recovery of Upper Columbia River spring Chinook salmon and steelhead and Snake River fall Chinook salmon? Research in 2007 focused mainly on the first question, with fish stock identification data providing some indication of Chinook salmon presence at the variety of habitat types sampled. The objectives and sub-objectives for the 2007 study were as follows: (1) Habitat and Fish Community Characteristics-Provide basic data on habitat and fish community characteristics for yearling and subyearling salmonids at selected sites in the tidal freshwater reach in the vicinity of the Sandy River delta. (1a) Characterize vegetation assemblage percent cover, conventional water quality, substrate composition, and beach slope at each of six sampling sites in various tidal freshwater habitat types. (1b

  6. Annual Review of BPA-Funded Projects in Natural and Artificial Propagation of Salmonids, March 27-29, 1985, Holiday Inn Airport, Portland, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-04-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Division of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) hosted a meeting for contractors to present the results of fiscal year 1984 research conducted to implement the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program. The meeting focused on those projects specifically related to natural and artificial propagation of salmonids. The presentations were held at the Holiday Inn Airport in Portland, Oregon, on March 27-29, 1985. This document contains abstracts of the presentations from that meeting. Section 1 contains abstracts on artificial propagation, fish health, and downstream migration, and Section 2 contains abstracts on natural propagation and habitat improvement. The abstracts are indexed by BPA Project Number and by Fish and Wildlife Program Measure. The registered attendees at the meeting are listed alphabetically in Appendix A and by affiliation in Appendix B.

  7. Successive oral immunizations against Piscirickettsia salmonis and infectious salmon anemia virus are required to maintain a long-term protection in farmed salmonids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan eTobar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a growing demand to determine the protective status of vaccinated fish in order to prevent diseases outbreaks. A set of different parameters that include the infectious and immunological status of vaccinated salmonids from 622 Chilean farms were analyzed during 2011-2014. The aim of this study was to optimize the vaccination program of these centers through the determination of the protective state of vaccinated fish using oral immunizations. This state was measured by the association of the concentration of the immunoglobulin M (IgM in the serum and the mortality rate of vaccinated fish. Salmonids were vaccinated with different commercial mono- or polyvalent vaccines against SRS and ISAv, first by the intraperitoneal injection of oil-adjuvanted antigens and then by the stimulation of mucosal immunity using oral vaccines as booster. The results showed that high levels of specific IgM antibodies were observed after injectable vaccination, reaching a maximum concentration at 600-800 degree-days. Similar levels of antibodies were observed when oral immunizations were administrated. The high concentration of antibodies (above 2750 ng/mL for ISAv and 3500 ng/mL for SRS was maintained for a period of 800 degree-days after each vaccination procedure. In this regard, oral immunizations maintained a long-term high concentration of anti-SRS and anti-ISAv specific IgM antibodies. When the concentration of antibodies decreased below 2000 pg/mL, a window of susceptibility to SRS infection was observed in the farm, suggesting the close association between antibody levels and fish protective status. These results demonstrated that, in the field, several oral immunizations are essential to uphold a high level of specific anti-pathogens antibodies and, therefore, a protective status during the whole productive cycle.

  8. Using bioenergetics modeling to estimate consumption of native juvenile salmonids by nonnative northern pike in the Upper Flathead River System, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, C.C.; Bennett, D.H.; Kirk, Steinhorst R.; Marotz, B.; Boyer, M.

    2008-01-01

    Introductions of nonnative northern pike Esox lucius have created recreational fisheries in many waters in the United States and Canada, yet many studies have shown that introduced northern pike may alter the composition and structure of fish communities through predation. We estimated the abundance of nonnative northern pike (2002-2003) and applied food habits data (1999-2003) to estimate their annual consumption of native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi juveniles in the upper Flathead River system, Montana. Population estimates were generally consistent among years and ranged from 1,200 to 1,300 individuals. Westslope cutthroat trout were present in the diet of younger (???600 mm) and older (>600 mm) northern pike during all seasons and bull trout were found only in larger northern pike during all seasons but summer. Bioenergetics modeling estimated that the northern pike population annually consumed a total of 8.0 metric tons (mt) of fish flesh; the highest biomass was composed of cyprinids (4.95 mt) followed by whitefishes Prosopium spp. (1.02 mt), bull trout (0.80 mt), westslope cutthroat trout (0.68 mt), yellow perch Perca flavescens (0.41 mt),1 and other fishes (centrarchids and cottids; 0.14 mt). Numerically, the northern pike population consumed more than 342,000 fish; cyprinids and catostomids comprised approximately 82% of prey fish (278,925), whereas over 13,000 westslope cutthroat trout and nearly 3,500 bull trout were eaten, comprising about 5% of the prey consumed. Our results suggest that predation by introduced northern pike is contributing to the lower abundance of native salmonids in the system and that a possible benefit might accrue to native salmonids by reducing these predatory interactions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  9. Salmonid cryptobiosis and strategies against the disease%鲑鱼隐鞭虫病及其防治策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick T.K. WOO

    2005-01-01

    鲑鱼隐鞭虫病的病原为Cryptobia salmositica.据报道,北美西海岸的所有大西洋鲑(Oncorhynchus spp.)均有该虫的寄生.该病除了通常情况下经河流中的水蛭传播外,在特定的条件下可直接经鱼类传播.鲑隐鞭虫病的临床症状包括贫血、食欲减退、脾脏肿大、全身性水肿、腹水性腹胀.被感染的鱼类需要付出巨大的能量代价,表现出明显的新陈代谢及游泳功能的衰退.鱼体对缺氧相当敏感,免疫系统也受到抑制.鱼类对隐鞭虫病的感染严重程度和死亡率可因鱼种而存在差异.预防感染的有效策略包括选育抗隐鞭虫的新品种,"抗隐鞭虫感染"在遗传上是孟德尔显性遗传.在抗隐鞭虫的鱼体内,虫体可被宿主免疫系统的"补体旁路途径"所裂解.在"隐鞭虫耐受性鱼"(处于感染状态但未发病)的血液中存在一种天然的抗蛋白酶--α2-巨球蛋白,可以中和分泌的金属蛋白酶(毒力因子).因此,繁殖转基因"隐鞭虫耐受性"鲑鱼是一种很好的选择,而无需通过疫苗和药物来治疗隐鞭虫病.康复后的鱼体具有对该病的免疫保护力,因而,利用这一特点采取疫苗免疫也是防治隐鞭虫病的另一种策略.我们所研制的致弱疫苗单一剂量免疫鱼体可获得至少两年的免疫保护.免疫保护机制包括产生"抗体结合补体"、强化吞噬作用及细胞介导的细胞毒作用.氯化氮氨菲啶是防治隐鞭虫病的有效药物,它通过溶解虫体而杀灭寄生虫,也可在线粒体中富集,显著影响有氧呼吸的顺利进行并造成线粒体的损伤.通过药物与抗体连接可以显著增强药效,这种利用"免疫化学疗法"控制鲑隐鞭虫病的策略,其优点在于减小了药物剂量,因而大大降低了化学治疗所引起的副作用.对于食用性鱼类而言,减少药物在鱼体的富集符合食品安全的需要%Salmonid cryptobiosis is caused by Cryptobia salmositica. The

  10. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n=59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis...

  11. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  12. Bilan des introductions de salmonidés dans les lacs et ruisseaux d'altitude des Hautes-Pyrénées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DELACOSTE M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Les introductions de Salmonidés ont été importantes au cours des 60 dernières années dans les lacs et ruisseaux d'altitude des Hautes-Pyrénées. Six espèces de Salmonidés ont été introduites dans des milieux qui, pour la plupart, étaient vierges de populations piscicoles : la truite commune (Salmo trutta L., la truite arc-en-ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, l'omble de fontaine (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill, l'omble chevalier (Salvelinus alpinus L., le cristivomer (Salvelinus namaycush Walbaum et le splake (Salvelinus fontinalis x Salvelinus namaycush. Dans de très nombreux cas, ces introductions ont abouti à des acclimatations. En revanche, les naturalisations sont beaucoup plus rares. Seules les espèces lacustres (cristivomer et omble chevalier se sont naturalisées dans la majorité des lacs où elles ont été introduites. Les conditions de reproduction constituent le facteur clé permettant d'expliquer la naturalisation des espèces. En ruisseau, il faut y ajouter la compétition avec l'espèce indigène (la truite commune, la pression halieutique ainsi que les conditions hivernales très rigoureuses. Les incidences écologiques des introductions sur les populations de truites communes indigènes sont faibles. En revanche, elles ne sont pas négligeables pour les populations de batraciens. Cette politique d'introduction a largement participé au développement de l'halieutisme dans ces milieux d'altitude. En cela, les introductions ont parfaitement répondu aux objectifs halieutiques qu'on leur avait fixés. L'acquisition de connaissances sur l'ensemble de la chaîne pyrénéenne constitue aujourd'hui une étape incontournable pour une politique de gestion globale des introductions.

  13. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Efforts, US Geological Survey Report, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

    2006-06-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attended to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first objective was to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort included measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective was to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the fourth year of a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  14. Perturbation in protein expression of the sterile salmonid hybrids between female brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and male masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou during early spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liang; Senda, Yoshie; Abe, Syuiti

    2013-05-01

    Most males and females of intergeneric hybrid (BM) between female brook trout (Bt) Salvelinus fontinalis and male masu salmon (Ms) Oncorhynchus masou had undeveloped gonads, with abnormal germ cell development shown by histological examination. To understand the cause of this hybrid sterility, expression profiles of testicular proteins in the BM and parental species were examined with 2-DE coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Compared with the parental species, more than 60% of differentially expressed protein spots were down-regulated in BM. A total of 16 up-regulated and 48 down-regulated proteins were identified in BM. Up-regulated were transferrin and other somatic cell-predominant proteins, whereas down-regulated were some germ cell-specific proteins such as DEAD box RNA helicase Vasa. Other pronouncedly down-regulated proteins included tubulins and heat shock proteins that are supposed to have roles in spermatogenesis. The present findings suggest direct association of the observed perturbation in protein expression with the failure of spermatogenesis and the sterility in the examined salmonid hybrids.

  15. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Alan; Soupir, Jim (US Forest Service, Prairie City Ranger District, Prairie City, OR); Schwabe, Lawrence (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)

    2003-08-01

    The Malheur River is a 306-kilometer tributary to the Snake River, which drains 12,950 square kilometers. The Malheur River originates in the Blue Mountains and flows into the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C, and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 30 centimeters in the lower reaches. Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2002. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus are considered to be cold water species and are temperature-dependant. Due to the interest of bull trout from various state and Federal agencies, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. Table 1 lists individuals that participated in the 2002 work group. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power Administration contract period starting April 1, 2002, and ending March 31, 2003. All tasks were conducted within this timeframe, and a more detailed timeframe may be referred to in each individual report.

  16. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J. (US Geological Survey, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Western Fisheries Research Center, Cook, WA)

    2003-12-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the second year of at least a three-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  17. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

    2003-01-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1914. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for future genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the first year of a three-year study, this report is restricted to describing our work on the first two objectives only.

  18. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabel, Richard; Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2001-02-01

    In 2000, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the eight year of a study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. A total of 20,313 hatchery steelhead were tagged with passive integrated transpoder (PIT) tags and released at Lower Granite Dam for reach survival estimation. They did not PIT tag any yearlying chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) for reach survival estimates in 2000 because sufficient numbers for these estimates were available from other studies. Primary research objectives in 2000 were (1) to estimate reach and project survival in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations, and (2) to evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. In addition, they estimated survival from point of release to Lower Granite Dam and below for chinook salmon, steelhead, and sockeye salmon (O.nerka) PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin hatcheries and chinook salmon and steelhead PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin hatcheries and chinook salmon and steelhead PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin smolt traps. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2000 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures. Further details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited in the text.

  19. Gyrodactylids parasitizing salmonids in Brittany and Western Pyrénées water basins: epidemiological features of infection and species composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAUTRAITE A.

    1999-07-01

    99.4 % . A new Gyrodactylus species was identified first by morphological examination and confirmed by molecular analysis. This new species is named Gyrodactylus teuchis (CUNNINGHAM et al., in prep.. T his result has been confirmed by an independent study performed in t h e same time (Dr. C.O. CUNNINGHAM, personal communication. G. teuchis shares several morphological and molecular characters with G. salaris. The wrong identification of the latter in France by JOHNSTON et al. (1996 probably originates in their similarities . The absence of Gyrodactylus salaris in both sampled régions, displaying optimal conditions for the parasite's maintenance, leads us to deny its current presence in France. Atlantic salmon parr, mainly parasitized by G. derjavini, are not infected by G. salaris in Brittany and Western Pyrénées. Rainbow trout and brown trout, for which prevalence of gyrodactylids is significantly higher than on salmon parr, are suitable hosts for G. teuchis. This wild fish survey will be extended to other parts of France and probably to farmed salmonids. In t he same way, the actual status towards G. salaris in whole continental Europe needs to be clarified. Biological characteristics of G. teuchis, particularly, its specificity, population dynamics and pathogenesis towards the main host species should be investigated. Besides, further work should be carried out to improve the reliability and efficiency of both identification methods.

  20. Variability in triactinomyxon production from Tubifex tubifex populations from the same mitochondrial DNA lineage infected with Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease in salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, C.; Zickovich, J.; Winton, J.R.; Kerans, B.L.

    2008-01-01

    Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease, infects both salmonid fish and an aquatic oligochaete, Tubifex tubifex. Although M. cerebralis has been detected in river drainages throughout the United States, disease severity among wild fish populations has been highly variable. Tubifex tubifex populations have been genetically characterized using sequences from the 16S mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene, the 18S ribosomal RNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1), and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Our earlier work indicated that large differences in compatibility between the parasite and populations of T. tubifex may play a substantial role in the distribution of whirling disease and resulting mortality in different watersheds. In the present study, we examined 4 laboratory populations of T. tubifex belonging to 16S mtDNA lineage III and 1 population belonging to 16S mtDNA lineage I for triactinomyxon (TAM) production after infection with M. cerebralis myxospores. All 4 16S mtDNA lineage III populations produced TAMs, but statistically significant differences in TAM production were observed. Most individuals in the 16S mtDNA lineage III-infected populations produced TAMs. The 16S mtDNA lineage I population produced few TAMs. Further genetic characterization of the 16S mtDNA lineage III populations with RAPD markers indicated that populations producing similar levels of TAMs had more genetic similarity. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2008.

  1. Migrational Characteristics, Biological Observations, and Relative Survival of Juvenile Salmonids Entering the Columbia River Estuary, 1966-1983, 1985 Final Report of Research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawley, Earl M.

