WorldWideScience

Sample records for anadromous salmonid hatcheries

  1. Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Policies and Procedures for Columbia Basin Anadromous Salmonid Hatcheries, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (Northwest Power Planning Council, Portland, OR)

    1995-01-01

    This document outlines regional policies and procedures for hatchery operations in the Columbia River Basin. The purpose of these policies is to provide regional guidelines by which all anadromous fish hatcheries will be operated. These policies will be adopted by the fisheries co-managers, and will provide guidance to operate hatcheries in an efficient and biologically sound manner. The hatchery policies presented in this manual are not intended to establish production priorities. Rather, the intent is to guide hatchery operations once production numbers are established. Hatchery operations discussed in this report include broodstock collection, spawning, incubation of eggs, fish rearing and feeding, fish release, equipment maintenance and operations, and personnel training. Decisions regarding production priorities must be provided by fishery managers through a comprehensive plan that addresses both natural and hatchery fish production. The Integrated Hatchery Operations Team is a multi-agency group called for by the Northwest Power Planning Council. This team was directed to develop new basinwide policies for managing and operating all existing and future anadromous fish hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin. The parties pledge to confer with each other and to use their authorities and resources to accomplish these mutually acceptable hatchery practices.

  2. Outplanting Anadromous Salmonids, A Lilterature Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Eugene M.

    1985-10-01

    This paper presents a list of more than 200 references on topics associated with offstation releases of hatchery stocks of anadromous fish used to supplement or reestablish wild rearing. The narrative briefly reviews influences of genetics, rearing density of fish in the natural environment, survival rates observed from outplanted stocks, and estimation procedures for stocking rates and rearing densities. We have attempted to summarize guidelines and recommendations for fishery managers to consider. Based on tagging studies, a typical smolt release from a Willamette River hatchery would return 0.29% of the smolts to the stream of release as adults. Catch to escapement ratios for adult Willamette chinook vary widely between broods, but on average two fish are caught for each fish that escapes. The catch is about evenly divided between offshore and freshwater harvest. British Columbia is the primary location of offshore harvest, and the lower Willamette River is the primary location of freshwater harvest. Review of departmental policy indicates that only Willamette stock spring chinook are currently acceptable for use in a proposed outplant study within the Willamette basin. Further, most Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife district management biologists would prefer not to transfer any stocks of spring chinook between drainage subbasins. State fishery managers identified 16 Willamette basin streams as being suitable for supplementation with spring chinook from hatcheries. We reviewed the potential for rearing salmon in reservoirs throughout the basin. Use of the Carmen-Smith spawning channel, which was constructed on the upper McKenzie River in 1960, has generally declined with the decline in populations of chinook salmon in this river. The Carmen-Smith channel still provides a spawning place for those relatively few adult chinook that still return each year, but more fishery benefits may result from other uses of this facility. 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Physiological Assessment of Wild and Hatchery Juvenile Salmonids : Final Report, 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Donald A.; Beckman, Brian R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2003-08-01

    It is generally held that hatchery-reared salmonids are of inferior quality and have lower smolt-to-adult survival compared to naturally-reared salmon. The overall objectives of the work performed under this contract were the following: (1) Characterize the physiology and development of naturally rearing juvenile salmonids to: (2) Allow for the design of effective rearing programs for producing wild-like smolts in supplementation and production hatchery programs. (3) Examine the relationship between growth rate and size on the physiology and migratory performance of fish reared in hatchery programs. (4) Examine the interaction of rearing temperature and feed rate on the growth and smoltification of salmon for use in producing a more wild-like smolt in hatchery programs.

  4. Marine effect of introduced salmonids: Prey consumption by exotic steelhead and anadromous brown trout in the Patagonian Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancio, J.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Pascual, M.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of stable isotope analysis, we estimated the marine diet of the most abundant anadromous salmonid species in Patagonian Atlantic basins. The results were coupled with bioenergetic and population models to estimate the consumption of food by salmonids and was compared with that by seabirds, the most abundant top predators in the area. Amphipods were the main salmonid prey, followed by sprat, silversides, squid, and euphausiids. The total consumption, even assuming large anadromous salmonid populations, represented <5% of the total consumption by seabirds. We also identified the particular seabird colonies and artisanal fisheries with which salmonid trophic interactions at a more local scale could be significant. ?? 2010, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  5. Stock Assessment of Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids : Final Report, Volume I, Chinook, Coho, Chum and Sockeye Salmon Summaries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Philip J.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose was to identify and characterize the wild and hatchery stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia River Basin on the basis of currently available information. This report provides a comprehensive compilation of data on the status and life histories of Columbia Basin salmonid stocks.

  6. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, US Fish and Wildlife Hatcheries, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighing 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs., 25 tabs.

  7. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Washington Department of Wildlife Hatcheries, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighing 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs., 25 tabs.

  8. Intestinal fluid absorption in anadromous salmonids: importance of tight junctions and aquaporins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eSundell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The anadromous salmonid life cycle includes both fresh water (FW and seawater (SW stages. The parr-smolt transformation (smoltification pre–adapt the fish to SW while still in FW. The osmoregulatory organs change their mode of action from a role of preventing water inflow in FW, to absorb ions to replace water lost by osmosis in SW. During smoltification, the drinking rate increases, in the intestine the ion and fluid transport increases and is further elevated after SW entry. In SW, the intestine absorbs ions to create an inwardly directed water flow which is accomplished by increased Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA activity in the basolateral membrane, driving ion absorption via ion channels and/or co-transporters. This review will aim at discussing the expression patterns of the ion transporting proteins involved in intestinal fluid absorption in the FW stage, during smoltification and after SW entry. Of equal importance for intestinal fluid absorption as the active absorption of ions, is the permeability of the epithelium to ions and water. During the smoltification the increase in NKA activity and water uptake in SW is accompanied by decreased paracellular permeability suggesting a redirection of the fluid movement from a paracellular route in FW, to a transcellular route in SW. Increased transcellular fluid absorption could be achieved by incorporation of aquaporins (AQPs into the enterocyte membranes and/or by a change in fatty acid profile of the enterocyte lipid bilayer. An increased incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids into the membrane phospholipids will increase water permeability by enhancing the fluidity of the membrane. A second aim of the present review is therefore to discuss the presence and regulation of expression of AQPs in the enterocyte membrane as well as to discuss the profile of fatty acids present in the membrane phospholipids during different stages of the salmonid lifecycle.

  9. Predicting recolonization patterns and interactions between potamodromous and anadromous salmonids in response to dam removal in the Elwha River, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkman, S.J.; Pess, G.R.; Torgersen, C.E.; Kloehn, K.K.; Duda, J.J.; Corbett, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The restoration of salmonids in the Elwha River following dam removal will cause interactions between anadromous and potamodromous forms as recolonization occurs in upstream and downstream directions. Anadromous salmonids are expected to recolonize historic habitats, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) isolated above the dams for 90 years are expected to reestablish anadromy. We summarized the distribution and abundance of potamodromous salmonids, determined locations of spawning areas, and mapped natural barriers to fish migration at the watershed scale based on data collected from 1993 to 2006. Rainbow trout were far more abundant than bull trout throughout the watershed and both species were distributed up to river km 71. Spawning locations for bull trout and rainbow trout occurred in areas where we anticipate returning anadromous fish to spawn. Nonnative brook trout were confined to areas between and below the dams, and seasonal velocity barriers are expected to prevent their upstream movements. We hypothesize that the extent of interaction between potamodromous and anadromous salmonids will vary spatially due to natural barriers that will limit upstream-directed recolonization for some species of salmonids. Consequently, most competitive interactions will occur in the main stem and floodplain downstream of river km 25 and in larger tributaries. Understanding future responses of Pacific salmonids after dam removal in the Elwha River depends upon an understanding of existing conditions of the salmonid community upstream of the dams prior to dam removal.

  10. Impact of beaver dams on abundance and distribution of anadromous salmonids in two lowland streams in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virbickas, Tomas; Stakėnas, Saulius; Steponėnas, Andrius

    2015-01-01

    European beaver dams impeded movements of anadromous salmonids as it was established by fishing survey, fish tagging and redd counts in two lowland streams in Lithuania. Significant differences in abundancies of other litophilic fish species and evenness of representation by species in the community were detected upstream and downstream of the beaver dams. Sea trout parr marked with RFID tags passed through several successive beaver dams in upstream direction, but no tagged fish were detected above the uppermost dam. Increase in abundances of salmonid parr in the stream between the beaver dams and decrease below the dams were recorded in November, at the time of spawning of Atlantic salmon and sea trout, but no significant changes were detected in the sections upstream of the dams. After construction of several additional beaver dams in the downstream sections of the studied streams, abundance of Atlantic salmon parr downstream of the dams decreased considerably in comparison with that estimated before construction.

  11. Influence of Habitat Modifications on Habitat Composition and Anadromous Salmonid Populations in Fish Creek, Oregon, 1983-1988 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Gordon H.; Everest, Fred H. (Oregon State University, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Corvallis, OR); Hohler, David B. (Mount Hood National Forest, Clackamas River Ranger District, Estacada, OR)

    1990-05-01

    Modification of degraded habitats to increase populations of anadromous salmonids is a major focus of management agencies throughout the Pacific Northwest. Millions of dollars are spent annually on such efforts. Inherent in implementing habitat improvements is the need for quantitative evaluation of the biological and physical effects of such work. Reeves et al. (in press), however, noted that such evaluations are rare, making it difficult to assess the true results of habitat work. While it is not economically possible to thoroughly evaluate every habitat project, it is essential that intensive evaluations be done on selected representative projects. One such evaluation program has been underway since 1982 on Fish Creek, a tributary of the Clackamas River near Estacada, OR. Habitat modification has been done by the USDA Forest Service, Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest with funding provided in part by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The USDA Forest Service, Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit, Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), Corvallis, OR is charged with: (1) evaluating the biological and physical responses to habitat modifications on a basin scale; and (2) developing a cost-benefit analysis of the program. Preliminary results have been reported in a series of annual publications, Everest and Sedell 1983, 1984 and Everest et al. 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) report 1988 observations of biological and physical changes in habitat, salmonid populations, and smolt production in Fish Creek, and (2) examine preliminary trends in fish habitat and populations related to habitat improvement over the period 1983-1988. We have prefaced the trends in the latter objective as preliminary because we believe it could take a minimum of 10 years before the full biological and physical responses to habitat work are realized. We therefore urge caution in interpreting these preliminary results.

  12. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Idaho Department of Fish and Game Hatcheries, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighting 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs., 25 figs.

  13. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Hatcheries, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighing 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs, 25 figs.

  14. Predation by Northern Pikeminnow and tiger muskellunge on juvenile salmonids in a high–head reservoir: Implications for anadromous fish reintroductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorel, Mark H.; Hansen, Adam G.; Connelly, Kristin A.; Wilson, Andrew C.; Lowery, Erin D.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of reintroducing anadromous salmonids into reservoirs above high-head dams is affected by the suitability of the reservoir habitat for rearing and the interactions of the resident fish with introduced fish. We evaluated the predation risk to anadromous salmonids considered for reintroduction in Merwin Reservoir on the North Fork Lewis River in Washington State for two reservoir use-scenarios: year-round rearing and smolt migration. We characterized the role of the primary predators, Northern Pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis and tiger muskellunge (Northern Pike Esox lucius × Muskellunge E. masquinongy), by using stable isotopes and stomach content analysis, quantified seasonal, per capita predation using bioenergetics modeling, and evaluated the size and age structures of the populations. We then combined these inputs to estimate predation rates of size-structured population units. Northern Pikeminnow of FL ≥ 300 mm were highly cannibalistic and exhibited modest, seasonal, per capita predation on salmonids, but they were disproportionately much less abundant than smaller, less piscivorous, conspecifics. The annual predation on kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka (in biomass) by a size-structured unit of 1,000 Northern Pikeminnow having a FL ≥ 300 mm was analogous to 16,000–40,000 age-0 spring Chinook Salmon O. tshawytscha rearing year-round, or 400–1,000 age-1 smolts migrating April–June. The per capita consumption of salmonids by Northern Pikeminnow having a FL ≥ 200 mm was relatively low, due in large part to spatial segregation during the summer and the skewed size distribution of the predator population. Tiger muskellunge fed heavily on Northern Pikeminnow, other nonsalmonids, and minimally on salmonids. In addition to cannibalism within the Northern Pikeminnow population, predation by tiger muskellunge likely contributed to the low recruitment of larger (more piscivorous) Northern Pikeminnow, thereby decreasing the risk of predation to

  15. Stock Summary Reports for Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids, Volume V; Idaho Subbasins, 1992 CIS Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keifer, Sharon (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID); Rowe, Mike (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Hatch, Keith (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    1993-05-01

    An essential component of the effort to rebuild the Columbia Basin's anadromous fish resources is that available information and experience be organized and shared among numerous organizations and individuals. Past experience and knowledge must form the basis for actions into the future. Much of this knowledge exists only in unpublished form in agency and individual files. Even that information which is published in the form of technical and contract reports receives only limited distribution and is often out of print and unavailable after a few years. Only a small fraction of the basin's collective knowledge is captured in permanent and readily available databases (such as the Northwest Environmental Database) or in recognized journals. State, tribal, and federal fishery managers have recognized these information management problems and have committed to a program, the Coordinated Information System Project, to capture and share more easily the core data and other information upon which management decisions are based. That project has completed scoping and identification of key information needs and development of a project plan. Work performed under the CIS project will be coordinated with and extend information contained in the Northwest Environmental Database. Construction of prototype systems will begin in Phase 3. This report is one in a series of seven describing the results of the Coordinated Information System scoping and needs identification phase. A brief description of each of these reports is given.

  16. Genetic differences in growth, migration, and survival between hatchery and wild steelhead and Chinook salmon: Introduction and executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Steve P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents results of studies testing for genetically based differences in performance (growth, migration, and survival) between hatchery and wild populations of steelhead and Chinook salmon (Project Number 90-052). The report is organized into 10 chapters with a general study introduction preceding the first chapter. A growing body of data shows that domestication and a resulting loss of fitness for natural rearing occur in hatchery populations of anadromous salmonids; however, the magnitude of domestication will vary among species and hatchery programs. Better information on domestication is needed to accurately predict the consequences when hatchery and wild fish interbreed. The intent of hatchery supplementation is to increase natural production through introduction of hatchery fish into natural production areas. The goal of this study was to provide managers with information on the genetic risks of hatchery supplementation to wild populations of Columbia River Basin summer steelhead and spring Chinook salmon.

  17. Trophic feasibility of reintroducing anadromous salmonids in three reservoirs on the north fork Lewis River, Washington: Prey supply and consumption demand of resident fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorel, Mark H.; Hansen, Adam G.; Connelly, Kristin A.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The reintroduction of anadromous salmonids in reservoirs is being proposed with increasing frequency, requiring baseline studies to evaluate feasibility and estimate the capacity of reservoir food webs to support reintroduced populations. Using three reservoirs on the north fork Lewis River as a case study, we demonstrate a method to determine juvenile salmonid smolt rearing capacities for lakes and reservoirs. To determine if the Lewis River reservoirs can support reintroduced populations of juvenile stream-type Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, we evaluated the monthly production of daphniaDaphnia spp. (the primary zooplankton consumed by resident salmonids in the system) and used bioenergetics to model the consumption demand of resident fishes in each reservoir. To estimate the surplus of Daphnia prey available for reintroduced salmonids, we assumed a maximum sustainable exploitation rate and accounted for the consumption demand of resident fishes. The number of smolts that could have been supported was estimated by dividing any surplus Daphnia production by the simulated consumption demand of an individual Chinook Salmon fry rearing in the reservoir to successful smolt size. In all three reservoirs, densities of Daphnia were highest in the epilimnion, but warm epilimnetic temperatures and the vertical distribution of planktivores suggested that access to abundant epilimnetic prey was limited. By comparing accessible prey supply and demand on a monthly basis, we were able to identify potential prey supply bottlenecks that could limit smolt production and growth. These results demonstrate that a bioenergetics approach can be a valuable method of examining constraints on lake and reservoir rearing capacity, such as thermal structure and temporal food supply. This method enables numerical estimation of rearing capacity, which is a useful metric for managers evaluating the feasibility of reintroducing Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. in lentic systems.

  18. Survey of Artificial Production of Anadromous Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1981-1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, Percy M.

    1985-11-25

    The overall objective of this project is to collect, organize, and summarize data concerning anadromous fish culture stations of the Columbia River system for 1981, 1982, and 1983 and to create a data archive system with a means of making this information available to the public.

  19. Stock Summary Reports for Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids, Volume II; Oregon Subbasins Above Bonneville Dam, 1992 CIS Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Eric; Pierce, Paige (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR); Hatch, Keith (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    1993-05-01

    An essential component of the effort to rebuild the Columbia Basin's anadromous fish resources is that available information and experience be organized and shared among numerous organizations and individuals. Past experience and knowledge must form the basis for actions into the future. Much of this knowledge exists only in unpublished form in agency and individual files. Even that information which is published in the form of technical and contract reports receives only limited distribution and is often out of print and unavailable after a few years. Only a small fixtion of the basin's collective knowledge is captured in permanent and readily available databases (such as the Northwest Environmental Database) or in recognized journals. State, tribal, and fedend fishery managers have recognized these information management problems and have committed to a program, the Coordinated Information System Project, to capture and share more easily the core data and other information upon which management decisions am based. That project has completed scoping and identification of key information needs and development of a project plan. Work performed under the CM project will be coordinated with and extend information contained in the Northwest Environmental Database. Construction of prototype systems will begin in Phase 3. This report is one in a series of seven describing the results of the Coordinated Information System scoping and needs identification phase. A brief description of each of these reports follows. This report (Roger 1992) summarizes and integrates the results of the next five reports and relates them to deliverables identified in the Phase II cooperative agreement. Broader issues of organization and operation which are not appropriate for the more focused reports are also discussed. This report should be viewed as an executive summary for the CM project to date. If one wants a quick overview of the CIS project, this report and the project plan

  20. Stock Summary Reports for Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids, Volume 1; Oregon Subbasins Below Bonneville Dam, 1992 CIS Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Eric; Pierce, Paige (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR); Hatch, Keith (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    1993-05-01

    An essential component of the effort to rebuild the Columbia Basin's anadromous fish resources is that available information and experience be organized and shared among numerous organizations and individuals. Past experience and knowledge must form the basis for actions into the future. Much of this knowledge exists only in unpublished form in agency and individual files. Even that information which is published in the form of technical and contract reports receives only limited distribution and is often out of print and unavailable after a few years. Only a small fraction of the basin's collective knowledge is captured in permanent and readily available databases (such as the Northwest Environmental Database) or in recognized journals. State, tribal, and federal fishery managers have recognized these information management problems and have committed to a program, the Coordinated Information System Project, to capture and share more easily the core data and other information upon which management decisions are based. That project has completed scoping and identification of key information needs and development of a project plan. Work performed under the CIS project will be coordinated with and extend information contained in the Northwest Environmental Database. Construction of prototype systems will begin in Phase 3. This report is one in a series of seven describing the results of the Coordinated Information System scoping and needs identification phase. A brief description of each of these reports follows. This report (Roger 1992) summarizes and integrates the results of the next five reports and relates them to deliverables identified in the Phase II cooperative agreement. Broader issues of organization and operation which are not appropriate for the more focused reports are also discussed. This report should be viewed as an executive summary for the CIS project to date. If one wants a quick overview of the CIS project, this report and the project

  1. Genetic differences between hatchery and wild steelhead for growth and survival in the hatchery and seaward migration after release (Study sites: Dworshak Hatchery and Clearwater Hatchery; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery and Selway River wild; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Baker, Bruce M.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Various studies suggest that sea ranching of anadromous salmonids can result in domestication (increased fitness in the hatchery program) and a loss of fitness for natural production; however, the mechanism has not been characterized adequately. We artificially spawned hatchery and wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from the Clearwater River, Idaho, reared the resulting genetically marked (at the PEPA allozyme locus) progeny (HxH, HxW from hatchery females and wild males, and WxW) in hatcheries, and tested for differences in survival, growth, early maturation, downstream migration, and adult returns. Rearing treatments were mixed (crosses reared together) and separate (crosses reared separately from each other) at the hatchery of origin for the hatchery population where smolts are produced in one year, and at a nearby hatchery employing lower rations, lower winter temperatures, and two years of rearing to more closely mimic the natural life history (natural smolt age = 2-4 years). The hatchery population had been artificially propagated for six generations at the onset of our study. We found little or no difference in survival in the hatchery but substantially higher rates of growth and subsequent downstream migration for HxH than for WxW fish. Faster growth for HxH fish resulted in greater size at release which contributed to their higher migration rate, but other as yet uncharacterized traits also affected migration since the migration difference between crosses was apparent even within size classes. Growth of WxW fish was slower in the mixed than in the separate treatment indicating that WxW fish were competitively inferior to HxH fish in the hatchery environment. Incidence of precocious males was higher for WxW than for HxH fish in the separate but not in the mixed treatment. Incidence of HxH precocious males was similar between treatments. Apparently, the presence of HxH fish suppressed high incidence of early maturation by WxW males. A direct effect beyond

  2. Fish population and habitat analysis in Buck Creek, Washington, prior to recolonization by anadromous salmonids after the removal of Condit Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. Brady; Burkhardt, Jeanette; Munz, Carrie; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the physical and biotic conditions in the part of Buck Creek, Washington, potentially accessible to anadromous fishes. This creek is a major tributary to the White Salmon River upstream of Condit Dam, which was breached in October 2011. Habitat and fish populations were characterized in four stream reaches. Reach breaks were based on stream gradient, water withdrawals, and fish barriers. Buck Creek generally was confined, with a single straight channel and low sinuosity. Boulders and cobble were the dominant stream substrate, with limited gravel available for spawning. Large-cobble riffles were 83 percent of the available fish habitat. Pools, comprising 15 percent of the surface area, mostly were formed by bedrock with little instream cover and low complexity. Instream wood averaged 6—10 pieces per 100 meters, 80 percent of which was less than 50 centimeters in diameter. Water temperature in Buck Creek rarely exceeded 16 degrees Celsius and did so for only 1 day at river kilometer (rkm) 3 and 11 days at rkm 0.2 in late July and early August 2009. The maximum temperature recorded was 17.2 degrees Celsius at rkm 0.2 on August 2, 2009. Minimum summer discharge in Buck Creek was 3.3 cubic feet per second downstream of an irrigation diversion (rkm 3.1) and 7.7 cubic feet per second at its confluence with the White Salmon River. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was the dominant fish species in all reaches. The abundance of age-1 or older rainbow trout was similar between reaches. However, in 2009 and 2010, the greatest abundance of age-0 rainbow trout (8 fish per meter) was in the most downstream reach. These analyses in Buck Creek are important for understanding the factors that may limit fish abundance and productivity, and they will help identify and prioritize potential restoration actions. The data collected constitute baseline information of pre-dam removal conditions that will allow assessment of changes in fish populations now that Condit Dam has

  3. Stock Summary Reports for Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids, Volume III; Washington Subbasin Below McNary Dam, 1992 CIS Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, Keith (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR); Hymer, Joe (Washington Department of Fisheries, Battleground, WA); Wastel, Mike (Washington Department of Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    1993-05-01

    An essential component of the effort to rebuild the Columbia Basin's anadromous fish resources is that available information and experience be organized and shared among numerous organizations and individuals. Past experience and knowledge must form the basis for actions into the future. Much of this knowledge exists only in unpublished form in agency and individual files. Even that information which is published in the form of technical and contract reports receives only limited distribution and is often out of print and unavailable after a few years. Only a small fraction of the basin's collective knowledge is captured in permanent and readily available databases (such as the Northwest Environmental Database) or in recognized journals. State, tribal, and federal fishery managers have recognized these information management problems and have committed to a program, the Coordinated Information System Project, to capture and share more easily the core data and other information upon which management decisions are based. That project has completed scoping and identification of key information needs and development of a project plan. Work performed under the CIS project will be coordinated with and extend information contained in the Northwest Environmental Database. Construction of prototype systems will begin in Phase 3. This report is one in a series of seven describing the results of the Coordinated Information System scoping and needs identification phase. A brief description of each of these reports is given.

  4. 50 CFR 223.203 - Anadromous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contractors of the ODFW, WDFW (Agencies), IDFG, or CDFG (Agencies), or as a part of a monitoring and research... Screening Criteria for Anadromous Salmonids, January 1997” or with any subsequent revision. (ii) The owner... require a commitment of compensatory mitigation if implementation of the plan and schedule is...

  5. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Progam; Thyroid-Induced Chemical Imprinting in Early Life Stages and Assessment of Smoltification in Kokanee Salmon Implications for Operating Lake Roosevelt Kokanee Salmon Hatcheries; 1993 Supplement Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilson, Mary Beth; Galloway, Heather; Scholz, Allan T. (Eastern Washington University, Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Research Center, Cheney, WA)

    1994-06-01

    In 1991, two hatcheries were built to provide a kokanee salmon and rainbow trout fishery for Lake Roosevelt as partial mitigation for the loss of anadromous salmon and steelhead caused by construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The Sherman Creek Hatchery, located on a tributary of Lake Roosevelt to provide an egg collection and imprinting site, is small with limited rearing capability. The second hatchery was located on the Spokane Indian Reservation because of a spring water source that supplied cold, pure water for incubating and rearing eggs.`The Spokane Tribal Hatchery thus serves as the production facility. Fish reared there are released into Sherman Creek and other tributary streams as 7-9 month old fry. However, to date, returns of adult fish to release sites has been poor. If hatchery reared kokanee imprint to the hatchery water at egg or swim up stages before 3 months of age, they may not be imprinting as 7-9 month old fry at the time of stocking. In addition, if these fish undergo a smolt phase in the reservoir when they are 1.5 years old, they could migrate below Grand Coulee Dam and out of the Lake Roosevelt system. In the present investigation, which is part of the Lake Roosevelt monitoring program to assess hatchery effectiveness, kokanee salmon were tested to determine if they experienced thyroxine-induced chemical imprinting and smoltification similar to anadromous salmonids. Determination of the critical period for olfactory imprinting was determined by exposing kokanee to different synthetic chemicals (morpholine or phenethyl alcohol) at different life stages, and then measuring the ability to discriminate the chemicals as sexually mature adults. Whole body thyroxine content and blood plasma thyroxine concentration was measured to determine if peak thyroid activity coincided with imprinting or other morphological, physiological or behavioral transitions associated with smoltification.

  6. Cle Elum Lake Anadromous Salmon Restoration Feasibility Study: Summary of Research, 1986-1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Douglas

    2000-04-01

    The focus of this research was to study the feasibility for anadromous salmonids to recolonize the habitat above reservoirs in the Yakima River without disruption to irrigation withdrawals. A primary concern was whether anadromous fish could successfully exit reservoirs and survive downstream passage through the Yakima and Columbia Rivers to the ocean.

  7. Smallmouth bass and largemouth bass predation on juvenile Chinook salmon and other salmonids in the Lake Washington basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, R.A.; Footen, B.A.; Fresh, K.L.; Celedonia, M.T.; Mejia, F.; Low, D.L.; Park, L.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the impact of predation by smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu and largemouth bass M. salmoides on juveniles of federally listed Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and other anadromous salmonid populations in the Lake Washington system. Bass were collected with boat electrofishing equipment in the south end of Lake Washington (February-June) and the Lake Washington Ship Canal (LWSC; April-July), a narrow waterway that smolts must migrate through to reach the marine environment. Genetic analysis was used to identify ingested salmonids to obtain a more precise species-specific consumption estimate. Overall, we examined the stomachs of 783 smallmouth bass and 310 largemouth bass greater than 100 mm fork length (FL). Rates of predation on salmonids in the south end of Lake Washington were generally low for both black bass species. In the LWSC, juvenile salmonids made up a substantial part of bass diets; consumption of salmonids was lower for largemouth bass than for smallmouth bass. Smallmouth bass predation on juvenile salmonids was greatest in June, when salmonids made up approximately 50% of their diet. In the LWSC, overall black bass consumption of salmonids was approximately 36,000 (bioenergetics model) to 46,000 (meal turnover consumption model) juveniles, of which about one-third was juvenile Chinook salmon, one-third was coho salmon O. kisutch, and one-third was sockeye salmon O. nerka. We estimated that about 2,460,000 juvenile Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild sources combined) were produced in the Lake Washington basin in 1999; thus, the mortality estimates in the LWSC range from 0.5% (bioenergetics) to 0.6% (meal turnover). Black bass prey mostly on subyearlings of each salmonid species. The vulnerability of subyearlings to predation can be attributed to their relatively small size; their tendency to migrate when water temperatures exceed 15??C, coinciding with greater black bass activity; and their use of nearshore areas, where overlap

  8. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1992-1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, MaryLouise; Hayes, Michael C.; Groberg, Jr., Warren J. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

    1994-06-01

    The Umatilla Hatchery is the foundation for rehabilitating chinook salmon and enhancing summer steelhead in the Umatilla River and expected to contribute significantly to the Northwest Power Planning Council`s goal of doubling salmonid production in the Columbia Basin. This report covers the second year of comprehensive monitoring and evaluation of the Umatilla Hatchery. As both the hatchery and the evaluation study are in the early stages of implementation, much of the information contained in this report is preliminary.

  9. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-04-01

    The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been proposed to offset this nutrient deficit including: allowing greater salmon spawning escapement, stocking hatchery salmon carcasses, and stocking inorganic nutrients. Unfortunately, each of these methods has some ecological or socio-economic shortcoming. We intend to overcome many of these shortcomings by making and evaluating a pathogen free product that simulates a salmon carcass (analog). Abundant sources of marine derived nutrients are available such as fish offal from commercial fishing and salmon carcasses from hatcheries. However, a method for recycling these nutrients into a pathogen free analog that degrades at a similar rate as a natural salmon carcass has never been developed. We endeavored to (1) develop a salmon carcass analog that will increase the food available to salmonids, (2) determine the pathways that salmonids use to acquire food from analogs, and (3) determine the benefits to salmonids and the potential for application to salmonid restoration. We used a before-after-control-impact-paired design in six tributaries of the upper Yakima basin to determine the utility of stocking carcass analogs. Our preliminary results suggest that the introduction of carcass analogs into food-limited streams can be used to restore food pathways previously provided by anadromous salmon. The analogs probably reproduced both of the major food pathways that salmon carcasses produce: direct consumption and food chain enhancement. Trout and salmon fed directly on the carcass analogs during the late summer and presumably benefited from the increased

  10. Increased Levels of Harvest and Habitat Law Enforcement and Public Awareness for Anadromous Salmonids and Resident Fish in the Columbia River Basin -- Demonstration Period, 1992--1994, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NeSmith, Frank (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID); Long, Mack (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Paks, Kalispell, MT); Matthews, Dayne (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    1995-06-01

    This report was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), US Department of Energy, as part of BPA`s program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Illegal harvest and violation of habitat protection regulations are factors affecting the survival of many native species of anadromous and resident fish in the Columbia Basin.

  11. Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study; Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery and Wild Steelhead in the Hood River, Final Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouin, Michael

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable interest in using hatcheries to speed the recovery of wild populations. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), under the authority of the Northwest Power Planning Act, is currently funding several hatchery programs in the Columbia Basin as off-site mitigation for impacts to salmon and steelhead caused by the Columbia River federal hydropower system. One such project is located on the Hood River, an Oregon tributary of the Columbia. These hatchery programs cost the region millions of dollars. However, whether such programs actually improve the status of wild fish remains untested. The goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hood River hatchery program as required by the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, by the Oregon Plan for Coastal Salmonids, by NMFS ESA Section 4(d) rulings, and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Wild Fish Management Policy (OAR 635-07-525 through 529) and the ODFW Hatchery Fish Gene Resource Management Policy (OAR 635-07-540 through 541). The Hood River supports two populations of steelhead, a summer run and a winter run. They spawn only above the Powerdale Dam, which is a complete barrier to all salmonids. Since 1991 every adult passed above the dam has been measured, cataloged and sampled for scales. Therefore, we have a DNA sample from every adult steelhead that went over the dam to potentially spawn in the Hood River from 1991 to the present. Similar numbers of hatchery and wild fish have been passed above the dam during the last decade. During the 1990's 'old' domesticated hatchery stocks of each run (multiple generations in the hatchery, out-of-basin origin; hereafter H{sub old}) were phased out, and conservation hatchery programs were started for the purpose of supplementing the two wild populations (hereafter 'new' hatchery stocks, H{sub new}). These samples gave us the unprecedented ability to estimate, via

  12. Some myxosporidia found in Pacific Northwest salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, W.T.; Wood, E.M.

    1957-01-01

    During the histological examination of a group of wild and hatchery salmonids undescribed sporazoans were frequently observed. This was not unexpected, since Myxosporidia are typical fish parasites (Kudo, 1920). Myxidium were observed in kidney tubules, Cholromyxum in glomeruli, and Myxobous in the spinal cord and on epidermal scales. The present paper will deal with the description and indentification of these unclassified Myxosporodia.

  13. Comparative transcriptomics of anadromous and resident brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis before their first salt water transition

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Most salmonid taxa have an anadromous life history strategy, whereby fish migrate to saltwater habitats for a growth period before returning to freshwater habitats for spawning. Moreover, several species are characterized by different life history tactics whereby resident and anadromous forms may occur in genetically differentiated populations within a same species, as well as polymorphism within a population. The molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological differences between anadromou...

  14. Comparative transcriptomics of anadromous and resident brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis before their first salt water transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylène BOULET, Éric NORMANDEAU, Bérénice BOUGAS, Céline AUDET,Louis BERNATCHEZ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Most salmonid taxa have an anadromous life history strategy, whereby fish migrate to saltwater habitats for a growth period before returning to freshwater habitats for spawning. Moreover, several species are characterized by different life history tactics whereby resident and anadromous forms may occur in genetically differentiated populations within a same species, as well as polymorphism within a population. The molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological differences between anadromous and resident forms during the first transition from freshwater to saltwater environments are only partially understood. Insofar research has typically focused on species of the genus Salmo. Here, using a 16,000 cDNA array, we tested the hypothesis that anadromous brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis are characterized by differences in their transcriptome relative to resident brook charr before the anadromous fish migration. Families originating from parapatric populations of anadromous and resident charr were reared in controlled environments mimicking natural temperature and photoperiod, and sampled in spring, while still in fresh water. While anadromous and resident charr showed similar transcriptome profiles in white muscle, they were characterized by striking differences in their gill transcriptome profiles. Genes that were upregulated in the gills of anadromous charr were principally involved in metabolism (mitochondrial electron transport chain, glucose metabolism, and protein synthesis, development (tissue differentiation and innate immunity. We discuss the nature of these transcriptomic differences in relation to molecular mechanisms underlying the expression of anadromous and resident life history tactics and suggest that the anadromous charr express some of the molecular processes present in other migratory salmonids [Current Zoology 58 (1: 158–170, 2012].

  15. Comparative transcriptomics of anadromous and resident brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis before their first salt water transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marylène BOULET; (E)ric NORMANDEAU; Bérénice BOUGAS; Cé1ine AUDET; Louis BERNATCHEZ

    2012-01-01

    Most salmonid taxa have an anadromous life history strategy,whereby fish migrate to saltwater habitats for a growth period before returning to freshwater habitats for spawning.Moreover,several species are characterized by different life history tactics whereby resident and anadromous forms may occur in genetically differentiated populations within a same species,as well as polymorphism within a population.The molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological differences between anadromous and resident forms during the first transition from freshwater to saltwater environments are only partially understood.Insofar research has typically focused on species of the genus Salmo.Here,using a 16,000 cDNA array,we tested the hypothesis that anadromous brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis are characterized by differences in their transcriptome relative to resident brook charr before the anadromous fish migration.Families originating from parapatric populations of anadromous and resident charr were reared in controlled environments mimicking natural temperature and photoperiod,and sampled in spring,while still in fresh water.While anadromous and resident charr showed similar transcriptome profdes in white muscle,they were characterized by striking differences in their gill transcriptome profiles.Genes that were upregulated in the gills of anadromous charr were principally involved in metabolism (mitochondrial electron transport chain,glucose metabolism,and protein synthesis),development (tissue differentiation) and innate immunity.We discuss the nature of these transcriptomic differences in relation to molecular mechanisms underlying the expression of anadromous and resident life history tactics and suggest that the anadromous chart express some of the molecular processes present in other migratory salmonids [Current Zoology 58 (1):158-170,2012].

  16. Hatchery Update 2011: Willard National Fish Hatchery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes the purposes of the hatchery and discusses hatchery goals and assessments for calendar year 2011. Topics include endangered species recovery...

  17. 77 FR 34349 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric..., the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) announced the availability for public review of four Hatchery and Genetic Management Plans (HGMPs) submitted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife...

  18. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Dan [Hatchery Scientific Review Group

    2009-04-16

    The US Congress funded the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project via annual appropriations to the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) beginning in fiscal year 2000. Congress established the project because it recognized that while hatcheries have a necessary role to play in meeting harvest and conservation goals for Pacific Northwest salmonids, the hatchery system was in need of comprehensive reform. Most hatcheries were producing fish for harvest primarily to mitigate for past habitat loss (rather than for conservation of at-risk populations) and were not taking into account the effects of their programs on naturally spawning populations. With numerous species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), conservation of salmon in the Puget Sound area was a high priority. Genetic resources in the region were at risk and many hatchery programs as currently operated were contributing to those risks. Central to the project was the creation of a nine-member independent scientific review panel called the Hatchery Scientific Review Group (HSRG). The HSRG was charged by Congress with reviewing all state, tribal and federal hatchery programs in Puget Sound and Coastal Washington as part of a comprehensive hatchery reform effort to: conserve indigenous salmonid genetic resources; assist with the recovery of naturally spawning salmonid populations; provide sustainable fisheries; and improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of hatchery programs. The HSRG worked closely with the state, tribal and federal managers of the hatchery system, with facilitation provided by the non-profit organization Long Live the Kings and the law firm Gordon, Thomas, Honeywell, to successfully complete reviews of over 200 hatchery programs at more than 100 hatcheries across western Washington. That phase of the project culminated in 2004 with the publication of reports containing the HSRG's principles for hatchery reform and recommendations

  19. Comprehensive Plan for Rehabilitation of Anadromous Fish Stocks in the Umatilla River Basin, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, Raymond R.

    1986-01-01

    The goals of the project were to: establish fishery rehabilitation objectives for naturally and hatchery produced salmonids in the Umatilla Basin; estimate potential benefits of each of the rehabilitation and flow enhancement projects to naturally and hatchery produced salmonids; and develop a plan to set priorities, implement, and evaluate projects that will achieve rehabilitation objectives. This document identifies fishery needs, quantifies the contribution of proposed fishery projects under present and enhanced flows, provides cost estimates for projects, and provides a plan for prioritization, implementation, and evaluation of projects.

  20. Natural Reproductive Success and Demographic Effects of Hatchery-Origin Steelhead in Abernathy Creek, Washington : Annual Report 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Abernathy Fish Technology Center

    2008-12-01

    U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed, naturally spawning populations in the Columbia River Basin. As a consequence of that BO, NOAA recommended - as a reasonable and prudent alternative (RPA) - that federal and state agencies phase out non-native broodstocks of steelhead and replace them with native broodstocks. However, NOAA provided no guidance on how to achieve that RPA. The development of native broodstocks of hatchery steelhead can potentially pose unacceptable biological risks to naturally spawning populations, particularly those that are already listed as threatened or endangered under the ESA. The traditional method of initiating new hatchery broodstocks of anadromous salmonid fishes is by trapping adults during their upstream, spawning migration. However, removing natural-origin adults from ESA listed populations may not be biologically acceptable because such activities may further depress those populations via 'broodstock mining'. In addition, trapping adult steelhead may be logistically unfeasible in many subbasins due to high water flows in the spring, when steelhead are moving upstream to spawn, that will often 'blow out' temporary weirs. Additional risks associated with trapping adults include genetic founder effects and difficulties meeting minimum, genetic effective number of breeders without 'mining' the wild population to potential extinction. As a result, alternative methods for developing native broodstocks are highly desired. One alternative for developing native broodstocks, particularly when the collection of adults is logistically unfeasible or biologically unacceptable, is captive rearing of natural-origin juveniles to sexual maturity. In this approach, pre-smolt juveniles are collected from the stream or watershed for which a native broodstock is desired, and those juveniles are raised to sexual maturity in a hatchery. Those hatchery-reared adults then become the broodstock source for gametes and initial

  1. Adaptive trade-offs in juvenile salmonid metabolism associated with habitat partitioning between coho salmon and steelhead trout in coastal streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Travis E; Rosenfeld, Jordan S; Richards, Jeffrey G

    2011-09-01

    1. Adaptive trade-offs are fundamental to the evolution of diversity and the coexistence of similar taxa and occur when complimentary combinations of traits maximize efficiency of resource exploitation or survival at different points on environmental gradients. 2. Standard metabolic rate (SMR) is a key physiological trait that reflects adaptations to baseline metabolic performance, whereas active metabolism reflects adaptations to variable metabolic output associated with performance related to foraging, predator avoidance, aggressive interactions or migratory movements. Benefits of high SMR and active metabolism may change along a resource (productivity) gradient, indicating that a trade-off exists among active metabolism, resting metabolism and energy intake. 3. We measured and compared SMR, maximal metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS), swim performance (UCrit) and growth of juvenile hatchery and wild steelhead and coho salmon held on high- and low-food rations in order to better understand the potential significance of variation in SMR to growth, differentiation between species, and patterns of habitat use along a productivity gradient. 4. We found that differences in SMR, MMR, AS, swim performance and growth rate between steelhead trout and coho salmon were reduced in hatchery-reared fish compared with wild fish. Wild steelhead had a higher MMR, AS, swim performance and growth rate than wild coho, but adaptations between species do not appear to involve differences in SMR or to trade-off increased growth rate against lower swim performance, as commonly observed for high-growth strains. Instead, we hypothesize that wild steelhead may be trading off higher growth rate for lower food consumption efficiency, similar to strategies adopted by anadromous vs. resident brook trout and Atlantic salmon vs. brook trout. This highlights potential differences in food consumption and digestion strategies as cryptic adaptations ecologically differentiating salmonid species

  2. Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA polymorphism reveals life history dependent interbreeding between hatchery and wild brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Ruzzante, D.E.; Eg Nielsen, Einar

    2000-01-01

    The effects of stocking hatchery trout into wild populations were studied in a Danish river, using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. Baseline samples were taken from hatchery trout and wild trout assumed to be unaffected by previous stocking. Also, samples were taken from...... resident and sea trout from a stocked section of the river. Genetic differentiation between the hatchery strain and the local wild population was modest (microsatellite F-ST = 0.06). Using assignment tests, more than 90% of individuals from the baseline samples were classified correctly. Assignment tests...... to the hatchery strain suggested that interbreeding took place between hatchery and wild trout. The latter result also indicated that male hatchery trout contributed more to interbreeding than females. We suggest that stronger selection acts against stocked hatchery trout that become anadromous compared...

  3. Enumeration of Juvenile Salmonids in the Okanogan Basin Using Rotary Screw Traps, Performance Period: March 15, 2006 - July 15, 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Peter N.; Rayton, Michael D.

    2007-05-01

    The Colville Tribes identified the need for collecting baseline census data on the timing and abundance of juvenile salmonids in the Okanogan River basin for the purpose of documenting local fish populations, augmenting existing fishery data and assessing natural production trends of salmonids. This report documents and assesses the pilot year of rotary trap capture of salmonid smolts on the Okanogan River. The project is a component of the Colville Tribes Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program (OBMEP) which began in 2004. Trapping for outmigrating fish began on 14 March 2006 and continued through 11 July 2006. Anadromous forms of Oncorhynchus, including summer steelhead (O. mykiss), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), and sockeye (O. nerka), were targeted for this study; all have verified, natural production in the Okanogan basin. Both 8-ft and 5-ft rotary screw traps were deployed on the Okanogan River from the Highway 20 Bridge and typically fished during evening hours or 24 hours per day, depending upon trap position and discharge conditions. Juvenile Chinook salmon were the most abundant species trapped in 2006 (10,682 fry and 2,024 smolts), followed by sockeye (205 parr and 3,291 smolts) and steelhead (1 fry and 333 smolts). Of the trapped Chinook, all fry were wild origin and all but five of the smolts were hatchery-reared. All trapped sockeye were wild origin and 88% of the steelhead smolts were hatchery-reared. Mark-recapture experiments were conducted using Chinook fry and hatchery-reared steelhead smolts (sockeye were not used in 2006 because the peak of the juvenile migration occurred prior to the onset of the mark-recapture experiments). A total of 930 chinook fry were marked and released across eight separate release dates (numbers of marked Chinook fry released per day ranged from 34 to 290 fish). A total of 11 chinook fry were recaptured for an overall trap efficiency of 1.18%. A total of 710 hatchery-reared steelhead were marked and released across

  4. Spokane Tribal Hatchery, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peone, Tim L. (Spokane Tribe of Indians, Wellpinit, WA)

    2005-03-01

    Due to the construction and operation of Grand Coulee Dam (1939), anadromous salmon have been eradicated and resident fish populations permanently altered in the upper Columbia River region. Federal and private hydropower dam operations throughout the Columbia River system severely limits indigenous fish populations in the upper Columbia. Artificial production has been determined appropriate for supporting a harvestable fishery for kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake (Grand Coulee Dam impoundments). A collaborative multi-agency artificial production program for the Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake fisheries exists consisting of the Spokane Tribal Hatchery, Sherman Creek Hatchery, Ford Trout Hatchery and the Lake Roosevelt Kokanee and Rainbow Trout Net Pen Rearing Projects. These projects operate complementary of one another to target an annual release of 1 million yearling kokanee and 500,000 yearling rainbow trout for Lake Roosevelt and 1.4 million kokanee fry/fingerlings for Banks Lake. Fish produced by this project in 2004 to meet collective fish production and release goals included: 1,655,722 kokanee fingerlings, 537,783 rainbow trout fingerlings and 507,660 kokanee yearlings. Kokanee yearlings were adipose fin clipped before release. Stock composition consisted of Lake Whatcom kokanee, 50:50 diploid-triploid Spokane Trout Hatchery (McCloud River) rainbow trout and Phalon Lake red-band rainbow trout. All kokanee were marked with either thermal, oxytetracyline or fin clips prior to release. Preliminary 2004 Lake Roosevelt fisheries investigations indicate hatchery/net pen stocking significantly contributed to harvestable rainbow trout and kokanee salmon fisheries. An increase in kokanee harvest was primarily owing to new release strategies. Walleye predation, early maturity and entrainment through Grand Coulee Dam continues to have a negative impact on adult kokanee returns and limits the

  5. The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVII : Effects of Ocean Covariates and Release Timing on First Ocean-Year Survival of Fall Chinook Salmon from Oregon and Washington Coastal Hatcheries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Caitlin; Skalski, John R.

    2001-05-01

    Effects of oceanographic conditions, as well as effects of release-timing and release-size, on first ocean-year survival of subyearling fall chinook salmon were investigated by analyzing CWT release and recovery data from Oregon and Washington coastal hatcheries. Age-class strength was estimated using a multinomial probability likelihood which estimated first-year survival as a proportional hazards regression against ocean and release covariates. Weight-at-release and release-month were found to significantly effect first year survival (p < 0.05) and ocean effects were therefore estimated after adjusting for weight-at-release. Negative survival trend was modeled for sea surface temperature (SST) during 11 months of the year over the study period (1970-1992). Statistically significant negative survival trends (p < 0.05) were found for SST during April, June, November and December. Strong pairwise correlations (r > 0.6) between SST in April/June, April/November and April/December suggest the significant relationships were due to one underlying process. At higher latitudes (45{sup o} and 48{sup o}N), summer upwelling (June-August) showed positive survival trend with survival and fall (September-November) downwelling showed positive trend with survival, indicating early fall transition improved survival. At 45{sup o} and 48{sup o}, during spring, alternating survival trends with upwelling were observed between March and May, with negative trend occurring in March and May, and positive trend with survival occurring in April. In January, two distinct scenarios of improved survival were linked to upwelling conditions, indicated by (1) a significant linear model effect (p < 0.05) showing improved survival with increasing upwelling, and (2) significant bowl-shaped curvature (p < 0.05) of survival with upwelling. The interpretation of the effects is that there was (1) significantly improved survival when downwelling conditions shifted to upwelling conditions in January (i

  6. Anadromous Salmonids in the Delta: New Science 2006–2016

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Russell W.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Brandes, Patricia L.; Burau, Jon R.; Israel, Joshua A.

    2016-01-01

    doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss2art7 As juvenile salmon enter the Sacramento–SanJoaquin River Delta (“the Delta”) they disperse among its complex channel network where they are subject to channel-specific processes that affect their rate of migration, vulnerability to predation, feeding success, growth rates, and ultimately, survival. In the decades before 2006, tools available to quantify growth, dispersal, and survival of juvenile salmon in this complex c...

  7. Anadromous salmonids in the Delta: New science 2006–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Brandes, Patricia L.; Burau, Jon R.; Israel, Joshua A

    2016-01-01

    As juvenile salmon enter the Sacramento–SanJoaquin River Delta (“the Delta”) they disperse among its complex channel network where they are subject to channel-specific processes that affect their rate of migration, vulnerability to predation, feeding success, growth rates, and ultimately, survival. In the decades before 2006, tools available to quantify growth, dispersal, and survival of juvenile salmon in this complex channel network were limited.Fortunately, thanks to technological advances such as acoustic telemetry and chemical and structural otolith analysis, much has been learned over the past decade about the role of the Delta in the life cycle of juvenile salmon. Here, we review new science between 2006and 2016 that sheds light on how different life stages and runs of juvenile salmon grow, move, and survive in the complex channel network of the Delta. One of the most important advances during the past decade has been the widespread adoption of acoustic telemetry techniques. Use of telemetry has shed light on how survival varies among alternative migration routes and the proportion of fish that use each migration route. Chemical and structural analysis of otoliths has provided insights about when juveniles left their natal river and provided evidence of extended rearing in the brackish or saltwater regions of the Delta. New advancements in genetics now allow individuals captured by trawls to be assigned to specific runs. Detailed information about movement and survival in the Delta has spurred development of agent-based models of juvenile salmon that are coupled to hydrodynamic models. Although much has been learned, knowledge gaps remain about how very small juvenile salmon (fry and parr) use the Delta. Understanding how all life stages of juvenile salmon grow, rear, and survive in the Delta is critical for devising management strategies that support a diversity of life history strategies.

  8. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin; 1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Suzanne M.; Kern, J. Chris; Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1997-01-01

    This is the second year report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and naturally-produced juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival will assist researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural and restored fish populations. The authors also report on tasks related to evaluating juvenile salmonid passage at Three Mile Falls Dam and West Extension Canal.

  9. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteburn, John; Christensen, David (Colville Confederated Tribes, Nespelem, WA)

    2003-03-01

    Federal hydropower projects as well as private power utility systems have had a major negative impact upon anadromous fish resources that once flourished in the Columbia River and it's tributaries. Several areas have been completely blocked to anadromous fish by dams, destroying the primary food resource (salmon) for many native people forcing them to rely heavily upon resident fish to replace these lost resources. The Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery is an artificial production program that addresses the loss of anadromous fish resources in the Upper Columbia Sub-Region within the ''blocked area'' created by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. This project enhances resident fisheries located in the Intermountain and Columbia Cascade Provinces, specifically within the Colville Reservation portion of the Upper Columbia, SanPoil and Oakanogan Sub-Basins. The project partially mitigates for anadromous fish losses through protection/augmentation of resident fish populations to enhance fishery potential (i.e. in-place, out-of-kind mitigation) pursuant to Resident Fish Substitution Policy of the Northwest Power Planning Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. The hatchery was accepted into the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program in 1984 and the hatchery was completed in 1990. The Colville Tribal Hatchery (CTH) is located on the northern bank of the Columbia River just down stream of the town of Bridgeport, Washington that is just down stream of Chief Joseph Dam. The hatchery is located on land owned by the Colville Tribes. The minimum production quota for this facility is 22,679 kg (50,000 lbs.) of trout annually. All fish produced are released into reservation waters, including boundary waters in an effort to provide a successful subsistence/recreational fishery for Colville Tribal members and provide for a successful nonmember sport fishery. The majority of the fish distributed from the facility are intended to support &apos

  10. Willamette Hatchery Oxygen Supplementation Studies : Annual Report 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.D.; Ewing, S.K.; Sheahan, J.E.

    1993-11-01

    Hydropower development and operations in the Columbia River basin have caused the loss of 5 million to 11 million salmonids. An interim goal of the Northwest Power Planning Council is to reestablish these historical numbers by doubling the present adult runs from 2.5 million to 5.0 million fish. This increase in production will be accomplished through comprehensive management of both wild and hatchery fish, but artificial propagation will play a major role in the augmentation process. The current husbandry techniques in existing hatcheries require improvements that may include changes in rearing densities, addition of oxygen, removal of excess nitrogen, and improvement in raceway design. Emphasis will be placed on the ability to increase the number of fish released from hatcheries that survive to return as adults.

  11. Anadromous fish inventory: Summary volume

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary volume, with discussion, on anadromous fish inventories, species lists, histories of fisheries, habitat, key spawning and rearing areas, runs/escapements,...

  12. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteburn, John; Christensen, David (Colville Confederated Tribes, Nespelem, WA)

    2003-03-01

    Federal hydropower projects as well as private power utility systems have had a devastating impact upon anadromous fish resources that once flourished in the Columbia River and it's tributaries. Several areas were completely blocked to anadromous fish by dams, causing the native people who's number one food resource was salmon to rely entirely upon resident fish to replace lost fisheries resources. The Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery is an artificial production program to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses in the ''Blocked Area'' above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams pursuant to Resident Fish Substitution Policy of the Northwest Power Planning Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. The hatchery was accepted into the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program in 1984 as a resident fish substitution measure and the hatchery was completed in 1990. The minimum production quota for this facility is 22,679 kg (50,000 lbs.) of trout. To achieve this quota the Colville Tribal Hatchery was scheduled to produce 174,000 fingerling rainbow trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 sub-yearling rainbow trout (15 grams/fish), 80,000 legal size rainbow trout (90 grams/fish), 196,000 fingerling brook trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 subyearling brook trout (15 grams/fish) and 60,000 lahontan cutthroat trout (15 grams/fish) in 2001. All fish produced are released into reservation waters, including boundary waters in an effort to provide a successful subsistence /recreational fishery for Colville Tribal members as well as a successful non-member sport fishery. The majority of the fish distributed from the facility are intended to provide a ''carry-over'' fishery. Fish produced at the facility are intended to be capable of contributing to the natural production component of the reservation fish populations. Contribution to the natural production component will be achieved by producing and releasing fish of sufficient quality and quantity for

  13. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Dan [Hatchery Scientific Review Group

    2009-04-16

    The US Congress funded the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project via annual appropriations to the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) beginning in fiscal year 2000. Congress established the project because it recognized that while hatcheries have a necessary role to play in meeting harvest and conservation goals for Pacific Northwest salmonids, the hatchery system was in need of comprehensive reform. Most hatcheries were producing fish for harvest primarily to mitigate for past habitat loss (rather than for conservation of at-risk populations) and were not taking into account the effects of their programs on naturally spawning populations. With numerous species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), conservation of salmon in the Puget Sound area was a high priority. Genetic resources in the region were at risk and many hatchery programs as currently operated were contributing to those risks. Central to the project was the creation of a nine-member independent scientific review panel called the Hatchery Scientific Review Group (HSRG). The HSRG was charged by Congress with reviewing all state, tribal and federal hatchery programs in Puget Sound and Coastal Washington as part of a comprehensive hatchery reform effort to: conserve indigenous salmonid genetic resources; assist with the recovery of naturally spawning salmonid populations; provide sustainable fisheries; and improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of hatchery programs. The HSRG worked closely with the state, tribal and federal managers of the hatchery system, with facilitation provided by the non-profit organization Long Live the Kings and the law firm Gordon, Thomas, Honeywell, to successfully complete reviews of over 200 hatchery programs at more than 100 hatcheries across western Washington. That phase of the project culminated in 2004 with the publication of reports containing the HSRG's principles for hatchery reform and recommendations

  14. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focher, Shannon M.; Carmichael, Richard W.; Hayes, Michael C. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the monitoring and evaluation studies of salmonids reared at Umatilla Hatchery for the period November 1, 1995 to October 31, 1996. Studies at Umatilla Hatchery are designed to evaluate rearing of chinook salmon and steelhead in Michigan raceways. Characteristics of Michigan raceways include high fish densities, rapid water turnover, oxygen supplementation, reuse of water, and baffles designed to reduce cleaning. Fish health at Umatilla Hatchery and other facilities associated with the Umatilla program is intensively monitored and evaluated as part of the overall research project. Further, under the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team guidelines, specific requirements for fish health monitoring are mandatory and have become the responsibility of the fish health staff conducting the studies at Umatilla Hatchery. Additional studies include evaluations of sport fisheries in the Umatilla River and mass marking and straying of fall chinook salmon. Juvenile rearing experiments have been completed for subyearling fall chinook salmon reared in Michigan and Oregon raceways. Although preliminary adult return data has been recovered, the most data on post-release survival is incomplete. Conclusions in this report should be viewed as preliminary and used in conjunction with additional information as it becomes available.

  15. Spawning Success of Hatchery Spring Chinook Salmon Outplanted as Adults in the Clearwater River Basin, Idaho, 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Steven P.; Ackerman, Nichlaus; Witty, Kenneth L.

    2002-04-16

    The study described in this report evaluated spawning distribution, overlap with naturally-arriving spawners, and pre-spawning mortality of spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, outplanted as adults in the Clearwater River Subbasin in 2001. Returns of spring chinook salmon to Snake River Basin hatcheries and acclimation facilities in 2001 exceeded needs for hatchery production goals in Idaho. Consequently, management agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) agreed to outplant chinook salmon adults as an adaptive management strategy for using hatchery adults. Adult outplants were made in streams or stream sections that have been typically underseeded with spawners. This strategy anticipated that outplanted hatchery chinook salmon would spawn successfully near the areas where they were planted, and would increase natural production. Outplanting of adult spring chinook salmon from hatcheries is likely to be proposed in years when run sizes are similar to those of the 2001 run. Careful monitoring of results from this year's outplanting can be used to guide decisions and methods for future adult outplanting. Numbers of spring chinook salmon outplanted was based on hatchery run size, hatchery needs, and available spawning habitat. Hatcheries involved in outplanting in the Clearwater Basin included Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, Kooskia National Fish Hatchery, Clearwater Anadromous Fish Hatchery, and Rapid River Fish Hatchery. The NPT, IDFG, FWS, and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) agreed upon outplant locations and a range of numbers of spring chinook salmon to be outplanted (Table 1). Outplanting occurred mainly in the Selway River Subbasin, but additional outplants were made in tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River and the Lochsa River (Table 1). Actual outplanting activities were carried out primarily by the NPT with supplemental outplanting

  16. Fish Hatchery Management in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Akankali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish hatchery management is efficient tool in intensive fish culture. The vital requirements of fish hatchery, hatchery construction, concrete tank construction, nursery, rearing and production ponds, fish seed hatchery, hormone in fish spawning, hypophysation, compounds used for induced breeding, hormone administration, spawning and rearing, steps in artificial propagation, hatchery management, nursery management are basic elements in effective hatchery management. The article reviews these vital elements to re-awaken fish farmers, Fisheries students private and public sectors in the formulation of fisheries policies.

  17. Evaluation of Pure Oxygen Systems at the Umatilla Hatchery: Task 1-Review and Evaluation of Supplemental O2 Systems, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish Factory

    1991-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council has established a goal of doubling the size of salmon runs in the Columbia River Basin. The achievement of this important goal is largely dependent upon expanding the production of hatchery fish. Pure oxygen has been commonly used to increase the carrying capacity of private sector salmonid hatcheries in the Pacific Northwest. The use of supplemental oxygen to increase hatchery production is significantly less expensive than the construction of new hatcheries and might save up to $500 million in construction costs.

  18. Hatchery update 2011: Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes the purposes of the hatchery and discusses hatchery goals and assessments for calendar year 2011. Topics include the current fish production...

  19. Comprehensive hatchery management plan: Carson National Fish Hatchery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Hatchery Management Plan (CHMP) for the Carson National Fish Hatchery (NFH) is an operational management plan which outlines policy, legal...

  20. Hatchery update 2010: Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes the purposes of the hatchery and discusses hatchery goals and assessments for calendar year 2010. Topics include the current fish...

