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Sample records for anabaena variabilis atcc

  1. Complete genome sequence of Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Teresa [University of Missouri, St. Louis; Pratte, Brenda S. [University of Missouri, St. Louis; Zhong, Jinshun [University of Missouri, St. Louis; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2013-01-01

    Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 is a filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium that has served as a model organism, with an extensive literature extending over 40 years. The strain has three distinct nitrogenases that function under different environmental conditions and is capable of photoautotrophic growth in the light and true heterotrophic growth in the dark using fructose as both carbon and energy source. While this strain was first isolated in 1964 in Mississippi and named Ana-baena flos-aquae MSU A-37, it clusters phylogenetically with cyanobacteria of the genus Nostoc. The strain is a moderate thermophile, growing well at approximately 40 C. Here we provide some additional characteristics of the strain, and an analysis of the complete genome sequence.

  2. Regulation of Three Nitrogenase Gene Clusters in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Thiel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 fixes nitrogen under aerobic conditions in specialized cells called heterocysts that form in response to an environmental deficiency in combined nitrogen. Nitrogen fixation is mediated by the enzyme nitrogenase, which is very sensitive to oxygen. Heterocysts are microxic cells that allow nitrogenase to function in a filament comprised primarily of vegetative cells that produce oxygen by photosynthesis. A. variabilis is unique among well-characterized cyanobacteria in that it has three nitrogenase gene clusters that encode different nitrogenases, which function under different environmental conditions. The nif1 genes encode a Mo-nitrogenase that functions only in heterocysts, even in filaments grown anaerobically. The nif2 genes encode a different Mo-nitrogenase that functions in vegetative cells, but only in filaments grown under anoxic conditions. An alternative V-nitrogenase is encoded by vnf genes that are expressed only in heterocysts in an environment that is deficient in Mo. Thus, these three nitrogenases are expressed differentially in response to environmental conditions. The entire nif1 gene cluster, comprising at least 15 genes, is primarily under the control of the promoter for the first gene, nifB1. Transcriptional control of many of the downstream nif1 genes occurs by a combination of weak promoters within the coding regions of some downstream genes and by RNA processing, which is associated with increased transcript stability. The vnf genes show a similar pattern of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of expression suggesting that the complex pattern of regulation of the nif1 cluster is conserved in other cyanobacterial nitrogenase gene clusters.

  3. Structure of plastocyanin from the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager; Harris, Pernille

    2006-01-01

    Plastocyanin from the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis was heterologously produced in E. coli and purified. Plate-like crystals were obtained by crystallisation in 1.15 M trisodium citrate and 7.67 mM sodium borate buffer pH 8.5. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121 with...

  4. Purification and partial characterization of a calcium-stimulated protease from the cyanobacterium, Anabaena variabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockau, W; Massalsky, B; Dirmeier, A

    1988-03-01

    A calcium-stimulated protease was purified to apparent homogeneity from the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413. As judged from experiments with inhibitors and chromogenic peptide substrates, the enzyme is a serine protease with a substrate specificity like trypsin. Its apparent relative molecular mass is 52,000. Calcium depletion inhibits the enzymic activity by 92%. Half-maximal activity requires about 0.5 microM free Ca2+. The enzyme binds to a hydrophobic column in a calcium-dependent manner, indicating calcium-induced exposure of a hydrophobic domain. The possible role of the protease in heterocyst differentiation is discussed. PMID:3127208

  5. Phosphate transport and arsenate resistance in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Thiel, T.

    1988-01-01

    Cells of the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis starved for phosphate for 3 days took up phosphate at about 100 times the rate of unstarved cells. Kinetic data suggested that a new transport system had been induced by starvation for phosphate. The inducible phosphate transport system was quickly repressed by addition of Pi. Phosphate-starved cells were more sensitive to the toxic effects of arsenate than were unstarved cells, but phosphate could alleviate some of the toxicity. Arsenate was a ...

  6. H2 production by Anabaena variabilis mutant in computer controlled two-stage air-lift tubular photobioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Hall, D. O.; Rao, K. K.; Tsygankov, A. A.; Sveshnikov, D. A.

    2000-06-01

    A 4.34 liter two-stage air-lift photobioreactor incorporating Anabaena variabilis ATCC29413 mutant PK84 was used to study H2 production. Results showed that H2 production increased with increasing light intensity from 47 μE/(m2·s) up to 190 μE/(m2·s), but that further increase of light intensity decreased the H2 production because of the inhibition due to the high pO2. The data also indicated that longer argon gas charge resulted in more H2 produced due to the increase of nitrogenase activities and heterocyst frequency, and that more than 1.3 L net H2 was produced from this computer controlled photobioreactor.

  7. H2 PRODUCTION BY ANABAENA VARIABILIS MUTANT IN COMPUTER CONTROLLED TWO-STAGE AIR-LIFT TUBULAR PHOTOBIOREACTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A 4.34 liter two-stage air-lift photobioreactor incorporating Anabaena variabilis ATCC29413 mutant PK84 was used to study H2 production. Results showed that H2 production increased with increasing light intensity from 47 μE/(m2·s) up to 190 μE/(m2·s), but that further increase of light intensity decreased the H2 production because of the inhibition due to the high pO2. The data also indicated that longer argon gas charge resulted in more H2 produced due to the increase of nitrogenase activities and heterocyst frequency, and that more than 1.3 L net H2 was produced from this computer controlled photobioreactor.

  8. Morphological and ultrastructural changes in vegetative cells and heterocysts of Anabaena variabilis grown with fructose.

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, N. J.; Krupp, J M; Koller, A L

    1987-01-01

    The morphology and ultrastructure of Anabaena variabilis grown in medium with and without 40 mM fructose were compared. Vegetative cells and young heterocysts in fructose-supplemented medium were significantly larger, were filled with glycogen granules, and had fewer thylakoids. Developing heterocysts contained large numbers of glycogen granules well into mature stages, and envelope formation was precocious. As heterocysts enlarged in fructose medium, their shape became more broadly oblong co...

  9. Acyl-acyl carrier protein: Lysomonogalactosyldiacylglycerol acyl transferase in Anabaena variabilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol was produced when membranes isolated from the cyanobacterium, Anabaena variabilis, and washed free of soluble endogenous constituents, were incubated with (14C)acyl-acyl carrier protein. This enzymatic synthesis of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol localized in the membranes was not dependent on any added cofactors, such as ATP, coenzyme A, and dithiothreitol. Palmitoyl-, stearoyl-, and oleoyl-acyl carrier proteins were approximately equally active as substrates with Km of 0.37, 0.36, and 0.23 μM, respectively. The (14C)acyl group was exclusively transferred to the sn-1 hydroxyl of the glycerol backbone of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol as demonstrated by hydrolysis of all incorporated acyl groups by the lipase from Rhizopus arrhizus delamar. Using a double labelled (14C)acyl-(14C)acyl carrier protein, this enzyme catalyzed the direct transfer of the acyl group from acyl-acyl carrier protein to an endogenous lysomonogalactosyldiacylglycerol to form monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. The transfer reaction mechanism was also confirmed by the increased activity with the addition of the lysomonogalactosyldiacylglycerol suspension. A specific galactolipid acyl hydrolase activity was released into the soluble protein fraction when the membranes of Anabaena variabilis were treated with 2% Triton X-100. The positional specificity of this acyl hydrolase was demonstrated to be similar to that of Rhizopus lipase, i.e. only the acyl group at the sn-1 position was hydrolyzed. The acyl hydrolase which was also localized in the membrane fraction of Anabaena variabilis was presumably responsible for producing endogenous lysomonogalactosyldiacylglycerol used by the acyltransferase

  10. Fructose uptake and influence on growth of and nitrogen fixation by Anabaena variabilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Haury, J F; Spiller, H.

    1981-01-01

    Fructose is specifically taken up by nitrogen-fixing cultures of Anabaena variabilis in the light and lowers the doubling time from 24 to 8 h. The kinetics for both fructose-dependent growth and fructose uptake are exponential. The apparent Km for fructose uptake in N2-fixing cultures is 160 microM for cells not previously exposed to fructose and 50 microM in cells adapted to fructose. Picomolar amounts of [14C]fructose are scavenged from the medium and accumulate in filaments. Heterocysts of...

  11. Energy transfer in Anabaena variabilis filaments under nitrogen depletion, studied by time-resolved fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Aya; Aikawa, Shimpei; Kondo, Akihiko; Akimoto, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    Some filamentous cyanobacteria (including Anabaena) differentiate into heterocysts under nitrogen-depleted conditions. During differentiation, the phycobiliproteins and photosystem II in the heterocysts are gradually degraded. Nitrogen depletion induces changes in the pigment composition of both vegetative cells and heterocysts, which affect the excitation energy transfer processes. To investigate the changes in excitation energy transfer processes of Anabaena variabilis filaments grown in standard medium (BG11) and a nitrogen-free medium (BG110), we measured their steady-state absorption spectra, steady-state fluorescence spectra, and time-resolved fluorescence spectra (TRFS) at 77 K. TRFS were measured with a picosecond time-correlated single photon counting system. The pigment compositions of the filaments grown in BG110 changed throughout the growth period; the relative phycocyanin levels monotonically decreased, whereas the relative carotenoid (Car) levels decreased and then recovered to their initial value (at day 0), with formation of lower-energy Cars. Nitrogen starvation also altered the fluorescence kinetics of PSI; the fluorescence maximum of TRFS immediately after excitation occurred at 735, 740, and 730 nm after 4, 8, and 15 days growth in BG110, respectively. Based on these results, we discuss the excitation energy transfer dynamics of A. variabilis filaments under the nitrogen-depleted condition throughout the growth period. PMID:25596847

  12. Solution Structure of Reduced Plastocyanin from the Blue-Green Alga Anabaena Variabilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Led, J.J.; Badsberg, U.; Jørgensen, A.M.;

    1996-01-01

    The three-dimensional solution structure of plastocyanin from Anabaena variabilis (A.v. PCu) has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sixty structures were calculated by distance geometry from 1141 distance restraints and 46 dihedral angle restraints. The distance geometry...... structures were optimized by simulated annealing and restrained energy minimization. The average rms deviation from the mean structure for the 20 structures with the lowest total energy is 1.25 Angstrom for the backbone atoms and 1.75 Angstrom for all heavy atoms. Overall, the global tertiary fold of A. v...... turn is compensated for by an extension of the small helix [from Ala53(51) to Ser60(58) in A.v. PCu] found in other plastocyanins. Moreover, the extra residues of A.v. PCu from Pro77 to Asp79 form an appended loop. These two features allow A.v. PCu to retain almost the same global fold as observed in...

  13. Solution structure of reduced plastocyanin from the blue-green alga Anabaena variabilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badsberg, U; Jørgensen, A.M.; Gesmar, H;

    1996-01-01

    The three-dimensional solution structure of plastocyanin from Anabaena variabilis (A.v.PCu) has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sixty structures were calculated by distance geometry from 1141 distance restraints and 46 dihedral angle restraints. The distance geometry...... structures were optimized by simulated annealing and restrained energy minimization. The average rms deviation from the mean structure for the 20 structures with the lowest total energy is 1.25 A for the backbone atoms and 1.75 A for all heavy atoms. Overall, the global tertiary fold of A.v.PCu resembles...... extension of the small helix [from Ala53(51) to Ser60(58) in A.v.PCu] found in other plastocyanins. Moreover, the extra residues of A.v.PCu from Pro77 to Asp79 form an appended loop. These two features allow A.v.PCu to retain almost the same global fold as observed in other plastocyanins. From a comparison...

  14. In Vitro Fatty Acid Synthesis and Complex Lipid Metabolism in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis: I. Some Characteristics of Fatty Acid Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, N W; Stumpf, P K

    1984-01-01

    In vitro fatty acid synthesis was examined in crude cell extracts, soluble fractions, and 80% (NH(4))(2)SO(4) fractions from Anabaena variabilis M3. Fatty acid synthesis was absolutely dependent upon acyl carrier protein and required NADPH and NADH. Moreover, fatty acid synthesis and elongation occurred in the cytoplasm of the cell. The major fatty acid products were palmitic acid (16:0) and stearic acid (18:0). Of considerable interest, both stearoyl-acyl carrier protein and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturases were not detected in any of the fractions from A. variabilis. The similarities and differences in fatty acid synthesis between A. variabilis and higher plant tissues are discussed with respect to the endosymbiotic theory of chloroplast evolution. PMID:16663367

  15. Investigation of the links between heterocyst and biohydrogen production by diazotrophic cyanobacterium A. variabilis ATCC 29413.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Siti Fatihah; Kamaruddin, Azlina; Uzir, Mohamad Hekarl; Karim, Khairiah Abd; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2016-03-01

    This work investigates the effect of heterocyst toward biohydrogen production by A. variabilis. The heterocyst frequency was artificially promoted by adding an amino acid analog, in this case DL-7-azatryptophan into the growth medium. The frequency of heterocyst differentiation was found to be proportional to the concentration of azatryptophan (0-25 µM) in the medium. Conversely, the growth and nitrogenase activity were gradually suppressed. In addition, there was also a distinct shortening of the cells filaments and detachment of heterocyst from the vegetative cells. Analysis on the hydrogen production performance revealed that both the frequency and distribution of heterocyst in the filaments affected the rate of hydrogen production. The highest hydrogen production rate and yield (41 µmol H2 mg chl a(-1) h(-1) and 97 mL H2 mg chl a(-1), respectively) were achieved by cells previously grown in 15 µM of azatryptophan with 14.5 % of heterocyst frequency. The existence of more isolated heterocyst has been shown to cause a relative loss in nitrogenase activity thus lowering the hydrogen production rate. PMID:26521065

  16. Detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the oxidant-sensing probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Rajesh P. [Department of Biology, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Staudtstrasse 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Laboratory of Photobiology and Molecular Microbiology, Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Singh, Shailendra P.; Haeder, Donat-P. [Department of Biology, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Staudtstrasse 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Sinha, Rajeshwar P., E-mail: r.p.sinha@gmx.net [Laboratory of Photobiology and Molecular Microbiology, Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2010-07-02

    The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under simulated solar radiation (UV-B: 0.30 Wm{sup -2}, UV-A: 25.70 Wm{sup -2} and PAR: 118.06 Wm{sup -2}) was studied in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937 using the oxidant-sensing fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). DCFH-DA is a nonpolar dye, converted into the polar derivative DCFH by cellular esterases that are nonfluorescent but switched to highly fluorescent DCF when oxidized by intracellular ROS and other peroxides. The images obtained from the fluorescence microscope after 12 h of irradiation showed green fluorescence from cells covered with 295, 320 or 395 nm cut-off filters, indicating the generation of ROS in all treatments. However, the green/red fluorescence ratio obtained from fluorescence microscopic analysis showed the highest generation of ROS after UV-B radiation in comparison to PAR or UV-A radiation. Production of ROS was also measured by a spectrofluorophotometer and results obtained supported the results of fluorescence microscopy. Low levels of ROS were detected at the start (0 h) of the experiment showing that they are generated even during normal metabolism. This study also showed that UV-B radiation causes the fragmentation of the cyanobacterial filaments which could be due to the observed oxidative stress. This is the first report for the detection of intracellular ROS in a cyanobacterium by fluorescence microscopy using DCFH-DA and thereby suggesting the applicability of this method in the study of in vivo generation of ROS.

  17. Detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the oxidant-sensing probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under simulated solar radiation (UV-B: 0.30 Wm-2, UV-A: 25.70 Wm-2 and PAR: 118.06 Wm-2) was studied in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937 using the oxidant-sensing fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). DCFH-DA is a nonpolar dye, converted into the polar derivative DCFH by cellular esterases that are nonfluorescent but switched to highly fluorescent DCF when oxidized by intracellular ROS and other peroxides. The images obtained from the fluorescence microscope after 12 h of irradiation showed green fluorescence from cells covered with 295, 320 or 395 nm cut-off filters, indicating the generation of ROS in all treatments. However, the green/red fluorescence ratio obtained from fluorescence microscopic analysis showed the highest generation of ROS after UV-B radiation in comparison to PAR or UV-A radiation. Production of ROS was also measured by a spectrofluorophotometer and results obtained supported the results of fluorescence microscopy. Low levels of ROS were detected at the start (0 h) of the experiment showing that they are generated even during normal metabolism. This study also showed that UV-B radiation causes the fragmentation of the cyanobacterial filaments which could be due to the observed oxidative stress. This is the first report for the detection of intracellular ROS in a cyanobacterium by fluorescence microscopy using DCFH-DA and thereby suggesting the applicability of this method in the study of in vivo generation of ROS.

  18. Effects of cell density, carbon dioxide and molybdenum concentration on biohydrogen production by Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Low concentration of CO2 in headspace (4–8% vol/vol) enhanced hydrogen productivity. • Glucose addition did not cause a high oxygen build-up in the headspace. • Hydrogen productivity was highly optimized at elevated Mo6+ concentration of 1.6 mM. - Abstract: This paper aims to determine the effects of cell density, carbon dioxide, and molybdenum concentration towards hydrogen production rate. Batch cultures of Anabaenavariabilis sp. were incubated in anaerobic environment under continuous indoor illumination of 70 μE m−2 s−1 at 35 °C. The optimal volumetric hydrogen production rate obtained was 44 μmol H2 mg chl a−1 h−1 occurred at cells density of 110 mg L−1, 5% carbon dioxide headspace concentration, and molybdenum concentration of 1.6 mM. The effect of organic carbon source (glucose) was also evaluated in the present study and it was found that the additional carbon produced the highest hydrogen production rate in all conditions. An increased concentration of molybdenum significantly enhanced the hydrogen productivity rate almost to that of glucose-supplemented culture at 49 μmol H2 mg chl a−1 h−1. However, further increase in molybdenum concentration beyond 1.6 mM showed no further improvement in the amount of hydrogen produced

  19. Effect of light on the content of photosynthetically active pigments in plants. Pt. 4. Chromatic adaption in blue-green algae Anabaena cylindrica and A. variabilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czeczuga, B.

    1986-07-15

    The photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, carotenoids and phycobiliprotein pigments) of two species of the genus Anabaena grown in white, red, yellow, green and blue light were examined. The highest concentration of the cells was observed in the sample with red light in case of the both species, and the smallest with blue light. The biggest amounts of chlorophyll a and carotenoids were included in the cells of samples with the yellow and the smallest in case of the red light. The ratio of two phycobiliproteins is as follows: - in Anabaena cylindrica: the highest amount of C-phycocyanin in the cells was observed in the case of the red light, and C-phycoerytherin was found in the blue light; - in Anabaena variabiles: the highest amount of C-phycocyanien in the cells was found in case of the yellow light, and allophycocyanin was found in the blue light.