    1986-04-01

    Natural runs of salmonids in the Columbia River basin have decreased as a result of hydroelectric-dam development, poor land- and forest-management, and over-fishing. This has necessitated increased salmon culture to assure adequate numbers of returning adults. Hatchery procedures and facilities are continually being modified to improve both the efficiency of production and the quality of juveniles produced. Initial efforts to evaluate changes in hatchery procedures were dependent upon adult contributions to the fishery and returns to the hatchery. Procedures were developed for sampling juvenile salmon and steelhead entering the Columbia River estuary and ocean plume. The sampling of hatchery fish at the terminus of their freshwater migration assisted in evaluating hatchery production techniques and identifying migrational or behavioral characteristics that influence survival to and through the estuary. The sampling program attempted to estimate survival of different stocks and define various aspects of migratory behavior in a large river, with flows during the spring freshet from 4 to 17 thousand cubic meters per second (m/sup 3//second).

  2. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Effors; US Geological Survey Reports, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Munz, Carrie S. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

    2006-02-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the third year of at least a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  3. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    - serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...... of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......, controlled cell death and cellular migration. Volume regulatory mechanisms has long been in focus for regulating cellular proliferation and my thesis work have been focusing on the role of Cl- channels in proliferation with specific emphasis on ICl, swell. Pharmacological blockage of the ubiquitously...

  4. Precision volume measurement system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  5. Erythrocyte heat shock protein responses to chronic (in vivo) and acute (in vitro) temperature challenge in diploid and triploid salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranyan, Pillai V; Ross, Neil W; Benfey, Tillmann J

    2017-04-01

    This research investigated how ploidy level (diploid versus triploid) affects the heat shock protein (HSP) response in erythrocytes under different thermal stress regimes, both in vivo and in vitro, in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) in order to address the question of why triploids typically have reduced thermal tolerance. A preliminary study confirmed that identical volumes of diploid and triploid erythrocytes (which equates to a smaller number of larger cells for triploids compared to diploids) did not differ in total protein synthesis rates. After chronic (100d) acclimation of fish to 5, 15 and 25°C, triploid erythrocytes had lower HSP70, HSP90, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and ubiquitin (free and total) levels than diploids in both species. Furthermore, Atlantic salmon erythrocytes showed significantly higher protein breakdown (based on conjugated ubiquitin levels) in triploids than diploids after acute heat stress in vitro, but no significant difference was detected between ploidies after acute cold stress. These results indicate that: 1) triploid erythrocytes synthesize more total protein per cell than diploids as a result of increased cell size; 2) triploids have sufficient total HSP levels for survival under low stress conditions; and 3) the lower basal titres of HSPs in triploids may be a handicap when combating acute stress. Taken together, this suggests that triploids are limited in their ability to withstand thermal stress because of a reduced ability to maintain proteostasis under stressful conditions.

  6. A protein G fragment from the salmonid viral hemorrhagic septicemia rhabdovirus induces cell-to-cell fusion and membrane phosphatidylserine translocation at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estepa, A M; Rocha, A I; Mas, V; Pérez, L; Encinar, J A; Nuñez, E; Fernandez, A; Gonzalez Ros, J M; Gavilanes, F; Coll, J M

    2001-12-07

    The fusion-related properties of segments p9, p3, p4, and p9 + p2 surrounding the p2 phospholipid-binding domain of the protein G (pG) of the salmonid rhabdovirus of viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) (Nuñez, E., Fernandez, A. M., Estepa, A., Gonzalez-Ros, J. M., Gavilanes, F., and Coll, J. M. (1998) Virology 243, 322-330; Estepa, A., and Coll, J. M. (1996) Virology 216, 60-70), have been studied at neutral and fusion (low) pH values by using its derived peptides. Cell-to-cell fusion, translocation of phosphatidylserine, and inhibition of fusion of pG-transfected cells defined the p9 + p2 (fragment 11, sequence 56-110) as a fragment with higher specific activity for anionic phospholipid aggregation than the previously reported p2. While fragment 11, p2, and p3 showed interactions with anionic phospholipids, p9 and p4 showed no interactions with any phospholipids. When added to a cell monolayer model at low pH, fragment 11 induced pH-dependent cell-to-cell fusion and translocated phosphatidylserine from the inner to the outer leaflet of the membrane. At low pH and in the presence of anionic phospholipids, fragment 11 showed more than 80% beta-sheet conformation (IR and CD spectroscopies). Finally, anti-fragment 11 antibodies inhibited low pH-dependent pG-transfected cell-to-cell fusion. All of the data support the conclusion that fragment 11 is a primary determinant of some of the viral cell fusion events in VHSV.

  7. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabel, Richard; Williams, John G.; Smith, Steven G. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2002-06-01

    In 2001, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the ninth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tagged fish. We PIT tagged and released at Lower Granite Dam a total of 17,028 hatchery and 3,550 wild steelhead. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream of the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release Model. Primary research objectives in 2001 were to: (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2001 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures with a minimum of text. More details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited in the text. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  8. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, William D.; Smith, Steven G.; Zabel, Richard W. (NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Center, Seattle, WA)

    2003-07-01

    In 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the tenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,891 hatchery steelhead at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''Single-Release Model''). Primary research objectives in 2002 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2002 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  9. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2006-05-01

    In 2005, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the thirteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,439 hatchery steelhead, 5,315 wild steelhead, and 6,964 wild yearling Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''single-release model''). Primary research objectives in 2005 were: (1) Estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss. (2) Evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions. (3) Evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2005 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here.

  10. Salmonid alphavirus-based replicon vaccine against infectious salmon anemia (ISA): impact of immunization route and interactions of the replicon vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Astrid; Hodneland, Kjartan; Frost, Petter; Hoeijmakers, Mathieu; Rimstad, Espen

    2014-02-01

    A salmonid alphavirus (SAV)-based replicon encoding the infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) hemagglutinin-esterase (HE), pSAV/HE, is an efficacious vaccine against infectious salmon anemia (ISA). Delivered intramuscularly (i.m.), the replicon vaccine provides high protection against subsequent ISAV challenge in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and induces a strong innate response locally at the injection site. This may be beneficial and could warrant reduced doses and improved efficacy compared to conventional DNA vaccines. In the present study, we found that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of the pSAV/HE replicon vaccine did not induce protection, neither alone or in combination with a sub-potent, inactivated low-dose ISAV vaccine given i.p. No significant differences between the two immunization routes regarding systemic immune responses could be observed. I.m. injection of the replicon vector encoding a non-viral gene or the protective glycoprotein (G protein) from the heterologous viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) induced no protection against ISA. Although the replicons without the ISAV HE did induce IFN-signaling pathways at the muscle injection site similar to the pSAV/HE replicon they did not improve the efficacy of a sub-potent inactivated low-dose ISAV vaccine delivered i.p. Moreover, there was a tendency for reduced efficacy of the pSAV/HE replicon vaccine injected i.m. when co-injected with the replicon encoding the VHSV G protein, which previously, after DNA vaccination, have been reported to induce cross-protection against heterologous virus challenge in fish.

  11. A Markov chain analysis of the movements of juvenile salmonids, including sockeye salmon, in the forebay of McNary Dam, Washington and Oregon, 2006-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Hatton, Tyson W.

    2012-01-01

    Passage and survival data were collected at McNary Dam between 2006 and 2009. These data have provided critical information for resource managers to implement structural and operational changes designed to improve the survival of juvenile salmonids as they migrate past the dam. Much of the valuable information collected at McNary Dam was in the form of three-dimensional (hereafter referred to as 3-D) tracks of fish movements in the forebay. These data depicted the behavior of multiple species (in three dimensions) during different diel periods, spill conditions, powerhouse operations, and testing of the surface bypass structures (temporary spillway weirs; TSWs). One of the challenges in reporting 3-D results is presenting the information in a manner that allows interested parties to summarize the behavior of many fish over many different conditions across multiple years. To accomplish this, we used a Markov chain analysis to characterize fish movement patterns in the forebay of McNary Dam. The Markov chain analysis allowed us to numerically summarize the behavior of fish in the forebay. This report is the second report published in 2012 that uses this analytical method. The first report included only fish released as part of the annual studies conducted at McNary Dam. This second report includes sockeye salmon that were released as part of studies conducted by the Chelan and Grant County Public Utility Districts at mid-Columbia River dams. The studies conducted in the mid-Columbia used the same transmitters as were used for McNary Dam studies, but transmitter pulse width was different between studies. Additionally, no passive integrated transponder tags were implanted in sockeye salmon. Differences in transmitter pulse width resulted in lower detection probabilities for sockeye salmon at McNary Dam. The absence of passive integrated transponder tags prevented us from determining if fish passed the powerhouse through the juvenile bypass system (JBS) or turbines. To

  12. The effects of total dissolved solids on egg fertilization and water hardening in two salmonids--Arctic Grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Kevin V; Gerdes, Robert; Curry, Nathan; Kasper, Amanda; Grosell, Martin

    2010-04-15

    Previous studies have indicated that salmonid fertilization success may be very sensitive to elevated concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) with effects at concentrations as low as 250mgl(-1) being reported. However, interpretation of these studies is complicated by poor control performance and variable concentration response relationships. To address this, a series of experiments were performed to evaluate TDS effects on Arctic Grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) fertilization success and identify possible mechanisms for previously observed test variability and any observed effects of TDS. Results indicate that some of the experiments reported here were likely confounded by extended milt holding times prior to experiment initiation. Milt holding times >6h were shown to significantly reduce control fertilization and corresponding concentration response relationships were variable. When milt holding time was minimized during fertilization experiments, consistent control performance with >90% control fertilization was achieved and consistent concentration response relationships were observed for both species examined. Experiments performed under these conditions indicate that Arctic Grayling and Dolly Varden fertilization success is not sensitive to elevated TDS with EC20s (concentration causing 20% effect) of >2782 and >1817mgl(-1) (the highest concentrations tested), respectively. However, TDS was shown to significantly affect embryo water absorption during the water hardening phase immediately following fertilization. The lowest observable effect concentrations (LOECs) for this endpoint were 1402 and 964mgl(-1) for Arctic Grayling and Dolly Varden, respectively. The effect of reduced embryo turgidity, due to impaired water absorption, on resistance to mechanical damage under real world conditions needs further investigation in order to understand the implications of this observed effect.

  13. Variable volume combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  14. A preliminary investigation of the efficacy of riparian fencing schemes for reducing contributions from eroding channel banks to the siltation of salmonid spawning gravels across the south west UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Adrian L; Walling, Desmond E; McMellin, Grant K; Zhang, Yusheng; Gray, Janina; McGonigle, Daniel; Cherrington, Ross

    2010-06-01

    The low productivity of salmonids in many river systems across the UK is testament to their intolerance of water quality perturbations including those associated with excessive sedimentation. Catchment and fishery managers concerned with combating such issues require reliable information on the key sources of the sediment problem to target management and on the efficacy of the mitigation options being implemented. In recognition of the latter requirement, a pre- and post-remediation sediment sourcing survey was used to examine the potential for using sediment tracing to assemble preliminary information on the efficacy of riparian fencing schemes for reducing sediment contributions from eroding channel banks to salmonid spawning gravels in the Rivers Camel, Fal, Lynher, Plym, Tamar and Tavy in the south west of the UK. Respective estimates of the overall mean proportion (+/-95% confidence limits) of the interstitial sediment input to salmonid spawning gravels originating from eroding channel banks during the pre- (1999-2000) and post-remediation (2008-2009) study periods were computed at 97+/-1% vs. 69+/-1%, 94+/-1% vs. 91+/-1%, 12+/-1% vs. 10+/-1%, 92+/-1% vs. 34+/-1%, 31+/-1% vs. 16+/-1% and 90+/-1% vs. 66+/-1%. Whilst the study demonstrates the potential utility of the fingerprinting approach for helping to assemble important information on the efficacy of bank fencing as a sediment source control measure at catchment scale, a number of limitations of the work and some suggestions for improving experimental design are discussed. Equivalent data are urgently required for many sediment mitigation options to help inform the development of water quality policy packages designed to protect aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-04-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower of the dam for USACE and fisheries resource managers use in making decisions about bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from March 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. Juvenile salmonids (hereafter, called 'fish') were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout the study. Fish abundance index was low in early spring (<200 fish per sample-day), increased in late April, and peaked on May 19 (6,039 fish). A second peak was observed on June 6 (2904 fish). Fish abundance index decreased in early June and remained low in the summer months (<100 fish per sample-day). During the fall and winter, fish numbers varied with a peak on November 10 (1881 fish) and a minimum on December 7 (12 fish). A second, smaller, peak occurred on December 22 (607 fish). A univariate statistical analysis indicated fish abundance index (log10-transformed) was significantly (P<0.05) positively correlated with forebay elevation, velocity over the WTC tower intake gate weirs, and river flows into the reservoir. A subsequent multiple regression analysis resulted in a model (R2=0.70) predicting fish abundance (log-transformed index values) using two independent variables of mean forebay elevation and the log10 of the forebay elevation range. From the approximate fish length measurements made using the DIDSON imaging software, the average fish

  16. A Markov chain analysis of the movements of juvenile salmonids in the forebay of McNary Dam, Washington and Oregon, 2006-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Hatton, Tyson W.

    2012-01-01

    Passage and survival data for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead were collected at McNary Dam between 2006 and 2009. These data have provided critical information for resource managers to implement structural and operational changes designed to improve the survival of juvenile salmonids as they migrate past the dam. Much of the information collected at McNary Dam was in the form of three-dimensional tracks of fish movements in the forebay. These data depicted the behavior of multiple species (in three dimensions) during different diel periods, spill conditions, powerhouse operations, and test configurations of the surface bypass structures (temporary spillway weirs; TSWs). One of the challenges in reporting three-dimensional results is presenting the information in a manner that allows interested parties to summarize the behavior of many fish over many different conditions across multiple years. To accomplish this, we investigated the feasibility of using a Markov chain analysis to characterize fish movement patterns in the forebay of McNary Dam. The Markov chain analysis is one way that can be used to summarize numerically the behavior of fish in the forebay. Numerically summarizing the behavior of juvenile salmonids in the forebay of McNary Dam using the Markov chain analysis allowed us to confirm what had been previously summarized using visualization software. For example, proportions of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon passing the three powerhouse areas was often greater in the southern and middle areas, compared to the northern area. The opposite generally was observed for steelhead. Results of this analysis also allowed us to confirm and quantify the extent of milling behavior that had been observed for steelhead. For fish that were first detected in the powerhouse region, less than 0.10 of the steelhead, on average, passed within each of the powerhouse areas. Instead, steelhead transitioned to adjoining areas in the

  17. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Polkey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical lung volume reduction can improve exercise performance and forced expiratory volume in one second in patients with emphysema. However, the procedure is associated with a 5% mortality rate and a nonresponse rate of 25%. Accordingly, interest has focused on alternative ways of reducing lung volume. Two principle approaches are used: collapse of the diseased area using blockers placed endobronchially and the creation of extrapulmonary pathways. Preliminary data from the former approach suggest that it can be successful and that the magnitude of success is related to reduction in dynamic hyperinflation.