  1. Natural Reproductive Success and Demographic Effects of Hatchery-Origin Steelhead in Abernathy Creek, Washington : Annual Report 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Abernathy Fish Technology Center

    2008-12-01

    U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed, naturally spawning populations in the Columbia River Basin. As a consequence of that BO, NOAA recommended - as a reasonable and prudent alternative (RPA) - that federal and state agencies phase out non-native broodstocks of steelhead and replace them with native broodstocks. However, NOAA provided no guidance on how to achieve that RPA. The development of native broodstocks of hatchery steelhead can potentially pose unacceptable biological risks to naturally spawning populations, particularly those that are already listed as threatened or endangered under the ESA. The traditional method of initiating new hatchery broodstocks of anadromous salmonid fishes is by trapping adults during their upstream, spawning migration. However, removing natural-origin adults from ESA listed populations may not be biologically acceptable because such activities may further depress those populations via 'broodstock mining'. In addition, trapping adult steelhead may be logistically unfeasible in many subbasins due to high water flows in the spring, when steelhead are moving upstream to spawn, that will often 'blow out' temporary weirs. Additional risks associated with trapping adults include genetic founder effects and difficulties meeting minimum, genetic effective number of breeders without 'mining' the wild population to potential extinction. As a result, alternative methods for developing native broodstocks are highly desired. One alternative for developing native broodstocks, particularly when the collection of adults is logistically unfeasible or biologically unacceptable, is captive rearing of natural-origin juveniles to sexual maturity. In this approach, pre-smolt juveniles are collected from the stream or watershed for which a native broodstock is desired, and those juveniles are raised to sexual maturity in a hatchery. Those hatchery-reared adults then become the broodstock source for gametes and initial

  2. Annual Review of BPA-Funded Anadromous Fish Projects, March 18-20, 1986, Holiday Inn Airport, Portland, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1986-02-01

    This report contains descriptions of projects specifically related to anadromous salmonids. They include projects in the following categories: (1) fish and wildlife projects in western Montana; (2) fish health and physiology; (3) habitat enhancement and passage improvement - Oregon I; (4) passage improvement and natural propagation - Washington; (5) habitat enhancement and passage improvements - Oregon II; (6) future hydroelectric assessments; (7) habitat enhancement and passage improvement - Idaho; (8) downstream migration: flows and monitoring; (9) downstream migration: reservoir impacts; and (10) habitat evaluation and monitoring. (ACR)

  3. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2001, 26 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Basin. Twenty-three of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Three of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on October 12, 2001). Nine anadromous adults were incorporated into the captive broodstock program spawning design in 2001. The remaining adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Two sockeye salmon females from the anadromous group and 152 females from the brood year 1998 captive

  4. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (Idaho)

    1996-06-01

    This summary gives the major points of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) prepared for the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery by the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), and other interested parties. The Nez Perce once were one of the largest Plateau tribes in the Northwest and occupied a territory that included north central Idaho, southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon. Salmon and other migratory fish species are an invaluable food resource and an integral part of the Nez Perce Tribe`s culture. Anadromous fish have always made up the bulk of the Nez Perce tribal diet and this dependence on salmon was recognized in the treaties made with the Tribe by the US. The historic economic, social, and religious significance of the fish to the Nez Perce Tribe continues to this day, which makes the decline of fish populations in the Columbia River Basin a substantial detrimental impact to the Nez Perce way of life. The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery is a supplementation program that would rear and release spring, summer, and fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), biologically similar to wild fish, to reproduce in the Clearwater River Subbasin. Program managers propose techniques that are compatible with existing aquatic and riparian ecosystems and would integrate hatchery-produced salmon into the stream and river environments needed to complete their life cycle.

  5. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1997-1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Michael C.; Brown, Kassandra A.; Waln, Karen (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1999-11-01

    This report summarizes monitoring and evaluation studies of salmonids reared at Umatilla Fish Hatchery (UFH) for the period November 1, 1997 to October 31, 1998. Studies at Umatilla Hatchery are designed to evaluate rearing of chinook salmon and steelhead in ''Michigan raceways''. Characteristics of Michigan raceways include high fish densities, rapid water turnover, oxygen supplementation, reuse of water, and baffles designed to reduce cleaning. Fish health at UFH and other facilities associated with the Umatilla program are intensively monitored and evaluated as part of the overall research project. Further, under the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team guidelines, specific requirements for fish health monitoring are mandatory and have become the responsibility of the fish health staff conducting studies at UFH. Additional studies include evaluations of sport fisheries in the Umatilla River and mass marking and straying of fall chinook salmon. Except for adult recovery data, an experiment designed to evaluate rearing subyearling fall chinook salmon in Michigan and Oregon raceways has been completed. We are currently in the second year of rearing subyearling fall chinook salmon at three densities. Experimental rearing of subyearling, fall release, and yearling spring chinook salmon, and steelhead has also been conducted. Although preliminary adult return data has been recovered, data on smolt-to-adult survival for all groups is incomplete. Conclusions in this report should be viewed as preliminary and used in conjunction with additional data as it becomes available.

  6. Polyphasic characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates recovered from salmonid and non-salmonid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanka, A.; Loch, T.P.; Cipriano, R.C.; Faisal, M.

    2013-01-01

    Michigan's fisheries rely primarily upon the hatchery propagation of salmonid fish for release in public waters. One limitation on the success of these efforts is the presence of bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of A. salmonicida in Michigan fish, as well as to determine whether biochemical or gene sequence variability exists among Michigan isolates. A total of 2202 wild, feral and hatchery-propagated fish from Michigan were examined for the presence of A. salmonicida. The examined fish included Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), coho salmon, O. kisutcha (Walbaum), steelhead trout, O. mykiss (Walbaum), Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), and yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill). Among these, 234 fish yielded a brown pigment-producing bacterium that was presumptively identified as A. salmonicida. Further phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses identified representative isolates as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and revealed some genetic and biochemical variability. Logistic regression analyses showed that infection prevalence varied according to fish species/strain, year and gender, whereby Chinook salmon and females had the highest infection prevalence. Moreover, this pathogen was found in six fish species from eight sites, demonstrating its widespread nature within Michigan.

  7. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J,; Heindel, Jeff A.; Kline, Paul A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 1999 are presented in this report. In 1999, seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley and were captured at the adult weir located on the upper Salmon River. Four anadromous adults were incorporated in the captive broodstock program spawning design for year 1999. The remaining three adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. All seven adults were adipose and left ventral fin-clipped, indicating hatchery origin. One sockeye salmon female from the anadromous group and 81 females from the captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1999. Spawn pairings produced approximately 63,147 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed-stage of development averaging 38.97%. Eyed-eggs (20,311), presmolts (40,271), smolts (9,718), and adults (21) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 1999. Supplementation strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Redfish Lake Creek

  8. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 1999-2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Suzanne M.; Carmichael, Richard W.; Ehlers, Danette L.

    2002-04-01

    This is the sixth annual report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and natural juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival assists researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal and fish ladder operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural and restored fish populations. Findings from this study also measure the success of upriver habitat improvement projects and provide an overall evaluation of the Umatilla River fisheries restoration program.

  9. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Complex; Operations and Maintenance and 2005 Annual Operation Plan, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, Harold R.; Lundberg, Jeffrey H.; Penney, Aaron K. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    2005-02-01

    The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) responds directly to a need to mitigate for naturally-reproducing salmon in the Clearwater River subbasin. The overall goal is to produce and release fish that will survive to adulthood, spawn in the Clearwater River subbasin and produce viable offspring that will support future natural production and genetic integrity. Several underlying purposes of fisheries management will be maintained through this program: (1) Protect, mitigate, and enhance Columbia River subbasin anadromous fish resources. (2) Develop, reintroduce, and increase natural spawning populations of salmon within the Clearwater River subbasin. (3) Provide long-term harvest opportunities for Tribal and non-Tribal anglers within Nez Perce Treaty lands within four generations (20 years) following project completion. (4) Sustain long-term fitness and genetic integrity of targeted fish populations. (5) Keep ecological and genetic impacts to non-target populations within acceptable limits. (6) Promote Nez Perce Tribal Management of Nez Perce Tribal hatchery Facilities and production areas within Nez Perce Treaty lands. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery is a supplementation program that will rear and release spring, fall, and early-fall stocks of chinook salmon. Two life stages of spring chinook salmon will be released: parr and presmolts. Fall and early-fall chinook salmon will be released as subyearling smolts. The intent of NPTHC is to use conventional hatchery and Natural Rearing Enhancement Systems (NATURES) techniques to develop, increase and restore natural populations of spring and fall chinook salmon in the Clearwater River subbasin.

  10. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Complex; Operations and Maintenance and 2004 Annual Operation Plan, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, Harold R.; Penney, Aaron K.; Larson, Roy Edward (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    2005-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) responds directly to a need to mitigate for naturally-reproducing salmon in the Clearwater River subbasin. The overall goal is to produce and release fish that will survive to adulthood, spawn in the Clearwater River subbasin and produce viable offspring that will support future natural production and genetic integrity. Several underlying purposes of fisheries management will be maintained through this program: (1) Protect, mitigate, and enhance Columbia River subbasin anadromous fish resources. (2) Develop, reintroduce, and increase natural spawning populations of salmon within the Clearwater River subbasin. (3) Provide long-term harvest opportunities for Tribal and non-Tribal anglers within Nez Perce Treaty lands within four generations (20 years) following project completion. (4) Sustain long-term fitness and genetic integrity of targeted fish populations. (5) Keep ecological and genetic impacts to non-target populations within acceptable limits. (6) Promote Nez Perce Tribal Management of Nez Perce Tribal hatchery Facilities and production areas within Nez Perce Treaty lands. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery is a supplementation program that will rear and release spring, fall, and early-fall stocks of chinook salmon. Two life stages of spring chinook salmon will be released: parr and presmolts. Fall and early-fall chinook salmon will be released as subyearling smolts. The intent of NPTHC is to use conventional hatchery and Natural Rearing Enhancement Systems (NATURES) techniques to develop, increase and restore natural populations of spring and fall chinook salmon in the Clearwater River subbasin.

  11. Imprinting Hatchery Reared Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, Volume II of III; Data Summaries, 1978-1983 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatick, Emil; Ringe, R.R.; Zaugg, Waldo S. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Coastal Zone and Estuarine Studies Division, Seattle, WA)

    1988-02-02

    The main functions of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) aquaculture task biologists and contractual scientists involved in the 1978 homing studies were primarily a surveillance of fish physiology, disease, and relative survival during culture in marine net-pens, to determine if there were any unusual factors that might affect imprinting and homing behavior. The studies were conducted with little background knowledge of the implications of disease and physiology on imprinting and homing in salmonids. The health status or the stocks were quite variable as could be expected. The Dworshak and Wells Hatcheries steelhead suffered from some early stresses in seawater, probably osmoregulatory. The incidences of latent BKD in the Wells and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead and Kooskia Hatchery spring chinook salmon were extremely high, and how these will affect survival in the ocean is not known. Gill enzyme activity in the Dworshak and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead at release was low. Of the steelhead, survival in the Tucannon Hatchery stock will probably be the highest, with Dworshak Hatchery stock the lowest. This report contains the data for the narratives in Volume I.

  12. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2006-05-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2004, twenty-seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Traps on Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery intercepted one and four adults, respectively. Additionally, one adult sockeye salmon was collected at the East Fork Salmon River weir, 18 were seined from below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir, one adult sockeye salmon was observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir but not captured, and two adult sockeye salmon were observed in Little Redfish Lake but not captured. Fish were captured/collected between July 24 and September 14, 2004. The captured/collected adult sockeye salmon (12 females and 12 males) originated from a variety of release strategies and were transferred to

  13. StreamNet Query System: Hatchery Returns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — These trends include all counts of fish obtained at a hatchery or one of its satellite facilities. The only method allowed is hatchery rack / weir, and the count...

  14. Neosho National Fish Hatchery contaminants survey results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish were collected from Neosho National Fish Hatchery (NNFH) to determine if metal or organic contaminants were elevated in the biota located on the hatchery. Whole...

  15. Umatilla Hatchery Final Predesign Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown Author

    1988-04-01

    This report provides information on the preliminary design of Umatilla Fish Hatchery near Irrigon, Oregon. The fish hatchery will be capable of rearing steelhead and chinook with an initial capacity of 290,000 pounds. Future expansion will allow for a total capacity of 500,000 pounds if the initial production goals are met. The hatchery will consist of both Oregon and Michigan style ponds. The Oregon ponds are similar to those at Irrigon. The Michigan ponds are more narrow and shallow, are self cleaning, and use oxygen supplementation to obtain higher rearing densities as is currently being done in the state of Michigan. The Oregon ponds are a two-pass system with the capability to convert to Michigan style ponds, if this mode of operation proves to be an effective method in the west. The Michigan ponds are three-pass with the capability to expand to four-pass.

  16. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. n 2002, 22 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Fifteen of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Seven of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on September 30, 2002). All adult returns were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Sixty-six females from brood year 1999 and 28 females from brood year 2000 captive broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2002. Spawn pairings produced approximately 65

  17. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1999-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chess, Dale W.; Cameron, William A.; Stonecypher, Jr., R. Wes (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Salem, OR)

    2003-12-01

    REPORT A: UMATILLA HATCHERY MONITORING AND EVALUATION--This report summarizes monitoring and evaluation studies of salmonids reared at Umatilla Fish Hatchery (UFH) for 1 November, 1999 to 31 October, 2002. Studies at UFH are designed to evaluate rearing of chinook salmon and steelhead in ''Michigan raceways''. Characteristics of Michigan raceways include high fish densities, rapid water turnover, oxygen supplementation, reuse of water, and baffles designed to reduce cleaning. Fish health at UFH and other facilities associated with the Umatilla program are intensively monitored and evaluated along with the overall research project. Further, under the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team guidelines, specific requirements for fish health monitoring at UFH are mandatory. An experiment designed to evaluate rearing subyearling fall chinook salmon in Michigan and Oregon raceways has been completed. An evaluation of survival of subyearling fall chinook salmon reared at three densities will be completed with final returns in 2005. Two new evaluations were started during this reporting period. The first is an evaluation of spring chinook survival of groups transferred to Imeques acclimation facility in the fall, overwinter-acclimated and released with the standard acclimated production groups in March. The second is an evaluation of subyearling fall chinook survival and straying of a direct-stream released group in the lower Umatilla River and the standard group acclimated at Thornhollow acclimation facility in the upper Umatilla River. An important aspect of the project is evaluation of the spring chinook and summer steelhead fisheries in the upper and lower Umatilla River. REPORT B: Fish Health Monitoring and Evaluation, 2000 Fiscal Year--The results presented in this report are from the ninth year of Fish Health Monitoring and Evaluation in the Umatilla Hatchery program. Broodstock monitoring for hatchery production was conducted on adult returns to the

  18. Osmoregulatory actions of the GH/IGF axis in non-salmonid teleosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancera, J.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Salmonid fishes provided the first findings on the influence of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis on osmoregulation in teleost fishes. Recent studies on non-salmonid species, however, indicate that this physiological action of the GH/IGF-I axis is not restricted to salmonids or anadromous fishes. GH-producing cells in the pituitary of fish acclimated to different salinities show different degrees of activation depending on the species studied. Plasma GH levels either increase or do not change after transfer of fish from freshwater to seawater. Treatment with GH or IGF-I increases salinity tolerance and/or increases gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromis niloticus) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis). As in salmonids, a positive interaction between GH and cortisol for improving hypoosmoregulatory capacity has been described in tilapia (O. mossambicus). Research on the osmoregulatory role of the GH/IGF-I axis is derived from a small number of teleost species. The study of more species with different osmoregulary patterns will be necessary to fully clarify the osmoregulatory role of GH/IGF-I axis in fish. The available data does suggest, however, that the influence of the GH/IGF-I axis on osmoregulation may be a common feature of euryhalinity in teleosts. Copyright (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Inc.

  19. Comparative evaluation of molecular diagnostic tests for Nucleospora salmonis and prevalence in migrating juvenile salmonids from the Snake River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badil, Samantha; Elliott, Diane G.; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Clemens, Kathy; Blair, Marilyn; Purcell, Maureen K.

    2011-01-01

    Nucleospora salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian that primarily infects lymphoblast cells and contributes to chronic lymphoblastosis and a leukemia-like condition in a range of salmonid species. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of N. salmonis in out-migrating juvenile hatchery and wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss from the Snake River in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. To achieve this goal, we first addressed the following concerns about current molecular diagnostic tests for N. salmonis: (1) nonspecific amplification patterns by the published nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) test, (2) incomplete validation of the published quantitative PCR (qPCR) test, and (3) whether N. salmonis can be detected reliably from nonlethal samples. Here, we present an optimized nPCR protocol that eliminates nonspecific amplification. During validation of the published qPCR test, our laboratory developed a second qPCR test that targeted a different gene sequence and used different probe chemistry for comparison purposes. We simultaneously evaluated the two different qPCR tests for N. salmonis and found that both assays were highly specific, sensitive, and repeatable. The nPCR and qPCR tests had good overall concordance when DNA samples derived from both apparently healthy and clinically diseased hatchery rainbow trout were tested. Finally, we demonstrated that gill snips were a suitable tissue for nonlethal detection of N. salmonis DNA in juvenile salmonids. Monitoring of juvenile salmonid fish in the Snake River over a 3-year period revealed low prevalence of N. salmonis in hatchery and wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead but significantly higher prevalence in hatchery-derived steelhead. Routine monitoring of N. salmonis is not performed for all hatchery steelhead populations. At present, the possible contribution of this pathogen to delayed mortality of steelhead has not been determined.

  20. Environment-dependent plasticity and ontogenetic changes in the brain of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund, J.; Larsen, Martin Hage; Thomassen, S.T.;

    2017-01-01

    enhancement strategies, like environmental enrichment. Here, we investigated the size of the brain in hatcheryreared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar kept at standard (high) and reduced (low) tank densities. In contrast to our predictions, we found that fish reared at high density had larger dry mass of cerebellum......Lowered rearing density has repeatedly been shown to increase the performance of hatchery-reared salmonids stocked into natural environments. One possible mechanism for this pattern could be that lower densities enhance brain development, which has been shown to be the case in other hatchery...... the opposite pattern was observed for telencephalon. Overall, these results reveal substantial brain plasticity depending on the surrounding environment as well as ontogenetic adaptive changes in the brain of the Atlantic salmon...

  1. Tissue damage in salmonids caused by Halisidota argentata Packard

    Science.gov (United States)

    1956-01-01

    During the histological examination of a collection of wild and hatchery salmonids, a peculiar foreign body was occasionally observed in various organs, particularly in the viscera. These objects, usually accompanied by a focal inflammation, were observed in 10 of 75 samples of wild trout and salmon collected in Oregon and Washington and were believed to represent an unknown type of parasitism. Their identity remained obscure until a massive concentration was observed in the tissues of wild coho salmon, (Oncorhynchus kisutch), from Minter Creek on the Olympic peninsula of Washington and in hatchery coho salmon from the Minter Creek Biological Station. The distribution of the structures suggested the intestinal tract as a point of origin. Subsequent stomach examinations revealed small, partially digested insect fragments with many long, spine-covered hairs. The insects were identified as second or third instars of the lepidopteran larvae, Halisidota argentata Packard. The spine-covered hairs penetrated the stomach wall and produced the observed lesions by working in an apparent porcupine quill-fashion throughout the body of the fish.

  2. Protect Anadromous Salmonids in the Mainstem Corridor, Monitoring and Evaluation, Annual Report 200-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigg, Steven; Johnson, John

    2002-02-01

    In this annual Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) report to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), we summarize significant activities and performance measures resultant from enhanced protection by Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fisheries Enforcement (CRITFE) in the mainstem corridor (BPA Project 2000-056). This report covers the Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 performance period -- May 15, 2000 to May 14, 2001. Quarterly progress reports have previously been submitted to BPA and are posted on the M&E Web site (www.Eco-Law.net) -- for the time period April-December 2000 (Vigg 2000b,c,d) and for the period January-June 2001 (Vigg 2001a,b). We also present comprehensive data representing the first quarter of year 2000 in this report for a pre-project comparison. In addition, we have analyzed specific annual enforcement statistics to evaluate trends during the baseline period 1996-2000. Additional statistics and more years of comprehensive baseline data are now being summarized, and will be presented in future M&E annual reports--to provide a longer time series for evaluation of trends in input, output and outcome performance standards.

  3. marine survival ecosystem indicators - Estimating the ecosystem indicators of anadromous salmonids in the Puget Sound region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this project is to develop a simple approach for estimating the marine survival and causes of trends in survival. Data is a summary of ecosystem...

  4. Imprinting Hatchery Reared Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, Volume III of III; Disease and Physiology Supplements, 1978-1983 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatick, Emil; Gilbreath, Lyle G.; Harmon, Jerrel R. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Centr, Coastal Zone and Estuarine Studies Division, Seattle, WA)

    1988-02-03

    The main functions of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Aquaculture Task biologists and contractual scientists involved in the 1978 homing studies were primarily a surveillance of fish physiology, disease, and relative survival during culture in marine net-pens, to determine if there were any unusual factors that might affect imprinting and homing behavior. The studies were conducted with little background knowledge of the implications of disease and physiology on imprinting and homing in salmonids. The health status of the stocks was quite variable as could be expected. The Dworshak and Wells Hatcheries steelhead suffered from some early stresses in seawater, probably osmoregulatory. The incidences of latent BKD in the Wells and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead and Kooskia Hatchery spring chinook salmon were extremely high, and how these will affect survival in the ocean is not known. Gill enzyme activity in the Dworshak and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead at release was low. Of the steelhead, survival in the Tucannon Hatchery stock will probably be the highest, with Dworshak Hatchery stock the lowest. This report contains five previously published papers.

  5. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery-and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroder, S.L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA); Knudsen, C.M. (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA); Rau, J.A. (Cle Elum Supplementation Research, Cle Elum, WA)

    2003-01-01

    In the Yakima Spring Chinook supplementation program, wild fish are brought into the Cle Elum Hatchery, artificially crossed, reared, transferred to acclimation sites, and released into the upper Yakima River as smolts. When these fish mature and return to the Yakima River most of them will be allowed to spawn naturally; a few, however, will be brought back to the hatchery and used for research purposes. In order for this supplementation approach to be successful, hatchery-origin fish must be able to spawn and produce offspring under natural conditions. Recent investigations on salmonid fishes have indicated that exposure to hatchery environments during juvenile life may cause significant behavioral, physiological, and morphological changes in adult fish. These changes appear to reduce the reproductive competence of hatchery fish. In general, males are more affected than females; species with prolonged freshwater rearing periods are more strongly impacted than those with shorter rearing periods; and stocks that have been exposed to artificial culture for multiple generations are more impaired than those with a relatively short exposure history to hatchery conditions.

  6. A riverscape perspective of Pacific salmonids and aquatic habitats prior to large-scale dam removal in the Elwha River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkman, S.J.; Duda, J.J.; Torgersen, C.E.; Welty, E.; Pess, G.R.; Peters, R.; McHenry, M.L.

    2012-01-01

     Dam removal has been increasingly proposed as a river restoration technique. In 2011, two large hydroelectric dams will be removed from Washington State’s Elwha River. Ten anadromous fish populations are expected to recolonise historical habitats after dam removal. A key to understanding watershed recolonisation is the collection of spatially continuous information on fish and aquatic habitats. A riverscape approach with an emphasis on biological data has rarely been applied in mid-sized, wilderness rivers, particularly in consecutive years prior to dam removal. Concurrent snorkel and habitat surveys were conducted from the headwaters to the mouth (rkm 65–0) of the Elwha River in 2007 and 2008. This riverscape approach characterised the spatial extent, assemblage structure and patterns of relative density of Pacific salmonids. The presence of dams influenced the longitudinal patterns of fish assemblages, and species richness was the highest downstream of the dams, where anadromous salmonids still have access. The percent composition of salmonids was similar in both years for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), coastal cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii (Richardson) (89%; 88%), Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum) (8%; 9%), and bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus (Suckley) (3% in both years). Spatial patterns of abundance for rainbow and cutthroat trout (r = 0.76) and bull trout (r = 0.70) were also consistent between years. Multivariate and univariate methods detected differences in habitat structure along the river profile caused by natural and anthropogenic factors. The riverscape view highlighted species-specific biological hotspots and revealed that 60–69% of federally threatened bull trout occurred near or below the dams. Spatially continuous surveys will be vital in evaluating the effectiveness of upcoming dam removal projects at restoring anadromous salmonids.

  7. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hatchery sanitation. 147.23 Section... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.23 Hatchery sanitation. An effective program for the prevention and control of...

  8. Study of Disease and Physiology in the 1979 Homing Study Hatchery Stocks: A Supplement to "Imprinting Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing", 1979 by Slatick, Gilbreath, and Walch.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, Anthony J.; Zaugg, Waldo S.

    1981-09-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), under contract to the Bonneville Power Administration, is conducting research on imprinting salmon and steelhead for homing (Slatick et al. 1979, 1980; Novotny and Zaugg 1979). The studies were begun with little background knowledge of the effects of disease or certain physiological functions on imprinting and homing in salmonids. Consequently, work aimed at filling this void was begun by the authors in 1978 (Novotny and Zaugg 1979) and continued in 1979. In 1979, we examined random samples of normal populations of homing test fish at the hatcheries to determine the physiological readiness to migrate and adapt to seawater and general fish health. At the Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington, we determined the survival of samples of the test fish maintained in marine net-pens after release from the hatcheries. Hatcheries and stocks sampled are listed in Table 1.

  9. Oxbow Fish Hatchery Snake River Sockeye Salmon Smolt Program, 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, Duane D. [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-11-14

    This contract proposal is in response to the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion Implementation Plan/Update Proposed Action (UPA) associated with increasing the number of Snake River sockeye smolts by 150,000. To accomplish this proposal the cooperation and efforts of three government entities has been planned (e.g., Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)). Improvements at the IDFG Eagle Fish Hatchery and NMFS Burley Creek Hatchery will focus on increasing sockeye salmon captive broodstock and egg production. Improvements at the ODFW Oxbow Fish Hatchery will be made to accommodate the incubation, hatching and rearing of 150,000 sockeye salmon smolts for release into Idaho's Sawtooth Valley, Upper Salmon River near IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and/or Redfish Lake Creek 1.4 km downstream of Redfish Lake. Modifications to Oxbow Fish Hatchery (ODFW) will include retro-fit existing pond drains so pond cleaning effluent water can be routed to the pollution abatement pond, and modifications to the abatement pond. Also included in this project as an added phase, was the rerouting of the hatchery building effluent water to meet state DEQ guidelines for the use of formalin to treat salmonid eggs. Some additional funding for the described Oxbow Hatchery modifications will come from Mitchell Act Funding. All personnel costs associated with this project will come from Mitchell Act funding. Due to heavy work load issues, being under staffed, and two emergency projects in the spring and summer of 2006, ODFW engineers were not able to complete all plans and get them out for bid in 2006. As a result of these circumstances retro-fitting pond drains and modifications to the abatement pond was carried over into fiscal year 2007-2008. A no cost time extension to the contract was approved by BPA. The format for this report will follow the standard format for

  10. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 2000-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Tara C.; Jewett, Shannon M.; Hanson, Josh T.

    2003-04-11

    This is the seventh year of a multi-year project, monitoring the outmigration and survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project both supplements and complements ongoing and completed work within the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on juvenile outmigration and survival assists researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal and fish ladder operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts of natural and restored fish populations. Findings from this study also measure the success of upriver habitat improvement projects and provide an overall evaluation of the Umatilla River fisheries restoration program. The general objectives for 2001 were to: (1) Estimate migrant abundance and survival and determine migration parameters of PIT-tagged hatchery and natural juvenile salmonids; (2) Monitor natural production and estimate overall abundance of pacific lamprey, chinook and coho salmon and summer steelhead; (3) Assess the condition and health of migrants and determine length-frequency distributions through time; (4) Investigate the effects of canal and fishway operations and environmental conditions on fish migration and survival; (5) Investigate and implement improved tag monitoring capabilities; and (6) Participate in planning and coordination activities within the basin and disseminate results. More specifically, 2001 objectives included the ongoing evaluation of migrant abundance and survival of tagged hatchery fish groups from various species-specific hatchery, rearing, acclimation and release strategies; fourth year reach survival results; continuation of transport evaluation studies; outmigrant monitoring and estimation of natural abundance, and further investigation of the effects of canal operations, environmental factors, fish condition and health on migration, abundance and survival. Some of the key findings for 2001 are: (1) A significant decline in outmigrant abundance of

  11. Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in Big Canyon Creek Watershed; Anadromous Fish Habitat Restoration in the Nichols Canyon Subwatershed, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziol, Deb (Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District, Lewiston, ID)

    2002-02-01

    Big Canyon Creek historically provided quality spawning and rearing habitat for A-run wild summer steelhead in the Clearwater River subbasin (Fuller, 1986). However, high stream temperatures, excessive sediment and nutrient loads, low summer stream flows, and little instream cover caused anadromous fish habitat constraints in the creek. The primary sources of these nonpoint source pollution and habitat degradations are attributed to agricultural, livestock, and forestry practices (NPSWCD, 1995). Addressing these problems is made more complex due to the large percentage of privately owned lands in the watershed. Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (NPSWCD) seeks to assist private, tribal, county, and state landowners in implementing Best Management Practices (BMPs) to reduce nonpoint source pollutants, repair poorly functioning riparian zones, and increase water retention in the Nichols Canyon subwatershed. The project funds coordination, planning, technical assistance, BMP design and installation, monitoring, and educational outreach to identify and correct problems associated with agricultural and livestock activities impacting water quality and salmonid survival. The project accelerates implementation of the Idaho agricultural water quality management program within the subwatershed.

  12. Umatilla Hatchery Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance; 1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1997-06-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As an integral part of this program, Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs, Imeques C-mem-ini-kem and Thornhollow satellite facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning adult summer steelhead and Three Mile Dam is used for holding and spawning adult fall chinook and coho salmon. Bonifer, Minthorn, Imeques and Thornhollow facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile salmon and summer steelhead. The main goal of acclimation is to reduce stress from trucking prior to release and improve imprinting of juvenile salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin. Juveniles are transported to the acclimation facilities primarily from Umatilla and Bonneville Hatcheries. This report details activities associated with operation and maintenance of the Bonifer, Minthorn, Imeques, Thornhollow and Three Mile Dam facilities in 1996.

  13. Seasonal Juvenile Salmonid Presence and Migratory Behavior in the Lower Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Welch, Ian D.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.

    2009-04-30

    To facilitate preparing Biological Assessments of proposed channel maintenance projects, the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to consolidate and synthesize available information about the use of the lower Columbia River and estuary by juvenile anadromous salmonids. The information to be synthesized included existing published documents as well as data from five years (2004-2008) of acoustic telemetry studies conducted in the Columbia River estuary using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System. For this synthesis, the Columbia River estuary includes the section of the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam at river kilometer (Rkm) 235 downstream to the mouth where it enters the Pacific Ocean. In this report, we summarize the seasonal salmonid presence and migration patterns in the Columbia River estuary based on information from published studies as well as relevant data from acoustic telemetry studies conducted by NOAA Fisheries and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) between 2004 and 2008. Recent acoustic telemetry studies, conducted using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS; developed by the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers), provided information on the migratory behavior of juvenile steelhead (O. mykiss) and Chinook salmon in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the Pacific Ocean. In this report, Section 2 provides a summary of information from published literature on the seasonal presence and migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River estuary and plume. Section 3 presents a detailed synthesis of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead migratory behavior based on use of the JSATS between 2004 and 2008. Section 4 provides a discussion of the information summarized in the report as well as information drawn from literature reviews on potential effects of channel maintenance activities to juvenile salmonids rearing in

  14. Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Carter, Jessica A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.

    2010-08-01

    The study reported herein was funded as part of the Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program, which is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program study code is EST P 02 01: A Study of Salmonid Survival and Behavior through the Columbia River Estuary Using Acoustic Tags. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries for the USACE Portland District. Estimated survival of acoustic-tagged juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead through the lower Columbia River and estuary in 2009 was lowest in the final 50 km of the estuary. Probability of survival was relatively high (>0.90) for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon from the Bonneville Dam forebay (rkm 236) to Three-tree Point (rkm 49.6). Survival of juvenile Chinook salmon declined sharply through the lower 50 km of the estuary. Acoustic-tagged steelhead smolts did not survive as well as juvenile Chinook salmon between Bonneville Dam and the mouth of the Columbia River. Steelhead survival began to decline farther upstream (at rkm 86) relative to that of the Chinook salmon stocks. Subyearling Chinook salmon survival decreased markedly as the season progressed. It remains to be determined whether later migrating subyearling Chinook salmon are suffering increasing mortality as the season progresses or whether some portion of the apparent loss is due to fish extending their freshwater residence. This study provided the first glimpse into what promises to be a very informative way to learn more about how juvenile salmonid passage experiences through the FCRPS may influence their subsequent survival after passing Bonneville Dam. New information regarding the influence of migration pathway through the lower 50 km of the Columbia River estuary on probability of survival of juvenile salmonids, combined with increased understanding regarding the foraging distances and time periods of

  15. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project, Operations and Maintenance and Planning and Design, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.; Penney, Aaron K. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    2006-03-01

    This report fulfills the contract obligations based on the Statement of Work (SOW) for the project as contracted with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) Year-2001 annual report combines information from two contracts with a combined value of $2,336,491. They are identified by Bonneville Power Administration as follows: (1) Operations and Maintenance--Project No. 1983-350-00, Contract No. 4504, and (2) Planning and Design--Project No. 1983-350-00, Contract No. 4035. The Operations and Maintenance (O&M) budget of $2,166,110 was divided as follows: Facility Development and Fish Production Costs--$860,463; and Equipment Purchases as capital cost--$1,305,647 for equipment and subcontracts. The Planning and Design (P&D) budget of $170,381 was allocated to development of a Coho master planning document in conjunction with Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery. The O&M budget expenditures represent personnel and fish production expenses; e.g., administration, management, coordination, facility development, personnel training and fish production costs for spring Chinook and Coho salmon. Under Objective 1: Fish Culture Training and Education, tribal staff worked at Clearwater Anadromous Hatchery (CAFH) an Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) facility to produce spring Chinook smolt and parr for release that are intended to provide future broodstock for NPTH. As a training exercise, BPA allowed tribal staff to rear Coho salmon at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) facility. This statement of work allows this type of training to prepare tribal staff to later rear salmon at Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery under Task 1.6. As a subset of the O&M budget, the equipment purchase budget of $1,305,647 less $82,080 for subcontracts provides operational and portable equipment necessary for NPTH facilities after construction. The equipment budget for the year was $1,223,567; this year's purchases amounted $287,364.48 (see

  16. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hockersmith, Eric E.

    1999-03-01

    This report consists of two parts describing research activities completed during 1997 under Bonneville Power Administration Project Number 93-29. Part 1 provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 1997 for PIT-tagged hatchery steelhead and yearling chinook salmon in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. The results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures with a minimum of text. More detailed information on methodology and the statistical models used in the analysis are provided in previous annual reports cited in the text. Analysis of the relationships among travel time, survival, and environmental factors for 1997 and previous years of the study will be reported elsewhere. Part 2 of this report describes research to determine areas of loss and delay for juvenile hatchery salmonids above Lower Granite Reservoir.

  17. Erwin National Fish Hatchery [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Erwin National Fish Hatchery. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  18. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulkner, James R.; Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D. [Northwest Fisheries Science Center

    2009-06-23

    In 2008, the National Marine Fisheries Service completed the sixteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,565 hatchery steelhead O. mykiss, 15,991 wild steelhead, and 9,714 wild yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. These included 122,061 yearling Chinook salmon tagged at Lower Granite Dam for evaluation of latent mortality related to passage through Snake River dams. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the single-release model). Primary research objectives in 2008 were to: (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead, (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions, and (3) evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2008 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Survival

  19. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program; Measurement of Thyroxin Concentration as an Indicator of the Critical Period for Imprinting in the Kokanee Salmon (Orcorhynchus Nerka) Implications for Operating Lake Roosevelt Kokanee Hatcheries; 1991 Supplement Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Allan T.; White, Ronald J.; Koehler, Valerie A. (Eastern Washington University, Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Research Center, Cheney, WA)

    1992-05-01

    Previous investigations have determined that thyroid hormone surges activate olfactory imprinting in anadromous salmonid smolts. The mechanism of action appears to require binding of thyroid hormones to receptors in brain cell nuclei, which stimulates neuron differentiation and wires a pattern of neuron circuitry that allows for the permanent storage of the imprinted olfactory memory. In this study, thyroxine concentrations [T{sub 4}] were measured in 487 Lake Whatcom stock and 70 Lake Roosevelt stock Kokanee salmon to indicate the critical period for imprinting. Eggs, alevins and fry, reared at the Spokane Indian Kokanee Hatchery, were collected from January through August 1991. Sampled fish were flash frozen on dry ice and stored at {minus}80{degrees}C until T{sub 4} was extracted and concentrations determined by radioimmunassay. Mean concentration {+-} SEM of 10--20 individual fish (assayed in duplicate) were determined for each time period. T{sub 4} concentration peaked on the day of hatch at 16.8 ng/g body weight and again at swim-up at 16.0 {+-} 4.7 ng/g body weight. T{sub 4} concentration was 12.5 to 12.9 ng/g body weight in eggs, 7.1 to 15.2 ng/g body weight in. alevins, 4.5 to 11.4 ng/g body weight in 42 to 105 day old fry and 0.1 to 2.9 ng/g body weight in 112 to 185 day old fry. T{sub 4} concentrations were highest in eggs at 13.3 {+-} 2.8 ng/g body weight, then steadily decreased to 0.1 {+-} 0.1 ng/g body weight in older fry. Fry were released in Lake Roosevelt tributaries in July and August 1991, at about 170--180 days post hatching, in order to imprint them to those sites. The results of this study indicate that the time of release was not appropriate for imprinting. If T{sub 4} levels are an accurate guide for imprinting in kokanee, our results suggest that the critical period for imprinting in kokanee is at hatching or swim-up stages.

  20. Parasites as biological tags of marine, freshwater and anadromous fishes in North America from the Tropics to the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcogliese, David J; Jacobson, Kym C

    2015-01-01

    Parasites have been considered as natural biological tags of marine fish populations in North America for almost 75 years. In the Northwest Atlantic, the most studied species include Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and the redfishes (Sebastes spp.). In the North Pacific, research has centred primarily on salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.). However, parasites have been applied as tags for numerous other pelagic and demersal species on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Relatively few studies have been undertaken in the Arctic, and these were designed to discriminate anadromous and resident salmonids (Salvelinus spp.). Although rarely applied in fresh waters, parasites have been used to delineate certain fish stocks within the Great Lakes-St Lawrence River basin. Anisakid nematodes and the copepod Sphyrion lumpi frequently prove useful indicators in the Northwest Atlantic, while myxozoan parasites prove very effective on the coast and open seas of the Pacific Ocean. Relative differences in the ability of parasites to discriminate between fish stocks on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts may be due to oceanographic and bathymetric differences between regions. Molecular techniques used to differentiate populations and species of parasites show promise in future applications in the field.

  1. Migrational Characteristics, Biological Observations, and Relative Survival of Juvenile Salmonids Entering the Columbia River Estuary, 1966-1983, 1985 Final Report of Research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawley, Earl M.

    1986-04-01

    Natural runs of salmonids in the Columbia River basin have decreased as a result of hydroelectric-dam development, poor land- and forest-management, and over-fishing. This has necessitated increased salmon culture to assure adequate numbers of returning adults. Hatchery procedures and facilities are continually being modified to improve both the efficiency of production and the quality of juveniles produced. Initial efforts to evaluate changes in hatchery procedures were dependent upon adult contributions to the fishery and returns to the hatchery. Procedures were developed for sampling juvenile salmon and steelhead entering the Columbia River estuary and ocean plume. The sampling of hatchery fish at the terminus of their freshwater migration assisted in evaluating hatchery production techniques and identifying migrational or behavioral characteristics that influence survival to and through the estuary. The sampling program attempted to estimate survival of different stocks and define various aspects of migratory behavior in a large river, with flows during the spring freshet from 4 to 17 thousand cubic meters per second (m/sup 3//second).

  2. Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Lapwai Creek Watershed, Technical Report 2003-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn

    2007-02-01

    The Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Lapwai Creek Watershed is a multi-phase project to enhance steelhead trout in the Lapwai Creek watershed by improving salmonid spawning and rearing habitat. Habitat is limited by extreme high runoff events, low summer flows, high water temperatures, poor instream cover, spawning gravel siltation, and sediment, nutrient and bacteria loading. Funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the project assists in mitigating damage to steelhead runs caused by the Columbia River hydroelectric dams. The project is sponsored by the Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District). Target fish species include steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Steelhead trout within the Snake River Basin were listed in 1997 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Accomplishments for the contract period December 1, 2003 through February 28, 2004 include; seven grade stabilization structures, 0.67 acres of wetland plantings, ten acres tree planting, 500 linear feet streambank erosion control, two acres grass seeding, and 120 acres weed control.

  3. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul

    2002-06-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. Along with reduced population and genetic variability, the loss of biodiversity means a diminished environmental adaptability. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2001 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2001, a total of 398 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 295 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program stores 680 cryopreserved samples at the University of Idaho as a long-term archive, half of the total samples. A total of 3,206 cryopreserved samples from Snake River basin steelhead and

  4. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, William; Kucera, Paul

    2003-07-01

    In spite of an intensive management effort, chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in the Northwest have not recovered and are currently listed as threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. In addition to the loss of diversity from stocks that have already gone extinct, decreased genetic diversity resulting from genetic drift and inbreeding is a major concern. Reduced population and genetic variability diminishes the environmental adaptability of individual species and entire ecological communities. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), in cooperation with Washington State University and the University of Idaho, established a germplasm repository in 1992 in order to preserve the remaining salmonid diversity in the region. The germplasm repository provides long-term storage for cryopreserved gametes. Although only male gametes can be cryopreserved, conserving the male component of genetic diversity will maintain future management options for species recovery. NPT efforts have focused on preserving salmon and steelhead gametes from the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin. However, the repository is available for all management agencies to contribute gamete samples from other regions and species. In 2002 a total of 570 viable semen samples were added to the germplasm repository. This included the gametes of 287 chinook salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River (Lookingglass Hatchery), Lake Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery), and upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Hatchery) and the gametes of 280 steelhead from the North Fork Clearwater River (Dworshak Hatchery), Fish Creek, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery) and Snake River (Oxbow Hatchery). In addition, gametes from 60 Yakima River spring chinook and 34 Wenatchee River coho salmon were added to the

  5. CTUIR Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project : A Columbia River Basin Fish Habitat Project 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoverson, Eric D.; Amonette, Alexandra

    2009-02-09

    The Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project (UAFHP) is an ongoing effort to protect, enhance, and restore riparian and instream habitat for the natural production of anadromous salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin, Northeast Oregon. Flow quantity, water temperature, passage, and lack of in-stream channel complexity have been identified as the key limiting factors in the basin. During the 2008 Fiscal Year (FY) reporting period (February 1, 2008-January 31, 2009) primary project activities focused on improving instream and riparian habitat complexity, migrational passage, and restoring natural channel morphology and floodplain function. Eight primary fisheries habitat enhancement projects were implemented on Meacham Creek, Birch Creek, West Birch Creek, McKay Creek, West Fork Spring Hollow, and the Umatilla River. Specific restoration actions included: (1) rectifying one fish passage barrier on West Birch Creek; (2) participating in six projects planting 10,000 trees and seeding 3225 pounds of native grasses; (3) donating 1000 ft of fencing and 1208 fence posts and associated hardware for 3.6 miles of livestock exclusion fencing projects in riparian areas of West Birch and Meacham Creek, and for tree screens to protect against beaver damage on West Fork Spring Hollow Creek; (4) using biological control (insects) to reduce noxious weeds on three treatment areas covering five acres on Meacham Creek; (5) planning activities for a levee setback project on Meacham Creek. We participated in additional secondary projects as opportunities arose. Baseline and ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities were also completed on major project areas such as conducting photo point monitoring strategies activities at the Meacham Creek Large Wood Implementation Project site (FY2006) and at additional easements and planned project sites. Fish surveys and aquatic habitat inventories were conducted at project sites prior to implementation. Proper selection and implementation of

  6. Okanogan Subbasin Water Quality and Quantity Report for Anadromous Fish in 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colville Tribes, Department of Fish & Wildlife

    2007-12-01

    Fish need water of sufficient quality and quantity in order to survive and reproduce. The list of primary water quality indicators appropriate for monitoring of anadromous fish, as identified by the Upper Columbia Monitoring Strategy, includes: discharge, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, conductivity, nitrogen, phosphorus and ammonia. The Colville Tribes Fish and Wildlife Department began evaluating these water quality indicators in 2005 and this report represents data collected from October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006. We collected empirical status and trend data from various sources to evaluate each water quality indicator along the main stem Okanogan and Similkameen Rivers along with several tributary streams. Each water quality indicator was evaluated based upon potential impacts to salmonid survival or productivity. Specific conductance levels and all nutrient indicators remained at levels acceptable for growth, survival, and reproduction of salmon and steelhead. These indicators were also considered of marginal value for monitoring environmental conditions related to salmonids within the Okanogan subbasin. However, discharge, temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and pH in that order represent the water quality indicators that are most useful for monitoring watershed health and habitat changes and will help to evaluate threats or changes related to salmon and steelhead restoration and recovery. On the Okanogan River minimum flows have decreased over the last 12 years at a rate of -28.3CFS/year as measured near the town of Malott, WA. This trend is not beneficial for salmonid production and efforts to reverse this trend should be strongly encouraged. Turbidity levels in Bonaparte and Omak Creek were a concern because they had the highest monthly average readings. Major upland disturbance in the Bonaparte Creek watershed has occurred for decades and agricultural practices within the riparian areas along this creek have lead to major

  7. Elwha genetics - Elwha river salmonid genetics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Elwha Dam is in the process of being removed, with fish restoration to occur in areas previously inaccessible to salmonids. Fish recovery anticipates that...

  8. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroder, S.L.; Pearsons, T.N. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA); Knudsen, C.M. (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA)

    2005-05-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that adult salmon produced by artificial culture are not as reproductively successful as wild fish when they spawn under natural conditions. Behavioral, morphological, and physiological divergences have been observed between hatchery and wild fish. These disparities are the likely proximate causes of the differences seen in the reproductive success of hatchery and wild salmonids. Two evolutionary paradigms have been proposed to explain why salmonids cultured in hatcheries are genetically and phenotypically different from wild cohorts. The first proposes that natural selection has been significantly relaxed in hatcheries. Consequently, fish that normally would have perished because of the possession of unsuitable traits are able to survive. If these traits have a genetic basis, they may become established in a hatchery population and cause its productivity to be less than expected if the fish are once again exposed to natural selection pressures. The second theorizes that environmental and social conditions in hatcheries are less variable than in the natural environment and that these conditions will remain relatively constant from one generation to the next. In this circumstance, selection for genetic traits that adapt fish to artificial culture will become prevalent in the population. Such traits may be mal-adaptive under natural conditions. Many of the studies that have compared the reproductive success (RS) of hatchery and wild fish, however, have used non-local hatchery fish that have experienced multiple generations of hatchery culture. Few efforts have been made where both the hatchery and wild fish have originated from the same population. When such studies have been performed differences in the competency of the fish to produce offspring have not been detected or are not as great as those expressed when non-local hatchery fish have been used. The hatchery spring Chinook produced by the Yakima Fisheries Project

  9. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, John L.

    1986-12-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration conducted a study relating to the epidemiology and control of three fish diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These three diseases were ceratomyxosis caused by the myxosporidan parasite Ceratomyxa Shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the causative agent Renibacterium salmoninarum, and infectious hematopoietic necrosis, caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is highly destructive and difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The geographic range of the infectious stage of C. Shasta has been extended to include the Snake River to the Oxbow and Hells Canyon Dams. These are the farthest upriver sites tested. Infections of ceratomyxosis were also initiated in the east fork of the Lewis River and in the Washougal River in Washington. Laboratory studies with this parasite failed to indicate that tubeficids are required in its life cycle. Bacterial kidney disease has been demonstrated in all life stages of salmonids: in the eggs, fry, smolts, juveniles and adults in the ocean, and in fish returning to fresh water. Monoclonal antibodies produced against R. salmoninarum demonstrated antigenic differences among isolates of the bacterium. Monoclonal antibodies also showed antigens of R. salmoninarum which are similar to those of a wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. A demonstration project at Round Butte Hatchery showed U V treatment to be an effective method for reducing the microbial population of the water supply and could reduce risks of IHNV. Tangential flow filtration was used successfully to concentrate IHNV from environmental water. At Round Butte Hatchery the carrier rate of IHNV in adults was very low and there was no subsequent mortality resulting from IHN in juveniles.

  10. Hatcheries, Harvest and Wild Fish: An Integrated Program at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery is operated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is located on the Warm Springs River within the Warm Springs Indian...

  11. Salmon hatcheries for the 21st century: A model at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Salmon hatcheries in the Pacific Northwest continue to produce fish for harvest, largely to fulfill a mitigation function. Fisheries management struggles with the...

  12. Protein profiles of hatchery egg shell membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Eggshells, which consist largely of calcareous outer shell and shell membranes, constitute a significant part of poultry hatchery waste. The shell membranes (ESM) not only contain proteins that originate from egg whites but also from the developing embryos and different contaminants of m...

  13. Business plan Hatchery Facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a hatchery, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of the c

  14. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Tara C.; Hanson, Josh T.; Jewett, Shannon M.

    2004-01-01

    The year of 2002 represented the eighth year of a multi-year project, monitoring the outmigration and survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project both supplements and complements various ongoing and completed work within the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on juvenile outmigration and survival assists researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal and fish ladder operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts of natural and restored fish populations. Findings from this study also assist in assessment of the success of upriver habitat improvement projects and provide an overall evaluation of the Umatilla River fisheries restoration program. General project objectives include: Evaluation of the outmigration and survival of natural and hatchery juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River, in an effort to enhance the understanding of migration characteristics, survival bottlenecks, species interactions and effects of management strategies. Specific objectives for 2002 included: (1) Operation of the remote interrogation system at Three Mile Falls Dam, West Extension Canal; (2) Design of improved PIT tag detection capabilities at Three Mile Falls Dam east bank adult fish ladder; (3) Estimates of migrant abundance, migration timing and in-basin survival of tagged juvenile salmonids representing various hatchery, rearing, acclimation and release strategies; (4) Monitoring of abundance and trends in natural production of salmon, steelhead and pacific lamprey; (5) Continuation of transport evaluation studies to evaluate the relative survival between transported and nontransported fish; (6) Assessment of the condition, health, size, growth and smolt status of hatchery and natural migrants; (7) Investigation of the effects of canal and fishway operations and environmental conditions on fish migration and survival; (8) Documentation of temporal distribution and diversity of resident

  15. Ford Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program, Hatcheries Division, Annual Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovrak, Jon; Ward, Glen

    2004-01-01

    Bonneville Power Administration's participation with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Ford Hatchery, provides the opportunity for enhancing the recreational and subsistence kokanee fisheries in Banks Lake. The artificial production and fisheries evaluation is done cooperatively through the Spokane Hatchery, Sherman Creek Hatchery (WDFW), Banks Lake Volunteer Net Pen Project, and the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program. Ford Hatchery's production, together with the Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery, will contribute to an annual goal of one million kokanee yearlings for Lake Roosevelt and 1.4 million kokanee fingerlings and fry for Banks Lake. The purpose of this multi-agency program is to restore and enhance kokanee salmon and rainbow trout populations in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake due to Grand Coulee Dam impoundments. The Ford Hatchery will produce 9,533 lbs. (572,000) kokanee annually for release as fingerlings into Banks Lake in October. An additional 2,133 lbs. (128,000) kokanee will be transferred to net pens on Banks Lake at Electric City in October. The net pen raised kokanee will be reared through the fall, winter, and early spring to a total of 8,533 lbs and released in May. While the origin of kokanee comes from Lake Whatcom, current objectives will be to increase the use of native (or, indigenous) stocks for propagation in Banks Lake and the Upper Columbia River. Additional stocks planned for future use in Banks Lake include Lake Roosevelt kokanee and Meadow Creek kokanee. The Ford Hatchery continues to produce resident trout (80,584 lb. per year) to promote the sport fisheries in trout fishing lakes in eastern Washington (WDFW Management, Region 1). Operation and maintenance funding for the increased kokanee program was implemented in FY 2001 and scheduled to continue through FY 2010. Funds from BPA allow for an additional employee at the Ford Hatchery to assist in the operations and maintenance associated

  16. Non-Salmonid Abundance - Line Features [ds186

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. The "Other Fish" category contains data collected...

  17. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, William D.; Smith, Steven G.; Zabel, Richard W. (NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Center, Seattle, WA)

    2003-07-01

    In 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the tenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,891 hatchery steelhead at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''Single-Release Model''). Primary research objectives in 2002 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2002 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  18. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2006-05-01

    In 2005, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the thirteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,439 hatchery steelhead, 5,315 wild steelhead, and 6,964 wild yearling Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''single-release model''). Primary research objectives in 2005 were: (1) Estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss. (2) Evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions. (3) Evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2005 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here.

  19. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Klickitat River Tributaries, 2001-2005 Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zendt, Joe; Sharp, Bill (Yakama Nation Fisheries, Toppenish, WA)

    2006-09-01

    This report describes the work completed by the Yakama Nation Fisheries Program (YNFP) in the Klickitat subbasin in south-central Washington under BPA innovative project No.200105500--Influences of stocking salmon carcass analogs on salmonids in Columbia River Tributaries. Salmon carcasses historically provided a significant source of marine-derived nutrients to many stream systems in the Columbia basin, and decreased run sizes have led to a loss of this nutrient source in many streams. Partners in this project developed a pathogen-free carcass analog and stocked the analogs in streams with the following objectives: restoring food availability to streams with reduced anadromous salmon returns; mimicking the natural pathways and timing of food acquisition by salmonids; minimizing unintended negative ecological effects; and increasing the growth and survival of salmonids. In the Klickitat subbasin, carcass analogs were stocked in two streams in 2002 and 2003; a third stream was used as a control. Salmonid fish abundance, growth, and stomach contents were monitored in all three streams before and after carcass analog placement. Fish, invertebrate, and periphyton samples were also collected for stable isotope analysis (to determine if nutrients from carcass analogs were incorporated into the stream food web). Water quality samples were also collected to determine if nutrient overloading occurred in streams. Significant differences in growth were found between fish in treated and untreated stream reaches. Fish in treatment reaches exhibited higher instantaneous growth rates approximately one month after the first carcass analog stocking. Stomach contents sampling indicated that salmonid fish routinely consumed the carcass analog material directly, and that stomach fullness of fish in treatment reaches was higher than in untreated reaches in the first few weeks following carcass analog stockings. No significant differences were detected in fish abundance between

  20. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabel, Richard; Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2001-02-01

    In 2000, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the eight year of a study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. A total of 20,313 hatchery steelhead were tagged with passive integrated transpoder (PIT) tags and released at Lower Granite Dam for reach survival estimation. They did not PIT tag any yearlying chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) for reach survival estimates in 2000 because sufficient numbers for these estimates were available from other studies. Primary research objectives in 2000 were (1) to estimate reach and project survival in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations, and (2) to evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. In addition, they estimated survival from point of release to Lower Granite Dam and below for chinook salmon, steelhead, and sockeye salmon (O.nerka) PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin hatcheries and chinook salmon and steelhead PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin hatcheries and chinook salmon and steelhead PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin smolt traps. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2000 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures. Further details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited in the text.

  1. A review of the likely effects of climate change on anadromous Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and brown trout Salmo trutta, with particular reference to water temperature and flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, B; Jonsson, N

    2009-12-01

    The present paper reviews the effects of water temperature and flow on migrations, embryonic development, hatching, emergence, growth and life-history traits in light of the ongoing climate change with emphasis on anadromous Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and brown trout Salmo trutta. The expected climate change in the Atlantic is for milder and wetter winters, with more precipitation falling as rain and less as snow, decrease in ice-covered periods and frequent periods with extreme weather. Overall, thermal limits for salmonids are species specific. Scope for activity and growth and optimal temperature for growth increase with temperature to an optimal point before constrain by the oxygen content of the water. The optimal temperature for growth decreases with increasing fish size and varies little among populations within species, whereas the growth efficiency may be locally adapted to the temperature conditions of the home stream during the growth season. Indirectly, temperature influences age and size at smolting through its effect on growth. Time of spawning, egg hatching and emergence of the larvae vary with temperature and selective effects on time of first feeding. Traits such as age at first maturity, longevity and fecundity decrease with increasing temperature whilst egg size increases with temperature. Water flow influences the accessibility of rivers for returning adults and speed of both upstream and downstream migration. Extremes in water flow and temperature can decrease recruitment and survival. There is reason to expect a northward movement of the thermal niche of anadromous salmonids with decreased production and population extinction in the southern part of the distribution areas, migrations earlier in the season, later spawning, younger age at smolting and sexual maturity and increased disease susceptibility and mortality. Future research challenges are summarized at the end of the paper.

  2. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program Final EIS (DOE EIS /SA-156) - Upper Salmon River Anadromous Fish Passage Improvement Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Carl J. [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2004-07-13

    BPA proposes to fund IDFG to plan and complete construction of fish passage improvements and water conservation activities that are contained within IDFG’s Statement of Work (SOW) for the period 7/1/04 to 6/30/05. The funding request contained in their SOW is part of an ongoing IDFG effort to fund anadromous fish passage projects that fall outside the scope of the Mitchell Act. The proposed SOW activities fall within the following four categories: Phase I-Planning and Design (gather data, perform investigations, and exchange information; perform surveys and assessments to be compliant; survey project sites and perform engineering designs; perform contract and project management); Phase II-Construction and Implementation (procure materials and supplies, prepare contracts and solicit bids, plant native seedlings, complete capital improvements); Phase III-Operation and Maintenance (maintain office operations); and Phase IV- Monitoring and Evaluation (monitor and evaluate post-project effects, reporting). The SOW culminates with proposed construction of 18 capital improvement projects (Table 1 attached). The types of capital improvements include: screening gravity water diversions; consolidating and/or eliminating ditches; evaluating and screening pump diversions; evaluating and implementing water conservation activities; constructing screens along migration routes and rearing areas for hatchery and wild salmon; improving upstream and downstream passage for anadromous fish; and maximize benefits to aquatic habitat. Because each of the proposed projects in the SOW is still in the planning stages, the specifics of each still need to be completed.

  3. PCB impairs smoltification and seawater performance in anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, E.H.; Aas-Hansen, O.; Maule, A.G.; Strand, J.E.T.; Vijayan, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    The impacts of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure on smoltification and subsequent seawater performance were investigated in hatchery-reared, anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The fish were subjected to a 2-month summer seawater residence, after which they were orally dosed with 0 (Control, C), 1 (Low Dose, LD) or 100 mg Aroclor 1254 kg-1 body mass (High Dose, HD) in November. They were then held in fresh water, without being fed (to mimic their natural overwintering in freshwater), until they had smolted in June the next year. The smolts were then transferred to seawater and fed to mimic their summer feeding residence in seawater, followed by a period without food in freshwater from August until maturation in October. Compared with C and LD charr, the HD charr had either a transient or a permanent reduction in plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and thyroxin and triiodothyronine titers during the period of smoltification. These hormonal alterations in the HD charr corresponded with impaired hyposmoregulatory ability in May and June, as well as reduced growth rate and survival after transference to seawater. Consequently, fewer fish in the HD group matured in October compared to the other two treatments. The HD fish had a liver PCB concentration ranging between 14 and 42 mg kg-1 wet mass, whereas there were similar, and very low, liver PCB concentrations in LD and C fish throughout the smolting period. Our findings suggest that PCB might compromise mechanisms important for fitness in a fish species living in an extreme environment. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in Big Canyon Creek Watershed, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn (Nez Perce Soil and Conservation District, Lewiston, ID)

    2006-07-01

    The ''Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Big Canyon Creek Watershed'' is a multi-phase project to enhance steelhead trout in the Big Canyon Creek watershed by improving salmonid spawning and rearing habitat. Habitat is limited by extreme high runoff events, low summer flows, high water temperatures, poor instream cover, spawning gravel siltation, and sediment, nutrient and bacteria loading. Funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the project assists in mitigating damage to steelhead runs caused by the Columbia River hydroelectric dams. The project is sponsored by the Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District. Target fish species include steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Steelhead trout within the Snake River Basin were listed in 1997 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Accomplishments for the contract period September 1, 2004 through October 31, 2005 include; 2.7 riparian miles treated, 3.0 wetland acres treated, 5,263.3 upland acres treated, 106.5 riparian acres treated, 76,285 general public reached, 3,000 students reached, 40 teachers reached, 18 maintenance plans completed, temperature data collected at 6 sites, 8 landowner applications received and processed, 14 land inventories completed, 58 habitat improvement project designs completed, 5 newsletters published, 6 habitat plans completed, 34 projects installed, 2 educational workshops, 6 displays, 1 television segment, 2 public service announcements, a noxious weed GIS coverage, and completion of NEPA, ESA, and cultural resources requirements.