  20. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 173276 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QKALALTELRCTFEGRSLVPDVAVFEWSRIPTDGNGEIANRFESYPDWIIEILSPDQSPNRVINKIIFCINQGTKLGWFIDPNDKSVMVFQPNRLPEVKYDTDILPVLDVLGNCQVNAADIFSWLKVK ... ...rotein Ava_0761 Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 MTLSTQVSFHPSLDEFLKLPETKPASEYIDGRIYQKPMPQGKHSILQTRLSSNINQVGEPQ

  1. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 45539 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FVDAKLVCNQFRKDLQTEYQVVEITENVIISAMSLAETYGLRGYDATQLATGLAVNALGIANGLSSVTFISADNELNLAASSEGLVIENPNTHL ... ...al protein Ava_4992 Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 MAIYFIDSSALVKRYVNEIGSSWVLGLFEPALSNEVFIAAITGVEIVAAVTRRSRGGSIS

  2. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 199640 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LTLAALAIYPLMFVLVNLFSNRLRQEQAKVQEQLSDISELIQEDISGIALIKIYAQEENERRAFAQQNQKLLSANLELAKS...PGETVAIVGAIGSGKSTLANALPRLLEVAPGQLFLDGQDITQIALADLRSAIAYVPQDSFLFSTTIKNNIRYSDPVSPPENVEYVAKLAQIHPEIINFPQQYETIVGERGI...RNILFPLIGGLASLSSLVVIWLGTSRIAEGTLAVGDFLALLIYIERLVFPTALLGFTISAYQRGEVSVDRLEAILSVEAKIQDADAAIHLELAEVKGELTAKNLSYAYPGVENPALDKVSFTIA... Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 MGETPYVPVADSPVPSHQNPVPQFMTKSRRITKLAAYLRPHWREAALGILALLSVNGLGVYIPWLIRACVDLLSTN...TLSGGQRQRTALARAMLVNAPVLILDDALSSVDNQTATQILNNLSSGTERKTVVFITHQLSAAAAADRIFVMDKGQIVQVGNHLELLQQAGLYRKLWSQHQVAELLS ...

  3. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 410239 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ical protein Ava_3385 Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 MAHTFLLEPGRWKIQGSWLERNGMPISVKGMTLVAWNRDNWFTMAAKLIFPGSDR...PEISLQYKGRLHQEERQYTFLLQHSLLGQVEGEGWIGLDTIVQRYWAMSDRQRRSGFETMHRISDDAYYLSSGVMSGHFLTSTMEASLERQS ...

  4. 理化因子对多变鱼腥藻溶血素活性的影响%Effects of physical and chemical factors on the hemolysis of the Anabaena variabilis hemolysin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋秀凯; 王蔚; 刘云章; 赵媛媛; 汝少国

    2006-01-01

    采用对兔血红细胞的溶血实验,测定和分析了多变鱼腥藻(Anabaena variabilis OL S1)培养液在不同生长时期的溶血活性以及温度、pH和金属离子等理化因子对其溶血素活性的影响.结果表明,在对数生长中期多变鱼腥藻开始向胞外分泌活性较高的溶血性毒素,在稳定期溶血活性达到最高.4℃低温几乎完全抑制了溶血素活性;在溶血反应最初的30 min内,溶血活性随着温度的升高而迅速增强;但在反应持续60 min后,16~37℃温度下溶血素活性趋于一致;溶血素在偏酸性条件下活性较高,而pH为7.2~9.0时活性无明显差异;Mg2+、Ca2+能显著增加其溶血活性,Cu2+、Mn2+则显著抑制其活性,Ge2+、Fe3+、Zn2+对其影响不大.红细胞膜组分胆固醇、鞘磷脂和卵磷脂均能竞争性结合溶血素,显著抑制溶血反应,因此可能是溶血素在红细胞膜上的作用受体.

  5. Regulation of Fructose Transport and Its Effect on Fructose Toxicity in Anabaena spp.▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Ungerer, Justin L.; Pratte, Brenda S.; Thiel, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Anabaena variabilis grows heterotrophically using fructose, while the close relative Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 does not. Introduction of a cluster of genes encoding a putative ABC transporter, herein named frtRABC, into Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 on a replicating plasmid allowed that strain to grow in the dark using fructose, indicating that these genes are necessary and sufficient for heterotrophic growth. FrtR, a putative LacI-like regulatory protein, was essential for heterotrophic gr...

  6. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 206257 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EYLKSGEEMKLLFRDHLTDDVIAEAIATTEEVADKIEPYHIMGEPRIPNYPIPSGHTPDTYVEEVAWQGLLDKLNRKSRNEVEPVYRERLEYELKMLQQMGFSSYFLVVWDYIKFARDNNI...PVGPGRGSAAGSLVAYTMGITNIDPVHHGLLFERFLNPERKSMPDIDTDFCIEQRDKVIEYVTDKYGKERVAQIITFNRLTSKAVLKDVARVLNI...erase III subunit alpha Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 MSFVPLHIHSDYSLLDGASQLPELIDQAIALGMKAIAVTDHGVMYGAIELLKICRSKNI...PYGEADKMAKLIPVVRGKPTKLKVMVSDTTPEPEFKEKYDNDPRVRHWLDMAMRIEGTNKTFGVHAAGVVISADPLDEIVP...LQKNNDGSVITQYFMEDLESMGLLKMDFLGLKNLTMIQKTIDLIEEKHGFRIDPYEITSQERKAQKILAKGEYKTLPKDVQKTYELLESGELEGIFQLESSGMKQIVRDLKPSNIE

  7. Accelerating of Pink Pigment Excretion from Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria by Co-Cultivation with Anabaena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI SUSILANINGSIH

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater cyanobacterium Oscillatoria BTCC/A 0004 excretes pink pigment containing lipoproteins with molecular weights of about 10 kDa. This pigment has surfactant properties with strong emulsification activity toward several hydrocarbons. This extracellular metabolite was suspected as toxin or allelochemical in their habitat. In this study, I investigated the effect of co-cultivation of Oscillatoria with Anabaena variabilis on the pigment excretion to explore the physiological roles of this pigment in its natural environment. The dead or viable cells and medium of A. variabilis were added into Oscillatoria cultures. Results showed that co-cultivation of free viable cells of A. variabilis enhanced the excretion of pigment without effect on the cell growth. Co-cultivation with viable cells in separated method and dead cells did not influenced the pigment production. The addition of A. variabilis medium was slightly increased the excretion of the pigment. Those results indicated that direct contact with A. variabilis caused Oscillatoria released a certain signaling compound.

  8. Classification and phylogeny of the cyanobiont Anabaena azollae Strasburger: an answered question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana L; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2014-06-01

    The symbiosis Azolla-Anabaena azollae, with a worldwide distribution in pantropical and temperate regions, is one of the most studied, because of its potential application as a biofertilizer, especially in rice fields, but also as an animal food and in phytoremediation. The cyanobiont is a filamentous, heterocystic cyanobacterium that inhabits the foliar cavities of the pteridophyte and the indusium on the megasporocarp (female reproductive structure). The classification and phylogeny of the cyanobiont is very controversial: from its morphology, it has been named Nostoc azollae, Anabaena azollae, Anabaena variabilis status azollae and recently Trichormus azollae, but, from its 16S rRNA gene sequence, it has been assigned to Nostoc and/or Anabaena, and from its phycocyanin gene sequence, it has been assigned as non-Nostoc and non-Anabaena. The literature also points to a possible co-evolution between the cyanobiont and the Azolla host, since dendrograms and phylogenetic trees of fatty acids, short tandemly repeated repetitive (STRR) analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of nif genes and the 16S rRNA gene give a two-cluster association that matches the two-section ranking of the host (Azolla). Another controversy surrounds the possible existence of more than one genus or more than one species strain. The use of freshly isolated or cultured cyanobionts is an additional problem, since their morphology and protein profiles are different. This review gives an overview of how morphological, chemical and genetic analyses influence the classification and phylogeny of the cyanobiont and future research. PMID:24737795

  9. Radiotherapy for breast cancer and erythrokeratodermia variabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernin, V; Kirova, Y; Campana, F

    2014-12-01

    We report the first case report indicating that locoregional radiotherapy provide acceptable early and late toxicities in patient with erythrokeratodermia variabilis after 2 years of follow-up. However, preclinical data showing radiation-induced tumor genesis in case of deficiency of some connexins point out the need of a careful surveillance of these patients. PMID:25306447

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05710-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ca RCB, co... 79 6e-14 CP000117_4667( CP000117 |pid:none) Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413,... 77 1e-13 AM1811...'Deep eco... 75 9e-13 CP000117_1027( CP000117 |pid:none) Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413,... 75 9e-13 CP00008...as fluorescens strain T22... 72 6e-12 CP000117_4672( CP000117 |pid:none) Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413,... ...A000012_1848( BA000012 |pid:none) Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 D... 67 2e-10 CP000117_4750( CP000117 |pid:none) Anabaena variabili...( AY456034 |pid:none) Gibberella moniliformis putative h... 62 6e-09 CP000230_2028( CP000230 |pid:none) Rhodospiril

  11. Hydrogen uptake by Azolla-Anabaena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrogen uptake in the Azolla-Anabaena system is studied. Tritium is used as tracer. Plants are incubated under different atmosphere composition: a) Air + 3H2; b) Air + CO2 + 3H2 + CO; c) Air + 3H2 + CO; d) Air + CO2 + 3H2 + CO to study the pathway of absorbed hydrogen in the Azolla - Anabaena system. Azolla-Anabaena showed greater hydrogen uptake under argonium atmosphere than under air. Carbon monoxide decreased hydrogen uptake. There are evidences of recycling of the hydrogen evolved through notrogenease. (Author)

  12. Antibacterial phycocyanin from Anabaena oryzae SOS13

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Sitohy; Ali Osman; Abdel Ghany Abdel Ghany; Ali Salama

    2015-01-01

    Summary. The antimicrobial activity of phycocyanin extracted from Anabaena oryzae SOS13 was assayed against 4 pathogenic bacteria using agar well-diffusion assay and using benzyl Penicillin, Clindamycin, Ofloxacin and Doxycycline as positive controls. The concentration inhibiting 50% bacterial growth and the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC). The mode of action of phycocyanin on bacteria was explored using electron microscopy (SEM & TEM). Phycocyanin from Anabaena oryzae SOS13 has α and ...

  13. Detection and incidence of Pernospora variabilis in quinoa seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Testen, A.M.; Backman, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This poster describes the research undertaken to determine the level of imported quinoa contamination with quinoa downy mildew, caused by Pernospora variabilis, as well as to develop a rapid method of detection by DNA primers. The majority of lots coming from a wide variety of sources were found to have been contaminated with the pathogen, indicating it is more widespread than anticipated. Additionally, DNA primers for P. variabilis were shown to be effective in identifying most cases of cont...

  14. Backbone dynamics of reduced plastocyanin from the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis: Regions involved in electron transfer have enhanced mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, L.X.; Hass, M.A.S.; Vierick, N.; Kristensen, S.M.; Ulstrup, Jens; Led, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    -free approach. The C-13 relaxation studies were performed using C-13 in natural abundance. Overall, it is found that the protein backbone is rigid. However, the regions that are important for the function of the protein show moderate mobility primarily on the microsecond to millisecond time scale. These regions...... are the "northern" hydrophobic site close to the metal site, the metal site itself, and the "eastern" face of the molecule. In particular, the mobility of the latter region is interesting in light of recent findings indicating that residues also on the eastern face of plastocyanins from prokaryotes...... are important for the function of the protein. The study also demonstrates that relaxation rates and NOEs of the C-13(alpha) nuclei of proteins are valuable supplements to the conventional N-15 relaxation measurements in studies of protein backbone dynamics....

  15. Unusual radioresistance of nitrogen-fixing cultures of Anabaena strains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harinder Singh; Tonina Fernandes; Shree Kumar Apte

    2010-09-01

    Nitrogen-fixing cultures of two species of the filamentous, heterocystous cyanobacterium Anabaena, namely Anabaena sp. strain L-31 and Anabaena torulosa were found to be highly tolerant to 60Co gamma radiation. No adverse effect on diazotrophic growth and metabolism were observed up to a dose of 5 kGy. At higher doses, radiation tolerance showed a correspondence with the inherent osmotolerance, with Anabaena L-31 being the more radiation tolerant as well as osmotolerant strain. In Anabaena L-31, exposure to 6 kGy of gamma rays resulted in genome disintegration, but did not reduce viability. Irradiation delayed heterocyst differentiation and nitrogen fixation, and marginally affected diazotrophic growth. All the affected parameters recovered after a short lag, without any discernible post-irradiation phenotype. The radiation tolerance of these Gram-negative photoautodiazotrophs is comparable with that of the adiazotrophic photoautotrophic cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis or adiazotrophic heterotroph Deinococcus radiodurans. This is the first report of extreme radioresistance in nitrogen-fixing Anabaena cultures.

  16. Regulation of Expression of Nitrate and Dinitrogen Assimilation by Anabaena Species

    OpenAIRE

    Meeks, John C.; Wycoff, Keith L.; Chapman, John S.; Enderlin, Carol S.

    1983-01-01

    Anabaena sp. strain 7120 appeared more responsive to nitrogen control than A. cylindrica. Growth in the presence of nitrate strongly repressed the differentiation of heterocysts and fixation of dinitrogen in Anabaena sp. strain 7120, but only weakly in A. cylindrica. Nitrate assimilation by ammonium-grown cultures was strongly repressed in Anabaena sp. strain 7120, but less so in A. cylindrica. The repressive effect of nitrate on dinitrogen assimilation in Anabaena sp. strain 7120, compared t...

  17. Enantioselective reduction of acetyldimethylphenylsilane by Trigonopsis variabilis (DSM 70714)

    OpenAIRE

    Syldatk, C.; Andree, H.; Stoffregen, A.; F. Wagner; Stumpf, B; Ernst, L; Zilch, H.; Tacke, Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    Growing and resting cells of the yeast Trigonapsis variabilis (DSM 70714) can be used for the enantioselective reduction of the organosilicon compound acetyldimethylphenylsilane (J) to give optically active (R)-(1-hydroxyethyl)dimethylphenylsilane [(R)-2] in good yields. The enantiomeric purity of the isolated product was determined tobe 62-86% ee depending on the substrate concentration used. Both substrate and product caused an inhibition of the reaction at concentrations higher than 0.35 a...

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13726-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Contig-U13726-1 no gap 762 6 30756 29994 MINUS 17 21 U13726 10 2 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Show Co ... 7.6 1 ( AY768465 ) Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 phycocyanin ... B subu... 44 7.6 1 >( AU265612 ) Dictyostelium dis ...

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15727-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available omoso... 35 9.3 CP000119_6( CP000119 |pid:none) Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 pla... 35 9.3 ( Q09624 ) RecName: Full=Location of vul...va defective 1; AltName: F... 35 9.3 AJ937095_1( AJ93709

  20. Dicty_cDB: SHL185 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available none) Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 pl... 50 2e-04 BC047817_1( BC047817 |pid:none) Danio rerio PWP2 perio...dic tryptoph... 50 2e-04 (Q54Y96) RecName: Full=WD40 repeat-containing protein smu1

  1. Cytogenetic Analysis of Garra variabilis (Heckel, 1843) (Pisces, Cyprinidae) from Savur Stream (Mardin), Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Karahan, Arzu; Ergene2t, Serap

    2010-01-01

    In this study cytogenetic analysis were carried out on Garra variabilis (Heckel, 1843) individuals from Savur stream (Mardin). The karyotype of Garra variabilis was analyzed using G-banding, C-banding, Ag-NOR staining and Q-banding techniques. Diploid chromosomes number of specimens was determined as 2n=102. However, two karyotype formulae were identified in the G. variabilis specimens: female 42m+18sm+24st+18a (FN = 186) and males 41m+18sm+24t+19a (FN = 185). Nucleolar organizer regions ...

  2. Functional characterization and novel rickettsiostatic effects of a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor from the tick Dermacentor variabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceraul, Shane M; Dreher-Lesnick, Sheila M; Mulenga, Albert; Rahman, M Sayeedur; Azad, Abdu F

    2008-11-01

    Here we report the novel bacteriostatic function of a five-domain Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (KPI) from the tick Dermacentor variabilis. As ticks feed, they release anticoagulants, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive molecules that mediate the formation of the feeding lesion on the mammalian host. A number of KPIs have been isolated and characterized from tick salivary gland extracts. Interestingly, we observe little D. variabilis KPI gene expression in the salivary gland and abundant expression in the midgut. However, our demonstration of D. variabilis KPI's anticoagulant properties indicates that D. variabilis KPI may be important for blood meal digestion in the midgut. In addition to facilitating long-term attachment and blood meal acquisition, gene expression studies of Drosophila, legumes, and ticks suggest that KPIs play some role in the response to microbial infection. Similarly, in this study, we show that challenge of D. variabilis with the spotted fever group rickettsia, Rickettsia montanensis, results in sustained D. variabilis KPI gene expression in the midgut. Furthermore, our in vitro studies show that D. variabilis KPI limits rickettsial colonization of L929 cells (mouse fibroblasts), implicating D. variabilis KPI as a bacteriostatic protein, a property that may be related to D. variabilis KPI's trypsin inhibitory capability. This work suggests that anticoagulants play some role in the midgut during feeding and that D. variabilis KPI may be involved as part of the tick's defense response to rickettsiae. PMID:18779339

  3. A new cyanobacterial species of Anabaena genus (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria) from Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kirilov Kirjakov, Ivan; Naneva Velichkova, Katya

    2016-01-01

    Una nueva especie de cianobacteria del género Anabaena (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria) de Bulgaria Se describe una nueva especie del género de Cyanobacterias, Anabaena Bory ex Born. et Flah. (Nostocales) de las montañas Ródope de Bulgaria. Anabaena rhodopensis sp. nova. tiene acinetas con paredes celulares esculpidas. Se dan los datos biométricos para el tamaño de las células vegetativas, heterocistos y acinetos. Abstract: A new species of cyanobacterial genus Anabaena Bo...

  4. Catalytic Rapid Pyrolysis of Quercus variabilis over Nanoporous Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Koo Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic rapid pyrolysis of Quercus variabilis, a Korean native tree species, was carried out using Py-GC/MS. Mesoporous MFI, which has both nanopores and micropores, and three nanoporous materials, Al-MCM-41, Al-SBA-15, and γ-Al2O3, were used as the catalyst. The acid sites of mesoporous MFI were strong Brønsted acid sites, whereas those of nanoporous materials were mostly weak acid sites. The composition of the product bio-oil varied greatly depending on the acid characteristics of the catalyst used. Phenolics were the most abundant species in the bio-oil, followed by acids and furanics, obtained over Al-MCM-41 or Al-SBA-15 with weak acid sites, whereas aromatics were the most abundant species produced over mesoporous MFI with strong acid sites, followed by phenolics. Aromatics, phenolics, and furanics are all important chemicals contributing to the improvement of bio-oil quality.