  18. Unsteady flow volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, B.G.; Lane, D.A.; Max, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    Flow volumes are extended for use in unsteady (time-dependent) flows. The resulting unsteady flow volumes are the 3 dimensional analog of streamlines. There are few examples where methods other than particle tracing have been used to visualize time varying flows. Since particle paths can become convoluted in time there are additional considerations to be made when extending any visualization technique to unsteady flows. We will present some solutions to the problems which occur in subdivision, rendering, and system design. We will apply the unsteady flow volumes to a variety of field types including moving multi-zoned curvilinear grids.

  19. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    function of iso-osmotic fluid transport that depends on Na+ recirculation. The causative relationship is discussed for a fluid-absorbing and a fluid-secreting epithelium of which the Na+ recirculation mechanisms have been identified. A large number of transporters and ion channels involved in cell volume...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...

  20. Towards the Amplituhedron Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Ferro, Livia; Orta, Andrea; Parisi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    It has been recently conjectured that scattering amplitudes in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills are given by the volume of the (dual) amplituhedron. In this paper we show some interesting connections between the tree-level amplituhedron and a special class of differential equations. In particular we demonstrate how the amplituhedron volume for NMHV amplitudes is determined by these differential equations. The new formulation allows for a straightforward geometric description, without any reference to triangulations. Finally we discuss possible implications for volumes related to generic N^kMHV amplitudes.

  1. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  2. Renormalized Volumes with Boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    We develop a general regulated volume expansion for the volume of a manifold with boundary whose measure is suitably singular along a separating hypersurface. The expansion is shown to have a regulator independent anomaly term and a renormalized volume term given by the primitive of an associated anomaly operator. These results apply to a wide range of structures. We detail applications in the setting of measures derived from a conformally singular metric. In particular, we show that the anomaly generates invariant (Q-curvature, transgression)-type pairs for hypersurfaces with boundary. For the special case of anomalies coming from the volume enclosed by a minimal hypersurface ending on the boundary of a Poincare--Einstein structure, this result recovers Branson's Q-curvature and corresponding transgression. When the singular metric solves a boundary version of the constant scalar curvature Yamabe problem, the anomaly gives generalized Willmore energy functionals for hypersurfaces with boundary. Our approach ...

  3. Free volume under shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H. A.; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus

    2015-10-01

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems — particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior.

  4. Integers annual volume 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Landman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    ""Integers"" is a refereed online journal devoted to research in the area of combinatorial number theory. It publishes original research articles in combinatorics and number theory. This work presents all papers of the 2013 volume in book form.

  5. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret......Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV...

  6. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  7. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Dan; Schwabe, Lawrence; Wenick, Jess (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)

    2001-08-01

    The Malheur basin lies within southeastern Oregon. The Malheur River is a tributary to the Snake River, entering at about River Kilometer (RK) 595. The hydrological drainage area of the Malheur River is approximately 12,950 km{sup 2} and is roughly 306 km in length. The headwaters of the Malheur River originate in the Blue Mountains at elevations of 6,500 to 7,500 feet, and drops to an elevation of 2000 feet at the confluence with the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the Malheur basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 300 centimeters and ranges from 100 centimeters in the upper mountains to less than 25 centimeters in the lower reaches (Gonzalez 1999). Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2000. The Burns Paiute Tribe (BPT), United States Forest Service (USFS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), have been working cooperatively to achieve this common goal. Bull trout ''Salvenlinus confluentus'' have specific environmental requirements and complex life histories making them especially susceptible to human activities that alter their habitat (Howell and Buchanan 1992). Bull trout are considered to be a cold-water species and are temperature dependent. This presents a challenge for managers, biologists, and private landowners in the Malheur basin. Because of the listing of bull trout under the Endangered Species Act as threatened and the current health of the landscape, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power contract period starting 1 April 2000 and ending 31 March 2001. The

  8. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Zabel, Richard W. (NOAA Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA)

    2004-01-01

    For juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, sockeye salmon O. nerka, and steelhead O. mykiss that migrate through reservoirs, hydroelectric projects, and free-flowing sections of the Snake and Columbia Rivers, survival estimates are essential to develop effective strategies for recovering depressed stocks. Many management strategies were based on estimates of system survival (Raymond 1979; Sims and Ossiander 1981) derived in a river system considerably different from today's (Williams and Matthews 1995; Williams et al. 2001). Knowledge of the magnitude, locations, and causes of smolt mortality under present passage conditions, and under conditions projected for the future, are necessary to develop strategies that will optimize smolt survival during migration. From 1993 through 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the University of Washington (UW) demonstrated the feasibility of using three statistical models to estimate survival of PIT-tagged (Prentice et al. 1990a) juvenile salmonids passing through Snake River dams and reservoirs (Iwamoto et al. 1994; Muir et al. 1995, 1996, 2001a, 2003; Smith et al. 1998, 2000a,b; Hockersmith et al. 1999; Zabel et al. 2001, 2002). Evaluation of assumptions for these models indicated that all were generally satisfied, and accurate and precise survival estimates were obtained. In 2003, NMFS and UW completed the eleventh year of the study. Flow levels during the early portion of the 2003 spring migration were similar to 2002, and only slightly higher than in the drought conditions during 2001. However, flow levels were much greater during the later part of the migration in 2003. Spill levels were similar to 2002, much higher than in 2001. Research objectives were to: (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3

  9. HARNESSING BIG DATA VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DINU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.

  10. Volumes of chain links

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, James; Rollins, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Agol has conjectured that minimally twisted n-chain links are the smallest volume hyperbolic manifolds with n cusps, for n at most 10. In his thesis, Venzke mentions that these cannot be smallest volume for n at least 11, but does not provide a proof. In this paper, we give a proof of Venzke's statement. The proof for n at least 60 is completely rigorous. The proof for n between 11 and 59 uses a computer calculation, and can be made rigorous for manifolds of small enough complexity, using methods of Moser and Milley. Finally, we prove that the n-chain link with 2m or 2m+1 half-twists cannot be the minimal volume hyperbolic manifold with n cusps, provided n is at least 60 or |m| is at least 8, and we give computational data indicating this remains true for smaller n and |m|.

  11. Juvenile Salmonid Pathogen Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  12. Juvenile Salmonid IGF-I Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  13. Juvenile Salmonid Trophic Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  14. Juvenile Salmonid Parasite Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  15. Juvenile Salmonid Otolith Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  16. Juvenile Salmonid Genetic Stock Identification Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  17. The volume of a soliton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, C., E-mail: adam@fpaxp1.usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela and Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Haberichter, M. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NF (United Kingdom); Wereszczynski, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Lojasiewicza 11, Kraków (Poland)

    2016-03-10

    There exists, in general, no unique definition of the size (volume, area, etc., depending on dimension) of a soliton. Here we demonstrate that the geometric volume (area etc.) of a soliton is singled out in the sense that it exactly coincides with the thermodynamical or continuum-mechanical volume. In addition, this volume may be defined uniquely for rather arbitrary solitons in arbitrary dimensions.

  18. Topological Active Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreira N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The topological active volumes (TAVs model is a general model for 3D image segmentation. It is based on deformable models and integrates features of region-based and boundary-based segmentation techniques. Besides segmentation, it can also be used for surface reconstruction and topological analysis of the inside of detected objects. The TAV structure is flexible and allows topological changes in order to improve the adjustment to object's local characteristics, find several objects in the scene, and identify and delimit holes in detected structures. This paper describes the main features of the TAV model and shows its ability to segment volumes in an automated manner.

  19. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  20. Research Project Segment : Anadromous Fish Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Estimates at Lower Russian Lake weir revealed the out-migration of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, smelts was 1,018,527. The peak of the migration (75% of the...

  1. Introduction to the Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emihovich, Catherine; Schroder, Barbara; Panofsky, Carolyn P.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a volume that examines the issue of critical thinking and whether or not it is culturally specific, discussing recent research on the subject. The papers focus on critical thinking and culture, historical consciousness and critical thinking, critical thinking as cultural-historical practice, culture and the development of critical…

  2. 大口黑鲈鱼种弹状病毒病的诊断%Diagnosis of rhabdovirus disease in juvenile largemouth bass Micropterus salmonides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷燕; 戚瑞荣; 崔龙波; 肖洋; 张文文; 马家好; 王雪鹏

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of acute mortality was investigated in cultured juvenile largemouth bass Micropterus salmonides collected in Foshan, Guangdong Province. The morbid largemouth bass swam on the water surface, had blacken and rotten skin, and fins, and was devoid of food. The postmortem examination revealed that the sick fish had hem-orrhagic gills, swollen liver, spleen and kidney, reddish intestine and empting stomach. Epidemiological survey in-dicated that no pathogenic bacteria and parasites were found in the organs including liver, spleen and kidney, the disease being obvious infectious. The diffused necrosis was histologically observed in liver, spleen and kidney. The specific products with predicted size were obtained in the diseased fish by primers designed according to the se-quence of GenBank. Comparative analysis of nucleotide sequences in the GenBank databases using Blast database network service showed that the putative gene products from the infected largemouth bass shared high homologous i-dentity of 96 . 9% with hybrid snakehead rhabdovirus ( HSHV ) and 95 . 3% with Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus ( SCRV) , indicating that the mortality of largemouth bass is caused by rhabdoviruses.%对广东佛山一突发批量急性死亡现象的大口黑鲈Micropterus salmoides养殖池塘中的患病大口黑鲈鱼种进行了研究。结果表明:濒死的大口黑鲈在水面漫游,烂身、烂鳍,停止摄食,严重者体色发黑;解剖病鱼鳃有少量出血点,肝脏严重肿大、充血,脾脏肿大,胃肠空虚,肾脏肿大;流行病学调查发现,该病具有明显的传染性;从病鱼肝脏、脾脏和肾脏中未分离到致病菌,也未检测到大量寄生虫;组织病理切片观察发现,肝脏、脾脏和肾脏均呈弥漫性坏死;参考GenBank中弹状病毒的基因序列,设计并合成检测引物,以从自然发病鱼提取的DNA 作为模板,检测结果显示,病鱼均能扩增出与预期大小片段相

  3. First in-depth analysis of the novel Th2-type cytokines in salmonid fish reveals distinct patterns of expression and modulation but overlapping bioactivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiehui; Johansson, Petronella; Abós, Beatriz; Holt, Amy; Tafalla, Carolina; Jiang, Youshen; Wang, Alex; Xu, Qiaoqing; Qi, Zhitao; Huang, Wenshu; Costa, Maria M.; Diaz-Rosales, Patricia; Holland, Jason W.; Secombes, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    IL-4 and IL-13 are closely related canonical type-2 cytokines in mammals and have overlapping bioactivities via shared receptors. They are frequently activated together as part of the same immune response and are the signature cytokines produced by T-helper (Th)2 cells and type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), mediating immunity against extracellular pathogens. Little is known about the origin of type-2 responses, and whether they were an essential component of the early adaptive immune system that gave a fitness advantage by limiting collateral damage caused by metazoan parasites. Two evolutionary related type-2 cytokines, IL-4/13A and IL-4/13B, have been identified recently in several teleost fish that likely arose by duplication of an ancestral IL-4/13 gene as a consequence of a whole genome duplication event that occurred at the base of this lineage. However, studies of their comparative expression levels are largely missing and bioactivity analysis has been limited to IL-4/13A in zebrafish. Through interrogation of the recently released salmonid genomes, species in which an additional whole genome duplication event has occurred, four genomic IL-4/13 loci have been identified leading to the cloning of three active genes, IL-4/13A, IL-4/13B1 and IL-4/13B2, in both rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon. Comparative expression analysis by real-time PCR in rainbow trout revealed that the IL-4/13A expression is broad and high constitutively but less responsive to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and pathogen challenge. In contrast, the expression of IL-4/13B1 and IL-4/13B2 is low constitutively but is highly induced by viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSH) infection and during proliferative kidney disease (PKD) in vivo, and by formalin-killed bacteria, PAMPs, the T cell mitogen PHA, and the T-cell cytokines IL-2 and IL-21 in vitro. Moreover, bioactive recombinant cytokines of both IL-4/13A and B were produced and found to have shared but also distinct

  4. The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVII : Effects of Ocean Covariates and Release Timing on First Ocean-Year Survival of Fall Chinook Salmon from Oregon and Washington Coastal Hatcheries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Caitlin; Skalski, John R.

    2001-05-01

    Effects of oceanographic conditions, as well as effects of release-timing and release-size, on first ocean-year survival of subyearling fall chinook salmon were investigated by analyzing CWT release and recovery data from Oregon and Washington coastal hatcheries. Age-class strength was estimated using a multinomial probability likelihood which estimated first-year survival as a proportional hazards regression against ocean and release covariates. Weight-at-release and release-month were found to significantly effect first year survival (p < 0.05) and ocean effects were therefore estimated after adjusting for weight-at-release. Negative survival trend was modeled for sea surface temperature (SST) during 11 months of the year over the study period (1970-1992). Statistically significant negative survival trends (p < 0.05) were found for SST during April, June, November and December. Strong pairwise correlations (r > 0.6) between SST in April/June, April/November and April/December suggest the significant relationships were due to one underlying process. At higher latitudes (45{sup o} and 48{sup o}N), summer upwelling (June-August) showed positive survival trend with survival and fall (September-November) downwelling showed positive trend with survival, indicating early fall transition improved survival. At 45{sup o} and 48{sup o}, during spring, alternating survival trends with upwelling were observed between March and May, with negative trend occurring in March and May, and positive trend with survival occurring in April. In January, two distinct scenarios of improved survival were linked to upwelling conditions, indicated by (1) a significant linear model effect (p < 0.05) showing improved survival with increasing upwelling, and (2) significant bowl-shaped curvature (p < 0.05) of survival with upwelling. The interpretation of the effects is that there was (1) significantly improved survival when downwelling conditions shifted to upwelling conditions in January (i.e., early spring transition occurred, p < 0.05), (2) improved survival during strong downwelling conditions (Bakun units < -250). Survival decreased during weak downwelling conditions (Bakun units between -180 and -100). Strong to moderately strong correlations between January upwelling and April SST (r = 0.5), June SST (r = 0.6), and the North Pacific Index (NPI) of Aleutian Low strength (r > 0.7) suggest January is a period when important effects originate and play out over ensuing months. Significant inverse trend with survival (p < 0.05) was found for Bakun indices in December, indicating strong downwelling improved survival. Higher-than-average adult return rates were observed for cohorts from brood-years 1982-1983, strong El Nino years. Individual hatcheries were found to have unique age-class strength and age-at-return characteristics.