  5. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, Final Siting Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Montgomery

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  6. Introduced northern pike consumption of salmonids in Southcentral Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Dupuis, Aaron W; Shields, Patrick A; Dunker, Kristine J.

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of introduced northern pike (Esox lucius) on salmonid populations have attracted much attention because salmonids are popular subsistence, sport and commercial fish. Concern over the predatory effects of introduced pike on salmonids is especially high in Southcentral Alaska, where pike were illegally introduced to the Susitna River basin in the 1950s. We used pike abundance, growth, and diet estimates and bioenergetics models to characterise the realised and potential consumptive impacts that introduced pike (age 2 and older) have on salmonids in Alexander Creek, a tributary to the Susitna River. We found that juvenile salmonids were the dominant prey item in pike diets and that pike could consume up to 1.10 metric tons (realised consumption) and 1.66 metric tons (potential consumption) of juvenile salmonids in a summer. Age 3–4 pike had the highest per capita consumption of juvenile salmonids, and age 2 and age 3–4 pike had the highest overall consumption of juvenile salmonid biomass. Using historical data on Chinook salmon and pike potential consumption of juvenile salmonids, we found that pike consumption of juvenile salmonids may lead to collapsed salmon stocks in Alexander Creek. Taken together, our results indicate that pike consume a substantial biomass of juvenile salmonids in Alexander Creek and that coexistence of pike and salmon is unlikely without management actions to reduce or eliminate introduced pike.

  7. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin : 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A. [Nez Perce Tribe. Dept. of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID (US)

    2001-06-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2000 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2000, a total of 349 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Rapid River Hatchery, Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 283 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Tribe acquired 5 frozen steelhead samples from the Selway River collected in 1994 and 15 from Fish Creek sampled in 1993 from the U.S. Geological Survey, for addition into the germplasm repository. Also, 590 cryopreserved samples from the Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program are being stored at the University of Idaho as

  8. Next-generation salmonid alphavirus vaccine development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikke, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aquaculture is essential to meet the current and future demands for seafood to feed the world population. Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout are two of the most cultured aquaculture species. A pathogen that threatens these species is salmonid alphavirus (SAV). A current inactivated virus vac

  9. Confederated Tribes Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project : A Columbia River Basin Fish Habitat Project : Annual Report Fiscal Year 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoverson, Eric D.; Amonette, Alexandra

    2008-12-02

    The Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project (UAFHP) is an ongoing effort to protect, enhance, and restore riparian and instream habitat for the natural production of anadromous salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin, Northeast Oregon. Flow quantity, water temperature, passage, and lack of in-stream channel complexity have been identified as the key limiting factors in the basin. During the 2007 Fiscal Year (FY) reporting period (February 1, 2007-January 31, 2008) primary project activities focused on improving instream and riparian habitat complexity, migrational passage, and restoring natural channel morphology and floodplain function. Eight fisheries habitat enhancement projects were implemented on Meacham Creek, Camp Creek, Greasewood Creek, Birch Creek, West Birch Creek, and the Umatilla River. Specific restoration actions included: (1) rectifying five fish passage barriers on four creeks, (2) planting 1,275 saplings and seeding 130 pounds of native grasses, (3) constructing two miles of riparian fencing for livestock exclusion, (4) coordinating activities related to the installation of two off-channel, solar-powered watering areas for livestock, and (5) developing eight water gap access sites to reduce impacts from livestock. Baseline and ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities were also completed on major project areas such as conducting photo point monitoring strategies activities at the Meacham Creek Large Wood Implementation Project site (FY2006) and at all existing easements and planned project sites. Fish surveys and aquatic habitat inventories were conducted at project sites prior to implementation. Monitoring plans will continue throughout the life of each project to oversee progression and inspire timely managerial actions. Twenty-seven conservation easements were maintained with 23 landowners. Permitting applications for planned project activities and biological opinions were written and approved. Project activities were based on a variety

  10. Effectiveness of a redesigned water diversion using rock vortex weirs to enhance longitudinal connectivity for small Salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Kyle D.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    For nearly 100 years, water diversions have affected fish passage in Beaver Creek, a tributary of the lower Methow River in north-central Washington State. From 2000 to 2004, four dam-style water diversions were replaced with a series of rock vortex weirs (RVWs). The weirs were designed to allow fish passage while maintaining the ability to divert water into irrigation canals. We observed the new appearance of three species (juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, juvenile coho salmon O. kisutch, and mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni) upstream of the RVWs, indicating successful restoration of longitudinal connectivity. We used passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and instream PIT tag interrogation systems during 2004–2007 to evaluate upstream passage of small salmonids (<240 mm fork length) through one series of RVWs. We documented 109 upstream passage events by small salmonids through the series of RVWs; most of the events (81%) involved passage of rainbow trout O. mykiss or juvenile steelhead (anadromous rainbow trout). Small rainbow trout or steelhead ranging from 86 to 238 mm (adjusted fork length) were able to pass upstream through the RVWs, although a delay in fish passage at discharges below 0.32 m3/s was detected in comparison with nearby control sections.

  11. Effectiveness of an integrated hatchery program: Can genetic-based performance differences between hatchery and wild Chinook salmon be avoided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Michael C.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Drake, Deanne C.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Young, Sewall F.

    2013-01-01

    Performance of wild (W) and hatchery (H) spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was evaluated for a sixth generation hatchery program. Management techniques to minimize genetic divergence from the wild stock included regular use of wild broodstock and volitional releases of juveniles. Performance of HH, WW, and HW (hatchery female spawned with wild male) crosses was compared in hatchery and stream environments. The WW juveniles emigrated from the hatchery at two to three times the rate of HH fish in the fall (HW intermediate) and 35% more HH than WW adults returned (27% more HW than WW adults). Performance in the stream did not differ statistically between HH and WW fish, but outmigrants (38% WW, 30% HW, and 32% HH fish) during the first 39 days of the 16-month sampling period composed 74% of total outmigrants. Differences among hatchery-reared crosses were partially due to additive genetic effects, were consistent with domestication (increased fitness for the hatchery population in the hatchery program), and suggested that selection against fall emigration from the hatchery was a possible mechanism of domestication.

  12. Integrated Hatchery Operations : Existing Policy Affecting Hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin, 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelldrake, Tom

    1993-05-01

    Collected together in this document is relevant laws and policy of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington State Department of Wildlife, Oregon State, Washington Department of Fisheries, and Idaho Department of Fish and Game as they affect hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin.

  13. Occurrence of antibiotics in water from fish hatcheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Earl M.; Dietze, Julie E.; Scribner, Elisabeth A.

    2002-01-01

    The recent discovery of pharmaceuticals in streams across the United States (Kolpin and others, 2002) has raised the visibility and need for monitoring of antibiotics in the environment. Possible sources of antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals in streams may include fish hatcheries. This fact sheet presents the results from a preliminary study of fish hatcheries across the United States for the occurrence and concentration of antibiotics present in fish hatchery water. The study examines both sufonamides and tetracyclines. Sulfonamides are synthetic compounds, and tetracyclines are naturally occurring compounds. The use of antibiotics added to specially formulated feed is a common practice in fish hatcheries to treat and prevent bacterial infections in large fish populations. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved antibiotics are oxytetracycline-HCI, sulfamerazine, and a combination drug containing ormetoprim and sulfadiamethoxine (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2003). During January 2001?June 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Organic Geochemistry Research Laboratory (OGRL), Lawrence, Kansas, cooperatively collected water samples from 13 fish hatcheries across the United States (fig. 1) with the assistance of hatchery operators. A method for the analysis of antibiotics was developed and used to identify and quantify these compounds in fish hatchery water (Lindsey and others, 2001). This study was completed to determine if trace levels of antibiotics [approximately 1 microgram per liter (?g/L) or 1 part per billion or greater occurred] in which water associated with fish hatcheries, which are a potential source of these compounds in surface water.

  14. 76 FR 6401 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... opportunity for public comment. The Puget Sound Treaty Tribes and the Washington Department of Fish...

  15. PIT-Tag effects on hatchery salmonids: Carson National Fish Hatchery spring Chinook Salmon: Annual report 2011 and work plan 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Coded-wire-tags (CWT) and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags are usedextensively throughout the Columbia River Basin to address a wide variety of management...

  16. Survey of pathogens in hatchery Chinook salmon with different out-migration histories through the Snake and Columbia rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gaest, A L; Dietrich, J P; Thompson, D E; Boylen, D A; Strickland, S A; Collier, T K; Loge, F J; Arkoosh, M R

    2011-06-01

    The operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) has negatively affected threatened and endangered salmonid populations in the Pacific Northwest. Barging Snake River spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha through the FCRPS is one effort to mitigate the effect of the hydrosystem on juvenile salmon out-migration. However, little is known about the occurrence and transmission of infectious agents in barged juvenile salmon relative to juvenile salmon that remain in-river to navigate to the ocean. We conducted a survey of hatchery-reared spring Chinook salmon at various points along their out-migration path as they left their natal hatcheries and either migrated in-river or were barged through the FCRPS. Salmon kidneys were screened by polymerase chain reaction for nine pathogens and one family of water molds. Eight pathogens were detected; the most prevalent were Renibacterium salmoninarum and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Species in the family Saprolegniaceae were also commonly detected. Pathogen prevalence was significantly greater in fish that were barged through the FCRPS than in fish left to out-migrate in-river. These results suggest that the transmission of infectious agents to susceptible juvenile salmon occurs during the barging process. Therefore, management activities that reduce pathogen exposure during barging may increase the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon after they are released.

  17. A test for the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two different hatcheries (Study site: Warm Springs Hatchery; Stocks: Warm Springs Hatchery and Carson Hatchery; Year class: 1993): Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was undertaken to determine the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) reared in a common environment, as a companion study to our investigation of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon. Pure-strain and reciprocal crosses were made between two hatchery stocks (Carson and Warm Springs National Fish Hatcheries). The offspring were reared together in one of the hatcheries to the smolt stage, and then were transferred to a seawater rearing facility (USGS-Marrowstone Field Station). Differences in survival, growth and disease prevalence were assessed. Fish with Carson parentage grew to greater size at the hatchery and in seawater than the pure-strain Warm Springs fish, but showed higher mortality at introduction to seawater. The analyses of maternal and stock effects were inconclusive, but the theoretical responses to different combinations of maternal and stock effects may be useful in interpreting stock comparison studies.

  18. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1983 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, John L.

    1984-11-01

    salmon seined from the Columbia River just before entering the estuary. Interpretation of these numbers suggests an even greater economic impact on Columbia River salmonid stocks than that proposed for C. shasta. Fertilized eggs from bacterial kidney disease infected parents examined after one month of incubation revealed the presence of bacteria with identical morphology to R. salmoninarum on or in the egg wall further reinforcing the proposed vertical transmission of this disease organism. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus was recovered at the 67% level from seeded water samples supplemented with 1% fetal calf serum. Virus injected into unfertilized eggs survived for over two weeks; in eyed eggs the virus also replicated. Epizootics caused by IHNV occurred in two of the 8 separate groups of steelhead trout fingerlings held in LJV treated water at Round Butte Hatchery. Comparing these results to those in the vertical transmission experiment where none of the groups developed IHNV suggests that vertical transmission of IHNV, if it occurs, is a very infrequent or random event. On three occasions IHNV was detected in ovarian fluid samples after storage for 6--9 days at 4 C. No virus had been detected in these samples at spawning. This suggests the presence of an interfering substance, perhaps anti-IHNV antibody in ovarian fluid. This observation raises the possibility that IHNV is much more widespread throughout Columbia River Basin salmonid stocks than previously believed.

  19. Demonstration of the salmonid humoral response to Renibacterium salmoninarum using a monoclonal antibody against salmonid immunoglobulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, J.L.; Arkoosh , M.R.; Rohovec, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    The specificity of the antibody response of salmonids to Renibacterium salmoninarum antigens was demonstrated by western blotting techniques that utilized a monoclonal antibody against salmonid immunoglobulin. In this study, the specificity of the response in immunized chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytschawas compared with the response in naturally infected chinook salmon and coho salmon O. kisutch, and immunized rabbits. The antibody response in immunized salmon and rabbits and the naturally infected fish was primarily against the 57–58kilodalton protein complex. In addition to recognizing these proteins in the extracellular fraction and whole-cell preparations, antibody from the immunized salmon and rabbits detected four proteins with lower molecular masses. Western blotting techniques allow identification of the specific antigens recognized and are a useful tool for comparing the immunogenicity of different R. salmoninarumpreparations. Immunofluorescent techniques with whole bacteria were less sensitive than western blotting in detecting salmonid anti-R. salmoninarumantibody.

  20. Handling and Treatment of Poultry Hatchery Waste: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Rodda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A literature review was undertaken to identify methods being used to handle and treat hatchery waste. Hatchery waste can be separated into solid waste and liquid waste by centrifuging or by using screens. Potential methods for treating hatchery waste on site include use of a furnace to heat the waste to produce steam to run a turbine generator or to use an in line composter to stabilise the waste. There is also potential to use anaerobic digestion at hatcheries to produce methane and fertilisers. Hatcheries disposing wastewater into lagoons could establish a series of ponds where algae, zooplankton and fish utilise the nutrients using integrated aquaculture which cleans the water making it more suitable for irrigation. The ideal system to establish in a hatchery would be to incorporate separation and handling equipment to separate waste into its various components for further treatment. This would save disposal costs, produce biogas to reduce power costs at plants and produce a range of value added products. However the scale of operations at many hatcheries is too small and development of treatment systems may not be viable.

  1. Methow River Studies, Washington: abundance estimates from Beaver Creek and the Chewuch River screw trap, methodology testing in the Whitefish Island side channel, and survival and detection estimates from hatchery fish releases, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Kyle D.; Fish, Teresa M.; Watson, Grace A.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Salmon and steelhead populations have been severely depleted in the Columbia River from factors such as the presence of tributary dams, unscreened irrigation diversions, and habitat degradation from logging, mining, grazing, and others (Raymond, 1988). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been funded by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) to provide evaluation of on-going Reclamation funded efforts to recover Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed anadromous salmonid populations in the Methow River watershed, a watershed of the Columbia River in the Upper Columbia River Basin, in north-central Washington State (fig. 1). This monitoring and evaluation program was funded to document Reclamation’s effort to partially fulfill the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion (BiOp) (National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Fisheries Division 2003). This Biological Opinion includes Reasonable and Prudent Alternatives (RPA) to protect listed salmon and steelhead across their life cycle. Species of concern in the Methow River include Upper Columbia River (UCR) spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), UCR summer steelhead (O. mykiss), and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), which are all listed as threatened or endangered under the ESA. The work done by the USGS since 2004 has encompassed three phases of work. The first phase started in 2004 and continued through 2012. This first phase involved the evaluation of stream colonization and fish production in Beaver Creek following the modification of several water diversions (2000–2006) that were acting as barriers to upstream fish movement. Products to date from this work include: Ruttenburg (2007), Connolly and others (2008), Martens and Connolly (2008), Connolly (2010), Connolly and others (2010), Martens and Connolly (2010), Benjamin and others (2012), Romine and others (2013a), Weigel and others (2013a, 2013b, 2013c), and Martens and others (2014). The second phase, initiated in

  2. Vibrio Bacteria Counts from Hatcheries and Shellfish Beds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1996 to the present samples of water, sediment and macerated oyster set (Crassostrea virginica, Gmelin) taken at low tide at a Long Island oyster hatchery were...

  3. Methow River Steelhead - Methow River Steelhead hatchery reform research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Steelhead in Pacific Northwest hatcheries are typically reared for release as 1-year-old smolts, rather than the 2and 3-year-old smolt life history patterns found in...

  4. StreamNet Hatchery Facilities (updated May 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This coverage is a spatial representation of most of the Pacific Northwest hatchery facilities in the StreamNet database. Information about the location of each...

  5. The Trail Inventory of Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  6. The Trail Inventory of Tishomingo National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Tishomingo National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  7. The Trail Inventory of Leadville National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Leadville National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  8. Hatchery-borne Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee infections in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J.P.; Brown, D.J.; Madsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    A substantial increase in the prevalence of S. enterica serovar Tennessee was observed in broiler flocks in Denmark at the turn of the year 1994 and in the following months. Epidemiological data indicated that a single hatchery was involved in spreading of the infection. Molecular characterization...... of S. enterica serovar Tennessee isolates from Danish broilers (1992 to 1995), the suspected hatchery and strains from various other sources included for comparison was initiated in order to trace the source of infection of the broilers. In general, strains of S. enterica ser. Tennessee showed only....... Restriction enzyme analysis of the plasmid ensured that the plasmids from broilers and the hatchery were identical. By analysis of cleaning and disinfection procedures and by sampling of different control points in the hatchery it was shown that S. enterica ser. Tennessee had colonized areas of the hatchers...

  9. Introduced northern pike predation on salmonids in southcentral Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Ivey, Sam S.; Dunker, Kristine J.; Gross, Jackson A.

    2013-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius) are opportunistic predators that can switch to alternative prey species after preferred prey have declined. This trophic adaptability allows invasive pike to have negative effects on aquatic food webs. In Southcentral Alaska, invasive pike are a substantial concern because they have spread to important spawning and rearing habitat for salmonids and are hypothesised to be responsible for recent salmonid declines. We described the relative importance of salmonids and other prey species to pike diets in the Deshka River and Alexander Creek in Southcentral Alaska. Salmonids were once abundant in both rivers, but they are now rare in Alexander Creek. In the Deshka River, we found that juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) dominated pike diets and that small pike consumed more of these salmonids than large pike. In Alexander Creek, pike diets reflected the distribution of spawning salmonids, which decrease with distance upstream. Although salmonids dominated pike diets in the lowest reach of the stream, Arctic lamprey (Lampetra camtschatica) and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) dominated pike diets in the middle and upper reaches. In both rivers, pike density did not influence diet and pike consumed smaller prey items than predicted by their gape-width. Our data suggest that (1) juvenile salmonids are a dominant prey item for pike, (2) small pike are the primary consumers of juvenile salmonids and (3) pike consume other native fish species when juvenile salmonids are less abundant. Implications of this trophic adaptability are that invasive pike can continue to increase while driving multiple species to low abundance.

  10. Monitoring and evaluation plan for the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, C.R.

    1996-08-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has proposed to build and operate the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) in the Clearwater River subbasin of Idaho for the purpose of restoring self-sustaining populations of spring, summer, and fall chinook salmon to their native habitats. The project comprises a combination of incubation and rearing facilities, satellite rearing facilities, juvenile and adult collection sites, and associated production and harvest management activities. As currently conceived, the NPTH program will produce approximately 768,000 spring chinook parr, 800,000 summer chinook fry, and 2,000,000 fall chinook fry on an annual basis. Hatchery fish would be spawned, reared, and released under conditions that promote wild-type characteristics, minimize genetic changes in both hatchery and wild chinook populations, and minimize undesirable ecological interactions. The primary objective is to enable hatchery-produced fish to return to reproduce naturally in the streams in which they are released. These and other characteristics of the project are described in further detail in the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Master Plan, the 1995 Supplement to the Master Plan, and the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program Environmental Impact Statement. The report in hand is referred to in project literature as the NPTH Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Plan. This report describes monitoring and evaluation activities that will help NPTH managers determine whether they were successful in restoring chinook salmon populations and avoiding adverse ecological impacts.

  11. Assessment of High Rates of Precocious Male Maturation in a Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Hatchery Program, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Donald; Beckman, Brian; Cooper, Kathleen

    2003-08-01

    The Yakima River Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project in Washington State is currently one of the most ambitious efforts to enhance a natural salmon population in the United States. Over the past five years we have conducted research to characterize the developmental physiology of naturally- and hatchery-reared wild progeny spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Yakima River basin. Fish were sampled at the main hatchery in Cle Elum, at remote acclimation sites and, during smolt migration, at downstream dams. Throughout these studies the maturational state of all fish was characterized using combinations of visual and histological analysis of testes, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and measurement of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). We established that a plasma 11-KT threshold of 0.8 ng/ml could be used to designate male fish as either immature or precociously maturing approximately 8 months prior to final maturation (1-2 months prior to release as 'smolts'). Our analyses revealed that 37-49% of the hatchery-reared males from this program undergo precocious maturation at 2 years of age and a proportion of these fish appear to residualize in the upper Yakima River basin throughout the summer. An unnaturally high incidence of precocious male maturation may result in loss of potential returning anadromous adults, skewing of female: male sex ratios, ecological, and genetic impacts on wild populations and other native species. Precocious male maturation is significantly influenced by growth rate at specific times of year and future studies will be conducted to alter maturation rates through seasonal growth rate manipulations.

  12. Study of Disease and Physiology in the 1978 Homing Study Hatchery Stocks: A Supplement to "Imprinting Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing" by Slatick, Novotny, and Gilbreath, January 1979.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, Anthony J.; Zaugg, Waldo S.

    1979-11-01

    The main functions of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Aquaculture Task biologists and contractual scientists involved in the 1978 homing studies were primarily a surveillance of fish physiology, disease, and relative survival during culture in marine net-pens, to determine if there were any unusual factors that might effect imprinting and homing behavior. The studies were conducted with little background knowledge of the implications of disease and physiology on imprinting and homing in salmonids. Hatcheries and stocks sampled are listed in Table 1. The health status of the stocks was quite variable as could be expected. The Dworshak and Wells Hatcheries steelhead suffered from some early stresses in seawater, probably osmoregulatory. The incidences of latent BKD in the Wells and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead and Kooskia Hatchery spring chinook salmon were extremely high, and how these will effect survival in the ocean is not known. Gill enzyme activity in the Dworshak and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead at release was low. Of the steelhead, survival in the Tucannon Hatchery stock will probably be the highest, with Dworshak Hatchery stock the lowest. The analyses conducted by the veterinary pathologist indicate that overall there was no evidence of serious pathological conditions that might be disastrous to any given stock, but at this time it is also difficult to interpret the results of certain types of clinical pathology that have either not been previously reported or extensively studied. For example, if the 77% incidence of basophillic granular organisms in the gills of the Carson coho salmon does represent an infestation of microsporidian protozoan parasites, is the intensity of infestation severe enough to cause irreparable damage that might affect survival? The results of the viral assays are questionable because the Rangen Laboratory is the only one that found evidence of viruses in these stocks (however, the veterinary pathologist did find evidence

  13. Evaluation of the Reproductive Success of Wild and Hatchery Steelhead in Hatchery and Natural and Hatchery Environments : Annual Report for 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Thomas P.; Seamons, todd; Hauser, Lorenz; Naish, Kerry

    2008-12-05

    This report summarizes the field, laboratory, and analytical work from December 2007 through November 2008 on a research project that investigates interactions and comparative reproductive success of wild and hatchery origin steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout in Forks Creek, a tributary of the Willapa River in southwest Washington. First, we continued to successfully sample hatchery and wild (i.e., naturally spawned) adult and wild smolt steelhead at Forks Creek. Second, we revealed microsatellite genotype data for adults and smolts through brood year 2008. Finally, four formal scientific manuscripts were published in 2008 and two are in press, one is in revision and two are in preparations.

  14. A highly permeable species boundary between two anadromous fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, I; Rountree, V; King, J J; Roche, W K; Mariani, S

    2010-10-01

    Meristic identification, mitochondrial DNA and a suite of microsatellite markers were employed to estimate the incidence of hybridization in wild populations of anadromous Allis shad Alosa alosa and twaite shad Alosa fallax in southern Irish riverine and estuarine waters. It was shown that 16% of the fishes examined were misclassified using meristic count of gill rakers. Next, a significant proportion of fishes that were robustly assigned to a species using nuclear markers were shown to possess the mtDNA of the other. The genomes of A. alosa and A. fallax in Ireland are extensively introgressed, which suggests a complex history of hybridization between these species, which can only partially be explained by recent man-made habitat changes.

  15. An economic evaluation of Columbia River anadromous fish programs: A preliminary study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper evaluates the economics of the Columbia River anadromous fish programs. The paper begins with a description of the Columbia River watershed and discusses...

  16. Characterizing the distribution of an endangered salmonid using environmental DNA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramie, Matthew B.; Pilliod, David S.; Goldberg, Caren S.

    2015-01-01

    Determining species distributions accurately is crucial to developing conservation and management strategies for imperiled species, but a challenging task for small populations. We evaluated the efficacy of environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis for improving detection and thus potentially refining the known distribution of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Methow and Okanogan Subbasins of the Upper Columbia River, which span the border between Washington, USA and British Columbia, Canada. We developed an assay to target a 90 base pair sequence of Chinook DNA and used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to quantify the amount of Chinook eDNA in triplicate 1-L water samples collected at 48 stream locations in June and again in August 2012. The overall probability of detecting Chinook with our eDNA method in areas within the known distribution was 0.77 (±0.05 SE). Detection probability was lower in June (0.62, ±0.08 SE) during high flows and at the beginning of spring Chinook migration than during base flows in August (0.93, ±0.04 SE). In the Methow subbasin, mean eDNA concentration was higher in August compared to June, especially in smaller tributaries, probably resulting from the arrival of spring Chinook adults, reduced discharge, or both. Chinook eDNA concentrations did not appear to change in the Okanogan subbasin from June to August. Contrary to our expectations about downstream eDNA accumulation, Chinook eDNA did not decrease in concentration in upstream reaches (0–120 km). Further examination of factors influencing spatial distribution of eDNA in lotic systems may allow for greater inference of local population densities along stream networks or watersheds. These results demonstrate the potential effectiveness of eDNA detection methods for determining landscape-level distribution of anadromous salmonids in large river systems.

  17. Fish Remains from Nahas Cave: Archaeological Evidence of Anadromous Fishes in Southwestern Idaho

    OpenAIRE

    Plew, Mark G.

    1980-01-01

    The anadromous fish runs of the Snake and Owyhee rivers and their tributaries have provided an important element of interpretations of native subsistence in southwestern Idaho (see Butler 1978:30-31; Pavesic 1978; Swanson 1965). Prior to the development of major water control systems in the Northwest, anadromous fishes migrated as far east in the Snake River as Shoshone Falls, located adjacent to the present city of Twin Falls, Idaho, and into the Owyhee River (Evermann 1896, 1897; see also S...

  18. Water chemistry - Investigation of Methods to Improve Homing by Hatchery Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Investigate olfactory imprinting techniques that will improve homing by hatchery salmon to their hatchery of origin, and thereby reduce potential risks from these...

  19. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA): Erwin National Fish Hatchery, Unicoi County, Tennessee

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Erwin National Fish Hatchery (NFH) summarizes available and relevant information for hatchery water resources...

  20. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment – Ouray National Wildlife Refuge and Ouray National Fish Hatchery.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — EXECUTIVE SUMMARY-Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (ONWR) and Ouray National Fish Hatchery (ONFH) share many attributes. Hatchery facilities are within the boundaries...

  1. 78 FR 1200 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... permit application and Hatchery and Genetic Management Plan (HGMP); notice of availability of draft..., spawning, rearing, handling, evaluation, tagging and release of progeny. The HGMP includes measures to... genetic or ecological effects to listed natural fish resulting from the hatchery operations...

  2. Sherman Creek Hatchery; 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Mitch [Washington Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA (United States). Hatcheries Program

    1997-01-01

    The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations of the SCH have been modified to better achieve program goals. These strategic changes have been the result of recommendations through the Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) and were implemented to enhance imprinting, improve survival and operate the two kokanee facilities more effectively. The primary change has been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a kokanee yearling (post smolt) program. The second significant change has been to rear 120,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October to enable the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee for the yearling program.

  3. Dynamics of seawater bacterial communities in a shellfish hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S M; Chapman, C C; Bermudes, M; Tamplin, M L

    2013-08-01

    Bacterial disease is a significant issue for larviculture of several species of shellfish, including oysters. One source of bacteria is the seawater used throughout the hatchery. In this study carried out at a commercial oyster hatchery in Tasmania, Australia, the diversity of the bacterial community and its relationship with larval production outcomes were studied over a 2-year period using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and tag-encoded pyrosequencing. The bacterial communities were very diverse, dominated by the Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria and Cyanobacteria. The communities were highly variable on scales of days, weeks and seasons. The difference between the intake seawater and treated clean seawater used in the hatchery was smaller than the observed temporal differences in the seawater throughout the year. No clear correlation was observed between production outcomes and the overall bacterial community structure. However, one group of Cyanobacterial sequences was more abundant when mass mortality events occurred than when healthy spat were produced although they were always present.

  4. Monitoring the Reproductive Success of Naturally Spawning Hatchery and Natural Spring Chinook Salmon in the Wenatchee River, 2008-2009 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Michael J.; Williamson, Kevin S. [Northwest Fisheries Science Center

    2009-05-28

    male fitness. For both sexes, run time had a smaller but still significant effect on fitness, with earlier returning fish favored. Spawning location within the river had a significant effect on fitness for both males and females, and for females explained most of the reduced fitness observed for hatchery fish in this population. While differences have been reported in the relative reproductive success of hatchery and naturally produced salmonids Oncorhynchus spp., factors explaining the differences are often confounded. We examined the spawning site habitat and redd structure variables of hatchery and naturally produced spring Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha of known size that spawned in two tributaries of the Wenatchee River. We controlled for variability in spawning habitat by limiting our analysis to redds found within four selected reaches. No difference in the instantaneous spawner density or location of the redd in the stream channel was detected between reaches. Within each reach, no difference in the fork length or weight of hatchery and naturally produced fish was detected. While most variables differed between reaches, we found no difference in redd characteristics within a reach between hatchery and naturally produced females. Correlation analysis of fish size and redd characteristics found several weak but significant relationships suggesting larger fish contract larger redds in deeper water. Spawner density was inversely related to several redd structure variables suggesting redd size may decrease as spawner density increases. Results should be considered preliminary until samples size and statistical power goals are reached in future years. Trends in relative reproductive success of hatchery and naturally produced spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Wenatchee Basins suggest females that spawn in the upper reaches of the tributaries produced a great number of offspring compared to females that spawn in the lower reaches of the tributaries

  5. Spring Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Supplementation in the Clearwater Subbasin ; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation Project, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, Thomas; Sprague, Sherman; Bretz, Justin [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-06-10

    The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) program has the following goals (BPA, et al., 1997): (1) Protect, mitigate, and enhance Clearwater Subbasin anadromous fish resources; (2) Develop, reintroduce, and increase natural spawning populations of salmon within the Clearwater Subbasin; (3) Provide long-term harvest opportunities for Tribal and non-Tribal anglers within Nez Perce Treaty lands within four generations (20 years) following project initiation; (4) Sustain long-term fitness and genetic integrity of targeted fish populations; (5) Keep ecological and genetic impacts to non-target populations within acceptable limits; and (6) Promote Nez Perce Tribal management of Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Facilities and production areas within Nez Perce Treaty lands. The NPTH program was designed to rear and release 1.4 million fall and 625,000 spring Chinook salmon. Construction of the central incubation and rearing facility NPTH and spring Chinook salmon acclimation facilities were completed in 2003 and the first full term NPTH releases occurred in 2004 (Brood Year 03). Monitoring and evaluation plans (Steward, 1996; Hesse and Cramer, 2000) were established to determine whether the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery program is achieving its stated goals. The monitoring and evaluation action plan identifies the need for annual data collection and annual reporting. In addition, recurring 5-year program reviews will evaluate emerging trends and aid in the determination of the effectiveness of the NPTH program with recommendations to improve the program's implementation. This report covers the Migratory Year (MY) 2007 period of the NPTH Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) program. There are three NPTH spring Chinook salmon treatment streams: Lolo Creek, Newsome Creek, and Meadow Creek. In 2007, Lolo Creek received 140,284 Brood Year (BY) 2006 acclimated pre-smolts at an average weight of 34.9 grams per fish, Newsome Creek received 77,317 BY 2006 acclimated pre-smolts at an average of 24

  6. Virulence of Renibacterium salmoninarum to salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, C.E.; Smith, D.R.; Shatzer, T.

    1997-01-01

    Virulence of Renibacterium salmoninarum isolates representing five origins was evaluated in eight salmonid hosts; four origins were of Lake Michigan and the fifth was of the Pacific Northwest. The species type strain, ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) 33209, was also included. Each isolate was grown in a kidney disease medium (KDM2) supplemented with 1 % ATCC 33209 culture metabolite; serial 10-fold dilutions were prepared, and groups of fish were challenged by intraperitoneal injection with 0.1 mL of each dilution. A 70-d observation period followed, and bacterial kidney disease (BKD) was diagnosed by the fluorescent antibody technique. Virulence of isolates was quantified as a dose lethal to 50% of fish (LD50) for each host–isolate challenge. In the first set of experiments, 23 isolates were used to challenge groups of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. The mean LD50 was 1.087 x 106 colony-forming units per milliliter (cfu/mL; SD = 2.022 x 106), and the LD50 values ranged from 8.457 x 106 to 2.227 x 104 cfu/mL. Analysis of variance to evaluate the effect of isolate origin on virulence in brook trout revealed no significant difference (F = 1.502; P = 0.243). Susceptibilities of the other salmonid hosts were evaluated by challenge with six isolates of R. salmoninarum representing each origin and the species type strain. For many of the host–isolate challenge combinations, time to death was highly dependent on the dilution (number of bacteria) injected. In general, the isolates MCO4M, B26, and A34 (all of Lake Michigan origin) tended to be more virulent. Also, LD50 values were dispersed throughout a wider range among the more susceptible hosts. Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and brook trout were relatively resistant to challenge with the strains, whereas coho salmon O. kisutch, domestic Atlantic salmon Saltno salar, and chinook salmon O. tshawytscha were relatively susceptible. Another challenge evaluated the effect of

  7. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 2003-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Tara

    2007-02-01

    This report summarizes activities conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's Juvenile Outmigration and Survival M&E project in the Umatilla River subbasin between 2004-2006. Information is used to make informed decisions on hatchery effectiveness, natural production success, passage improvement and flow enhancement strategies. Data collected includes annual estimates of smolt abundance, migration timing, and survival, life history characteristics and productivity status and trends for spring and fall Chinook salmon, coho salmon and summer steelhead. Productivity data provided is the key subbasin scale measure of the effectiveness of salmon and steelhead restoration actions in the Umatilla River. Information is also used for regional planning and recovery efforts of Mid-Columbia River (MCR) ESA-listed summer steelhead. Monitoring is conducted via smolt trapping and PIT-tag interrogation at Three Mile Falls Dam. The Umatilla Juvenile Outmigration and Survival Project was established in 1994 to evaluate the success of management actions and fisheries restoration efforts in the Umatilla River Basin. Project objectives for the 2004-2006 period were to: (1) operate the PIT tag detection system at Three Mile Falls Dam (TMFD), (2) enhance provisional PIT-tag interrogation equipment at the east bank adult fish ladder, (3) monitor the migration timing, abundance and survival of naturally-produced juvenile salmonids and trends in natural production, (4) determine migration parameters and survival of hatchery-produced fish representing various rearing, acclimation and release strategies, (5) evaluate the relative survival between transported and non-transported fish, (6) monitor juvenile life history characteristics and evaluate trends over time, (7) investigate the effects of river, canal, fishway operations and environmental conditions on smolt migration and survival, (8) document the temporal distribution and diversity of resident fish species, and (9

  8. Ultrastructural morphogenesis of salmonid alphavirus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, T K; Ferguson, H W; Thompson, K D; Adams, A; Richards, R H

    2012-11-01

    Studies on the ultrastructural morphogenesis of viruses give an insight into how the host cell mechanisms are utilized for new virion synthesis. A time course examining salmonid alphavirus 1 (SAV 1) assembly was performed by culturing the virus on Chinook salmon embryo cells (CHSE-214). Different stages of viral replication were observed under electron microscopy. Virus-like particles were observed inside membrane-bound vesicles as early as 1 h following contact of the virus with the cells. Membrane-dependent replication complexes were observed in the cytoplasm of the cells, with spherules found at the periphery of late endosome-like vacuoles. The use of intracellular membranes for RNA replication is similar to other positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses. The number of Golgi apparatus and associated vacuoles characterized by 'fuzzy'-coated membranes was greater in virus-infected cells. The mature enveloped virions started to bud out from the cells at approximately 24 h post-infection. These observations suggest that the pathway used by SAV 1 for the generation of new virus particles in vitro is comparable to viral replication observed with mammalian alphaviruses but with some interesting differences.

  9. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Spring Chinook Master Plan, Technical Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashe, Becky L.; Concannon, Kathleen; Johnson, David B.

    2000-04-01

    Spring chinook salmon populations in the Imnaha and Grande Ronde rivers are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and are at high risk of extirpation. The Nez Perce Tribe, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, are co-managers of conservation/restoration programs for Imnaha and Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon that use hatchery supplementation and conventional and captive broodstock techniques. The immediate goal of these programs is to prevent extirpation and provide the potential for restoration once factors limiting production are addressed. These programs redirect production occurring under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) from mitigation to conservation and restoration. Both the Imnaha and Grande Ronde conservation/restoration programs are described in ESA Section 10 permit applications and the co-managers refer to the fish production from these programs as the Currently Permitted Program (CPP). Recently, co-managers have determined that it is impossible to produce the CPP at Lookingglass Hatchery, the LSRCP facility intended for production, and that without additional facilities, production must be cut from these conservation programs. Development of new facilities for these programs through the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program is considered a new production initiative by the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) and requires a master plan. The master plan provides the NPPC, program proponents and others with the information they need to make sound decisions about whether the proposed facilities to restore salmon populations should move forward to design. This master plan describes alternatives considered to meet the facility needs of the CPP so the conservation program can be fully implemented. Co-managers considered three alternatives: modify Lookingglass Hatchery; use existing facilities elsewhere in the Basin; and use new facilities in

  10. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Spring Chinook Master Plan, Technical Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashe, Becky L.; Concannon, Kathleen; Johnson, David B.

    2000-04-01

    Spring chinook salmon populations in the Imnaha and Grande Ronde rivers are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and are at high risk of extirpation. The Nez Perce Tribe, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, are co-managers of conservation/restoration programs for Imnaha and Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon that use hatchery supplementation and conventional and captive broodstock techniques. The immediate goal of these programs is to prevent extirpation and provide the potential for restoration once factors limiting production are addressed. These programs redirect production occurring under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) from mitigation to conservation and restoration. Both the Imnaha and Grande Ronde conservation/restoration programs are described in ESA Section 10 permit applications and the co-managers refer to the fish production from these programs as the Currently Permitted Program (CPP). Recently, co-managers have determined that it is impossible to produce the CPP at Lookingglass Hatchery, the LSRCP facility intended for production, and that without additional facilities, production must be cut from these conservation programs. Development of new facilities for these programs through the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program is considered a new production initiative by the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) and requires a master plan. The master plan provides the NPPC, program proponents and others with the information they need to make sound decisions about whether the proposed facilities to restore salmon populations should move forward to design. This master plan describes alternatives considered to meet the facility needs of the CPP so the conservation program can be fully implemented. Co-managers considered three alternatives: modify Lookingglass Hatchery; use existing facilities elsewhere in the Basin; and use new facilities in

  11. Salmonid-egg floating boxes as bioindication for riverine water quality and stocking success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pander, J; Geist, J

    2010-06-01

    The salmonid-egg floating box provides an easy bioindication tool for an assessment of water quality, as demonstrated here for the reintroduction of Europe's largest salmonid species, the huchen Hucho hucho.

  12. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabel, Richard; Williams, John G.; Smith, Steven G. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2002-06-01

    In 2001, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the ninth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tagged fish. We PIT tagged and released at Lower Granite Dam a total of 17,028 hatchery and 3,550 wild steelhead. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream of the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release Model. Primary research objectives in 2001 were to: (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2001 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures with a minimum of text. More details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited in the text. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  13. Contribution of anadromous fish to the diet of European catfish in a large river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syväranta, Jari; Cucherousset, Julien; Kopp, Dorothée; Martino, Aurélia; Céréghino, Régis; Santoul, Frédéric

    2009-05-01

    Many anadromous fish species, when migrating from the sea to spawn in fresh waters, can potentially be a valuable prey for larger predatory fish, thereby efficiently linking these two ecosystems. Here, we assess the contribution of anadromous fish to the diet of European catfish ( Silurus glanis) in a large river system (Garonne, southwestern France) using stable isotope analysis and allis shad ( Alosa alosa) as an example of anadromous fish. Allis shad caught in the Garonne had a very distinct marine δ13C value, over 8‰ higher after lipid extraction compared to the mean δ13C value of all other potential freshwater prey fish. The δ13C values of European catfish varied considerably between these two extremes and some individuals were clearly specializing on freshwater prey, whereas others specialized on anadromous fish. The mean contribution of anadromous fish to the entire European catfish population was estimated to be between 53% and 65%, depending on the fractionation factor used for δ13C.

  14. Turbulence Investigation and Reproduction for Assisting Downstream Migrating Juvenile Salmonids, Part II of II; Effects of Induced Turbulence on Behavior of Juvenile Salmon, 2001-2005 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Russell W.; Farley, M. Jared; Hansen, Gabriel S. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

    2005-07-01

    Passage through dams is a major source of mortality of anadromous juvenile salmonids because some populations must negotiate up to eight dams in Columbia and Snake rivers. Dams cause direct mortality when fish pass through turbines, but dams may also cause indirect mortality by altering migration conditions in rivers. Forebays immediately upstream of dams have decreased the water velocity of rivers and may contribute substantially to the total migration delay of juvenile salmonids. Recently, Coutant (2001a) suggested that in addition to low water velocities, lack of natural turbulence may contribute to migration delay by causing fish to lose directional cues. Coutant (2001a) further hypothesized that restoring turbulence in dam forebays may reduce migration delay by providing directional cues that allow fish to find passage routes more quickly (Coutant 2001a). Although field experiments have yielded proof of the concept of using induced turbulence to guide fish to safe passage routes, little is known about mechanisms actually causing behavioral changes. To test hypotheses about how turbulence influences movement and behavior of migrating juvenile salmonids, we conducted two types of controlled experiments at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington. A common measure of migration delay is the elapsed time between arrival at, and passage through, a dam. Therefore, for the first set of experiments, we tested the effect of induced turbulence on the elapsed time needed for fish to traverse through a raceway and pass over a weir at its downstream end (time trial experiment). If turbulence helps guide fish to passage routes, then fish should pass through the raceway quicker in the presence of appropriately scaled and directed turbulent cues. Second, little is known about how the physical properties of water movement provide directional cues to migrating juvenile salmonids. To examine the feasibility of guiding fish with turbulence, we tested whether directed turbulence could guide

  15. Turbulence investigation and reproduction for assisting downstream migrating juvenile salmonids, Part II of II: Effects of induced turbulence on behavior of juvenile salmon, 2001-2005 final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R.; Farley , M.; Hansen, G.; Morse , J.; Rondorf, D.

    2005-01-01

    Passage through dams is a major source of mortality of anadromous juvenile salmonids because some populations must negotiate up to eight dams in Columbia and Snake rivers. Dams cause direct mortality when fish pass through turbines, but dams may also cause indirect mortality by altering migration conditions in rivers. Forebays immediately upstream of dams have decreased the water velocity of rivers and may contribute substantially to the total migration delay of juvenile salmonids. Recently, Coutant (2001a) suggested that in addition to low water velocities, lack of natural turbulence may contribute to migration delay by causing fish to lose directional cues. Coutant (2001a) further hypothesized that restoring turbulence in dam forebays may reduce migration delay by providing directional cues that allow fish to find passage routes more quickly (Coutant 2001a). Although field experiments have yielded proof of the concept of using induced turbulence to guide fish to safe passage routes, little is known about mechanisms actually causing behavioral changes. To test hypotheses about how turbulence influences movement and behavior of migrating juvenile salmonids, we conducted two types of controlled experiments at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington. A common measure of migration delay is the elapsed time between arrival at, and passage through, a dam. Therefore, for the first set of experiments, we tested the effect of induced turbulence on the elapsed time needed for fish to traverse through a raceway and pass over a weir at its downstream end (time trial experiment). If turbulence helps guide fish to passage routes, then fish should pass through the raceway quicker in the presence of appropriately scaled and directed turbulent cues. Second, little is known about how the physical properties of water movement provide directional cues to migrating juvenile salmonids. To examine the feasibility of guiding fish with turbulence, we tested whether directed turbulence could guide

  16. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  17. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  18. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stonecypher, R. Wess; Groberg, Jr., Warren J.; Farman, Brett M. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    2001-07-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program authorized construction of Umatilla Fish Hatchery (UFH) in 1986. Measure 703 of the program amended the original authorization for the hatchery and specified evaluation of the Michigan (MI) raceways using oxygen supplementation to reach production goals of 290,000 lb of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss). The hatchery was completed in fall 1991. Partial justification for the hatchery was to evaluate new production and supplementation techniques. MI raceways at UFH increase smolt production with a limited water supply. Test results for MI raceways will have systematic application in the Columbia River basin. The UFH is the foundation for rehabilitating chinook salmon and enhancing steelhead in the Umatilla River (CTUIR and ODFW 1990) and is expected to contribute significantly to the Northwest Power Planning Council's goal of doubling salmon production in the Columbia Basin. Hatchery production goals and a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation plan were presented in the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR and ODFW 1990). The Comprehensive Plan for Monitoring and Evaluation of Umatilla Hatchery (Carmichael 1990) was approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council as a critical adaptive management guide for fisheries rehabilitation in the Umatilla River. Monitoring and evaluation will be used to increase knowledge about uncertainties inherent in the fisheries rehabilitation and will complement the developing systematic monitoring and evaluation program. The monitoring and evaluation goals are: (1) Provide information and recommendations for the culture and release of hatchery fish, harvest regulations, and natural escapement to accomplish long-term natural and hatchery production goals in the Umatilla River basin that are consistent with provisions of the Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. (2) Assess the

  19. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, John L.

    1985-11-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration has conducted a study since 1983 relating to the epidemiology and control of three diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These diseases are ceratomyxosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Ceratomyxa Shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the etiological agent of which is Renibacterium salmoninarum and infectious hematopoietic necrosis which is caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The presence of the infectious stage of C. shasta was again detected at Little Goose Dam on the Snake River. The prevalence of ceratomyxosis increased from 1.1% in 1984 to 10% in 1985. None of the susceptible rainbow trout exposed in the Yakima and Umatilla Rivers died of this disease. Ceratomyxosis in resistant chinook salmon smolts seined from the Columbia River just above the estuary seems dependent on whether or not they are held after capture in fresh or salt water. In fresh water the disease incidence ranged from 7--19%, whereas in salt water it ranged from 0--3%. These results which suggest that recovery from ceratomyxosis may occur after the smolts enter salt water are different from those obtained with susceptible Alsea steelhead trout where experimental groups in salt water have died at the same rate as those in fresh water. Comparing data from groups of Columbia River chinook smolts held after capture in either fresh or salt water, R. salmoninarum is a much more effective pathogen in the salt water environment. After four years of sampling smolts in the open ocean, numbers of this microorganism sufficient to cause death have been detected in chinook (7%) and, coho salmon (2%) and steelhead trout (1%). Results from three years of sampling have consistently indicated that additional fish infected with R. salmoninarum will be detected if egg washings are included in the procedures for

  20. Sustaining salmonid populations: A caring understanding of naturalness of taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J.L.; Regier, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Species of the family of Salmonidae occur naturally in Northern Hemisphere waters that remain clear and cool to cold in summer. For purposes of reproduction, salmonids generally behaviorally respond to the currents of streams and lakes in recently glaciated areas. For feeding and maturation, many larger species migrate into existing systems of large lakes, seas, and oceans. The subfamilies include Salmoninae, Coregoninae, and Thymallinae. In many locales and regions of the hemisphere, numerous species of these subfamilies evolved and self-organized into species flocks or taxocenes of bewildering complexity. For example, any individual species may play different or unique ecological roles in different taxocenes. The northern Pacific and Atlantic Ocean ecosystems, with their seas and tributaries, each contained a metacomplex of such taxocenes that, in their natural state some centuries ago, resembled each other but differed in many ways. Humans have valued all species of this family for subsistence, ceremonial, naturalist, gustatory, angling, and commercial reasons for centuries. Modern progressive humans (MPHs), whose industrial and commercial enterprises have gradually spread over this hemisphere in recent time, now affect aquatic ecosystems at all scales from local to global. These human effects mingle in complex ways that together induce uniquely natural salmonid taxocenes to disintegrate with the loss of species, including those groups least tolerant to human manipulations, but extending more recently to those taxa more adapted to anthropogenic change. As we leave the modern era, dominated by MPHs, will we find ways to live sustainably with salmonid taxocenes that still exhibit self-organizational integrity, or will only individual, isolated populations of salmonid species, derived from those most tolerant of MPHs, survive? To achieve future sustainability of salmonids, we suggest implementation of a search for intuitive knowledge based on faith in the wisdom of

  1. 78 FR 7755 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ..., stomach lavage and tagging ) followed by release of live fish. Another group of hatchery produced... screening projects on the Sacramento River and experiment with devices to reduce fish entrainment into... prioritizing diversions for future screening opportunities. Modification Request Received Permit...

  2. A salmonid EST genomic study: genes, duplications, phylogeny and microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmbhatt Sonal

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonids are of interest because of their relatively recent genome duplication, and their extensive use in wild fisheries and aquaculture. A comprehensive gene list and a comparison of genes in some of the different species provide valuable genomic information for one of the most widely studied groups of fish. Results 298,304 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from Atlantic salmon (69% of the total, 11,664 chinook, 10,813 sockeye, 10,051 brook trout, 10,975 grayling, 8,630 lake whitefish, and 3,624 northern pike ESTs were obtained in this study and have been deposited into the public databases. Contigs were built and putative full-length Atlantic salmon clones have been identified. A database containing ESTs, assemblies, consensus sequences, open reading frames, gene predictions and putative annotation is available. The overall similarity between Atlantic salmon ESTs and those of rainbow trout, chinook, sockeye, brook trout, grayling, lake whitefish, northern pike and rainbow smelt is 93.4, 94.2, 94.6, 94.4, 92.5, 91.7, 89.6, and 86.2% respectively. An analysis of 78 transcript sets show Salmo as a sister group to Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus within Salmoninae, and Thymallinae as a sister group to Salmoninae and Coregoninae within Salmonidae. Extensive gene duplication is consistent with a genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids. Using all of the available EST data, a new expanded salmonid cDNA microarray of 32,000 features was created. Cross-species hybridizations to this cDNA microarray indicate that this resource will be useful for studies of all 68 salmonid species. Conclusion An extensive collection and analysis of salmonid RNA putative transcripts indicate that Pacific salmon, Atlantic salmon and charr are 94–96% similar while the more distant whitefish, grayling, pike and smelt are 93, 92, 89 and 86% similar to salmon. The salmonid transcriptome reveals a complex history of gene duplication that is

  3. Do stocked hatchery-reared juveniles ecologically suppress wild juveniles in Salvelinus leucomaenis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T; Doi, T

    2014-05-01

    The dominancy of semi-wild and hatchery-reared white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis juveniles was evaluated using pair-wise enclosure tests and field stocking tests. The semi-wild S. leucomaenis originated in a hatchery, being stocked into the test stream as eyed-eggs. In the pair-wise enclosure test, the semi-wild S. leucomaenis dominated the hatchery S. leucomaenis that were of a similar standard length (L(S) ). The semi-wild S. leucomaenis were subordinate to hatchery S. leucomaenis that were > 11% larger in LS . In the field stocking test, the abundance and growth of semi-wild S. leucomaenis was decreased in the presence of larger hatchery S. leucomaenis (14% larger LS ). Taken together, these results suggest that larger hatchery S. leucomaenis ecologically suppress the smaller semi-wild S. leucomaenis. Salvelinus leucomaenis juveniles that are stocked with the intention of supplementing natural populations should be < 10% larger than their wild counterparts at the time of stocking to minimize their competitive advantage. The semi-wild and hatchery S. leucomaenis used in both tests were genetically similar individuals, suggesting that the differences are due to the early rearing environment of either a natural stream or hatchery. The hatchery S. leucomaenis have lower levels of aggression as a result of selection in the hatchery rearing environment. Rearing in a natural stream from the eyed-egg stage is likely to increase their lowered aggression.

  4. Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery evaluation and anadromous fish study on the Warm Springs Indian Reservation of Oregon: 1975-1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1975 the USFWS began studies designed to define the biological characteristics of wild spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) in the...

  5. Occurrence and significance of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in non-salmonid and salmonid fish species : A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1998-01-01

    information is available about the ecology, spread and survival of atypical strains in water. The commonly used therapeutic methods for the control of diseases in farmed fish caused by atypical A. salmonicida are generally effective against the atypical strains. Resistance to different antibiotics......, non-salmonids as well as salmonids, inhabiting fresh water, brackish water and marine environments in northern and central Europe, South Africa, North America, Japan and Australia. In non-salmonid fish species, infections with atypical strains often manifest themselves as superficial skin ulcerations....... The best known diseases associated with atypical A. salmonicida are carp Cyprinus carpio erythrodermatitis, goldfish Carassius auratus ulcer disease, and ulcer disease of flounder Platichthys flesus, but atypical strains are apparently involved in more disease outbreaks than previously suspected...

  6. 76 FR 57717 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... different geographic populations and identify potential salmonid sources for introduction into the San... sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) for scientific research purposes. NRSI will collect fish entrainment data... of the study are: to determine correlation of fish entrainment with river diversion flows,...

  7. 76 FR 71315 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... salmonids while studying habitat occurrence, diet, contaminant concentrations, and health indicators in... effective fish- conscious forest management practices and regulations. The research would benefit listed... the Portland Watershed Management Plan (Plan). The purpose of the Plan is to improve watershed...

  8. Spiral swimming behavior due to cranial and vertebral lesions associated with Cytophaga psychrophila infections in salmonid fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, M.L.; Groff, J.M.; Morrison, J.K.; Yasutake, W.T.; Holt, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    C. psychrophila infections of the cranium and anterior vertebrae in salmonid fishes were associated with ataxia, spiral swimming along the axis of the fish, and death. The syndrome was observed in 2-10% of underyearling coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, rainbow troutSalmo gairdneri, and steelhead trout S. gairdneri at several private, state, and federal hatcheries in Washington and Oregon, USA, between 1963 and 1987. Affected fish did not recover and ultimately died. Histological examination consistently revealed subacute to chronic periostitis, osteitis, meningitis, and ganglioneuritis. Inflammation and periosteal proliferation of the anterior vertebrae at the junction of the vertebral column with the cranium with extension into the cranial case was a consistent feature. The adjacent nervous tissue, particularly the medulla, was often compressed by the proliferative lesion, and this may have caused the ataxia. Though bacteria were seldom observed in these lesions. C. psychrophilawas isolated in culture from the cranial cavity of all affected fish that were tested. Epidemiological observations suggested that this bacterium is the causative agent because the spiral swimming behaviour and lesions were observed only in populations that had recovered from acute C. psychrophila infections.

  9. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1996 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven G.

    1998-02-01

    In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the fourth year of a multi-year study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. Actively migrating smolts were collected near the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and at Lower Granite Dam, tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, and released to continue their downstream migration. Individual smolts were subsequently detected at PIT-tag detection facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day and Bonneville Dams. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release (SR) and Paired-Release (PR) Models. Timing of releases of tagged hatchery steelhead (O. mykiss) from the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and yearling chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) from Lower Granite Dam in 1996 spanned the major portion of their juvenile migrations. Specific research objectives in 1996 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival in the Snake River using the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations, (2) evaluate the performance of the survival-estimation models under prevailing operational and environmental conditions in the Snake River, and (3) synthesize results from the 4 years of the study to investigate relationships between survival probabilities, travel times, and environmental factors such as flow levels and water temperature.

  10. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2005-10-01

    In 2004, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the twelfth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,621 hatchery steelhead, 8,128 wild steelhead, and 9,227 wild yearling Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the single-release model). Primary research objectives in 2004 were to (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2004 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Survival and detection probabilities were estimated precisely for most of the 2004 yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead migrations. Hatchery and

  11. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, David B.; Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.

    2001-08-17

    This report consists of activities/events conducted in response to the Objectives and Tasks described in the 1999 contract Statement Of Work for the Planning and Planning and Design (P and D) and Maintenance (O and M) activities of the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH). The report follows the format of the contract for ease in finding accomplishments. Although specific emphasis will be placed on activities related directly to the NPTH, activities from other artificial production related projects might also be noted because of overlap in staff duties and production facilities. Additionally, the project leader's role has evolved as other Tribal fisheries projects have been developed and assigned to the Production Division, Department of Fisheries Resource Management (DFRM), and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT). Thus, implementation of the project leader role for the NPTH actually entails specific duties of the Production Division Director and the Production Division Coordinator, as well as the Hatchery Division Coordinator.

  12. Fish Research Project Oregon; Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, MaryLouise; Carmichael, Richard W.; French, Rod A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1993-03-01

    This report covers the first year of comprehensive monitoring and evaluation of the Umatilla Hatchery. As both the hatchery and the evaluation study are in the early stages of implementation, much of the information contained in this report is preliminary. The most crucial data for evaluating the success of the hatchery program, the data on post-release performance and survival, is yet unavailable. In addition, several years of data are necessary to make conclusions about rearing performance at Umatilla Hatchery. The conclusions drawn in this report should be viewed as preliminary and should be used in conjunction with additional information as it becomes available. A comprehensive fish health monitoring regimen was incorporated into the monitoring and evaluation study for Umatilla Hatchery. This is a unique feature of the Umatilla Hatchery evaluation project.

  13. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2008 Draft Season Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roby, Daniel D. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University; Collis, Ken [Real Time Research, Inc.; Lyons, Donald E. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oregon State University

    2009-07-08

    This report describes investigations into predation by piscivorous colonial waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River basin during 2008. East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary again supported the largest known breeding colony of Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) in the world (approximately 10,700 breeding pairs) and the largest breeding colony of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in western North America (approximately 10,950 breeding pairs). The Caspian tern colony increased from 2007, but not significantly so, while the double-crested cormorant colony experienced a significant decline (20%) from 2007. Average cormorant nesting success in 2008, however, was down only slightly from 2007, suggesting that food supply during the 2008 nesting season was not the principal cause of the decline in cormorant colony size. Total consumption of juvenile salmonids by East Sand Island Caspian terns in 2008 was approximately 6.7 million smolts (95% c.i. = 5.8-7.5 million). Caspian terns nesting on East Sand Island continued to rely primarily on marine forage fishes as a food supply. Based on smolt PIT tag recoveries on the East Sand Island Caspian tern colony, predation rates were highest on steelhead in 2008; minimum predation rates on steelhead smolts detected passing Bonneville Dam averaged 8.3% for wild smolts and 10.7% for hatchery-raised smolts. In 2007, total smolt consumption by East Sand Island double-crested cormorants was about 9.2 million juvenile salmonids (95% c.i. = 4.4-14.0 million), similar to or greater than that of East Sand Island Caspian terns during that year (5.5 million juvenile salmonids; 95% c.i. = 4.8-6.2 million). The numbers of smolt PIT tags recovered on the cormorant colony in 2008 were roughly proportional to the relative availability of PIT-tagged salmonids released in the Basin, suggesting that cormorant predation on salmonid smolts in the estuary was less selective than tern

  14. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, Conceptual Design Report, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Montgomery (Montgomery Watson, Bellevue, WA)

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  15. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (Idaho).

    1996-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Nez Perce Tribe propose a supplementation program to restore chinook salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin in Idaho. The Clearwater River is a tributary to the Snake River, which empties into the Columbia River. The Nez Perce Tribe would build and operate two central incubation and rearing hatcheries and six satellite facilities. Spring, summer and fall chinook salmon would be reared and acclimated to different areas in the Subbasin and released at the hatchery and satellite sites or in other watercourses throughout the Subbasin. The supplementation program differs from other hatchery programs because the fish would be released at different sizes and would return to reproduce naturally in the areas where they are released. Several environmental issues were identified during scoping: the possibility that the project would fail if mainstem Columbia River juvenile and adult passage problems are not solved; genetic risks to fish listed as endangered or threatened; potential impacts to wild and resident fish stocks because of increase competition for food and space; and water quality. The Proposed Action would affect several important aspects of Nez Perce tribal life, primarily salmon harvest, employment, and fisheries management.

  16. Salmon and steelhead in the White Salmon River after the removal of Condit Dam–Planning efforts and recolonization results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brady; Engle, Rod O; Zendt, Joseph S; Shrier, Frank C; Wilson, Jeremy T; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Condit Dam, at river kilometer 5.3 on the White Salmon River, Washington, was breached in 2011 and completely removed in 2012. This action opened habitat to migratory fish for the first time in 100 years. The White Salmon Working Group was formed to create plans for fish salvage in preparation for fish recolonization and to prescribe the actions necessary to restore anadromous salmonid populations in the White Salmon River after Condit Dam removal. Studies conducted by work group members and others served to inform management decisions. Management options for individual species were considered, including natural recolonization, introduction of a neighboring stock, hatchery supplementation, and monitoring natural recolonization for some time period to assess the need for hatchery supplementation. Monitoring to date indicates that multiple species and stocks of anadromous salmonids are finding and spawning in the now accessible and recovering habitat.