  5. NucA, una nucleasa de baja especifidad de sustrato de las cianobacterias filamentosas formadoras de heterocistos

    OpenAIRE

    Muro Pastor, Alicia María

    1992-01-01

    En este trabajo se aborda la caracterización a nivel molecular de una actividad nucleasa inespecífica presente en las células y el medio extracelular de Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 y Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413, un aspecto previamente inexplorado de ... la biología de las cianobacterias. Se presenta la clonación del gen nucA de Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, que codifica dicha nucleasa, y la generación, mediante sustitución génica, de estirpes mutantes en este gen derivadas de las estirpes PCC 7120 y AT...

  6. Regulation of Development and Nitrogen Fixation in Anabaena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W Golden

    2004-08-05

    The nitrogen-fixing filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is being used as a simple model of microbial development and pattern formation in a multicellular prokaryotic organism. Anabaena reduces atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia in highly specialized, terminally differentiated cells called heterocysts. Anabaena is an important model system because of the multicellular growth pattern, the suspected antiquity of heterocyst development, and the contribution of fixed nitrogen to the environment. We are especially interested in understanding the molecular signaling pathways and genetic regulation that control heterocyst development. In the presence of an external source of reduced nitrogen, the differentiation of heterocysts is inhibited. When Anabaena is grown on dinitrogen, a one-dimensional developmental pattern of single heterocysts separated by approximately ten vegetative cells is established to form a multicellular organism composed of two interdependent cell types. The goal of this project is to understand the signaling and regulatory pathways that commit a vegetative cell to terminally differentiate into a nitrogen-fixing heterocyst. Several genes identified by us and by others were chosen as entry points into the regulatory network. Our research, which was initially focused on transcriptional regulation by group 2 sigma factors, was expanded to include group 3 sigma factors and their regulators after the complete Anabaena genome sequence became available. Surprisingly, no individual sigma factor is essential for heterocyst development. We have used the isolation of extragenic suppressors to study genetic interactions between key regulatory genes such as patS, hetR, and hetC in signaling and developmental pathways. We identified a hetR R223W mutation as a bypass suppressor of patS overexpression. Strains containing the hetR R223W allele fail to respond to pattern formation signals and overexpression of this allele results in a lethal phenotype

  7. Biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs by the novel identified cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangjun Zhang

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, a class of hazardous pollutants, are difficult to dissipate in the natural environment. In this study, a cyanobacterial strain Anabaena PD-1 showed good resistance against PCB congeners. Compared to a control group, chlorophyll a content decreased 3.7% and 11.7% when Anabaena PD-1 was exposed to 2 and 5 mg/L PCBs for 7 d. This cyanobacterial strain was capable of decomposing PCB congeners which was conclusively proved by determination of chloride ion concentrations in chlorine-free medium. After 7 d, the chloride ion concentrations in PCB-treated groups (1, 2, 5 mg/L were 3.55, 3.05, and 2.25 mg/L, respectively. The genetic information of strain PD-1 was obtained through 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. The GenBank accession number of 16S rRNA of Anabaena PD-1 was KF201693.1. Phylogenetic tree analysis clearly indicated that Anabaena PD-1 belonged to the genus Anabaena. The degradation half-life of Aroclor 1254 by Anabaena PD-1 was 11.36 d; the total degradation rate for Aroclor 1254 was 84.4% after 25 d. Less chlorinated PCB congeners were more likely to be degraded by Anabaena PD-1 in comparison with highly chlorinated congeners. Meta- and para-chlorines in trichlorodiphenyls and tetrachlorobiphenyls were more susceptible to dechlorination than ortho-chlorines during the PCB-degradation process by Anabaena PD-1. Furthermore, Anabaena PD-1 can decompose dioxin-like PCBs. The percent biodegradation of 12 dioxin-like PCBs by strain PD-1 ranged from 37.4% to 68.4% after 25 days. Results above demonstrate that Anabaena PD-1 is a PCB-degrader with great potential for the in situ bioremediation of PCB-contaminated paddy soils.

  8. Effects of Atmospheric NO2 on Azolla-Anabaena Symbiosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hur, Jae-Seoun; Wellburn, Alan R.

    1994-01-01

    Cultures of the water fern Azolla pinnata R, Br. exposed for 1 week to atmospheric NO2 (50, 100 or 200 nl l-1) induced additional levels of nitrate reductase (NaR) protein and nitrite reductase (NiR) activity. At low concentrations of NO2 (50 nl l-1), nitrate derived from NO2 provides an alternative N source for Azolla but does not affect rates of acetylene reduction. However, the symbiotic relationship between Azolla and its endosymbiont, Anabaena azollae is only affected adversely by high c...

  9. Regulation of Development and Nitrogen Fixation in Anabaena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Golden

    2008-10-17

    The regulation of development and cellular differentiation is important for all multicellular organisms. The nitrogen-fixing filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena (also Nostoc) sp. PCC 7120 (hereafter Anabaena) provides a model of multicellular microbial development and pattern formation. Anabaena reduces N2 to ammonia in specialized terminally differentiated cells called heterocysts. A one-dimensional developmental pattern of single heterocysts regularly spaced along filaments of photosynthetic vegetative cells is established to form a multicellular organism composed of these two interdependent cell types. This multicellular growth pattern, the distinct phylogeny of cyanobacteria, and the suspected antiquity of heterocyst development make this an important model system. Our long-term goal is to understand the regulatory network required for heterocyst development and nitrogen fixation. This project is focused on two key aspects of heterocyst regulation: one, the mechanism by which HetR controls the initiation of differentiation, and two, the cis and trans acting factors required for expression of the nitrogen-fixation (nif) genes. HetR is thought to be a central regulator of heterocyst development but the partners and mechanisms involved in this regulation are unknown. Our recent results indicate that PatS and other signals that regulate heterocyst pattern cannot interact, directly or indirectly, with a R223W mutant of HetR. We plan to use biochemical and genetic approaches to identify proteins that interact with the HetR protein, which will help reveal the mechanisms underlying its regulation of development. Our second goal is to determine how the nif genes are expressed. It is important to understand the mechanisms controlling nif genes since they represent the culmination of the differentiation process and the essence of heterocyst function. The Anabaena genome lacks the genes required for expression of nif genes present in other organisms such as rpoN (sigma 54

  10. Rhizomucor variabilis var. regularior and Hormographiella aspergillata Infections in a Leukemic Bone Marrow Transplant Recipient with Refractory Neutropenia ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Abuali, Mayssa M.; Posada, Roberto; Del Toro, Gustavo; Roman, Elizabeth; Ramani, Rama; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; LaBombardi, Vincent J.

    2009-01-01

    Rhizomucor variabilis and Hormographiella aspergillata rarely cause human infections. This report details a fatal case of a 14-year-old female with leukemia posthematopoietic cell transplant and relapse with refractory pancytopenia. The patient first developed an R. variabilis var. regularior palate infection and later developed a cutaneous H. aspergillata infection while on posaconazole and caspofungin therapy.

  11. BIODEGRADATION OF TEXTILE DYES BY Anabaena flos-aqual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigida Pimentel Villar de Queiroz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The pollution caused by dumping of toxic waste into the environment has resulted in impairment of essential natural resources such as water. With population growth and industries, the generation of waste increases substantially. Specifically, about 3,000 were commercial dyes to be carcinogenic and have no longer been manufactured, but in third world countries such as Brazil, some of these dyes high commercial value, are still in use. This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of biodegradation of dyes technical Drim CL 2 R Yellow and Blue Drim CL R. We tested the ability of degradation of these dyes by the cyanobacteria blue-green algae Anabaena flos-aqual. For this, their effectiveness in the degradation was evaluated in terms of discoloration spectrophotometrically. The blue dye was greater than R Drim CL degradation rate compared to the yellow dye Drim CL 2R. The species Anabaena flos-aqual achieved high degradation efficiency compared to blue dye, revealing a high potential applicability in processes of textile biodegradations in the county of Americana.

  12. ESI FTICR-MS Analysis of Larvae from the Marine Sponge Luffariella variabilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne M. Tapiolas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The viviparous Great Barrier Reef sponge Luffariella variabilis (Poléjaeff 1884 contains a range of secondary metabolites, including manoalide (1 and manoalide monoacetate (3. ESI (+ FTICR-MS accurate mass determination has, for the first time, been used to detected the presence of 3 only in an organic extract of a single L. variabilis larva showing that the parentally produced 3 is sequestered in the larva. As 3 has previously been shown to have antibacterial and quorum sensing inhibition activity, and readily converts to 1, which also exhibits similar activity, it may provide a chemical defence against predation and microbial attack.

  13. Draft Genome Assemblies of Proteus mirabilis ATCC 7002 and Proteus vulgaris ATCC 49132

    OpenAIRE

    Minogue, T. D.; Daligault, H. E.; Davenport, K. W.; Bishop-Lilly, K. A.; Bruce, D. C.; Chain, P. S.; Coyne, S. R.; Chertkov, O.; Freitas, T.; Frey, K. G.; Jaissle, J.; Koroleva, G. I.; Ladner, J. T.; Palacios, G. F.; Redden, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    The pleomorphic swarming bacilli of the genus Proteus are common human gut commensal organisms but also the causative agents of recurrent urinary tract infections and bacteremia. We sequenced and assembled the 3.99-Mbp genome of Proteus mirabilis ATCC 7002 (accession no. JOVJ00000000) and the 3.97-Mbp genome of Proteus vulgaris ATCC 49132 (accession no. JPIX00000000), both of which are commonly used reference strains.

  14. Azolla-Anabaena relationship. XIII. Fixation of (/sup 13/N)N/sub 2/. [Azolla caroliniana; Anabaena azollae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, J.C.; Steinberg, N.A.; Enderlin, C.S.; Joseph, C.M.; Peters, G.A.

    1987-07-01

    The major radioactive products of the fixation of (/sup 13/N)N/sub 2/ by Azolla caroliniana willd.-Anabaena azollae Stras. were ammonium, glutamine, and glutamate, plus a small amount of alanine. Ammonium accounted for 70 and 32% of the total radioactivity recovered after fixation for 1 and 10 minutes, respectively. The presence of a substantial pool of (/sup 13/N)N/sub 2/-derived /sup 13/NH/sub 4//sup +/ after long incubation periods was attributed to the spatial separation between the site of N/sub 2/-fixation (Anabaena) and a second, major site of assimilation (Azolla). Initially, glutamine was the most highly radioactive organic product formed from (/sup 13/N)N/sub 2/, but after 10 minutes of fixation glutamate had 1.5 times more radiolabel than glutamine. These kinetics of radiolabeling, along with the effects of inhibitors of glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase on assimilation of exogenous and (/sup 13/N)N/sub 2/-derived /sup 13/NH/sub 4//sup +/, indicate that ammonium assimilation occurred by the glutamate synthase cycle and that glutamate dehydrogenase played little or no role in the synthesis of glutamate by Azolla-Azabaena.

  15. Effect of different isolation methods on structure and properties of lignin from valonea of Quercus variabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Wang, Dongmei; Zhou, Dan; Zhang, Yawei

    2016-04-01

    Valonea of Quercus variabilis Blume, an abundant feedstock in China, can be used for tannin. However, there are little studies about lignin from this material. The present study aimed at lignin from the valonea: (1) Ethanol lignin (EL), alkali lignin (AL), milled wood lignin (MWL) and enzyme hydrolysis lignin (EHL) were prepared from the valonea of Q.variabilis Blume. (2) The effect of different isolation processes on the lignin chemical and physical features were studied by UV-vis, FT-IR, GPC, TG and (1)H NMR. (3) Antioxidant activities of four lignin preparations were evaluated by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. The results showed that the valonea of Q. variabilis contained mass lignin and four lignin preparations were GSH-type with little differences. The MWL contained the least functional groups (1.75 mmol/g MeO, 0.87 mmol/g ArOH and 1.27 mmol/g AlkOH), the poorest thermostability (onset degradation temperature=111°C, maximum rate of degradation=268°C) and the highest antioxidant activity. The EHL had the highest molecular weight (Mw=1,429 g/mol; Mn=746.18 g/mol). This study provided a theoretical basis for the development and utilization of lignin from the valonea of Q. variabilis. PMID:26772919

  16. AcEST: BP912159 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |B4UT81|B4UT81_9FLOR D1 protein (Fragment) OS=Phymatolithon re... 55 6e-15 tr|B4YYW2|B4YYW2_9BACT Photos...GSFSDGMPLGISGTFNFMIVF 186 >sp|Q8YQS7|PSBA3_ANASP Photosystem Q(B) protein 3 OS=Anabaena sp. (strain PCC 7120...GISGTF FMIVF+ Sbjct: 163 IGQGSFSDGMMLGISGTFNFMIVFS 187 >sp|Q3MCT0|PSBA1_ANAVT Photosystem Q(B) protein 1 OS=Anabaena variabilis (stra...DGMMLGISGTFNFMIVFS 187 >sp|Q3M5L6|PSBA4_ANAVT Photosystem Q(B) protein 6 OS=Anabaena variabilis (strain ATCC...>sp|B0CB14|PSBA1_ACAM1 Photosystem Q(B) protein 1 OS=Acaryochloris marina (strain MBIC 11017) GN=psbA1 PE=3

  17. A novel potassium deficiency-induced stimulon in Anabaena torulosa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anuradha Alahari; Shree Kumar Apte

    2004-06-01

    Potassium deficiency enhanced the synthesis of fifteen proteins in the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena torulosa and of nine proteins in Escherichia coli. These were termed potassium deficiency-induced proteins or PDPs and constitute hitherto unknown potassium deficiency–induced stimulons. Potassium deficiency also enhanced the synthesis of certain osmotic stress-induced proteins. Addition of K+ repressed the synthesis of a majority of the osmotic stress-induced proteins and of PDPs in these bacteria. These proteins contrast with the dinitrogenase reductase of A. torulosa and the glycine betaine-binding protein of E. coli, both of which were osmo-induced to a higher level in potassium-supplemented conditions. The data demonstrate the occurrence of novel potassium deficiency-induced stimulons and a wider role of K+ in regulation of gene expression and stress responses in bacteria.

  18. UV-inducible DNA repair in the cyanobacteria Anabaena spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strains of the filamentous cyanobacteria Anabaena spp. were capable of very efficient photoreactivation of UV irradiation-induced damage to DNA. Cells were resistant to several hundred joules of UV irradiation per square meter under conditions that allowed photoreactivation, and they also photoreactivated UV-damaged cyanophage efficiently. Reactivation of UV-irradiated cyanophage (Weigle reactivation) also occurred; UV irradiation of host cells greatly enhanced the plaque-forming ability of irradiated phage under nonphotoreactivating conditions. Postirradiation incubation of the host cells under conditions that allowed photoreactivation abolished the ability of the cells to perform Weigle reactivation of cyanophage N-1. Mitomycin C also induced Weigle reactivation of cyanophage N-1, but nalidixic acid did not. The inducible repair system (defined as the ability to perform Weigle reactivation of cyanophages) was relatively slow and inefficient compared with photoreactivation

  19. Determination of the Electron Self-Exchange Rates of Blue Copper Proteins by Super-WEFT NMR Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Lixin; Philipp, Else Astrid; Led, Jens J.

    Anabaena variabilis plastocyanin, blue copper proteins, electron self-exchange rates, electron transfer, super-WEFT NMR......Anabaena variabilis plastocyanin, blue copper proteins, electron self-exchange rates, electron transfer, super-WEFT NMR...

  20. Utilization of Anabaena sp. in CO{sub 2} removal processes. Modelling of biomass, exopolysaccharides productivities and CO{sub 2} fixation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Fernandez, J.F.; Gonzalez-Lopez, C.V.; Acien Fernandez, F.G.; Fernandez Sevilla, J.M.; Molina Grima, E. [Almeria Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2012-05-15

    This paper focuses on modelling the growth rate and exopolysaccharides production of Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047, to be used in carbon dioxide removal and biofuels production. For this, the influence of dilution rate, irradiance and aeration rate on the biomass and exopolysaccharides productivity, as well as on the CO{sub 2} fixation rate, have been studied. The productivity of the cultures was maximum at the highest irradiance and dilution rate assayed, resulting to 0.5 g{sub bio} l{sup -1} day{sup -1} and 0.2 g{sub eps} l{sup -1} day{sup -1}, and the CO{sub 2} fixation rate measured was 1.0 gCO{sub 2} l{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The results showed that although Anabaena sp. was partially photo-inhibited at irradiances higher than 1,300 {mu}E m-2 s{sup -1}, its growth rate increases hyperbolically with the average irradiance inside the culture, and so does the specific exopolysaccharides production rate. The latter, on the other hand, decreases under high external irradiances, indicating that the exopolysaccharides metabolism hindered by photo-damage. Mathematical models that consider these phenomena have been proposed. Regarding aeration, the yield of the cultures decreased at rates over 0.5 v/v/min or when shear rates were higher than 60 s{sup -1}, demonstrating the existence of thus existence of stress damage by aeration. The behaviour of the cultures has been verified outdoors in a pilot-scale airlift tubular photobioreactor. From this study it is concluded that Anabaena sp. is highly recommended to transform CO{sub 2} into valuable products as has been proved capable of metabolizing carbon dioxide at rates of 1.2 gCO{sub 2} l{sup -1} day{sup -1} outdoors. The adequacy of the proposed equations is demonstrated, resulting to a useful tool in the design and operation of photobioreactors using this strain. (orig.)

  1. Manganese transport in Brevibacterium ammoniagenes ATCC 6872.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, J.; Auling, G

    1987-01-01

    Uptake of manganese by Brevibacterium ammoniagenes ATCC 6872 was energy dependent and obeyed saturation kinetics (Km = 0.65 microM; Vmax = 0.12 mumol/min per g [dry weight]). Uptake showed optima at 27 degrees C and pH 9.5. 54Mn2+ accumulated by the cells was released by treatment with toluene or by exchange for unlabeled manganese ions, via an energy-dependent process. Co2+, Fe2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ inhibited manganese uptake. Inhibition by Cd2+ and Zn2+ was competitive (Ki = 0.15 microM Cd2+ an...

  2. Resistance to root knot nematode, Meloidogyne naasi (Franklin) transferred from Aegilops variabilis Eig to bread wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, M.Q.; Person-Dedryver, Françoise; Jahier, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Jusqu’à présent, on ne connaissait aucune lignée ou variété de blé tendre résistante à Meloidogyne naasi, nématode à galle des céréales. Par contre, des espèces voisines du blé dont Aegilops variabilis présentent une résistance totale. Dans la descendance en rétrocroisement de l’hybride interspécifique (Triticum aestivum L cv Chinese Spring x Aegilops variabilis n° 1), des lignées de blé à 2n = 42 chromosomes possédant une résistance totale comme le parent Aegilops ont été sélectionnées (...