  5. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume VI; Assessment of Season-Wide Survival of Snake River Yearling Chinook Salmon, 1994-1996 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Perez-Comas, Jose A. (University of Washington, School of Fisheries, Fisheries Research Institute, Seattle, WA); Smith, Steven G. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA)

    1998-06-01

    Project 8910700, Epidemiological Survival Methods, was developed to provide statistical guidance on design and analysis of PIT-tag (Passive Integrated Transponder) survival studies to the Northwest fisheries community.

  6. Le développement des modèles d'habitat pour les salmonidés d'eau courante et leur application à la gestion piscicole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARNARD S.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Le texte décrit brièvement le développement de HABSCORE, une méthode d'évaluation de l'habitat basée sur une série de modèles statistiques empiriques qui relient l'abondance des salmonidés aux variables d'habitat observées. Des données sur les poissons et l'habitat de 602 sites de référence du Pays de Galles et de Grande-Bretagne ont été utilisées pour développer des modèles de prédiction des populations de salmonidés. Sur ces sites, 130 variables indépendantes ont été relevées à partir desquelles 5 modèles de régression, prédisant la taille des populations salmonicoles, ont été produits. Ces modèles [pour les saumons O+, > O+, les truites O+, > O+ ( O+ (> 20 cm] rendent compte de 28,7 à 46,2 % de la variance totale des densités de population observées dans les données de base. Une partition des variances indique que les modèles prennent en compte 45,1 à 86,7 % de la variation spatiale totale. L'erreur associée aux mesures des variables d'habitat ne représente que moins de 1,1 % de la variance totale dans les 5 modèles. La qualité de ces modèles est brièvement discutée. Les sorties des modèles et les applications potentielles de HABSCORE sont décrites.

  7. Postoperative volume balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, H; Mortensen, C.R.; Secher, N H;

    2016-01-01

    In healthy humans, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) do not increase with expansion of the central blood volume by head-down tilt or administration of fluid. Here, we exposed 85 patients to Trendelenburg's position about one hour after surgery while cardiovascular variables were determined...... non-invasively by Modelflow. In Trendelenburg's position, SV (83 ± 19 versus 89 ± 20 ml) and CO (6·2 ± 1·8 versus 6·8 ± 1·8 l/min; both P... (39%) with a > 10% increase in SV (from 78 ± 16 to 90 ± 17 ml) corresponding to an increase in CO from 5·9 ± 1·5 to 6·9 ± 1·6 l min(-1) (Phead-down, administration of 250 ml Ringer's lactate solution increased SV (to 88 ± 18 ml) and CO (to 6·8 ± 1·7 l min(-1) ). In conclusion...

  8. Select Papers. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    non- uniform rational B-splines (NURBS), 127 and BRL-CAD TM format. This dual-package development allowed for rapid development of components ...next generation of scientists and engineers. A fundamental component of our outreach program is to provide students research experiences at ARL...summer intern. There, I ran Volume Based Morphometry , an application of Statistical Parametric Mapping that was new to the Hirsch lab. I

  9. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  10. Calculus Students' Understanding of Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to volume…

  11. Volume of an Industrial Autoclave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Madaffari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We were able to determine the volume of an industrial autoclave sterilization tank using a technique learned in calculus. By measuring the dimensions of the tank and roughly estimating the equation of curvature at the ends of the tank, we were able to revolve half of the end of the tank around the x axis to get its fluid volume. Adding the two volumes of the ends and the volume of the cylindrical portion on the tank yielded the total volume.

  12. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2005-10-01

    In 2004, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the twelfth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,621 hatchery steelhead, 8,128 wild steelhead, and 9,227 wild yearling Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the single-release model). Primary research objectives in 2004 were to (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2004 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Survival and detection probabilities were estimated precisely for most of the 2004 yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead migrations. Hatchery and

  13. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume I, Oregon, Supplement C, White River Habitat Inventory, 1983 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, David

    1984-04-01

    More than 130 miles of stream fish habitat was inventoried and evaluated on the Mt. Hood National Forest during the first year of this multi-year project. First year tasks included field inventory and evaluation of habitat conditions on the White River and tributary streams thought to have the highest potential for supporting anadromous fish populations. All streams inventoried were located on the Mt. Hood National Forest. The surveyed area appears to contain most of the high quality anadromous fish habitat in the drainage. Habitat conditions appear suitable for steelhead, coho, and chinook salmon, and possibly sockeye. One hundred and twenty-four miles of potential anadromous fish habitat were identifed in the survey. Currently, 32 miles of this habitat would be readily accessible to anadromous fish. An additional 72 miles of habitat could be accessed with only minor passage improvement work. About 20 miles of habitat, however, will require major investment to provide fish passage. Three large lakes (Boulder, 14 acres; Badger, 45 acres; Clear, 550 acres) appear to be well-suited for rearing anadromous fish, although passage enhancement would be needed before self-sustaining runs could be established in any of the lakes.

  14. Light Propagation Volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulica, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Cílem diplomové práce je popsat různé metody výpočtu globálního osvětlení scény včetně techniky Light Propagation Volumes. Pro tuto metodu jsou podrobně popsány všechny tři kroky výpočtu: injekce, propagace a vykreslení. Dále je navrženo několik vlastních rozšíření zlepšující grafickou kvalitu metody. Části návrhu a implementace jsou zaměřeny na popis scény, zobrazovacího systému, tvorby stínů, implementace metody Light Propagation Volumes a navržených rozšíření. Práci uzavírá měření, porovná...

  15. Orofino Creek Passage Project Biological and Engineering Feasibility Report: Completion Report 1988.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, Charles W.

    1988-10-01

    If implemented, the Orofino Creek Passage Project will provide adult fish passage at barrier waterfalls on Orofino Creek, Idaho, and give anadromous salmonids access to upstream habitat. Anadromous fish are currently blocked at Orofino Falls, 8.3 km above the stream's confluence with the Clearwater River. This report summarizes results of a study to determine the potential for increasing natural production of summer steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) and spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) in the Orofino Creek drainage by enhancing adult fish passage. Data on fish habitat, migration barriers, stream temperatures and fish populations in the drainage were collected during 1987 and provided a basis for estimating the potential for self-sustaining anadromous salmonid production above Orofino Falls. Between 84.7 and 103.6 km of currently inaccessible streams would be available to anadromous fish following project implementation, depending on the level of passage enhancement above Orofino Falls. These streams contain habitat of poor to good quality for anadromous salmonids. Low summer flows and high water temperatures reduce habitat quality in lower mainstem Orofino Creek. Several streams in the upper watershed have habitat that is dominated by brook trout and may be poorly utilized by steelhead or salmon. 32 refs., 20 figs., 22 tabs.

  16. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Vance R.; Powell, Russ M.

    1999-05-01

    The primary goal of ''The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Improvement Project'' is to access, create, improve, protect, and restore reparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin.

  17. Finding related functional neuroimaging volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving each...... coordinate with a Gaussian kernel. The scheme allows us to compare experiments represented as either lists of coordinates or volumes, and we introduce alternative entrances to databases by image-based indices constructed via novelty measures and singular value decomposition....

  18. Cosmological Measures without Volume Weighting

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2008-01-01

    Many cosmologists (myself included) have advocated volume weighting for the cosmological measure problem, weighting spatial hypersurfaces by their volume. However, this often leads to the Boltzmann brain problem, that almost all observations would be by momentary Boltzmann brains that arise very briefly as quantum fluctuations in the late universe when it has expanded to a huge size, so that our observations (too ordered for Boltzmann brains) would be highly atypical and unlikely. Here it is suggested that volume weighting may be a mistake. Volume averaging is advocated as an alternative. One consequence would be a loss of the argument for eternal inflation.

  19. 二十一世纪前十年全球鲑科鱼类养殖状况%Global Salmonids Farming in the First Decade of the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟振波

    2013-01-01

    The culture production of Salmonid species was increasing steadily with annual production above 2.4 million tons, which was 1989 tons during 2000-2009. Species with total ten-year production of 100,000 tons included Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rain bow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), coho salmon (O. kisutch), chinook salmon (0. tshawytscha) ,and sea trout (Salmo tmtta), whose production can be calculated separately included 13 Species in 5 genera. The culture production of Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, co ho salmon accounted for 97% of total production. The top three countries in aquaculture production are Norway, Chile, and the United Kingdom. Salmonid culture was carried out in 67 countries and 2 regions (Taiwan and le de la Re union), including 33 countries in Europe, 13 countries in America, 11 countries and 1 region in Asia, 6 countries and 1 region in Africa, and 4 countries in Oceania. Rainbow trout is of the predominant species being fanned in 64 countries and 2 regions in 5 continents.%2000~2009年,全球鲑科鱼类养殖产量合计达1989万t,2010年养殖产量已达到240万t以上,产量一直在稳步上升.十年累计产量超过10万t的有大西洋鲑(Salmo salar)、虹鳟(Oncorhynchus mykiss)、银大麻哈鱼(O.kisutch、大鳞大麻哈鱼(O.tshawytscha)、褐鳟(Salmo trutta),能够形成单独统计产量的有5属13种,大西洋鲑、虹鳟、银大麻哈鱼占鲑科鱼类养殖总产量的97%.养殖产量居前三位的是挪威、智利、英国.全球共有67个国家和2个地区(台湾、法属留尼旺岛)开展鲑科鱼类养殖,其中欧洲33个国家、美洲13个国家、亚洲11个国家和1个地区、非洲6个国家和1个地区、大洋洲4个国家,虹鳟是养殖最普遍的种类,遍布5大洲的64个国家和2个地区.

  20. Imprinting Hatchery Reared Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, Volume II of III; Data Summaries, 1978-1983 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatick, Emil; Ringe, R.R.; Zaugg, Waldo S. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Coastal Zone and Estuarine Studies Division, Seattle, WA)

    1988-02-02

    The main functions of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) aquaculture task biologists and contractual scientists involved in the 1978 homing studies were primarily a surveillance of fish physiology, disease, and relative survival during culture in marine net-pens, to determine if there were any unusual factors that might affect imprinting and homing behavior. The studies were conducted with little background knowledge of the implications of disease and physiology on imprinting and homing in salmonids. The health status or the stocks were quite variable as could be expected. The Dworshak and Wells Hatcheries steelhead suffered from some early stresses in seawater, probably osmoregulatory. The incidences of latent BKD in the Wells and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead and Kooskia Hatchery spring chinook salmon were extremely high, and how these will affect survival in the ocean is not known. Gill enzyme activity in the Dworshak and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead at release was low. Of the steelhead, survival in the Tucannon Hatchery stock will probably be the highest, with Dworshak Hatchery stock the lowest. This report contains the data for the narratives in Volume I.

  1. Heliophysics 3 Volume Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-11-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliūnas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliūnas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight 358 Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  2. Volume and Surface-Enhanced Volume Negative Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Stockli, M P

    2013-01-01

    H- volume sources and, especially, caesiated H- volume sources are important ion sources for generating high-intensity proton beams, which then in turn generate large quantities of other particles. This chapter discusses the physics and technology of the volume production and the caesium-enhanced (surface) production of H- ions. Starting with Bacal's discovery of the H- volume production, the chapter briefly recounts the development of some H- sources, which capitalized on this process to significantly increase the production of H- beams. Another significant increase was achieved in the 1990s by adding caesiated surfaces to supplement the volume-produced ions with surface-produced ions, as illustrated with other H- sources. Finally, the focus turns to some of the experience gained when such a source was successfully ramped up in H- output and in duty factor to support the generation of 1 MW proton beams for the Spallation Neutron Source.

  3. Cell swelling and volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    1992-01-01

    The extracellular space in the brain is typically 20% of the tissue volume and is reduced to at least half its size under conditions of neural insult. Whether there is a minimum size to the extracellular space was discussed. A general model for cell volume regulation was presented, followed by a ...

  4. PDLE: Sustaining Professionalism. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Patricia, Ed.; Nelson, Gayle, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This third volume looks at ways that seasoned professionals continue to develop throughout their careers. The text includes descriptive accounts of professionals seeking to enhance their careers while remaining inspired to continue to develop professionally. This volume reveals how personal and professional lives are entwined. It proves that TESOL…

  5. Evidence for an autumn downstream migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) and brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus) parr to the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, Imre; Kesler, Martin; Saks, Lauri; Rohtla, Mehis; Verliin, Aare; Svirgsden, Roland; Jürgens, Kristiina; Vetemaa, Markus; Saat, Toomas

    2014-06-01

    In the eastern Baltic rivers, anadromous salmonid parr are known to smoltify and migrate to the sea from March until June, depending on latitude, climate and hydrological conditions. In this study, we present the first records of autumn descent of brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from the Baltic Sea Basin. Otolith microchemistry analyses revealed that these individuals hatched in freshwater and had migrated to the brackish water shortly prior to capture. The fish were collected in 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2013 from Eru Bay (surface salinity 4.5-6.5 ‰), Gulf of Finland. This relatively wide temporal range of observations indicates that the autumn descent of anadromous salmonids is not a random event. These results imply that autumn descent needs more consideration in the context of the effective stock management, assessment and restoration of Baltic salmonid populations and their habitats.

  6. Discretized Volumes in Numerical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Antal, Miklós

    2007-01-01

    We present two techniques novel in numerical methods. The first technique compiles the domain of the numerical methods as a discretized volume. Congruent elements are glued together to compile the domain over which the solution of a boundary value problem is sought. We associate a group and a graph to that volume. When the group is symmetry of the boundary value problem under investigation, one can specify the structure of the solution, and find out if there are equispectral volumes of a given type. The second technique uses a complex mapping to transplant the solution from volume to volume and a correction function. Equation for the correction function is given. A simple example demonstrates the feasibility of the suggested method.

  7. Biochemical kinetics in changing volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowski, Piotr H; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr

    2004-01-01

    The need of taking into account the change of compartment volume when developing chemical kinetics analysis inside the living cell is discussed. Literature models of a single enzymatic Michaelis-Menten process, glycolytic oscillations, and mitotic cyclin oscillations were tested with appropriate theoretical extension in the direction of volume modification allowance. Linear and exponential type of volume increase regimes were compared. Due to the above, in a growing cell damping of the amplitude, phase shift, and time pattern deformation of the metabolic rhythms considered were detected, depending on the volume change character. The performed computer simulations allow us to conclude that evolution of the cell volume can be an essential factor of the chemical kinetics in a growing cell. The phenomenon of additional metabolite oscillations caused by the periodic cell growth and division was theoretically predicted and mathematically described. Also, the hypothesis of the periodized state in the growing cell as the generalization of the steady-state was formulated.