  17. An Evaluation of Otolith Thermal Marking at the Feather River Hatchery, California

    OpenAIRE

    Mercer, Michael; Kurth, Ryon

    2014-01-01

    doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2014v12iss4art3 California’s Feather River Hatchery (FRH) propagates two runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): spring run and fall run. Loss of spawning habitat and historical hatchery practices have led to introgression of these runs. Recent efforts to reform hatchery operations at the FRH are focused on reducing introgression and increasing the proportion of natural-origin spawners in the broodstock. Implementing these re...

  18. Kalispel Resident Fish Project: Kalispel Tribal Hatchery Operations and Maintenance, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluff, Stanley

    2000-12-01

    No Annual Production Goals were achieved for the year. The Kalispel Hatchery experienced two episodes of brood fish mortality. The first due to a standpipe malfunction and the second attributed to gas bubble disease caused by elevated Total Dissolved Gases (TDG's) in the reservoir. To date, the hatchery has 29 brood fish in the raceway and ready to spawn. If all things go well this spring, hatchery operations should be well underway next year.

  19. Kalispel Resident Fish Project- Kalispel Tribal Hatchery Operations and Maintenance, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalispel Tribe, Department of Natural Resources

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, construction activities commenced on a largemouth bass hatchery located on the Kalispel Indian Reservation. The major construction activities were complete as of October 1997. Of the six objectives identified in the 1997 Annual Operating Plan two objectives were fully achieved: the assembly of the life support system, and the preparation of the hatchery Operations and Maintenance Manual. The remaining four objectives were not fully achieved due to the hatchery not being completed before the spawning season (spring).

  20. Morphometric comparison between hatchery-reared and wild-caught megalopae of the mangrove crab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Andressa Casagrande Ayres

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the morphometry of hatchery-reared and wild-caught mangrove crab (Ucides cordatus megalopae. Ten U. cordatus megalopae of each group (hatchery-reared and wild-caught were individually analyzed using a stereoscopic microscope equipped with an ocular micrometer. Length, width, and height of all megalopae were measured, and the size of body appendices was determined. The results indicate that the hatchery-reared megalopae are more robust than the wild ones. Furthermore, some significant differences in the size of certain appendices can be cues of the kind of alterations that hatchery-reared individuals experience.

  1. 75 FR 76400 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... analysis as part of Project 3, in Pescadero Lagoon. Project 1 is a study on the summer ecology of juvenile... significance of estuary rearing on the timing of ocean entry. Project 3 is a study on the ecology of...

  2. 78 FR 31518 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Genetic Management Plans (HGMPs), pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA). The... the draft environmental assessment should be sent to Brett Farman, National Marine Fisheries...

  3. 76 FR 6400 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... accordance with section 10(a)(1)(A) of the ESA (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and regulations governing listed fish... Received On September 30, 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) submitted an application...

  4. Endocrine systems in juvenile anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Seasonal development and seawater acclimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsen, Tom O; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Kiilerich, Pia

    2008-01-01

    between strains, or any increase during smoltification. Gill IGF-I and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) mRNA levels increased in anadromous salmon during smoltification, with no changes observed in landlocked fish. Gill PRLR mRNA levels remained stable in both strains during spring. Plasma cortisol levels...

  5. An experimental field evaluation of winter carryover effects in semi-anadromous Brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midwood, Jonathan D.; Larsen, Martin Hage; Boel, Mikkel;

    2015-01-01

    For semi-anadromous brown trout, the decision whether or not to smoltify and migrate to the sea is believed to be made at the end of the preceding summer in response to both local environmental conditions and individual physiological status. Stressors experienced during the fall may therefore inf...

  6. Assessment of Salmonids and Their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin within Washington, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, Glen; Trump, Jeremy; Gembala, Mike

    2003-09-01

    trutta) had low densities, and limited distribution throughout the basin. A large return of adult spring chinook to the Touchet River drainage in 2001 produced higher densities of juvenile chinook in 2002 than have been seen in recent years, especially in the Wolf Fork. The adult return in 2002 was substantially less than what was seen in 2001. Due to poor water conditions and trouble getting personnel hired, spawning surveys were limited in 2002. Surveyors found only one redd in four Walla Walla River tributaries (Cottonwood Ck., East Little Walla Walla, West Little Walla Walla, and Mill Ck.), and 59 redds in Touchet River tributaries (10 in the North Fork Touchet, 30 in the South Fork Touchet, and 19 in the Wolf Fork). Bull trout spawning surveys in the upper Touchet River tributaries found a total of 125 redds and 150 live fish (92 redds and 75 fish in the Wolf Fork, 2 redds and 1 fish in the Burnt Fork, 0 redds and 1 fish in the South Fork Touchet, 29 redds and 71 fish in the North Fork Touchet, and 2 redds and 2 fish in Lewis Ck.). A preliminary steelhead genetics analysis was completed as part of this project. Results indicate differences between naturally produced steelhead and those produced in the hatchery. There were also apparent genetic differences among the naturally produced fish from different areas of the basin. Detailed results are reported in Bumgarner et al. 2003. Recommendations for assessment activities in 2003 included: (1) continue to monitor the Walla Walla River (focusing from the stateline to McDonald Rd.), the Mill Ck system, and the Little Walla Walla System. (2) reevaluate Whiskey Ck. for abundance and distribution of salmonids, and Lewis Ck. for bull trout density and distribution. (3) select or develop a habitat survey protocol and begin to conduct habitat inventory and assessment surveys. (4) summarize bull trout data for Mill Ck, South Fork Touchet, and Lewis Ck. (5) begin to evaluate temperature and flow data to assess if the habitat

  7. Fish Research Project Oregon; Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Michael C.; Waln, Karen; Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1996-01-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council`s Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program authorized construction of the Umatilla Hatchery in 1986. Measure 703 of the program amended the original authorization for the hatchery and specified evaluation of the Michigan type of rearing using oxygen supplementation to reach production goals of 290,000 lb of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus nzykiss). The hatchery was completed in the fall of 1991. Partial justification for the hatchery was to develop considerable knowledge and understanding of new production and supplementation techniques. The use of the Michigan raceways in rearing at Umatilla Hatchery was selected because it could increase smolt production given the limited hatchery well water supply and allow comparison of Michigan raceways with the standard Oregon raceways. Results of testing the Michigan raceways will have systematic application in the Columbia Basin. The Umatilla Hatchery is the foundation for rehabilitating chinook salmon and enhancing steelhead in the Umatilla River and is expected to contribute significantly to the Northwest Power Planning Council`s goal of doubling salmon production in the Columbia Basin. Hatchery production goals and a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation plan were presented in the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan . The Comprehensive Plan for Monitoring and Evaluation of Umatilla Hatchery was approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council as a critical adaptive management guide for fisheries rehabilitation in the Umatilla River. Monitoring and evaluation will be used to increase knowledge about uncertainties inherent in the fisheries rehabilitation and will complement the developing systematic monitoring and evaluation program. This report covers the first four years of the monitoring of the hatchery.

  8. Endocrine systems in juvenile anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Seasonal development and seawater acclimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Tom O.; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.; Kiilerich, P.; Bjornsson, B. Th; Madsen, Steffen S.; McCormick, S.D.; Stefansson, S.O.

    2008-01-01

    The present study compares developmental changes in plasma levels of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and cortisol, and mRNA levels of their receptors and the prolactin receptor (PRLR) in the gill of anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon during the spring parr-smolt transformation (smoltification) period and following four days and one month seawater (SW) acclimation. Plasma GH and gill GH receptor (GHR) mRNA levels increased continuously during the spring smoltification period in the anadromous, but not in landlocked salmon. There were no differences in plasma IGF-I levels between strains, or any increase during smoltification. Gill IGF-I and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) mRNA levels increased in anadromous salmon during smoltification, with no changes observed in landlocked fish. Gill PRLR mRNA levels remained stable in both strains during spring. Plasma cortisol levels in anadromous salmon increased 5-fold in May and June, but not in landlocked salmon. Gill glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA levels were elevated in both strains at the time of peak smoltification in anadromous salmon, while mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mRNA levels remained stable. Only anadromous salmon showed an increase of gill 11??-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-2 (11??-HSD2) mRNA levels in May. GH and gill GHR mRNA levels increased in both strains following four days of SW exposure in mid-May, whereas only the anadromous salmon displayed elevated plasma GH and GHR mRNA after one month in SW. Plasma IGF-I increased after four days in SW in both strains, decreasing in both strains after one month in SW. Gill IGF-I mRNA levels were only increased in landlocked salmon after 4 days in SW. Gill IGF-IR mRNA levels in SW did not differ from FW levels in either strain. Gill PRLR mRNA did not change after four days of SW exposure, and decreased in both strains after one month in SW. Plasma cortisol levels did not change following SW exposure in either strain. Gill GR, 11

  9. Kalispel Resident Fish Project : Tribal Hatchery Operations and Maintenance Annual Report, 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenema, David

    2003-03-01

    The Kalispel Tribal hatchery successfully spawned largemouth bass broodfish in spring 2002. Approximately 150,000 eggs were produced and hatched. These fry were started on brine shrimp for a period of ten days. At this time, the fry needed more abundance food supply. Cannibalism started and the hatchery staff transferred the remaining fry to the river in hopes that some fish would survive.

  10. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  11. 9 CFR 145.9 - Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers. 145.9 Section 145.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... POULTRY General Provisions § 145.9 Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers....

  12. Physiological and endocrine changes in Atlantic salmon smolts during hatchery rearing, downstream migration and ocean entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen D.; Sheehan, Timothy F.; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; Lipsky, Christine; Kocik, John F.; Regish, Amy M.; O'Dea, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Billions of hatchery salmon smolts are released annually in an attempt to mitigate anthropogenic impacts on freshwater habitats, often with limited success. Mortality of wild and hatchery fish is high during downstream and early ocean migration. To understand changes that occur during migration, we examined physiological and endocrine changes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts during hatchery rearing, downstream migration, and early ocean entry in two successive years. Gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity increased in the hatchery during spring, increased further after river release, and was slightly lower after recapture in the ocean. Plasma growth hormone levels increased in the hatchery, were higher in the river, and increased further in the ocean. Plasma IGF-I remained relatively constant in the hatchery, increased in the river, then decreased in the ocean. Plasma thyroid hormones were variable in the hatchery, but increased in both river- and ocean-captured smolts. Naturally reared fish had lower condition factor, gill NKA activity, and plasma thyroxine than hatchery fish in the river but were similar in the ocean. This novel data set provides a vital first step in understanding the role and norms of endocrine function in smolts and the metrics of successful marine entry.

  13. Wildlife risks associated with passage of contaminated, anadromous fish at Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Licensed Dams in Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this paper is to assess the issue of anadromous fish passage at Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) licensed hydropower dams in Michigan and...

  14. Ecological interactions between hatchery summer steelhead and wild Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Willamette River basin, 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Green, Ethan D.; Vernon, Christopher R.; Mcmichael, Geoffrey A.

    2014-12-23

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which juvenile hatchery summer steelhead and wild winter steelhead overlap in space and time, to evaluate the extent of residualism among hatchery summer steelhead in the South Santiam River, and to evaluate the potential for negative ecological interactions among hatchery summer steelhead and wild winter steelhead. Because it is not possible to visually discern juvenile winter steelhead from resident rainbow trout, we treated all adipose-intact juvenile O. mykiss as one group that represented juvenile wild winter steelhead. The 2014 study objectives were to 1) estimate the proportion of hatchery summer steelhead that residualized in the South Santiam River in 2014, 2) determine the extent to which hatchery and naturally produced O. mykiss overlapped in space and time in the South Santiam River, and 3) characterize the behavioral interactions between hatchery-origin juvenile summer steelhead and naturally produced O. mykiss. We used a combination of radio telemetry and direct observations (i.e., snorkeling) to determine the potential for negative interactions between hatchery summer and wild winter steelhead juveniles in the South Santiam River. Data collected from these two independent methods indicated that a significant portion of the hatchery summer steelhead released as smolts did not rapidly emigrate from the South Santiam River in 2014. Of the 164 radio-tagged steelhead that volitionally left the hatchery, only 66 (40.2%) were detected outside of the South Santiam River. Forty-four (26.8% of 164) of the radio-tagged hatchery summer steelhead successfully emigrated to Willamette Falls. Thus, the last known location of the majority of the tagged fish (98 of 164 = 59.8%) was in the South Santiam River. Thirty-three of the tagged hatchery steelhead were detected in the South Santiam River during mobile-tracking surveys. Of those, 21 were found to be alive in the South Santiam River over three months after

  15. Ecological interactions between hatchery summer steelhead and wild Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Willamette River basin, 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnish, Ryan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Green, Ethan D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vernon, Christopher R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mcmichael, Geoffrey A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which juvenile hatchery summer steelhead and wild winter steelhead overlap in space and time, to evaluate the extent of residualism among hatchery summer steelhead in the South Santiam River, and to evaluate the potential for negative ecological interactions among hatchery summer steelhead and wild winter steelhead. Because it is not possible to visually discern juvenile winter steelhead from resident rainbow trout, we treated all adipose-intact juvenile O. mykiss as one group that represented juvenile wild winter steelhead. The 2014 study objectives were to 1) estimate the proportion of hatchery summer steelhead that residualized in the South Santiam River in 2014, 2) determine the extent to which hatchery and naturally produced O. mykiss overlapped in space and time in the South Santiam River, and 3) characterize the behavioral interactions between hatchery-origin juvenile summer steelhead and naturally produced O. mykiss. We used a combination of radio telemetry and direct observations (i.e., snorkeling) to determine the potential for negative interactions between hatchery summer and wild winter steelhead juveniles in the South Santiam River. Data collected from these two independent methods indicated that a significant portion of the hatchery summer steelhead released as smolts did not rapidly emigrate from the South Santiam River in 2014. Of the 164 radio-tagged steelhead that volitionally left the hatchery, only 66 (40.2%) were detected outside of the South Santiam River. Forty-four (26.8% of 164) of the radio-tagged hatchery summer steelhead successfully emigrated to Willamette Falls. Thus, the last known location of the majority of the tagged fish (98 of 164 = 59.8%) was in the South Santiam River. Thirty-three of the tagged hatchery steelhead were detected in the South Santiam River during mobile-tracking surveys. Of those, 21 were found to be alive in the South Santiam River over three months after

  16. Occurrence of antibiotics in water from 13 fish hatcheries, 2001-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, J.E.; Scribner, E.A.; Meyer, M.T.; Kolpin, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    A 2-year study of extensive and intensive fish hatcheries was conducted to assess the general temporal occurrence of antibiotics in aquaculture. Antibiotics were detected in 15% of the water samples collected during the 2001-2002 collection period and in 31% of the samples during the 2003 collection period. Antibiotics were detected more frequently in samples from the intensive hatcheries (17 and 39%) than in samples from the extensive hatcheries (14 and 4%) during the 2001-2002 and 2003 collection periods, respectively. The maximum ormetoprim, oxytetracycline, and sulphadimethoxine concentrations were higher in samples from the intensive hatcheries (12, 10, and 36 µg L-1), respectively, than in samples from the extensive hatcheries (<0.05, 0.31, and 1.2 µg L-1), respectively. Sulphadimethoxine persisted for a longer period of time (up to 48 days) than ormetoprim (up to 28 days) and oxytetracycline (less than 20 days).

  17. Sublethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos to salmonid olfaction after hypersaline acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryoung, Lindley A; Blunt, Brian; Tierney, Keith B; Schlenk, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Salmonid habitats can be impacted by several environmental factors, such as salinization, which can also affect salmonid tolerance to anthropogenic stressors, such as pesticides. Previous studies have shown that hypersaline acclimation enhances the acute toxicity of certain organophosphate and carbamate pesticides to euryhaline fish; however, sublethal impacts have been far less studied. The current study aims to determine how hypersaline acclimation and exposure to the organophosphate chlorpyrifos (CPF) impact salmonid olfaction. Combined acclimation and exposure to CPF was shown to impact rainbow trout olfaction at the molecular, physiological, and behavioral levels. Concurrent exposure to hypersalinity and 0.5μg/L CPF upregulated four genes (chloride intracellular channel 4, G protein zgc:101761, calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase II delta, and adrenergic alpha 2C receptor) that inhibit olfactory signal transduction. At the physiological level, hypersalinity and chlorpyrifos caused a decrease in sensory response to the amino acid l-serine and the bile salt taurocholic acid. Combined acclimation and exposure also negatively impacted behavior and reduced the avoidance of a predator cue (l-serine). Thus, acclimation to hypersaline conditions and exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of chlorpyrifos caused an inhibition of olfactory signal transduction leading to a decreased response to odorants and impairment of olfactory mediated behaviors.

  18. Innate immune responses of salmonid fish to viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Bertrand

    2014-04-01

    Viruses are the most serious pathogenic threat to the production of the main aquacultured salmonid species the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. The viral diseases Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN), Pancreatic Disease (PD), Infectious Haemorrhagic Necrosis (IHN), Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (VHS), and Infectious Salmon Anaemia (ISA) cause massive economic losses to the global salmonid aquaculture industry every year. To date, no solution exists to treat livestock affected by a viral disease and only a small number of efficient vaccines are available to prevent infection. As a consequence, understanding the host immune response against viruses in these fish species is critical to develop prophylactic and preventive control measures. The innate immune response represents an important part of the host defence mechanism preventing viral replication after infection. It is a fast acting response designed to inhibit virus propagation immediately within the host, allowing for the adaptive specific immunity to develop. It has cellular and humoral components which act in synergy. This review will cover inflammation responses, the cell types involved, apoptosis, antimicrobial peptides. Particular attention will be given to the type I interferon system as the major player in the innate antiviral defence mechanism of salmonids. Viral evasion strategies will also be discussed.

  19. Activities and Ergonomics of Workers in Broiler Hatcheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CCS Carvalho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective this study was to assess ergonomic factors, posture and biomechanics of workers of a broiler egg hatchery. The analysis of ergonomic factors was based on physical work load, thermal environment, and exposure to light and noise. The posture of workers was analyzed using photographic records which were evaluated by the software program OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysing System. A biomechanics analysis was also performed based on the photographs taken of the employee at various angles, which were used as inputs to the Michigan two-dimensional biomechanical model software program. The results show that certain activities can be considered unhealthy due to the exposure of employees to physical and thermal overload. The continuous noise levels and lighting were outside the range considered adequate by the regulations of the Brazilian Ministry of Labor. The manner in which certain activities are carried out when associated with weight and poor posture can result in body lesions in broiler hatchery employees. It is therefore necessary to apply specific ergonomic programs, including scheduled breaks, training, and other measures in order to reduce or to eliminate the risks involved in these activities.

  20. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2008 Draft Season Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roby, Daniel D. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University; Collis, Ken [Real Time Research, Inc.; Lyons, Donald E. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oregon State University

    2009-07-08

    This report describes investigations into predation by piscivorous colonial waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River basin during 2008. East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary again supported the largest known breeding colony of Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) in the world (approximately 10,700 breeding pairs) and the largest breeding colony of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in western North America (approximately 10,950 breeding pairs). The Caspian tern colony increased from 2007, but not significantly so, while the double-crested cormorant colony experienced a significant decline (20%) from 2007. Average cormorant nesting success in 2008, however, was down only slightly from 2007, suggesting that food supply during the 2008 nesting season was not the principal cause of the decline in cormorant colony size. Total consumption of juvenile salmonids by East Sand Island Caspian terns in 2008 was approximately 6.7 million smolts (95% c.i. = 5.8-7.5 million). Caspian terns nesting on East Sand Island continued to rely primarily on marine forage fishes as a food supply. Based on smolt PIT tag recoveries on the East Sand Island Caspian tern colony, predation rates were highest on steelhead in 2008; minimum predation rates on steelhead smolts detected passing Bonneville Dam averaged 8.3% for wild smolts and 10.7% for hatchery-raised smolts. In 2007, total smolt consumption by East Sand Island double-crested cormorants was about 9.2 million juvenile salmonids (95% c.i. = 4.4-14.0 million), similar to or greater than that of East Sand Island Caspian terns during that year (5.5 million juvenile salmonids; 95% c.i. = 4.8-6.2 million). The numbers of smolt PIT tags recovered on the cormorant colony in 2008 were roughly proportional to the relative availability of PIT-tagged salmonids released in the Basin, suggesting that cormorant predation on salmonid smolts in the estuary was less selective than tern

  1. "Research to Improve the Efficacy of Captive Broodstock Programs and Advance Hatchery Reform Throughout the Columbia River Basin." [from the Abstract], 2008-2009 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service

    2009-08-18

    epithelium increased dramatically during final maturation in both Stanley Basin and Okanogan River sockeye. These increases appeared to be independent of odor exposure history, rising significantly in both arginine-naive and arginine-exposed fish. However, sockeye exposed to arginine during smolting demonstrated a larger increase in BAAR mRNA than arginine-naive fish. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that odorant receptors sensitive to home stream waters may be upregulated at the time of the homing migration and may afford opportunities to exploit this system to experimentally characterize imprinting success and ultimately identify hatchery practices that will minimize straying of artificially produced salmonids. Additional analysis of Sockeye salmon imprinting and further implications of these findings will be presented in the FY 2009 Annual Report. Objective 3: Photoperiod at emergence and ration after ponding were varied in Yakima River spring Chinook salmon to test the hypothesis that seasonal timing of emergence and growth during early stages of development alter seasonal timing of smoltification and age of male maturation. Fish reared under conditions to advance fry emergence and accelerate growth had the greatest variation in seasonal timing of smolting (fall, spring and summer) and highest rates of early male maturation with most males maturing at age 1 (35-40%). In contrast, fish with delayed emergence and slow growth had the least variation in phenotypes with most fish smolting as yearlings in the spring and no age-1 male maturation. Growth (not emergence timing) altered rates of age-2 male maturation. Results of this study demonstrate that altering fry development, as is often done in hatcheries, can profoundly affect later life history transitions and the range of phenotypes within a spring Chinook salmon population. Additional work in the next funding period will determine if these rearing regimes affected other aspects of smolt quality, which

  2. State of Idaho Augmented Anadromous Fish Health Monitoring, 1988 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foott, J. Scott; Hauch, A. Kent

    1989-05-01

    This report documents the progress in the assigned tasks which have occurred during the second year of the Augmented Anadromous Fish Health Monitoring Project. Fish at seven Idaho Department of Fish and Game facilities were monitored for various pathogens and organosomatic analyses were performed on smolts prior to their release in the Spring of 1989. A disease database has been developed and facility impediments to fish health have been identified.

  3. What is "fallback"?: metrics needed to assess telemetry tag effects on anadromous fish behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Holly J.; Mather, Martha E.; Smith, Joseph M.; Muth, Robert M.; Finn, John T.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2009-01-01

    Telemetry has allowed researchers to document the upstream migrations of anadromous fish in freshwater. In many anadromous alosine telemetry studies, researchers use downstream movements (“fallback”) as a behavioral field bioassay for adverse tag effects. However, these downstream movements have not been uniformly reported or interpreted. We quantified movement trajectories of radio-tagged anadromous alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) in the Ipswich River, Massachusetts (USA) and tested blood chemistry of tagged and untagged fish held 24 h. A diverse repertoire of movements was observed, which could be quantified using (a) direction of initial movements, (b) timing, and (c) characteristics of bouts of coupled upstream and downstream movements (e.g., direction, distance, duration, and speed). Because downstream movements of individual fish were almost always made in combination with upstream movements, these should be examined together. Several of the movement patterns described here could fall under the traditional definition of “fallback” but were not necessarily aberrant. Because superficially similar movements could have quite different interpretations, post-tagging trajectories need more precise definitions. The set of metrics we propose here will help quantify tag effects in the field, and provide the basis for a conceptual framework that helps define the complicated behaviors seen in telemetry studies on alewives and other fish in the field.

  4. Occurrence and significance of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in non-salmonid and salmonid fish species: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, T; Dalsgaard, I

    1998-02-26

    Bacterial strains of Aeromonas salmonicida included in the recognized subsp. acromogenes, subsp. masoucida, and subsp. smithia in addition to the large number of strains not included in any of the described subspecies are referred to as atypical A. salmonicida. The atypical strains form a very heterogeneous group with respect to biochemical characteristics, growth conditions, and production of extracellular proteasess. Consequently, the present taxonomy of the species A. salmonicida is rather ambiguous. Atypical A. salmonicida has been isolated from a wide range of cultivated and wild fish species, non-salmonids as well as salmonids, inhabiting fresh water, brackish water and marine environments in northern and central Europe, South Africa, North America, Japan and Australia. In non-salmonid fish species, infections with atypical strains often manifest themselves as superficial skin ulcerations. The best known diseases associated with atypical A. salmonicida are carp Cyprinus carpio erythrodermatitis, goldfish Carassius auratus ulcer disease, and ulcer disease of flounder Platichthys flesus, but atypical strains are apparently involved in more disease outbreaks than previously suspected. Macroscopical and microscopical studies of ulcerated fish indicate internal organs are infrequently invaded by atypical A. salmonicida. This view is supported by the fact that atypical strains are irregularly isolated from visceral organs of ulcerated fish. High mortality caused by atypical A. salmonicida has been observed in populations of wild non-salmonids and farmed salmonids, although the association between the mortality in the wild fish stocks and atypical A. salmonicida has not always been properly assessed. In injection experiments the pathogenicity of the atypical strains examined showed large variation. An extacellular A-layer has been detected in different atypical strains, but virulence mechanisms different from those described for (typical) A. salmonicida subsp

  5. Vertebrae classification models - Validating classification models that use morphometrics to identify ancient salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) vertebrae to species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using morphometric characteristics of modern salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) vertebrae, we have developed classification models to identify salmonid vertebrae to the...

  6. Are antipredator behaviours of hatchery Salmo salar juveniles similar to wild juveniles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvanes, A G V

    2017-01-27

    This study explores how antipredator behaviour of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar developed during conventional hatchery rearing of eggs from wild brood stock, compared with the behaviour of wild-caught juveniles from the same population. Juveniles aged 1+ years were tested in two unfamiliar environments; in one S. salar were presented with simulated predator attacks and in the other they were given the opportunity to explore an open-field arena. No difference was found in their spontaneous escape responses or ventilation rate (reflex responses) after simulated predator attacks. Hatchery-reared juveniles were more risk-prone in their behaviours than wild-caught individuals. Hatchery juveniles stayed less time in association with shelter. In the open-field arena, hatchery juveniles were more active than wild juveniles. Hatchery juveniles were also immobile for less time and spent a shorter amount of time than wild juveniles in the fringe of the open-field arena. Salmo salar size had no effect on the observed behaviour. Overall, this study provides empirical evidence that one generation of hatchery rearing does not change reflex responses associated with threats, whereas antipredator behaviour, typically associated with prior experience, was less developed in hatchery-reared than in wild individuals.

  7. Spawning site fidelity of wild and hatchery lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in northern Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Thomas; Riley, Stephen C.; Holbrook, Christopher; Hansen, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Fidelity to high-quality spawning sites helps ensure that adults repeatedly spawn at sites that maximize reproductive success. Fidelity is also an important behavioural characteristic to consider when hatchery-reared individuals are stocked for species restoration, because artificial rearing environments may interfere with cues that guide appropriate spawning site selection. Acoustic telemetry was used in conjunction with Cormack–Jolly–Seber capture–recapture models to compare degree of spawning site fidelity of wild and hatchery-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in northern Lake Huron. Annual survival was estimated to be between 77% and 81% and did not differ among wild and hatchery males and females. Site fidelity estimates were high in both wild and hatchery-reared lake trout (ranging from 0.78 to 0.94, depending on group and time filter), but were slightly lower in hatchery-reared fish than in wild fish. The ecological implication of the small difference in site fidelity between wild and hatchery-reared lake trout is unclear, but similarities in estimates suggest that many hatchery-reared fish use similar spawning sites to wild fish and that most return to those sites annually for spawning.

  8. Chemical and histological studies of wild and hatchery salmon in fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.; Halver, J.E.; Woodall, A.N.

    1960-01-01

    In a study of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), the gross chemical and histological changes occurring over a 14-month period spent in fresh water were determined. The determinations were made at 3-month intervals on: 1) hatchery-reared fish, 2) fish hatchery-reared for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months and then planted in a controlled stream for the remainder of the period; and 3) an indigenous group of wild fish in this stream. Wild fish showed high incidence of tissue damage from spinose hairs of the moth larva, Halisidota argentata. Hatchery fish were similarly affected with the severity and incidence of lesions varying directly with the time of exposure of the larvae in the wild environment. Both groups of fish were heavily parasitized by sporozoan organisms in the kidney and spinal cord. Kidney disease appeared in both wild and planted hatchery fish. The gross chemical composition of hatchery fish transformed rapidly after planting to that of the wild fish. Although the initial rate of fat loss is essentially constant for all hatchery groups after planting, fish that were hatchery reared for 9 to 12 months did not complete the transformation to the wild-type body composition by the time of downstream migration at 14 months.

  9. The Addition of Hatchery Liquid Waste to Dairy Manure Improves Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WRT Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the optimal inclusion level of liquid egg hatchery waste for the anaerobic co-digestion of dairy cattle manure. A completely randomized experimental was applied, with seven treatments (liquid hatchery waste to cattle manure ratios of0: 100, 5:95, 10:90, 15:85, 20:80, 25:75 and 30:70, with five replicates (batch digester model each. The evaluated variables were disappearance of total solids (TS, volatile solids (VS, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and specific production of biogas and of methane. Maximum TS and VS disappearance of 41.3% and 49.6%, were obtained at 15.5% and 16.0% liquid hatchery waste inclusion levels. The addition of 22.3% liquid hatchery considerably reduced NDF substrate content (53.2%. Maximum specific biogas production was obtained with 17% liquid hatchery waste, with the addition of 181.7 and 229.5 L kg-1TS and VS, respectively. The highest methane production, at 120.1 and 151.8 L CH4 kg-1TS and VS, was obtained with the inclusion of 17.5 and 18.0% liquid hatchery waste, respectively. The addition of liquid hatchery waste atratios of up to 15.5%in co-digestion with cattle manure reduced solid and fiber levels in the effluent, and improved biogas and methane production.

  10. Kalispel Resident Fish Project: Kalispel Tribal Hatchery Operations and Maintenance, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluff, Stanley

    2000-12-01

    In October of 1997, The construction of the Kalispel Tribal Hatchery was complete. No spawning activity was recorded for the spring of 1998. On June 14, 1999 the first spawn at the Kalispel Tribal Hatchery was successful. A total of seven nests were fertilized that produced approximately 144,000 fry. The second spawn occurred on July 13, 1999 and a total of six nests were fertilized producing approximately 98,0000 fry. The total amount of largemouth bass fry produced at the Kalispel Tribal Hatchery was 242,000.

  11. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho; 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    1999-03-01

    Native resident salmonids in the western United States are in decline throughout much of their range. The purpose of the multi-phased project is to restore native salmonids in the upper Snake River basin to self-sustaining, harvestable levels.

  12. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Master Plan and Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Roy Edward; Mobrand, Lars Erik

    1992-03-01

    This report describes the findings that have resulted from the effort to create a proposed Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) in northern Idaho. This effort has been undertaken because of low population densities of salmon in the Clearwater and Salmon River Basins. The Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) has approved the NPTH concept. For the NPTH to proceed, the Council must approve a master plan and amend the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (CBFWP). Requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) also must be met. The goals of NPTH are to: (1) develop, increase, and reintroduce natural populations of spring, summer, and fall chinook in the Clearwater and Salmon River Basins; (2) sustain long-term preservation and genetic integrity of target fish populations; (3) keep the ecological and genetic impacts of nontarget fish populations within acceptable limits; and, (4) provide harvest opportunities for both tribal and non-tribal anglers.

  13. Sea lice as a density-dependent constraint to salmonid farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Peder A; Kristoffersen, Anja B; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Jimenez, Daniel; Aldrin, Magne; Stien, Audun

    2012-06-22

    Fisheries catches worldwide have shown no increase over the last two decades, while aquaculture has been booming. To cover the demand for fish in the growing human population, continued high growth rates in aquaculture are needed. A potential constraint to such growth is infectious diseases, as disease transmission rates are expected to increase with increasing densities of farmed fish. Using an extensive dataset from all farms growing salmonids along the Norwegian coast, we document that densities of farmed salmonids surrounding individual farms have a strong effect on farm levels of parasitic sea lice and efforts to control sea lice infections. Furthermore, increased intervention efforts have been unsuccessful in controlling elevated infection levels in high salmonid density areas in 2009-2010. Our results emphasize host density effects of farmed salmonids on the population dynamics of sea lice and suggest that parasitic sea lice represent a potent negative feedback mechanism that may limit sustainable spatial densities of farmed salmonids.

  14. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE BALKAN PENINSULA SALMONIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Georgiev

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward the knowledge of the immigration itineraries of the ancestors of five extant salmonid species on Balkan Peninsula which are the following: Acantholingua ohridana (Steindachner, 1892, Hucho hucho (Linnaeus, 1758, Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758, Salmothymus obtusirostris Heckel, 1851 and Thymallus thymallus (Linnaeus, 1758. The thesis for the migration itineraries is based on the anatomical, molecular and zoogeographical facts recently published. These latest facts complement or reject the previous thesis that considered the origin of separate species, which in this paper are analyzed together. A new position on the origin of some S. trutta populations inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea watershed is proposed. The new thesis is that they did not inhabit it from the west, through the Atlantic Ocean and Gibraltar, but from the North, through the branches of the former Sarmatian Sea, using the continental way. A. ohridana and S. obtusirostris, the only endemic Balkanean salmonids, have developed here from the mutual ancestor with the extant Siberian Brachymystax lenok (Pallas, 1773. This ancestor came first, together with the S. trutta lineage known as »marmorata«. Using the same migration way, the T. thymallus population of Soča River, the North.West boundary of Balkan Peninsula remained restricted at that corner of Adriatic Sea watershed. In the Black Sea watershed (the Danube River flow extension on Balkan Peninsula the distribution of T. thymallus coincides with the distribution of H. hucho. The thesis which has been proposed for this, largest contemporary Balkan Peninsula salmonid fish was that it came here last, after the connections between the Mediterranean Sea basin and once existent Sarmatian Sea disappeared. This occurred after the end of the last glaciations. This has been concluded on the basis of the exclusion of the areas of the »marmorata« lineage of S. trutta (Mediterranean Sea watershed and H. hucho (Black Sea

  15. Some metabolic effects of bacterial endotoxins in salmonid fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, G.A.; Ross, A.J.; Smith, L.

    1968-01-01

    Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were highly resistant to endotoxins from both Escherichia coli and Aeromonas salmonicida (a fish pathogen) at 14 and 18 C.This resistance was investigated with liver tryptophan pyrrolase, liver glycogen depletion in vitro, and the arterial blood pressure as indicators. Liver glycogen depletion was accelerated by both endotoxins, but there was no significant cardiovascular response or effect on liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity. Since the cardiovascular effects of histamine were also limited, it was concluded that the metabolic effects of bacterial endotoxins in salmonids are qualitatively different from those of the higher vertebrates.

  16. Fish Research Project Oregon; Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1993-1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Michael C.; Onjukka, Sam T.; Focher, Shannon M. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the first three years of comprehensive monitoring and evaluation of the Umatilla Hatchery. Because the hatchery and the evaluation study and the fish health monitoring investigations are in the early stages of implementation, much of the information contained in this report is preliminary. The majority of the data that is crucial for evaluating the success of the hatchery program, the data on post-release performance and survival, is yet unavailable. In addition, several years of data are necessary to make conclusions about rearing performance at Umatilla Hatchery. The conclusions drawn in this report should be viewed as preliminary and should be used in conjunction with additional information as it becomes available.

  17. Contaminant Survey of Mescalero and Dexter National Fish Hatcheries in New Mexico - July 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water supplies utilized by national fish hatcheries are generally presumed to be uncontaminated. However, sublethal concentrations of potentially toxic substances in...

  18. Loss of genetic variability at the transferrin locus in five hatchery stocks of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calcagnotto Daniela

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and conservation of the genetic variability in stocks maintained as live gene banks have become a high priority task for Brazilian fish culture. The aim of the present survey was to assess the transferrin allelic diversity of five hatchery stocks of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. The tambaqui stock from Pentecoste, the oldest maintained in Brazilian hatchery stations, retained three of the six alleles detected in wild populations of tambaqui from the Amazon River. Other hatchery stocks, directly or indirectly derived from the Pentecoste stock, did not show transferrin allelic variability. Insufficient number of founders and genetic drift due to sampling errors seem to be the main causes leading to loss of genetic diversity in tambaqui hatchery stocks. Appropriate management strategies are required in order to improve the genetic potential of tambaqui stocks in Brazil.

  19. The Trail Inventory of Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  20. The Trail Inventory of Private John Allen National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Private John Allen National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  1. The Trail Inventory of Harrison Lake National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Harrison Lake National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  2. Physiological Assessment and Behavioral Interaction of Wild and Hatchery Juvenile Salmonids : The Relationship of Fish Size and Growth to Smoltification in Spring Chinook Salmon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckman, Brian R.; Larsen, Donald A.; Lee-Pawlak, Beeda; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    1996-10-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the relative influence of size and growth rate on downstream migratory disposition and physiology in yearling spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawtscha) smolts. A group of juvenile chinook salmon was size graded into small and large categories with half the fish in each group reared at an elevated temperature, resulting in four distinct treatment groups: Large Warm (LW), Large Cool (LC), Small Warm (SW), and Small Cool (SC). Fish from warm-water treatment groups displayed significantly higher growth rates than cool-water groups. Fish were tagged and released into a natural creek where downstream movement was monitored. For each of the two releases, fish that migrated past a weir within the first 5 days postrelease had significantly higher spring growth rates than fish that did not migrate within that period. Significant differences in length for the same fish were only found in the second release. Also for the second release, fish from the warm water treatment groups were recovered in higher proportions than fish from cool water groups. The results indicate that increased growth rate in the spring has a positive relation to downstream migratory disposition. Furthermore, there is a relation between smolt size and migration; however, this relation is weaker than that found between growth rate and migration.

  3. Monitoring the Reproductive Success of Naturally Spawning Hatchery and Natural Spring Chinook Salmon in the Wenatchee River, 2008-2009 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Michael J.; Williamson, Kevin S. [Northwest Fisheries Science Center

    2009-05-28

    male fitness. For both sexes, run time had a smaller but still significant effect on fitness, with earlier returning fish favored. Spawning location within the river had a significant effect on fitness for both males and females, and for females explained most of the reduced fitness observed for hatchery fish in this population. While differences have been reported in the relative reproductive success of hatchery and naturally produced salmonids Oncorhynchus spp., factors explaining the differences are often confounded. We examined the spawning site habitat and redd structure variables of hatchery and naturally produced spring Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha of known size that spawned in two tributaries of the Wenatchee River. We controlled for variability in spawning habitat by limiting our analysis to redds found within four selected reaches. No difference in the instantaneous spawner density or location of the redd in the stream channel was detected between reaches. Within each reach, no difference in the fork length or weight of hatchery and naturally produced fish was detected. While most variables differed between reaches, we found no difference in redd characteristics within a reach between hatchery and naturally produced females. Correlation analysis of fish size and redd characteristics found several weak but significant relationships suggesting larger fish contract larger redds in deeper water. Spawner density was inversely related to several redd structure variables suggesting redd size may decrease as spawner density increases. Results should be considered preliminary until samples size and statistical power goals are reached in future years. Trends in relative reproductive success of hatchery and naturally produced spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Wenatchee Basins suggest females that spawn in the upper reaches of the tributaries produced a great number of offspring compared to females that spawn in the lower reaches of the tributaries

  4. Monitoring and Evaluation Plan for the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery, 1996 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, Cleveland R.

    1996-08-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has proposed to build and operate the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) in the Clearwater River subbasin of Idaho for the purpose of restoring self-sustaining populations of spring, summer, and fall chinook salmon to their native habitats. The project comprises a combination of incubation and rearing facilities, satellite rearing facilities, juvenile and adult collection sites, and associated production and harvest management activities. As currently conceived, the NPTH program will produce approximately 768,000 spring chinook parr, 800,000 summer chinook fry, and 2,000,000 fall chinook fry on an annual basis. Hatchery fish would be spawned, reared, and released under conditions that promote wild-type characteristics, minimize genetic changes in both hatchery and wild chinook populations, and minimize undesirable ecological interactions. The primary objective is to enable hatchery-produced fish to return to reproduce naturally in the streams in which they are released. These and other characteristics of the project are described in further detail in the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Master Plan (Larson and Mobrand 1992), the 1995 Supplement to the Master Plan (Johnson et al. 1995), and the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program Environmental Impact Statement (Bonneville Power Administration et al. 1996). The report in hand is referred to in project literature as the NPTH Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Plan. This report describes monitoring and evaluation activities that will help NPTH managers determine. whether they were successful in restoring chinook salmon populations and avoiding adverse ecological impacts. Program success will be gauged primarily by changes in the abundance and distribution of supplemented chinook populations. The evaluation of project-related impacts will focus on the biological effects of constructing and operating NPTH hatchery facilities, introducing hatchery fish into the natural environment, and removing or displacing wild

  5. A global assessment of salmon aquaculture impacts on wild salmonids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Ford

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1980s, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of the northeastern Pacific south of Alaska. In these areas, there has been a concomitant increase in the production of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have been difficult to translate into predictions of change in wild population survival and abundance. We compared marine survival of salmonids in areas with salmon farming to adjacent areas without farms in Scotland, Ireland, Atlantic Canada, and Pacific Canada to estimate changes in marine survival concurrent with the growth of salmon aquaculture. Through a meta-analysis of existing data, we show a reduction in survival or abundance of Atlantic salmon; sea trout; and pink, chum, and coho salmon in association with increased production of farmed salmon. In many cases, these reductions in survival or abundance are greater than 50%. Meta-analytic estimates of the mean effect are significant and negative, suggesting that salmon farming has reduced survival of wild salmon and trout in many populations and countries.

  6. Survival and progression rates of anadromous brown trout kelts Salmo trutta during downstream migration in freshwater and at sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Baktoft, Henrik; Thorstad, EB;

    2015-01-01

    The marine migration of post-spawning anadromous fish remains poorly understood. The present study examined survival and progression rates of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta L. after spawning (kelts) during downriver, fjord, and sea migration. Kelts (n = 49) were captured in the Danish River...... and returned to the fjord. The duration of the entire marine migration, from leaving to entering the river, was on average 163 d. The fish returned from the Kattegat Sea to the fjord between 22 July and 21 October. Upon return, the fish spent 1−90 d passing through Randers Fjord, with most individuals...... completing the reach within 4 d, suggesting that the kelts spent limited time foraging after returning to the fjord. The total survival during the entire marine migration, including the fjord, was a minimum of 29%. Our study provides data that are important for management of anadromous brown trout...

  7. Do open-cycle hatcheries relying on tourism conserve sea turtles? Sri Lankan developments and economic-ecological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Clem; Wilson, Clevo

    2005-04-01

    By combining economic analysis of markets with ecological parameters, this article considers the role that tourism-based sea turtle hatcheries (of an open-cycle type) can play in conserving populations of sea turtles. Background is provided on the nature and development of such hatcheries in Sri Lanka. The modeling facilitates the assessment of the impacts of turtle hatcheries on the conservation of sea turtles and enables the economic and ecological consequences of tourism, based on such hatcheries, to be better appreciated. The results demonstrate that sea turtle hatcheries serving tourists can make a positive contribution to sea turtle conservation, but that their conservation effectiveness depends on the way they are managed. Possible negative effects are also identified. Economic market models are combined with turtle population survival relationships to predict the conservation impact of turtle hatcheries and their consequence for the total economic value obtained from sea turtle populations.

  8. Land Use Impacts of Plastic Mulch Tomato Production and Evaluation of Sorbent Control on Shellfish Hatchery Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Dorothy Reade

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, shellfish hatcheries operating on the Eastern Shore of Virginia noticed an increase in mortalities of their clam larvae; it was suspected that this was a result of the deteriorating quality of the estuarine water used by aquaculture hatcheries. Many hatcheries obtain their facility process water directly from nearby streams and estuaries. During the same time period, there was also an increase in the use of plastic mulch on some of the vegetable fields on the Eastern ...

  9. Molecular epidemiology of salmonid alphavirus (SAV subtype 3 in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Mona D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreas disease (PD is a viral fish disease which in recent years has significantly affected Norwegian salmonid aquaculture. In Norway, the aetiological agent salmonid alphavirus (SAV has been found to be represented by the subtype 3 only. SAV subtype 3 has in previous analyses been found to show a lower genetic divergence than the subtypes found to cause PD in Ireland and Scotland. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nucleotide (nt and amino acid divergence and the phylogenetic relationship of 33 recent SAV subtype 3 sequences. The samples from which the sequences were obtained originated from both PD endemic and non-endemic regions in an attempt to investigate agent origin/spread. Multiple samples throughout the seawater production phase from several salmonid populations were included to investigate genetic variation during an outbreak. The analyses were mainly based on partial sequences from the E2 gene. For some samples, additional partial 6 K and nsP3 gene sequences were available. Results The nucleotide divergence for all gene fragments ranged from total identity (0.0% divergence to 0.45% (1103 nt fragment of E2, 1.11% (451 nt fragment of E2, 0.94% (6 K and 0.28% (nsP3. This low nucleotide divergence corresponded well to previous reports on SAV 3 sequences; however the observed divergence for the short E2 fragment was higher than that previously reported. When compared to SAVH20/03 (AY604235, amino acid substitutions were detected in all assessed gene fragments however the in vivo significance of these on for example disease outbreak mortality could not be concluded on. The phylogenetic tree based on the 451 nt E2 fragment showed that the sequences divided into two clusters with low genetic divergence, representing only a single SAV subtype. Conclusions The analysed sequences represented two clusters of a single SAV subtype; however some of the observed sequence divergence was higher than that previously reported

  10. Evaluation of juvenile salmonid behavior near a prototype weir box at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    Collection of juvenile salmonids at Cowlitz Falls Dam is a critical part of the effort to restore salmon in the upper Cowlitz River because the majority of fish that are not collected at the dam pass downstream and enter a large reservoir where they become landlocked and lost to the anadromous fish population. However, the juvenile fish collection system at Cowlitz Falls Dam has failed to achieve annual collection goals since it first began operating in 1996. Since that time, numerous modifications to the fish collection system have been made and several prototype collection structures have been developed and tested, but these efforts have not substantially increased juvenile fish collection. Studies have shown that juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) tend to locate the collection entrances effectively, but many of these fish are not collected and eventually pass the dam through turbines or spillways. Tacoma Power developed a prototype weir box in 2009 to increase capture rates of juvenile salmonids at the collection entrances, and this device proved to be successful at retaining those fish that entered the weir. However, because of safety concerns at the dam, the weir box could not be deployed near a spillway gate where the prototype was tested, so the device was altered and re-deployed at a different location, where it was evaluated during 2013. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an evaluation using radiotelemetry to monitor fish behavior near the weir box and collection flumes. The evaluation was conducted during April–June 2013. Juvenile steelhead and coho salmon (45 per species) were tagged with a radio transmitter and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag, and released upstream of the dam. All tagged fish moved downstream and entered the forebay of Cowlitz Falls Dam. Median travel times from the release site to the forebay were 0.8 d for steelhead and 1.2 d for coho

  11. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairgrieve, William; Christensen, David (Colville Confederated Tribes, Nespelem, WA)

    2004-04-01

    The Colville Tribal Hatchery produced 62,335 pounds of trout during the contract period, however, only 46,092 pounds were liberated to lakes and streams. The remaining production will be carried over to 2004 to be planted as larger fish into reservation waters for the lakes opener. New raceways were completed in November and brought on line in the spring. These raceways currently hold the redband rainbow brood stock and will be spawned in 2004. Efforts are continuing to capture redbands from other streams in coordination with the monitoring and evaluation program. Creel was expanded by hiring a second creel clerk to give better coverage of reservation waters by reducing travel time. Marking continues on all fish planted from CTH and refinements continue to be made. The first tag retention study has been completed and the second study is now underway to determine long term tag recognition. Lakes continue to be surveyed to complete the baseline analysis of all reservation lakes and will be completed in 2004.

  12. Evaluation of Pure Oxygen Systems at the Willamette Hatchery: Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish Factory

    1990-05-01

    The oxygen transfer columns at the Williamette Hatchery are based on a design used by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources. The geometry and internal construction of the Mlilliamette Hatchery Oxygen Transfer Columns differ from the Michigan columns in several important ways. The performance of the columns was evaluated during May, 1990. The absorption efficiency of the 24 and 30 inch Williamette Hatchery Oxygen Transfer Columns ranged from 30 to 60%, which is comparable to published information on the Michigan columns. The performance of the 24 inch Williamette Hatchery Oxygen Transfer Columns was superior to either the 30 inch columns or the Michigan columns. The yearly oxygen demand for the Williamette Hatchery oxygen supplementation project is estimated to be 31,713 lb. Based on a oxygen purity of 99.6% and oxygen costs of $0.40/100 ft{sup 3}, increasing the absorption efficiency from 50 to 75% would decrease oxygen costs of the present project by only approximately $1018/year, which is small compared to the annual project cost. The pure oxygen system at Williamette Hatchery is designed for experimental purposes, therefore the existing system is adequate its intended use. While oxygen is not a major cost in the present experimental system, it will be much more critical in full-scale applications. It was necessary to build separate columns for the Williamette Oxygen Supplementation Project, but a centralized system may be more cost-effective in larger applications. There is considerable interest in the use of the Michigan type column in the Pacific Northwest and better definition of their operating characteristics or improvement in their performance would be useful to hatchery operations. In addition, there are a number of other oxygen transfer systems that may have potential in the Pacific Northwest.

  13. Evidence for competition at sea between Norton Sound chum salmon and Asian hatchery chum salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Agler, B.A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing production of hatchery salmon over the past four decades has led to concerns about possible density-dependent effects on wild Pacific salmon populations in the North Pacific Ocean. The concern arises because salmon from distant regions overlap in the ocean, and wild salmon populations having low productivity may compete for food with abundant hatchery populations. We tested the hypothesis that adult length-at-age, age-at-maturation, productivity, and abundance of a Norton Sound, Alaska, chum salmon population were influenced by Asian hatchery chum salmon, which have become exceptionally abundant and surpassed the abundance of wild chum salmon in the North Pacific beginning in the early 1980s. We found that smaller adult length-at-age, delayed age-at-maturation, and reduced productivity and abundance of the Norton Sound salmon population were associated with greater production of Asian hatchery chum salmon since 1965. Modeling of the density-dependent relationship, while controlling for other influential variables, indicated that an increase in adult hatchery chum salmon abundance from 10 million to 80 million adult fish led to a 72% reduction in the abundance of the wild chum salmon population. These findings indicate that competition with hatchery chum salmon contributed to the low productivity and abundance of Norton Sound chum salmon, which includes several stocks that are classified as Stocks of Concern by the State of Alaska. This study provides new evidence indicating that large-scale hatchery production may influence body size, age-at-maturation, productivity and abundance of a distant wild salmon population.

  14. Camas Creek (Meyers Cove) Anadromous Species Habitat Improvement: Annual Report 1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaberg, Glen

    1990-06-01

    Populations of wild salmon and steelhead in the Middle Fork of the Salmon River are at historical lows. Until passage and flow problems associated with Columbia River dams are corrected to reduce mortalities of migrating smolts, continuance of habitat enhancements that decrease sediment loads, increase vegetative cover, remove passage barriers, and provide habitat diversity is imperative to maintain surviving populations of these specially adapted fish. In 1987-1988, 4.3 miles of fence was constructed establishing a riparian livestock exclosure. One end-gap and two water-crossing corridors were constructed in 1989 to complete the fence system. Areas within the exclosure have been fertilized to promote tree and shrub root growth and meadow recovery. A stream crossing ford was stabilized with angular cobble. Streambank stabilization/habitat cover work was completed at three sites and three additional habitat structures were placed. Extensive inventories were completed to identify habitat available to anadromous fish. Streambank stabilization work was limited to extremely unstable banks, minimizing radical alterations to an active stream channel. Enhancement activities will improve spawning, incubation, and rearing habitat for wild populations of steelhead trout and chinook salmon. Anadromous species population increases resulting from these enhancement activities will provide partial compensation for downstream losses resulting from hydroelectric developments on the Columbia River system. 10 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Camas Creek (Meyers Cove) Anadromous Species Habitat Improvement: Annual Report 1989.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Terry

    1989-12-01

    Historical agricultural practices and natural events contributed to severe degradation of riparian zones and instream fish habitat in the Meyers Cove area of Camas Creek. In 1984, Salmon National Forest personnel began implementing specific management activities in riparian areas and the stream channel to accelerate habitat recovery. In 1987--88, 4.3 miles of fence was constructed establishing a riparian livestock exclosure in the Meyers Cove area of Camas Creek. One end-gap and two water-crossing corridors were constructed in 1989 to complete the fence system. The riparian exclosure has been fertilized with phosphorous-rich fertilizer to promote root growth. A stream crossing ford was stabilized with angular cobble. Streambank stabilization/habitat cover work was completed at three sites and three additional habitat structures were placed. Extensive habitat inventories were completed to identify quality/quantity of habitat available to anadromous fish. The work accomplished was designed to promote natural revegetation of the riparian area to improve rearing habitat cover and streambank stability. Streambank work was limited to extremely unstable sites. Enhancement activities will improve spawning, incubation, and rearing habitat for wild populations of steelhead trout and chinook salmon. Anadromous species population increases resulting from these enhancement activities will provide partial compensation for downstream losses resulting from hydroelectric developments on the Columbia River system. 9 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. NIS occurrence - Non-native species impacts on threatened and endangered salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of this project: a) Identify the distribution of non-natives in the Columbia River Basin b) Highlight the impacts of non-natives on salmonids c)...

  17. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin : Volume VI : Evaluation of the 2000 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, and Hatchery Sockeye Salmon in the Snake River Basin, and Combined Wild Hatchery Salminids Migrating to Rock Island and McNary Dams using Program RealTime.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Caitlin

    1998-07-01

    from 6.7% in 1999. The MAD for the PIT-tagged ESU of wild Snake River fall sub-yearling chinook salmon, after its second season of run-timing forecasting, was 4.7% in 2000 compared to 5.5% in 1999. The high accuracy of season-wide performance in 2000 was largely due to exceptional Program RealTime performance in the last half of the season. Passage predictions from fifteen of the sixteen spring/summer yearling chinook salmon ESUs available for comparison improved in 2000 compared to 1999. The last-half average MAD over all the yearling chinook salmon ESUs was 4.3% in 2000, compared to 6.5% in 1999. Program RealTime 2000 first-half forecasting performance was slightly worse than that of 1999 (MAD = 4.5%), but still comparable to previous years with a MAD equal to 5.1%. Three yearling chinook ESUs showed moderately large (> 10%) MADs. These stocks had larger-than-average recapture percentages in 2000, producing over-predictions early in the season, in a dynamic reminiscent of migration year 1998 (Burgess et al., 1999). The passage distribution of the new stock of hatchery-reared sockeye salmon from Alturas Lake was well-predicted by Program RealTime, based on only two years of historical data (whole-season MAD = 4.3%). The two new run-of-the-river PIT-tagged stocks of wild yearling chinook salmon and steelhead trout were predicted with very good accuracy (whole-season MADs were 4.8% for steelhead trout and 1.7% for yearling chinook salmon), particularly during the last half of the outmigration. First-half steelhead predictions were among the season's worst (MAD = 10.8%), with over-predictions attributable to the largest passage on record of wild PIT-tagged steelhead trout to Lower Granite Dam. The results of RealTime predictions of passage percentiles of combined wild and hatchery-reared salmonids to Rock Island and McNary were mixed. Some of these passage-indexed runs-at-large were predicted with exceptional accuracy (whole-season MADs for coho salmon outmigrating

  18. Sherman Creek Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovrak, Jon (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Program, Hatcheries Division, Ford, WA); Combs, Mitch (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Program, Hatcheries Division, Kettle Falls, WA)

    2004-01-01

    Sherman Creek Hatchery's primary objective is the restoration and enhancement of the recreational and subsistence fishery in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operation and evaluation. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Colville Confederated Tribes form the interagency Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) which sets goals and objectives for both Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery. The LRHCT also serves to coordinate enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. Since 1994 the kokanee fingerling program has changed to yearling releases. By utilizing both the hatcheries and additional net pens, up to 1,000,000 kokanee yearlings can be reared and released. The construction and operation of twenty net pens in 2001 enabled the increased production. Another significant change has been to rear up to 300,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Current objectives include increased use of native tributary stocks where available for propagation into Upper Columbia River Basin waters. The Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program (LRFEP) is responsible for monitoring and evaluation on the Lake Roosevelt Projects. From 1988 to 1998, the principal sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and

  19. Genetic detection of sex-specific dispersal in historical and contemporary populations of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    2004-01-01

    The study of sex-biased dispersal has attracted considerable attention in birds and mammals, but less in other taxa, including fishes. We analysed sex-specific dispersal in historical (1910s and 1950s) and contemporary (1990s) samples of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta. We tested the hypothesis...

  20. 76 FR 20558 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 44 Marine and Anadromous Taxa: Adding 10 Taxa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... from Texas to Gulf of Mexico) Florida and along and the Southwest the east coast Atlantic. from Florida... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AW09 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 44 Marine and Anadromous Taxa: Adding 10 Taxa, Delisting 1 Taxon, Reclassifying 1 Taxon, and...

  1. A review of the past and present status of anadromous fish species in the Netherlands: is restocking the Rhine feasible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de S.J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews the past, present and future of eight anadromous fish species inhabiting the Lower Rhine (The Netherlands), viz. -sturgeon (Acipenser sturio), whitefish and houting (Coregonus lavaretus, C. oxyrinchus), smelt (Osmerus eperlanus), allis and twaite shad (Alosa alosa, A. fallax), sea

  2. EFFECT OF NON-ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS (MERCURY. ARSENIC ON SALMONIDS (SALMONIDAE (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. Hrytsyniak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The problem of water ecosystem pollution with heavy metals achieved great actuality during recent years, both because of their significant distribution in environment, and wide spectrum of their toxic effects on fish organism. Much attention in modern scientific literature is given to the problem of the effects of heavy metals, including mercury and arsenic, on fish organism. However, investigations in this field are conducted mainly on cyprinids, while physiological and biochemical mechanisms of the effects of heavy metals on salmonids are less studied. According to this, the studies of the sources of heavy metals in water ecosystems, peculiarities of their action in salmonid organism on subcellular, cellular, tissue and organ levels, species and age-related peculiarities of the effects of heavy metals are of great scientific and practical importance. The purpose of this work is to review the mentioned problems. Findings. The work characterizes the effects of mercury and arsenic on salmonids on subcellular, cellular, tissue and organ levels. The article contains characteristic of conditions, under which toxic or lethal action of the mentioned xenobiotics on different species of salmonids was observed. Originality. The paper summarizes literature data concerning the effect of mercury and arsenic on salmonids. Attention is accented on the sources of the mentioned pollutants in surface waters, physiological and biochemical mechanisms of their effects on salmonids, and on factors, which determine the level of their toxicity. Lethal concentrations of mercury and arsenic to salmonids, depending on experiment duration, species and age-related peculiarities are presented. Practical value. Data presented in the review can be used for the explanation of physiological and biochemical mechanisms of the adaptation of salmonids to surface water pollution with heavy metals, diagnostics of fish pathologies caused by toxic effects of mercury and

  3. A tool for tracking genetic contributions of wild Penaeus (Melicertus) plebejus broodstock to hatchery populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jackie T; Sherwin, William B; Taylor, Matthew D

    2014-12-01

    Stock enhancement, restocking and sea ranching are being increasingly applied in both fisheries and conservation. The contribution of hatchery stock to fishery harvest and the maintenance of the genetic structure of stocked populations are both important considerations when releasing captive-bred organisms into natural systems. Use of wild-caught broodstock generally overcomes some of the genetic problems associated with domesticated hatchery populations, but there is still a need to ensure that a sufficient proportion of the natural population contribute to production of the stocked cohort to realise the genetic benefits of using wild-caught broodstock. Releases of Penaeus (Melicertus) plebejus are under investigation as a means of increasing prawn production in recruitment-limited areas. We used the highly variable mitochondrial control region (mtCR) to assign post-larvae to maternal lineages in the hatchery and also to investigate the reproductive performance of female broodstock in terms of contribution to the production of the cohorts of post-larvae in the hatchery. Our data showed that mtCR can be a useful tool for tracking lineages and provided genetic evidence that unequal contribution and underproducing females can occur even in wild-caught broodstock. This work therefore highlights the importance of monitoring the genetic composition of pre-release hatchery stocks.