  3. Genome scale metabolic reconstruction of Chlorella variabilis for exploring its metabolic potential for biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Ankita; Chaplen, Frank W R; Murthy, Ganti S

    2016-08-01

    A compartmentalized genome scale metabolic network was reconstructed for Chlorella variabilis to offer insight into various metabolic potentials from this alga. The model, iAJ526, was reconstructed with 1455 reactions, 1236 metabolites and 526 genes. 21% of the reactions were transport reactions and about 81% of the total reactions were associated with enzymes. Along with gap filling reactions, 2 major sub-pathways were added to the model, chitosan synthesis and rhamnose metabolism. The reconstructed model had reaction participation of 4.3 metabolites per reaction and average lethality fraction of 0.21. The model was effective in capturing the growth of C. variabilis under three light conditions (white, red and red+blue light) with fair agreement. This reconstructed metabolic network will serve an important role in systems biology for further exploration of metabolism for specific target metabolites and enable improved characteristics in the strain through metabolic engineering. PMID:26995318

  4. Photoreactions and Structural Changes of Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Kawanabe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR is an archaeal-type rhodopsin found in eubacteria. The gene encoding ASR forms a single operon with ASRT (ASR transducer which is a 14 kDa soluble protein, suggesting that ASR functions as a photochromic sensor by activating the soluble transducer. This article reviews the detailed photoreaction processes of ASR, which were studied by low-temperature Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy. The former research reveals that the retinal isomerization is similar to bacteriorhodopsin (BR, but the hydrogen-bonding network around the Schiff base and cytoplasmic region is different. The latter study shows the stable photoproduct of the all-trans form is 100% 13-cis, and that of the 13-cis form is 100% all-trans. These results suggest that the structural changes of ASR in the cytoplasmic domain play important roles in the activation of the transducer protein, and photochromic reaction is optimized for its sensor function.

  5. The effects of SO sub 2 on Azolla - Anabaena symbiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeseoun Hur; Wellburn, A.R. (Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom))

    1991-05-01

    Cultures of Azolla pinnata containing Anabaena were investigated as a sensitive and reproducible bioindicator of air pollution. Three equal doses of SO{sub 2} (week*ppb: 1*100, 2*50, 4*25) were applied to Azolla cultures growing in nitrogen-free medium in a specially-designed exposure system. Exposure to high concentrations of SO{sub 2} showed highly significant reductions in growth of the fern, while nitrogen fixation and heterocyst development were severely damaged. This was associated with a reduction of protein content in the SO{sub 2}-exposed ferns and again more significant at higher SO{sub 2} levels. There was a variation in the absolute amount of the individual pigments between SO{sub 2} doses and/or treatments which was related to the physiological development of the ferns throughout the fumigations. Moreover, the ratio of violaxanthin to antheraxanthin in the 100 ppb SO{sub 2}-treated ferns was significantly higher than that in the clean air-grown ferns. The results clearly demonstrate that SO{sub 2} has adverse effects on the symbiosis and suggest that this fern is a promising bioindicator of air pollution and a very good model to investigate the inter-relationships between photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and air pollution stress.

  6. Diverse Microhabitats Experienced by Halomonas variabilis on Salt-Secreting Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Burch, Adrien Y.; Finkel, Omri M.; Cho, Juliana K.; Belkin, Shimshon; Steven E Lindow

    2013-01-01

    The leaf surfaces of the salt-excreting tree Tamarix aphylla harbor a wide diversity of halophilic microorganisms, including Halomonas sp., but little is known of the factors that shape community composition in this extreme habitat. We isolated a strain of Halomonas variabilis from the leaf surface of T. aphylla and used it to determine the heterogeneity of salt concentrations experienced by bacteria in this environment. This halophilic strain was transformed with a proU::gfp reporter gene fu...

  7. Prevalence of Rickettsia species in Dermacentor variabilis ticks from Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Heidi; Dillon, Liz; Patel, Samir N; Ralevski, Filip

    2016-07-01

    Relatively little is known about the prevalence of rickettsial species in Dermacentor ticks in eastern Canada. In this study, Dermacentor ticks from the province of Ontario, Canada, were tested for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsial (SFGR) species, Coxiella burnetii and Francisella tularensis. Rickettsia rickettsii was not detected in any ticks tested, but R. montanensis was detected at a prevalence of 2.2% in D. variabilis (17/778). Two other SFGR species, R. parkeri and Candidatus R. andeanae, were detected individually in 2 Amblyomma maculatum ticks. Rickettsia peacockii, a non-pathogenic endosymbiont, was detected in two D. andersonii ticks. Given the highly abundant nature of D. variabilis, surveillance for human pathogens in this species of tick has important public health implications, but the lack of detection of known human pathogens indicates a low risk of infection via this tick species in Ontario. However, the detection of R. parkeri in an adventive A. maculatum tick indicates that health care providers should be aware of the possibility of spotted fever rickettsioses in individuals with a history of travel outside of Ontario and symptoms compatible with a spotted fever rickettsiosis. Coxiella burnetii and Francisella tularensis, human pathogens also potentially transmitted by D. variabilis, were not detected in a subset of the ticks. PMID:27318438

  8. New alkaline lipase from Rhizomucor variabilis: Biochemical properties and stability in the presence of microbial EPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancerz, Renata; Osińska-Jaroszuk, Monika; Jaszek, Magdalena; Janusz, Grzegorz; Stefaniuk, Dawid; Sulej, Justyna; Janczarek, Monika; Jarosz-Wilkołazka, Anna; Rogalski, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    A new strain of Rhizomucor variabilis producing an active extracellular lipase was identified and characterized in the present studies. The culture conditions were optimized and the highest lipase production amounting to 136 U/mL was achieved after 4 days of cultivation. The optimum pH (5.5) and temperature (28 °C) were determined as the best conditions for R. variabilis lipase production. The isolated enzyme preparation exhibited maximum activity at 40 °C and pH 8.0. Lipase from R. variabilis was stable up to 50 °C during 2 H retaining 80% of its initial activity. The enzyme was highly stable in the pH range of 7.0-9.0. Moreover, the addition of naturally obtained exopolysaccharides (EPS) significantly enhanced lipase activity. The presence of EPS derived from Ganoderma applanatum and Rhizobium leguminosarum enhanced the lipase activity, which was 22% and 31%, respectively, higher than that in the control experiments. Simultaneously, the pH activity profiles remained unchanged. The Michaelis-Menten constant and the turnover number of the enzyme for p-nitrophenyl palmitate in the standard assay conditions were estimated at a level of 0.631 mM and 0.674 Sec(-1) . In conclusion, the results obtained in this work present a newly isolated lipase preparation stabilized with EPS or without modification as a very effective tool for industrial application. PMID:25643732

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Type Strain Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise Hesselbjerg; Dargis, Rimtas; Christensen, Jens Jørgen Elmer;

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558T was isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis in 1946 and announced as a type strain in 1989. Here, we report the 2,154,510-bp draft genome sequence of S. gordonii ATCC 10558T. This sequence will contribute to knowledge about the pathogenesis of...

  10. Mecanismos de tolerancia del simbiosistema Azolla-Anabaena azollae ante arsénico y cobre.

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Viveros, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Esta investigación evaluó algunos mecanismos de tolerancia del simbiosistema Azolla-Anabaena azollae ante agua contaminada con arsénico (As+5) y/o cobre (Cu2+). Para lo anterior, se plantearon seis fases experimentales: 1) identificar molecularmente a nivel de especie a diez colectas de Azolla, 2) evaluar la capacidad de acumulación de As+5 y los efectos tóxicos del metaloide en el simbiosistema Azolla-Anabaena azollae, 3) determinar la influencia del As+5 en la concentración de nueve element...

  11. Lipopolysaccharide dependence of cyanophage sensitivity and aerobic nitrogen fixation in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, X.; Khudyakov, I; Wolk, C P

    1997-01-01

    Fox- mutants of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 are unable to fix dinitrogen in the presence of oxygen. A fragment of the DNA of Anabaena sp. was cloned by complementation of a spontaneous Fox-, cyanophage-resistant mutant, R56, and characterized. Random insertion of transposon Tn5 delimited the complementing DNA to a 0.6-kb portion of the cloned fragment. Sequencing of this region and flanking DNA showed one complete open reading frame (ORF) similar to the gene rfbP (undecaprenyl-phosphate gala...

  12. An ecophysiological study of the Azolla filiculoides- Anabaena azollae association

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kempen, Monique; Smolders, Fons; Speelman, Eveline; Reichart, Gert Jan; Barke, Judith; Brinkhuis, Henk; Lotter, Andy; Roelofs, Jan

    2010-05-01

    The long term effects of salinity stress on the growth, nutrient content and amino acid composition of the Azolla filiculoides - Anabaena azollae association was studied in a laboratory experiment. It was demonstrated that the symbiosis could tolerate salt stress up to 90 mM NaCl, even after a 100 day period of preconditioning at salt concentrations that were 30 mM NaCl lower. In the 120 mM NaCl treatment the Azolla filiculoides survived, but hardly any new biomass was produced. It was shown that during the experiment, A. filiculoides became increasingly efficient in excluding salt ions from the plant tissue and was thus able to increase its salt tolerance. The amino acid analysis revealed that the naturally occurring high glutamine concentration in the plants was strongly reduced at salt concentrations of 120 mM NaCl and higher. This was the result of the reduced nitrogenase activity at these salt concentrations, as was demonstrated in an acetylene reduction assay. We suggest that the high glutamine concentration in the plants might play a role in the osmoregulatory response against salt stress, enabling growth of the A. filiculoides -Anabaena azollae association up to 90 mM NaCl. In a mesocosm experiment it furthermore was demonstrated that Azolla might manipulate its own microenvironment when grown at elevated salt concentration (up to ~50 mmol•L-1) by promoting salinity stratification, especially when it has formed a dense cover at the water surface. Beside salt stress, we also studied the growth of Azolla filiculoides in response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, in combination with different light intensities and different pH of the nutrient solution. The results demonstrated that as compared to the control (ambient pCO2 concentrations), Azolla filiculoides was able to produce twice as much biomass at carbon dioxide concentrations that were five times as high as the ambient pCO2 concentration. However, it was also shown that this

  13. Quantification of the Effects of Salt Stress and Physiological State on Thermotolerance of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987 and ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den H.M.W.; Mataragas, M.; Moezelaar, R.; Abee, T.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    The food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus can acquire enhanced thermal resistance through multiple mechanisms. Two Bacillus cereus strains, ATCC 10987 and ATCC 14579, were used to quantify the effects of salt stress and physiological state on thermotolerance. Cultures were exposed to increasing concen

  14. Anabaena bergii Ostenf. [f. minor (Kisselev Kossinsk.] (Cyanoprokaryota: The first record in Serbia, its taxonomic status, and that of the genus Anabaena Bory ex Born. & Flah.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijan M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of a detailed survey of the algal community in salt marshes of the Vojvodina Province (Northern Serbia, we rather unexpectedly found the blue-green alga Anabaena bergii Ostenf. [forma minor (Kisselev Kossinsk.] in water samples from Slatina Pond near Opovo. Our finding represents its first record in Serbia. The present paper gives general characteristics of this alga and of the habitat in which it was found. Based on analysis of a large number of works dealing with characteristics and the taxonomic status of the genus Anabaena, the species A. bergii, and its forma minor, it is concluded that there are numerous problems in taxonomy of the given genus, with no consensus among researchers. In light of the available data, the authors retain the name of the species A. bergii, but accept forma minor with some reserve.

  15. Anabaena bergii Ostenf. [f. minor (Kisselev) Kossinsk.] (Cyanoprokaryota): The first record in Serbia, its taxonomic status, and that of the genus Anabaena Bory ex Born. & Flah.

    OpenAIRE

    Cvijan M.; Krizmanić Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Within the framework of a detailed survey of the algal community in salt marshes of the Vojvodina Province (Northern Serbia), we rather unexpectedly found the blue-green alga Anabaena bergii Ostenf. [forma minor (Kisselev) Kossinsk.] in water samples from Slatina Pond near Opovo. Our finding represents its first record in Serbia. The present paper gives general characteristics of this alga and of the habitat in which it was found. Based on analysis of a large number of works dealing with char...

  16. Reproductive biology of Palythoa caribaeorum and Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoanthidea from the southeastern coast of Brazil Biologia reprodutiva de Palythoa caribaeorum e Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Zoanthidea da costa sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Boscolo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of Palythoa caribaeorum (Duchassaing & Michelotti 1860 and Protopalythoa variabilis (Duerden 1898 was studied through monthly samples from tagged colonies from June 1996 to June 1997, in São Sebastião channel, São Paulo, Brazil (45º26'W, 23º50'S. The gametogenesis was similar to that of other zoanthids as shown by histological preparations. Oocyte diameters and maturation stages of testis vesicles were evaluated on squash preparations. Both species showed sequential protogynic hermaphroditism, with high frequency of fertile polyps (83% in P. variabilis and 72% in P. caribaeorum, high frequency of colonies in female sex condition (65.3% of P. variabilis and 41.7% of P. caribaeorum, and apparently continuous gametogenesis. In P. caribaeorum, egg release was continuous and sperm release took place during half of the analyzed period. In P. variabilis, egg and sperm release occurred in April-May and February-March 1997, respectively.A biologia reprodutiva de Palythoa caribaeorum (Duchassaing & Michelotti 1860 e Protopalythoa variabilis (Duerden 1898 foi estudada por amostras mensais de colônias etiquetadas de junho de 1996 a junho de 1997, no canal de São Sebastião, São Paulo, Brasil (45º26'W, 23º50'S. A gametogênese apresentou-se semelhante à de outros zoantídeos, como evidenciado em preparações histológicas. O diâmetro dos oócitos e os estágios de maturação dos folículos testiculares foram avaliados por preparações do tipo "squash". Ambas as espécies mostraram hermafroditismo seqüencial protogínico, com alta freqüência de pólipos férteis (83% em P. variabilis e 72% em P. caribaeorum e de colônias na condição sexual feminina (65,3% para P. variabilis e 41,7% para P. caribaeorum, e, aparentemente, gametogênese contínua. Em P. caribaeorum, a liberação de oócitos foi contínua e a liberação de espermatozóides ocorreu durante metade do período analisado. Para P. variabilis, a libera

  17. Aggressive cutaneous zygomycosis caused by Apophysomyces variabilis in an immunocompetent child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zaydani, Ibrahim A; Al-Hakami, Ahmed M; Joseph, Martin R P; Kassem, Walid M; Almaghrabi, Mohamed K; Nageeb, Abdalla; Hamid, Mohamed E

    2015-12-01

    A zygomycetous fungus was observed in a biopsy of a 9-year-old male. The patient was presented with severe cutaneous lesions subsequent to a traumatic car accident. Following fungal detection, antifungal treatment was prescribed but condition deteriorated rapidly and above knee amputation was done as lifesaving and to control fungal infection. Analysis of the 28 S rRNA gene (accession KT149770) aligned the isolate with members of the genus Apophysomyces and the pathogen was identified as Apophysomces variabilis. PMID:26858932

  18. Aggressive cutaneous zygomycosis caused by Apophysomyces variabilis in an immunocompetent child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A. Al-Zaydani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A zygomycetous fungus was observed in a biopsy of a 9-year-old male. The patient was presented with severe cutaneous lesions subsequent to a traumatic car accident. Following fungal detection, antifungal treatment was prescribed but condition deteriorated rapidly and above knee amputation was done as lifesaving and to control fungal infection. Analysis of the 28 S rRNA gene (accession KT149770 aligned the isolate with members of the genus Apophysomyces and the pathogen was identified as Apophysomces variabilis.

  19. Polyphasic characterization of three strains of .i.Anabaena reniformis./i. and .i.Aphanizomenon aphanizomenoides./i. (cyanobacteria) and their re-classification to .i.Sphaerospermum./i. gen. nov. (incl. .i.Anabaena kisseleviana./i.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapomělová, Eliška; Jezberová, Jitka; Hrouzek, Pavel; Hisem, D.; Řeháková, Klára; Komárková, Jaroslava

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 6 (2009), s. 1363-1373. ISSN 0022-3646 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600960703; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600050704; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/06/0462 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Anabaena reniformis * Aphanizomenon aphanizomenoides * taxonomy * Sphaerospermum * Anabaena kisseleviana Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.270, year: 2009

  20. Memrane bioenergetics of the actinomycete Nonomuraca sp. ATCC 39727

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palese, L. L.; Gaballo, A.; Dobrová, Zuzana; Labonia, N.; Abbrescia, A.; Scacco, S.; Micelli, L.; Papa, S.

    Milano, 2003, s. 159. [Joint Symposia with the British Biochemical Society /SIB 2003./. Milano (IT), 15.09.2003-18.09.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : nadh * atcc * omya Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  1. Siderophore-Mediated Aluminum Uptake by Bacillus megaterium ATCC 19213

    OpenAIRE

    X. Hu; Boyer, G. L.

    1996-01-01

    The bacterium Bacillus megaterium ATCC 19213 is known to produce two hydroxamate siderophores, schizokinen and N-deoxyschizokinen, under iron-limited conditions. In addition to their high affinity for ferric ions, these siderophores chelate aluminum. Aluminum was absorbed by B. megaterium ATCC 19213 through the siderophore transport receptor, providing an extra pathway for aluminum accumulation into iron-deficient bacteria. At low concentrations of the metal, siderophore-mediated uptake was t...

  2. Nonrandom distribution of vector ticks (Dermacentor variabilis infected by Francisella tularensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi K Goethert

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The island of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, is the site of a sustained outbreak of tularemia due to Francisella tularensis tularensis. Dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis, appear to be critical in the perpetuation of the agent there. Tularemia has long been characterized as an agent of natural focality, stably persisting in characteristic sites of transmission, but this suggestion has never been rigorously tested. Accordingly, we sought to identify a natural focus of transmission of the agent of tularemia by mapping the distribution of PCR-positive ticks. From 2004 to 2007, questing D. variabilis were collected from 85 individual waypoints along a 1.5 km transect in a field site on Martha's Vineyard. The positions of PCR-positive ticks were then mapped using ArcGIS. Cluster analysis identified an area approximately 290 meters in diameter, 9 waypoints, that was significantly more likely to yield PCR-positive ticks (relative risk 3.3, P = 0.001 than the rest of the field site. Genotyping of F. tularensis using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR analysis on PCR-positive ticks yielded 13 different haplotypes, the vast majority of which was one dominant haplotype. Positive ticks collected in the cluster were 3.4 times (relative risk = 3.4, P<0.0001 more likely to have an uncommon haplotype than those collected elsewhere from the transect. We conclude that we have identified a microfocus where the agent of tularemia stably perpetuates and that this area is where genetic diversity is generated.