  8. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera

    2014-12-31

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  9. The effect of dietary n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio on salmonid alphavirus subtype 1 (SAV-1) replication in tissues of experimentally infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Jimena, Benjamin; Lyons, Philip; Herath, Tharangani; Richards, Randolph H; Leaver, Michael; Bell, J Gordon; Adams, Alexandra; Thompson, Kim D

    2015-07-09

    Salmon pancreas disease (SPD) is one of the most commercially significant viral diseases of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Europe. In this study, the potential for dietary mitigation of the disease using different polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profiles was assessed in rainbow trout. We experimentally infected fish with salmonid alphavirus subtype 1 (SAV-1), the causative agent of SPD. These fish were fed two diets with different n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio (high omega 3, 3.08, and high omega 6, 0.87). We assessed the influence of the diets on the fatty acid composition of the heart at 0 days post infection (d.p.i.) (after 4 weeks of feeding the experimental diets prior to SAV-1 infection), and sampled infected and control fish at 5, 15 and 30d.p.i. Viral E1 and E2 glycoprotein genes were quantified by two absolute real-time PCRs in all the organs sampled, and significantly lower levels of the virus were evident in the organs of fish fed with high omega 6. Characteristic pathological lesions were identified in infected fish as early as 5d.p.i., with no significant differences in the pathology lesion scores between the two dietary regimes. This study shows that decreasing the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in experimental diets of rainbow trout changes the fatty acid content of the fish, and is associated with reduced SAV-1 replication in rainbow trout.

  10. Development of a nested polymerase chain reaction for amplification of a sequence of the p57 gene of Renibacterium salmoninarum that provides a highly sensitive method for detection of the bacterium in salmonid kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, D.M.; Pascho, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based assays have shown promise for diagnosing Renibacterium salmoninarum in tissues and body fluids of salmonids. DeVelopment of a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to detect a 320 bp DNA segment of the gene encoding the p57 protein of R. salmoninarum is described. Whereas a conventional PCR for a 383 bp segment of the p57 gene reliably detected 1000 R. salmoninarum cells per reaction in kidney tissue, the nested PCR detected as few as 10 R. salmoninarum per reaction in kidney tissue. Two DNA extraction methods for the nested PCR were compared and the correlation between replicate samples was generally higher in samples extracted by the QIAamp system compared with those extracted by the phenol/chloroform method. The specificity of the nested PCR was confirmed by testing DNA extracts of common bacterial fish pathogens and a panel of bacterial species reported to cause false-positive reactions in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) for R. salmoninarum. Kidney samples from 74 naturally infected chinook Salmon were examined by the nested PCR, the ELISA, and the FAT, and the detected prevalences of R. salmoninarum were 61, 47, and 43%, respectively.

  11. Influence d'une fine sédimentation dans un canal expérimental sur la densité du macrobenthos, sa composition et sa consommation par les salmonidés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEVEU A.

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Les relations entre la qualité du substrat, la densité benthique et la nourriture de Salmonides ont été étudiées dans un ruisseau expérimental pour déterminer les effets d'un apport limoneux. L'eau était captée dans une rivière dont le bassin subit une forte érosion. Au début la composition du benthos était la même dans les deux systèmes, mais avec des stocks plus élevés dans le ruisseau artificiel, en relation avec l'absence de poisson et la régulation du débit. La sédimentation commença avec les crues de la rivière, les cailloux furent progressivement colmatés par la boue. La diversité et la biomasse du benthos sont alors réduites par ce changement de la qualité du substrat. La consommation du poisson, liée à la densité benthique, est plus basse dans les zones colmatées. Ces changements fauniques affectent aussi le choix, les contenus stomacaux sont plus diversifiés lorsque la nourriture est rare.

  12. Proceedings from a Workshop on Ecological Carrying Capacity of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program : Report 3 of 4, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Neitzel, D.A.; Mavros, William V.

    1996-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a workshop held during 1995 in Portland, Oregon. The objective of the workshop was to assemble a group of experts that could help us define carrying capacity for Columbia River Basin salmonids. The workshop was one activity designed to answer the questions asked in Measure 7.1A of the Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program. Based, in part, on the information we learned during the workshop we concluded that the approach inherent in 7.1A will not increase understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, or limiting factors that influence salmon under current conditions. Measure 7.1A requires a definition of carrying capacity and a list of determinants (limiting factors) of capacity. The implication or inference then follows that by asking what we know and do not know about the determinants will lead to research that increases our understanding of what is limiting salmon survival. It is then assumed that research results will point to management actions that can remove or repair the limiting factors. Most ecologists and fisheries scientists that have studied carrying capacity clearly conclude that this approach is an oversimplification of complex ecological processes. To pursue the capacity parameter, that is, a single number or set of numbers that quantify how many salmon the basin or any part of the basin can support, is meaningless by itself and will not provide useful information.

  13. Minivoids in the Local Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhonov, A V

    2006-01-01

    We consider a sphere of 7.5 Mpc radius, which contains 355 galaxies with accurately measured distances, to detect the nearest empty volumes. Using a simple void detection algorithm, we found six large (mini)voids in Aquila, Eridanus, Leo, Vela, Cepheus and Octans, each of more than 30 Mpc^3. Besides them, 24 middle-size "bubbles" of more than 5 Mpc^3 volume are detected, as well as 52 small "pores". The six largest minivoids occupy 58% of the considered volume. Addition of the bubbles and pores to them increases the total empty volume up to 75% and 81%, respectively. The detected local voids look like oblong potatoes with typical axial ratios b/a = 0.75 and c/a = 0.62 (in the triaxial ellipsoide approximation). Being arranged by the size of their volume, local voids follow power law of volumes-rankes dependence. A correlation Gamma-function of the Local Volume galaxies follows a power low with a formally calculated fractal dimension D = 1.5. We found that galaxies surrounding the local minivoids do not differ...

  14. 10 CFR 63.332 - Representative volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative volume. 63.332 Section 63.332 Energy... Protection Standards § 63.332 Representative volume. (a) The representative volume is the volume of ground... radionuclides released from the Yucca Mountain disposal system that will be in the representative volume....

  15. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Christensen, N J

    1991-01-01

    -induced hypoglycaemia with total autonomic blockade (alpha-adrenoceptor blockade combined with beta-adrenoceptor blockade and atropine); and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia without any autonomic blockade. In the experiments without autonomic blockade the peripheral venous hematocrit increased, plasma volume decreased......, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased. In both experiments with autonomic blockade the increase in venous haematocrit was abolished, yet plasma volume decreased, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin...... increased in these experiments. Thus, the changes in plasma volume and composition in response to hypoglycaemia are due to the combined actions of adrenaline and of insulin....

  16. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether previously reported changes in venous blood volume and composition induced by acute hypoglycaemia in humans are representative for the entire body we measured erythrocyte 51Cr content, haematocrit, plasma volume, intravascular albumin content and transcapillary escape rate...... of albumin in arterial and venous blood in seven healthy subjects before and during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. In both vascular sites blood 51Cr content and the haematocrit increased, plasma volume and intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased during...

  17. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley;

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for supervised volumetric segmentation based on a dictionary of small cubes composed of pairs of intensity and label cubes. Intensity cubes are small image volumes where each voxel contains an image intensity. Label cubes are volumes with voxelwise probabilities for a given...... label. The segmentation process is done by matching a cube from the volume, of the same size as the dictionary intensity cubes, to the most similar intensity dictionary cube, and from the associated label cube we get voxel-wise label probabilities. Probabilities from overlapping cubes are averaged...

  18. Bare-Hand Volume Cracker for Raw Volume Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bireswar Laha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of raw volume data generated from different scanning technologies faces a variety of challenges, related to search, pattern recognition, spatial understanding, quantitative estimation, and shape description. In a previous study, we found that the Volume Cracker (VC 3D interaction (3DI technique mitigated some of these problems, but this result was from a tethered glove-based system with users analyzing simulated data. Here, we redesigned the VC by using untethered bare-hand interaction with real volume datasets, with a broader aim of adoption of this technique in research labs. We developed symmetric and asymmetric interfaces for the Bare-Hand Volume Cracker (BHVC through design iterations with a biomechanics scientist. We evaluated our asymmetric BHVC technique against standard 2D and widely used 3D interaction techniques with experts analyzing scanned beetle datasets. We found that our BHVC design significantly outperformed the other two techniques. This study contributes a practical 3DI design for scientists, documents lessons learned while redesigning for bare-hand trackers, and provides evidence suggesting that 3D interaction could improve volume data analysis for a variety of visual analysis tasks. Our contribution is in the realm of 3D user interfaces tightly integrated with visualization, for improving the effectiveness of visual analysis of volume datasets. Based on our experience, we also provide some insights into hardware-agnostic principles for design of effective interaction techniques.

  19. VOLUMNECT: measuring volumes with Kinect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintino Ferreira, Beatriz; Griné, Miguel; Gameiro, Duarte; Costeira, João. Paulo; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a solution to volume measurement object packing using 3D cameras (such as the Microsoft KinectTM). We target application scenarios, such as warehouses or distribution and logistics companies, where it is important to promptly compute package volumes, yet high accuracy is not pivotal. Our application auto- matically detects cuboid objects using the depth camera data and computes their volume and sorting it allowing space optimization. The proposed methodology applies to a point cloud simple computer vision and image processing methods, as connected components, morphological operations and Harris corner detector, producing encouraging results, namely an accuracy in volume measurement of 8mm. Aspects that can be further improved are identified; nevertheless, the current solution is already promising turning out to be cost effective for the envisaged scenarios.

  20. Volume inside old black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Marios; De Lorenzo, Tommaso

    2016-11-01

    Black holes that have nearly evaporated are often thought of as small objects, due to their tiny exterior area. However, the horizon bounds large spacelike hypersurfaces. A compelling geometric perspective on the evolution of the interior geometry was recently shown to be provided by a generally covariant definition of the volume inside a black hole using maximal surfaces. In this article, we expand on previous results and show that finding the maximal surfaces in an arbitrary spherically symmetric spacetime is equivalent to a 1 +1 geodesic problem. We then study the effect of Hawking radiation on the volume by computing the volume of maximal surfaces inside the apparent horizon of an evaporating black hole as a function of time at infinity: while the area is shrinking, the volume of these surfaces grows monotonically with advanced time, up to when the horizon has reached Planckian dimensions. The physical relevance of these results for the information paradox and the remnant scenarios are discussed.

  1. Organ volume estimation using SPECT

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. In order to improve single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) quantitation, attenuation correction was performed according to Chang's algorithm. The dual-window method was used for scatter subtraction. We used a Monte Carlo simulation of the SPECT system to accurately determine the scatter multiplier factor k. Volume estimation using SPECT was performed by summing up the volume elements (voxels) lying within the contour of the object, determined by a fixed threshold and the gray level histogram (GLH) method. Thyroid phantom and patient studies were performed and the influence of 1) fixed thresholding, 2) automatic thresholding, 3) attenuation, 4) scatter, and 5) reconstruction filter were investigated. This study shows that accurate volume estimation of the thyroid gland is feasible when accurate corrections are perform...

  2. Volumetric measurement of tank volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Richard T. (Inventor); Vanbuskirk, Paul D. (Inventor); Weber, William F. (Inventor); Froebel, Richard C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for determining the volume of compressible gas in a system including incompressible substances in a zero-gravity environment consisting of measuring the change in pressure (delta P) for a known volume change rate (delta V/delta t) in the polytrophic region between isothermal and adiabatic conditions. The measurements are utilized in an idealized formula for determining the change in isothermal pressure (delta P sub iso) for the gas. From the isothermal pressure change (delta iso) the gas volume is obtained. The method is also applicable to determination of gas volume by utilizing work (W) in the compression process. In a passive system, the relationship of specific densities can be obtained.

  3. Volumes of Polytopes Without Triangulations

    CERN Document Server

    Enciso, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new formalism for defining and computing the volumes of completely general polytopes in any dimension. The expressions that we obtain for these volumes are independent of any triangulation, and manifestly depend only on the vertices of the underlying polytope. As one application of this formalism, we obtain new expressions for tree-level, n-point NMHV amplitudes in N=4 Super Yang-Mills (SYM) theory.

  4. Disorders of Erythrocyte Volume Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Glogowska, Edyta; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2015-01-01

    Inherited disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders with phenotypes ranging from dehydrated to overhydrated erythrocytes. Clinical, laboratory, physiologic, and genetic heterogeneity characterize this group of disorders. A series of recent reports have provided novel insights into our understanding of the genetic bases underlying some of these disorders of red cell volume regulation. This report reviews this progress in understanding determinants ...

  5. Insular volume reduction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saze, Teruyasu; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Namiki, Chihiro; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Hayashi, Takuji; Murai, Toshiya

    2007-12-01

    Structural and functional abnormalities of the insular cortex have been reported in patients with schizophrenia. Most studies have shown that the insular volumes in schizophrenia patients are smaller than those of healthy people. As the insular cortex is functio-anatomically divided into anterior and posterior subdivisons, recent research is focused on uncovering a specific subdivisional abnormality of the insula in patients with schizophrenia. A recent ROI-based volumetric MRI study demonstrated specific left anterior insular volume reduction in chronic schizophrenia patients (Makris N, Goldstein J, Kennedy D, Hodge S, Caviness V, Faraone S, Tsuang M, Seidman L (2006) Decreased volume of left and total anterior insular lobule in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 83:155-171). On the other hand, our VBM-based volumetric study revealed a reduction in right posterior insular volume (Yamada M, Hirao K, Namiki C, Hanakawa T, Fukuyama H, Hayashi T, Murai T (2007) Social cognition and frontal lobe pathology in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study. NeuroImage 35:292-298). In order to address these controversial results, ROI-based subdivisional volumetry was performed using the MRI images from the same population we analyzed in our previous VBM-study. The sample group comprised 20 schizophrenia patients and 20 matched healthy controls. Patients with schizophrenia showed a global reduction in insular gray matter volumes relative to healthy comparison subjects. In a simple comparison of the volumes of each subdivision between the groups, a statistically significant volume reduction in patients with schizophrenia was demonstrated only in the right posterior insula. This study suggests that insular abnormalities in schizophrenia would include anterior as well as posterior parts. Each subdivisional abnormality may impact on different aspects of the pathophysiology and psychopathology of schizophrenia; these relationships should be the focus of future research.