  4. Occurrence, size, and tag retention of sneaker male hatchery rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isely, J.J.; Grabowski, T.B.

    2004-01-01

    One alternative reproductive tactic involving early-maturing, cryptic males is referred to as "sneaking." Although sneakers tend to be easily detectable upon close inspection, little is known about the proportion of a fish population consisting of sneakers. We examined 15,400 age-1 rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in a hatchery. Total length (mm), wet weight (g), and sex (sneaker male or unknown) were recorded for each fish. We also individually tagged each sneaker male with soft visual implant alphanumeric (VIalpha) tags that were sequentially numbered and held the fish for 25 d before inspection. Sneakers constituted 2.8% of the hatchery rainbow trout population and were smaller in total length and weight than typical rainbow trout of the same age. Retention of the VIalpha tags in sneakers was 58.9%, significantly lower than has been reported under similar circumstances. We found that sneaker males may contribute substantially to hatchery populations. Reduced tag retention in sneakers may bias studies evaluating the effect of hatchery fish on wild populations. We believe that hatchery-produced sneaker males have the potential to contribute importantly to the genetic composition of wild populations.

  5. Evaluation of chemical control for nonnative crayfish at a warm-water fish production hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allert, Ann L.; McKee, M.J.; DiStefano, R.J.; Fairchild, J.F.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive crayfish are known to displace native crayfish species, alter aquatic habitat and community structure and function, and are serious pests for fish hatcheries. White River Crawfish (WRC; Procambarus acutus) were inadvertently introduced to a warm-water fish hatchery in Missouri, USA, possibly in an incoming fish shipment. We evaluated the use of chemical control for crayfish to ensure incoming and outgoing fish shipments from hatcheries do not contain live crayfish. We conducted acute (≤24 hr) static toxicity tests to determine potency, dose-response, and selectivity of pesticides to WRC, Virile Crayfish (VC; Orconectes virilis), and Fathead Minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas). Testing identified a formulation of cypermethrin (Cynoff®) as the most potent of five pesticides evaluated for toxicity to crayfish. A 4-hr exposure to a cypermethrin concentration of 100 μg · L-1 was found to kill 100% of juvenile and adult WRC; however, adult VC were not consistently killed. Concentrations of cypermethrin ≤100 μg · L-1 did not cause significant (>10%) mortality in juvenile FHM. Additional testing is needed to examine selectivity between crayfish and hatchery fish species. Biosecurity protocols at hatcheries that use chemical control have the potential to reliably prevent inadvertent transfers of live crayfish in fish shipments.

  6. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1988 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, Edward C.

    1989-02-01

    The kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka rehabilitation program for Lake Pend Oreille continued to show progress during 1988. Estimated kokanee abundance in early September was 10.2 million fish. This estimate is 70% higher than 1987 and 140% higher than the populations's low point in 1986. Increased population size over the past two years is the result of two consecutive strong year classes produced from high recruitment of hatchery and wild fry. High recruitment of wild fry in 1988 resulted from good parental escapement (strong year class) in 1987 and relatively high fry survival. Hatchery fry made up 51% of total fry recruitment (73% of total fry biomass), which is the largest contribution since hatchery supplementation began in the 1970s. High hatchery fry abundance resulted from a large release (13 million fry) from Cabinet Gorge Hatchery and excellent fry survival (29%) during their first summer in Lake Pend Oreille. Improved fry release strategies enhanced survival, which doubled from 1987 to 1988 and was ten times higher than survival in 1986. Our research goal is to maintain 30% survival so we are very optimistic, but need to replicate additional years to address annual variability. 27 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Evaluation of chemical control for nonnative crayfish at a warm-water fish production hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allert, Ann L.; McKee, M.J.; DiStefano, R.J.; Fairchild, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive crayfish are known to displace native crayfish species, alter aquatic habitat and community structure and function, and are serious pests for fish hatcheries. White River Crawfish (WRC; Procambarus acutus) were inadvertently introduced to a warm-water fish hatchery in Missouri, USA, possibly in an incoming fish shipment. We evaluated the use of chemical control for crayfish to ensure incoming and outgoing fish shipments from hatcheries do not contain live crayfish. We conducted acute (≤24 hr) static toxicity tests to determine potency, dose-response, and selectivity of pesticides to WRC, Virile Crayfish (VC; Orconectes virilis), and Fathead Minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas). Testing identified a formulation of cypermethrin (Cynoff®) as the most potent of five pesticides evaluated for toxicity to crayfish. A 4-hr exposure to a cypermethrin concentration of 100 μg · L-1 was found to kill 100% of juvenile and adult WRC; however, adult VC were not consistently killed. Concentrations of cypermethrin ≤100 μg · L-1 did not cause significant (>10%) mortality in juvenile FHM. Additional testing is needed to examine selectivity between crayfish and hatchery fish species. Biosecurity protocols at hatcheries that use chemical control have the potential to reliably prevent inadvertent transfers of live crayfish in fish shipments.

  8. Status of biosecurity and prevalent parasitic diseases in finfish hatcheries of Jessore, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdus Samad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to know the status of biosecurity and prevalent parasitic diseases in finfish hatcheries of Jessore district. The peak season of seed production was found April to May. Management of biosecurity has been practiced to prevent disease outbreaks and exert quite satisfactory. It was observed; hatchery owners cleaned their hatchery units regularly and maintained hygiene (76.66%, water quality (56.66%, disinfected equipments (76.00%, stocked disease free broods (76.00% and quarantine (56.66%. Prevalence of diseases were- lernaeasis (34.10%, argulosis (23.86%, leeches (11.36%, dactylogyrosis (7.95%, gyrodactylosis (10.23% and others (12.50% in brood fish and fry. In broods, average prevalence was 16.67% with 9.25% mortality. Besides average prevalence was 10-15% with 10% mortality in fry. The epizootiological pattern showed the highest frequency of parasitic diseases during winter because of loss of appetites. The study demonstrated that sumithion was used by (93.32%, magic (46.33%, depterax (56.67%, lime with KMnO4 (80.00%, lime with salt (66.67% and lime- salt- KMnO4 (50.00% by hatchery owners respectively for treatments. Lack of assistance, proper knowledge and suitable therapeutics with its proper use were the major problems in the hatcheries.

  9. A comparison of the survival and migratory behavior of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead smolts in the Alsea river and estuary, Oregon, using acoustic telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tracked three groups of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss smolts implanted with acoustic transmitters to determine whether the degree of hatchery domestication or the juvenile rearing environment (hatchery raceway versus natural stream) influenced migration timing and survival in ...

  10. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide based product as a hatchery sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, P; Cox, S; Gadde, U; Clark, F D; Bramwell, K; Watkins, S E

    2016-12-05

    Formaldehyde is commonly used to overcome contaminants introduced by hatching eggs or water supply in the hatcher cabinets. However, health risks associated with its use make economical alternatives important. This project evaluated a chlorine dioxide based product (CDBP) (0.3% concentrate) as a hatchery sanitizer in decontaminating microbial populations on the shell surface of hatching eggs (>18 d old), as well as its impact on hatchability and chick performance. Hatchers (0.20 m(2)) designed to hold approximately 50 eggs and equipped with circulation fans, heaters, and thermostats were used for the evaluation. For each of the 2 trials conducted, 450 hatching eggs were obtained and incubated in a common setter. Eggs used in trial 1 were floor eggs whereas in trial 2 nest eggs were used. On d 18 of incubation, eggs were removed from the setter, and viable eggs were randomly allocated to 9 hatchers. Pre-treatment egg rinse samples (10 eggs per hatcher) were collected for initial microbial analysis. Three hatchers were treated with CDBP and 3 hatchers with a formaldehyde based product (FBP). Three untreated hatchers served as control (C). Prior to hatch, 10 eggs/incubator, not previously rinsed, were used for post treatment microbial counts. The hatched chicks were reared until d 21 in floor pens with a common starter diet. For the CDBP treated eggs, hatchability and chick performance (weight gains, mortality, and FCR on d 7 and d 21) were similar to the other treatments. The application rate of CDBP evaluated in this study was not an effective antimicrobial alternative to formaldehyde for sanitizing hatching eggs in hatcher cabinets prior to hatch.

  11. Decline of the North Sea houting: protective measures for an endangered anadromous fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Niels; Deacon, Michael; Koed, Anders

    2012-01-01

    the spawning area for NSH and reduce juvenile mortality of NSH. The generic effect of these recent and ongoing changes is, however, not yet known. The NSH population has been irregularly monitored under various programs. Results from 15 yr of field investigation using passive integrated transponder (PIT...... whitefish species, juveniles were hatchery-reared and stocked in 6 Danish rivers flowing into the Wadden Sea. These stocking efforts were fairly successful, and the houting established populations in at least 2 of the rivers, but the underlying problem of habitat degradation and migration obstacles...

  12. Ground-water resources in the vicinity of the Crown Point fish hatchery, Essex County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrowitz, I.H.

    1968-01-01

    The Crown Point Fish Hatchery, one of several hatcheries operated by the New York State Conservation Department, is located in Crown Point Center, Essex County, on the eastern edge of the Adirondack Highlands and about 2 miles west of lake Champlain. Figure 1 is a location map of the vicinity of the Hatchery. This report summarizes an investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New York State Conservation Department, Division of Water Resources, to locate and evaluate sources of additional ground-water supply for the Hatchery. In order to expand the facilities at the Hatchery, an additional water supply of about 100 gpm (gallons per minute) to as much as 350 gpm is needed. In addition, the type of fish culture practiced requires a water temperature of about 7 to 13 degrees Celsius (centigrade) for optimum results.

  13. Modeling the response of native steelhead to hatchery supplementation programs in an Idaho River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Alan; Bjornn, T.C.; McIntyre, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    A life history model was used to predict the response of native steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Lochsa River, Idaho, to long-term supplementation with hatchery fry and smolts. The four key factors affecting the response of the native fish to a stocking program were (1) the number of native spawners, (2) the number of stocked fish, (3) the number and fitness of progeny from stocked fish, and (4) the amount of mating between hatchery and native fish. Long-term stocking of fry or smolts led to the extinction of native fish in some scenarios. The model can be used to help assess the risks and benefits of proposed stocking programs.

  14. Sherman Creek Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program; 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Mitch (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Kettle Falls, WA)

    2003-01-01

    Sherman Creek Hatchery's primary objective is the restoration and enhancement of the recreational and subsistence fishery in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Colville Confederated Tribe form the interagency Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) which sets goals and objectives for both Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery and serves to coordinate enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The primary changes have been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a yearling (post smolt) program of up to 1,000,000 fish. To construct and operate twenty net pens to handle the increased production. The second significant change was to rear up to 300,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Current objectives include increased use of native/indigenous stocks where available for propagation into Upper Columbia River Basin Waters. The Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program (LRFEP) is responsible for monitoring and evaluation on the Lake Roosevelt Projects. From 1988 to 1998, the principal sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee and the economic value of the fishery has increased substantially during this 10-year

  15. Widespread hybridization among species of Indian major carps in hatcheries, but not in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, V.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons;

    2005-01-01

    samples. Individual admixture coefficients showed that 24% of all hatchery-reared fishes were hybrids, whereas a single hybrid was observed in the wild-caught samples. Only catla Catla catla x rohu Labeo rohita and mrigal Cirrhinus cirrhosus x rohu hybrids were observed, the vast majority of which were F......-hybrids in hatchery samples, reproductive barriers among species have so far precluded widespread introgression. Continued hybridization may eventually lead to a breakdown of species barriers, thereby compromising the genetic integrity of the species in the wild, and leading to production losses...

  16. Anadromous sea lampreys recolonize a Maine coastal river tributary after dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Robert; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Sedgeunkedunk Stream, a third-order tributary to the Penobscot River, Maine, historically supported several anadromous fishes, including the Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, AlewifeAlosa pseudoharengus, and Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus. However, two small dams constructed in the 1800s reduced or eliminated spawning runs entirely. In 2009, efforts to restore marine–freshwater connectivity in the system culminated with removal of the lowermost dam, thus providing access to an additional 4.6 km of lotic habitat. Because Sea Lampreys utilized accessible habitat prior to dam removal, they were chosen as a focal species with which to quantify recolonization. During spawning runs of 2008–2011 (before and after dam removal), individuals were marked with PIT tags and their activity was tracked with daily recapture surveys. Open-population mark–recapture models indicated a fourfold increase in the annual abundance of spawning-phase Sea Lampreys, with estimates rising from 59±4 () before dam removal (2008) to 223±18 and 242±16 after dam removal (2010 and 2011, respectively). Accompanying the marked increase in annual abundance was a greater than fourfold increase in nesting sites: the number of nests increased from 31 in 2008 to 128 and 131 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. During the initial recolonization event (i.e., in 2010), Sea Lampreys took 6 d to move past the former dam site and 9 d to expand into the furthest upstream reaches. Conversely, during the 2011 spawning run, Sea Lampreys took only 3 d to penetrate into the upstream reaches, thus suggesting a potential positive feedback in which larval recruitment into the system may have attracted adult spawners via conspecific pheromone cues. Although more research is needed to verify the migratory pheromone hypothesis, our study clearly demonstrates that small-stream dam removal in coastal river systems has the potential to enhance recovery of declining anadromous fish populations.

  17. Operation Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin : Annual Report 1995 : Volume II, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; US Fish and Wildlife Service

    1996-06-01

    Big Creek Hatchery is located 16 miles east of Astoria, Oregon and is approximately 3 miles upstream from Big Creek`s confluence with the Columbia River. The site elevation is approximately 75 feet above sea level. The facility includes 2 adult holding ponds, 30 raceways, 1 rearing pond, 64 troughs and 8 stacks of egg incubators. The adult collection and holding ponds are in poor condition and are inadequate to meet current program objectives. There are four water sources for the hatchery: Big Creek, Mill Creek and two springs. Current water rights total 36,158 gpm plus an additional 4.2 cfs reservoir water right. All water supplies are delivered by gravity but can be pumped for reuse if required. The facility is staffed with 9.25 FTE`s. Current practices at the hatchery are described.

  18. Modeling Food Delivery Dynamics For Juvenile Salmonids Under Variable Flow Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, L.; Utz, R.; Anderson, K.; Nisbet, R.

    2010-12-01

    Traditional approaches for assessing instream flow needs for salmonids have typically focused on the importance of physical habitat in determining fish habitat selection. This somewhat simplistic approach does not account for differences in food delivery rates to salmonids that arise due to spatial variability in river morphology, hydraulics and temporal variations in the flow regime. Explicitly linking how changes in the flow regime influences food delivery dynamics is an important step in advancing process-based bioenergetic models that seek to predict growth rates of salmonids across various life-stages. Here we investigate how food delivery rates for juvenile salmonids vary both spatially and with flow magnitude in a meandering reach of the Merced River, CA. We utilize a two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic model and discrete particle tracking algorithm to simulate invertebrate drift transport rates at baseflow and a near-bankfull discharge. Modeling results indicate that at baseflow, the maximum drift density occurs in the channel thalweg, while drift densities decrease towards the channel margins due to the process of organisms settling out of the drift. During high-flow events, typical of spring dam-releases, the invertebrate drift transport pathway follows a similar trajectory along the high velocity core and the drift concentrations are greatest in the channel centerline, though the zone of invertebrate transport occupies a greater fraction of the channel width. Based on invertebrate supply rates alone, feeding juvenile salmonids would be expected to be distributed down the channel centerline where the maximum predicted food delivery rates are located in this reach. However, flow velocities in these channel sections are beyond maximum sustainable swimming speeds for most juvenile salmonids. Our preliminary findings suggest that a lack of low velocity refuge may prevent juvenile salmonids from deriving energy from the areas with maximum drift density in this

  19. Modelling turnover of Cs-137 in two subarctic salmonid ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordlinder, S.; Bergstroem, U. (Studsvik AB, Ecosafe, Nykoeping (Sweden)); Hammar, J. (Institute of Freshwater Research, Drottningholm (Sweden) Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoology); Notter, M. (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Solna (Sweden))

    1993-01-01

    The turnover of cesium-137 was simulated in two categories of subarctic, alpine lake ecosystems - a natural lake with Gammarus lacustris as major fish prey and a lake reservoir with introduced Mysis relicta as a new fish-food organism. The resulting concentrations of Cs-137 in two salmonid species - Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) - were calculated using a multi-compartment model. Observed data were taken from a major case study evaluating the distribution, pathways and major transport mechanisms of Chernobyl cesium through northern lake ecosystems in 1986-90. The aim of this study was to design a specific conceptual model for calculation of the levels of Cs-137 in fish from simple lake ecosystems, which could be adopted for other more complex types of lakes. A multi-compartment model of the ecosystem was designed and the equations were solved with the BIOPATH-code. The uncertainty of the results due to the uncertainty of input values was examined using the PRISM-system. The model gave good correlations to measured data for Cs-137 in water, zooplankton, macro invertebrates and fish in both lakes. The predicted levels in sediments were, however, considerably lower than the observed values. The inflow of Cs-137 from the drainage area to the two lakes was identified as the main contributor to the uncertainty of the long-term prognoses. 33 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs.

  20. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program Hatcheries Division: Ford Hatchery, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike; Polacek, Matt; Knuttgen, Kamia

    2002-11-01

    will also evaluate the success of several rearing and stocking strategies for hatchery kokanee in Banks Lake.

  1. Comparative Analysis of the Shared Sex-Determination Region (SDR) among Salmonid Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber-Hammond, Joshua J; Phillips, Ruth B; Brown, Kim H

    2015-06-25

    Salmonids present an excellent model for studying evolution of young sex-chromosomes. Within the genus, Oncorhynchus, at least six independent sex-chromosome pairs have evolved, many unique to individual species. This variation results from the movement of the sex-determining gene, sdY, throughout the salmonid genome. While sdY is known to define sexual differentiation in salmonids, the mechanism of its movement throughout the genome has remained elusive due to high frequencies of repetitive elements, rDNA sequences, and transposons surrounding the sex-determining regions (SDR). Despite these difficulties, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library clones from both rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon containing the sdY region have been reported. Here, we report the sequences for these BACs as well as the extended sequence for the known SDR in Chinook gained through genome walking methods. Comparative analysis allowed us to study the overlapping SDRs from three unique salmonid Y chromosomes to define the specific content, size, and variation present between the species. We found approximately 4.1 kb of orthologous sequence common to all three species, which contains the genetic content necessary for masculinization. The regions contain transposable elements that may be responsible for the translocations of the SDR throughout salmonid genomes and we examine potential mechanistic roles of each one.

  2. BACTERIAL FLORA OF HATCHERY ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR IN-VITRO SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Khan, H. Afzal and F. Deeba

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Four hatcheries, located in and around Faisalabad, were sampled a day before hatch out in six batches for environmental bacterial flora. Hatchery air, egg-shell surface, surfaces of selected locations and water supply samples were taken for this purpose. The percent (relative occurrence of various bacterial species recovered from hatchery environment revealed that Bacillus subtilis was the predominant isolate (26.93%. followed by Escherichia coli (24.08%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (16.32%, Staphylococcus aureus (8.16%, Paratyphoid salmonellae (6.93%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.48%, Citrobacter jreundii (4.08%, Enterococcus faecalis (3.26%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.26%, Bordetella avium (1.63% and Proteus vulgaris (0.81%. In second part of the study, bacterial isolates were subjected to in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity to 8 antibiotics of common poultry use. It was found that 98.92, 79.56. 65.59, 61.29, 61.29, 61.29, 53.76 and 38.70 percent of bacterial isolates were sensitive to Norfloxacin, Gentamicin, Neomycin, Chloramphenicol, Doxycycline, Flumequine, Erythromycin, and Ampicillin, respectively. In the final part of the study, bacterial isolates were tested for resistance to 3 commerical hatchery disinfectants (TH4®, Aldekol Des® 0.2, and Bromosept 10% soln. ®. Only 3.22% of the isolates showed resistance at manufacturer's recommended dilution (MRD levels while 11.82% of the isolates showed resistance at concentrations below the MRD levels.

  3. Serotype and genotype diversity and hatchery transmission of Campylobacter jejuni in commercial poultry flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Nielsen, E.M.; On, Stephen L.W.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the genotype and serotype diversity of Campylobacter coli and C jejuni in two parent flocks of adult hens and their offspring over two rotations in order to evaluate the role of hatchery mediated transmission and/or vertical transmission of campylobacters in broiler flocks. In tot...

  4. Egg saprolegniasis in a commercial sunshine bass hatchery: Control regime developed using copper sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  5. Use of copper sulfate to control Saprolegniasis at a commercial sunshine bass hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  6. Vibrio anguillarum and larval mortality in a California coastal shellfish hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvo, L H; Blecka, J; Zebal, R

    1978-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum was isolated as a pathogen in the commercial culture of oyster spat at Pigeon Point, Calif. A water-soluble, heat-stable exotoxin extracted from cultures of the vibrio inhibited larval swimming and contributed to larval mortality. Although the vibrio was insensitive to penicillin in standard plate testing, this antibiotic proved useful in preventing mass larval mortalities in the hatchery.

  7. 75 FR 60804 - Nimbus Hatchery Fish Passage Project, Lower American River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Reclamation, the lead Federal agency, and the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), acting as the lead State agency, have made available for public review and comment a Draft EIS/EIR for the Nimbus... Bureau of Reclamation Nimbus Hatchery Fish Passage Project, Lower American River, California...

  8. Hatchery manual for broodstock management and larval production of tubrot (Psetta maxima)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurangwa, E.; Poelman, M.

    2011-01-01

    This hatchery manual is intended to provide detailed information from available published work and grey literature on turbot broodstock management and larval production. In reviewing larviculture techniques for turbot, it is notable that the major initial zoo technical advances were made in the 1980

  9. Nutritional supplement of hatchery eggshell membrane improves poultry performance and provides resistance against endotoxin stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confe...

  10. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring in Oregon, 1987-1988 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Jerry

    1988-05-01

    Diminished natural fish production in the Columbia River Basin has prompted increased artificial propagation to compensate both for losses of anadromous salmonids related to hydroelectric facilities and for other causes. The health and quality of artificially propagated smolts probably is a major influence on survival. Smolt survival varies greatly from one location to another, among different species and from one year to the next. Fish health monitoring is necessary to identify cause of mortality, assist in producing a healthy smolt, and provide a means for improving hatchery effectiveness. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) conducted a series of meetings to define the minimum ''needed'' level of fish health monitoring, determine what was presently being done and what additional effort was needed in the Basin's 54 anadromous fish hatcheries. Funding for the additional effort in Oregon began June 2, 1987. The goal of this project is to increase smolt-to-adult survival by accomplishing the following: (1) increase monitoring for specific fish pathogens and fish health parameters; (2) measure hatchery water supply quality; (3) identify facility impediments to fish health; (4) create a database of hatchery and fish health information; (5) establish a technical steering committee to evaluate and refine the project annually; and (6) increase communication and technology application among personnel in hatcheries, research, management, other agencies and the public. 4 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Sherman Creek Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Mitch (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Kettle Falls, WA)

    2002-01-01

    Sherman Creek Hatchery's primary objective is the restoration and enhancement of the recreational and subsistence fishery in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Colville Confederated Tribe form the interagency Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) which sets goals and objectives for both Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery and serves to coordinate enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The primary changes have been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a yearling (post smolt) program of up to 1,000,000 fish. To construct and operate twenty net pens to handle the increased production. The second significant change was to rear up to 300,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Current objectives include increased use of native/indigenous stocks where available for propagation into Upper Columbia River Basin Waters. Monitoring and evaluation is preformed by the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program. From 1988 to 1998, the principle sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee and the economic value of the fishery has increased substantially during this 10-year period. The most recent information from

  12. Differences in survival and growth in hatchery and stream environments, and in maturation of residuls in a stream, between progeny of hatchery and wild steelhead (Study sites: Brushy Fork Creek and Dworshak Hatchery; Stocks:Dworshak hatchery and Fish Creek wild; Year classes: 1992 and 1993): Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Leonetti,; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater survival in hatchery and natural rearing environments was compared between progeny of hatchery (H) and wild (W) steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho. Adults from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and wild adults from Fish Creek fish were artificially spawned, and their progeny were genetically marked at the PEPA allozyme locus and released together as unfed fry in production facilities at the hatchery and in Brushy Fork Creek, also in the Clearwater River drainage, in a common garden design. Survival was higher for H than for W progeny at the hatchery but lower for H than for W progeny in Brushy Fork, indicating reduced fitness of the hatchery population for natural rearing and suggesting domestication as the cause. Survival at the hatchery was lower than is typical due to disease outbreaks. Survival of the first year-class of experimental fish to smolt release was only 18%. Survival of H fish was 3.8 times that of W fish under these poor survival conditions. All fish from the second year-class died halfway through the scheduled 10 month rearing period. Survival of H fish was 5.2 times that of W fish to when 1% of the initial fry were still alive indicating that W fish succumbed to the epizootic sooner than did H fish. Emigrants from the Brushy Fork study reach were sampled for three years and fish residing in the study reach were sampled for six years following fry release. Most emigrants were one or two years old and too small to be smolts (mean fork length at age-2 = 93 mm). Survival in Brushy Fork was lower for H than for W fish of the first year-class. Survival of the second year-class was higher for H than for W fish during the first two months in the stream but was lower for H than for W fish thereafter, and net survival from release to ages 3 and older was also lower for H than for W fish if our emigrant samples were representative (periods of inoperative emigrant traps prevented certainty about this

  13. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fsh Habitat Enhancement Project : 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, R. Todd

    2001-12-31

    The Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project continued to identify impacted stream reaches throughout the Umatilla River Basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach efforts, biological and physical monitoring, and continued development of a Umatilla River Basin Watershed Assessment assisted the project in fostering public cooperation, targeting habitat deficiencies and determining habitat recovery measures. Habitat enhancement projects continued to be maintained on 44 private properties, four riparian easements and one in-stream enhancement agreement were secured, two new projects implemented and two existing projects improved to enhance anadromous fish habitat and natural fisheries production capabilities in the Umatilla River Basin. New project locations included sites on the mid Umatilla River and Buckaroo Creek. Improvements were implemented at existing project sites on the upper Umatilla River and Wildhorse Creek. A stream bank stabilization project was implemented at approximately River Mile 37.4 Umatilla River to stabilize 760 feet of eroding stream bank and improve in-stream habitat diversity. Habitat enhancements at this site included construction of six rock barbs with one large conifer root wad incorporated into each barb, stinging approximately 10,000 native willow cuttings, planting 195 tubling willows and 1,800 basin wildrye grass plugs, and seeding 40 pounds of native grass seed. Staff time to assist in development of a subcontract and fence materials were provided to establish eight spring sites for off-stream watering and to protect wetlands within the Buckaroo Creek Watershed. A gravel bar was moved and incorporated into an adjacent point bar to reduce stream energy and stream channel confinement within the existing project area at River Mile 85 Umatilla River. Approximately 10,000 native willow cuttings were stung and trenched into the stream channel margins and stream banks, and 360

  14. Assessments to determine the effect of current and alternate ladder operations on brood stock collection and behavior of hatchery fall Chinook Salmon at Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery during 2003-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery traditionally operates an adult ladder, without closure, from the start of the tule fall Chinook salmon run in late August until...

  15. Assessments to determine the effect of current and alternate ladder operations on brood stock collection and behavior of hatchery fall Chinook Salmon at Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery during 2004-05

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Production of upriver bright fall Chinook salmon at Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery was introduced as part of the John Day Dam mitigation program in the...

  16. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Erik

    2000-09-01

    This report summarizes the life history and production data collected in the Hood River subbasin during FY 1998 and 1999. Included is a summary of jack and adult life history data collected at the Powerdale Dam trap on eight complete run years of winter steelhead, spring and fall chinook salmon, and coho salmon, and on seven complete run years of summer steelhead. Also included are summaries of (1) the hatchery winter steelhead broodstock collection program; (2) hatchery production releases in the Hood River subbasin; (3) the number of outmigrant wild rainbow-steelhead and hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts; and (4) streamflow at selected locations in the Hood River subbasin. Data will be used in part to (1) evaluate the HRPP with respect to its impact on indigenous populations of resident and anadromous salmonids, (2) refine spawner escapement objectives to more accurately reflect subbasin carrying capacity, and (3) refine estimates of subbasin smolt production capacity to more accurately reflect current and potential subbasin carrying capacity. Baseline information on indigenous populations of resident and anadromous salmonids will continue to be collected for several years prior to full implementation of the Hood River Production Program.

  17. Mainstem Clearwater River study: Assessment for Salmonid Spawning, Incubation, and Rearing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnsberg, Billy D.; Connor, William P.; Connor, Edward; Pishl, Markley J.; Whitman, Marc A.

    1992-04-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe sub-contracted with EBASCO Environmental to develop capabilities for predicting fish habitat conditions in the lower mainstem clearwater River under a limited range of discharge regimes from Dworshak Dam. The Nez Perce Tribe used this information to analyze a range of discharges from Dworshak Dam for anadromous fish habitat requirements. The Tribe's analysis does not necessarily reflect views of EBASCO Environmental. Flow analyses provided to the Bonneville Power Administration and/or US Army Corps of Engineers within this report on the lower mainstem Clearwater River shall in no way limit or influence future water rights claims or flow recommendations made by the Nez Perce Tribe for any purposes. Flows analyzed in this report are independent of conditions for upstream or downstream anadromous fish migration and of any other purposes not specifically stated.

  18. Early enrichment effects on brain development in hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): no evidence for a critical period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund, Joacim; Aarestrup, Kim; Thomassen, Søren T.;

    2012-01-01

    In hatcheries, fish are normally reared in barren environments, which have been reported to affect their phenotypic development compared with wild conspecifics. In this study, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) alevins were reared in conventional barren hatchery trays or in either of two types...... of structurally enriched trays. We show that increased structural complexity during early rearing increased brain size in all investigated brain substructures. However, these effects disappeared over time after transfer to barren tanks for external feeding. Parallel to the hatchery study, a group of salmon parr...... was released into nature and recaptured at smoltification. These stream-reared smolts developed smaller brains than the hatchery reared smolts, irrespective of initial enrichment treatment. These novel findings do not support the hypothesis that there is a critical early period determining the brain growth...

  19. Wenatchee River steelhead reproductive success - Estimate the relative reproductive success of hatchery and wild steelhead in the Wenatchee River, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project uses genetic parentage analysis to estimate the relative reproductive success of hatchery and wild steelhead spawning in the Wenatchee River, WA. The...

  20. Wenatchee Chinook Parentage - Evaluate the reproductive success of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon in the Wenatchee River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are using genetic parentage analysis to measure the relative fitness of hatchery and wild spring run Chinook salmon that spawn in the Wenatchee River. In addition...

  1. Marine Habitat Use by Anadromous Bull Trout from the Skagit River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Michael C.; Rubin, Steve P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald; Goetz, Fred A.; Jeanes, Eric; McBride, Aundrea

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry was used to describe fish positions and marine habitat use by tagged bull trout Salvelinus confluentus from the Skagit River, Washington. In March and April 2006, 20 fish were captured and tagged in the lower Skagit River, while 15 fish from the Swinomish Channel were tagged during May and June. Sixteen fish tagged in 2004 and 2005 were also detected during the study. Fish entered Skagit Bay from March to May and returned to the river from May to August. The saltwater residency for the 13 fish detected during the out-migration and return migration ranged from 36 to 133 d (mean ± SD, 75 ± 22 d). Most bull trout were detected less than 14 km (8.5 ± 4.4 km) from the Skagit River, and several bay residents used the Swinomish Channel while migrating. The bull trout detected in the bay were associated with the shoreline (distance from shore, 0.32 ± 0.27 km) and occupied shallow-water habitats (mean water column depth, Zostera sp.) vegetation classes made up more than 70% of the area used by bull trout. Our results will help managers identify specific nearshore areas that may require further protection to sustain the unique anadromous life history of bull trout.

  2. Landslide-dammed paleolake perturbs marine sedimentation and drives genetic change in anadromous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Benjamin H; Roering, Joshua J; Lamb, Michael P

    2011-11-22

    Large bedrock landslides have been shown to modulate rates and processes of river activity by forming dams, forcing upstream aggradation of water and sediment, and generating catastrophic outburst floods. Less apparent is the effect of large landslide dams on river ecosystems and marine sedimentation. Combining analyses of 1-m resolution topographic data (acquired via airborne laser mapping) and field investigation, we present evidence for a large, landslide-dammed paleolake along the Eel River, CA. The landslide mass initiated from a high-relief, resistant outcrop which failed catastrophically, blocking the Eel River with an approximately 130-m-tall dam. Support for the resulting 55-km-long, 1.3-km(3) lake includes subtle shorelines cut into bounding terrain, deltas, and lacustrine sediments radiocarbon dated to 22.5 ka. The landslide provides an explanation for the recent genetic divergence of local anadromous (ocean-run) steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by blocking their migration route and causing gene flow between summer run and winter run reproductive ecotypes. Further, the dam arrested the prodigious flux of sediment down the Eel River; this cessation is recorded in marine sedimentary deposits as a 10-fold reduction in deposition rates of Eel-derived sediment and constitutes a rare example of a terrestrial event transmitted through the dispersal system and recorded offshore.

  3. Monitoring anadromous fish populations in a context of habitat fragmentation and commercial exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ribeiro Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    A video recording system was used to monitor fishway effectiveness. Simultaneously, eight abiotic parameters were continuously recorded. Boosted Regression Trees (BRTs were applied to relate fishway’s use by sea lamprey and Alosa spp. with abiotic predictors. A passive integrated transponder (PIT antenna system was also used to quantify passage efficiency for sea lampreys. A sample of the professional fisherman population was surveyed, and respective daily catches registered. Data counts, fishway efficiency and professional fishermen surveys allowed the estimation of the number of sea lampreys entering River Mondego to spawn. Video counts revealed that 8333 and 21979 sea lampreys, in 2013 and 2014, respectively, used the fishway, and 7503 and 3404 Alosa spp. passed during the same periods. BRTs identified flow as the most important variable explaining fishway use, suggesting that anadromous species prefer to use the fishway at relatively low flow conditions. About 30% of PIT-tagged lampreys transposed the fishway in the migratory season of 2014. Data surveys indicate a total catch of 11114 and 31746 sea lampreys, during 2013 and 2014, respectively, and 3053 and 6637 allis shads in the same seasons. Hence, we estimated that 38891 and 105006 sea lampreys entered River Mondego to reproduce in 2013 and 2014, respectively.

  4. Some tests of the "migration hypothesis" for anadromous Dolly Varden (southern form)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, D.R.; Hepler, K.R.; Jones, J.D.; Whalen, M.E.; McBride, D.N.

    1995-01-01

    Some aspects of a previously described migratory paradigm for the southern form of anadromous Dolly Varden were investigated with seven 3-year mark-recapture experiments on fish that used lakes in eight watersheds as their winter residence. Weirs on Kodiak Island, around Prince William Sound, and near Juneau, Alaska, were used to capture Dolly Varden as they emigrated to the sea each spring. Dolly Varden (Dolly Varden at sea confirm observations from earlier studies. Our results support the paradigm that Dolly Varden home to the same lacustrine watershed when overwintering in fresh water, as more than 98% of the recaptured fish did so. Our results contradicted the paradigm that Dolly Varden return to lakes each fall, for across study populations, 14-58% failed to return. The most probable explanation for this anomalous behavior is that some Dolly Varden spend the winter as sea. Differences in maturity, size, and growth of Dolly Varden and timing of their entrance into salt water during spring emigration were excluded as causes of this anomalous behavior.

  5. Testing for genetic differences in survival and growth between hatchery and wild Chinook salmon from Warm Springs River, Oregon (Study sites: Warm Springs Hatchery and Little White Salmon River; Stocks: Warm Springs hatchery and Warm Springs River wild; Year classes: 1992 and 1996): Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Leonetti,; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    The program at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery in north - central Oregon was initiated with spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Warm Springs River. Managers included wild fish in the broodstock most years and avoided artificial selection to minimize genetic divergence from the wild founder population. We tested for genetic differences in survival and growth between the hatchery and wild populations to ascertain whether this goal has been achieved. Progeny of hatchery x hatchery (HH), hatchery female x wild male (HW), and wild x wild (WW) crosses were genetically marked at the sSOD - 1* allozyme locus and released together as unfed fry in hatchery ponds in 1992 and 1996 and in the Little White Salmon River, in south - central Washington, in 1996. Fish were evaluated to returning adult at the hatchery and over their freshwater residence of 16 months in the stream. The three crosses differed on several measures including survival to outmigration in the stream (WW>HH>HW) and juvenile growth in the hatchery (1992 year - class; WW>HW>HH); however, results may have been confounded. The genetic marks were found to differentially effect survival in a companion study (HH mark favored over WW mark; HW mark intermediate). Furthermore, HW survival in the current study was neither intermediate, as would be expect ed from additive genetic effects, nor similar to that of HH fish as would be expected from maternal effects since HW and HH fish were maternal half - siblings. Finally, the unexpected performance of HW fish precludes ruling out maternal differences between hatchery and wild mothers as the cause of differences between HH and WW fish. The key finding that survival of HH fish in a stream was 0.91 that for WW fish, indicating a small loss of fitness for natural rearing in the hatchery population, is valid only if three conditions hold: (1) any selection on the genetic marks was in the same direction as in the companion study, (2) lower survival in

  6. Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie; Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2000-04-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerability of different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

  7. Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie L.

    1998-09-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerabilit2048 different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

  8. Comparison of growth and metabolic regulation between wild, domesticated and transgenic salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To gain a better understanding of the aspects underlying normal and growth hormone enhanced growth in salmonids, quantitative expression analysis was performed for a number of genes related to muscle growth, metabolism, immunology and energy regulation. This analysis was performed in liver and musc...

  9. Salmonid alphavirus replication in mosquito cells: towards a novel vaccine production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikke, M.C.; Verest, M.; Vlak, J.M.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) causes pancreas disease and sleeping disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and confers a major burden to the aquaculture industry. A commercial inactivated whole virus vaccine propagated in a salmon cell line at low temperature pro

  10. Low Temperature-Dependent Salmonid Alphavirus Glycoprotein Processing and Recombinant Virus-Like Particle Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.W.H.; Feenstra, F.; Villoing, S.; Hulten, van M.C.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Koumans, J.; Vlak, J.M.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) and sleeping disease (SD) are important viral scourges in aquaculture of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. The etiological agent of PD and SD is salmonid alphavirus (SAV), an unusual member of the Togaviridae (genus Alphavirus). SAV replicates at lower temperatures in fish. Ou

  11. Modes of salmonid MHC class I and II evolution differ from the primate paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shum, B.P.; Guethlein, L.; Flodin, L.R.; Adkison, M.A.; Hedrick, R.P.; Nehring, R.B.; Stet, R.J.M.; Secombes, C.; Parham, P.

    2001-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) represent two salmonid genera separated for 15-20 million years. cDNA sequences were determined for the classical MHC class I heavy chain gene UBA and the MHC class II β-chain gene DAB from 15 rainbow and 10 brown trout. Both genes a

  12. Influence of intermittent stream connectivity on water quality and salmonid survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, J.; Woelfle-Erskine, C. A.; Larsen, L.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic stress and climate change are causing an increasing number of California streams to become intermittent and are driving earlier and more severe summertime drying. The extent to which emerging water conservation alternatives impact flows or habitat quality (e.g. temperature, DO) for salmonids remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate the proximal drivers of salmonid mortality over a range of connectivity conditions during summertime intermittency in Salmon Creek watershed, Sonoma County, CA. Through extensive sampling in paired subwatersheds over a period of two years, we tested the hypothesis that accumulation of readily bioavailable DOC in poorly flushed pools drives DO decline associated with loss of salmonids. We then traced the origin and flow pathways of DOC throughout the watershed using Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC). We obtained samples for DOC and stable isotope analyses at monthly intervals from 20 piezometers and surface water in the study reaches and from private wells and springs distributed throughout the watersheds. We also obtained in situ DO, conductivity and pH readings within stream study reaches. We determined DOC quality by SUVA (specific UV absorbance) and fluorescence index. We calculated stream metabolism rates using the single station method. In pools instrumented with DO sensors, we compared changing DOC quality during the summer months to changes in DO concentrations and stream metabolism. Our results show that the duration of complete disconnection of pools during the summer months and stream metabolic rates are positively correlated with salmonid mortality. Furthermore, our results indicate that salmonid mortality is greatest in disconnected pools with low DOC fluorescence indices and high SUVA values, indicative of terrestrially derived DOC and little or no groundwater inflow. Conversely low salmonid mortality was found in disconnected pools with high fluorescence index and low SUVA, indicative of microbially

  13. Progress in live food production and use in fish and shellfish hatcheries

    OpenAIRE

    Sorgeloos, P

    1998-01-01

    Different species of microalgae, the rotifer, Brachionus spp., and the brine shrimp, Artemia spp., are essential live food in the farming of several species of molluscs (e.g. oyster, clam, scallop), crustaceans (e.g. marine shrimp, freshwater prawn, crabs) and fish (e.g. bass, bream, grouper, turbot, flounder, halibut, ayu). A brief overview is given of the latest developments in their production and use in industrial hatcheries.

  14. Vibrios Associated with Litopenaeus vannamei Larvae, Postlarvae, Broodstock, and Hatchery Probionts

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenberghe, Johan; Verdonck, Linda; Robles-Arozarena, Rocio; Rivera, Gabriel; Bolland, Annick; Balladares, Marcos; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Calderon, Jorge; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Swings, Jean

    1999-01-01

    Several bacteriological surveys were performed from 1994 to 1996 at different Litopenaeus vannamei hatcheries (in Ecuador) and shrimp farms (in Mexico). Samples were taken from routine productions of healthy and diseased L. vannamei larvae, postlarvae, and their culture environment and from healthy and diseased juveniles and broodstock. In Ecuador, the dominant bacterial flora associated with shrimp larvae showing symptoms of zoea 2 syndrome, mysis mold syndrome, and bolitas syndrome has been...

  15. Sherman Creek Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Mitch (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Kettle Falls, WA)

    2001-03-01

    The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. These strategic changes have been the result of recommendations through the Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) and were done to enhance imprinting, improve survival and operate the two kokanee facilities more effectively. The primary changes have been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a yearling (post smolt) program of up to 1,000,000 fish. To construct and operate twenty net pens to handle the increased production. The second significant change was to rear 200,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Monitoring and evaluation is preformed by the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program. From 1988 to 1998, the principle sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee and the economic value of the fishery has increased substantially during this 10-year period. The most recent information from the monitoring program also suggests that the hatchery and net pen rearing programs have been beneficial to enhancing the Lake Roosevelt fishery while not negatively impacting wild and native stocks within the lake.

  16. THE EFFECT OF STOCKING FISH PRODUCTION ON THE QUALITY OF WATER DISCHARGED FROM THE HATCHERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Bonisławska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a fish hatchery (Stocking-Breeding Centre in Goleniów -OHZ, focused on the production and on-growing of stocking material, on the quality of post-production water. The following parameters were determined: dissolved oxygen, organic matter content, buffering capacity, the concentration of some forms of nitrogen and phosphorus ((N-NH4+, N-NO2–, N-NO3-, total nitrogen, P-PO43-, total phosphorus and the concentration of chloride ions. The study also included the measurements of water temperature, electrolytic conductivity and pH. It was shown that the water supplied to the hatchery had good quality, providing optimum conditions for growth and living of fry and juvenile forms of various fish species (most indices were within the range of the first water quality class. Production activities at the hatchery caused a reduction in the quality of discharged post-production water with respect to indicators such as total suspended solids, organic matter and phosphorus.

  17. APPLICATION OF SALMONIDS (SALMONIDAE N THE BIOMONITORING OF AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yanovych

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Due to the pollution of fisheries water bodies by industrial and agricultural waste waters, as well as by xenobiotics coming from other sources, taking into account a pridictable increase in the amounts of such effluents in the short and long terms, the problems related to the study of the effects of the pollutants of different nature and origin on aquatic organisms, especially fish, as well as a prediction of possible adverse consequences on aquatic ecosystems, becomes particularly important. The aim of our work was an analysis and synthesis of existing literature data concerning the indication in the biomonitoring of aquatic environments based on biological markers of salmonids as highly sensitive objects of fish fauna to external factors. Findings. The review summarizes and systematizes the data concerning the use of salmonids in biomonitoring studies. Furthermore, we highlighted and characterized the specificity of bioindication parameters of the aquatic environment state, such as the biochemical, genetic, physiological, morphological, histopathological, behavioral and population markers and noted the effects of hydroecosystem ecotoxication on different levels of biological organization (cell, individual, population, fish community. We also described the possibility of biological monitoring based on saprobic indexes identified for indicator species belonging to salmonids. Originality. In the article describes the structure, pros and cons of the use of specific biomarkers of individual salmonid fish and their populations for assessing the ecological status of aquatic environments. Practical value. The data given in the article can be used to improve the system of the ecological monitoring of aquatic environments by extending the range of indicator indices with organism and population biomarkers of highly sensitive salmonid species.

  18. Diversity of Flavobacterium psychrophilum and the potential use of its phages for protection against bacterial cold water disease in salmonids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, D.; Higuera, G.; Villa, M.

    2012-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum causes rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) and cold water disease (CWD) in salmonid aquaculture. We report characterization of F. psychrophilum strains and their bacteriophages isolated in Chilean salmonid aquaculture. Results suggest that under laboratory conditions...... together with the bacteria in a ratio of 10 plaque‐forming units per colony‐forming unit. While we recognize the artificial laboratory conditions used for these protection assays, this work is the first to demonstrate that phages might be able protect salmonids from RTFS or CWD....

  19. Enumeration of Salmonids in the Okanogan Basin Using Underwater Video, Performance Period: October 2005 (Project Inception) - 31 December 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Peter N.; Rayton, Michael D.; Nass, Bryan L.; Arterburn, John E.

    2007-06-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Tribes) identified the need for collecting baseline census data on the timing and abundance of adult salmonids in the Okanogan River Basin in order to determine basin and tributary-specific spawner distributions, evaluate the status and trends of natural salmonid production in the basin, document local fish populations, and augment existing fishery data. This report documents the design, installation, operation and evaluation of mainstem and tributary video systems in the Okanogan River Basin. The species-specific data collected by these fish enumeration systems are presented along with an evaluation of the operation of a facility that provides a count of fish using an automated method. Information collected by the Colville Tribes Fish & Wildlife Department, specifically the Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program (OBMEP), is intended to provide a relative abundance indicator for anadromous fish runs migrating past Zosel Dam and is not intended as an absolute census count. Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program collected fish passage data between October 2005 and December 2006. Video counting stations were deployed and data were collected at two locations in the basin: on the mainstem Okanogan River at Zosel Dam near Oroville, Washington, and on Bonaparte Creek, a tributary to the Okanogan River, in the town of Tonasket, Washington. Counts at Zosel Dam between 10 October 2005 and 28 February 2006 are considered partial, pilot year data as they were obtained from the operation of a single video array on the west bank fishway, and covered only a portion of the steelhead migration. A complete description of the apparatus and methodology can be found in 'Fish Enumeration Using Underwater Video Imagery - Operational Protocol' (Nass 2007). At Zosel Dam, totals of 57 and 481 adult Chinook salmon were observed with the video monitoring system in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Run

  20. Enumeration of Salmonids in the Okanogan Basin Using Underwater Video, Performance Period: October 2005 (Project Inception) - 31 December 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Peter N.; Rayton, Michael D.; Nass, Bryan L.; Arterburn, John E.

    2007-06-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Tribes) identified the need for collecting baseline census data on the timing and abundance of adult salmonids in the Okanogan River Basin in order to determine basin and tributary-specific spawner distributions, evaluate the status and trends of natural salmonid production in the basin, document local fish populations, and augment existing fishery data. This report documents the design, installation, operation and evaluation of mainstem and tributary video systems in the Okanogan River Basin. The species-specific data collected by these fish enumeration systems are presented along with an evaluation of the operation of a facility that provides a count of fish using an automated method. Information collected by the Colville Tribes Fish & Wildlife Department, specifically the Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program (OBMEP), is intended to provide a relative abundance indicator for anadromous fish runs migrating past Zosel Dam and is not intended as an absolute census count. Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program collected fish passage data between October 2005 and December 2006. Video counting stations were deployed and data were collected at two locations in the basin: on the mainstem Okanogan River at Zosel Dam near Oroville, Washington, and on Bonaparte Creek, a tributary to the Okanogan River, in the town of Tonasket, Washington. Counts at Zosel Dam between 10 October 2005 and 28 February 2006 are considered partial, pilot year data as they were obtained from the operation of a single video array on the west bank fishway, and covered only a portion of the steelhead migration. A complete description of the apparatus and methodology can be found in 'Fish Enumeration Using Underwater Video Imagery - Operational Protocol' (Nass 2007). At Zosel Dam, totals of 57 and 481 adult Chinook salmon were observed with the video monitoring system in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Run

  1. Survival of hatchery Gulf sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi Mitchill, 1815) in the Suwannee River, Florida: a 19-year evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Randall, Michael; Clugston, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental release of 1192 hatchery-reared, individually PIT tagged, 220 days old (296–337 mm TL) Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, was undertaken in 1992 in the Suwannee River, Florida. The original objectives of the 1992 release experiment were to: (1) evaluate survival rate of cultured Gulf sturgeon in the wild vs survival rate of their wild 1992 cohort counterparts, (2) determine the differential effect of release site within the river upon long-term survival, and (3) evaluate comparative growth rates of recaptured hatchery vs captured wild 1992 cohort Gulf sturgeon. The present investigation addressed those original objectives, plus an additional fourth objective: (4) evaluation of hatchery fish recapture rate change over the 19-year experiment. The primary objective was to determine efficacy of potential conservation aquaculture for this species in terms of long-term survival in the wild. Follow-up 1993–2011 gill net sampling in freshwater reaches (rkm 4–237) and the estuarine river mouth (rkm −6 to 4) yielded recaptures representing 13.0% of the total released. Mean annual hatchery fish mortality (including emigration) rate estimated for the 19-year period (1993–2011) was more than twice that for same cohort wild fish. Mark-recapture survival probability (phi) for hatchery fish, 1993–2011, was substantially lower (0.733) than for their wild counterparts (0.888). Mean annual hatchery fish recapture rate, as a percentage of all 1992 cohort fish recaptures, declined significantly after age-7, coinciding with age of onset of migration into the open Gulf of Mexico. Hypothesized causal factors may be differentially lower fitness in the marine habitat or permanent outmigration due to natal river imprinting failure. Hatchery fish recapture rates varied significantly for fish from the ten release sites, being highest near the river mouth, and lowest for the furthest upriver sites in the Suwannee River and its Santa Fe River tributary

  2. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, R. Todd; Sexton, Amy D.

    2003-02-01

    The Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project continued to identify impacted stream reaches throughout the Umatilla River Basin for habitat improvements during the 2001 project period. Public outreach efforts, biological and physical monitoring, and continued development of a Umatilla Subbasin Watershed Assessment assisted the project in fostering public cooperation, targeting habitat deficiencies and determining habitat recovery measures. Projects continued to be maintained on 49 private properties, one 25-year Non-Exclusive Bureau of Indian Affairs' Easement was secured, six new projects implemented and two existing project areas improved to enhance anadromous fish habitat. New project locations included sites on the mid Umatilla River, upper Umatilla River, Mission Creek, Cottonwood Creek and Buckaroo Creek. New enhancements included: (1) construction of 11,264 feet of fencing between River Mile 43.0 and 46.5 on the Umatilla River, (2) a stream bank stabilization project implemented at approximately River Mile 63.5 Umatilla River to stabilize 330 feet of eroding stream bank and improve instream habitat diversity, included construction of eight root wad revetments and three boulder J-vanes, (3) drilling a 358-foot well for off-stream livestock watering at approximately River Mile 46.0 Umatilla River, (4) installing a 50-foot bottomless arch replacement culvert at approximately River Mile 3.0 Mission Creek, (5) installing a Geoweb stream ford crossing on Mission Creek (6) installing a 22-foot bottomless arch culvert at approximately River Mile 0.5 Cottonwood Creek, and (7) providing fence materials for construction of 21,300 feet of livestock exclusion fencing in the Buckaroo Creek Drainage. An approximate total of 3,800 native willow cuttings and 350 pounds of native grass seed was planted at new upper Umatilla River, Mission Creek and Cottonwood Creek project sites. Habitat improvements implemented at existing project sites included

  3. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, R. Todd; Sexton, Amy D.

    2003-02-01

    The Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project continued to identify impacted stream reaches throughout the Umatilla River Basin for habitat improvements during the 2001 project period. Public outreach efforts, biological and physical monitoring, and continued development of a Umatilla Subbasin Watershed Assessment assisted the project in fostering public cooperation, targeting habitat deficiencies and determining habitat recovery measures. Projects continued to be maintained on 49 private properties, one 25-year Non-Exclusive Bureau of Indian Affairs' Easement was secured, six new projects implemented and two existing project areas improved to enhance anadromous fish habitat. New project locations included sites on the mid Umatilla River, upper Umatilla River, Mission Creek, Cottonwood Creek and Buckaroo Creek. New enhancements included: (1) construction of 11,264 feet of fencing between River Mile 43.0 and 46.5 on the Umatilla River, (2) a stream bank stabilization project implemented at approximately River Mile 63.5 Umatilla River to stabilize 330 feet of eroding stream bank and improve instream habitat diversity, included construction of eight root wad revetments and three boulder J-vanes, (3) drilling a 358-foot well for off-stream livestock watering at approximately River Mile 46.0 Umatilla River, (4) installing a 50-foot bottomless arch replacement culvert at approximately River Mile 3.0 Mission Creek, (5) installing a Geoweb stream ford crossing on Mission Creek (6) installing a 22-foot bottomless arch culvert at approximately River Mile 0.5 Cottonwood Creek, and (7) providing fence materials for construction of 21,300 feet of livestock exclusion fencing in the Buckaroo Creek Drainage. An approximate total of 3,800 native willow cuttings and 350 pounds of native grass seed was planted at new upper Umatilla River, Mission Creek and Cottonwood Creek project sites. Habitat improvements implemented at existing project sites included

  4. Distribution of individual inbreeding coefficients, relatedness and influence of stocking on native anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) population structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Meldrup, Dorte

    2001-01-01

    We examined polymorphism at seven microsatellite loci in 4023 brown trout (Salmo trutta) collected from 32 tributaries to the Limfjord, Denmark (similar to 200 km) and from two hatcheries used for stocking. Populations differ in their estimated sizes and stocking histories. Mean individual...... inbreeding coefficients do not differ among locations within rivers. Relatedness varies between sites within rivers indicating varied local dynamics at a very small geographical scale. Relatedness is sometimes lower than expected among an equal number of simulated individuals with randomized genotypes...... is true of the eastern, more heavily stocked, area of the Limfjord. Here, a higher proportion of the genetic variance is distributed among locations within rivers than among rivers. Assignment tests reveal that the majority of trout (mean 77% of all fish) are more probably of local origin than hatchery...

  5. Genomic population structure of freshwater-resident and anadromous ide (Leuciscus idus) in north-western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovrind, Mikkel; Olsen, Morten Tange; Vieira, Filipe Garrett;

    2016-01-01

    Climate change experts largely agree that future climate change and associated rises in oceanic water levels over the upcoming decades, will affect marine salinity levels. The subsequent effects on fish communities in estuarine ecosystems however, are less clear. One species that is likely...... species. In addition to providing a first insight into the population structure of north-western European ide, our data also (1) provide indications of a single illegal introduction by man; (2) suggest limited genetic effects of heavy pollution in the past; and (3) indicate possible historical anadromous...

  6. Angler harvest, hatchery return, and tributary stray rates of recycled adult summer steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Cowlitz River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Perry, Russell W.; Gleizes, Chris; Dammers, Wolf; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2016-01-01

    Hatchery ‘recycling’ programs have been used to increase angling opportunities by re-releasing fish into a river after they returned to a hatchery or fish trap. Recycling is intended to increase opportunities for fishermen, but this strategy could affect wild fish populations if some recycled fish remain in the river and interact with wild fish populations. To quantify hatchery return and angler harvest rates of recycled steelhead, we conducted a 2-year study on the Cowlitz River, Washington. A total of 1051 steelhead were recycled, including 218 fish that were radio-tagged. Fates of recycled steelhead were similar between years: 48.4% returned to the hatchery, 19.2% were reported captured by anglers, and 32.4% remained in the river. A multistate model quantified the effects of covariates on hatchery return and angler harvest rates, which were positively affected by river discharge and negatively affected by time since release. However, hatchery return rates increased and angler harvest rates decreased during periods of increasing discharge. A total of 21.1% (46 fish) of the radio-tagged steelhead failed to return to the hatchery or be reported by anglers, but nearly half of those fish (20 fish) appeared to be harvested and not reported. The remaining tagged fish (11.9% of the radio-tagged population) were monitored into the spawning period, but only five fish (2.3% of the radio-tagged population) entered tributaries where wild steelhead spawning occurs. Future research focused on straying behaviour, and spawning success of recycled steelhead may further advance the understanding of the effects of recycling as a management strategy.

  7. FISH HATCHERY IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF BOSANSKA KRUPA IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA: A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PILOT PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ajanovic

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian Government financed the project GCP/BIH/003/NOR “Support to Income Generation through establishment of a Fish Hatchery in Bosnia and Herzegovina”, worth one million US dollars, that includes the construction of a fish hatchery on the banks of the River Krusnica in order to create jobs and incomes for people living with disability in Bosanska Krupa. The hatchery is dedicated to producing local strains of brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario, grayling (Thymallus thymallus and Danube salmon (Hucho hucho for re–stocking the natural waters of the Krusnica/Una River catchments (and larger Bosnia and Herzegovina and Danube basin, support the rehabilitation of fish populations and to help revitalize local tourism. The Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia (REU of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO, based in Budapest, Hungary implements the project in close collaboration with the Sport Fishermen’s Association of Krusnica, which currently has 351 members. A fish hatchery, a pilot Recirculation Aquaculture System (RAS in the valley of the River Krusnica, is the first of its kind in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is suitable for production of 250,000 to 450,000 fingerlings annually. Five war invalids are employed at the hatchery continuously since fish production began in November of 2008. The production technology learned by the staff abroad was adapted to the local conditions. The hatchery is expected to be self–sustainable in its operation from sale of fingerlings. Since the hatchery activity has received wider publicity, anglers’ interest in the River Krusnica and River Una has increased. Further increase in the number of visitors is expected after restocking the fish into the river, since the bigger fish populations will attract more and more anglers.

  8. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix C: Anadromous Fish and Juvenile Fish Transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings.

  9. The signatures of stable isotopes δ 15N and δ 13C in anadromous and non-anadromous Coilia nasus living in the Yangtze River, and the adjacent sea waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Tang, Wenqiao; Dong, Wenxia

    2015-12-01

    Stable isotopes are increasingly used to investigate seasonal migrations of aquatic organisms. This study employed stable isotopes ( δ 13C and δ 15N) for Coilia nasus from the lower Yangtze River and the adjacent East China Sea to distinguish different ecotypic groups, ascertain trophic nutrition positions, and reflect environmental influences on C. nasus. δ 13C signatures of C. nasus sampled from Zhoushan (ZS), Chongming (CM), and Jingjiang (JJ) waters were significantly higher than those from the Poyang Lake (PYL) ( P nutrition positions in the marine and Poyang Lake food webs, respectively. C. nasus in Poyang Lake were significantly more enriched in δ 15N but depleted in δ 13C, suggesting that anthropogenic nutrient inputs and terrigenous organic carbon are important to the Poyang Lake food web. This study is the first to apply δ 15N and δ 13C to population assignment studies of C. nasus in the Yangtze River and its affiliated waters. Analysis of stable isotopes ( δ 15N and δ 13C) is shown to be a useful tool for discriminating anadromous and non-anadromous C. nasus.

  10. Growth, smoltification, and smolt-to-adult return of spring chinook salmon from hatcheries on the Deschutes river, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, B.R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.; Zaugg, W.S.; Sharpe, C.; Hirtzel, S.; Schrock, R.; Larsen, D.A.; Ewing, R.D.; Palmisano, A.; Schreck, C.B.; Mahnken, C.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between smoltification and smolt-to-adult return (SAR) of spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Deschutes River, Oregon, was examined for four release groups in each of three successive years. Fish were reared, marked with coded wire tags, and released from Round Butte Hatchery, Pelton Ladder rearing facility, and Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery. Smolt releases occurred in nearly the same place at similar times, allowing a direct comparison of SAR to several characters representing smolt quality. Return rates varied significantly among facilities, varying over an order of magnitude each year. The highest average SAR was from Pelton Ladder, the lowest was from Warm Springs. Each of the characters used as metrics of smoltification - fish size, spring growth rate (February-April), condition factor, plasma hormone concentration (thyroxine, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor-I [IGF-I]), stress challenge, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, and liver glycogen concentration - varied significantly among facilities and seasonally within hatchery groups. However, only spring growth rate, gill ATPase activity, and plasma IGF-I concentration showed significant relationships to SAR. These characters and SAR itself were consistently lower for fish released from Warm Springs Hatchery than for fish from Round Butte Hatchery and Pelton Ladder. This demonstrates that differences in the quality of fish released by facilities may have profound effects on subsequent survival and suggests that manipulations of spring growth rate may be used to influence the quality of smolts released from facilities.