  3. Characterization of a thermostable endoglucanase produced by Isoptericola variabilis sp. IDAH9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Maryam; Hemmat, Jafar; Seifati, Seyed Morteza; Torktaz, Ibrahim; Karimi, Soodabeh

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to isolate and evaluate the cellulase activity of cellulolytic bacteria in hot springs of Dehloran, Ilam province, Iran. Water and sludge samples were collected from the hot springs and the bacterial enrichment was performed in a medium containing rice barn and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The cultures were incubated at 50 °C in aerobic conditions. The bacteria were isolated on CMC agar (1%) medium. Cellulase assay of the isolates was measured by the evaluation of endoglucanase enzyme activity, which is also called as carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase). The isolated thermotolerant bacteria were then identified and optimized for the production of CMCase. Moreover, stabilizing elements of the enzyme were identified with in silico approach. The chosen isolate was identified as Isoptericola variabilis sp. IDAH9. The identified strain produced the most thermostable CMCase at a concentration of 5.6 g/L of ammonium sulfate, 9 g/L CMCase or 12 g/L rice bran, 0/6% Tween-80, and 0.2% sucrose. The produced enzyme showed 80% of the residual activity after 1 h of incubation at 65 °C. In silico data indicated that the remaining residual activity was due to the redundant stabilizing elements in the protein structure. Consequently, I. variabilis can be isolated from the extreme environment and has a thermostable endoglucanase which may be used for various applications after studying them. PMID:26691485

  4. Histopathological study of toxic effects of carbaryl on digestive tract of Bufotes variabilis (Anura: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakıcı, Özlem

    2016-07-01

    Due to the negative effects of pesticide usage in environment, i.e., decline in amphibian populations, this study was designed to examine histopathologic changes following carbaryl exposure for 96 h in the digestive tract of variable toad, Bufotes variabilis. After exposure to single doses of carbaryl (low dose 50 μg/g, medium dose 100 μg/g, and high dose: 200 μg/g), the toads were euthanized and dissected and digestive tract samples were quickly removed. Histopathology revealed esophageal vacuolization and necrosis in esophageal cells. Hemorrhage was also observed in the esophagus. In the stomach, necrosis in the glandular epithelium, congested blood vessels, edema among gastric glands, dilated tips of the mucosal epithelial layer, gastric glandular atrophy, and hemorrhage were found. In the intestine, edema within villi, hemorrhage, inflammation, vacuolization, and necrosis in epithelial cells of villi were detected. This study clearly showed that carbaryl caused adverse effects on the digestive tract of B. variabilis in all dose groups. PMID:27026545

  5. Sugar metabolism by fusobacteria: regulation of transport, phosphorylation, and polymer formation by Fusobacterium mortiferum ATCC 25557.

    OpenAIRE

    Robrish, S A; Oliver, C; Thompson, J.

    1991-01-01

    Strains of eight Fusobacterium species differed in the ability to use sugars as energy sources for growth. For Fusobacterium russii ATCC 25533, F. gonidiaformans ATCC 25563, and F. nucleatum ATCC 10953 (except for fructose), growth was marginal to poor on all of the sugars tested. Other species displayed reasonable growth on glucose, fructose, mannose, and galactose, and two strains of F. mortiferum (ATCC 25557 and ATCC 9817) grew well on six of the sugars tested, including sucrose and maltos...

  6. [Diurnal variation of Quercus variabilis trunk diameter in response to environmental factors at south aspect of Taihang Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shou-Jia; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jin-Song; Jia, Chang-Rong; Ren, Ying-Feng

    2012-08-01

    By using Circumference Dendrometer 2 (DC2), this paper studied the diurnal variation of trunk diameter in Quercus variabilis plantation at the south aspect of Taihang Mountains. During seasonal drought, the diurnal variation of Q. variabilis trunk diameter was quite evident. The time of the diameter shrinkage followed the start-up time of sap flow, but the appearance of the minimum trunk diameter lagged behind the maximum sap flow flux about 3-4 h. The maximum daily shrinkage (MDS) value of the trunk diameter presented a trend low-high-low, being significantly correlated with the diurnal differences of cumulative sap flow flux and leaf water potential and having a significant quadratic relationship with soil moisture content. The MDS value was affected by the variations of meteorological factors, being significantly correlated with the diurnal variations of air temperature, vapor pressure deficit, and relative humidity, but less correlated with the diurnal variation of solar radiation. After successive precipitation, soil moisture content was no longer the limiting factor of the diurnal variation of Q. variabilis trunk diameter. The MDS value had less correlations with the diurnal differences of cumulative sap flow flux, leaf water potential, soil moisture content, and other meteorological factors. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that the soil moisture content and air temperature in seasonal drought and rain seasons were the key factors affecting the diurnal variation of Q. variabilis trunk diameter. PMID:23189691

  7. The cultivable endophytic community of Norway spruce ectomycorrhizas from microhabitats lacking ericaceous hosts is dominated by ericoid mycorrhizal Meliniomyces variabilis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vohník, Martin; Mrnka, Libor; Lukešová, Tereza; Bruzone, M. C.; Kohout, Petr; Fehrer, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2013), s. 281-292. ISSN 1754-5048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/09/P340 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : ectomycorrhiza * endophytes * Meliniomyces variabilis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.992, year: 2013

  8. Susceptibility of Four Tick Species Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) to Nootkatone

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil nootkatone has shown acaricidal activity on ticks. The toxicity of nootkatone was determined in laboratory assays using a vial coating technique against unfed nymphs of four Ixodid ticks: Amblyomma americanum L., Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Ixodes scapularis Say, and Rhipicepha...

  9. Molecular detection of Peronospora variabilis in quinoa seed and phylogeny of the quinoa downy mildew pathogen in South America and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testen, Anna L; del Mar Jiménez-Gasco, María; Ochoa, José B; Backman, Paul A

    2014-04-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is an important export of the Andean region, and its key disease is quinoa downy mildew, caused by Peronospora variabilis. P. variabilis oospores can be seedborne and rapid methods to detect seedborne P. variabilis have not been developed. In this research, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection method was developed to detect seedborne P. variabilis and a sequencing-based method was used to validate the PCR-based method. P. variabilis was detected in 31 of 33 quinoa seed lots using the PCR-based method and in 32 of 33 quinoa seed lots using the sequencing-based method. Thirty-one of the quinoa seed lots tested in this study were sold for human consumption, with seed originating from six different countries. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (COX2) phylogenies were examined to determine whether geographical differences occurred in P. variabilis populations originating from Ecuador, Bolivia, and the United States. No geographical differences were observed in the ITS-derived phylogeny but the COX2 phylogeny indicated that geographical differences existed between U.S. and South American samples. Both ITS and COX2 phylogenies supported the existence of a Peronospora sp., distinct from P. variabilis, that causes systemic-like downy mildew symptoms on quinoa in Ecuador. The results of these studies allow for a better understanding of P. variabilis populations in South America and identified a new causal agent for quinoa downy mildew. The PCR-based seed detection method allows for the development of P. variabilis-free quinoa seed, which may prove important for management of quinoa downy mildew. PMID:24224871

  10. Polyphasic characterization of eight planktonic .i.Anabaena./i. strains (Cyanobacteria) with reference to the variability of 61 .i.Anabaena./i. populations observed in the field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapomělová, Eliška; Řeháková, Klára; Jezberová, Jitka; Komárková, Jaroslava

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 639, č. 1 (2010), s. 99-113. ISSN 0018-8158. [IAP /15./. Golan Heights, 23.11.2008-30.11.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600960703; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/06/0462; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600050704 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : Anabaena * taxonomy * morphology * classification * light * nitrogen * phosphorus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.964, year: 2010

  11. Relative importance of various regeneration mechanisms in different restoration stages of Quercus variabilis forest after selective logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoqin Xue

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Quercus variabilis (Chinese cork oak reproduces asexually and sexually. This study aimed to determine the status and growth of asexual and sexual recruits of Q. variabilis in different forest recovery stages.Area of study: Three selective logged stands and one unlogged stand in Q. variabilis forest, Shaanxi Province, China.Material and Methods: Origin, number, basal diameter, height and size structure of Q. variabilis shoots (height ≤200 cm were investigated in the plots of 5, 10, and 20-years post-logging stands and unlogged stand. Effects of recovery stage on the density and growth of the three original recruits (stump sprouts, stem base sprouts and true seedlings were analysis by One-way ANOVA.Main results: Sprouts dominated logged stands, whereas true seedlings dominated unlogged stand, stem base sprouts only existed in 20-years post-logging and unlogged stands. Stump sprout density and sprout number per stump both declined with extended post-logging time. True seedlings density increased from 7 to 20 shoots/100 m2 as the postlogging time extended, and peaked in unlogged stand (94 shoots/100 m2. An ongoing size structure was observed in true seedlings in all stands. Stump sprouts were taller and greater than true seedlings.Research highlights: Stump sprouts contributed more to Q. variabilis forest recovery in the early stage after disturbance. The contribution of true seedlings was limited in the same stage, but they were beneficial for population long-term development. Stem base sprouts were most likely to be a survival strategy rather than a reproductive strategy.Key words: asexual reproduction; true seedling; post-logging time; Chinese cork oak.

  12. Whole Cell Biosensor Using Anabaena torulosa with Optical Transduction for Environmental Toxicity Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Shing Wong; Yook Heng Lee; Salmijah Surif

    2013-01-01

    A whole cell-based biosensor using Anabaena torulosa for the detection of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, and Cd), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D), and chlorpyrifos was constructed. The cyanobacteria were entrapped on a cellulose membrane through filtration. Then, the membrane was dried and fixed into a cylindrical well, which was designed to be attached to an optical probe. The probe was connected to fluorescence spectrometer with optical fibre. The presence of the toxicants was indicated by the ch...

  13. Digestion of bacteria by Nais variabilis (Oligochaeta) as established by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serratia marcescens grown on different tritiated substrates was fed to Nais variabilis for 40 min, 4 h, and 17 h periods. The substrates were glucose, thymidine and glycerol which labelled mainly low molecular compounds, DNA, and lipids respectively. The worms incorporated radioactive label into their tissues within 40 min of feeding on the labelled bacteria. Incorporation of label where low molecular weight compounds were labelled could be due to absorption of dissolved bacterial secretions through the gut or body wall. However, DNA is a macromolecule not secreted by bacteria, consequently the label within this molecule could only accumulate in worm tissue after digestion, absorption and assimilation. No definite pattern of uptake or translocation along the worm was conclusively established but there was some indication that uptake was greatest in the anterior region of the intestine. Bacterial lipids were digested more slowly than the other materials labelled. (author)

  14. Biogeographic patterns of nutrient resorption from Quercus variabilis Blume leaves across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Kang, H; Chen, H Y H; Björn, B; Samuel, B F; Liu, C

    2016-05-01

    The variation in nutrient resorption has been studied at different taxonomic levels and geographic ranges. However, the variable traits of nutrient resorption at the individual species level across its distribution are poorly understood. We examined the variability and environmental controls of leaf nutrient resorption of Quercus variabilis, a widely distributed species of important ecological and economic value in China. The mean resorption efficiency was highest for phosphorus (P), followed by potassium (K), nitrogen (N), sulphur (S), magnesium (Mg) and carbon (C). Resorption efficiencies and proficiencies were strongly affected by climate and respective nutrients concentrations in soils and green leaves, but had little association with leaf mass per area. Climate factors, especially growing season length, were dominant drivers of nutrient resorption efficiencies, except for C, which was strongly related to green leaf C status. In contrast, green leaf nutritional status was the primary controlling factor of leaf nutrient proficiencies, except for C. Resorption efficiencies of N, P, K and S increased significantly with latitude, and were negatively related to growing season length and mean annual temperature. In turn, N, P, K and S in senesced leaves decreased with latitude, likely due to their efficient resorption response to variation in climate, but increased for Mg and did not change for C. Our results indicate that the nutrient resorption efficiency and proficiency of Q. variabilis differed strongly among nutrients, as well as growing environments. Our findings provide important insights into understanding the nutrient conservation strategy at the individual species level and its possible influence on nutrient cycling. PMID:26597338

  15. Infection Prevalences of Common Tick-borne Pathogens in Adult Lone Star Ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and American Dog Ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) in Kentucky

    OpenAIRE

    Fritzen, Charissa M.; Huang, Junjun; Westby, Kathleen; Freye, James D.; Dunlap, Brett; Yabsley, Michael J.; Schardein, Mike; Dunn, John R.; Jones, Timothy F.; Moncayo, Abelardo C.

    2011-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, and ehrlichiosis are tick-borne diseases that are reported annually in Kentucky. We conducted a survey to describe infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis ticks collected in Kentucky. During 2007–2008, we collected 287 ticks (179 D. variabilis and 108 A. americanum) from canine, feral hog, horse, raccoon, white-tailed deer, and human hosts in six counties in Kentucky. Ticks were screened for Ri...

  16. Nezha, a novel active miniature inverted-repeat transposable element in cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) were first identified in plants and exerted extensive proliferations throughout eukaryotic and archaeal genomes. But very few MITEs have been characterized in bacteria. We identified a novel MITE, called Nezha, in cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 and Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. Nezha, like most previously known MITEs in other organisms, is small in size, non-coding, carrying TIR and DR signals, and of potential to form a stable RNA secondary structure, and it tends to insert into A+T-rich regions. Recent transpositions of Nezha were observed in A. variabilis ATCC 29413 and Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, respectively. Nezha might have proliferated recently with aid from the transposase encoded by ISNpu3-like elements. A possible horizontal transfer event of Nezha from cyanobacteria to Polaromonas JS666 is also observed

  17. Highly hydrolytic reuteransucrase from probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kralj, S.; Stripling, E.; Sanders, P.; Geel-Schutten, G.H. van; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 (LB BIO) was isolated as a pure culture from a Reuteri tablet purchased from the BioGaia company. This probiotic strain produces a soluble glucan (reuteran), in which the majority of the linkages are of the α-(1→4) glucosidic type (∼70%). This reuteran also co

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Alternaria alternata ATCC 34957.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai D T; Lewis, Christopher T; Lévesque, C André; Gräfenhan, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Alternaria alternata ATCC 34957. This strain was previously reported to produce alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether on weathered grain sorghum. The genome was sequenced with PacBio technology and assembled into 27 scaffolds with a total genome size of 33.5 Mb. PMID:26769939

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium interjectum Strain ATCC 51457T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Anthony; Asmar, Shady; Robert, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium interjectum is a nontuberculosis species rarely responsible for human infection. The draft genome of M. interjectum ATCC 51457T comprises 5,927,979 bp, exhibiting 67.91% G+C content, 5,314 protein-coding genes, and 51 predicted RNA genes. PMID:27231376

  20. Genome Sequence of Ureaplasma diversum Strain ATCC 49782.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Lucas M; Guimarães, Ana M S; Martins, Hellen B; Rezende, Izadora S; Barbosa, Maysa S; Campos, Guilherme B; do Nascimento, Naíla C; Dos Santos, Andrea P; Amorim, Aline T; Santos, Verena M; Messick, Joanne B; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Ureaplasma diversum strain ATCC 49782. This species is of bovine origin, having an association with reproductive disorders in cattle, including placentitis, fetal alveolitis, abortion, and birth of weak calves. It has a small circular chromosome of 975,425 bp. PMID:25883297

  1. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter gracilis ATCC 33236T

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human oral pathogen Campylobacter gracilis has been isolated from periodontal and endodontal infections, and also from non-oral head, neck or lung infections. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the human periodontal isolate ATCC 33236T (=FDC 1084), which is the first closed genome...

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium vaccae Type Strain ATCC 25954

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Y. S.

    2012-10-26

    Mycobacterium vaccae is a rapidly growing, nontuberculous Mycobacterium species that is generally not considered a human pathogen and is of major pharmaceutical interest as an immunotherapeutic agent. We report here the annotated genome sequence of the M. vaccae type strain, ATCC 25954.

  3. 3-Methylindole production is regulated in Clostridium scatologenes ATCC 25775

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: 3-Methylindole (3-MI) is a degradation product of L-tryptophan and is both an animal waste malodorant and threat to ruminant health. Culture conditions which influence 3-MI production in Clostridium scatologenes ATCC 25775 were investigated. Methods and Results: Cells cultured in anaerobic ...

  4. Metabolism of amino acid amides in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, H.F.M.; Croes, L.M.; Peeters, W.P.H.; Peters, P.J.H.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The metabolism of the natural amino acid L-valine, the unnatural amino acids D-valine, and D-, L-phenylglycine (D-, L-PG), and the unnatural amino acid amides D-, L-phenylglycine amide (D, L-PG-NH2) and L-valine amide (L-Val-NH2) was studied in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633. The organism possessed c

  5. Effect of the cyanobacterium Anabaena spiroides Klebahn on the quantity of bacterioplankton in water of varied trophicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeczuga, B; Chomutowska, H

    2000-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of the cyanobacterium Anabaena spiroides on the quantity of bacterioplankton in water of varied trophicity. The cyanobacterium Anabaena spiroides, introduced to the polluted water of the river Biała has the strongest effect on bacterioplankton--the number of bacteria decreases to 31.78%. The spherical:cylindrical ratio changes in favour of the latter when affected by the cyanobacterium. This is the most pronounced in the river Biała, where spherical:cylindrical changes from 1:0.88 to 1:1.96. Anabaena spiroides exerts the most significant effect on the quantity of bacterioplankton in lake Sniardwy and pond Fosa after 24 hours, and in the other water bodies after 72 hours following the introduction of the cyanobacterium. PMID:11712443

  6. A bHLH transcription factor, DvIVS, is involved in regulation of anthocyanin synthesis in dahlia (Dahlia variabilis)

    OpenAIRE

    Ohno, Sho; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Hoshino, Atsushi; Kitamura, Yoshikuni; Morita, Yasumasa; Park, Kyeung-II; Nakashima, Akiko; Deguchi, Ayumi; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Doi, Motoaki; Iida, Shigeru; Yazawa, Susumu

    2011-01-01

    Dahlias (Dahlia variabilis) exhibit a wide range of flower colours because of accumulation of anthocyanin and other flavonoids in their ray florets. Two lateral mutants were used that spontaneously occurred in ‘Michael J’ (MJW) which has yellow ray florets with orange variegation. MJOr, a bud mutant producing completely orange ray florets, accumulates anthocyanins, flavones, and butein, and MJY, another mutant producing completely yellow ray florets, accumulates flavones and butein. Reverse t...

  7. A bHLH transcription factor, DvIVS, is involved in regulation of anthocyanin synthesis in dahlia (Dahlia variabilis).

    OpenAIRE

    Ohno, Sho; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Hoshino, Atsushi; Kitamura, Yoshikuni; Morita, Yasumasa; Park, Kyeung-II; Nakashima, Akiko; Deguchi, Ayumi; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Doi, Motoaki; Iida, Shigeru; Yazawa, Susumu

    2011-01-01

    Dahlias (Dahlia variabilis) exhibit a wide range of flower colours because of accumulation of anthocyanin and other flavonoids in their ray florets. Two lateral mutants were used that spontaneously occurred in 'Michael J' (MJW) which has yellow ray florets with orange variegation. MJOr, a bud mutant producing completely orange ray florets, accumulates anthocyanins, flavones, and butein, and MJY, another mutant producing completely yellow ray florets, accumulates flavones and butein. Reverse t...