  6. Development of a Liquid Chip Technique for Detection of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia of Salmonids Virus(VHSV)%病毒性出血性败血症病毒液相芯片检测技术的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹伟力; 梁君妮; 林超; 张四化; 岳志芹; 刘荭

    2015-01-01

    为建立检测病毒性出血性败血症病毒(VHSV)的液相芯片快速检测技术,用DNAStar软件对Gen-Bank中VHSV的G基因进行序列分析,设计VHSV特异性引物并标记生物素。探针氨基化修饰并与荧光编码微球偶联后与VHSV RT-PCR产物杂交反应,用液相芯片仪器检测荧光信号。结果表明液相芯片检测体系能够正确检出VHSV。病毒核酸的最低检出量为10pg,检测特异性高,说明初步建立了检测VHSV的液相芯片技术,为VHSV的检测提供了新方法。%In order to develop a liquid chip assay for detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia of salmonids virus (VHSV),the G gene of VHSV in the GenBank was sequenced by using the software DNAStar 7.0 and specific VHSV primers labeled with biotin were prepared and coupled with fluorescence-coded microspheres. The aminationed probe was used for hybridization of VHSV PCR products,and a liquid chip detection technique for detection of VHSV was established by using BD FACSArray to detect fluorescence signal in the reaction system. The results showed that VHSV could be accurately detected by the developed liquid chip detection technique. The lower detection limit with this method was 10 pg of viral RNA,and the specificity of this method was very high.The study provided a new method for rapid and high throughput detection of VHSV.

  7. Control volume based hydrocephalus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Wei, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a disease involving excess amounts of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Recent research has shown correlations to pulsatility of blood flow through the brain. However, the problem to date has presented as too complex for much more than statistical analysis and understanding. This talk will highlight progress on developing a fundamental control volume approach to studying hydrocephalus. The specific goals are to select physiologically control volume(s), develop conservation equations along with the experimental capabilities to accurately quantify terms in those equations. To this end, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the human brain. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. The gel has a hollow spherical cavity representing a ventricle and a cylindrical passage representing the aquaducts. A computer controlled piston pump supplies pulsatile volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity, and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients.

  8. Image plane sweep volume illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundén, Erik; Ynnerman, Anders; Ropinski, Timo

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, many volumetric illumination models have been proposed, which have the potential to simulate advanced lighting effects and thus support improved image comprehension. Although volume ray-casting is widely accepted as the volume rendering technique which achieves the highest image quality, so far no volumetric illumination algorithm has been designed to be directly incorporated into the ray-casting process. In this paper we propose image plane sweep volume illumination (IPSVI), which allows the integration of advanced illumination effects into a GPU-based volume ray-caster by exploiting the plane sweep paradigm. Thus, we are able to reduce the problem complexity and achieve interactive frame rates, while supporting scattering as well as shadowing. Since all illumination computations are performed directly within a single rendering pass, IPSVI does not require any preprocessing nor does it need to store intermediate results within an illumination volume. It therefore has a significantly lower memory footprint than other techniques. This makes IPSVI directly applicable to large data sets. Furthermore, the integration into a GPU-based ray-caster allows for high image quality as well as improved rendering performance by exploiting early ray termination. This paper discusses the theory behind IPSVI, describes its implementation, demonstrates its visual results and provides performance measurements.

  9. Thermodynamic volume of cosmological solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbarek, Saoussen; Mann, Robert B.

    2017-02-01

    We present explicit expressions of the thermodynamic volume inside and outside the cosmological horizon of Eguchi-Hanson solitons in general odd dimensions. These quantities are calculable and well-defined regardless of whether or not the regularity condition for the soliton is imposed. For the inner case, we show that the reverse isoperimetric inequality is not satisfied for general values of the soliton parameter a, though a narrow range exists for which the inequality does hold. For the outer case, we find that the mass Mout satisfies the maximal mass conjecture and the volume is positive. We also show that, by requiring Mout to yield the mass of dS spacetime when the soliton parameter vanishes, the associated cosmological volume is always positive.

  10. Thermodynamic Volume of Cosmological Solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Mbarek, Saoussen

    2016-01-01

    We present explicit expressions of the thermodynamic volume inside and outside the cosmological horizon of Eguchi-Hanson solitons in general odd dimensions. These quantities are calculable and well-defined regardless of whether or not the regularity condition for the soliton is imposed. For the inner case, we show that the reverse isoperimetric inequality is not satisfied for general values of the soliton parameter $a$, though a narrow range exists for which the inequality does hold. For the outer case, we find that the mass $M_{out}$ satisfies the maximal mass conjecture and the volume is positive. We also show that, by requiring $M_{out}$ to yield the mass of dS spacetime when the soliton parameter vanishes, the associated cosmological volume is always positive.

  11. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include...

  12. The relative volume growth of minimal submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, V.

    2002-01-01

    The volume growth of certain well-defined subsets of minimal submanifolds in riemannian spaces are compared with the volume growth of balls and spheres ill space forms of constant curvature.......The volume growth of certain well-defined subsets of minimal submanifolds in riemannian spaces are compared with the volume growth of balls and spheres ill space forms of constant curvature....

  13. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Bendtsen, Flemming; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according...

  14. Gas volume contents within a container, smart volume instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Van Buskirk, Paul D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method for determining the volume of an incompressible gas in a system including incompressible substances in a zero-gravity environment. The method includes inducing a volumetric displacement within a container and measuring the resulting pressure change. From this data, the liquid level can be determined.

  15. Large volume cryogenic silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braggio, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy); Bressi, G. [INFN sez. di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Carugno, G.; Corti, D. [INFN sez. di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Galeazzi, G. [INFN lab. naz. Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We present preliminary measurements for the development of a large volume silicon detector to detect low energy and low rate energy depositions. The tested detector is a one cm-thick silicon PIN diode with an active volume of 31 cm{sup 3}, cooled to the liquid helium temperature to obtain depletion from thermally-generated free carriers. A thorough study has been done to show that effects of charge trapping during drift disappears at a bias field value of the order of 100V/cm.

  16. Foaming volume and foam stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sydney

    1947-01-01

    A method of measuring foaming volume is described and investigated to establish the critical factors in its operation. Data on foaming volumes and foam stabilities are given for a series of hydrocarbons and for a range of concentrations of aqueous ethylene-glycol solutions. It is shown that the amount of foam formed depends on the machinery of its production as well as on properties of the liquid, whereas the stability of the foam produced, within specified mechanical limitations, is primarily a function of the liquid.

  17. Disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glogowska, E; Gallagher, P G

    2015-05-01

    Inherited disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders with phenotypes ranging from dehydrated to overhydrated erythrocytes. Clinical, laboratory, physiologic, and genetic heterogeneities characterize this group of disorders. A series of recent reports have provided novel insights into our understanding of the genetic bases underlying some of these disorders of red cell volume regulation. This report reviews this progress in understanding determinants that influence erythrocyte hydration and how they have yielded a better understanding of the pathways that influence cellular water and solute homeostasis.

  18. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of the series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: ion exchange, electrphoresis, dialysis, electrochemistry, corrosion, electrolytic cells, coulometry,…

  19. Editorial, Volume 5, Issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy L. Archuleta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to Volume 5, Issue 1 of the Journal of Financial Therapy! In this issue, four scholarly papers are presented along with two profiles and a book review. These four papers address very important issues, such as mental health therapists’ competency in working with financial issues, financial stress of college students, parental messages about money, and financial advice media.

  20. Plasma volume in acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T D; Klausen, T; Richalet, J P

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to acute hypoxia is associated with changes in body fluid homeostasis and plasma volume (PV). This study compared a dye dilution technique using Evans' blue (PV[Evans']) with a carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method (PV[CO]) for measurements of PV in ten normal subjects at sea level...

  1. Archives of ALGA. Volume 2

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Volume 2 contains 3 articles: Ilir Berisha, Translation of Bäcklunds paper ”Surfaces of constant negative curvature”; Johan Erlandsson, "Survey of mathematical models in biology from point of view of Lie group analysis"; Niklas Säfström, "Group analysis of a tumour growth model"

  2. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, H.W. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: Safeguards-Related Problems; Neutronics and Criticality; Operations and Systems Experience II; Plutonium Systems; Intermediate Storage in Casks; Operations and Systems Planning; Institutional Issues; Structural and Thermal Evaluation I; Poster Session B; Extended Testing I; Structural and Thermal Evaluation II; Extended Testing II; and Emergency Preparedness and Response. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  3. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, H.W. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 contains papers from the following sessions: Plenary Session; Regulations, Licensing and Standards; LMFBR Systems Concepts; Risk/Safety Assessment I; Systems and Package Design; US Institutional Issues; Risk/Safety Assessment II; Leakage, Leak Rate and Seals; Poster Session A; Operations and Systems Experience I; Manufacturing Processes and Materials; and Quality Assurance and Maintenance. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  4. Pragmatics & Language Learning. Volume 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Gabriele, Ed.; Nguyen, Hanh thi, Ed.; Yoshimi, Dina Rudolph, Ed.; Yoshioka, Jim K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume examines the organization of second language and multilingual speakers' talk and pragmatic knowledge across a range of naturalistic and experimental activities. Based on data collected on Danish, English, Hawai'i Creole, Indonesian, and Japanese as target languages, the contributions explore the nexus of pragmatic knowledge,…

  5. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are…

  6. Moment Maps and Equivariant Volumes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto DELLA VEDOVA; Roberto PAOLETTI

    2007-01-01

    The study of the volume of big line bundles on a complex projective manifold M has been one of the main veins in the recent interest in the asymptotic properties of linear series. In this article,we consider an equivariant version of this problem, in the presence of a linear action of a reductive group on M.

  7. The African Experience. Volume I: Syllabus Lectures; Volume II: Bibliographic References; Volume IIIA: Introductory Essays; Volume IIIB: Introductory Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, John N.; Soja, Edward W.

    In response to demands for more and better teaching about Africa in American higher education, the US Office of Education requested that the Program of African Studies at Northwestern University generate a set of teaching materials which could be used in introductory undergraduate courses. Included in these volumes, these materials provide…

  8. Reading Authentic Polish, Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczynski, Waldemar

    The second volume on reading authentic Polish is the continuation of a supplementary textbook to be used either in the classroom or in independent study. The materials included in it are unaltered authentic texts from Polish newspapers, magazines, and other mass media that provide exposure to the context and format of everyday reading matter. The…

  9. Octree-based Volume Sculpting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    1998-01-01

    A volume sculpting system is presented. The system provides tools for interactive editing of a voxel raster that is stored in an octree data structure. Two different modes of sculpting are supported: Sculpting by adding and subtracting solids, and sculpting with tools that are based on a spray ca...... metaphor. The possibility of extending the method to support multiresolution sculpting is discussed....

  10. International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (Volumes 1 through 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison M.

    2013-03-27

    The design report consists of four volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary; Volume 2, Physics; Volume 3, Accelerator (Part I, R and D in the Technical Design Phase, and Part II, Baseline Design); and Volume 4, Detectors.

  11. Modulators of Fish Immune Responses. Volume 1. Models for Environmental Toxicology/Biomarkers Immunostimulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    leucopenia , a decrease in phagocytic ability of neutrophils, a decrease in lysozyme activity, and an increase in ceruloplasmin activity in serum as observed...enhanced. Atrazine in concentrations 127 of 0.1 to 1 mg/L was reported to produce a leucopenia and an atrophy of lymphoid organs in salmonids (Walsh and

  12. Vaccine Adjuvants in Fish Vaccines Make a Difference: Comparing Three Adjuvants (Montanide ISA763A Oil, CpG/Poly I:C Combo and VHSV Glycoprotein Alone or in Combination Formulated with an Inactivated Whole Salmonid Alphavirus Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna L. Thim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most commercial vaccines offered to the aquaculture industry include inactivated antigens (Ag formulated in oil adjuvants. Safety concerns are related to the use of oil adjuvants in multivalent vaccines for fish, since adverse side effects (e.g., adhesions can appear. Therefore, there is a request for vaccine formulations for which protection will be maintained or improved, while the risk of side effects is reduced. Here, by using an inactivated salmonid alphavirus (SAV as the test Ag, the combined use of two Toll-like receptor (TLR ligand adjuvants, CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs and poly I:C, as well as a genetic adjuvant consisting of a DNA plasmid vector expressing the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV glycoprotein (G was explored. VHSV-G DNA vaccine was intramuscularly injected in combination with intraperitoneal injection of either SAV Ag alone or combined with the oil adjuvant, Montanide ISA763, or the CpG/polyI:C combo. Adjuvant formulations were evaluated for their ability to boost immune responses and induce protection against SAV in Atlantic salmon, following cohabitation challenge. It was observed that CpG/polyI:C-based formulations generated the highest neutralizing antibody titres (nAbs before challenge, which endured post challenge. nAb responses for VHSV G-DNA- and oil-adjuvanted formulations were marginal compared to the CpG/poly I:C treatment. Interestingly, heat-inactivated sera showed reduced nAb titres compared to their non-heated counterparts, which suggests a role of complement-mediated neutralization against SAV. Consistently elevated levels of innate antiviral immune genes in the CpG/polyI:C injected groups suggested a role of IFN-mediated responses. Co-delivery of the VHSV-G DNA construct with either CpG/polyI:C or oil-adjuvanted SAV vaccine generated higher CD4 responses in head kidney at 48 h compared to injection of this vector or SAV Ag alone. The results demonstrate that a combination of pattern recognizing

  13. Vaccine Adjuvants in Fish Vaccines Make a Difference: Comparing Three Adjuvants (Montanide ISA763A Oil, CpG/Poly I:C Combo and VHSV Glycoprotein) Alone or in Combination Formulated with an Inactivated Whole Salmonid Alphavirus Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thim, Hanna L; Villoing, Stéphane; McLoughlin, Marian; Christie, Karen Elina; Grove, Søren; Frost, Petter; Jørgensen, Jorunn B

    2014-03-25

    Most commercial vaccines offered to the aquaculture industry include inactivated antigens (Ag) formulated in oil adjuvants. Safety concerns are related to the use of oil adjuvants in multivalent vaccines for fish, since adverse side effects (e.g., adhesions) can appear. Therefore, there is a request for vaccine formulations for which protection will be maintained or improved, while the risk of side effects is reduced. Here, by using an inactivated salmonid alphavirus (SAV) as the test Ag, the combined use of two Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand adjuvants, CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs) and poly I:C, as well as a genetic adjuvant consisting of a DNA plasmid vector expressing the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) glycoprotein (G) was explored. VHSV-G DNA vaccine was intramuscularly injected in combination with intraperitoneal injection of either SAV Ag alone or combined with the oil adjuvant, Montanide ISA763, or the CpG/polyI:C combo. Adjuvant formulations were evaluated for their ability to boost immune responses and induce protection against SAV in Atlantic salmon, following cohabitation challenge. It was observed that CpG/polyI:C-based formulations generated the highest neutralizing antibody titres (nAbs) before challenge, which endured post challenge. nAb responses for VHSV G-DNA- and oil-adjuvanted formulations were marginal compared to the CpG/poly I:C treatment. Interestingly, heat-inactivated sera showed reduced nAb titres compared to their non-heated counterparts, which suggests a role of complement-mediated neutralization against SAV. Consistently elevated levels of innate antiviral immune genes in the CpG/polyI:C injected groups suggested a role of IFN-mediated responses. Co-delivery of the VHSV-G DNA construct with either CpG/polyI:C or oil-adjuvanted SAV vaccine generated higher CD4 responses in head kidney at 48 h compared to injection of this vector or SAV Ag alone. The results demonstrate that a combination of pattern recognizing receptor (PRR

  14. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  15. Prices Up and Volumes Stable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011 First Half China Garment Industry Report Exports Grew at a Slower Pace China Customs reported the garment & accessories export value of $51.286 billion for the first five months of this year, up 23.12% y/y, accounting for 56.28 percent of the total, 5% lower than the previous year’s points.Despite sales prices increase, sales volume remain stable. From Jan. to May

  16. Volume 7, Issue 1 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy Creagh; John Clarke; Karen Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Welcome to Volume 7 of Student Success.  This editorial has two parts: The first part maintains the “doing things differently” tradition, making readers aware by chronicling the publishing of the journal in an open access (OA) forum.  Future editorials will briefly discuss other aspects and issues pertaining to the new scholarly publishing landscape that this journal adheres to, such as:  Creative Commons Licencing; ORCID IDs; considerations of new peer review models and importantly; measurin...