  11. Habitat-related predation on juvenile wild-caught and hatchery-reared red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunz, G W.; Minello, T J.

    2001-05-31

    We examined the patterns of habitat-specific mortality for newly settled red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) using an experimental mesocosm approach. Experiments were designed to analyze prey vulnerability and fish rearing-type (wild-caught or hatchery-reared) in estuarine habitats of varying structural complexity including marsh (Spartina alterniflora Loisel), oyster reef (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin), seagrass (Halodule wrightii Aschers), and nonvegetated sand bottom. We used two different predators, pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides Linnaeus) and spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus Cuvier). For both predators, vulnerability of wild-caught red drum was significantly lower in structurally complex habitats such as seagrass and oyster reef; the highest vulnerability was associated with the nonvegetated bottom. This habitat effect was not apparent for hatchery-reared prey. In trials using a combination of both rearing-types, there was no significant habitat effect on prey selection, but hatchery-reared red drum suffered higher overall mortality than wild-caught fish from pinfish predators. In these trials, spotted seatrout did not select for either prey type. Differences we observed in prey vulnerability were likely caused by behavioral differences between wild-caught and hatchery-reared red drum. Our results reinforce the conclusion that structural complexity in estuarine habitats increases survival of newly settled fishes. Our data also suggest that hatchery-reared red drum may be more vulnerable to predation than natural fishes, and that survival of stocked fish may be enhanced through habitat-related behavior modification.

  12. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1990 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.

    1991-03-01

    Rehabilitation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka in Lake Pend Oreille met with some success in 1990, but unexpected results have raised new questions. Estimated kokanee abundance during late August of 1990 was about 6.9 million fish. This is a decline of 19% from 1989, a continued decrease since 1988. The decreased population was attributed to low stocking of hatchery fry (7.3 million), lower wild fry survival in 1990 (1.5%), and exceptionally poor survival of fish ages 3+ and 4+. Average survival of the older fish was only 11% in 1990 compared to 72% in prior years. Compensatory survival was noted for kokanee ages 1+ and 2+, with an average of 81% in 1990 compared to 44% in 1989. Hatchery fry comprised 47% of the total kokanee fry recruitment in 1990 (80% of fry biomass). This contribution ranked third behind 1988 and 1989 since hatchery supplementation began in the 1970s. Survival of hatchery fry was 20%, the second highest since this investigation began. Findings of 1990 indicate a more comprehensive approach to managing kokanee must take into account predator stockings and predator/prey interaction. An unexpected low adult escapement was responsible for an egg-take of only 5.6 million eggs in 1990, 58% of the previous year, which will limit experimental stocking in 1991. Modification of the fish ladder at the Cabinet Gorge Fish Hatchery to improve adult escapement is strongly recommended to increase egg-take. 27 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Inflammatory and regenerative responses in salmonids following mechanical tissue damage and natural infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Lunder, Tor; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2010-01-01

    Locale responses in muscle tissue against either a sterile tissue damage or infection were compared in salmonid fish in order to examine the inflammatory responses and regeneration of tissue. From higher vertebrates both damage and infection are known to cause inflammation since DAMPs released from....... Samples were obtained from site of lesions and from locations without clinical signs of disease and lesions. The tissue damage was performed in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by applying sterile needles to skin and muscle tissue to one side of the fish. Samples were taken 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days...... injured cells as well as PAMPs from the surface of pathogens are immunogenic. To examine this in salmonid fishes, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were infected with Moritella viscosus, the causative agent of winter ulcer. Muscle tissue was sampled from infected fish at 4, 7 and 14 days post infection...

  14. Modification of a salmonid alphavirus replicon vector for enhanced expression of heterologous antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tz-Chun; Johansson, Daniel X; Liljeström, Peter; Evensen, Øystein; Haugland, Øyvind

    2015-03-01

    A salmonid alphavirus (SAV) replicon has been developed to express heterologous antigens but protein production was low to modest compared with terrestrial alphavirus replicons. In this study, we have compared several modifications to a SAV replicon construct and analysed their influence on foreign gene expression. We found that an insertion of a translational enhancer consisting of the N-terminal 102 nt of the capsid gene, together with a nucleotide sequence encoding the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A peptide, caused a significant increase in EGFP reporter gene expression. The importance of fusing a hammerhead (HH) ribozyme sequence at the 5' end of the viral genome was also demonstrated. In contrast, a hepatitis D virus ribozyme (HDV-RZ) sequence placed at the 3' end did not augment expression of inserted genes. Taken together, we have developed a platform for optimized antigen production, which can be applied for immunization of salmonid fish in the future.

  15. Effect of Multiple Turbine Passage on Juvenile Snake River Salmonid Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Kenneth D.; Anderson, James J.; Vucelick, Jessica A.

    2005-10-14

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to identify populations of migrating juvenile salmonids with a potential to be impacted by repeated exposure to turbine passage conditions. This study is part of a research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Wind/Hydropower Program. The program's goal is to increase hydropower generation and capacity while enhancing environmental performance. Our study objective is to determine whether the incremental effects of turbine passage during downstream migration impact populations of salmonids. When such a potential is found to exist, a secondary objective is to determine what level of effect of passing multiple turbines is required to decrease the number of successful migrants by 10%. This information will help identify whether future laboratory or field studies are feasible and design those studies to address conditions that present the greatest potential to improve dam survival and thus benefit fish and power generation.

  16. Gas Bubble Trauma Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids, 1994-1995 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans, Karen M.

    1997-07-01

    This report describes laboratory and field monitoring studies of gas bubble trauma (GBT) in migrating juvenile salmonids in the Snake and Columbia rivers. The first chapter describes laboratory studies of the progression of GBT signs leading to mortality and the use of the signs for GBT assessment. The progression and severity of GBT signs in juvenile salmonids exposed to different levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) and temperatures was assessed and quantified. Next, the prevalence, severity, and individual variation of GBT signs was evaluated to attempt to relate them to mortality. Finally, methods for gill examination in fish exposed to high TDG were developed and evaluated. Primary findings were: (1) no single sign of GBT was clearly correlated with mortality, but many GBT signs progressively worsened; (2) both prevalence and severity of GBT signs in several tissues is necessary; (3) bubbles in the lateral line were the earliest sign of GBT, showed progressive worsening, and had low individual variation but may develop poorly during chronic exposures; (4) fin bubbles had high prevalence, progressively worsened, and may be a persistent sign of GBT; and (5) gill bubbles appear to be the proximate cause of death but may only be relevant at high TDG levels and are difficult to examine. Chapter Two describes monitoring results of juvenile salmonids for signs of GBT. Emigrating fish were collected and examined for bubbles in fins and lateral lines. Preliminary findings were: (1) few fish had signs of GBT, but prevalence and severity appeared to increase as fish migrated downstream; (2) there was no apparent correlation between GBT signs in the fins, lateral line, or gills; (3) prevalence and severity of GBT was suggestive of long-term, non-lethal exposure to relatively low level gas supersaturated water; and (4) it appeared that GBT was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids. 24 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, Progress Report 2000-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, Peter; Kucera, Paul; Blenden, Michael

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the emigration studies of the Nez Perce Tribe in the Imnaha River subbasin during the 2001 and 2002 migration years. A migration year for the Imnaha River is defined here as beginning July 31 of the previous year and ending July 30 the following year. The conclusion of the studies at the end of migration year 2002 marked the 11th year of the Nez Perce Tribe's Lower Snake River Emigration Studies. The Nez Perce Tribe has participated in the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program for nine of the 11 years. These studies collect and tag juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead at two locations in the fall, rkm 74 and rkm 7, and at rkm 7 during the spring. Data from captured and tagged fish provide an evaluation of hatchery production and releases strategies, post release survival of hatchery chinook salmon, abundance of natural chinook salmon, and downstream survival and arrival timing of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead. The hydrologic conditions that migrating fish encountered in 2001 were characterized as a drought and conditions in 2002 were characterized as below average. Hatchery chinook salmon had a mean fork length that was 34 mm greater in 2001 and 35 mm greater in 2002 than the mean fork length of natural chinook smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolt mean fork lengths were 39 mm greater than natural steelhead smolts in 2001 and 44 mm greater than natural steelhead smolt fork lengths in 2002. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between hatchery and natural chinook salmon and steelhead fork lengths has been documented by these emigration studies from 1997 to 2002. Hatchery chinook salmon were volitionally released in 2001 and 2002 and the 90% arrivals for 2001 and 2002 at the lower rkm 7 trap were within the range of past observations of 22 to 38 days observed in 1999 and 2000. We estimated that 93.9% of the 123,014 hatchery chinook salmon released in 2001 survived to the lower trap and 90.2% of the 303

  18. Application of a bioenergetics model for hatchery production: Largemouth bass fed commercial diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csargo, Isak J.; Michael L. Brown,; Chipps, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Fish bioenergetics models based on natural prey items have been widely used to address research and management questions. However, few attempts have been made to evaluate and apply bioenergetics models to hatchery-reared fish receiving commercial feeds that contain substantially higher energy densities than natural prey. In this study, we evaluated a bioenergetics model for age-0 largemouth bass Micropterus salmoidesreared on four commercial feeds. Largemouth bass (n ≈ 3,504) were reared for 70 d at 25°C in sixteen 833-L circular tanks connected in parallel to a recirculation system. Model performance was evaluated using error components (mean, slope, and random) derived from decomposition of the mean square error obtained from regression of observed on predicted values. Mean predicted consumption was only 8.9% lower than mean observed consumption and was similar to error rates observed for largemouth bass consuming natural prey. Model evaluation showed that the 97.5% joint confidence region included the intercept of 0 (−0.43 ± 3.65) and slope of 1 (1.08 ± 0.20), which indicates the model accurately predicted consumption. Moreover model error was similar among feeds (P = 0.98), and most error was probably attributable to sampling error (unconsumed feed), underestimated predator energy densities, or consumption-dependent error, which is common in bioenergetics models. This bioenergetics model could provide a valuable tool in hatchery production of largemouth bass. Furthermore, we believe that bioenergetics modeling could be useful in aquaculture production, particularly for species lacking historical hatchery constants or conventional growth models.

  19. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Willard, Catherine (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 1997 are presented in this report. One hundred twenty-six female sockeye salmon from one captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1997. Successful spawn pairings produced approximately 148,781 eyed-eggs with a cumulative mean survival to eyed-egg rate of 57.3%. Approximately 361,600 sockeye salmon were released to Sawtooth basin waters in 1997. Reintroduction strategies included eyed-eggs (brood year 1997), presmolts (brood year 1996), and prespawn adults for volitional spawning (brood year 1994). Release locations included Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, four broodstocks and two unique production groups were in culture at the Eagle Fish Hatchery. Two of the four broodstocks were incorporated into the 1997 spawning design, and one broodstock was terminated following

  20. Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at John Day Dam with Emphasis on the Prototype Surface Flow Outlet, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Monter, Tyrell J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.

    2009-12-01

    The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of Top Spill Weirs installed at two spillbays at John Day Dam and evaluate the effectiveness of these surface flow outlets at attracting juvenile salmon away from the powerhouse and reducing turbine passage. The Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was used to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids passing the dam and also for calculating performance metrics used to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the dam at passing juvenile salmonids.

  1. Differential invasion success of salmonids in southern Chile: patterns and hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arismendi, Ivan; Penaluna, Brooke E.; Dunham, Jason B.; García de Leaniz, Carlos; Soto, Doris; Fleming, Ian A.; Gomez-Uchidam, Daniel; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Vargas, Pamela V.; León-Muñoz, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Biological invasions create complex ecological and societal issues worldwide. Most of the knowledge about invasions comes only from successful invaders, but less is known about which processes determine the differential success of invasions. In this review, we develop a framework to identify the main dimensions driving the success and failure of invaders, including human influences, characteristics of the invader, and biotic interactions. We apply this framework by contrasting hypotheses and available evidence to explain variability in invasion success for 12 salmonids introduced to Chile. The success of Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo trutta seems to be influenced by a context-specific combination of their phenotypic plasticity, low ecosystem resistance, and propagule pressure. These well-established invaders may limit the success of subsequently introduced salmonids, with the possible exception of O. tshawytscha, which has a short freshwater residency and limited spatial overlap with trout. Although propagule pressure is high for O. kisutch and S. salar due to their intensive use in aquaculture, their lack of success in Chile may be explained by environmental resistance, including earlier spawning times than in their native ranges, and interactions with previously established and resident Rainbow Trout. Other salmonids have also failed to establish, and they exhibit a suite of ecological traits, environmental resistance, and limited propagule pressure that are variably associated with their lack of success. Collectively, understanding how the various drivers of invasion success interact may explain the differential success of invaders and provide key guidance for managing both positive and negative outcomes associated with their presence.

  2. The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Volume II: Experiment Salmonid Survival with Combined PIT-CWT Tagging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Ken

    1997-06-01

    Experiment designs to estimate the effect of transportation on survival and return rates of Columbia River system salmonids are discussed along with statistical modeling techniques. Besides transportation, river flow and dam spill are necessary components in the design and analysis otherwise questions as to the effects of reservoir drawdowns and increased dam spill may never be satisfactorily answered. Four criteria for comparing different experiment designs are: (1) feasibility, (2) clarity of results, (3) scope of inference, and (4) time to learn. In this report, alternative designs for conducting experimental manipulations of smolt tagging studies to study effects of river operations such as flow levels, spill fractions, and transporting outmigrating salmonids around dams in the Columbia River system are presented. The principles of study design discussed in this report have broad implications for the many studies proposed to investigate both smolt and adult survival relationships. The concepts are illustrated for the case of the design and analysis of smolt transportation experiments. The merits of proposed transportation studies should be measured relative to these principles of proper statistical design and analysis.

  3. Data in support of manuscript "Evaluation of Chemical Control for Invasive Crayfish at a Warmwater Fish Production Hatchery"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allert, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Invasive crayfish are known to displace native crayfish species, alter aquatic habitat and community structure and function, and are serious pests for fish hatcheries. White River Crawfish (WRC; Procambarus acutus) were inadvertently introduced to a warm-water fish hatchery in Missouri, USA, possibly in an incoming fish shipment. We evaluated the use of chemical control for crayfish to ensure incoming and outgoing fish shipments from hatcheries do not contain live crayfish. We conducted acute (less than or equal to 24 hr) static toxicity tests to determine potency, dose-response, and selectivity of pesticides to WRC, Virile Crayfish (VC; Orconectes virilis), and Fathead Minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas). Data included are: Collection location and size of test organisms; Test chemical concentrations and recovery; Mortality and effect-based responses of test organisms; Water quality of test solutions

  4. Pathogenic bacteria isolated from disease outbreaks in shellfish hatcheries. First description of Vibrio neptunius as an oyster pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Susana; Romalde, Jesús L; Montes, Jaime; Barja, Juan L

    2005-11-28

    Shellfish hatcheries are often affected by disease outbreaks. Three such episodes were investigated in different Galician hatcheries in order to establish the relationship between present microbiota and mortalities. Isolates were obtained from various parts of the hatcheries. Experimental tests for pathogenicity were carried out in microscale experiments using selected strains on Ostrea edulis larvae. The pathogenicity of 1 strain from each outbreak was demonstrated and shown to cause high mortalities (ranging from 98.5 to 100%) in 72 to 96 h after inoculation of larval cultures. All 3 strains belong to the genus Vibrio. One of the strains was identified as Vibrio neptunius and is the first description of this species as a molluscan pathogen. The other 2 strains showed low similarity with the Vibrio species analysed and may constitute new species within this genus.

  5. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paragamian, Vaugh L.

    1994-07-01

    Lake Pend Oreille once provided the most popular kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka fishery in northern Idaho. A dramatic decline in the population occurred from the mid-1960s to 1970s. Restoration efforts included construction of the Cabinet Gorge Fish Hatchery to supplement the wild population and restore the fishery. In this study, hatchery-reared age 0 kokanee were stocked into Lake Pend Oreille from 1986 through 1992. Seven experimental stocking strategies for kokanee were tested using five locations and two time periods (early May through early June or late July). In 1985, the age 3 and older kokanee totaled about 0.35 million, but rose to 0.78 million in 1986, was stable, was then followed by a decline in 1990 to 0.53 million, then improved to 1.75 million in 1992. Much of the annual variation in total numbers of kokanee, ranging from 4.5 million to 10.2 million, was due to hatchery stockings of age 0 fish. Standing stocks of kokanee remained stable and ranged from 8 to 10 kg/hectare de spite dramatic changes in density due to age 0 fish. Prior to this study (1985), standing stocks were substantially higher (mean = 13.6 kg/hectare), indicating that the population may be operating below carrying capacity. The authors found survival of age 0 hatchery kokanee by each release season to range from 3% in 1986 to 39% in 1992, while the mean from 1987 through 1992 was 23%. They found significant (P=0.05) differences in survival between years, but they could not detect differences between stocking locations (P>0.71). Their analysis of survival between time (early vs late) and location was weak and inconclusive because after 1989 they had fewer fish to stock and could not repeat testing of some release strategies. They believe some of the variation in survival between release groups each year was due to the length of time between release in the lake and trawling.

  6. Wynoochee Hydropower/Fish Hatchery Study: Draft Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    annual energy output of 37,400 MWH, and 1 October 1981 power values prepared by the San Francisco Regional Office of the FERC. The average annual power...seepage would pro- hatchery outlet during critical Vide seme flow in the reach at all times. loa flow periods (April- Juane ). With the provision of...fisheries shouild be for pumping water," Gov. RayAs -fsaid. In a letter to Col, Leon Moraski fully considered at all levels "The unique opportunity this of

  7. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project : Combined-Planning & Design and Operations & Maintenance Reports, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.

    2002-12-31

    Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) Year-2000 Combined Maintenance and Operations (O&M) and Planning and Design (P&D) contract is hereby completed based on this annual report patterned after the Statement of Work (SOW) for the project as contracted with Bonneville Power Administration. Primary project activities focused on completion of the Northwest Power Planning Council Step-3 process that: (1) Accepted final design, (2) Authorized a capital construction amount of $16,050,000, and (3) Authorized contractor selection, and (4) Provided construction site dedication, and (5) Implemented construction activities over an anticipated 2-year period of July 2000 through October 2002.

  8. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1987 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, Edward C.

    1988-05-01

    Estimated kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka abundance in Lake Pend Oreille was 6.01 million during late summer 1987. This estimate is 40% higher than the 1986 estimate and is the second largest population estimate since 1977. Higher abundance is predominantly a result of enhanced fry survival and recruitment. Hatchery-reared fry contribution was 22% of total fry recruitment in 1987, compared to 8% in 1986, and resulted from a fivefold increase in survival. Much of this improvement can be attributed to the large (52 mm) fry produced at Cabinet Gorge Hatchery in 1987 and represents the first measurable contribution of the new hatchery to the kokanee rehabilitation program. Survival of hatchery-reared fry released into Clark Fork River was nearly one-half that of fry released into Sullivan Springs due to poor flow conditions and potentially high predation during migration from Cabinet Gorge Hatchery to Lake Pend Oreille. Wild fry survival was enhanced by early availability of forage (cladocern zooplankton) during fry emergence in late spring. Cladoceran production began three weeks earlier in 1987 than 1986, which resulted from reduced Mysis abundance and earlier thermal stratification of Lake Pend Oreille, which helped segregate cladocerans from mysid predation. Kokanee dry otolith coding was evaluated to provide a reliable long-term mark. Analysis of daily growth increments on otoliths was used successfully in 1987 to differentiate fry from various release sites. The technique will be refined during 1988 to include coding fry otoliths with water temperature fluctuations during hatchery residence. 23 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Anadromous char as an alternate food choice to marine animals: A synthesis of Hg concentrations, population features and other influencing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Marlene S., E-mail: marlene.evans@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon SK S7N 3H5 (Canada); Muir, Derek C.G. [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Keating, Jonathan [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon SK S7N 3H5 (Canada); Wang, Xiaowa [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    This study was conducted to confirm sporadic measurements made over the late 1970s to the early 1990s which determined that mercury (Hg) concentrations were low in anadromous char across Arctic and subarctic Canada including northern Québec and Labrador. Over 2004–2013, anadromous char populations across northern Canada were investigated at 20 sites for Hg concentrations and life history characteristics. Hg concentrations were extremely low in anadromous char muscle, typically < 0.05 μg/g (wet weight) and, at each location, generally increased with fish length, age and nitrogen isotope (δ{sup 15}N) ratio and decreased with condition factor and %lipid; correlations with carbon isotope (δ{sup 13}C) ratio were inconsistent. Location and year were significant variables influencing Hg concentrations over the study area; longitude and latitude also were significant influencing variables. Char length, weight, age, condition factor and lipid content explained additional variance. A tendency towards higher Hg concentrations with increasing latitude may be partially related to decreasing growth of char towards the north. However, Hg concentrations in char were positively correlated with growth rates suggesting that Hg concentrations in char also were higher in the more productive study areas, including to the west where mainland riverine inputs of terrestrial carbon, nutrients, and Hg were greater. The data base for assessing time trends in char was limited by the small number of years investigated at most locations, variable fish size across years, small sample size, etc. Where temporal trends were detected, they were of increase on the long term (1970s, 1980s or early 1990s to the present) but of decrease on the short term (early 2000s to present) with Nain (Labrador) showing the converse pattern. Higher Hg concentrations were also related to lower condition factor and cooler springs. Hg concentrations in anadromous char are compared with other terrestrial, aquatic

  10. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, Progress Report 2000-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, Peter; Kucera, Paul; Blenden, Michael

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the emigration studies of the Nez Perce Tribe in the Imnaha River subbasin during the 2001 and 2002 migration years. A migration year for the Imnaha River is defined here as beginning July 31 of the previous year and ending July 30 the following year. The conclusion of the studies at the end of migration year 2002 marked the 11th year of the Nez Perce Tribe's Lower Snake River Emigration Studies. The Nez Perce Tribe has participated in the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program for nine of the 11 years. These studies collect and tag juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead at two locations in the fall, rkm 74 and rkm 7, and at rkm 7 during the spring. Data from captured and tagged fish provide an evaluation of hatchery production and releases strategies, post release survival of hatchery chinook salmon, abundance of natural chinook salmon, and downstream survival and arrival timing of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead. The hydrologic conditions that migrating fish encountered in 2001 were characterized as a drought and conditions in 2002 were characterized as below average. Hatchery chinook salmon had a mean fork length that was 34 mm greater in 2001 and 35 mm greater in 2002 than the mean fork length of natural chinook smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolt mean fork lengths were 39 mm greater than natural steelhead smolts in 2001 and 44 mm greater than natural steelhead smolt fork lengths in 2002. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between hatchery and natural chinook salmon and steelhead fork lengths has been documented by these emigration studies from 1997 to 2002. Hatchery chinook salmon were volitionally released in 2001 and 2002 and the 90% arrivals for 2001 and 2002 at the lower rkm 7 trap were within the range of past observations of 22 to 38 days observed in 1999 and 2000. We estimated that 93.9% of the 123,014 hatchery chinook salmon released in 2001 survived to the lower trap and 90.2% of the 303

  11. Effects of hatchery fish density on emigration, growth, survival, and predation risk of natural steelhead parr in an experimental stream channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Christopher P.; Riley, Stephen C.; Berejikian, Barry A.

    2011-01-01

    Hatchery supplementation of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss raises concerns about the impacts on natural populations, including reduced growth and survival, displacement, and increased predation. The potential risks may be density dependent.We examined how hatchery stocking density and the opportunity to emigrate affect the responses of natural steelhead parr in an experimental stream channel and after 15 d found no density-dependent effects on growth, emigration, or survival at densities ranging from 1-6 hatchery parr/m2. The opportunity for steelhead parr to emigrate reduced predation by coastal cutthroat trout O. clarkii clarkii on both hatchery and natural steelhead parr. The cutthroat trout exhibited a type-I functional response (constant predation rate with increased prey density) for the hatchery and composite populations. In contrast, the predation rate on natural parr decreased as hatchery stocking density increased. Supplementation with hatchery parr at any experimental stocking density reduced the final natural parr density. This decline was explained by increased emigration fromthe supplemented groups. Natural parr had higher mean instantaneous growth rates than hatchery parr. The proportion of parr emigrating decreased as parr size increased over successive experimental trials. Smaller parr had lower survival and suffered higher predation. The final density of the composite population, a measure of supplementation effectiveness, increased with the hatchery steelhead stocking rate. Our results indicate that stocking larger hatchery parr (over 50 d postemergence) at densities within the carrying capacity would have low short-term impact on the growth, survival, and emigration of natural parr while increasing the density of the composite population; in addition, a stocking density greater than 3 fish/m2 might be a good starting point for the evaluation of parr stocking in natural streams.

  12. BACTERIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF HATCHERIES FLUFF AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE ISOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Deeba, H. Afzal, M. Siddique and F. M. Khan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 100 fluff samples were collected from five hatcheries located in and around Faisalabad. After isolation of different bacteria in the hatcheries fluff their sensitivity to Norfloxacin, Gentamicin, Flumequine, Chloramphenicol, Neomycin, Ampicillin and Erythromycin was determined. Similarly, the susceptibility of the bacterial isolates for three disinfectants (EWABO ALDEKOL, TH4 and BROMOSEPT and three spray sanitizers (Sani squad. Sanitol and TH4 was also observed. The results indicated that the occurrence of different bacterial species among 148 isolates was: Escherichia coli 62 (41.89%, Paratyphoid salmonellae 24 (16.22%, Salmonella pullorum 3 (2.03%, Proteus mirabelis 2(1.35%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4(2.70%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 2(1.35%, Streptococcus faecalis 4 (2.70%, Staphylococcus aureus 22(14.8%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 7 (4.73% and Bacillus subtilis 18 (12.16%. The in vitro sensitivity of the isolates was highest for Norfloxacin (91.89% and the lowest for Erythromycin (16.89 %. The bacterial isolates (Salmonella pullorum, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus faecalis were 100 percent susceptible for all the three disinfectants. Efficacy of sprays Sani Squad and TH4 was 100 percent for some of the bacterial isolates e.g. Salmonella pullorum, Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The efficacy of spray sanitol was more than 60 percent for some of the bacterial isolates including E. coli, Salmonella pullorum and Staphylococcus aureus.

  13. Genetic diversity of culturable Vibrio in an Australian blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tzu Nin; Bolch, Christopher J S

    2015-09-17

    Bacillary necrosis associated with Vibrio species is the common cause of larval and spat mortality during commercial production of Australian blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. A total of 87 randomly selected Vibrio isolates from various stages of rearing in a commercial mussel hatchery were characterised using partial sequences of the ATP synthase alpha subunit gene (atpA). The sequenced isolates represented 40 unique atpA genotypes, overwhelmingly dominated (98%) by V. splendidus group genotypes, with 1 V. harveyi group genotype also detected. The V. splendidus group sequences formed 5 moderately supported clusters allied with V. splendidus/V. lentus, V. atlanticus, V. tasmaniensis, V. cyclitrophicus and V. toranzoniae. All water sources showed considerable atpA gene diversity among Vibrio isolates, with 30 to 60% of unique isolates recovered from each source. Over half (53%) of Vibrio atpA genotypes were detected only once, and only 7 genotypes were recovered from multiple sources. Comparisons of phylogenetic diversity using UniFrac analysis showed that the culturable Vibrio community from intake, header, broodstock and larval tanks were phylogenetically similar, while spat tank communities were different. Culturable Vibrio associated with spat tank seawater differed in being dominated by V. toranzoniae-affiliated genotypes. The high diversity of V. splendidus group genotypes detected in this study reinforces the dynamic nature of microbial communities associated with hatchery culture and complicates our efforts to elucidate the role of V. splendidus group bacteria in vibriosis.

  14. Occurrence of viral pathogens in Penaeus monodon post-larvae from aquaculture hatcheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toms C. Joseph

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Viral pathogens appear to exert the most significant constraints on the growth and survival of crustaceans under culture conditions. The prevalence of viral pathogens White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV, Hepatopancreatic Parvo Virus (HPV, Monodon Baculo Virus (MBV and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV in Penaeus monodon post-larvae was studied. Samples collected from different hatcheries and also samples submitted by farmers from Kerala were analyzed. Out of 104 samples collected, WSSV was detected in 12.5% of the post-larvae samples. Prevalence of concurrent infections by HPV, MBV and WSSV (either dual or triple infection was present in 60.6% of the total post-larvae tested. Out of the 51 double positives, 98% showed either HPV or IHHNV infection. HPV or IHHNV was detected in 11 post-larval samples showing triple viral infection. This is the first report of IHHNV from India. Result of this study reveals the lack of efficient screening strategies to eradicate viruses in hatchery reared post-larvae.

  15. Nursery production of hatchery-reared milkfish, Chanos chanos in earthen ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia J. Jaspe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To ensure stable supply of milkfish, Chanos chanos fingerlings for stocking in ponds or cageswhere they will be reared until harvestable size, nursery production of hatchery-reared milkfish fry inearthen ponds and fed solely on natural food (periphyton was developed. Trials were conducted using500 m2 earthen ponds during the dry and wet months. The ponds were prepared and added withfertilizers in order to enhance the production of natural food. Hatchery-reared milkfish fry were stockedat densities ranging 20 – 39 fry/m2. At least a month (< 40 days after stocking, the fry reached thefingerling stage (2.59 – 4.63 g with survival rates of 68.6% - 81.0%. There was better productionduring the dry months due to abundant supply of natural food, although it was also possible to obtaingood production during the wet months when pond conditions are favorable. This strategy of rearingmilkfish fry in nursery ponds using natural food could be a viable and inexpensive technique inmaintaining sustainable milkfish aquaculture.

  16. Role of shellfish hatchery as a reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Claudio D; Rojas, Rodrigo; Garrido, Marcela; Geisse, Julieta; González, Gerardo

    2013-09-15

    The main aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of resistant bacteria in florfenicol-treated and untreated scallop larval cultures from a commercial hatchery and to characterize some selected florfenicol-resistant strains. Larval cultures from untreated and treated rearing tanks exhibited percentages of copiotrophic bacteria resistant to florfenicol ranging from 0.03% to 10.67% and 0.49-18.34%, respectively, whereas florfenicol resistance among oligotrophic bacteria varied from 1.44% to 35.50% and 3.62-95.71%, from untreated and treated larvae, respectively. Florfenicol resistant microbiota from reared scallop larvae mainly belonged to the Pseudomonas and Pseudoalteromonas genus and were mainly resistant to florfenicol, chloramphenicol, streptomycin and co-trimoxazole. This is the first study reporting antimicrobial resistant bacteria associated to a shellfish hatchery and the results suggest that a continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance even in absence of antibacterial therapy is urgently required to evaluate potential undesirable consequences on the surrounding environments.

  17. Pathogenicity testing of shellfish hatchery bacterial isolates on Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Robyn M; Friedman, Carolyn S; Elston, Ralph A; Herwig, Russell P

    2004-03-10

    Bacterial diseases are a major cause of larval mortality in shellfish hatcheries. Even with proper sanitation measures, bacterial pathogens cannot be eliminated in all cases. The pathogenicity of bacteria isolated from Pacific Northwest shellfish hatcheries to Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas larvae was investigated. We found 3 highly pathogenic strains and 1 mildly pathogenic strain among 33 isolates tested. These strains appear to be members of the genus Vibrio. Although there have been many studies of bivalve bacterial pathogens, a standard method to assess bacterial pathogenicity in bivalve larvae is needed. Thus, we developed 2 methods using either 15 ml conical tubes or tissue culture plates that were employed for rapidly screening bacterial strains for pathogenicity to Pacific oyster larvae. The tissue culture plates worked well for screening both mildly pathogenic strains and LD50 (lethal dose) assays. This method allowed for non-intrusive and non-destructive observation of the oyster larvae with a dissecting microscope. The LD50 for the 3 highly pathogenic strains ranged between 1.6 and 3.6 x 10(4) colony forming units (CFU) ml(-1) after 24 h and between 3.2 x 102 and 1.9 x 10(3) CFU ml(-1) after 48 h.

  18. Characterization of estuary use by Nisqually Hatchery Chinook based on Otolith analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind-Null, Angie M.; Larsen, Kim A.; Reisenbichler, Reg

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Nisqually Fall Chinook population is one of 27 stocks in the Puget Sound evolutionarily significant unit listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). Preservation and extensive restoration of the Nisqually delta ecosystem are planned to assist in recovery of the stock. A pre-restoration baseline including life history types, estuary residence time, growth rates, and habitat use are needed to evaluate the potential response of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon to restoration. Otolith analysis has been selected as a means to examine Chinook salmon life history, growth, and residence in the Nisqually estuary. Over time, the information from the otolith analyses will be used to: 1) determine if estuary restoration actions cause changes to the population structure (i.e. frequency of the different life history trajectories) for Nisqually River Chinook, 2) compare pre- and post- restoration residence times and growth rates, 3) suggest whether estuary restoration yields substantial benefits for Chinook salmon through (1) and (2), and 4) compare differences in habitat use between hatchery and wild Chinook to further protect ESA listed stock. Otoliths are calcium carbonate structures in the inner ear that grow in proportion to the overall growth of the fish. Daily growth increments can be measured so date and fish size at various habitat transitions can be back-calculated. Careful analysis of otolith microstructure can be used to determine the number of days that a fish resided in the estuary as a juvenile (increment counts), size at entrance to the estuary, size at egress, and the amount that the fish grew while in the estuary. Juvenile hatchery Chinook salmon are generally released as smolts that move quickly through the delta with much shorter residence times than for many wild fish and are not dependent on the delta as nursery habitat (Myers and Horton 1982; Mace 1983; Levings et al. 1986). The purpose of this study is to use and

  19. Optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices using Taguchi methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavalkar, S P; Bhole, A G; Babu, P V Vijay; Prakash, Chandra

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for the reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices in the context of M. rosenbergii. The fresh water in the development of fisheries needs to be of suitable quality. Lack of desirable quality in available fresh water is generally the confronting restraint. On the Indian subcontinent, groundwater is the only source of raw water, having varying degree of hardness and thus is unsuitable for the fresh water prawn hatchery practices (M. rosenbergii). In order to make use of hard water in the context of aqua-hatchery, Lime-Soda process has been recommended. The efficacy of the various process parameters like lime, soda ash and detention time, on the reduction of hardness needs to be examined. This paper proposes to determine the parameter settings for the CIFE well water, which is pretty hard by using Taguchi experimental design method. Orthogonal Arrays of Taguchi, Signal-to-Noise Ratio, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) have been applied to determine their dosage and analysed for their effect on hardness reduction. The tests carried out with optimal levels of Lime-Soda process parameters confirmed the efficacy of the Taguchi optimisation method. Emphasis has been placed on optimisation of chemical doses required to reduce the total hardness using Taguchi method and ANOVA, to suit the available raw water quality for aqua-hatchery practices, especially for fresh water prawn M. rosenbergii.

  20. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1985 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, Edward C.

    1986-07-01

    Mid-water trawling techniques were used during September to estimate kokanee population abundance, structure and survival. Abundance in 1985 was estimated at 4.5 million fish (198 per hectare), down from over 12 million kokanee in 1974 when the population was first monitored. Hatchery fry production (<6 million annually) has stabilized kokanee abundance since its initial decline in the late 1960s. Wild fry recruitment has remained relatively stable at 1.8 million since 1978; whereas recruitment of hatchery-reared fry has ranged from 0.09 to 1.98 million. The 1985 creel survey indicated that kokanee harvest rates remain low, with approximately one kokanee harvested per hour of effort from April to August. Catch rates were as high as 3.5 fish per hour during the mid-1960s. The zooplankton community was monitored with periodic plankton tows. Zooplankton composition in 1985 was similar to previous years and appears to have stabilized following the introduction of mysids, with peak cladoceran production occurring several weeks after peak kokanee emergence. Delayed release of hatchery fry resulted in higher survival of hatchery (7.3%) than wild (0.43%) kokanee fry. Other release strategies will be tested as more fry become available.

  1. An Enriched Environment Promotes Shelter-Seeking Behaviour and Survival of Hatchery-Produced Juvenile European Lobster (Homarus gammarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspaas, Stian; Grefsrud, Ellen Sofie; Fernö, Anders; Jensen, Knut Helge; Trengereid, Henrik; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The high loss of newly released hatchery-reared European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles for stock enhancement is believed to be the result of maladaptive anti-predator behaviour connected to deprived stimuli in the hatchery environment. Our objective was to learn if an enriched hatchery environment enhances shelter-seeking behaviour and survival. In the "naïve" treatment, the juveniles were raised in single compartments without substrate and shelter whereas juveniles in the "exposed" treatment experienced substrate, shelter and interactions with conspecifics. Three experiments with increasing complexity were conducted. Few differences in shelter-seeking behaviour were found between treatments when one naïve or one exposed juvenile were observed alone. When observing interactions between one naïve and one exposed juvenile competing for shelter, naïve juveniles more often initiated the first aggressive encounter. The third experiment was set up to simulate a release for stock enhancement. Naïve and exposed juveniles were introduced to a semi-natural environment including substrate, a limited number of shelters and interactions with conspecifics. Shelter occupancy was recorded three times during a period of 35 days. Exposed juveniles occupied more shelters, grew larger and had higher survival compared with naïve juveniles. Our results demonstrate that experience of environmental complexity and social interactions increase shelter-seeking ability and survival in hatchery reared lobster juveniles.

  2. How do hatcheries influence embryonic development of sea turtle eggs? Experimental analysis and isolation of microorganisms in leatherback turtle eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino-Martinez, Juan; Marco, Adolfo; Quiñones, Liliana; Abella, Elena; Abad, Roberto Muriel; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Many conservation programs consider translocation of turtle nests to hatcheries as a useful technique. The repeated use of the same incubation substrate over several seasons in these hatcheries could, however, be harmful to embryos if pathogens were able to accumulate or if the physical and chemical characteristics of the incubation environment were altered. However, this hypothesis has yet to be tested. We conducted two field experiments to evaluate the effects of hatchery sand and eggshell decay on the embryonic development of leatherback sea turtle eggs in Colombia. We identified the presence of both fungi and bacteria species on leatherback turtle eggs. Sea turtle eggs exposed to previously used hatchery substrates or to decaying eggshells during the first and middle third of the embryonic development produced hatchlings that were smaller and/or weighed less than control eggs. However, this did not negatively influence hatching success. The final third of embryonic development seems to be less susceptible to infection by microorganisms associated with decaying shells. We discuss the mechanisms that could be affecting sea turtle egg development when in contact with fungi. Further studies should seek to understand the infection process and the stages of development in which the fungi are more virulent to the eggs of this critically endangered species.

  3. An Enriched Environment Promotes Shelter-Seeking Behaviour and Survival of Hatchery-Produced Juvenile European Lobster (Homarus gammarus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspaas, Stian; Grefsrud, Ellen Sofie; Fernö, Anders; Jensen, Knut Helge; Trengereid, Henrik; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The high loss of newly released hatchery-reared European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles for stock enhancement is believed to be the result of maladaptive anti-predator behaviour connected to deprived stimuli in the hatchery environment. Our objective was to learn if an enriched hatchery environment enhances shelter-seeking behaviour and survival. In the “naïve” treatment, the juveniles were raised in single compartments without substrate and shelter whereas juveniles in the “exposed” treatment experienced substrate, shelter and interactions with conspecifics. Three experiments with increasing complexity were conducted. Few differences in shelter-seeking behaviour were found between treatments when one naïve or one exposed juvenile were observed alone. When observing interactions between one naïve and one exposed juvenile competing for shelter, naïve juveniles more often initiated the first aggressive encounter. The third experiment was set up to simulate a release for stock enhancement. Naïve and exposed juveniles were introduced to a semi-natural environment including substrate, a limited number of shelters and interactions with conspecifics. Shelter occupancy was recorded three times during a period of 35 days. Exposed juveniles occupied more shelters, grew larger and had higher survival compared with naïve juveniles. Our results demonstrate that experience of environmental complexity and social interactions increase shelter-seeking ability and survival in hatchery reared lobster juveniles. PMID:27560932

  4. Quality and Behavior of Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary and Nearshore Ocean and Effects of the Ocean Environment on the Survival of Columbia River Juvenile Salmonids, 1989-1994 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, R.C.; Schiewe, Michael H.; Fisher, J.P.

    1989-05-01

    In response to this limited understanding of the factors responsible for the continuing decline of spring chinook salmon in the Columbia River, this research plan was developed. The overall goal of the proposed research is to investigate and identify relationships among smolt quality (measured in the hatchery and after recovery in the estuary and nearshore ocean), environmental conditions in the estuary and nearshore ocean during smolt migration, and long-term survival (as measured by adult returns to the hatchery of origin and contributions to the recreational, commercial, and tribal fisheries). 16 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation; Creston National Fish Hatchery, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskill, Mark (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Creston National Fish Hatchery, Kalispell, MT)

    2003-03-01

    Mitigation Objective 1: Produce Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire eggs and rear up to 100,000 Westslope Cutthroat trout annually for offsite mitigation stocking. Accomplishments: A total of 150,000 westslope cutthroat eggs (M012 strain) were acquired from the State of Montana Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in July 2001 for this objective. Another 120,000 westslope cutthroat eggs were taken from feral fish at Rogers Lake in May of 2001 by the Creston Hatchery crew. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Department of the Interior Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations may vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring. Mitigation Objective 2: Produce Rainbow Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire and rear up to 100,000 Rainbow trout annually for offsite mitigation in closed basin waters. Accomplishments: A total of 50,500 rainbow trout eggs (Arlee strain) were acquired from the State of Montana Arlee State Fish Hatchery in December 2001 for this objective. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Department of the Interior Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Arlee rainbow trout are being used for this objective because the stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs and habitat conditions and returns to creel are unsuitable for native cutthroat. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations may vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring.

  6. Froude Number is the Single Most Important Hydraulic Parameter for Salmonid Spawning Habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, E.; Moir, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Many gravel-bed rivers exhibit historic straightening or embanking, reducing river complexity and the available habitat for key species such as salmon. A defensible method for predicting salmonid spawning habitat is an important tool for anyone engaged in assessing a river restoration. Most empirical methods to predict spawning habitat use lookup tables of depth, velocity and substrate. However, natural site selection is different: salmon must pick a location where they can successfully build a redd, and where eggs have a sufficient survival rate. Also, using dimensional variables, such as depth and velocity, is problematic: spawning occurs in rivers of differing size, depth and velocity range. Non-dimensional variables have proven useful in other branches of fluid dynamics, and instream habitat is no different. Empirical river data has a high correlation between observed salmon redds and Froude number, without insight into why. Here we present a physics based model of spawning and bedform evolution, which shows that Froude number is indeed a rational choice for characterizing the bedform, substrate, and flow necessary for spawning. It is familiar for Froude to characterize surface waves, but Froude also characterizes longitudinal bedform in a mobile bed river. We postulate that these bedforms and their hydraulics perform two roles in salmonid spawning: allowing transport of clasts during redd building, and oxygenating eggs. We present an example of this Froude number and substrate based habitat characterization on a Scottish river for which we have detailed topography at several stages during river restoration and subsequent evolution of natural processes. We show changes to the channel Froude regime as a result of natural process and validate habitat predictions against redds observed during 2014 and 2015 spawning seasons, also relating this data to the Froude regime in other, nearby, rivers. We discuss the use of the Froude spectrum in providing an indicator of

  7. Synthesis of Juvenile Salmonid Passage Studies at The Dalles Dam, Volume II, 2001-05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Beeman, John W.; Duran, Ian; Puls, Andrew

    2007-08-15

    The overall goal of juvenile salmonid research at The Dalles Dam is to provide data to inform decisions on strategies to improve smolt survival rates at the project. Survival improvement strategies address the three primary passage routes at The Dalles Dam -- spillway, sluiceway, and turbines – with the general intent to increase spill and sluice passage and decrease turbine passage. Since the review by Ploskey et al. (2001a) of research during 1982-2000 at The Dalles Dam, the Corps funded over $20M of research in at least 39 studies during 2001-2006. The purpose of the current review is to synthesize juvenile salmonid passage data at The Dalles Dam (TDA) collected from 2001 through 2006. The data we synthesize comes from numerous research techniques employed to address particular study objectives at The Dalles Dam. The suite of techniques includes acoustic and radio telemetry, acoustic cameras, acoustic Doppler current profilers, balloon tags, computational fluid dynamics models, drogues, fixed and mobile hydroacoustics, fyke nets, physical scale models, PIT-tags, sensor fish, sonar trackers, and underwater video. Hydraulic data involves flow patterns and water velocities. Biological data involve forebay approach paths and residence times, horizontal and diel distributions, passage efficiencies and effectiveness, fish behaviors, tailrace egress and predation rates, and route-specific and total project survival rates. Data for 2001-2006 are synthesized in this report to provide, in conjunction with Ploskey et al. (2001a), resources for engineers, biologists, and dam operators to use when making decisions about fish protection measures for juvenile salmonids at The Dalles Dam. This review covers the major fish passage research efforts during 2001-2006 and includes sections on the Environmental Setting, Forebay and Project Passage Studies, Spill Studies, Sluiceway Studies, Turbine Studies, Smolt Survival Studies, and a Discussion.

  8. Gas Bubble Disease Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids : Annual Report 1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maule, Alec G.; Beeman, John W.; Hans, Karen M.; Mesa, M.G.; Haner, P.; Warren, J.J. [Geological Survey, Cook, WA (United States). Columbia River Research Lab.

    1997-10-01

    This document describes the project activities 1996--1997 contract year. This report is composed of three chapters which contain data and analyses of the three main elements of the project: field research to determine the vertical distribution of migrating juvenile salmonids, monitoring of juvenile migrants at dams on the Snake and Columbia rivers, and laboratory experiments to describe the progression of gas bubble disease signs leading to mortality. The major findings described in this report are: A miniature pressure-sensitive radio transmitter was found to be accurate and precise and, after compensation for water temperature, can be used to determine the depth of tagged-fish to within 0.32 m of the true depth (Chapter 1). Preliminary data from very few fish suggest that depth protects migrating juvenile steelhead from total dissolved gas supersaturation (Chapter 1). As in 1995, few fish had any signs of gas bubble disease, but it appeared that prevalence and severity increased as fish migrated downstream and in response to changing gas supersaturation (Chapter 2). It appeared to gas bubble disease was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids when total dissolved gas supersaturation was < 120% (Chapter 2). Laboratory studies suggest that external examinations are appropriate for determining the severity of gas bubble disease in juvenile salmonids (Chapter 3). The authors developed a new method for examining gill arches for intravascular bubbles by clamping the ventral aorta to reduce bleeding when arches were removed (Chapter 3). Despite an outbreak of bacterial kidney disease in the experimental fish, the data indicate that gas bubble disease is a progressive trauma that can be monitored (Chapter 3).

  9. Microhabitat preference of Anisakis simplex in three salmonid species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahlool, Qusay Zuhair Mohammad; Skovgaard, Alf; Kania, Per Walter

    2012-01-01

    Three salmonid fish species, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmo salar and Salmo trutta, were infected experimentally with the parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex (A. simplex) and the difference between in vivo behaviour of the nematode in the three fish species was investigated. Infection success rate....... simplex larvae were attached to the digestive tract (stomach, pyloric caeca, intestine), while the majority of larvae found in rainbow trout were located between the pyloric caeca. In Baltic salmon, nematodes were dispersed in and on spleen, head kidney, liver, swim bladder and musculature. Encapsulation...

  10. Microhabitat preference of Anisakis simplex in 3 salmonid species: Immunological Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahlool, Qusay Zuhair Mohammad; Buchmann, Kurt

    different salmonid species to investigate the in vivo behavioural difference of experimentally inoculated Anisakis parasite inside these fishes. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) were used in this experiment. Infection success differed between...... species. Baltic salmon showed a higher number of nematodes successfully established, whereas brown trout and rainbow trout showed a higher natural resistance. Microhabitat results were also different according to the fish species. Anisakis simplex found in brown trout where attached to the digestive tract...

  11. First study of Vibrios in larval cultures of pullet carpet shell clam (Venerupis corrugata in hatchery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Dubert Pérez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Protocol for hatchery culture of the pullet carpet shell clam Venerupis corrugata spat is currently under development, as the only reliable means of providing spat to replenish natural beds or to support aquaculture activities. Among other variables, the microbiota has been demonstrated to be critical for successful bivalve culture. Shellfish hatcheries are hindered by fatal outbreaks of disease, regardless the bivalve species. These mass mortalities are mainly caused by opportunistic bacteria belonging to genus Vibrio and constitute one bottleneck for this economic activity. Different species, as V. tubiashii, V. pectenicida, V. splendidus, V. neptunius, V. ostreicida and V. bivalvicida, have been identified as responsible of mortalities in hatchery-reared larvae, affecting a wide range of bivalves. This is the first report of the microbiota associated with larval cultures of the pullet carpet shell clam. We present the results of the microbiological analyses of two larval cultures of pullet carpet shell reared in the Centro de Investigacións Mariñas (CIMA, Xunta de Galicia de Ribadeo (Galicia, NW Spain following the procedures developed in the institution. Each batch, A and B, was obtained from broodstocks collected in natural environment but in different geographical locations, the stock A (SW Galicia and the stock B (NW Galicia. Previous records of mortalities led us to divide each batch in two. One sub-batch (A1 and B1 was cultured following the routine procedures. Antibiotic was experimentally added to the other sub-batch (A2 and B2 with the aim of evaluating the effects on the culturable bacterial population (total marine bacteria and presumptive vibrios and on larval survival. Chloramphenicol, formerly the most commonly used antibiotic in bivalve hatcheries, was supplied with each change of seawater during larval development. Microbiological samples of broodstock, larvae and seawater in culture tanks were taken and processed

  12. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program : Hatchery Element : Annual Progress Report, 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine

    2001-04-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000 are presented in this report.

  13. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project; Operations and Maintenance and Planning and Design, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.; Penney, Aaron K. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    2005-12-01

    This report fulfills the contract obligations based on the Statement of Work (SOW) for the project as contracted with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) Year-2002 annual report combines information from two contracts with a combined value of $3,036,014. Bonneville Power Administration identifies them as follows; (1) Part I--Operations and Maintenance--Project No. 1983-350-00, Contract No. 4504, and $2,682,635 which includes--Equipment costs of $1,807,105. (2) Part II--Planning and Design--Project No. 1983-35-04, Contract No. 4035, $352,379 for Clearwater Coho Restoration Master Plan development Based on NPPC authorization for construction and operation of NPTH, the annual contracts were negotiated for the amounts shown above under (1) and (2). Construction contracts were handled by BPA until all facilities are completed and accepted.

  14. Crocodilian Nest in a Late Cretaceous Sauropod Hatchery from the Type Lameta Ghat Locality, Jabalpur, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Srivastava

    Full Text Available The well-known Late Cretaceous Lameta Ghat locality (Jabalpur, India provides a window of opportunity to study a large stable, near shore sandy beach, which was widely used by sauropod dinosaurs as a hatchery. In this paper, we revisit the eggs and eggshell fragments previously assigned to lizards from this locality and reassign them to crocodylomorphs. Several features point to a crocodilian affinity, including a subspherical to ellipsoidal shape, smooth, uneven external surface, discrete trapezoid shaped shell units with wide top and narrow base, basal knobs and wedge shaped crystallites showing typical inverted triangular extinction under crossed nicols. The crocodylomorph eggshell material presented in this paper adds to the skeletal data of these most probably Cretaceous-Eocene dryosaurid crocodiles.

  15. Characterization of four lytic transducing bacteriophages of luminescent Vibrio harveyi isolated from shrimp (Penaeus monodon) hatcheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Sanjeevi; Chrisolite, Bagthasingh; Alavandi, Shankar V; Poornima, Modem; Kalaimani, Natarajan; Santiago, T Chinnappan

    2011-12-01

    Four lytic bacteriophages designated as φVh1, φVh2, φVh3, and φVh4 were isolated from commercial shrimp hatcheries, possessing broad spectrum of infectivity against luminescent Vibrio harveyi isolates, considering their potential as biocontrol agent of luminescent bacterial disease in shrimp hatcheries, and were characterized by electron microscopy, genomic analysis, restriction enzyme analysis (REA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Three phages φVh1, φVh2, and φVh4 had an icosahedral head of 60-115 nm size with a long, noncontractile tail of 130-329 × 1-17 nm, belonged to the family Siphoviridae. φVh3 had an icosahedral head (72 ± 5 nm) with a short tail (27 × 12 nm) and belonged to Podoviridae. REA with DraI and PFGE of genomic DNA digested with ScaI and XbaI and cluster analysis of their banding patterns indicated that φVh3 was distinct from the other three siphophages. PFGE-based genome mean size of the four bacteriophages φVh1, φVh2, φVh3, and φVh4 was estimated to be about 85, 58, 64, and 107 kb, respectively. These phages had the property of generalized transduction as demonstrated by transduction with plasmid pHSG 396 with frequencies ranging from 4.1 × 10(-7) to 2 × 10(-9) per plaque-forming unit, suggesting a potential ecological role in gene transfer among aquatic vibrios.

  16. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Makkar

    Full Text Available Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase

  17. EFFECT OF FEEDING COOKED HATCHERY WASTE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Hassan Khan and Bashir Mahmood Bhatti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Raw hatchery waste was cooked with water at 2:1 ratio for 15 minutes and then oven dried at 65C and ground. Hatchery waste meal (HWM thus prepared contained 32% crude protein, 16% ether extract, 0.9% crude fibre, 40% total ash, 11.1% nitrogen free extract, 20% calcium and 0.6 % available phosphorous with no E.Coli and Salmonella. In biological evaluation trail, non significant differences was observed among rations in which HWM replaced the fish meal at 0(A, 25(B, 50(C and 75 (D levels in broiler rations. These rations showed that protein efficiency ratios were 1.68, 1.79, 1.65,and 1.64 apparent biological value 59.96, 60.25, 59.75 and 58.32% respectively, indicating better balance of amino acid in HWM to be replaced with fish meal,. In 6 weeks performance trail, the body weight gains were 1807.69, 1916.39, 1788.39 and 1635.66 gm in A, B, C and D rations, respectively. Whereas, FCR values were 2.59, 2.32, 2.43 and 2.63 in the corresponding groups, which shows no significant difference among all rations. The cost per chick to market age was lowest in ration containing high level of HWM (7.5% and highest in ration containing high level of fish meal (10% indicating maximum replacement of fish meal by HWM in broiler ration is economical. Similarly, slaughtering data revealed no significant difference among all rations in all parameters. It may be concluded that the HWM can completely replace fish meal in commercial broiler rations.

  18. Contrasting population genetic structure among freshwater-resident and anadromous lampreys: the role of demographic history, differential dispersal and anthropogenic barriers to movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Fiona S A; Hoelzel, A Rus; Hume, John B; Lucas, Martyn C

    2015-01-01

    The tendency of many species to abandon migration remains a poorly understood aspect of evolutionary biology that may play an important role in promoting species radiation by both allopatric and sympatric mechanisms. Anadromy inherently offers an opportunity for the colonization of freshwater environments, and the shift from an anadromous to a wholly freshwater life history has occurred in many families of fishes. Freshwater-resident forms have arisen repeatedly among lampreys (within the Petromyzontidae and Mordaciidae), and there has been much debate as to whether anadromous lampreys, and their derived freshwater-resident analogues, constitute distinct species or are divergent ecotypes of polymorphic species. Samples of 543 European river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis (mostly from anadromous populations) and freshwater European brook lamprey Lampetra planeri from across 18 sites, primarily in the British Isles, were investigated for 13 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci, and 108 samples from six of these sites were sequenced for 829 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We found contrasting patterns of population structure for mtDNA and microsatellite DNA markers, such that low diversity and little structure were seen for all populations for mtDNA (consistent with a recent founder expansion event), while fine-scale structuring was evident for nuclear markers. Strong differentiation for microsatellite DNA loci was seen among freshwater-resident L. planeri populations and between L. fluviatilis and L. planeri in most cases, but little structure was evident among anadromous L. fluviatilis populations. We conclude that postglacial colonization founded multiple freshwater-resident populations with strong habitat fidelity and limited dispersal tendencies that became highly differentiated, a pattern that was likely intensified by anthropogenic barriers. PMID:25689694

  19. Pathogenesis of experimental salmonid alphavirus infection in vivo: an ultrastructural insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Tharangani K; Ferguson, Hugh W; Weidmann, Manfred W; Bron, James E; Thompson, Kimberly D; Adams, Alexandra; Muir, Katherine F; Richards, Randolph H

    2016-01-08

    Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus belonging to the family Togaviridae. It causes economically devastating disease in cultured salmonids. The characteristic features of SAV infection include severe histopathological changes in the heart, pancreas and skeletal muscles of diseased fish. Although the presence of virus has been reported in a wider range of tissues, the mechanisms responsible for viral tissue tropism and for lesion development during the disease are not clearly described or understood. Previously, we have described membrane-dependent morphogenesis of SAV and associated apoptosis-mediated cell death in vitro. The aims of the present study were to explore ultrastructural changes associated with SAV infection in vivo. Cytolytic changes were observed in heart, but not in gill and head-kidney of virus-infected fish, although they still exhibited signs of SAV morphogenesis. Ultrastructural changes associated with virus replication were also noted in leukocytes in the head kidney of virus-infected fish. These results further describe the presence of degenerative lesions in the heart as expected, but not in the gills and in the kidney.

  20. Salmonid alphavirus replication in mosquito cells: towards a novel vaccine production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikke, Mia C; Verest, Marjan; Vlak, Just M; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2014-09-01

    Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) causes pancreas disease and sleeping disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and confers a major burden to the aquaculture industry. A commercial inactivated whole virus vaccine propagated in a salmon cell line at low temperature provides effective protection against SAV infections. Alphaviruses (family Togaviridae) are generally transmitted between vertebrate hosts via blood-sucking arthropod vectors, typically mosquitoes. SAV is unique in this respect because it can be transmitted directly from fish to fish and has no known invertebrate vector. Here, we show for the first time that SAV is able to complete a full infectious cycle within arthropod cells derived from the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus. Progeny virus is produced in C6/36 and U4.4. cells in a temperature-dependent manner (at 15 °C but not at 18 °C), can be serially passaged and remains infectious to salmonid Chinook salmon embryo cells. This suggests that SAV is not a vertebrate-restricted alphavirus after all and may have the potential to replicate in invertebrates. The current study also shows the ability of SAV to be propagated in mosquito cells, thereby possibly providing an alternative SAV production system for vaccine applications.

  1. Assessing Juvenile Salmonid Passage Through Culverts: Field Research in Support of Protocol Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Greg D.; Evans, Nathan R.; Pearson, Walter H.; Southard, John A.

    2001-10-30

    The primary goal of our research this spring/ summer was to refine techniques and examine scenarios under which a standardized protocol could be applied to assess juvenile coho salmon (O. kisutch) passage through road culverts. Field evaluations focused on capture-mark- recapture methods that allowed analysis of fish movement patterns, estimates of culvert passability, and potential identification of cues inducing these movements. At this stage, 0+ age coho salmon fry 30 mm to 65 mm long (fork length) were the species and age class of interest. Ultimately, the protocol will provide rapid, statistically rigorous methods for trained personnel to perform standardized biological assessments of culvert passability to a number of juvenile salmon species. Questions to be addressed by the research include the following: ? Do hydraulic structures such as culverts restrict habitat for juvenile salmonids? ? How do existing culverts and retrofits perform relative to juvenile salmonid passage? ? Do some culvert characteristics and hydraulic conditions provide better passage than others? ? Does the culvert represent a barrier to certain size classes of fish? Recommendations addressed issues of study site selection, initial capture, marking, recapture/observations, and estimating movement.

  2. Decompression-induced bubble formation in salmonids: comparison to gas bubble disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, D L; D'Aoust, B G; Smith, L S

    1976-12-01

    The relationship of gas bubble disease (GBD) in fish to decompression-induced bubble formation was investigated with salmonids. Acute bioassays were used to determine equilibration times for critical effects in fish decompressed from depths to 200 fsw. It was found that equilibration of critical tissues was complete in 60-90 min. Salmonids and air-breathers are sensitive to decompressions at similar levels of supersaturation if elimination of excess gas following decompression is unrestricted. However, if elimination is restricted, bubble formation and growth increase accordingly. Tests with mixtures of He-O2, Ar-O2, N2-O2 (80% inert gas: 20% O2) and pure oxygen demonstrated that gas solubility as well as supersaturation (delta P), pressure ratio (initial pressure: final pressure), and absolute pressure must be considered in setting tolerance limits for any decompression. Gases with higher solubility are more likely to produce bubbles upon decompression. Oxygen, however, does not follow this relationship until higher pressures are reached, probably owing to its function in metabolism and in binding with hemoglobin. Tissue responses observed in both GBD and decompressed fish involved similar pathological effects at acute exposures. The circulatory system was consistently affected by bubbles that occluded vessels and blocked flow through the heart.