  8. Molecular interaction of connexin 30.3 and connexin 31 suggests a dominant-negative mechanism associated with erythrokeratodermia variabilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plantard, Laure; Huber, Marcel; Macari, Francoise;

    2003-01-01

    Connexins are homologous four-transmembrane-domain proteins and major components of gap junctions. We recently identified mutations in either GJB3 or GJB4 genes, encoding respectively connexin 31 (Cx31) or 30.3 (Cx30.3), as causally involved in erythrokeratodermia variabilis (EKV), a mostly...... epidermal connexin synthesis and polymerization, but also allow a novel molecular explanation for the similarity of EKV phenotypes....

  9. [Effects of thinning intensities on population regeneration of natural Quercus variabilis forest on the south slope of Qinling Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Ran; Zhang, Wen-Hui; He, Jing-Feng; Zhou, Jian-Yun

    2014-03-01

    Taking the natural Quercus variabilis forest in Shangluo, south slope of Qinling Mountains as the object in May 2006 and August 2011, which was under close-to-natural management of different thinning intensities (30%, 20%, 10%), and the un-thinned forest as the control, changes of the stand growth situation before and after thinning, population regeneration, species diversity and soil fertility after 5 years of thinning were analyzed, and the effects of thinning on forestland revegetation and community development were evaluated comprehensively. The results showed that the number of 1-6 years old Q. variabilis seedlings increased with increasing thinning intensity, while no significant difference was found for above 6 years old seedlings. The regeneration potentials of population under 10%, 20% and 30% thinning were respectively increased by 10.8%, 28.5% and 32.9% compared with the control. Thinning promoted the DBH and crown of the trees and shrubs, as well as the height of shrubs, especially for light-loving plants, and the effect of promotion increased with increasing thinning intensity. The species diversity and soil fertility were improved after thinning, in order of 30% > 20% > 10% > control. The thinning intensity of 30% (canopy density 0.6) was more conducive to the continuable development of the natural Q. variabilis forest in which canopy density was above 0.85. PMID:24984485

  10. Biosorption of cadmium and lead from aqueous solution by fresh water alga Anabaena sphaerica biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel -Aty, Azza M.; Ammar, Nabila S.; Hany H. Abdel Ghafar; Ali, Rizka K.

    2013-01-01

    The present work represents the biosorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solution onto the biomass of the blue green alga Anabaena sphaerica as a function of pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time, and initial metal ion concentrations. Freundlich, Langmuir, and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of both metals by A. sphaerica biomass. The biosorption isotherms studies indicated that the biosorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) follows the Langmuir an...

  11. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    OpenAIRE

    McCartney, B; Howell, L.D.; Kennelly, P J; Potts, M.

    1997-01-01

    Components of a protein tyrosine phosphorylation/dephosphorylation network were identified in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. Three phosphotyrosine (P-Tyr) proteins of 27, 36, and 52 kDa were identified through their conspicuous immunoreactions with RC20H monoclonal antibodies specific for P-Tyr. These immunoreactions were outcompeted completely by free P-Tyr (5 mM) but not by phosphoserine or phosphothreonine. The P-Tyr content of the three major P-Tyr proteins and several m...

  12. Induction of siderophore activity in Anabaena spp. and its moderation of copper toxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, S E; Stuart, J.; Sanders-Loehr, J

    1987-01-01

    Growth of Anabaena sp. strain 7120 (in the absence of chelators or added iron) was inhibited by the addition of 2.1 to 6.5 microM copper and was abolished by copper concentration of 10 microM or higher. When the copper was chelated to schizokinen (the siderophore produced by this organism in response to iron starvation), the toxic effects were eliminated. Analysis of culture filtrates showed that the cupric schizokinen remains in the medium, thereby lowering the amount of copper taken up by t...

  13. patS Minigenes Inhibit Heterocyst Development of Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Duan; Lee, Martin H.; Golden, James W.

    2004-01-01

    The patS gene encodes a small peptide that is required for normal heterocyst pattern formation in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. PatS is proposed to control the heterocyst pattern by lateral inhibition. patS minigenes were constructed and expressed by different developmentally regulated promoters to gain further insight into PatS signaling. patS minigenes patS4 to patS8 encode PatS C-terminal 4 (GSGR) to 8 (CDERGSGR) oligopeptides. When expressed by PpetE, PpatS, or PrbcL pr...

  14. A genomic island provides Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 additional copper resistance: a possible competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Luis H; Jerez, Carlos A

    2011-11-01

    There is great interest in understanding how extremophilic biomining bacteria adapt to exceptionally high copper concentrations in their environment. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 genome possesses the same copper resistance determinants as strain ATCC 23270. However, the former strain contains in its genome a 160-kb genomic island (GI), which is absent in ATCC 23270. This GI contains, amongst other genes, several genes coding for an additional putative copper ATPase and a Cus system. A. ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 showed a much higher resistance to CuSO(4) (>100 mM) than that of strain ATCC 23270 (biomining operations. PMID:21789491

  15. Scaling-up method for stand water consumption of Quercus variabilis water conservation forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huatian; XING Lifeng; MA Lüyi; SUN Pengsen

    2006-01-01

    Single tree's sapwood scattering style and diurnal water consumption rhythm for different diameter classes were studied in a 48-year-old Quercus variabilis stand,water protection forest in Beijing.Results showed that the tree's sapwood area was closely related to diameter at breast height (DBH).Single tree's daily water consumption ascended as DBH and sapwood area increased.Daily water consumption of different diameter classes in September ascended steeply in the early morning and reached the peak around 11:00,and then descended slowly to the valley at 18:00.The course of daily accumulated water consumption was in accordance with a typical Richards model (R=0.985,8).Parameters of diameter-time equation for scal ing-up can be achieved by parameter-recovering method in the gradient of all diameter classes and at any time of a day,characteristic parameters of the course of daily stand water consumption were calculated from a modulated Richards equation derivative:Wdltl = (-7.147 + 1.174dl )[1- (-3,025.937 +di2.175)1/e(-0.01 1tj) ]1-di0.242

  16. Multiple paternity in the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-López, María José; Chaskelson, Saskia; Gompper, Matthew E; Eggert, Lori S

    2012-06-01

    The reproductive strategies and variation in reproductive success of ticks are poorly understood. We determined variation in multiple paternity in the American dog tick Dermancentor variabilis . In total, 48 blood-engorged female ticks and 22 male companion ticks were collected from 13 raccoon ( Procyon lotor ) hosts. In the laboratory, 56.3% of blood-engorged females laid eggs, of which 37.0% hatched or showed signs of development. We examined the presence of multiple paternity in the ensuing clutches by genotyping groups of eggs and larvae at 5 microsatellite loci and subtracting the known maternal alleles, thereby identifying male-contributed alleles. Seventy-five percent of the clutches presented multiple paternity, with a mode of 2 fathers siring the clutch. Males associated with the females on the host always sired some offspring. In 1 case, a male was the sire of clutches derived from 2 females, indicating both polygyny and polyandry may occur for this species. These results, combined with those of several other recent studies, suggest that multiple paternity might be frequent for ixodid ticks. PMID:22257158

  17. Production of Protocatechuic Acid in Bacillus Thuringiensis ATCC33679

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca L. Garner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Protocatechuic acid, or 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, is produced by both soil and marine bacteria in the free form and as the iron binding component of the siderophore petrobactin. The soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki ATCC 33679, contains the asb operon, but does not produce petrobactin. Iron restriction resulted in diminished B. thuringiensis kurstaki ATCC 33679 growth and the production of catechol(s. The gene product responsible for protocatechuic acid (asbF and its receptor (fatB were expressed during stationary phase growth. Gene expression varied with growth temperature, with optimum levels occurring well below the Bacillus anthracis virulence temperature of 37 °C. Regulation of protocatechuic acid suggests a possible role for this compound during soil growth cycles.

  18. The Anabaena sensory rhodopsin transducer defines a novel superfamily of prokaryotic small-molecule binding domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Souza Robson F

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Anabaena sensory rhodopsin transducer (ASRT is a small protein that has been claimed to function as a signaling molecule downstream of the cyanobacterial sensory rhodopsin. However, orthologs of ASRT have been detected in several bacteria that lack rhodopsin, raising questions about the generality of this function. Using sequence profile searches we show that ASRT defines a novel superfamily of β-sandwich fold domains. Through contextual inference based on domain architectures and predicted operons and structural analysis we present strong evidence that these domains bind small molecules, most probably sugars. We propose that the intracellular versions like ASRT probably participate as sensors that regulate a diverse range of sugar metabolism operons or even the light sensory behavior in Anabaena by binding sugars or related metabolites. We also show that one of the extracellular versions define a predicted sugar-binding structure in a novel cell-surface lipoprotein found across actinobacteria, including several pathogens such as Tropheryma, Actinomyces and Thermobifida. The analysis of this superfamily also provides new data to investigate the evolution of carbohydrate binding modes in β-sandwich domains with very different topologies. Reviewers: This article was reviewed by M. Madan Babu and Mark A. Ragan.

  19. Effects of lead accumulation on the Azolla caroliniana-Anabaena association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Anne E; Boylen, Charles W; Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A

    2014-04-01

    The effect of lead accumulation on photopigment production, mineral nutrition, and Anabaena vegetative cell size and heterocyst formation in Azolla caroliniana was investigated. Plants were exposed to 0, 1, 5, 10, and 20 mg L(-1) lead acetate for ten days. Lead accumulation increased when plants were treated with higher lead concentrations. Results revealed a statistically significant decline in total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids in 5, 10, and 20 mg Pb L(-1) treatment groups as compared to plants with 0 or 1 mg Pb L(-1) treatments. No statistically significant change in anthocyanin production was observed. Calcium, magnesium, and zinc concentrations in plants decreased in increasing treatment groups, whereas sodium and potassium concentrations increased. Nitrogen and carbon were also found to decrease in plant tissue. Anabaena vegetative cells decreased in size and heterocyst frequency declined rapidly in a Pb dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that, while A. caroliniana removes lead from aqueous solution, the heavy metal causes physiological and biochemical changes by impairing photosynthesis, changing mineral nutrition, and impeding the growth and formation of heterocysts of the symbiotic cyanobacteria that live within leaf cavities of the fronds. PMID:24509077

  20. Ellman’s reagent in promoting crystallization and structure determination of Anabaena CcbP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellman’s reagent oxidized the free sulfhydryl group of cysteine in Anabaena CcbP protein, facilitating its crystallization. Obtaining crystals presented a bottleneck in the structural study of Anabaena cyanobacterial Ca2+-binding protein (CcbP). In this report, the promoting effect of Ellman’s reagent [5,5′-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid); DTNB] on the crystallization of CcbP is described. CcbP contains one free cysteine. A quick and simple oxidation reaction with DTNB blocked the free cysteine in purified CcbP and generated a homogenous monomeric protein for crystallization. The crystal structure of DTNB-modified CcbP was determined by the single-wavelength anomalous diffraction method. Structure analysis indicated that DTNB modification facilitated crystallization of CcbP by inducing polar interactions in the crystal lattice. DTNB-mediated cysteine modification was demonstrated to have little effect on the overall structure and the Ca2+ binding of CcbP. Thus, DTNB modification may provide a simple and general approach for protein modification to improve the success of crystallization screening

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of O-methyltransferase from Anabaena PCC 7120

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The O-methyltransferase (OMT) from the Anabaena PCC 7120 has been overexpressed in a soluble form in E. coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals belonged to space group C2221 and diffracted to 2.4 Å resolution. O-Methyltransferase (OMT) is a ubiquitous enzyme that exists in bacteria, plants and humans and catalyzes a methyl-transfer reaction using S-adenosyl-l-methionine as a methyl donor and a wide range of phenolics as acceptors. To investigate the structure and function of OMTs, omt from Anabaena PCC 7120 was cloned into expression vector pET21a and expressed in a soluble form in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). The recombinant OMT protein was purified to homogeneity using a two-step strategy. Crystals of OMT that diffracted to a resolution of 2.4 Å were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 131.620, b = 227.994, c = 150.777 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. There are eight molecules per asymmetric unit

  2. Effects of cadmium and copper on the ultrastructure ofAnkistrodesmus braunii andAnabaena 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massalski, A; Laube, V M; Kushner, D J

    1981-06-01

    The effects of brief exposure to, or growth in the presence of, lethal and sublethal concentrations of Cu(NO)2 and Cd(NO3) on the ultrastructure of the blue-green algaAnabaena 7120 and the green algaAnkistrodesmus braunii were studied. Exposure to increasing amount of both metal ions led to the appearance of larger proportions of electron-dense cells whose organelles were less well defined than those of untreated cells. Metal-treated cells ofAnabaena 7120 became distorted. Some had a corrugated appearance. Others lysed, leaving a much larger proportion of heterocysts. Such heterocysts were often empty or had a curious collapsed appearance. Growth ofA. braunii in the presence of 10(-4) M Cu(NO2)2 produced substantial numbers of multinucleate giant cells with thick walls; such cells result from repeated mitotic division without subsequent cytokinesis. The giant cells contained centrioles, structures not as yet found in normal cells of the genusAnkistrodesmus. Some nuclei of giant, but not of normal, cells contained deep indentations that appeared as "holes" in cross section. Some giant cells also contained triple parallel strands of endoplasmic reticulum which extended across much of the cell, connecting to the nuclear envelope. Some ultrastructural changes were also noted in algal cells grown over sediment containing Cu or Cd, but these were generally less severe than those occurring when metal ions were added directly to the algal cultures. PMID:24227427

  3. The Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 Exoproteome: Taking a Peek outside the Box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest in examining the subset of proteins present in the extracellular milieu, the exoproteome, has been growing due to novel insights highlighting their role on extracellular matrix organization and biofilm formation, but also on homeostasis and development. The cyanobacterial exoproteome is poorly studied, and the role of cyanobacterial exoproteins on cell wall biogenesis, morphology and even physiology is largely unknown. Here, we present a comprehensive examination of the Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 exoproteome under various growth conditions. Altogether, 139 proteins belonging to 16 different functional categories have been identified. A large fraction (48% of the identified proteins is classified as “hypothetical”, falls into the “other categories” set or presents no similarity to other proteins. The evidence presented here shows that Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 is capable of outer membrane vesicle formation and that these vesicles are likely to contribute to the exoproteome profile. Furthermore, the activity of selected exoproteins associated with oxidative stress has been assessed, suggesting their involvement in redox homeostasis mechanisms in the extracellular space. Finally, we discuss our results in light of other cyanobacterial exoproteome studies and focus on the potential of exploring cyanobacteria as cell factories to produce and secrete selected proteins.

  4. Genome Sequence of Propionibacterium acnes Type II Strain ATCC 11828

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, Balázs; Hunyadkürti, Judit; Vörös, Andrea; Fekete, Csaba; Urbán, Edit; Kemény, Lajos; Nagy, István

    2012-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is an anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium that forms part of the normal human cutaneous microbiota and is occasionally associated with inflammatory diseases (I. Kurokawa et al., Exp. Dermatol. 18:821–832, 2009). Here we present the complete genome sequence for the commercially available P. acnes type II reference strain ATCC 11828 (I. Nagy et al., Microbes Infect. 8:2195–2205, 2006) recovered from a subcutaneous abscess.

  5. Magnetic response in cultures of Streptococcus mutans ATCC-27607.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamkiewicz, V W; Bassous, C; Morency, D; Lorrain, P; Lepage, J L

    1987-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans ATCC-27607 produces exopolysaccharides that adhere to glass. In the normal geomagnetic field about 50% more polysaccharide adhere preferentially to glass surfaces facing North as compared to South facing surfaces. Reversal of the direction of the magnetic field by 180 degrees produces a similar reversal in the direction of the preferential accumulation. Reduction of the field by 90% abolishes the preferential accumulation. PMID:3582582

  6. Induction of natural competence in Bacillus cereus ATCC14579

    OpenAIRE

    Mirończuk, Aleksandra M; Kovács, Ákos T; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2008-01-01

    Summary Natural competence is the ability of certain microbes to take up exogenous DNA from the environment and integrate it in their genome. Competence development has been described for a variety of bacteria, but has so far not been shown to occur in Bacillus cereus. However, orthologues of most proteins involved in natural DNA uptake in Bacillus subtiliscould be identified in B. cereus. Here, we report that B. cereus ATCC14579 can become naturally competent. When expressing the B. subtilis...

  7. Isolation and complementation of mutants of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 unable to grow aerobically on dinitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutants of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 unable to grow aerobically on dinitrogen were isolated by mutagenesis with UV irradiation, followed by a period of incubation in yellow light and then by penicillin enrichment. A cosmid vector, pRL25C, containing replicons functional in Escherichia coli and in Anabaena species was constructed. DNA from wild-type Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 was partially digested with Sau3AI, and size-fractionated fragments about 40 kilobases (kb) in length were ligated into the phosphatase-treated unique BamHI site of pRL25C. A library of 1054 cosmid clones was generated in E. coli DH1 bearing helper plasmid pDS4101. A derivative of conjugative plasmid RP-4 was transferred to this library by conjugation, and the library was replicated to lawns of mutant Anabaena strains with defects in the polysaccharide layer of the envelopes of the heterocysts. Mutant EF116 was complemented by five cosmids, three of which were subjected to detailed restriction mapping; a 2.8-kb fragment of DNA derived from one of the cosmids was found to complement EF116. Mutant EF113 was complemented by a single cosmid, which was also restriction mapped, and was shown to be complemented by a 4.8-kb fragment of DNA derived from this cosmid

  8. A detailed morphological, phylogenetic and ecophysiological analysis of four benthic Anabaena (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria) strains confirms deep heterogeneity within the genus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kust, Andreja; Kozlíková-Zapomělová, Eliška; Mareš, Jan; Řeháková, Klára

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2015), s. 191-202. ISSN 1802-5439 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-18067S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Anabaena * crossed gradients * ecology * growth optima * morphology * phylogeny * polyphyly Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.930, year: 2014

  9. Interspecific differences between small mammals as hosts of immature Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) and a model for detection of high risk areas of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollars, T M

    1996-10-01

    Fourteen species of small mammals were captured from July 1990 through August 1991 in Tennessee, from which 1,217 immature Dermacentor variabilis and 1 Ixodes dentatus were collected. Mammal species were given scores of importance (TS) as hosts to immature D. variabilis based on mean intensity and prevalence. The rice rat ranked the highest, with a TS = 5, followed by the golden mouse TS = 4, white-footed mouse TS = 3, pine vole TS = 2, cotton rat TS = 1, with the Norway rat, house mouse, and short-tailed shrew all having a TS = 0. Assigning a TS allows a quantitative method for differentiating and ranking small mammals as hosts for immature D. variabilis. Relative abundance of a species can also be important in determining D. variabilis populations, even with a low TS. The potential of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSFP) to occur in an area was estimated using the total score of small mammal hosts in an area and multiplying the relative abundance of important host species. The RMSFP of a site, based only upon small mammal species composition and relative abundance of important host species, was an accurate estimate of adult D. variabilis infesting raccoons and opossums at that trap site (P < or = 0.001). A RMSFP of 1.61 is needed to produce an estimated 252 adults per ha (RMSF threshold) at 98% survival of engorged immature ticks (P < 0.001). PMID:8885876