  17. Analytic torsion and symplectic volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLellan, Brendan Donald Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the abelian analytic torsion on a closed, oriented, quasi-regular Sasakian three-manifold and identifies this quantity as a specific multiple of the natural unit symplectic volume form on the moduli space of flat abelian connections. This identification effectively computes...... the analytic torsion explicitly in terms of Seifert data for a given quasi-regular Sasakian structure on a three-manifold....

  18. Memorial volume for Y. Nambu

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Lay Nam; Han, Moo-Young; Phua, Kok Khoo

    2016-01-01

    We have lost one of the giants of the twentieth century physics when Yoichiro Nambu passed away in July, 2015, at the age of 94. Today's Standard Model, though still incomplete in many respects, is the culmination of the most successful theory of the Universe to date, and it is built upon foundations provided by discoveries made by Nambu in the 1960s: the mechanism of spontaneously broken symmetry in Nature (with G Jona-Lasinio) and the hidden new SU(3) symmetry of quarks and gluons (with M-Y Han). In this volume honoring Nambu's memory, World Scientific Publishing presents a unique collection of papers written by his former colleagues, collaborating researchers and former students and associates, not only citing Nambu's great contributions in physics but also many personal and private reminiscences, some never told before. This volume also contains the very last scientific writing by Professor Nambu himself, discussing the development of particle physics. This book is a volume for all who benefited not on...

  19. On the volume of cremated remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvig, Lise Lock; Lynnerup, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Harvig, L., Lynnerup, N. 2013. On the effective volume of prehistoric cremains - a comparative study of cremated bone volume measured manually and assessed by Computed Tomography. Journal of Archaeological Science 40, p. 2713–2722.......Harvig, L., Lynnerup, N. 2013. On the effective volume of prehistoric cremains - a comparative study of cremated bone volume measured manually and assessed by Computed Tomography. Journal of Archaeological Science 40, p. 2713–2722....

  20. The parallel volume at large distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen

    In this paper we examine the asymptotic behavior of the parallel volume of planar non-convex bodies as the distance tends to infinity. We show that the difference between the parallel volume of the convex hull of a body and the parallel volume of the body itself tends to . This yields a new proof...... for the fact that a planar body can only have polynomial parallel volume, if it is convex. Extensions to Minkowski spaces and random sets are also discussed....

  1. The parallel volume at large distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen

    In this paper we examine the asymptotic behavior of the parallel volume of planar non-convex bodies as the distance tends to infinity. We show that the difference between the parallel volume of the convex hull of a body and the parallel volume of the body itself tends to 0. This yields a new proof...... for the fact that a planar body can only have polynomial parallel volume, if it is convex. Extensions to Minkowski spaces and random sets are also discussed....

  2. Site Environmental Report for 2005 Volume I and Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, Michael

    2006-07-07

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, ''Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting''. The ''Site Environmental Report for 2005'' summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2005. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as ''Berkeley Lab'', ''the Laboratory'', ''Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory'', and ''LBNL''.) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains an overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. This year's Volume I text body is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters. The report's structure has been reorganized this year, and it now includes a chapter devoted to environmental management system topics. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities. The ''Site Environmental Report'' is distributed by releasing it on the Web from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request. The report follows the Laboratory's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are also reported using the more conventional (non-SI) system of measurements, because the non-SI system is referenced by several current

  3. Ion Channels Involved in Cell Volume Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2011-01-01

    This mini review outlines studies of cell volume regulation in two closely related mammalian cell lines: nonadherent Ehrlich ascites tumour cells (EATC) and adherent Ehrlich Lettre ascites (ELA) cells. Focus is on the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) that occurs after cell swelling, the volume...

  4. Comparing Volumes of Prisms and Pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Natalya

    2012-01-01

    Students' experience in using formulas for volumes is often limited to substituting numbers into given formulas. An activity presented in this article may help students make connections between the formulas for volumes of prisms and volumes of pyramids. In addition, some interesting facts from number theory arise, demonstrating strong connections…

  5. Culture of Schools. Final Report. Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC.

    The final volume of this 4-volume report contains further selections from "Anthropological Perspectives on Education," a monograph to be published by Basic Books of New York. (Other selections are in Vol. III, SP 003 902.) Monograph selections appearing in this volume are: "Great Tradition, Little Tradition, and Formal Education;""Indians,…

  6. Regulation of amniotic fluid volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, M H; van den Wijngaard, J P H M; van Gemert, M J C; Ross, M G

    2007-01-01

    Water arrives in the mammalian gestation from the maternal circulation across the placenta. It then circulates between the fetal water compartments, including the fetal body compartments, the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is created by the flow of fluid from the fetal lung and bladder. A major pathway for amniotic fluid resorption is fetal swallowing; however, in many cases the amounts of fluid produced and absorbed do not balance. A second resorption pathway, the intramembranous pathway (across the amnion to the fetal circulation), has been proposed to explain the maintenance of normal amniotic fluid volume. Amniotic fluid volume is thus a function both of the amount of water transferred to the gestation across the placental membrane, and the flux of water across the amnion. Water flux across biologic membranes may be driven by osmotic or hydrostatic forces; existing data suggest that intramembranous flow in humans is driven by the osmotic difference between the amniotic fluid and the fetal serum. The driving force for placental flow is more controversial, and both forces may be in effect. The mechanism(s) responsible for regulating water flow to and from the amniotic fluid is unknown. In other parts of the body, notably the kidney, water flux is regulated by the expression of aquaporin water channels on the cell membrane. We hypothesize that aquaporins have a role in regulating water flux across both the amnion and the placenta, and present evidence in support of this theory. Current knowledge of gestational water flow is sufficient to allow prediction of fetal outcome when water flow is abnormal, as in twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Further insight into these mechanisms may allow novel treatments for amniotic fluid volume abnormalities with resultant improvement in clinical outcome.

  7. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-22

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  8. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  9. Environmental Report 1995. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M. [and others

    1996-09-01

    This report contains the results of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) environmental monitoring and compliance effort and an assessment of the impact of LLNL operations on the environment and the public. This first volume describes LLNL`s environmental impact and compliance activities and features descriptive and explanatory text, summary data tables, and plots showing data trends. The summary data include measures of the center of data, their spread or variability, and their extreme values. Chapters on monitoring air, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation are present.

  10. BOX: One Minute Volume 3

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Rose

    2009-01-01

    BOX is a digital short originally developed in 2004 documented on a 1920’s box camera. This early moving image work formed the basis of a practice which interrogates our experience of moving image through the remediation of analogue technology with new media. In 2009 it was included in One Minute Volume 3; a programme of artists moving image curated by Kerry Baldry including work by: Tony Hill, Tina Keane, Katherine Meynell, Kayla Parker and Stuart Moore, Dave Griffiths, Marty St Jam...

  11. Expression of olfactory receptors in different life stages and life histories of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, K A; Lubieniecki, K P; Koop, B F; Davidson, W S

    2011-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that salmonids use olfactory cues to return to their natal rivers and streams. However, the key components of the molecular pathway involved in imprinting and homing are still unknown. If odorants are involved in salmon homing migration, then olfactory receptors should play a critical role in the dissipation of information from the environment to the fish. Therefore, we examined the expression profiles of a suite of genes encoding olfactory receptors and other olfactory-related genes in the olfactory rosettes of different life stages in two anadromous and one non-anadromous wild Atlantic salmon populations from Newfoundland, Canada. We identified seven differentially expressed OlfC genes in juvenile anadromous salmon compared to returning adults in both populations of anadromous Atlantic salmon. The salmon from the Campbellton River had an additional 10 genes that were differentially expressed in juveniles compared to returning adults. There was no statistically significant difference in gene expression of any of the genes in the non-anadromous population (P wild North American Atlantic salmon, has identified seven OlfC genes that may be involved in the imprinting and homeward migration of anadromous Atlantic salmon.

  12. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according......The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... to the kinetic theory as the product of cardiac output and mean transit time of the central vascular bed. Central blood volume was significantly smaller in patients with cirrhosis than in controls (mean 21 vs. 27 ml/kg estimated ideal body weight, p less than 0.001; 25% vs. 33% of the total blood volume, p less...

  13. Oceanographic Trawl Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  14. CTD Oceanographic Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  15. Zooplankton Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  16. Nécrose pancréatique infectieuse des salmonidés : évaluation de méthodes destinées à couper la transmission par l'oeuf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORSON M.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Des ovules de truites Arc-en-Ciel ont été fécondés par des spermatozoïdes de la même espèce traités par l'iode suivant différents protocoles afin de couper la transmission de la nécrose pancréatique infectieuse (NPI des salmonidés. L'efficacité de l'iode a été évaluée en parallèle par neutralisation du virus en 1 mn. Le protocole conseillé pour la solution d'iode disponible dans le commerce (ovules égouttés, puis recouverts de solution- iodée et sperme ajouté immédiatement a d'abord été utilisé. A pH compris entre 5 et 8 et pour des concentrations en iode de 15, 25 et 35 mg/l, le pourcentage de fécondation est inférieur à 10 et ne remonte qu'à pH 9 (69 % pour 25 mg/l. Par contre, l'efficacité contre le virus décroît rapidement pour des pH supérieurs à 7, et aucun pH n'a permis de concilier efficacité et innocuité. Le même protocole'utilisé avec 10 spermes individuels a montré des différences de sensibilité individuelle marquées (pourcentages de fécondation de 1,6 à 37 % pour 25 mg/l d'iode à pH8, qui ne sont pas en corrélation avec la qualité des spermes appréciée par la concentration de la protéine de membrane 42 kDa dans le liquide séminal. Les différents essais de préincubation du sperme (de quelques secondes à 1 minute ont donné des rendements de fécondation nuls, sauf pour un large excès de sperme, qui entraînait aussi la perte de l'efficacité de l'iode contre le virus. Deux expériences de transmission expérimentale ont été réalisées en incubant les spermatozoïdes avec du virus concentré. L'élimination systématique des oeufs morts et anormaux suivie d'une désinfection externe des oeufs (50 mg/l d'iode, 15 mn avant l'éclosion n'a pas permis dé couper la transmission, ce qui laisse supposer que le virus peut être transmis sans infecter l'embryon de façon létale.

  17. Biological and Physical Inventory of the Streams within the Nez Perce Reservation; Synopsis, 1982-1984 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Ross K.; Kucera, P.A.; Johnson, D.B. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    1985-08-01

    This report provides a synopsis for three years of inventory work on the streams in the Lower Clearwater Basin, Idaho. The main emphasis of the study was to document which streams presently support anadromous salmonids, the extent of production in those streams and the identification of those streams which may best respond to enhancement restoration activities. Rainbow-steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) were the most abundant anadromous salmonid found. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were found rarely except in the Lolo Creek Drainage. The main environmental problem affecting these streams was the extreme flow variations which commonly occur. This is due primarily to poor land management practices. Enhancement recommendations are suggested for these streams which include passage around barriers, barrier removal, riparian enhancement, instream habitat improvement, and better land use practices.

  18. Salmon and steelhead in the White Salmon River after the removal of Condit Dam–Planning efforts and recolonization results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brady; Engle, Rod O; Zendt, Joseph S; Shrier, Frank C; Wilson, Jeremy T; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Condit Dam, at river kilometer 5.3 on the White Salmon River, Washington, was breached in 2011 and completely removed in 2012. This action opened habitat to migratory fish for the first time in 100 years. The White Salmon Working Group was formed to create plans for fish salvage in preparation for fish recolonization and to prescribe the actions necessary to restore anadromous salmonid populations in the White Salmon River after Condit Dam removal. Studies conducted by work group members and others served to inform management decisions. Management options for individual species were considered, including natural recolonization, introduction of a neighboring stock, hatchery supplementation, and monitoring natural recolonization for some time period to assess the need for hatchery supplementation. Monitoring to date indicates that multiple species and stocks of anadromous salmonids are finding and spawning in the now accessible and recovering habitat.

  19. Site Environmental Report for 2009, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Suying

    2010-08-19

    Volume II of the Site Environmental Report for 2009 is provided by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to Volume I, which contains the body of the report. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results of routine and nonroutine sampling at the Laboratory, except for groundwater sampling data, which may be found in the reports referred to in Chapter 4 of Volume I. The results from sample collections are more comprehensive in Volume II than in Volume I: for completeness, all results from sample collections that began or ended in calendar year (CY) 2009 are included in this volume. However, the samples representing CY 2008 data have not been used in the summary results that are reported in Volume I. (For example, although ambient air samples collected on January 6, 2009, are presented in Volume II, they represent December 2008 data and are not included in Table 4-2 in Volume I.) When appropriate, sampling results are reported in both conventional and International System (SI) units. For some results, the rounding procedure used in data reporting may result in apparent differences between the numbers reported in SI and conventional units. (For example, stack air tritium results reported as < 1.5 Bq/m3 are shown variously as < 39 and < 41 pCi/m3. Both of these results are rounded correctly to two significant digits.)