  3. Evolutionary relationships among sympatric life history forms of Dolly Varden inhabiting the landlocked Kronotsky Lake, Kamchatka, and a neighboring anadromous population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, C.O.; Pavlov, S.D.; Hauser, L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the evolutionary relationships among five sympatric morphs of Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma (white, Schmidti, longhead, river, and dwarf) inhabiting landlocked Kronotsky Lake on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, and an anadromous population below the barrier waterfall on the outflowing Kronotsky River. Morphological analyses indicated phenotypic differentiation corresponding to preferred habitat, the longhead (a limnetic piscivorous morph) having a fusiform body, long jaw, and short fins and the Schmidti (a benthic morph) having a robust body, small jaw, and long fins. Analysis of molecular variance among the Kronotsky Lake morphs indicated that contemporary gene flow is restricted both among morphs within locations and among locations within morphs. Gene flow from Kronotsky Lake into the anadromous population also appears to be restricted. Our findings indicate that there are two divergent evolutionary lineages, one consisting of the white, Schmidti, river, and dwarf morphs and the other of the longhead morph and the anadromous population, which suggests that Kronotsky Lake was subject to separate waves of immigration. The Kronotsky Lake Dolly Varden morphs may represent an example of ecological speciation in progress, and we present a working hypothesis for the diversification of morphs within Kronotsky Lake.

  4. Evaluation of two release operations at Bonneville Dam on the smolt-to-adult survival of Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery fall Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In March 2004, two groups of coded wire tagged subyearling fall Chinook were released from Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery to directly evaluate the effects of...

  5. Differential performance Of ventral fin clipped and adipose fin clipped/coded-wire tagged spring Chinook Salmon at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery is operated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and is located on the Warm Springs River within the Confederated Tribes of the...

  6. WA - Investigation of contaminants in feeds and fish at FWS Pacific Region National Fish Hatcheries and the ramifications to human and ecological health

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Returning adult salmon and steelhead were sampled at three National Fish Hatcheries (NFHs); Warm Springs NFH (spring Chinook, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Quilcene NFH...

  7. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Long: Data on the effects of release density on release success in hatchery-reared red king crab

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data is from an experiment designed to test the viability of using hatchery reared crab to supplement wild stocks and to determine the optimal density for...

  8. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, Peter J.; Blenden, Michael L.; Kucera, Paul A.

    2002-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan Hatchery Evaluation Studies (LSRCP) and the Imnaha Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) for the 1999 smolt migration from the Imnaha River, Oregon. These studies were designed and closely coordinated to provide information about juvenile natural and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) biological characteristics, behavior and emigrant timing, survival, arrival timing and travel time to the Snake River dams and McNary Dam on the Columbia River. Data collected from these studies are shared with the Fish Passage Center (FPC). These data are essential to quantify smolt survival rates under the current passage conditions and to evaluate the future recovery strategies that seek to optimize smolt survival through the hydroelectric system. Information shared with the FPC assists with in-season shaping of flow and spill management requests in the Snake River reservoirs. The Bonneville Power Administration and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service contracted the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) to monitor emigration timing and tag 21,200 emigrating natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead smolts from the Imnaha River during the spring emigration period (March 1-June 15) with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. The completion of trapping in the spring of 1999 marked the eighth year of emigration studies on the Imnaha River and the sixth year of participating in the FPC smolt monitoring program. Monitoring and evaluation objectives were to: (1) Determine spring emigration timing of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River trap. (2) Evaluate effects of flow, temperature and other environmental factors on emigration timing. (3) Monitor the daily catch and biological characteristics of juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River screw trap. (4) Determine emigration timing, travel time, and in

  9. Comparación del crecimiento de Argopecten purpuratus entre cohortes obtenidas de captación de larvas en ambiente natural y de hatchery Comparison of growth among cohorts obtained Argopecten purpuratus larval recruitment in natural and hatchery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo P Pérez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En Chile los cultivos del ostión del norte Argopecten purpuratus han sido desarrollados intensivamente a partir de la captación de semillas en ambiente natural y desde principios de 1980 con semillas obtenidas en hatchery. Para aportar información sobre el desempeno de semillas de ostión del norte en este estudio se comparó, mediante ANCOVA, el crecimiento en longitud entre cohortes producidas a partir de semillas de ambiente natural y de hatchery en Tongoy, Chile. Se evaluó la consistencia de esta comparación en distintos anos y estaciones, comparándose parejas de cohortes producidas simultáneamente en los anos 2003 (primavera, 2005 (invierno y 2006 (verano. El análisis estadístico mostró que existen diferencias estadísticas significativas entre cohortes obtenidas en ambiente natural y aquellas obtenidas en hatchery. La prueba de Tukey evidenció diferencias significativas entre CN2003 y CH2003 como también entre CN2005 y CH2005, pero no así entre CN2006 y CH2006. Estas diferencias indican que las cohortes de semillas de ambiente natural crecieron más rápido que las de hatchery. La comparación interanual evidenció diferencias estadísticas significativas. Estos resultados son discutidos a la luz de dos factores: la temperatura de cultivo y la heterocigocidad de la población de cultivo.In Chile crops of the northern scallop Argopecten purpuratus have been developed intensively from seeds obtained in natural environment, and since 1980 from hatchery's seed, when this technique could be controlled and developed. In order to provide information on the performance of seeds of northern scallops in this study growth in length between cohorts produced from seeds obtained in natural environment (CN and hatchery (CH in Tongoy (Chile was compared using ANCOVA. We assessed the consistency of this comparison in different years and seasons. The compared cohorts are pairs of cohorts produced simultaneously in the years 2003 (spring, 2005

  10. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVIII: Survival and Transportation Effects of Migrating Snake River Wild Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates From 1996-2004 and Comparison to Hatchery Results. Draft.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.; Broms, Kristin

    2008-12-03

    The combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged wild salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) were analyzed using the ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine) statistical release-recapture model. This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER, was used to estimate survival on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged wild spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin upstream of Lower Granite Dam from 1996 to 2004. In addition, annual results from wild salmonids were compared with results from hatchery salmonids, which were presented in a previous report in this series (Buchanan, R. A., Skalski, J. R., Lady, J. L., Westhagen, P., Griswold, J., and Smith, S. 2007, 'Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003', Technical report, Bonneville Power Administration, Project 1991-051-00). These results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on a dam-specific basis for release years with sufficient numbers of wild PIT-tagged smolts transported. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 1,000 tagged wild smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few wild Chinook salmon and steelhead tagged upstream of Lower Granite Dam were transported before the 2003 release year, T/I and D were estimated only for the 2003 and 2004 release years. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Spring and summer Chinook salmon

  11. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVIII: Survival and Transportation Effects of Migrating Snake River Wild Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates From 1996-2004 and Comparison to Hatchery Results. Draft.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.; Broms, Kristin

    2008-12-03

    The combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged wild salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) were analyzed using the ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine) statistical release-recapture model. This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER, was used to estimate survival on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged wild spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin upstream of Lower Granite Dam from 1996 to 2004. In addition, annual results from wild salmonids were compared with results from hatchery salmonids, which were presented in a previous report in this series (Buchanan, R. A., Skalski, J. R., Lady, J. L., Westhagen, P., Griswold, J., and Smith, S. 2007, 'Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003', Technical report, Bonneville Power Administration, Project 1991-051-00). These results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on a dam-specific basis for release years with sufficient numbers of wild PIT-tagged smolts transported. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 1,000 tagged wild smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few wild Chinook salmon and steelhead tagged upstream of Lower Granite Dam were transported before the 2003 release year, T/I and D were estimated only for the 2003 and 2004 release years. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Spring and summer Chinook salmon

  12. Salmonid alphavirus glycoprotein E2 requires low temperature and E1 for virion formation and induction of protective immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikke, M.C.; Braaen, S.; Villoing, S.; Hodneland, K.; Geertsema, C.; Verhagen, L.; Frost, P.; Vlak, J.M.; Rimstad, E.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonid alphavirus (SAV; also known as Salmon pancreas disease virus; family Togaviridae) causes pancreas disease and sleeping disease in Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout, respectively, and poses a major burden to the aquaculture industry. SAV infection in vivo is temperature-restricted and progen

  13. The potential impacts of migratory difficulty, including warmer waters and altered flow conditions, on the reproductive success of salmonid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenkes, Miriam; Shiels, Holly A; Fitzpatrick, John L; Nudds, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    Climate change and urbanisation of watercourses affect water temperatures and current flow velocities in river systems on a global scale. This represents a particularly critical issue for migratory fish species with complex life histories that use rivers to reproduce. Salmonids are migratory keystone species that provide substantial economical value to ecosystems and human societies. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of the effects of environmental stressors on their reproductive success is critical in order to ensure their continued abundance during future climatic change. Salmonids are capital breeders, relying entirely on endogenous energy stores to fuel return migration to their natal spawning sites and reproduction upon arrival. Metabolic rates and cost of transport en-route increase with temperature and at extreme temperatures, swimming is increasingly fuelled anaerobically, resulting in an oxygen debt and reduced capacity to recover from exhaustive exercise. Thermally challenged salmonids also produce less viable gametes, which themselves are affected by water temperature after release. Passage through hydrological barriers and temperature changes both affect energy expenditure. As a result, important energetic tradeoffs emerge between extra energy used during migration and that available for other facets of the reproductive cycle, such as reproductive competition and gamete production. However, studies identifying these tradeoffs are extremely sparse. This review focuses on the specific locomotor responses of salmonids to thermal and hydrological challenges, identifying gaps in our knowledge and highlighting the potential implications for key aspects of their reproduction.

  14. Application of neural networks to prediction of fish diversity and salmonid production in the Lake Ontario basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, James E.

    2005-01-01

    Diversity and fish productivity are important measures of the health and status of aquatic systems. Being able to predict the values of these indices as a function of environmental variables would be valuable to management. Diversity and productivity have been related to environmental conditions by multiple linear regression and discriminant analysis, but such methods have several shortcomings. In an effort to predict fish species diversity and estimate salmonid production for streams in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario, I constructed neural networks and trained them on a data set containing abiotic information and either fish diversity or juvenile salmonid abundance. Twenty percent of the original data were retained as a test data set and used in the training. The ability to extend these neural networks to conditions throughout the streams was tested with data not involved in the network training. The resulting neural networks were able to predict the number of salmonids with more than 84% accuracy and diversity with more than 73% accuracy, which was far superior to the performance of multiple regression. The networks also identified the environmental variables with the greatest predictive power, namely, those describing water movement, stream size, and water chemistry. Thirteen input variables were used to predict diversity and 17 to predict salmonid abundance.

  15. Assessment of Salmonids and their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin within Washington, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, Glen Wesley; Trump, Jeremy; Karl, David

    2002-12-01

    Concerns about the decline of native salmon and trout populations have increased among natural resource managers and the public in recent years. As a result, a multitude of initiatives have been implemented at the local, state, and federal government levels. These initiatives include management plans and actions intended to protect and restore salmonid fishes and their habitats. In 1998 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) were listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), as ''Threatened'', for the Walla Walla River and its tributaries. Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were listed as ''Threatened'' in 1999 for the mid-Columbia River and its tributaries. These ESA listings emphasize the need for information about these threatened salmonid populations and their habitats. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) is entrusted with ''the preservation, protection, and perpetuation of fish and wildlife....[and to] maximize public recreational or commercial opportunities without impairing the supply of fish and wildlife (WAC 77.12.010).'' In consideration of this mandate, the WDFW submitted a proposal in December 1997 to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a study to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of salmonid habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. The primary purposes of this project are to collect baseline biological and habitat data, to identify major data gaps, and to draw conclusions whenever possible. The study reported herein details the findings of the 2001 field season (March to November, 2001).

  16. Source-sink estimates of genetic introgression show influence of hatchery strays on wild chum salmon populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Jasper

    Full Text Available The extent to which stray, hatchery-reared salmon affect wild populations is much debated. Although experiments show that artificial breeding and culture influence the genetics of hatchery salmon, little is known about the interaction between hatchery and wild salmon in a natural setting. Here, we estimated historical and contemporary genetic population structures of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta in Prince William Sound (PWS, Alaska, with 135 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. Historical population structure was inferred from the analysis of DNA from fish scales, which had been archived since the late 1960's for several populations in PWS. Parallel analyses with microsatellites and a test based on Hardy-Weinberg proportions showed that about 50% of the fish-scale DNA was cross-contaminated with DNA from other fish. These samples were removed from the analysis. We used a novel application of the classical source-sink model to compare SNP allele frequencies in these archived fish-scales (1964-1982 with frequencies in contemporary samples (2008-2010 and found a temporal shift toward hatchery allele frequencies in some wild populations. Other populations showed markedly less introgression, despite moderate amounts of hatchery straying. The extent of introgression may reflect similarities in spawning time and life-history traits between hatchery and wild fish, or the degree that hybrids return to a natal spawning area. The source-sink model is a powerful means of detecting low levels of introgression over several generations.

  17. System-Wide Significance of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs : Annual Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, James H.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1993-12-01

    Northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) predation on juvenile salmonids was characterized during 1992 at ten locations in the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam and at three locations in John Day Reservoir. During the spring and summer, 1,487 northern squawfish were collected in the lower Columbia River and 202 squawfish were sampled in John Day Reservoir. Gut content data, predator weight, and water temperature were used to compute a consumption index (CI) for northern squawfish, and overall diet was also described. In the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam, northern squawfish diet was primarily fish (spring 69%; summer 53%), most of which were salmonids. Salmonids were also the primary diet component in the Bonneville Dam tailrace, John Day Dam forebay, and the McNary Dam tailrace. Crustaceans were the dominant diet item at the John Day mid-reservoir location, although sample sizes were small. About half of the non-salmonid preyfish were sculpins. The consumption index (CI) of northern squawfish was generally higher during summer than during spring. The highest CI`s were observed during summer in the tailrace boat restricted zones of Bonneville Dam (CI = 7.8) and McNary Dam (CI = 4.6). At locations below Bonneville Dam, CI`s were relatively low near Covert`s Landing and Rooster Rock, higher at four locations between Blue Lake and St. Helens, and low again at three downriver sites (Kalama, Ranier, and Jones Beach). Northern squawfish catches and CI`s were noticeably higher throughout the lower Columbia compared to mid-reservoir sites further upriver sampled during 1990--92. Predation may be especially intense in the free-flowing section of the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui; N = 198) ate mostly fish -- 25% salmonids, 29% sculpins, and 46% other fish. Highest catches of smallmouth bass were in the John Day Dam forebay.

  18. Inbreeding and genetic diversity analysis in a hatchery release population and clones of Rhopilema esculentum based on microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tao; Chen, Zaizhong; Wang, Mosang; Hu, Yulong; Wang, Weiji

    2016-07-01

    Ten microsatellite markers were used to analyze the levels of genetic diversity and inbreeding in a hatchery release population of Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomatidae). A total of 85 alleles were detected in 600 individuals. Within-population levels of observed (H o) and expected (H e) heterozygosity ranged from 0.152 to 0.839 (mean=0.464) and from 0.235 to 0.821 (mean=0.618), respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of each marker ranged from 0.207 to 0.795 with an average of 0.580, indicating that the hatchery population maintained a high level of genetic diversity. Inbreeding levels were estimated in the hatchery population and the inbreeding coefficient was 0.203. This result revealed that a certain level of inbreeding occurred within the population. Meanwhile, we also determined genetic diversity at the clone level. Several polyps from the same scyphistomae were genotyped at the ten microsatellite loci and there was virtually no difference in their genotypes. Furthermore, we calculated the probabilities of exclusion. When both parents were known, the average exclusion probability of ten loci was 99.99%. Our data suggest that the ten microsatellite markers can not only be used to analyze the identity of individuals but they can also be applied to parentage identification. Our research provides a theoretical basis and technical support for genetic diversity detection and reasonable selection of R. esculentum hatchery populations. These findings support the use of releasing studies and conservation of R. esculentum germplasm resources.

  19. Divergence with gene flow between Ponto-Caspian refugia in an anadromous cyprinid Rutilus frisii revealed by multiple gene phylogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlík, Petr; Marková, Silvia; Choleva, Lukás; Bogutskaya, Nina G; Ekmekçi, F Guler; Ivanova, Petya P

    2008-02-01

    The Black and Caspian Seas have experienced alternating periods of isolation and interconnection over many Milankovitch climate oscillations and most recently became separated when the meltwater overflow from the Caspian Sea ceased at the end of the last glaciation. Climate-induced habitat changes have indisputably had profound impacts on distribution and demography of aquatic species, yet uncertainties remain about the relative roles of isolation and dispersal in the response of species shared between the Black and Caspian Sea basins. We examined these issues using phylogeographical analysis of an anadromous cyprinid fish Rutilus frisii. Bayesian coalescence analyses of sequence variation at two nuclear and one mitochondrial genes suggest that the Black and Caspian Seas supported separate populations of R. frisii during the last glaciation. Parameter estimates from the fitted isolation-with-migration model showed that their separation was not complete, however, and that the two populations continued to exchange genes in both directions. These analyses also suggested that majority of migrations occurred during the Pleistocene, showing that the variation shared between the Black and Caspian Seas is the result of ancient dispersal along the temporary natural connections between the basins, rather than of incomplete lineage sorting or recent human-mediated dispersal. Gene flow between the refugial populations was therefore an important source of genetic variation, and we suggest that it facilitated the evolutionary response of the populations to changing climate.

  20. Total mercury concentrations in anadromous Northern Dolly Varden from the northwestern Canadian Arctic: a historical baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, L; Reist, J D; Power, M

    2015-03-15

    Previous research has documented the significance of total mercury (THg) as a northern contaminant in general and of fish in particular. While much research has been devoted to documenting both spatial and temporal changes in THg in consumed fish, little effort has been directed at understanding patterns of THg in Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma), a prized subsistence species throughout the western North American Arctic. Here we report historical THg concentrations for anadromous Dolly Varden from 10 populations in the Yukon and Northwest Territories sampled across a range of latitudes (67-69°N) and longitudes (136-141°W) between the years 1988-91. Unadjusted mean THg concentrations ranged from 15 to 254 ng/g wet weight. Length-adjusted THg concentrations were significantly different among sites, but were not related to latitude or longitude. Within and among populations, THg was significantly related to fork-length, age, δ(15)N, and δ(13)C, with the variation in THg found among populations being best explained by size. The data serve as an important baseline against which future changes in THg levels in this important subsistence fishery may be compared to determine the significance of any observed trends.

  1. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, John L.

    1989-01-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration has been conducting a study concerning the epidemiology and control of three fish pathogens which cause major disease problems in salmonids of the Columbia River basin. The pathogens studied include Cera to myxa Shasta, the myxosporean parasite which causes ceratomyxosis; Renibacterium salmoninarum, the bacterium which is the etiological agent of bacterial kidney disease; and the rhabdovirus which causes infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN). During this project, the host and geographic range of C. Shasta have been more precisely determined and the known geographic range has been significantly expanded. The effects of the parasite on fish migrating through the Columbia River and on their introduction into salt water have been examined. Similar studies have been conducted with R. salmoninarum and it has been shown that bacterial kidney disease occurs at all life stages of salmonids and is responsible for mortality in both fresh and salt water. It has also been demonstrated that different isolates of R. salmoninarum have different antigenic composition. Results of demonstration projects designed to control IHN by using UV treated water for early rearing of salmonid fry were equivocal. The scope of the project was considerably narrowed and focused during the past two years The project has concentrated on a study concerning the biology of C. Shasta and the identification of potential chemotherapeutants for control of bacterial kidney disease. The emphasis of work on C. Shasta has been its pathogenesis. This aspect of the parasite has been investigated using histopathologic and immunologic methodology. Mode of transmission, the nature of the infectious stage, and potential intermediate hosts of the parasite have also been areas of active research. Classes of chemotherapeutants with the highest potential for efficacy against R. salmoninarum have been

  2. Comparison of the localization of tetrodotoxin between wild pufferfish Takifugu rubripes juveniles and hatchery-reared juveniles with tetrodotoxin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Kogen; Takatani, Tomohiro; Nakayasu, Junichi; Yamazaki, Hideki; Sakiyama, Kazutaka; Ikeda, Koichi; Arakawa, Osamu; Sakakura, Yoshitaka

    2013-09-01

    To reveal the accumulation profile of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in pufferfish Takifugu rubripes juveniles, we compared the localization of TTX in various tissues among wild juveniles and hatchery-reared juveniles with or without TTX administration using immunohistochemical technique with anti-TTX monoclonal antibody. Immuno-positive reaction was observed in hepatic tissue, basal cell of skin and olfactory, olfactory epithelium, optic nerve and brain (optic tectum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata) of wild juveniles (body length: BL, 4.7-9.4 cm). TTX was detected in the same tissues as wild juveniles and epithelial cell layer of intestine of hatchery-reared juveniles (BL, 5.0-5.3 cm) to which TTX was orally administrated. No positive reaction was observed from the tissues of hatchery-reared juveniles without TTX administration. These results suggest that orally administrated TTX to the non-toxic cultured juveniles is accumulated in the same manner of wild juveniles. In addition, our study revealed that pufferfish accumulates TTX in the central nervous system.

  3. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1989 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelscher, Brian

    1990-04-01

    The kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka rehabilitation program for Lake Pend Oreille continued to show progress during 1989. Estimated kokanee abundance in late August was 7.71 million fish. Decreased population size is the result of lower hatchery and wild fry recruitment and low age 1+ survival. Lower recruitment of wild fry in 1989 resulted from a smaller parental escapement in 1988 and lower wild fry survival. Six fry release strategies were evaluated in 1989. Two groups were released in Clark Fork River to help improve a spawning run to Cabinet Gorge Hatchery. Survival from the mid-summer release, which was barged down Clark Fork River to avoid low flow problems, was not significantly different from the early release. The final assessment of these release strategies will be evaluated when adults return to Cabinet gorge Hatchery in 1992 and 1993. Fry released to support the Sullivan Springs Creek spawning run also survived will in 1989. Two open-water releases were made during early and mid-summer. 30 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Limestone fluidized bed treatment of acid-impacted water at the Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery, Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, P.L.; Watten, B.J.; Haines, T.A.; Spaulding, B.W.

    2006-01-01

    Decades of atmospheric acid deposition have resulted in widespread lake and river acidification in the northeastern U.S. Biological effects of acidification include increased mortality of sensitive aquatic species such as the endangered Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a limestone-based fluidized bed system for the treatment of acid-impacted waters. The treatment system was tested at the Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery in East Orland, Maine over a period of 3 years. The product water from the treatment system was diluted with hatchery water to prepare water supplies with three different levels of alkalinity for testing of fish health and survival. Based on positive results from a prototype system used in the first year of the study, a larger demonstration system was used in the second and third years with the objective of decreasing operating costs. Carbon dioxide was used to accelerate limestone dissolution, and was the major factor in system performance, as evidenced by the model result: Alk = 72.84 ?? P(CO2)1/2; R2 = 0.975. No significant acidic incursions were noted for the control water over the course of the study. Had these incursions occurred, survivability in the untreated water would likely have been much more severely impacted. Treated water consistently provided elevated alkalinity and pH above that of the hatchery source water. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Skin reflectance as a non-lethal measure of smoltification for juvenile salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haner, Philip V.; Faler, Joyce C.; Schrock, Robin M.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Maule, Alec G.

    1995-01-01

    Our efforts to find nonlethal methods of assessing the parr-smoll transformation of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss and spring and fall chinook salmon O. tshawytscha led to the development of a video system for quantitatively measuring skin silvering using skin reflectance. Gill Na'.K'-ATPase activity, skin guanine concentration, and skin reflectance were recorded from groups of fish marked with freeze brands at hatcheries and downstream sample sites in the Columbia River basin. Skin reflectance of migrants was significantly higher than that of fish before release; nonmigrants (released fish that did not migrate) had significantly lower skin reflectance than migrants from the same groups. Skin reflectance was significantly correlated with gill ATPasc activity and skin guanine concentration. Skin reflectance increased during the parrsmolt transformation and could be used as a nonlethal indicator of smoltification.

  6. The physiology and toxicology of salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finn, Roderick Nigel [Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Allegaten 41, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)]. E-mail: nigel.finn@bio.uib.no

    2007-03-30

    The purpose of this review is to collate physiological knowledge on salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria. Salmonid genera reviewed include Coregonus, Thymallus, Salvelinus, Salmo, and Oncorhynchus spp. When physiological data for salmonids are lacking, the zebrafish and medaka models are included. The primary focus is on the underlying mechanisms involved in the hydro-mineral, thermal, and respiratory biology with an extended section on the xenobiotic toxicology of the early stages. Past and present data reveal that the eggs of salmonids are among the largest shed by any broadcast spawning teleost. Once ovulated, the physicochemical properties of the ovarian fluid provide temporary protection from external perturbations and maintain the eggs in good physiological condition until spawning. Following fertilisation and during early development the major structures protecting the embryo from poor water quality are the vitelline membrane, the enveloping layer and the chorion. The vitelline membrane is one of the least permeable membranes known, while the semi-permeable chorion provides both physical and chemical defense against metals, pathogens, and xenobiotic chemicals. In part these structures explain the lower sensitivity of the eggs to chemical imbalance compared to the larvae, however the lower metabolic rate and the chronology of gene expression and translational control suggest that developmental competence also plays a decisive role. In addition, maternal effect genes provide a defense potential until the mid-blastula transition. The transition between maternal effect genes and zygotic genes is a critical period for the embryo. The perivitelline fluids are an important trap for cations, but are also the major barrier to diffusion of gases and solutes. Acidic environmental pH interferes with acid-base and hydromineral balance but also increases the risk of aluminium and heavy metal intoxication. These risks are ameliorated somewhat by

  7. Comparative study of genome divergence in salmonids with various rates of genetic isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubina, Elena A; Nikitin, Mikhail A; Ponomareva, Ekaterina V; Goryunov, Denis V; Gritsenko, Oleg F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is a comparative investigation of changes that certain genome parts undergo during speciation. The research was focused on divergence of coding and noncoding sequences in different groups of salmonid fishes of the Salmonidae (Salmo, Parasalmo, Oncorhynchus, and Salvelinus genera) and the Coregonidae families under different levels of reproductive isolation. Two basic approaches were used: (1) PCR-RAPD with a 20-22 nt primer design with subsequent cloning and sequencing of the products and (2) a modified endonuclease restriction analysis. The restriction fragments were shown with sequencing to represent satellite DNA. Effects of speciation are found in repetitive sequences. The revelation of expressed sequences in the majority of the employed anonymous loci allows for assuming the adaptive selection during allopatric speciation in isolated char forms.

  8. Comparative Study of Genome Divergence in Salmonids with Various Rates of Genetic Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Shubina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is a comparative investigation of changes that certain genome parts undergo during speciation. The research was focused on divergence of coding and noncoding sequences in different groups of salmonid fishes of the Salmonidae (Salmo, Parasalmo, Oncorhynchus, and Salvelinus genera and the Coregonidae families under different levels of reproductive isolation. Two basic approaches were used: (1 PCR-RAPD with a 20–22 nt primer design with subsequent cloning and sequencing of the products and (2 a modified endonuclease restriction analysis. The restriction fragments were shown with sequencing to represent satellite DNA. Effects of speciation are found in repetitive sequences. The revelation of expressed sequences in the majority of the employed anonymous loci allows for assuming the adaptive selection during allopatric speciation in isolated char forms.

  9. THE RAPID DIAGNOSTICS OF SEX OF SALMONIDS USING DNA-MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Rud

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on nucleotide sequences of sex-specific DNA-markers of salmonid fishes the oligonucleotide primers for polymerase chain reaction were selected with purpose on rapid diagnostic of sex in rainbow trout Onchorhynchus mykiss, brown trout Salmo trutta, huchen Hucho hucho and grayling Thymallus thymallus. The specify of amplification was determined by nucleotide sequence analysis of PCR-products. All amplified fragments were referred to sex-specific locuses of Y chromosomes in males of investigated fish species. The PCR-products were in size of 880, 607, 521 and 558 for rainbow trout, brown trout, grayling and huchen respectively. Thus the sex determination in above mentioned fish species and identification of genotypic males under process of hormonal sex reversion can be provided using conventional PCR. Present method relates to rapid diagnostics because the data analysis and return of results back to fish farm take one single day.

  10. Mapping of linear antibody epitopes of the glycoprotein of VHSV, a salmonid rhabdovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Alonso, M.; Lorenzo, G.; Perez, L.

    1998-01-01

    Antibody Linear epitopes of the glycoprotein G (gpG) of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), a rhabdovirus of salmonids, were mapped by pepscan using overlapping 15-mer peptides covering the entire gpG sequence and ELISA with polyclonal and monoclonal murine and polyclonal trout...... antibodies. Among the regions recognized in the pepscan by the polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) were the previously identified phosphatidylserine binding heptad-repeats (Estepa & Coll 1996; Virology 216:60-70) and leucocyte stimulating peptides (Lorenzo et al. 1995; Virology 212:348-355). Among 17 monoclonal...... antibodies (MAbs), only 2 non-neutralizing MAbs, I10 (aa 139-153) and IP1H3 (aa 399-413), could be mapped to specific peptides in the pepscan of the gpG. Mapping of these MAbs was confirmed by immunoblotting with recombinant proteins and/or other synthetic peptides covering those sequences. None...

  11. Non-native salmonids affect amphibian occupancy at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Hossack, Blake R.; Bahls, Peter F.; Bull, Evelyn L.; Corn, Paul Stephen; Hokit, Grant; Maxell, Bryce A.; Munger, James C.; Wyrick, Aimee

    2010-01-01

    Aim The introduction of non-native species into aquatic environments has been linked with local extinctions and altered distributions of native species. We investigated the effect of non-native salmonids on the occupancy of two native amphibians, the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), across three spatial scales: water bodies, small catchments and large catchments. Location Mountain lakes at ≥ 1500 m elevation were surveyed across the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Methods We surveyed 2267 water bodies for amphibian occupancy (based on evidence of reproduction) and fish presence between 1986 and 2002 and modelled the probability of amphibian occupancy at each spatial scale in relation to habitat availability and quality and fish presence. Results After accounting for habitat features, we estimated that A. macrodactylum was 2.3 times more likely to breed in fishless water bodies than in water bodies with fish. Ambystoma macrodactylum also was more likely to occupy small catchments where none of the water bodies contained fish than in catchments where at least one water body contained fish. However, the probability of salamander occupancy in small catchments was also influenced by habitat availability (i.e. the number of water bodies within a catchment) and suitability of remaining fishless water bodies. We found no relationship between fish presence and salamander occupancy at the large-catchment scale, probably because of increased habitat availability. In contrast to A. macrodactylum, we found no relationship between fish presence and R. luteiventris occupancy at any scale. Main conclusions Our results suggest that the negative effects of non-native salmonids can extend beyond the boundaries of individual water bodies and increase A. macrodactylum extinction risk at landscape scales. We suspect that niche overlap between non-native fish and A. macrodactylum at higher elevations in the northern Rocky

  12. Earlier migration timing, decreasing phenotypic variation, and biocomplexity in multiple salmonid species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Kovach

    Full Text Available Climate-induced phenological shifts can influence population, evolutionary, and ecological dynamics, but our understanding of these phenomena is hampered by a lack of long-term demographic data. We use a multi-decade census of 5 salmonid species representing 14 life histories in a warming Alaskan stream to address the following key questions about climate change and phenology: How consistent are temporal patterns and drivers of phenology for similar species and alternative life histories? Are shifts in phenology associated with changes in phenotypic variation? How do phenological changes influence the availability of resource subsidies? For most salmonid species, life stages, and life histories, freshwater temperature influences migration timing--migration events are occurring earlier in time (mean = 1.7 days earlier per decade over the 3-5 decades, and the number of days over which migration events occur is decreasing (mean = 1.5 days per decade. Temporal trends in migration timing were not correlated with changes in intra-annual phenotypic variation, suggesting that these components of the phenotypic distribution have responded to environmental change independently. Despite commonalities across species and life histories, there was important biocomplexity in the form of disparate shifts in migration timing and variation in the environmental factors influencing migration timing for alternative life history strategies in the same population. Overall, adult populations have been stable during these phenotypic and environmental changes (λ ≈ 1.0, but the temporal availability of salmon as a resource in freshwater has decreased by nearly 30 days since 1971 due to changes in the median date of migration timing and decreases in intra-annual variation in migration timing. These novel observations advance our understanding of phenological change in response to climate warming, and indicate that climate change has influenced the ecology of

  13. Alpha interferon and not gamma interferon inhibits salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 replication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Guo, Tz-Chun; Mutoloki, Stephen; Haugland, Øyvind; Marjara, Inderjit S; Evensen, Øystein

    2010-09-01

    Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is an emerging virus in salmonid aquaculture, with SAV-3 being the only subtype found in Norway. Until now, there has been little focus on the alpha interferon (IFN-alpha)-induced antiviral responses during virus infection in vivo or in vitro in fish. The possible involvement of IFN-gamma in the response to SAV-3 is also not known. In this study, the two IFNs were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins (recombinant IFN-alpha [rIFN-alpha] and rIFN-gamma) and used for in vitro studies. SAV-3 infection in a permissive salmon cell line (TO cells) results in IFN-alpha and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) mRNA upregulation. Preinfection treatment (4 to 24 h prior to infection) with salmon rIFN-alpha induces an antiviral state that inhibits the replication of SAV-3 and protects the cells against virus-induced cytopathic effects (CPE). The antiviral state coincides with a strong expression of Mx and ISG15 mRNA and Mx protein expression. When rIFN-alpha is administered at the time of infection and up to 24 h postinfection, virus replication is not inhibited, and cells are not protected against virus-induced CPE. By 40 h postinfection, the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha) is phosphorylated concomitant with the expression of the E2 protein as assessed by Western blotting. Postinfection treatment with rIFN-alpha results in a moderate reduction in E2 expression levels in accordance with a moderate downregulation of cellular protein synthesis, an approximately 65% reduction by 60 h postinfection. rIFN-gamma has only a minor inhibitory effect on SAV-3 replication in vitro. SAV-3 is sensitive to the preinfection antiviral state induced by rIFN-alpha, while postinfection antiviral responses or postinfection treatment with rIFN-alpha is not able to limit viral replication.

  14. Gene expression studies of host response to Salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 experimental infections in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Guo, Tz-Chun; Mutoloki, Stephen; Haugland, Oyvind; Evensen, Oystein

    2012-11-01

    Salmonid alphavirus subtype-3 (SAV-3) infection in Atlantic salmon is exclusively found in Norway. The salmonid alphaviruses have been well characterized at the genome level but there is limited information about the host-pathogen interaction phenomena. This study was undertaken to characterize the replication and spread of SAV-3 in internal organs of experimentally infected Atlantic salmon and the subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition, suitability of a cohabitation challenge model for this virus was also examined. Groups of fish were infected by intramuscular injection (IM), cohabited (CO) or kept uninfected in a separate tank. Samples of pancreas, kidney, spleen, heart and skeletal muscles were collected at 2, 4 and 8 weeks post infection (wpi). Pathological changes were assessed by histology concurrently with viral loads and mRNA expression of immune genes by real time RT-PCR. Pathological changes were only observed in the pancreas and heart (target organs) of both IM and CO groups, with changes appearing first in the pancreas (2 wpi) in the former. Lesions with increasing severity over time coincided with high viral loads despite significant induction of IFN-α, Mx and ISG15. IFN-γ and MHC-I were expressed in all tissues examined and their induction appeared in parallel with that of IL-10. Inflammatory genes TNF-α, IL-12 and IL-8 were only induced in the heart during pathology while T cell-related genes CD3ε, CD4, CD8, TCR-α and MHC-II were expressed in target organs at 8 wpi. These findings suggest that the onset of innate responses came too late to limit virus replication. Furthermore, SAV-3 infections in Atlantic salmon induce Th1/cytotoxic responses in common with other alphaviruses infecting higher vertebrates. Our findings demonstrate that SAV-3 can be transmitted via the water making it suitable for a cohabitation challenge model.

  15. Efficacy, fate, and potential effects on salmonids of mosquito larvicides in catch basins in Seattle, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Morgan; Grue, Christian; Conquest, Loveday; Grassley, James; King, Kerensa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy, fate, and potential for direct effects on salmonids of 4 common mosquito larvicides (Mosquito Dunks® and Bits® (AI: Bacillis thuringiensis var. israelensis, [Bti]), VectoLex® WSP (AI: Bacillus sphaericus [Bs], VectoLex CG [AI: Bs], and Altosid® Briquets [AI: s-methoprene]) in Seattle, WA, during 3 summers. During efficacy trials in 2006, all treatments resulted in a rapid reduction in number of mosquito pupae (Mosquito Dunks and Bits and VectoLex WSP) or emergence success (Altosid Briquets). VectoLex CG was chosen for city-wide application in 2007 and 2008. The average counts of pupae within round-top basins remained significantly below the control average for 11 wk in 2007, whereas efficacy in grated-top basins was short-lived. In 2008 the average counts of pupae within grated-top basins remained significantly below the control average for 10 wk. Altosid XR was also effective in reducing adult emergence within grated basins in 2008. In 2007 and 2008, frequent precipitation events made the evaluation of efficacy difficult due to reductions in pupae across control and treated basins. Four separate analyses of VectoLex products revealed that the product was a combination of Bs and Bti. Both Bs and Bti were detected in 3 urban creeks connected to treated basins in 2007 and 2008. Laboratory toxicity test results suggest that concentrations of Bs and Bti detected in each of the watersheds pose little direct hazard to juvenile salmonids.

  16. The contribution of molecular epidemiology to the understanding and control of viral diseases of salmonid aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snow Michael

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular epidemiology is a science which utilizes molecular biology to define the distribution of disease in a population (descriptive epidemiology and relies heavily on integration of traditional (or analytical epidemiological approaches to identify the etiological determinants of this distribution. The study of viral pathogens of aquaculture has provided many exciting opportunities to apply such tools. This review considers the extent to which molecular epidemiological studies have contributed to better understanding and control of disease in aquaculture, drawing on examples of viral diseases of salmonid fish of commercial significance including viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV, salmonid alphavirus (SAV and infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV. Significant outcomes of molecular epidemiological studies include: Improved taxonomic classification of viruses A better understanding of the natural distribution of viruses An improved understanding of the origins of viral pathogens in aquaculture An improved understanding of the risks of translocation of pathogens outwith their natural host range An increased ability to trace the source of new disease outbreaks Development of a basis for ensuring development of appropriate diagnostic tools An ability to classify isolates and thus target future research aimed at better understanding biological function While molecular epidemiological studies have no doubt already made a significant contribution in these areas, the advent of new technologies such as pyrosequencing heralds a quantum leap in the ability to generate descriptive molecular sequence data. The ability of molecular epidemiology to fulfil its potential to translate complex disease pathways into relevant fish health policy is thus unlikely to be limited by the generation of descriptive molecular markers. More likely, full realisation of the potential to better explain viral transmission pathways will be dependent on the

  17. Relationship between channel morphology and foraging habitat for stream salmonids: Effects of body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienciala, P.; Hassan, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Channel morphology and dynamics strongly influence fish populations in running waters by defining habitat template for movement, spawning, incubation, and foraging. In this research we adopted a modeling approach to investigate how body size controls the relationship between salmonid fish and their foraging habitat in streams. Body size is a fundamental ecological parameter which affects resource acquisition, locomotory costs, metabolic rates, and competitive abilities. We focus on two specific questions. First, we examined how distinct types of channel morphology and associated flow fields shape specific growth potential for different body size classes of trout. Second, we modeled these fish-habitat relationships in a size-structured population in the presence of intraspecific competition. In the latter scenario, fish may not be able to occupy energetically optimal foraging habitat and the predicted specific growth potential may differ from the intrinsic habitat quality. To address the research questions, we linked a 2D hydrodynamic model with a bioenergetic foraging model for drift-feeding trout. Net energy intake, simulated for four study reaches with different channel morphology, was converted into maps of specific growth rate potential. We extended this model by including a component that enabled us to estimate territory size for fish of a given body size and account for the effects of competition on spatial distribution of fish. The predictions that emerge from our simulations highlight that fish body size is an important factor that determines the relationship between channel morphology and the quality of foraging habitat. The results also indicate that distinct types of channel morphology may give rise to different energetic conditions for different body size classes of drift-feeding salmonids.

  18. Gene expression studies of host response to Salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 experimental infections in Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Cheng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salmonid alphavirus subtype-3 (SAV-3 infection in Atlantic salmon is exclusively found in Norway. The salmonid alphaviruses have been well characterized at the genome level but there is limited information about the host-pathogen interaction phenomena. This study was undertaken to characterize the replication and spread of SAV-3 in internal organs of experimentally infected Atlantic salmon and the subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition, suitability of a cohabitation challenge model for this virus was also examined. Groups of fish were infected by intramuscular injection (IM, cohabited (CO or kept uninfected in a separate tank. Samples of pancreas, kidney, spleen, heart and skeletal muscles were collected at 2, 4 and 8 weeks post infection (wpi. Pathological changes were assessed by histology concurrently with viral loads and mRNA expression of immune genes by real time RT-PCR. Pathological changes were only observed in the pancreas and heart (target organs of both IM and CO groups, with changes appearing first in the pancreas (2 wpi in the former. Lesions with increasing severity over time coincided with high viral loads despite significant induction of IFN-α, Mx and ISG15. IFN-γ and MHC-I were expressed in all tissues examined and their induction appeared in parallel with that of IL-10. Inflammatory genes TNF-α, IL-12 and IL-8 were only induced in the heart during pathology while T cell-related genes CD3ε, CD4, CD8, TCR-α and MHC-II were expressed in target organs at 8 wpi. These findings suggest that the onset of innate responses came too late to limit virus replication. Furthermore, SAV-3 infections in Atlantic salmon induce Th1/cytotoxic responses in common with other alphaviruses infecting higher vertebrates. Our findings demonstrate that SAV-3 can be transmitted via the water making it suitable for a cohabitation challenge model.

  19. Co-Speciation of the Ectoparasite Gyrodactylus teuchis (Monogenea, Platyhelminthes) and Its Salmonid Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Christoph; Weiss, Steven J; Stojanovski, Stojmir; Bachmann, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Co-speciation is a fundamental concept of evolutionary biology and intuitively appealing, yet in practice hard to demonstrate as it is often blurred by other evolutionary processes. We investigate the phylogeographic history of the monogenean ectoparasites Gyrodactylus teuchis and G. truttae on European salmonids of the genus Salmo. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 were sequenced for 189 Gyrodactylus individuals collected from 50 localities, distributed across most major European river systems, from the Iberian- to the Balkan Peninsula. Despite both anthropogenic and naturally caused admixture of the principal host lineages among major river basins, co-phylogenetic analyses revealed significant global congruence for host and parasite phylogenies, providing firm support for co-speciation of G. teuchis and its salmonid hosts brown trout (S. trutta) and Atlantic salmon (S. salar). The major split within G. teuchis, coinciding with the initial divergence of the hosts was dated to ~1.5 My BP, using a Bayesian framework based on an indirect calibration point obtained from the host phylogeny. The presence of G. teuchis in Europe thus predates some of the major Pleistocene glaciations. In contrast, G. truttae exhibited remarkably low intraspecific genetic diversity. Given the direct life cycle and potentially high transmission potential of gyrodactylids, this finding is interpreted as indication for a recent emergence (<60 ky BP) of G. truttae via a host-switch. Our study thus suggests that instances of two fundamentally different mechanisms of speciation (co-speciation vs. host-switching) may have occurred on the same hosts in Europe within a time span of less than 1.5 My in two gyrodactylid ectoparasite species.

  20. Co-Speciation of the Ectoparasite Gyrodactylus teuchis (Monogenea, Platyhelminthes and Its Salmonid Hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Hahn

    Full Text Available Co-speciation is a fundamental concept of evolutionary biology and intuitively appealing, yet in practice hard to demonstrate as it is often blurred by other evolutionary processes. We investigate the phylogeographic history of the monogenean ectoparasites Gyrodactylus teuchis and G. truttae on European salmonids of the genus Salmo. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 were sequenced for 189 Gyrodactylus individuals collected from 50 localities, distributed across most major European river systems, from the Iberian- to the Balkan Peninsula. Despite both anthropogenic and naturally caused admixture of the principal host lineages among major river basins, co-phylogenetic analyses revealed significant global congruence for host and parasite phylogenies, providing firm support for co-speciation of G. teuchis and its salmonid hosts brown trout (S. trutta and Atlantic salmon (S. salar. The major split within G. teuchis, coinciding with the initial divergence of the hosts was dated to ~1.5 My BP, using a Bayesian framework based on an indirect calibration point obtained from the host phylogeny. The presence of G. teuchis in Europe thus predates some of the major Pleistocene glaciations. In contrast, G. truttae exhibited remarkably low intraspecific genetic diversity. Given the direct life cycle and potentially high transmission potential of gyrodactylids, this finding is interpreted as indication for a recent emergence (<60 ky BP of G. truttae via a host-switch. Our study thus suggests that instances of two fundamentally different mechanisms of speciation (co-speciation vs. host-switching may have occurred on the same hosts in Europe within a time span of less than 1.5 My in two gyrodactylid ectoparasite species.

  1. Genetic characterization of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus of coastal salmonid stocks in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

    2002-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a pathogen that infects many Pacific salmonid stocks from the watersheds of North America. Previous studies have thoroughly characterized the genetic diversity of IHNV isolates from Alaska and the Hagerman Valley in Idaho. To enhance understanding of the evolution and viral transmission patterns of IHNV within the Pacific Northwest geographic range, we analyzed the G gene of IHNV isolates from the coastal watersheds of Washington State by ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) and nucleotide sequencing. The RPA analysis of 23 isolates indicated that the Skagit basin IHNV isolates were relatively homogeneous as a result of the dominance of one G gene haplotype (S). Sequence analysis of 303 bases in the middle of the G gene (midG region) of 61 isolates confirmed the high frequency of a Skagit River basin sequence and identified another sequence commonly found in isolates from the Lake Washington basin. Overall, both the RPA and sequence analysis showed that the Washington coastal IHNV isolates are genetically homogeneous and have little genetic diversity. This is similar to the genetic diversity pattern of IHNV from Alaska and contrasts sharply with the high genetic diversity demonstrated for IHNV isolates from fish farms along the Snake River in Idaho. The high degree of sequence and haplotype similarity between the Washington coastal IHNV isolates and those from Alaska and British Columbia suggests that they have a common viral ancestor. Phylogenetic analyses of the isolates we studied and those from different regions throughout the virus's geographic range confirms a conserved pattern of evolution of the virus in salmonid stocks north of the Columbia River, which forms Washington's southern border.

  2. Multiple Antibiotic Resistance and Heavy Metal Resistance Profile of Bacteria Isolated from Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) Hatchery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S W Lee; M Najiah; W Wendy; A Zahrol; M Nadirah

    2009-01-01

    In this article,antibiogram and heavy metal resistance profile of bacteria isolated from giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) hatchery in Malaysia are described.Although giant freshwater prawn was introduced into Malaysia since the 1980s,there was no database information on antibiogram and heavy metal resistance profile of bacteria from giant freshwater prawn (M.rosenbergii) hatchery in Malaysia.Therefore,this study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance profile to control bacterial diseases in M.rosenbergii hatchery.The results can provide valuable information for local M.rosenbergii post-larval producer.Antibiotic sensitivity test was carried out by disk-diffusion method against 15 types of antibiotics as follows:oxolinic acid (2 μg),ampicillin (10 μg),erythromycin (15 μg),furazolidone (15 μg),lincomycin (15 μg),amoxicillin (25 μg),col istin sulphate (25 μg),doxycycline (30 μg),florfenicol (30 μg),flumequine (30 μg),nalidixic acid (30 μg),tetracycline (30 μg),oleandomyein (15 μg),fosfomycin (50 μg),and spiramycin (100 μg),whereas heavy metal resistance profile of the present bacterial isolates was determined by 2-fold agar dilution technique.In this study,5 types of bacteria were successfully isolated;they were Aeromonas spp.(n= 77),Escherichia coil (n = 73),Edwardsiella spp.(n = 62),Salmonella spp.(n= 75),and Vibrio spp.(n = 43).The result showed that furazolidone was the most effective antibiotic to control the bacteria isolated in this study,approximately 89.7% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to this antibiotic.Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index indicated that the hatchery water source and M.rosenbergii post-larval and sediment tanks were at high-risk exposure to the tested antibiotic.Furthermore,all the tested heavy metals (Cd2+,Cr6+ Hg2+,and Cu2+) failed to inhibit the growth of the bacterial isolates.Therefore,it indicated that the water source of the hatchery is

  3. Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River, Estuary, and Plume in 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Skalski, John R.; Deters, Katherine A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Townsend, Richard L.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.; Kim, Jin A.; Trott, Donna M.

    2011-09-01

    Uncertainty regarding the migratory behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids passing through the lower Columbia River and estuary after negotiating dams on the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) prompted the development and application of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS). The JSATS has been used to investigate the survival of juvenile salmonid smolts between Bonneville Dam (river kilometer (rkm) 236) and the mouth of the Columbia River annually since 2004. In 2010, a total of 12,214 juvenile salmonids were implanted with both a passive integrated transponder (PIT) and a JSATS acoustic transmitter. Using detection information from JSATS receiver arrays deployed on dams and in the river, estuary, and plume, the survival probability of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts tagged at John Day Dam was estimated form multiple reaches between rkm 153 and 8.3 during the spring. During summer, the survival probability of subyearling Chinook salmon was estimated for the same reaches. In addition, the influence of routes of passage (e.g., surface spill, deep spill, turbine, juvenile bypass system) through the lower three dams on the Columbia River (John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville) on juvenile salmonid smolt survival probability from the dams to rkm 153 and then between rkm 153 and 8.3 was examined to increase understanding of the immediate and latent effects of dam passage on juvenile salmon survival. Similar to previous findings, survival probability was relatively high (>0.95) for most groups of juvenile salmonids from the Bonneville Dam tailrace to about rkm 50. Downstream of rkm 50 the survival probability of all species and run types we examined decreased markedly. Steelhead smolts suffered the highest mortality in this lower portion of the Columbia River estuary, with only an estimated 60% of the tagged fish surviving to the mouth of the river. In contrast, yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon smolts survived to the mouth

  4. Production of hatchery-bred early juvenile Milkfish (Chanos chanos in nursery ponds through supplemental feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia J. Jaspe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hatchery-bred early juvenile Milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskål, 1755 (average weight of 0.45g were stocked in a 500 m2 nursery pond at a density of 16 juveniles/m2 during the dry months (March-May. The early juveniles were reared for two months with natural food followed by supplementalfeeding. Upon the harvest the fish reached an average weight of 9.30 g and a survival rate of 86.9%. Afeed conversion ratio (FCR of 1.08 was attained, with specific growth rate (SGR of 4.96%/day. Thehigh survival rate and good production could be attributed to the time of the year when the nurseryproduction trial was conducted. The nursery of milkfish in ponds during the summer months ensuressufficient supply of natural food and stable water quality during the crucial phase in the nurseryproduction. This strategy of rearing early juveniles (< 1g of milkfish in nursery ponds at high stockingdensities using a combination of natural food and supplemental feeding could be one of the alternativeapproaches in the nursery production of this fish.

  5. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation Creston National Fish Hatchery, FY 2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooley, Sharon

    2009-03-20

    A total of 350,000, M012 strain, westslope cutthroat trout (WCT) eggs were received from Montana Fish Wildlife & Parks (MFWP), Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in June of 2005 to accomplish this fishery management objective. These eggs were incubated, hatched and reared entirely inside the hatchery nursery building using a protected well water supply. Fish grew according to schedule and survival was excellent. The hatchery achieved a 0.78 feed fed to pounds gained conversion ratio for this group of WCT. Not all of the progenies from this fish lot were used for Hungry Horse Dam Fishery Mitigation Implementation. Some were used for other regional fishery management projects. Westslope cutthroat trout were reared using approved fish culture techniques as recommended in the USFWS Fish Hatchery Management Handbook and also utilizing a regimen adapted for hatchery specific site conditions. The fish health for these WCT was very good. Survival from first feeding fry stage to stocking was 79%. The hatchery had an annual fish health inspection performed by the USFWS Bozeman Fish Health Center in mid March of 2006. This inspection found all fish lots at Creston to be disease free. The Montana State Fish Health Board has placed the hatchery under a limited quarantine since May of 2005 due to an epizootic of Furunculosis. This classification has allowed the Creston NFH to stock disease free fish in locations approved by regional fish managers. The hatchery has been working with the State Fish Pathologist to remove the limited quarantine classification from the facility. Although fish health for all station fish lots remains disease free, MFWP has asserted it will not remove the limited quarantine until the new influent water treatment system, including the ultraviolet disinfection unit, is running full time, year round. The USFWS is working to secure the additional funding necessary to operate the treatment building year round. Distribution of the WCT took place from March

  6. Evaluation of Behavioral Guidance Structure on Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at Bonneville Dam in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Derrek M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Hughes, James S.; Kim, Jin A.; Fu, Tao; Fischer, Eric S.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, J. R.

    2011-03-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an acoustic-telemetry study at Bonneville Dam in 2009 to evaluate the effects of a behavioral guidance structure (BGS) in the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse forebay on fish passage and survival through the second powerhouse (B2), the dam as a whole, and through the first powerhouse and spillway combined. The BGS was deployed to increase the survival of fish passing through B2 by increasing the percentage of outmigrating smolts entering the B2 Corner Collector (B2CC)—a surface flow outlet known to be a relatively benign route for downstream passage at this dam. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. Study results indicated that having turbine 11 in service is important for providing flow conditions that are comparable to those observed in pre-BGS years (2004 and 2005) and in 2008. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  7. Mainstem Clearwater River study: Assessment for Salmonid Spawning, Incubation, and Rearing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, William P.; Pishl, Markley J.; Whitman, Marc A.

    1990-06-01

    This is the second annual progress report for studies conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe to evaluate the potential for increasing fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations and establishing summer chinook salmon spawning in the lower 57.5 km of the mainstem Clearwater River (LMCR) of Idaho. The report presents study methods and preliminary results for the 1988--1989 phase of the study. The overall study plan was designed to quantitatively evalulate the available spawning, incubation and rearing habitat for fall and summer chinook salmon. We also studied steelhead trout (O. mykiss) rearing habitat since there is a stable population of these fish in the LMCR's tributaries and their parr are known to rear periodically in the mainstem. Resident fish were studied to assess the potential for habitat overlap with that of anadromous fish. Based on these findings the Nez Perce Tribe could determine chinook salmon habitat conditions for selected stocks under existing flow and temperature regimes and consult with the US Army Corps of Engineering concerning the effects of Dworshak Dam operation on flows and measures to restore or establish stocks identified in this study. 38 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Linking ecosystems, food webs, and fish production: subsidies in salmonid watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Mark S.; Baxter, Colden V.

    2010-01-01

    Physical characteristics of riverine habitats, such as large wood abundance, pool geometry and abundance, riparian vegetation cover, and surface flow conditions, have traditionally been thought to constrain fish production in these ecosystems. Conversely, the role of food resources (quantity and quality) in controlling fish production has received far less attention and consideration, though they can also be key productivity drivers. Traditional freshwater food web illustrations have typically conveyed the notion that most fish food is produced within the local aquatic habitat itself, but the concepts and model we synthesize in this article show that most fish food comes from external or very distant sources—including subsidies from marine systems borne from adult returns of anadromous fishes, from fishless headwater tributaries that transport prey to downstream fish, and from adjacent streamside vegetation and associated habitats. The model we propose further illustrates how key trophic pathways and food sources vary through time and space throughout watersheds. Insights into how food supplies affect fishes can help guide how we view riverine ecosystems, their structure and function, their interactions with marine and terrestrial systems, and how we manage natural resources, including fish, riparian habitats, and forests.

  9. Total mercury concentrations in anadromous Northern Dolly Varden from the northwestern Canadian Arctic: A historical baseline study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, L., E-mail: l5tran@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Reist, J.D. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Power, M., E-mail: m3power@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Previous research has documented the significance of total mercury (THg) as a northern contaminant in general and of fish in particular. While much research has been devoted to documenting both spatial and temporal changes in THg in consumed fish, little effort has been directed at understanding patterns of THg in Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma), a prized subsistence species throughout the western North American Arctic. Here we report historical THg concentrations for anadromous Dolly Varden from 10 populations in the Yukon and Northwest Territories sampled across a range of latitudes (67–69°N) and longitudes (136–141°W) between the years 1988–91. Unadjusted mean THg concentrations ranged from 15 to 254 ng/g wet weight. Length-adjusted THg concentrations were significantly different among sites, but were not related to latitude or longitude. Within and among populations, THg was significantly related to fork-length, age, δ{sup 15}N, and δ{sup 13}C, with the variation in THg found among populations being best explained by size. The data serve as an important baseline against which future changes in THg levels in this important subsistence fishery may be compared to determine the significance of any observed trends. - Highlights: • THg were measured in Dolly Varden from the Yukon and Northwest Territories. • Length-adjusted THg concentrations were not related to latitude or longitude. • Among-population variation in THg was best explained by fork-length. • Length-adjusted THg concentrations were related to age, δ{sup 15}N, and δ{sup 13}C. • Mean THg were below Health Canada’s consumption guideline for commercial fish.

  10. Distribution and abundance of anadromous Sea Lamprey Spawners in a fragmented stream: Current status and potential range expansion following barrier removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Gardner, Cory; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Dams fragment watersheds and prevent anadromous fishes from reaching historic spawning habitat. Sedgeunkedunk Stream, a small tributary to the Penobscot River (Maine), has been the focus of efforts to reestablish marine-freshwater connectivity and restore anadromous fishes via the removal of two barriers to fish migration. Currently, Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey) is the only anadromous fish known to spawn successfully in the stream downstream of the lowermost dam. Here, we describe the distribution and abundance of a spawning population of Sea Lamprey in Sedgeunkedunk Stream, prior to and in anticipation of habitat increase after the completion of one barrier removal. In 2008, we estimated the abundance of Sea Lamprey and its nests using daily stream surveys and an open-population mark-recapture model. We captured 47 Sea Lamprey and implanted each with a PIT tag so that we could track movements and nest associations of individual fish. The spawning migration began on 18 June, and the last living individual was observed on 27 June. We located 31 nests, distributed from head-of-tide to the lowermost dam; no spawners or nests were observed in the tidally influenced zone or upstream of this dam. Mean longevity in the stream and the number of nests attended were correlated with arrival date; early migrants were alive longer and attended more nests than later migrants. Males were more likely to be observed away from a nest, or attending three or more nests, than were females, which attended usually one or two nests. We observed a negative association between nest abundance and substrate cover by fine sediment. Based on their observed movements in the system, and the extent of their habitat use, we anticipate that spawning Sea Lamprey will recolonize formerly inaccessible habitat after dam removals.

  11. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, 2008 Annual Report : October 2007 - September 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagan, Robert E.; Olsen, Erik A. [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-09-28

    This report summarizes the life history and production data collected in the Hood River subbasin during FY 2008. Included is a summary of jack and adult life history data collected at the Powerdale Dam trap on seventeen complete run years of winter steelhead, spring and fall chinook salmon, and coho salmon, and on fifteen complete run years of summer steelhead. Also included are summaries of (1) the hatchery winter steelhead broodstock collection program; (2) hatchery production releases in the Hood River subbasin; (3) subbasin wild summer and winter steelhead smolt production, (4) numbers of hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts leaving the subbasin; (5) smolt migration timing past Bonneville Dam, (6) wild and hatchery steelhead smolt-to-adult survival rates; (7) wild summer and winter steelhead egg to smolt survival rates; and (8) streamflow at selected locations in the Hood River subbasin. Data will be used in part to (1) evaluate the HRPP relative to its impact on indigenous populations of resident and anadromous salmonids (see Ardren Draft), (2) evaluate the HRPP's progress towards achieving the biological fish objectives defined in the Hood River Subbasin Plan (Coccoli 2004) and the Revised Master Plan for the Hood River Production Program (HDR|FishPro, ODFW, and CTWSRO 2008), (3) refine spawner escapement objectives to more accurately reflect subbasin carrying capacity, and (4) refine estimates of subbasin smolt production capacity to more accurately reflect current and potential subbasin carrying capacity.