  10. Cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus strains ATCC 53524 and ATCC 23768: Pellicle formation, post-synthesis aggregation and fiber density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher M; Gu, Jin; Kafle, Kabindra; Catchmark, Jeffrey; Kim, Seong H

    2015-11-20

    The pellicle formation, crystallinity, and bundling of cellulose microfibrils produced by bacterium Gluconacetobacter xylinus were studied. Cellulose pellicles were produced by two strains (ATCC 53524 and ATCC 23769) for 1 and 7 days; pellicles were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrational sum-frequency-generation (SFG) spectroscopy, and attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The bacterial cell population was higher at the surface exposed to air, indicating that the newly synthesized cellulose is deposited at the top of the pellicle. XRD, ATR-IR, and SFG analyses found no significant changes in the cellulose crystallinity, crystal size or polymorphic distribution with the culture time. However, SEM and SFG analyses revealed cellulose macrofibrils produced for 7 days had a higher packing density at the top of the pellicle, compared to the bottom. These findings suggest that the physical properties of cellulose microfibrils are different locally within the bacterial pellicles. PMID:26344281

  11. COMPARATIVE GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FOUR STRAINS OF Nostoc AND Anabaena (CYANOBACTERIA, NOSTOCALES IN RELATION TO SODIUM NITRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Rosales Loaiza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTNitrogen concentration is an essential parameter in cyanobacterial cultures to produce enriched biomass with biotechnological purposes. Growth and biochemical composition of Nostoc LAUN0015, Nostoc UAM206, Anabaena sp.1 and Anabaena sp.2 were compared at 0, 4.25, 8.5 and 17 mM NaNO3. Cultures under laboratory conditions were maintained for 30 days at a volume of 500 mL. Anabaena sp.1 yielded the highest value of dry mass of 0.26 ± 2.49 mg mL-1 at 8.5 mM NaNO3. For chlorophyll, phycocyanin and phycoerythrin, maximum values were achieved at 17 mM NaNO3 with 18.09 ± 1.74, 102.90 ± 6.73 and 53.47 ± 2.40 μg mL-1, respectively. Nostoc LAUN0015 produced its maximum value of protein 644.86 ± 19.77 μg mL-1, and 890 mg mL-1 of carbohydrates in the absence of nitrogen. This comparative study shows that the most efficient strain for the production of protein, carbohydrates and lipids in diazotrophic conditions corresponded to Nostoc LAUN0015. However, Anabaena sp.1 and Anabaena sp.2 required high nitrogen concentrations to achieve higher values of metabolites, comparing with Nostoc strains. Nitrogen dependence for the production of pigments and high protein production in strains of Anabaena and in diazotrophic conditions for Nostoc was demonstrated. Nostoc can be cultured under nitrogen deficiency and Anabaena in sufficiency, for biomass production enriched with proteins and carbohydrates.Comparación del crecimiento y Composición Bioquímica de cuatro cepas de Nostoc y Anabaena (Cyanobacteria, Nostocales en relación con el nitrato de sodioRESUMENLa concentración de nitrógeno constituye un parámetro esencial en cultivos de cianobacterias para la producción de biomasa enriquecida con fines biotecnológicos. Se comparó el crecimiento y composición bioquímica de las cepas Nostoc LAUN0015, Nostoc UAM206, Anabaena sp.1 y Anabaena sp.2 a 0, 4,25; 8,5 y 17 mM NaNO3. Los cultivos en condiciones de laboratorio fueron mantenidos durante 30 d

  12. Lipopolysaccharide dependence of cyanophage sensitivity and aerobic nitrogen fixation in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Khudyakov, I; Wolk, C P

    1997-05-01

    Fox- mutants of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 are unable to fix dinitrogen in the presence of oxygen. A fragment of the DNA of Anabaena sp. was cloned by complementation of a spontaneous Fox-, cyanophage-resistant mutant, R56, and characterized. Random insertion of transposon Tn5 delimited the complementing DNA to a 0.6-kb portion of the cloned fragment. Sequencing of this region and flanking DNA showed one complete open reading frame (ORF) similar to the gene rfbP (undecaprenyl-phosphate galactosephosphotransferase) and two partial ORFs similar to genes rfbD (GDP-D-mannose dehydratase) and rfbZ (first mannosyl transferase), all of which are active in the synthesis of the O antigen unit of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. In a transposon (Tn5-1087b)-induced, Fox-, cyanophage-resistant mutant, B14, the transposon was found within the same rfbP-like ORF. The three ORFs were insertionally inactivated with the omega cassette (P. Prentki and H. M. Krisch, Gene 29:303-313, 1984) or with Tn5::omega. Only the insertions in the rfbZ- and rfbP-like ORFs led to resistance to cyanophages A-1(L) and A-4(L) and to a Fox- phenotype. Electrophoretic analysis showed that interruption of the rfbZ- and rfbP-like ORFs resulted in a change in or loss of the characteristic pattern of the lengths of the LPS, whereas interruption of the rfbD-like ORF merely changed the distribution of the lengths of the LPS to one with a greater prevalence of low molecular weights. According to electron microscopy, interruption of the rfbP-like ORF may have led to aberrant deposition of the layers of the heterocyst envelope, resulting in increased leakage of oxygen into the heterocyst. The results suggest that modified LPS may prevent cyanophage infection of Anabaena sp. vegetative cells and the formation of a functional heterocyst envelope. PMID:9139904

  13. Differentiation of free-living Anabaena and Nostoc cyanobacteria on the basis of fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudales, R; Wells, J M

    1992-04-01

    The cellular fatty acids of free-living, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria belonging to the genera Anabaena and Nostoc were analyzed to differentiate the genera. The fatty acid compositions of 10 Anabaena strains and 10 Nostoc strains that were grown for 12 days on BG-11o medium were determined by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Of the 53 fatty acids detected, 17 were major components; the average level for each of these 17 fatty acids was at least 0.9% of the total fatty acids (in at least one of the genera). These fatty acids included (with mean percentages in the Anabaena and Nostoc strains, respectively) the saturated fatty acids 16:0 (30.55 and 23.23%) and 18:0 (0.77 and 1.27%); several unsaturated fatty acids, including 14:1 cis-7 (2.50 and 0.11%), 14:1 cis-9 (3.10 and 3.41%), a polyunsaturated 16-carbon (sites undetermined) fatty acid with an equivalent chain length of 15.30 (1.20 and 1.03%), 16:4 cis-4 (0.95 and 0.87%), 16:3 cis-6 (2.16 and 1.51%), 16:1 cis-7 (1.44 and 0.36%), 16:1 cis-9 (6.53 and 18.76%), 16:1 trans-9 (4.02 and 1.35%), 16:1 cis-11 (1.62 and 0.42%), 18:2 cis-9 (10.16 and 12.44%), 18:3 cis-9 (18.19 and 17.25%), 18:1 cis-9 (4.01 and 5.10%), and 18:1 trans-9 (0.92 and 1.94%); and the branched-chain fatty acids iso-16:0 (2.50 and 1.14%) and iso-15:1 (0.34 and 2.05%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1581185

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09876-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pid:none) Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413,... 67 4e-10 AI2493( AI2493 ) WD-repeat protein [importe...peat protein [imported] - Nostoc sp. (strain... 64 3e-09 AC117072_4( AC117072 |pid:none) Dictyosteli...9 8e-11 AG1889( AG1889 ) WD-40 repeat protein [imported] - Nostoc sp. (str... 69 .... 66 9e-10 AH2154( AH2154 ) WD-repeat protein [imported] - Nostoc sp. (strain... 66 9e-10 AY394939_1( AY394939 |pid:none) Danio re...r clone HM4_1707 guanine... 62 2e-08 AD1842( AD1842 ) WD-40 repeat protein [importe

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15706-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e) Cellvibrio japonicus Ueda107, co... 62 2e-07 ( P39614 ) RecName: Full=Uncharacterized glycosyltransferas...e) Methanosarcina mazei strain Goe... 76 1e-11 CP000140_1372( CP000140 |pid:none) Parabacteroides distaso...in Toham... 62 1e-07 CP000140_1308( CP000140 |pid:none) Parabacteroides distasonis AT...l=Uncharacterized glycosyltransferase ypjH;... 60 5e-07 X63290_1( X63290 |pid:non...e) Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413, ... 85 3e-14 ( Q58457 ) RecName: Full=Uncharacterized glycosyltransferas

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15754-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ............done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N ( BJ436861 ) Dictyostelium discoideu...d of clone BD0AA002B09 of library BD0AA from... 68 2e-06 1 ( EC757313 ) PPE00008939 Agencourt Biosc...; 8,075,542 total letters Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value Conti...iences Agen-0020 Non-n... 52 7e-06 2 ( CP000117 ) Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413, complete gen...up cDNA, clone: 044-M052... 36 2.4 2 ( AR383482 ) Sequence 211 from patent US 6610836. 40 2.5 2 ( CJ486772 ) Macaca fasci

  17. Prefix list for each organism - Gclust Server | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ophila melanogaster HSA Homo sapiens SPO Schyzosaccharomyces pombe S99 Synech... 7120 Ava Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 Glv Gloeobacter violaceus Npun Nostoc punctiforme sp. PCC73102 Pm1 Proch... Fal Frankia alni ACN14a Fra Frankia sp. CcI3 Gox Gluconobacter_oxydans_621H Hal Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 Mac Methanosarcina ac...hii OT3 Pst Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato str. DC3000 Rhe Rhizobium_etli_CFN_42 Rle Rhizobium leguminosarum Rso Ralstonia solanac...ococcus sp. CC9902 NCR Neurospora crassa 74-OR23-1A SCE Saccharomyces cerevisiae Joomla SEF URLs by Ar

  18. Dicty_cDB: SLC258 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rw**ftisssnsi*nstryqihchwcksshppiqpkcanhsyecqil*sw *clvvwwwc*fdtslpkirssr*isfniekkyatnmargdqnliri...stryqihchwcksshppiqpkcanhsyecqil*sw *clvvwwwc*fdtslpkirssr*isfniekkyatnmargdqnlirig*AECEVISSFHIE VN--- ---DH...00117_4552( CP000117 |pid:none) Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413,... 219 1e-55 (Q8DL15) RecName: Full=Coproporphyri...fiihrsl*tipc***fnll**sskristissfslc*iqs pl*swy*iwysl*rsy*inpyvitcsl*mei*l*trrkys*skfinffetkrlvkrkssx lkli*kiyikk*nkiiikivili...4.0 %: nuclear 32.0 %: cytoplasmic 8.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: vacuolar 4.0

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15090-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 05_T7 CHORI-214 Salmo salar genomic clone S... 46 2.4 1 ( ET093006 ) QM0AAA19AF07RM1 CCL1...ansoni genome sequenc... 36 1.6 AL111168_731( AL111168 |pid:none) Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jeju... 36 2.1...DSTIIAKTQFYQKNIQIYKGDQLSQTIQLIQNPTQINYFDHEKSQTSLLAIT EFNQLKIFDPRQSSNNCCIQKFTPGTSWLYSMAISSNSEYIAVGGSSRTVSVYDTKRWNN SGNWKNCL... ( AC022753 ) Homo sapiens clone RP11-236L13, WORKING DRAFT SEQ... 44 9.4 1 ( AZ218963 ) Sheared DNA-119G6.T...one) Zea mays full-length cDNA clone ZM... 37 0.74 CP000117_2617( CP000117 |pid:none) Anabaena variabilis ATCC

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04336-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available KYSIIFRNMNVVQ*qikevlelickals qvmvqcgst*kpn*mvskeiqqllml*lmaiqslvlvlnksvllisllll**...0 mNt: 0.00 m3a: 0.00 m3b: 0.00 m_ : 1.00 48.0 %: extracellular, including cell wall 16.0 %: cytoplasmic 12.0 %: mitochondrial...length 708 Chromosome number (1..6, M) - Chromosome length - Start point - End point - Strand (PLUS/MINUS) -... qvmvqcgst*kpn*mvskeiqqllml*lmaiqslvlvlnksvllisllll**ihmplekp amflkmvfklviknkkkknrmitfiffxlyhfvyfdysifmlfysl...... 44 7.2 1 ( CP000117 ) Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413, complete genome. 44 7.2 1 ( CP000111 ) Prochlorococcus mar

  1. Effects of atmospheric SO[sub 2] on Azolla and Anabaena symbiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, J.-S.; Wellburn, A.R. (Division of Biological Sciences, Institute of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Lancaster Univ., Lancaster (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    The water fern Azolla pinnata R. Br. was fumigated for 1 week with either 25, 50 or 100 nl l[sup -1] SO[sub 2]. The symbiosis of Azolla with Anabaena azollae (spp.) was severely damaged by atmospheric SO[sub 2] even at the lowest concentration studied showing significant reductions in growth, reduction of C[sub 2]H[sub 2], NH[sub 3] assimilation, protein synthesis, and heterocyst development. These disturbances appear to be mainly responsible for the extreme sensitivity of this fern to atmospheric SO[sub 2]. Changes in violaxanthin/antheraxanthin and epoxylutein/lutein ratios also indicate that free radical products are induced by atmospheric SO[sub 2]. These results suggest that the Azolla-Anabeana symbiotic system is a very responsive and reliable lower plant model to study the detailed effects of total sulfur deposition upon the balances between various important plant metabolic processes.

  2. Genetic Basis for Geosmin Production by the Water Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium, Anabaena ucrainica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjie Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Geosmin is a common, musty-smelling sesquiterpene, principally produced by cyanobacteria. Anabaena ucrainica (Schhorb. Watanabe, a water bloom-forming cyanobacterium, is the geosmin producer responsible for odor problems in Dianchi and Erhai lakes in China. In this study, the geosmin synthase gene (geo of A. ucrainica and its flanking regions were identified and cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and genome walking. The geo gene was found to be located in a transcription unit with two cyclic nucleotide-binding protein genes (cnb. The two cnb genes were highly similar and were predicted members of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP receptor protein/fumarate nitrate reductase regulator (Crp–Fnr family. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses implied that the evolution of the geosmin genes involved a horizontal gene transfer process in cyanobacteria. These genes showed a close relationship to 2-methylisoborneol genes in origin and evolution.

  3. Nitrogenase activity in cell-free extracts of the blue-green alga, Anabaena cylindrica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R V; Evans, M C

    1971-03-01

    Cell-free extracts with high nitrogenase activity were prepared by sonic oscillation and French press treatment from the blue-gree alga Anabaena cylindrica. Extracts were prepared from cells grown on a 95% N(2)-5% CO(2) gas mixture followed by a period of nitrogen starvation under an atmosphere of 95% argon-5% CO(2). No increase in the specific activity of extracts was achieved by breaking heterocysts. Activity (assayed by acetylene reduction) was found to be dependent on adenosine triphosphate (ATP), an ATP-generating system, and a low-potential reductant. Na(2)S(2)O(2) employed as reductant supports higher rates of nitrogenase activity than reduced ferredoxin. The activity is associated with a small-particle fraction that can be sedimented by ultracentrifugation. In contrast to the particulate nitrogenase of Azotobacter, which is stable in air, the A. cylindrica nitrogenase is an oxygen sensitive as nitrogenase prepared from anaerobic bacteria. PMID:4994040

  4. Highly hydrolytic reuteransucrase from probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730

    OpenAIRE

    Kralj, S.; Stripling, E.; Sanders, P.; van Geel-Schutten, G.H.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 (LB BIO) was isolated as a pure culture from a Reuteri tablet purchased from the BioGaia company. This probiotic strain produces a soluble glucan (reuteran), in which the majority of the linkages are of the α-(1→4) glucosidic type (∼70%). This reuteran also contains α-(1→6)-linked glucosyl units and 4,6-disubstituted α-glucosyl units at the branching points. The LB BIO glucansucrase gene (gtfO) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the GTFO ...

  5. DL-7-azatryptophan and citrulline metabolism in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain 1F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alternative route for the primary assimilation of ammonia proceeds via glutamine synthetase-carbamyl phosphate synthetase and its inherent glutaminase activity in Anabaena sp. strain 1F, a marine filamentous, heterocystous cyanobacterium. Evidence for the presence of this possible alternative route to glutamate was provided by the use of amino acid analogs as specific enzyme inhibitors, enzymological studies, and radioistopic labeling experiments. The amino acid pool patterns of continuous cultures of Anabaena sp. strain 1F were markedly influenced by the nitrogen source. A relatively high concentration of glutamate was maintained in the amino acid pools of all cultures irrespective of the nitrogen source, reflecting the central role of glutamate in nitrogen metabolism. The addition of 1.0 microM azaserine increased the intracellular pools of glutamate and glutamine. All attempts to detect any enzymatic activity for glutamate synthase by measuring the formation of L-[14C]glutamate from 2-keto-[1-14C]glutarate and glutamine failed. The addition of 10 microM DL-7-azatryptophan caused a transient accumulation of intracellular citrulline and alanine which was not affected by the presence of chloramphenicol. The in vitro activity of carbamyl phosphate synthetase and glutaminase increased severalfold in the presence of azatryptophan. Results from radioisotopic labeling experiments with [14C]bicarbonate and L-[1-14C]ornithine also indicated that citrulline was formed via carbamyl phosphate synthetase and ornithine transcarbamylase. In addition to its effects on nitrogen metabolism, azatryptophan also affected carbon metabolism by inhibiting photosynthetic carbon assimilation and photosynthetic oxygen evolution

  6. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of the Victoria tilapia (Oreochromis variabilis) and Redbelly Tilapia (Tilapia zilli): genome characterization and phylogeny analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinaro, Zachary Omambia; Xue, Liangyi; Volatiana, Josies Ancella

    2016-07-01

    The Cichlid fishes have played an important role in evolutionary biology, population studies and aquaculture industry with East African species representing a model suited for studying adaptive radiation and speciation for cichlid genome projects in which closely related genomes are fast emerging presenting questions on phenotype-genotype relations. The complete mitochondrial genomes presented here are for two closely related but eco-morphologically distinct Lake Victoria basin cichlids, Oreochromis variabilis, an endangered native species and Tilapia zilli, an invasive species, both of which are important economic fishes in local areas. The complete mitochondrial genomes determined for O. variabilis and T. zilli are 16 626 and 16,619 bp, respectively. Both the mitogenomes contain 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and a non-coding control region, which are typical of vertebrate mitogenomes. Phylogenetic analyses of the two species revealed that though both lie within family Cichlidae, they are remotely related. PMID:27158785

  7. Characterization of proteases from Planomicrobium sp. L-2 isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis (Sasaki)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yulan; Wang, Yurong; Xiao, Lin; Lin, Xiukun

    2016-05-01

    A crude protease produced from Planomicrobium sp. L-2 is described, and its effectiveness as an additive in liquid detergent evaluated. We isolate the protease-producing Planomicrobium sp. L-2 from the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis. At least three caseinolytic protease clear bands were observed in zymogram analysis. The crude alkaline protease was highly tolerant of a pH range from 7.0 to 9.0, and temperatures to 50°C after incubation for 1 h. Proteolytic enzymes were stable towards three surfactants (5% Tween 80, 1% Triton X-100 and 0.05% SDS) and an oxidizing agent (1% hydrogen peroxide), in addition to being highly stable and compatible with popular commercial laundry powered detergent brands available in China. Our study demonstrates the potential these proteases have for development into novel classes of detergent additive. This study also suggests that the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis may be a rich source of commercially valuable strains of enzyme.