  20. Relationship between stroke volume and pulse pressure during blood volume perturbation: a mathematical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bighamian, Ramin; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2014-01-01

    Arterial pulse pressure has been widely used as surrogate of stroke volume, for example, in the guidance of fluid therapy. However, recent experimental investigations suggest that arterial pulse pressure is not linearly proportional to stroke volume. However, mechanisms underlying the relation between the two have not been clearly understood. The goal of this study was to elucidate how arterial pulse pressure and stroke volume respond to a perturbation in the left ventricular blood volume based on a systematic mathematical analysis. Both our mathematical analysis and experimental data showed that the relative change in arterial pulse pressure due to a left ventricular blood volume perturbation was consistently smaller than the corresponding relative change in stroke volume, due to the nonlinear left ventricular pressure-volume relation during diastole that reduces the sensitivity of arterial pulse pressure to perturbations in the left ventricular blood volume. Therefore, arterial pulse pressure must be used with care when used as surrogate of stroke volume in guiding fluid therapy.

  1. Information architecture. Volume 3: Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this document, as presented in Volume 1, The Foundations, is to assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in developing and promulgating information architecture guidance. This guidance is aimed at increasing the development of information architecture as a Departmentwide management best practice. This document describes departmental information architecture principles and minimum design characteristics for systems and infrastructures within the DOE Information Architecture Conceptual Model, and establishes a Departmentwide standards-based architecture program. The publication of this document fulfills the commitment to address guiding principles, promote standard architectural practices, and provide technical guidance. This document guides the transition from the baseline or defacto Departmental architecture through approved information management program plans and budgets to the future vision architecture. This document also represents another major step toward establishing a well-organized, logical foundation for the DOE information architecture.

  2. Space resources. Volume 3: Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mckay, M.F.; Mckay, D.S.; Duke, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    Space Resources addresses the issues of using space resources to support life on the Moon and for exploration of Mars. This volume - Materials - covers a number of technical and policy issues regarding the materials in space (mainly lunar and asteroidal) which can be used to support space operations. In part 1, nature and location of these materials, exploration strategy, evaluation criteria, and the technical means to collect or mine these materials is discussed. A baseline lunar mine and the basics of asteroid mining are presented and critiqued. In part 2, the beneficiation of ores and the extraction of such materials as oxygen, metals, and the makings of concrete are discussed. In part 3, the manufacturing and fabrication of nonterrestrial products are discussed. The economic tradeoffs between bringing needed products from Earth and making these products on location in space is considered. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers in this report.

  3. Using 3D Acoustic Telemetry to Assess the Response of Resident Salmonids to Strobe Lights in Lake Roosevelt, Washington; Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Feasibility Study, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Russlee; Farley, M.; Hansen, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    In 1995, the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was established to mitigate the loss of anadromous fish due to the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee dams. The objectives of the Chief Joseph Enhancement Project are to determine the status of resident kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee dams and to enhance kokanee and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations. Studies conducted at Grand Coulee Dam documented substantial entrainment of kokanee through turbines at the third powerhouse. In response to finding high entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam, the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) recommended investigating the use of strobe lights to repel fish from the forebay of the third powerhouse. Therefore, our study focused on the third powerhouse and how strobe lights affected fish behavior in this area. The primary objective of our study was to assess the behavioral response of kokanee and rainbow trout to strobe lights using 3D acoustic telemetry, which yields explicit spatial locations of fish in three dimensions. Our secondary objectives were to (1) use a 3D acoustic system to mobile track tagged fish in the forebay and upriver of Grand Coulee Dam and (2) determine the feasibility of detecting fish using a hydrophone mounted in the tailrace of the third powerhouse. Within the fixed hydrophone array located in the third powerhouse cul-de-sac, we detected 50 kokanee and 30 rainbow trout, accounting for 47% and 45% respectively, of the fish released. Kokanee had a median residence time of 0.20 h and rainbow trout had a median residence time of 1.07 h. We detected more kokanee in the array at night compared to the day, and we detected more rainbow trout during the day compared to the night. In general, kokanee and rainbow trout approached along the eastern shore and the relative frequency of kokanee and rainbow trout detections was highest along the eastern shoreline of the 3D array. However, because we

  4. Volume-effect in radiation therapy part one: volume-effect and tumour; L'effet volume en radiotherapie premiere partie: effet volume et tumeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huchet, A.; Wu, J. [Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou (AP-HP), Service de Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Caudry, M.; Trouette, R.; Vendrely, V.; Causse, N.; Recaldini, L.; Dahan, O.; Maire, J.P. [Hopital Saint-Andre, Service de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Belkacemi, Y. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Oscar-Lambret, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France)

    2003-04-01

    Volume is an important parameter of radiation therapy. Local control is inversely related to tumor size and the complication rate increases with the importance of the irradiated volume. Although the effect of irradiated volume has been widely reported since the beginning of radiotherapy, it has been less studied than other radiation parameters such as dose, fractionation, or treatment duration. One of the first organ system in which the adverse effect of increased volume was well defined is the skin. Over the last twenty years, numerous mathematical models have been developed for different organs. In this report we will discuss the relation between irradiated volume and tumor control. In a second article we will study the impact of irradiated volume on radiation adverse effects. (authors)

  5. An estimate of global glacier volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grinsted

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I assess the feasibility of using multivariate scaling relationships to estimate glacier volume from glacier inventory data. Scaling laws are calibrated against volume observations optimized for the specific purpose of estimating total global glacier ice volume. I find that adjustments for continentality and elevation range improve skill of area–volume scaling. These scaling relationships are applied to each record in the Randolph Glacier Inventory, which is the first globally complete inventory of glaciers and ice caps. I estimate that the total volume of all glaciers in the world is 0.35 ± 0.07 m sea level equivalent, including ice sheet peripheral glaciers. This is substantially less than a recent state-of-the-art estimate. Area–volume scaling bias issues for large ice masses, and incomplete inventory data are offered as explanations for the difference.

  6. Three particles in a finite volume

    CERN Document Server

    Polejaeva, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Within the non-relativistic potential scattering theory, we derive a generalized version of the L\\"uscher formula, which includes three-particle inelastic channels. Faddeev equations in a finite volume are discussed in detail. It is proved that, even in the presence of the three-particle intermediate states, the discrete spectrum in a finite box is determined by the infinite-volume elements of the scattering S-matrix up to corrections, exponentially suppressed at large volumes.

  7. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The {ital Petroleum Supply Annual} contains information on supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. It reflects data collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys, and it is divided into 2 volumes. This volume contains three sections: summary statistics, detailed statistics, and selected refinery statistics, each with final annual data. (The other volume contains final statistics for each month and replaces data previously published in the {ital Petroleum Supply Monthly}).

  8. The average free volume model for liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the molar volume thermal expansion coefficient of 59 room temperature ionic liquids is compared with their van der Waals volume Vw. Regular correlation can be discerned between the two quantities. An average free volume model, that considers the particles as hard core with attractive force, is proposed to explain the correlation in this study. A combination between free volume and Lennard-Jones potential is applied to explain the physical phenomena of liquids. Some typical simple liquids (inorganic, organic, metallic and salt) are introduced to verify this hypothesis. Good agreement from the theory prediction and experimental data can be obtained.

  9. Volume-effect and radiotherapy [2]. Part 2: volume-effect and normal tissue; Effet volume en radiotherapie [2]. Deuxieme partie: volume et tolerance des tissus sains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huchet, A.; Caudry, M.; Trouette, R.; Vendrely, V.; Causse, N.; Recaldini, L.; Maire, J.P. [Hopital Saint Andre, Service de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Belkacemi, Y. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Oscar-Lambret, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France); Atlan, D. [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Service de Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-10-01

    The first part of our work has focused on the relationship bet men tumor Volume and tumor control. Indeed, it is well known that the importance of irradiated volume could be a main parameter of radiation-induced complications. Numerous mathematical models have described the correlation between the irradiated volume and the risk of adverse effects. These models should predict the complication rate of each treatment planning. At the present time late effects have been the most studied. In this report we firstly propose a review of different mathematical models described for volume effect. Secondly, we will discuss whether these theoretical considerations can influence our view of radiation treatment planning optimization. (authors)

  10. Tumor Volumes and Prognosis in Laryngeal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad R. Issa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tumor staging systems for laryngeal cancer (LC have been developed to assist in estimating prognosis after treatment and comparing treatment results across institutions. While the laryngeal TNM system has been shown to have prognostic information, varying cure rates in the literature have suggested concern about the accuracy and effectiveness of the T-classification in particular. To test the hypothesis that tumor volumes are more useful than T classification, we conducted a retrospective review of 78 patients with laryngeal cancer treated with radiation therapy at our institution. Using multivariable analysis, we demonstrate the significant prognostic value of anatomic volumes in patients with previously untreated laryngeal cancer. In this cohort, primary tumor volume (GTVP, composite nodal volumes (GTVN and composite total volume (GTVP + GTVN = GTVC had prognostic value in both univariate and multivariate cox model analysis. Interestingly, when anatomic volumes were measured from CT scans after a single cycle of induction chemotherapy, all significant prognosticating value for measured anatomic volumes was lost. Given the literature findings and the results of this study, the authors advocate the use of tumor anatomic volumes calculated from pretreatment scans to supplement the TNM staging system in subjects with untreated laryngeal cancer. The study found that tumor volume assessment after induction chemotherapy is not of prognostic significance.

  11. Tumor Volumes and Prognosis in Laryngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Mohamad R.; Samuels, Stuart E.; Bellile, Emily; Shalabi, Firas L.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Wolf, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Tumor staging systems for laryngeal cancer (LC) have been developed to assist in estimating prognosis after treatment and comparing treatment results across institutions. While the laryngeal TNM system has been shown to have prognostic information, varying cure rates in the literature have suggested concern about the accuracy and effectiveness of the T-classification in particular. To test the hypothesis that tumor volumes are more useful than T classification, we conducted a retrospective review of 78 patients with laryngeal cancer treated with radiation therapy at our institution. Using multivariable analysis, we demonstrate the significant prognostic value of anatomic volumes in patients with previously untreated laryngeal cancer. In this cohort, primary tumor volume (GTVP), composite nodal volumes (GTVN) and composite total volume (GTVP + GTVN = GTVC) had prognostic value in both univariate and multivariate cox model analysis. Interestingly, when anatomic volumes were measured from CT scans after a single cycle of induction chemotherapy, all significant prognosticating value for measured anatomic volumes was lost. Given the literature findings and the results of this study, the authors advocate the use of tumor anatomic volumes calculated from pretreatment scans to supplement the TNM staging system in subjects with untreated laryngeal cancer. The study found that tumor volume assessment after induction chemotherapy is not of prognostic significance. PMID:26569309

  12. Can body volume be determined by PET?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, Michael; Paul, Dominik; Mix, Michael; Moser, Ernst; Brink, Ingo [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Section of Positron Emission Tomography, Freiburg (Germany); Korsten-Reck, Ulrike [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Sports Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Mueller, Frank [PET-Institute Rhein-Neckar, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Merk, Stefan [Kantonsspital Basel, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland)

    2005-04-01

    To avoid dependence on body weight, the standardised uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) can instead be normalised to the lean body mass (LBM), which can be determined from body volume and mass. This study was designed to answer the following questions: Firstly, can the total body volume in principle be determined using PET? Secondly, is the precision of this measurement comparable to that achieved using an established standard method. Ten patients were examined during oncological whole-body PET examinations. The whole-body volume of the patients was determined from the transmission scan in PET. Air displacement plethysmography with BOD POD was used for comparison as the standard method of volume determination. In all patients, the whole-body volumes could be determined using PET and the standard method. Bland and Altman [23] analysis for agreement between the volumes determined by the two methods (presentation of differences vs means) revealed a very small difference of -0.14 l. With a mean patient volume of 71.81{+-}15.93 l, the relative systematic error is only <0.1%. On this basis, equality of the volume values determined by the two methods can be assumed. PET can be used as a supplementary method for experimental determination of whole-body volume and total body fat in tumour patients. The fat content can be used to calculate the LBM and to determine body weight-independent SUVs (SUV{sub LBM}). (orig.)

  13. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs.

  14. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The ``Petroleum Supply Annual`` (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the PSA. The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  15. High volume data storage architecture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, James M.

    1990-01-01

    A High Volume Data Storage Architecture Analysis was conducted. The results, presented in this report, will be applied to problems of high volume data requirements such as those anticipated for the Space Station Control Center. High volume data storage systems at several different sites were analyzed for archive capacity, storage hierarchy and migration philosophy, and retrieval capabilities. Proposed architectures were solicited from the sites selected for in-depth analysis. Model architectures for a hypothetical data archiving system, for a high speed file server, and for high volume data storage are attached.

  16. Troglitazone treatment increases bone marrow adipose tissue volume but does not affect trabecular bone volume in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Mosekilde, Leif; Justesen, J;

    2001-01-01

    proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). Histomorphometric analysis of proximal tibia was performed in order to quantitate the amount of trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV %), adipose tissue volume per total volume (AV/TV %), and hematopoietic marrow volume per total volume (HV...

  17. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Washington, Volume IIA, Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dam Fish Passage, 1983 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown Author

    1984-05-01

    This engineering feasibility and predesign report on the Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dam Fish Passage Project provides BPA with information for planning purposes and will serve as a discussion document for interested agencies. Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dams, both on the Wenatchee River, were built in the early 1900's as diversions for hydropower, and irrigation and hydropower, respectively. The present fishway facilities at both sites are inadequate to properly pass the anadromous fish runs in the Wenatchee River. These runs include spring and summer chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon and steelhead trout. Predesign level drawings are provided in this report that represent fishway schemes capable of adequately passing present and projected fish runs. The effects of present passage facilities on anadromous fish stocks is addressed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The quantitative treatment assesses losses of adult migrants due to the structures and places an estimated value on those fish. The dollar figure is estimated to be between $391,000 and $701,000 per year for both structures. The qualitative approach to benefits deals with the concept of stock vigor, the need for passage improvements to help ensure the health of the anadromous fish stock. 29 references, 27 figures, 5 tables.

  18. Anadromous fish inventory: Alaska Coastal National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bibliography, species lists, histories of fisheries, habitat, key spawning and rearing areas, runs escapements, harvest data, effort, and mylar overlays.

  19. Heliophysics 3 Volume Paperback Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2013-03-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliunas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliunas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  20. Seeing and feeling volumes: The influence of shape on volume perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrimanovic, Mirela; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Kappers, Astrid M L

    2010-07-01

    The volume of common objects can be perceived visually, haptically or by a combination of both senses. The present study shows large effects of the object's shape on volume perception within all these modalities, with an average bias of 36%. In all conditions, the volume of a tetrahedron was overestimated compared to that of a cube or a sphere, and the volume of a cube was overestimated compared to that of a sphere. Additional analyses revealed that the biases could be explained by the dependence of the volume judgment on different geometric properties. During visual volume perception, the strategies depended on the objects that were compared and they were also subject-dependent. However, analysis of the haptic and bimodal data showed more consistent results and revealed that surface area of the stimuli influenced haptic as well as bimodal volume perception. This suggests that bimodal volume perception is more influenced by haptic input than by visual information.