  12. Genetic differences between hatchery and wild steelhead for survival, growth, dispersal, and male maturation in a natural stream (Study site: Twenty-Mile Creek; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery and Selway River wild; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Baker, Bruce M.; Leonetti,; Stenberg, Karl D.; Slatton, Stacey L.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    This study was initiated in the early 1990s to provide managers with data comparing genetic fitness for natural rearing, as measured by survival of juveniles in freshwater, between steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and wild steelhead from the Clearwater River, Idaho. We artificially spawned hatchery steelhead and wild steelhead from the Selway River, a Clearwater River tributary, released the resulting genetically marked (at the PEPA allozyme locus) progeny (HxH, HxW from hatchery females and wild males, and WxW) as unfed fry in a second order tributary of the South Fork Clearwater River, and monitored fish residing in the stream or emigrating from it for five years. Barrier falls prevented access to the stream by naturally produced steelhead. Over 90% of the emigrants were one or two years of age and too small to be smolts (mean fork length at age-2 = 103 mm). Per fry released, the HxH cross produced 0.64-0.83 times as many emigrants as the WxW cross (PWxW cross for one year-class (P=0.051) and 0.68 times as many for the other (ns). Survival from age-1 to age-4 was lower for HxH than for WxW residuals of one year-class (PWxW residuals of the other (P=0.062). Collectively, these results indicate lower survival for HxH than for WxW fish. Size was often greater for HxH than for WxW fish indicating faster growth for the former, and condition factor was also usually greater for HxH than for WxW fish. Dispersal of fry from release sites and emigration of one- and two-year olds from the study stream were greater for WxW than for HxH fish, and apparently neither was from competitive displacement of small by larger fish. Incidence of flowing milt was higher for HxH than for WxW fish at age-2. Peak incidence of flowing milt for older residuals was similar among crosses (about 50%), but the peak occurred at greater size and age for WxW than for HxH residuals. HxW fish were intermediate between HxH and WxW fish, not similar to HxH fish, in

  13. Low-cost mobile hatchery produced silver barb (Barbodes gonionotus) fingerling:it's growth and economic performance in intensive culture system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SM Mustafizur Rahman; Biplob Basak; Siddhwartha Kumar Basak; Md Rushna Alam; Md Mohsin Ali; Mohammad Mahfujul Haque

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the growth performance of low-cost mobile hatchery produced silver barb (Barbodes gonionotus) fingerling comparing with typical one, field laboratory complex hatchery. Methods:Assigning Treatment I and Treatment II stoked with low-cost mobile hatchery and field laboratory complex hatchery originated fingerling of silver barb in plastic circular tank. Results:The average weight gain (g/day) of fish was 0.18 and 0.16 g, length gain (cm/d) 0.03 and 0.02, gross yield 0.09 and 0.08 kg/tank per month, net yield 0.03 and 0.01 kg/tank per month respectively in Treatment I and Treatment II. The growth of low-cost mobile hatchery produced silver barb was higher (P Conclusions:The fry from both origins showed more or less similar growth performance and none of them was superior. Considering the economic feasibility in both cases, it is assumed that the intensive culture of silver barb is possible at field level.

  14. Spatial and temporal use of a spawning site in the middle green river by wild and hatchery-reared razorback suckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modde, T.; Bowen, Z.H.; Kitcheyan, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    The population of endangered razorback suckers Xyrauchen texanus in the middle Green River (upper Colorado River basin) has declined during the last 40 years. The apparent cause for this decline is a lack of successful recruitment. This study used radiotelemetry to evaluate the ability of hatchery-reared razorback suckers to locate spawning areas where wild fish congregate during the ascending hydrographic limb of the snowmelt runoff. Hatchery-reared razorback suckers appeared to show similar reproductive behavior to wild fish. Both wild and hatchery-reared fish were found near the middle Green River spawning area between 1 and 25 May 2000. Hatchery fish occupied the same areas on the spawning site as wild fish, and remained on the spawning site during both nocturnal and diurnal hours. Males were more abundant on the spawning area than females, but the few females captured tended to stage away from the primary spawning area. The results from this study suggest hatchery-reared fish are capable of responding to natural cues that prompt spawning aggregations and are successful in locating existing spawning aggregations of wild fish. Given attention to stocking criteria, including genetic diversity and the size and time of stocking, the challenges of recovering razorback suckers will center on those factors that led to the population declines, particularly the survival of early life stages in off-channel habitats. ?? American Fisheries Society 2005.

  15. Microhabitat use and seasonal movements of hatchery-reared and wild shortnose sturgeon in the Savannah River, South Carolina--Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trested, D.G.; Ware, K.M.; Bakal, R.; Isely, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Radio and acoustic telemetry were used to monitor the seasonal movement of hatchery-reared and wild shortnose sturgeon (622-927 mm total length) in the Savannah River. Diploid, and sterile hatchery-reared shortnose sturgeon, and wild shortnose sturgeon showed apparent similar seasonal patterns of movement within the river. We were unable to detect any significant differences in the seasonal mean river location, minimum daily distance moved, absolute distance moved, displacement or mean territory size among treatments. Fish moved throughout the brackish and freshwater interface area of the Savannah River during the summer months. Coinciding with decreasing fall temperatures, fish of all treatment groups moved downriver into brackish areas of the upper estuary, residing in the Front, Middle, and Back Rivers, where they remained through winter. Upriver movements of some hatchery-reared and wild groups began in early February as river temperatures began to increase. Shortnose sturgeon from each group selected apparent similar thermal, salinity and water depth conditions throughout the year. Hatchery-reared fish may be useful as surrogates for wild fish in behavioural studies. Triploid or surgically-sterilized fish may be used in situ behavioural studies where genetic contamination is a concern. It may be possible to monitor habitats used by released hatchery-reared fish to locate or verify remnant populations of rare or endangered species in systems where they are thought to be extirpated.

  16. The potential influence of changing climate on the persistence of salmonids of the inland west

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, A.L.; Williams, J.E.; Isaak, D.; Todd, A.; Muhlfeld, C.C.; Kershner, J.L.; Gresswell, R.E.; Hostetler, S.W.; Neville, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's climate warmed steadily during the 20th century, and mean annual air temperatures are estimated to have increased by 0.6°C (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007). Although many cycles of warming and cooling have occurred in the past, the most recent warming period is unique in its rate and magnitude of change (Siegenthaler and others, 2005) and in its association with anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , 2007). The climate in the western United States warmed in concert with the global trend but at an accelerated rate (+0.8°C during the 20th century; Saunders and others, 2008). The region could also prove especially sensitive to future changes because the relatively small human population is growing rapidly, as are demands on limited water supplies. Regional hydrological patterns are dominated by seasonal snow accumulation at upper elevations. Most of the region is relatively dry, and both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are strongly constrained b y water availability (Barnett and others, 2008; Brown and others, 2008). Stream environments are dynamic and climatically extreme, and salmonid fishes are the dominant elements of the native biodiversity (McPhail and Lindsey, 1986; Waples and others, 2008). Salmonids have broad economic and ecologic importance, but a century of intensive water resource development, nonnative fish stocking, and land use has significantly reduced many populations and several taxa are now protected under the Endangered Species Act (Thurow and others, 1997; Trotter, 2008). Because salmonids require relatively pristine, cold water environments and are often isolated in headwater habitats, members of this group may be especially vulnerable to the effects of a warming climate (Keleher and Rahel, 1996; Rieman and others, 2007; Williams and others, 2009). Warming during the 20th century drove a series of environmental trends that have profound implications for many

  17. Differential expression of gill Na+,K+-ATPaseα - and β-subunits, Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter and CFTR anion channel in juvenile anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Tom O.; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.; Madsen, Steffen S.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Andersson, Eva; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; Prunet, Patrick; Stefansson, Sigurd O.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines changes in gill Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) α- and β-subunit isoforms, Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR I and II) in anadromous and landlocked strains of Atlantic salmon during parr-smolt transformation, and after seawater (SW) transfer in May/June. Gill NKA activity increased from February through April, May and June among both strains in freshwater (FW), with peak enzyme activity in the landlocked salmon being 50% below that of the anadromous fish in May and June. Gill NKA-α1b, -α3, -β1 and NKCC mRNA levels in anadromous salmon increased transiently, reaching peak levels in smolts in April/May, whereas no similar smolt-related upregulation of these transcripts occurred in juvenile landlocked salmon. Gill NKA-α1a mRNA decreased significantly in anadromous salmon from February through June, whereas α1a levels in landlocked salmon, after an initial decrease in April, remained significantly higher than those of the anadromous smolts in May and June. Following SW transfer, gill NKA-α1b and NKCC mRNA increased in both strains, whereas NKA-α1a decreased. Both strains exhibited a transient increase in gill NKA α-protein abundance, with peak levels in May. Gill α-protein abundance was lower in SW than corresponding FW values in June. Gill NKCC protein abundance increased transiently in anadromous fish, with peak levels in May, whereas a slight increase was observed in landlocked salmon in May, increasing to peak levels in June. Gill CFTR I mRNA levels increased significantly from February to April in both strains, followed by a slight, though not significant increase in May and June. CFTR I mRNA levels were significantly lower in landlocked than anadromous salmon in April/June. Gill CFTR II mRNA levels did not change significantly in either strain. Our findings demonstrates that differential expression of gill NKA-α1a, -α1b and -α3 isoforms may be important for potential functional

  18. Salmonid Council of Newfoundland and Labrador comments on public discussion paper : Developing an energy plan for Newfoundland and Labrador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hustins, D.

    2006-02-02

    The Government of Newfoundland and Labrador has promoted public debate on the future energy needs of the province in order to assess all alternatives. The Salmonid Council of Newfoundland and Labrador (SCNL) supports this effort and recognizes that new energy needs are necessary to support the developing economy. The SCNL has provided advice on preserving the valuable sport fishery for Atlantic salmon and trout in the province. The Council is dedicated to the conservation and wise management of salmonids and their habitat. The 12 affiliated members of the Council were identified along with other organizations that actively support the objectives of the SCNL. The Council has been active in the following activities: development of salmon and trout management plants; establishment of the Cooperation Agreement for Salmonid Enhancement; moratorium on the commercial exploitation of wild salmon; moratorium on small hydroelectric development; growth and development of community stewardship groups; conservation and restoration of salmon stocks in the province; and, the promotion of catch and release angling. This document reviewed issues such as the value of the sport fishing industry; stock status; effects of hydroelectric development on salmon; candidate rivers for hydroelectric development; and, recent investments in restoring salmonid habitat and stocks. This document also presented the Council's 12 recommendations to the government to develop the maximum amount of power with the least environmental damage. The Council's vision is to double the growth of sport fishery over the next 10 years through improved management of this resource which generates economic wealth throughout the province, particularly in rural areas that are greatly challenged in available economic opportunities.

  19. A 6K-deletion variant of salmonid alphavirus is non-viable but can be rescued through RNA recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tz-Chun Guo

    Full Text Available Pancreas disease (PD of Atlantic salmon is an emerging disease caused by Salmonid alphavirus (SAV which mainly affects salmonid aquaculture in Western Europe. Although genome structure of SAV has been characterized and each individual viral protein has been identified, the role of 6K protein in viral replication and infectivity remains undefined. The 6K protein of alphaviruses is a small and hydrophobic protein which is involved in membrane permeabilization, protein processing and virus budding. Because these common features are shared across many viral species, they have been named viroporins. In the present study, we applied reverse genetics to generate SAV3 6K-deleted (Δ6K variant and investigate the role of 6K protein. Our findings show that the 6K-deletion variant of salmonid alphavirus is non-viable. Despite viral proteins of Δ6K variant are detected in the cytoplasm by immunostaining, they are not found on the cell surface. Further, analysis of viral proteins produced in Δ6K cDNA clone transfected cells using radioimmunoprecipitation (RIPA and western blot showed a protein band of larger size than E2 of wild-type SAV3. When Δ6K cDNA was co-transfected with SAV3 helper cDNA encoding the whole structural genes including 6K, the infectivity was rescued. The development of CPE after co-transfection and resolved genome sequence of rescued virus confirmed full-length viral genome being generated through RNA recombination. The discovery of the important role of the 6K protein in virus production provides a new possibility for the development of antiviral intervention which is highly needed to control SAV infection in salmonids.

  20. A 6K-deletion variant of salmonid alphavirus is non-viable but can be rescued through RNA recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tz-Chun; Johansson, Daniel X; Haugland, Øyvind; Liljeström, Peter; Evensen, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) of Atlantic salmon is an emerging disease caused by Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) which mainly affects salmonid aquaculture in Western Europe. Although genome structure of SAV has been characterized and each individual viral protein has been identified, the role of 6K protein in viral replication and infectivity remains undefined. The 6K protein of alphaviruses is a small and hydrophobic protein which is involved in membrane permeabilization, protein processing and virus budding. Because these common features are shared across many viral species, they have been named viroporins. In the present study, we applied reverse genetics to generate SAV3 6K-deleted (Δ6K) variant and investigate the role of 6K protein. Our findings show that the 6K-deletion variant of salmonid alphavirus is non-viable. Despite viral proteins of Δ6K variant are detected in the cytoplasm by immunostaining, they are not found on the cell surface. Further, analysis of viral proteins produced in Δ6K cDNA clone transfected cells using radioimmunoprecipitation (RIPA) and western blot showed a protein band of larger size than E2 of wild-type SAV3. When Δ6K cDNA was co-transfected with SAV3 helper cDNA encoding the whole structural genes including 6K, the infectivity was rescued. The development of CPE after co-transfection and resolved genome sequence of rescued virus confirmed full-length viral genome being generated through RNA recombination. The discovery of the important role of the 6K protein in virus production provides a new possibility for the development of antiviral intervention which is highly needed to control SAV infection in salmonids.

  1. Turbulence Investigation and Reproduction for Assisting Downstream Migrating Juvenile Salmonids, Part I of II, 2001-2002 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkiss, Rollin H. (Washington State University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineers, Albrook Hydraulics Laboratory)

    2002-12-01

    Turbulence in gravel bed rivers plays a critical role in most stream processes including contaminant and nutrient transport, aquatic habitat selection, and natural channel design. While most hydraulic designs and fluid models are based on bulk velocity, migrating juvenile salmon experience and react to the temporally varied turbulent fluctuations. Without properly understanding and accounting for the continuous turbulent motions proper fishway design and guidance are impossible. Matching temporally varied flow to fish reactions is the key to guiding juvenile salmonids to safe passageways. While the ideal solution to fish guidance design would be to use specific fluid action-fish reaction mechanisms, such concrete cause and effect relations have not been established. One way to approach the problem of guidance is to hypothesize that in an environment lacking obvious bulk flow cues (like the reservoir environment), turbulent flow conditions similar to those experienced by juvenile salmonids in natural migration corridors will be attractive to juvenile salmonids. Proof of this hypothesis requires three steps: (1) gathering data on turbulence characteristics in natural migration corridors, (2) reproduction of the turbulence parameters in a controlled environment, and (3) testing the reproduced turbulence on actively migrating juvenile salmonids for increased passage efficiencies. The results from the third step have not been finalized, therefore this report will focus on understanding turbulent processes in gravel bed rivers and reproduction of turbulence in controlled environments for use in fish passage technologies. The purposes of this report are to (1) present data collected in natural gravel bed rivers, (2) present a simple method for reproduction of appropriate turbulence levels in a controlled environment, (3) compare these results to those from one prototype surface collector (PSC), and (4) discuss the implications on fish passage design.

  2. BIOCHEMICAL AND MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF PRE-LARVAE OF THREE SALMONIDS SPECIES AT ONE-DAY AGE

    OpenAIRE

    Ye. Barylo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To study and analyze the morphometric and some biochemical parameters of pre-larval brown trout, rainbow trout and brook trout in post-embryonic period under the conditions of "Rybnyi Potik” farm in the Transcarpathian region for further use of the obtained data in scientific and practical works related to the cultivation of the juveniles of valuable salmonid species. Methodology. One-day free embryos (pre-larvae) of brown trout, rainbow trout and brook trout we used as study mat...

  3. Assessment of Salmonids and their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin of Washington : 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, Glen Wesley; Karl, David; Coyle, Terrence

    2001-11-01

    Concerns about the decline of native salmon and trout populations have increased among natural resource managers and the public in recent years. As a result, a multitude of initiatives have been implemented at the local, state, and federal government levels. These initiatives include management plans and actions intended to protect and restore salmonid fishes and their habitats. In 1998 bull trout were listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), as ''Threatened'', for the Walla Walla River and its tributaries. Steelhead were listed as ''Threatened'' in 1999 for the mid-Columbia River and its tributaries. These ESA listings emphasize the need for information about the threatened salmonid populations and their habitats. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) is entrusted with ''the preservation, protection, and perpetuation of fish and wildlife....[and to] maximize public recreational or commercial opportunities without impairing the supply of fish and wildlife (WAC 77. 12.010).'' In consideration of this mandate, the WDFW submitted a proposal in December 1997 to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a study to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of their habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. The primary purposes of this project are to collect baseline biological and habitat data, to identify major data gaps, and to draw conclusions whenever possible. The study reported herein details the findings of the 2000 field season (March to November, 2000).

  4. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.

    1991-01-01

    Initially, rehabilitation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka met with apparent success reaching a peak abundance of 10.2 million fishTl988. However, a decline of 47% followed from 1988 through 1991 to 5.4 million fish. The decreased population was attributed to poor recruitment of wild fish, poor egg take, thus, low stocking of hatchery fry (7.3 million in 1990 and 5.0 million in 1991 compared to about 13.0 million in 1981), and poor survival of fish ages 3 and 4 (average survival of the older fish was only 35% in 1990 compared to 72% in prior years but it was 68% in 1991). In addition, standing stocks of kokanee have remained relatively stable (x = 8.6 kg/hectare) since 1986 despite the dramatic changes in density. Prior to this study (1985) standing stocks were substantially higher (x = 13.6 kg/hectare). The kokanee population is probably operating below carrying capacity. Hatchery fry comprised 59% of the total kokanee recruitment in 1991 (93% of fry biomass). This contribution of 1.06 million fry ranked fifth behind 1988 (3.74 million), 1989 (2.25 million), 1982 (1.89 million), and 1990 (1.56 million) since hatchery supplementation began in the 1970s. Survival of hatchery fry was 21% in 1991, the second highest since this investigation began. Two release strategies were tested in 1991 of which the best survival was recorded for the Sullivan Springs release at 23% while the early Clark Fork River release continued to have lowest survival at 18%. Survival of hatchery reared kokanee fry is still below the goal of 30% and it appears that this goal may not be attainable most years. Statistical analysis between number of days from fry release to recapture day and fry survival did not reveal a relationship (P = 0.43). Survival of fry from late releases is higher (P = 0.05) than early releases but no difference (P L 0.71) was detected between stocking locations. Good survival of fry from the Sullivan Springs releases was attributed to large size of kokanee fry (55 mm), warm

  5. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The goal of the study was to provide fish passage and distribution data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. During the year-long study period - February 1, 2010 to January 31, 2011the objectives of the hydroacoustic evaluation of fish passage and distribution at LOP were to: 1. Estimate passage rates, run timing, horizontal distribution, and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for smolt-size fish. 2. Estimate passage rates, run timing and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for small-size fish. 3. Estimate passage rates and run timing at the regulating outlets for smolt-size fish. 4. Estimate vertical distribution of smolt-size fish in the forebay near the upstream face of the dam. The fixed-location hydroacoustic technique was used to accomplish the objectives of this study. Transducers (420 kHz) were deployed in each penstock intake, above each RO entrance, and on the dam face; a total of nine transducers (2 single-beam and 7 split-beam) were used. We summarize the findings from the hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011 as follows. • Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> ~90 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. • During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish ± 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt

  6. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Sluiceway, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate fish passage at The Dalles Dam powerhouse in 2005. The goal of the study was to provide information on smolt passage that will inform decisions on long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. The study addressed one of the main programs dedicated to improving juvenile salmonid survival at The Dalles Dam: Surface Flow Bypass. The study objectives (see below) were met using a combination of hydroacoustic and hydraulic data. The study incorporated fixed-location hydroacoustic methods across the entire powerhouse, with especially intense sampling using multiple split-beam transducers at all sluiceway portals. We did not sample fish passage at the spillway in 2005. In the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish movements. The fish data were interpreted with hydraulic data from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Fish passage data were collected in the framework of an “experiment” using a randomized block design (3-day treatments; two treatments) to compare two sluiceway operational configurations: Sluice 2+5 and Sluice 2+19 (six gates open for each configuration). Total project outflow was 76% of the 10-year average for spring and 71% of the 10-year average for summer. Based on these findings, we make the following recommendations: 1) The sluice should be operated 24 h/d from April until November. 2) Open six rather than three sluice gates to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. 3) Open the three gates above the western-most operating main turbine unit and the three gates at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high. 4) Operate the turbine units below open sluice gates as a standard fish operations procedure. 5) Develop hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway to tap the potential of The

  7. Preservation of hatchery waste by lactic acid fermentation. 2. Large-scale fermentation and feeding trial to evaluate feeding value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, A C; Patterson, P H

    1997-09-01

    Two waste streams from a Leghorn hatchery were preserved and recycled by fermentation with a by-product carbohydrate and extrusion processing into new feed ingredients that were evaluated with broiler chickens. Cockerel chicks (CC) and a 60:40 ratio of CC:shell waste (CC:SW) were fermented in 189-L barrels for 21 d following grinding, then mixing with a liquid culture (0.2%) and carbohydrate source at 15 and 16.66%, respectively. At 2 wk, pH was 4.44 and 5.09 for the CC and CC:SW products compared with higher values of 6.54 and 6.98 for the raw ingredients at the onset. Negligible hydrogen sulfide and no ammonia gas were recorded during the fermentation period. At 21 d, the fermented CC and CC:SW were extruded, dried, and ground to meals containing CP and TMEn levels of 47.4%, 3,187 kcal/kg, and 33.1%, 2,696 kcal/kg, respectively. Broiler chickens were fed a control diet and the CC (5 and 10%) and CC:SW (2.5 and 5%) ingredient diets with corn and soybean meal for 6 wk to evaluate feeding value and carcass yield. Body weight, gain and feed conversion at 42 d for birds fed diets supplemented with CC or CC:SW at all levels were comparable to those of the control. Diets supplemented with hatchery by-product had no negative effect on carcass measurements except ready to cook carcass and wing yield, which were significantly greater for the 10% CC:SW birds than for the control. These data indicate that nutrient dense hatchery by-products can be preserved with fermentation up to 21 d and support broiler live performance and carcass yield as dietary ingredients equal to or better than a corn-soybean meal control.

  8. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-08-01

    In the western United States, exotic brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis frequently have a deleterious effect on native salmonids, and biologists often attempt to remove brook trout in streams using electrofishing. Although the success of electrofishing removal projects typically is low, few studies have assessed the underlying mechanisms of failure, especially in terms of compensatory responses. We evaluated the effectiveness of a three-year removal project in reducing brook trout and enhancing native salmonids in 7.8 km of an Idaho stream and looked for brook trout compensatory responses such as decreased natural mortality, increased growth, increased fecundity at length, or earlier maturation. Due to underestimates of the distribution of brook trout in the first year and personnel shortages in the third year, the multiagency watershed advisory group that performed the project fully treated the stream (i.e. multipass removals over the entire stream) in only one year. In 1998, 1999, and 2000, a total of 1,401, 1,241, and 890 brook trout were removed, respectively. For 1999 and 2000, an estimated 88 and 79% of the total number of brook trout in the stream were removed. For the section of stream that was treated in all years, the abundance of age-1 and older brook trout decreased by 85% from 1998 to 2003. In the same area, the abundance of age-0 brook trout decreased 86% from 1998 to 1999 but by 2003 had rebounded to near the original abundance. Abundance of native redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss decreased for age-1 and older fish but did not change significantly for age-0 fish. Despite high rates of removal, total annual survival rate for brook trout increased from 0.08 {+-} 0.02 in 1998 to 0.20 {+-} 0.04 in 1999 and 0.21 {+-} 0.04 in 2000. Growth of age-0 brook trout was significantly higher in 2000 (the year after their abundance was lowest) compared to other years, and growth of age-1 and age-2 brook trout was significantly lower following the initial removal

  9. Comparative Performance of Acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged Juvenile Salmonids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hockersmith, Eric E.; Brown, Richard S.; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2008-02-01

    Numerous research tools and technologies are currently being used to evaluate fish passage and survival to determine the impacts of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) on endangered and threatened juvenile salmonids, including PIT tags, balloon tags, hydroacoustic evaluations, radio telemetry, and acoustic telemetry. Each has advantages and disadvantages, but options are restricted in some situations because of limited capabilities of a specific technology, lack of detection capability downstream, or availability of adequate numbers of fish. However, there remains concern about the comparative effects of the tag or the tagging procedure on fish performance. The recently developed Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic transmitter is the smallest active acoustic tag currently available. The goal of this study was to determine whether fish tagged with the JSATS acoustic-telemetry tag can provide unbiased estimates of passage behavior and survival within the performance life of the tag. We conducted both field and laboratory studies to assess tag effects. For the field evaluation we released a total of 996 acoustic-tagged fish in conjunction with 21,026 PIT-tagged fish into the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam on 6 and 13 May. Travel times between release and downstream dams were not significantly different for the majority of the reaches between acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged fish. In addition to the field evaluation, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine if growth and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon surgically implanted with acoustic transmitters is different than untagged or PIT tagged juvenile Chinook salmon. Only yearling fish with integrated and non-integrated transmitters experienced mortalities, and these were low (<4.5%). Mortality among sub-yearling control and PIT-tag treatments ranged up to 7.7% while integrated and non-integrated treatments had slightly higher rates (up to 8.3% and 7

  10. Application of molecular endpoints in early life stage salmonid environmental biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlatt, Vicki L; Sherrard, Ryan; Kennedy, Chris J; Elphick, James R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2016-04-01

    Molecular endpoints can enhance existing whole animal bioassays by more fully characterizing the biological impacts of aquatic pollutants. Laboratory and field studies were used to examine the utility of adopting molecular endpoints for a well-developed in situ early life stage (eyed embryo to onset of swim-up fry) salmonid bioassay to improve diagnostic assessments of water quality in the field. Coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) were exposed in the laboratory to the model metal (zinc, 40μg/L) and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pyrene, 100μg/L) in water to examine the resulting early life stage salmonid responses. In situ field exposures and bioassays were conducted in parallel to evaluate the water quality of three urban streams in British Columbia (two sites with anthropogenic inputs and one reference site). The endpoints measured in swim-up fry included survival, deformities, growth (weight and length), vitellogenin (vtg) and metallothionein (Mt) protein levels, and hepatic gene expression (e.g., metallothioneins [mta and mtb], endocrine biomarkers [vtg and estrogen receptors, esr] and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes [cytochrome P450 1A3, cyp1a3 and glutathione transferases, gstk]). No effects were observed in the zinc treatment, however exposure of swim-up fry to pyrene resulted in decreased survival, deformities and increased estrogen receptor alpha (er1) mRNA levels. In the field exposures, xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (cyp1a3, gstk) and zinc transporter (zntBigM103) mRNA were significantly increased in swim-up fry deployed at the sites with more anthropogenic inputs compared to the reference site. Cluster analysis revealed that gene expression profiles in individuals from the streams receiving anthropogenic inputs were more similar to each other than to the reference site. Collectively, the results obtained in this study suggest that molecular endpoints may be useful, and potentially more sensitive, indicators of site

  11. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation; Creston National Fish Hatchery, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service Staff, (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Creston National Fish Hatchery, Kalispell, MT)

    2004-02-01

    Mitigation Objective 1: Produce Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire eggs and rear up to 100,000 Westslope Cutthroat trout annually for offsite mitigation stocking. Accomplishments: A total of 141,000 westslope cutthroat eggs (M012 strain) was acquired from the State of Montana Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in May 2002 for this objective. We also received an additional 22,000 westslope cutthroat eggs, MO12 strain naturalized, from feral fish at Rogers Lake, Flathead County, Montana. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 95.6%. We achieved a 0.80 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring and adaptive management. Mitigation Objective 2: Produce Rainbow Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire and rear up to 100,000 Rainbow trout annually for offsite mitigation in closed basin waters. Accomplishments: A total of 54,000 rainbow trout eggs (Arlee strain) was acquired from the Ennis National Fish Hatchery in December 2002 for this objective. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 99.9%. We achieved a 0.79 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Arlee rainbow trout are being used for this objective because the stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs and habitat conditions and returns to the creel are unsuitable for native cutthroat. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually

  12. Genetic variation within and among Danish brown trout ( Salmo trutta L) hatchery strains, assessed by PCR-RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons; Rasmussen, Gorm;

    1997-01-01

    Eleven Danish brown trout hatchery strains were studied by PCR- RFLP analysis of the ND-I and ND-5/6 segments of the mitochondrial genome. For comparison, data from wild trout representing three Danish river systems also were included. Reduced variability in terms of nucleon diversity and number...... of haplotypes was observed in most hatchery strains. However, computer simulations showed that even with relatively large numbers of female spawners considerable loss of haplotypes could take place over time. Therefore, reduced variability in some of the strains did not necessarily indicate a critical loss...

  13. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume IX : Evaluation of the 2001 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild and Hatchery-Reared Migrant Salmon and Steelhead Trout Migrating to Lower Granite, Rock Island, McNary, and John Day Dams using Program RealTime.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Caitlin; Skalski, John R.

    2001-12-01

    stocks were well-predicted, with season-wide MADs of 4.7% for subyearling chinook salmon, 3.3% for yearling chinook salmon, and 1.4% for steelhead. All three Snake River stocks were better predicted at McNary Dam than they were at Lower Granite Dam. The Upper Columbia River PIT-tagged runs-at-large of wild subyearling chinook salmon and wild steelhead were not predicted with the remarkable accuracy of the Snake River stocks, but RealTime performance for these stocks was still good, with season-wide MADs of 7.9% and 4.9%, respectively. The results of RealTime predictions of FPC passage-indexed percentiles of combined wild and hatchery-reared salmonids to Rock Island and McNary dams were comparable to last year with respect to the large variability in performance. Like last year some runs were predicted very well while others were predicted very poorly. The stocks predicted best and worst last year were not necessarily the stocks predicted best and worst this year.

  14. Designing a Monitoring Program to Estimate Estuarine Survival of Anadromous Salmon Smolts: Simulating the Effect of Sample Design on Inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D Romer

    Full Text Available A number of researchers have attempted to estimate salmonid smolt survival during outmigration through an estuary. However, it is currently unclear how the design of such studies influences the accuracy and precision of survival estimates. In this simulation study we consider four patterns of smolt survival probability in the estuary, and test the performance of several different sampling strategies for estimating estuarine survival assuming perfect detection. The four survival probability patterns each incorporate a systematic component (constant, linearly increasing, increasing and then decreasing, and two pulses and a random component to reflect daily fluctuations in survival probability. Generally, spreading sampling effort (tagging across the season resulted in more accurate estimates of survival. All sampling designs in this simulation tended to under-estimate the variation in the survival estimates because seasonal and daily variation in survival probability are not incorporated in the estimation procedure. This under-estimation results in poorer performance of estimates from larger samples. Thus, tagging more fish may not result in better estimates of survival if important components of variation are not accounted for. The results of our simulation incorporate survival probabilities and run distribution data from previous studies to help illustrate the tradeoffs among sampling strategies in terms of the number of tags needed and distribution of tagging effort. This information will assist researchers in developing improved monitoring programs and encourage discussion regarding issues that should be addressed prior to implementation of any telemetry-based monitoring plan. We believe implementation of an effective estuary survival monitoring program will strengthen the robustness of life cycle models used in recovery plans by providing missing data on where and how much mortality occurs in the riverine and estuarine portions of smolt

  15. Designing a monitoring program to estimate estuarine survival of anadromous salmon smolts: simulating the effect of sample design on inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Jeremy D.; Gitelman, Alix I.; Clements, Shaun; Schreck, Carl B.

    2015-01-01

    A number of researchers have attempted to estimate salmonid smolt survival during outmigration through an estuary. However, it is currently unclear how the design of such studies influences the accuracy and precision of survival estimates. In this simulation study we consider four patterns of smolt survival probability in the estuary, and test the performance of several different sampling strategies for estimating estuarine survival assuming perfect detection. The four survival probability patterns each incorporate a systematic component (constant, linearly increasing, increasing and then decreasing, and two pulses) and a random component to reflect daily fluctuations in survival probability. Generally, spreading sampling effort (tagging) across the season resulted in more accurate estimates of survival. All sampling designs in this simulation tended to under-estimate the variation in the survival estimates because seasonal and daily variation in survival probability are not incorporated in the estimation procedure. This under-estimation results in poorer performance of estimates from larger samples. Thus, tagging more fish may not result in better estimates of survival if important components of variation are not accounted for. The results of our simulation incorporate survival probabilities and run distribution data from previous studies to help illustrate the tradeoffs among sampling strategies in terms of the number of tags needed and distribution of tagging effort. This information will assist researchers in developing improved monitoring programs and encourage discussion regarding issues that should be addressed prior to implementation of any telemetry-based monitoring plan. We believe implementation of an effective estuary survival monitoring program will strengthen the robustness of life cycle models used in recovery plans by providing missing data on where and how much mortality occurs in the riverine and estuarine portions of smolt migration. These data

  16. Salmonid alphavirus infection causes skin dysbiosis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) post-smolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kristin M.; Patel, Sonal; Robinson, Aaron J.; Bu, Lijing; Jarungsriapisit, Jiraporn; Moore, Lindsey J.; Salinas, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Interactions among host, microbiota and viral pathogens are complex and poorly understood. The goal of the present study is to assess the changes in the skin microbial community of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in response to experimental infection with salmonid alphavirus (SAV). The salmon skin microbial community was determined using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing in five different experimental groups: control, 7 days after infection with low-dose SAV, 14 days after infection with low-dose SAV, 7 days after infection with high-dose SAV, and 14 days after infection with high-dose SAV. Both infection treatment and time after infection were strong predictors of the skin microbial community composition. Skin samples from SAV3 infected fish showed an unbalanced microbiota characterized by a decreased abundance of Proteobacteria such as Oleispira sp. and increased abundances of opportunistic taxa including Flavobacteriaceae, Streptococcaceae and Tenacibaculum sp. These results demonstrate that viral infections can result in skin dysbiosis likely rendering the host more susceptible to secondary bacterial infections. PMID:28264056

  17. Efficiency of Portable Antennas for Detecting Passive Integrated Transponder Tags in Stream-Dwelling Salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banish, Nolan P; Burdick, Summer M; Moyer, Katherine R

    2016-01-01

    Portable antennas have become an increasingly common technique for tracking fish marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We used logistic regression to evaluate how species, fish length, and physical habitat characteristics influence portable antenna detection efficiency in stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii) marked with 12-mm PIT tags. We redetected 56% (20/36) of brown trout, 34% (68/202) of bull trout, and 33% (20/61) of redband trout after a recovery period of 21 to 46 hours. Models indicate support for length and species and minor support for percent boulder, large woody debris, and percent cobble as parameters important for describing variation in detection efficiency, although 95% confidence intervals for estimates were large. The odds of detecting brown trout (1.5 ± 2.2 [mean ± SE]) are approximately four times as high as bull trout (0.4 ± 1.6) or redband trout (0.3 ± 1.8) and species-specific differences may be related to length. Our reported detection efficiency for brown trout falls within the range of other studies, but is the first reported for bull trout and redband trout. Portable antennas may be a relatively unbiased way of redetecting varying sizes of all three salmonid species.

  18. Efficiency of portable antennas for detecting passive integrated transponder tags in stream-dwelling salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banish, Nolan P.; Burdick, Summer M.; Moyer, Katherine R.

    2016-01-01

    Portable antennas have become an increasingly common technique for tracking fish marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We used logistic regression to evaluate how species, fish length, and physical habitat characteristics influence portable antenna detection efficiency in stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii) marked with 12-mm PIT tags. We redetected 56% (20/36) of brown trout, 34% (68/202) of bull trout, and 33% (20/61) of redband trout after a recovery period of 21 to 46 hours. Models indicate support for length and species and minor support for percent boulder, large woody debris, and percent cobble as parameters important for describing variation in detection efficiency, although 95% confidence intervals for estimates were large. The odds of detecting brown trout (1.5 ± 2.2 [mean ± SE]) are approximately four times as high as bull trout (0.4 ± 1.6) or redband trout (0.3 ± 1.8) and species-specific differences may be related to length. Our reported detection efficiency for brown trout falls within the range of other studies, but is the first reported for bull trout and redband trout. Portable antennas may be a relatively unbiased way of redetecting varying sizes of all three salmonid species.

  19. Incipient toxicity of lithium to freshwater organisms representing a salmonid habitat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, R.; Klopfer, D.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1981-07-01

    Because the eventual development of fusion power reactors could increase the mining, use and disposal of lithium five-fold by the year 2000, potential effects from unusual amounts of lithium in aquatic environments were investigated. Freshwater oganisms representing a Pacific Northwest salmonid habitat were exposed to elevated conentrations of lithium. Nine parameters were used to determine the incipient toxicity of lithium to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), insect larvae (Chironomus sp.), and Columbia River periphyton. All three groups of biota were incipiently sensitive to lithium at concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1 mg/L. These results correspond with the incipient toxicity of beryllium, a chemically similar component of fusion reactor cores. A maximum lithium concentration of 0.01 mg/L occurs naturally in most freshwater environments (beryllium is rarer). Therefore, a concentration range of 0.01 to 0.1 mg/L may be regarded as approaching toxic concentrations when assessing the hazards of lithium in freshwaters.

  20. Development of a rapid and efficient microinjection technique for gene insertion into fertilized salmonid eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, D.P.; Welt, M.; Leung, F.C.

    1990-10-01

    An efficient one-step injection technique for gene insertion into fertilized rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs is described, and basic parameters affecting egg survival are reported. Freshly fertilized rainbow trout eggs were injected in the perivitelline space with a recombinant mouse metallothionein-genomic bovine growth hormone (bGH) DNA construct using a 30-gauge hypodermic needle and a standard microinjection system. Relative to control, site of injection and DNA concentration did not affect the egg survival, but injections later than 3--4 hours post fertilization were detrimental. The injection technique permitted treatment of 100 eggs/hr with survivals up to 100%, resulting in a 4% DNA uptake rate as indicated by DNA dot blot analysis. Positive dot blot results also indicated that the injected DNA is able to cross the vitelline membrane and persist for 50--60 days post hatching, obviating the need for direct injection into the germinal disk. Results are consistent with previous transgenic fish work, underscoring the usefulness of the technique for generating transgenic trout and salmonids. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Isolation, Characterization and Virulence Potential of Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi in Salmonid Cultures in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño-Herrera, R; Irgang, R; Sandoval, C; Moreno-Lira, P; Houel, A; Duchaud, E; Poblete-Morales, M; Nicolas, P; Ilardi, P

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we isolated, identified and characterized isolates of Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farmed in Chile for the first time. In 2010 and 2014, mortalities were observed in Atlantic salmon (average weight 25-30 and 480-520 g, respectively) at an aquaculture centre in Puerto Montt, Chile. Severe tail rots, frayed fins and, in some cases, damaged gills were detected. Wet smear analyses of these lesions revealed a high occurrence of Gram-negative, filamentous bacteria. Microbiological analysis of infected gill and tail tissues yielded six bacterial isolates. All were identified as T. dicentrarchi through polyphasic taxonomy, which included phenotypic characterization, 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing. The latter method revealed a close relationship of the Chilean genotype with the T. dicentrarchi type strain and two Norwegian Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) isolates. The pathogenic potential of the TdChD05 isolate was assessed by challenging Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for one hour, which resulted in mean cumulative mortality rates of 65% and 93%, respectively, as well as clinical signs 14 days post-challenge. However, challenged Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) presented no mortalities or clinical signs of infection. These findings indicate that the geographical and host distribution of T. dicentrarchi is wider than previously established and that this bacterium may have negative impacts on salmonid cultures.

  2. Ecological aspects of nematode parasites of introduced salmonids from Valdivia river basin, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Torres

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Between 1986 and 1987 fishes distributed among the following species introduced in Chile, and from different sectors of the Valdivia river basin (39º30' - 40º00', 73º30' - 71º45'W, were examined: 348 Salmo trutta, 242 Salmo gairdneri, 24 Cyprinus carpio and 52 Gambusia affinis holbrooki. The presence of Camallanus corderoi and Contracaecum sp. in S. gairdneri and of C. corderoi in S. trutta is recorded in Chile for the first time. Cyprinus carpio and G. a. holbrooki did not present infections by nematodes. The prevalence and mean intensity of the infections by nematodes presented significant differences among some sectors of the Valdivia river basin. In general, the prevalence and intensity of the infections by C. corderoi were greater than those by Contracaecum sp. The infections in S. gairdneri were higher than in S. trutta. The sex of the hosts had no influence on the prevalence and intensity of the infections by both nematodes. The length of the hosts did have an influence, except in the case of the infections by Contracaecum sp. in S, gairdneri. The infrapopulations of both nematode species showed over dispersion in most cases. The diet of the examined salmonids suggests that they would become infected principally throught the consuption of autochthonous fishes.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls in freshwater salmonids from the Kerguelen Islands in the Southern Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffal, A. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Givaudan, N. [UMR8079, CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France); Univ Paris-Sud, Ecologie Systematique et Evolution, Orsay F-91405 (France); Betoulle, S. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Terreau, A. [IPEV Institut Polaire Francais, F29280 Plouzane (France); Paris-Palacios, S.; Biagianti-Risbourg, S. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Beall, E. [ECOBIOP, UMR 1224 INRA-Universite de Pau-Pays de l' Adour F63310 St-Pee-sur-Nivelle (France); Roche, H., E-mail: helene.roche@u-psud.fr [UMR8079, CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France); Univ Paris-Sud, Ecologie Systematique et Evolution, Orsay F-91405 (France)

    2011-05-15

    The Subantarctic Kerguelen Islands (49{sup o}S, 70{sup o}E) contain freshwater ecosystems among the most isolated in the world. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in the muscle of 48 brook trout and 38 brown trout caught during summer and spring 2006 in the rivers, lakes and ponds of Kerguelen. The sum of 29 PCBs averaged 404 and 358 ng g{sup -1} lipid, and dioxin-like PCB was 19 and 69 ng g{sup -1} lipid, in brook and brown trout, respectively. The values showed a high variability and some fish accumulated PCBs at levels similar to those of fish from impacted areas. While inter-sex differences were limited, the season and the morphotype appeared to have the most influence. Fish captured in summer had muscle PCB concentrations about three times higher than those caught in spring and the 'river' morphotype of brook trout showed the highest PCB levels. - Highlights: > First assessment of PCB contamination of biota in Kerguelen Islands, Sub-Antarctica. > PCB bioaccumulation level in trout varies from very high to undetectable. > Habitat and morphotype are the most influential factors on the variability. > Distribution pattern of PCBs in the muscle of fish is morphotype dependent. - Salmonids in hydrosystems of the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean) show a high PCB bioaccumulation.

  4. Low temperature-dependent salmonid alphavirus glycoprotein processing and recombinant virus-like particle formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W Metz

    Full Text Available Pancreas disease (PD and sleeping disease (SD are important viral scourges in aquaculture of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. The etiological agent of PD and SD is salmonid alphavirus (SAV, an unusual member of the Togaviridae (genus Alphavirus. SAV replicates at lower temperatures in fish. Outbreaks of SAV are associated with large economic losses of ~17 to 50 million $/year. Current control strategies rely on vaccination with inactivated virus formulations that are cumbersome to obtain and have intrinsic safety risks. In this research we were able to obtain non-infectious virus-like particles (VLPs of SAV via expression of recombinant baculoviruses encoding SAV capsid protein and two major immunodominant viral glycoproteins, E1 and E2 in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells. However, this was only achieved when a temperature shift from 27°C to lower temperatures was applied. At 27°C, precursor E2 (PE2 was misfolded and not processed by host furin into mature E2. Hence, E2 was detected neither on the surface of infected cells nor as VLPs in the culture fluid. However, when temperatures during protein expression were lowered, PE2 was processed into mature E2 in a temperature-dependent manner and VLPs were abundantly produced. So, temperature shift-down during synthesis is a prerequisite for correct SAV glycoprotein processing and recombinant VLP production.

  5. Microsatellite DNA markers: evaluating their potential for estimating the proportion of hatchery-reared offspring in a stock enhancement programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravington, M V; Ward, R D

    2004-05-01

    We describe a statistical method for estimating the effectiveness of a stock enhancement programme using nuclear DNA loci. It is based on knowing the population allele frequencies and the genotypes of the hatchery parents (mother only, or mother and father), and on determining the probability that a wild-born animal will by chance have a genotype consistent with hatchery origin. We show how to estimate the proportion of released animals in the wild population, and its standard error. The method is applied to a data set of eight microsatellite loci in brown tiger prawns (Penaeus esculentus), prior to the start of a possible enhancement programme. We conclude that, for this particular data set, the effectiveness of such an enhancement programme could be quantified accurately if both maternal and paternal genotypes are known, but not if maternal genotypes only are known. Full paternal genotyping would require offspring genotyping and thus would be expensive, but a partly typed paternal genotype from a mass homogenate of offspring would be almost as effective and much cheaper. The experiment would become feasible based on maternal genotypes alone, if a further three typical microsatellite loci could be found to add to the existing panel of eight. The methods detailed should be of interest to any enhancement project that relies on nuclear DNA markers to provide tags.

  6. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1986 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, Edward C.

    1987-02-01

    Estimated kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) abundance in Lake Pend Oreille was 4.3 million during September 1986. This estimate was similar to 1985 and indicates continued suppression of the kokanee population since initial decline in the late 1960s. Atypically high survival of wild fry resulted in similar fry recruitment in 1986 as 1985, whereas hatchery-reared fry contributed only 8% to total fry recruitment as a result of low post-release survival (3%). Fry released into the Clark Fork River from Cabinet Gorge Hatchery had very low survival during emigration to Lake Pend Oreille, resulting from poor flow conditions and potentially high predation. Fry survival during emigration was twice as high during nighttime flows of 16,000 cfs than 7,800 cfs. Emigration also was faster during higher flows. Several marks were tested to differentially mark fry release groups to help determine impacts of flow and other factors on fry survival. Survival of fry marked with tetracycline and fluorescent dye was high (>99%) during the 10-week study. In contrast, survival of fry marked with fluorescent grit marks ranged from 5 to 93%, depending on application pressure and distance from the fry. Retention was high (>96%) for tetracycline and grit marks during the study, whereas dye marks were discernible (100%) for only one week. 23 refs., 20 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Hatchery production of European lobster (Homarus gammarus, L.: broodstock management and effects of different holding systems on larval survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Ballestrazzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The biometry of wild berried females was collected during an entire reproductive season at the South-Wexford Lobster Co-op hatchery in Nethertown, Ireland. Second degree regressions between total body weight (TW, g and carapace length (CL, mm (TW=CL2 -36.675CL+1793.2, R2=0.9022 and number of “weaned” larvae and carapace length (Larvae number=1.217CL2–21.777CL-5281.1, R2 =0.743 were observed. Afterwards, berried females were divided according to two variables: 1. holding system: recirculating system (Rs vs barrel (Bar; 2. CL size: 120 mm (C. The total weight of larvae (212.5 vs 92.4 g and their numbers (7788 vs 5679 were significantly higher for the largest females than for the smaller sizes (P<0.01. The maximum survival rate of larvae (77.86% was noted for initial stocking density <1000 individuals/hopper, but the optimal stocking density for management purposes in the hatchery is higher (2001-3000 individuals/hopper.

  8. Genetic Differentiation between Natural and Hatchery Stocks of Japanese Scallop (Mizuhopecten yessoensis as Revealed by AFLP Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Jiang Liu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Japanese scallop (Mizuhopecten yessoensis is a cold-tolerant bivalve that was introduced to China for aquaculture in 1982. In this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP markers were used to investigate levels of genetic diversity within M. yessoensis cultured stocks and compare them with wild populations. Six pairs of primer combinations generated 368 loci among 332 individuals, in four cultured and three wild populations. High polymorphism at AFLP markers was found within both cultured and wild M. yessoensis populations. The percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 61.04% to 72.08%, while the mean heterozygosity ranged from 0.2116 to 0.2596. Compared with wild populations, the four hatchery populations showed significant genetic changes, such as lower expected heterozygosity and percentage of polymorphic loci, and smaller frequency of private alleles, all indicative of a reduction in genetic diversity. Some genetic structures were associated with the geographical distribution of samples; with all samples from Dalian and Japan being closely related, while the population from Russia fell into a distinct clade in the phylogenetic analysis. The genetic information derived from this study indicated that intentional or accidental release of selected Japanese scallops into natural sea areas might result in disturbance of local gene pools and loss of genetic variability. We recommend monitoring the genetic variability of selected hatchery populations to enhance conservation of natural Japanese scallop resources.

  9. Comparative Survival [Rate] Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Chinook; Migration Years 1996-1998 Mark/Recapture Activities, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, Thomas J.; Basham, Larry R. (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR)

    2000-10-01

    The Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) is a multi-year program of the fishery agencies and tribes to measure the smolt-to-adult survival rates of hatchery spring and summer chinook at major production hatcheries in the Snake River basin and at selected hatcheries in the lower Columbia River. The CSS also compares the smolt-to-adult survival rates for Snake River basin chinook that were transported versus those that migrated in-river to below Bonneville Dam. Estimates of smolt-to-adult survival rates will be made both from Lower Granite Dam back to Lower Granite Dam (upriver stocks) and from the hatchery back to the hatchery (upriver and downriver stocks). This status report covers the first three migration years, 1996 to 1998, of the study. Study fish were implanted with a PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tag which allows unique identification of individual fish. Beginning in 1997, a predetermined proportion of the PIT tagged study fish in the collection/bypass channel at the transportation sites, such as Lower Granite and Little Goose dams, was purposely routed to the raceways for transportation and the rest was routed back to the river. Two categories of in-river migrating fish are used in this study. The in-river group most representative of the non-tagged fish are fish that migrate past Lower Granite, Little Goose, and Lower Monumental dams undetected in the bypass systems. This is because all non-tagged fish collected at these three dams are currently being transported. The other in-river group contains those fish remaining in-river below Lower Monumental Dam that had previously been detected at one or more dams. The number of fish starting at Lower Granite dam that are destined to one of these two in-river groups must be estimated. The Jolly-Seber capture-recapture methodology was used for that purpose. Adult (including jacks) study fish returning to the hatcheries in the Snake River basin were sampled at the Lower Granite Dam adult trap. There the PIT

  10. Post-Release Performance of Natural and Hatchery Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake and Clearwater Rivers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, William P.

    2008-04-01

    In 2006, we continued a multi-year study to compare smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) ratios between two groups of Snake River Basin fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that reached the sea through a combination of either (1) transportation and inriver migration or (2) bypass and inriver migration. We captured natural subyearlings rearing along the Snake and Clearwater rivers and implanted them with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, but knew in advance that sample sizes of natural fish would not be large enough for precise comparisons of SAR ratios. To increase sample sizes, we also cultured Lyons Ferry Hatchery subyearlings under a surrogate rearing strategy, implanted them with PIT tags, and released them into the Snake and Clearwater rivers to migrate seaward. The surrogate rearing strategy involved slowing growth at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery to match natural subyearlings in size at release as closely as possible, while insuring that all of the surrogate subyearlings were large enough for tagging (i.e., 60-mm fork length). Surrogate subyearlings were released from late May to early July 2006 to coincide with the historical period of peak beach seine catch of natural parr in the Snake and Clearwater rivers. We also PIT tagged a large representative sample of hatchery subyearlings reared under a production rearing strategy and released them into the Snake and Clearwater rivers in 2006 as part of new research on dam passage experiences (i.e., transported from a dam, dam passage via bypass, dam passage via turbine intakes or spillways). The production rearing strategy involved accelerating growth at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, sometimes followed by a few weeks of acclimation at sites along the Snake and Clearwater rivers before release from May to June. Releasing production subyearlings has been suggested as a possible alternative for making inferences on the natural population if surrogate fish were not available. Smoltto-adult return rates are not

  11. Methow River Studies, Washington: abundance estimates from Beaver Creek and the Chewuch River screw trap, methodology testing in the Whitefish Island side channel, and survival and detection estimates from hatchery fish releases, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Kyle D.; Fish, Teresa M.; Watson, Grace A.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Salmon and steelhead populations have been severely depleted in the Columbia River from factors such as the presence of tributary dams, unscreened irrigation diversions, and habitat degradation from logging, mining, grazing, and others (Raymond, 1988). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been funded by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) to provide evaluation of on-going Reclamation funded efforts to recover Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed anadromous salmonid populations in the Methow River watershed, a watershed of the Columbia River in the Upper Columbia River Basin, in north-central Washington State (fig. 1). This monitoring and evaluation program was funded to document Reclamation’s effort to partially fulfill the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion (BiOp) (National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Fisheries Division 2003). This Biological Opinion includes Reasonable and Prudent Alternatives (RPA) to protect listed salmon and steelhead across their life cycle. Species of concern in the Methow River include Upper Columbia River (UCR) spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), UCR summer steelhead (O. mykiss), and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), which are all listed as threatened or endangered under the ESA. The work done by the USGS since 2004 has encompassed three phases of work. The first phase started in 2004 and continued through 2012. This first phase involved the evaluation of stream colonization and fish production in Beaver Creek following the modification of several water diversions (2000–2006) that were acting as barriers to upstream fish movement. Products to date from this work include: Ruttenburg (2007), Connolly and others (2008), Martens and Connolly (2008), Connolly (2010), Connolly and others (2010), Martens and Connolly (2010), Benjamin and others (2012), Romine and others (2013a), Weigel and others (2013a, 2013b, 2013c), and Martens and others (2014). The second phase, initiated in

  12. Stocking impact and migration pattern in an anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) complex: where have all the stocked spawning sea trout gone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Meldrup, Dorte

    2004-01-01

    We examined polymorphism at seven microsatellite loci among sea trout (Salmo trutta) (n = 846) collected from three areas in the Limfjord (Denmark). We then assessed their potential population source by comparing, using a mixed stock analysis (MSA) Bayesian framework, their genetic composition...... to that of brown trout collected from 32 tributaries pooled into nine geographical regions (n = 3801) and two hatcheries (n = 222) used for stocking. For each of the three regional sea trout groups (western, central and eastern Limfjord, n = 91, n = 426, n = 329, respectively), MSA was conducted with (i) all...

  13. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 1998-1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlers, Danette L.; Knapp, Suzanne M.; Jewett, Shannon M.

    2001-05-01

    Large runs of salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and steelhead (O. mykiss) once supported productive Tribal and sport fisheries in the Umatilla River. By the 1920s, unscreened irrigation diversions, reduced in-stream flows, poor passage conditions, and habitat degradation had extirpated the salmon run and drastically reduced the summer steelhead run (CTUIR and ODFW 1989). Reintroduction of chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) and enhancement of summer steelhead populations in the Umatilla River was initiated in the early and mid-1980s (CTUIR and ODFW 1989). Measures to rehabilitate the fishery and improve flows in the Umatilla River are addressed in the original Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1987). These include habitat enhancement, hatchery production, holding and acclimation facilities, flow enhancement, passage improvement, and natural production enhancement. Detailed scope and nature of the habitat, flow, passage, and natural production projects are in the Umatilla River basin fisheries restoration plans (CTUIR 1984; Boyce 1986). The Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR and ODFW 1990) provides the framework for hatchery production and evaluation activities. Many agencies cooperate, coordinate, and exchange information in the Umatilla basin to ensure successful implementation of rehabilitation projects, including the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Oregon Water Resources Department (OWRD), the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR), and local irrigation districts (West Extension, Hermiston, and Stanfield-Westland). The Umatilla River Operations Group and the Umatilla Management, Monitoring and Evaluation Oversight Committee coordinate river and fisheries management and research in the Umatilla River basin.

  14. Genetic differences between wild and hatchery populations of Diplodus sargus and D. vulgaris inferred from RAPD markers: implications for production and restocking programs design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J C; Lino, P G; Leitão, A; Joaquim, S; Chaves, R; Pousão-Ferreira, P; Guedes-Pinto, H; dos Santos, M Neves

    2010-01-01

    Restocking and stock enhancement programs are now recognized as an important tool for the management of fishery resources. It is important, however, to have an adequate knowledge on the genetic population structure of both the released stock and the wild population before carrying out such programs. In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were applied to assess genetic diversity and population structure of wild and hatchery populations of the white seabream Diplodus sargus and the common two-banded seabream D. vulgaris (Sparidae). The estimated values for intrapopulation genetic variation, measured using the percentage of polymorphic loci (%P), Shannon index (H'), and Nei's gene diversity (h), showed high values for all populations. The percentage of genetic variation within D. sargus and D. vulgaris populations, based on coefficient of gene differentiation, reached 82.5% and 90% of the total genetic variation, respectively. An undeniable decrease in genetic variation was found in both hatchery populations, particularly in D. sargus, compared to the wild ones. However, the high values of variation within all populations and the low levels of genetic variation among populations did not indicate inbreeding or depression effects, thus indicating a fairly proper hatchery management. Nevertheless, the results of this study highlight the importance of monitoring the genetic variation of hatchery populations, particularly those to be used in restocking programs. The creation of a genetic baseline database will contribute to a more efficient conservation management and to the design of genetically sustainable restocking programs.

  15. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroder, S.L.; Pearsons, T.N. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA); Knudsen, C.M. (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA)

    2006-05-01

    Reproductive success in wild- and first generation hatchery-origin spring Chinook males was examined by allowing the fish to compete for spawning opportunities in two sections of an observation stream. Behavioral observations were used to characterize the frequency of aggression and courting activities. Microsatellite DNA from each male and fry collected from the observation stream were used in pedigree analyses to estimate reproductive success. The coefficient of variation in male reproductive success equaled 116 and 86% in the two populations. No differences were detected in reproductive success due to hatchery or wild origin. Nor were any behavioral differences found between hatchery and wild males. Although statistical power was low due to intrinsic variation a great deal of overlap existed in the reproductive success values of hatchery and wild males. Significant disparities existed among the males on their ability to produce offspring. Males achieving high reproductive success mated with numerous females, were socially dominant, aggressive, and tended to stay in localized areas, courting and spawning with females that were adjacent to one another.

  16. Reproductive Ecology of Yakima River Hatchery and Wild Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report 3 of 7, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Curtis (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA)

    2004-05-01

    This is the third in a series of annual reports that address reproductive ecological research and comparisons of hatchery and wild origin spring chinook in the Yakima River basin. Data have been collected prior to supplementation to characterize the baseline reproductive ecology, demographics and phenotypic traits of the unsupplemented upper Yakima population, however this report focuses on data collected on hatchery and wild spring chinook returning in 2003; the third year of hatchery adult returns. This report is organized into three chapters, with a general introduction preceding the first chapter and summarizes data collected between April 1, 2003 and March 31, 2004 in the Yakima basin. Summaries of each of the chapters in this report are included below. A major component of determining supplementation success in the Yakima Klickitat Fishery Project's spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) program is an increase in natural production. Within this context, comparing upper Yakima River hatchery and wild origin fish across traits such as sex ratio, age composition, size-at-age, fecundity, run timing and gamete quality is important because these traits directly affect population productivity and individual fish fitness which determine a population's productivity.

  17. 'One Health' investigation: outbreak of human Salmonella Braenderup infections traced to a mail-order hatchery - United States, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, J H; Pringle, J; Jones, R W; Nix, B E; Borders, J; Heseltine, G; Gomez, T M; McCLUSKEY, B; Roney, C S; Brinson, D; Erdman, M; McDANIEL, A; Behravesh, C Barton

    2015-07-01

    Human salmonellosis linked to contact with live poultry is an increasing public health concern. In 2012, eight unrelated outbreaks of human salmonellosis linked to live poultry contact resulted in 517 illnesses. In July 2012, PulseNet, a national molecular surveillance network, reported a multistate cluster of a rare strain of Salmonella Braenderup infections which we investigated. We defined a case as infection with the outbreak strain, determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with illness onset from 25 July 2012-27 February 2013. Ill persons and mail-order hatchery (MOH) owners were interviewed using standardized questionnaires. Traceback and environmental investigations were conducted. We identified 48 cases in 24 states. Twenty-six (81%) of 32 ill persons reported live poultry contact in the week before illness; case-patients named 12 different MOHs from eight states. The investigation identified hatchery D as the ultimate poultry source. Sampling at hatchery D yielded the outbreak strain. Hatchery D improved sanitation procedures and pest control; subsequent sampling failed to yield Salmonella. This outbreak highlights the interconnectedness of humans, animals, and the environment and the importance of industry knowledge and involvement in solving complex outbreaks. Preventing these infections requires a 'One Health' approach that leverages expertise in human, animal, and environmental health.