  8. Reproductive cycles and reproductive strategies among populations of the Rose-bellied Lizard Sceloporus variabilis (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae) from central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Elizalde, Raciel; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio

    2016-03-01

    Species with wide distribution, generally show variations in life history characteristics, which can be attributed to environmental causes. In this study, we analyzed the reproductive cycle and reproductive characteristics from three populations (Atlapexco, San Pablo Tetlapayac, and Santa Catarina) of the lizard Sceloporus variabilis from central Mexico. The specific goal of this study was to evaluate life history characteristics such as reproductive period extent, SVL (snout-vent length) at sexual maturity, clutch size, egg mass and volume, and RCM (relative clutch mass). The San Pablo Tetlapayac population showed a larger clutch size, RCM, egg mass, and a smaller SVL, body mass and reproductive period (January-September), as well as egg volume than the Atlapexco and Santa Catarina populations. Reproductive cycle and reproductive characteristics were more similar between the Atlapexco and Santa Catarina populations. Differences found in the population of San Pablo Tetlapayac with respect to the Atlapexco and Santa Catarina populations could be attributed to environmental variations where lizard populations occur. Differences in the reproductive period and reproductive characteristics in each population could be the result of both historical (phylogenetic; e.g., reproductive mode) and nonhistorical (environmental; e.g., temperature, food availability) causes. This study showed that populations of the same species are under different selection pressures, and these affect the reproductive characteristics of populations. Our results also indicate that long-term and targeted studies on predation, use and selection of food, are needed to determine the causes of these variations in populations of S. variabilis. PMID:26929815

  9. PARTIAL PURIFICATION OF LIPASE FROM STREPTOMYCES VARIABILIS NGP 3 AND ITS APPLICATION IN BIOREMEDIATION OF WASTE WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Selvam* and B. Vishnupriya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Partial purification and bioremediation of waste water by lipase from the marine actinomycete Streptomyces variabilis NGP 3 (Accession no: (JX843530 were carried out. The optimum incubation period, pH, temperature and agitation speed for enzyme production were fifth day (61.2 U/ml, 9.0 - 9.5 (105 U/ml, 35ºC (39.4 U/ml and 120 rpm (38.7 U/ml respectively. Lactose (2.0 g/l and peptone (0.6 and 0.8 g/l proved to the best carbon and nitrogen sources respectively for lipase production. The partially purified lipase showed a specific activity of 1440.97 U/mg protein, 7.63 fold pure and yielded 3.19 per cent of protein. The enzyme activity was maximum at the pH and temperatures were 8.5 and 45ºC respectively. The molecular weight of the first and second isoenzymes was found to be 55.0 and 56.0 KDa respectively. Bioremediation of automobile effluent and slaughter house waste water were carried out by the isolated actinomycetes isolate S. variabilis NGP 3. The chemical oxygen demand (COD, total organic chloride (TOC and fat/oil content of the effluent were analyzed. The COD and fat/oil degradation rate were increased by the simultaneous reduction of TOC in the treated effluent.

  10. Characterization of proteases from Planomicrobium sp. L-2 isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis (Sasaki)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yulan; Wang, Yurong; Xiao, Lin; Lin, Xiukun

    2015-10-01

    A crude protease produced from Planomicrobium sp. L-2 is described, and its effectiveness as an additive in liquid detergent evaluated. We isolate the protease-producing Planomicrobium sp. L-2 from the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis. At least three caseinolytic protease clear bands were observed in zymogram analysis. The crude alkaline protease was highly tolerant of a pH range from 7.0 to 9.0, and temperatures to 50°C after incubation for 1 h. Proteolytic enzymes were stable towards three surfactants (5% Tween 80, 1% Triton X-100 and 0.05% SDS) and an oxidizing agent (1% hydrogen peroxide), in addition to being highly stable and compatible with popular commercial laundry powered detergent brands available in China. Our study demonstrates the potential these proteases have for development into novel classes of detergent additive. This study also suggests that the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis may be a rich source of commercially valuable strains of enzyme.

  11. Production of Biohydrogen from Wastewater by Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Veena; Tiwari, K L; Jadhav, S K

    2015-08-01

    Production of biohydrogen from distillery effluent was carried out by using Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182. The work focuses on optimization of pH, temperature, and state of bacteria, which are the various affecting factors for fermentative biohydrogen production. Results indicates that at 35 °C for suspended cultures, the production was at its maximum (i.e., 91.33 ± 0.88 mL) when compared with other temperatures. At 35 °C and at pH 5 and 6, maximum productions of 117.67 ± 1.45 and 111.67 ± 2.72 mL were observed with no significant difference. When immobilized, Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182 was used for biohydrogen production at optimized conditions, production was 186.33 ± 3.17 mL. Hence, immobilized cells were found to be more advantageous for biological hydrogen production over suspended form. Physicochemical analysis of the effluent was conducted before and after fermentation and the values suggested that the fermentative process is an efficient method for biological treatment of wastewater. PMID:26237683

  12. Cytotoxicity and Inhibition of Lymphocyte Proliferation of Fasciculatin, a Linear Furanosesterterpene Isolated from Ircinia variabilis Collected from the Atlantic Coast of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Herz

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Fasciculatin, a furanosesterterpene isolated from the marine sponge Ircinia variabilis from the Atlantic Coast of Morocco, has been evaluated for its influence on a mitogen-induced proliferation of human lymphocytes and growth of human tumor cell lines.

  13. Biological hydrogen production by Anabaena sp. – Yield, energy and CO2 analysis including fermentative biomass recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Ana F.; Marques, Ana C.; Batista, Ana Paula; Marques, Paula Alexandra; de Gouveia, L.; Carla M. Silva

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents laboratory results of biological production of hydrogen by photoautrotophic cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Additional hydrogen production from residual Cyanobacteria fermentation was achieved by Enterobacter aerogenes bacteria. The authors evaluated the yield of H2 production, the energy consumption and CO2 emissions and the technological bottlenecks and possible improvements of the whole energy and CO2 emission chain. The authors did not attempt to extrapolate the results to...

  14. In vitro antibacterial evaluation of Anabaena sp. against several clinically significant microflora and HPTLC analysis of its active crude extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Abhishek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the possible antibacterial activity of Anabaena extracts. Anabaena was isolated from a natural source and cultured in vitro. after suitable growth, cyanobacterial culture was harvested using different solvents. Extracts, thus prepared, were evaluated for their antibacterial potential by agar-well diffusion assay against bacterial species of clinical significance. MIC values were determined further to check the concentration ranges for significant inhibition. HPTLC analysis was done to separate the components of active crude extract in an attempt to identify the bio-active chemical entity. Methanol extract exhibited more potent activity than that of hexane and ethyl acetate extracts. No inhibitory effect was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Staphylococcus aureus required about 256 μg/ml of the crude methanol extract for effective inhibition. HPTLC evaluation at λ 254 nm was performed for the separation of a complex mixture of the methanol extract. The results provide evidence that Anabaena sp. extracts might indeed be potential sources of new antibacterial agents.

  15. A novel alkyl hydroperoxidase (AhpD) of Anabaena PCC7120 confers abiotic stress tolerance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Alok Kumar; Singh, Shilpi; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Pandey, Sarita; Rai, L C

    2015-01-01

    In silico analysis together with cloning, molecular characterization and heterologous expression reports that the hypothetical protein All5371 of Anabaena sp. PCC7120 is a novel hydroperoxide scavenging protein similar to AhpD of bacteria. The presence of E(X)11CX HC(X)3H motif in All5371 confers peroxidase activity and closeness to bacterial AhpD which is also reflected by its highest 3D structure homology with Rhodospirillum rubrum AhpD. Heterologous expression of all5371 complimented for ahpC and conferred resistance in MJF178 strain (ahpCF::Km) of Escherichia coli. All5371 reduced the organic peroxide more efficiently than inorganic peroxide and the recombinant E. coli strain following exposure to H2O2, CdCl2, CuCl2, heat, UV-B and carbofuron registered increased growth over wild-type and mutant E. coli transformed with empty vector. Appreciable expression of all5371 in Anabaena sp. PCC7120 as measured by qRT-PCR under selected stresses and their tolerance against H2O2, tBOOH, CuOOH and menadione attested its role in stress tolerance. In view of the above, All5371 of Anabaena PCC7120 emerged as a new hydroperoxide detoxifying protein. PMID:25391500

  16. Complete Genome and Methylome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Sloterdijk (ATCC 15791).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kuan; Muruvanda, Tim; Roberts, Richard J; Payne, Justin; Allard, Marc W; Hoffmann, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica spp. are pathogenic bacteria commonly associated with food-borne outbreaks in human and animals. Salmonella enterica spp. are characterized into more than 2,500 different serotypes, which makes epidemiological surveillance and outbreak control more difficult. In this report, we announce the first complete genome and methylome sequences from two Salmonella type strains associated with food-borne outbreaks, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Sloterdijk (ATCC 15791). PMID:26988049

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of the Type Strain of Aeromonas schubertii, ATCC 43700

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihui; Zhang, Defeng; Fu, Xiaozhe; Shi, Cunbin; Lin, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced the complete genome of the type strain of Aeromonas schubertii, ATCC 43700. The full genome sequence of A. schubertii ATCC 43700 is 4,356,858 bp, which encodes 3,842 proteins and contains 110 predicted RNA genes. PMID:26893413

  18. Evolutionary Significance of an Algal Gene Encoding an [FeFe]-Hydrogenase with F-Domain Homology and Hydrogenase Activity in Chlorella Variabilis NC64A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuser, J. E.; Boyd, E. S.; Ananyev, G.; Karns, D.; Radakovits, R.; Murthy, U. M. N.; Ghirardi, M. L.; Dismukes, G. C.; Peters, J. W.; Posewitz, M. C.

    2011-10-01

    [FeFe]-hydrogenases (HYDA) link the production of molecular H{sub 2} to anaerobic metabolism in many green algae. Similar to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella variabilis NC64A (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) exhibits [FeFe]-hydrogenase (HYDA) activity during anoxia. In contrast to C. reinhardtii and other chlorophycean algae, which contain hydrogenases with only the HYDA active site (H-cluster), C. variabilis NC64A is the only known green alga containing HYDA genes encoding accessory FeS cluster-binding domains (F-cluster). cDNA sequencing confirmed the presence of F-cluster HYDA1 mRNA transcripts, and identified deviations from the in silico splicing models. We show that HYDA activity in C. variabilis NC64A is coupled to anoxic photosynthetic electron transport (PSII linked, as well as PSII-independent) and dark fermentation. We also show that the in vivo H{sub 2}-photoproduction activity observed is as O2 sensitive as in C. reinhardtii. The two C. variabilis NC64A HYDA sequences are similar to homologs found in more deeply branching bacteria (Thermotogales), diatoms, and heterotrophic flagellates, suggesting that an F-cluster HYDA is the ancestral enzyme in algae. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the algal HYDA H-cluster domains are monophyletic, suggesting that they share a common origin, and evolved from a single ancestral F-cluster HYDA. Furthermore, phylogenetic reconstruction indicates that the multiple algal HYDA paralogs are the result of gene duplication events that occurred independently within each algal lineage. Collectively, comparative genomic, physiological, and phylogenetic analyses of the C. variabilis NC64A hydrogenase has provided new insights into the molecular evolution and diversity of algal [FeFe]-hydrogenases.

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11131-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) Dermacentor variabilis isolate DvM... 61 7e-08 CR940353_257( CR940353 |pid:none) Theileria annulata strain...A, chromos... 52 2e-05 AB007873_1( AB007873 |pid:none) Homo sapiens KIAA0413 mRNA, partia... 52 2e-05 AP0082...na chromosome 2... 52 3e-05 AJ298991_1( AJ298991 |pid:none) Fagus sylvatica partial m...) Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 linear ... 69 2e-10 CP000117_4826( CP000117 |pid:none) Anabaena variabilis ATC...ni chagasi activa... 62 4e-08 CR382137_103( CR382137 |pid:none) Debaryomyces hansenii strain

  20. Biosorption of cadmium and lead from aqueous solution by fresh water alga Anabaena sphaerica biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza M. Abdel -Aty

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work represents the biosorption of Cd(II and Pb(II from aqueous solution onto the biomass of the blue green alga Anabaena sphaerica as a function of pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time, and initial metal ion concentrations. Freundlich, Langmuir, and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of both metals by A. sphaerica biomass. The biosorption isotherms studies indicated that the biosorption of Cd(II and Pb(II follows the Langmuir and Freundlish models. The maximum biosorption capacities (qmax were 111.1 and 121.95 mg/g, respectively, at the optimum conditions for each metal. From the D–R isotherm model, the mean free energy was calculated to be 11.7 and 14.3 kJ/mol indicating that the biosorption mechanism of Cd(II and Pb(II by A. sphaerica was chemisorption. The FTIR analysis for surface function group of algal biomass revealed the existence of amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups, which are responsible for the biosorption of Cd(II and Pb(II. The results suggested that the biomass of A. sphaerica is an extremely efficient biosorbent for the removal of Cd(II and Pb(II from aqueous solutions.

  1. Azolla-Anabaena's behaviour in urban wastewater and artificial media--influence of combined nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M L; Santos, M C R; Carrapiço, F; Pereira, A L

    2009-08-01

    The results of using the nitrogen fixing symbiotic system Azolla-Anabaena to improve the quality of treated urban wastewater, particularly on what concerns phosphorus removal efficiencies (40-65%), obtained in continuous assays performed during the past few years and presented earlier, were very promising. Nevertheless, the presence of combined nitrogen in some wastewaters can compromise the treatment efficiency. The main goal of this work was to compare plants behaviour in wastewater and in mineral media with and without added nitrogen. Azolla filiculoides's specific growth rates in wastewater and in mineral media without added nitrogen or with low nitrate concentration were very similar (0.122 d(-1)-0.126 d(-1)), but decreased in the presence of ammonium (0.100 d(-1)). The orthophosphate removal rate coefficients were similar in all the growth media (0.210 d(-1)-0.232 d(-1)), but ammonium removal rate coefficient in wastewater was higher (0.117 d(-1)) than in mineral medium using that source of nitrogen (0.077 d(-1)). The ammonium present in wastewater, despite its high concentration (34 mg NL(-1)), didn't seem to inhibit growth and nitrogen fixation, however, in mineral media, ammonium (40 mg NL(-1)) was found to induce, respectively, 18% and 46% of inhibition. PMID:19559459

  2. Three fur homologues from Anabaena sp. PCC7120: exploring reciprocal protein-promoter recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, José A; López-Gomollón, Sara; Bes, M Teresa; Fillat, María F; Peleato, M Luisa

    2004-07-15

    DNA sequence analysis of the Anabaena sp. PCC7120 genome confirmed the presence of three open reading frames (all1691, all2473 and alr0957) containing the histidine-rich region characteristic of the Fur family. The genes coding for the three Fur proteins were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The overexpression products, called FurA, FurB and FurC are only distantly related. The ability of the three recombinant proteins to bind iron-boxes identified in the three fur promoter regions was tested by electrophoretical mobility shift assays. FurA binds the three fur promoters with increased affinity in presence of metal. FurB also binds the three fur promoters, and its affinity is increased with DTT. FurC does not bind to furA or furB promoter regions or to its own promoter. However, FurC affects the ability of FurB and FurA to bind their target promoters. PMID:15251208

  3. Development mutants of anabaena doliolum defective in repair of UV-damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrosoguanidine induced 'blue' pigment mutants of the blue-green alga anabaena doliolum were isolated. The blue-mutants on further characterization were grouped into three developmental phenotypes - (i) those forming doli-form blue-spores of heterogenous size i.e., Ad 011, (ii) those forming spheroidal cells in the stationary phase, some of which behave like spores on transfer to fresh medium i.e., Ad 012, and (iii) those showing no sporulation and conditionally producing abnormal cells in the presence of combined nitrogen only i.e., Ad 007. The former two classes of mutants showed the formation of abnormal cells irrespective of the presence or absence of combined nitrogen sources in the medium. The formation of abnormal cells in the filaments of the above mutants were distinguished by their larger size and irregular mode of division leading to true-branch formation. The comparative characterization of these mutant strains with the parental one showed sluggish growth, increased UV-sensitivity, almost unchanged photorepair capacity, a marked change in the pigment composition and relative resistance to nitrosoguanidine. Irregular cell division in both space and time in the mutant strains and their increased sensitivity to ultraviolet irradiation indicate the possible involvement of dark repair system in maintaining the precision of cell cylce in this alga. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 HIS

  4. Characterization of Anabaena cylindrica Solution System Using Synchronous- Scan Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xian-li; DENG Nan-sheng; TAO Shu

    2005-01-01

    The characterization of the algae Anabaena cylindrica solu tion with Fe (Ⅲ) was investigated using fluorescence emission and syn chronous-scan spectroscopy. The ranges of concentrations of algae and Fe (Ⅲ) in aqueous solutions were 5. 0 × 107-2. 5 × 108 cell/L and 10-60μmol/L, respectively. The effective characterization method used was synchronous-scan fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS). The wavelength difference (△λ) of 90 nm was maintained between excitation wavelength (λex) and emission wavelength(λem ). The peak was observed at about λex 236 nm/λem 326 nm for synchronous-scan fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence quenching in system of algae-Fe( Ⅲ)-HA was studied using synchronous-scan spectroscopy for the first time. Fe(Ⅲ) was clearly the effective quencher. The relationship between I0 / I (quenching efficiency)and c (concentration of Fe (Ⅲ) added) was a linear correlation for the al gae solution with Fe(Ⅲ). Also, Aldrich humic acid (HA) was found to be an effective quencher.

  5. Establishment of quantitative PCR methods for the quantification of geosmin-producing potential and Anabaena sp. in freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming; Gaget, Virginie; Giglio, Steven; Burch, Michael; An, Wei; Yang, Min

    2013-06-15

    Geosmin has often been associated with off-flavor problems in drinking water with Anabaena sp. as the major producer. Rapid on-site detection of geosmin-producers as well as geosmin is important for a timely management response to potential off-flavor events. In this study, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods were developed to detect the levels of Anabaena sp. and geosmin, respectively, by designing two PCR primer sets to quantify the rpoC1 gene (ARG) and geosmin synthase one (GSG) in Anabaena sp. in freshwater systems. The ARG density determined by qPCR assay is highly related to microscopic cell count (r(2) = 0.726, p < 0.001), and the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the qPCR method were 0.02 pg and 0.2 pg of DNA, respectively. At the same time, the relationship between geosmin concentrations measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GSG copies was also established (r(2) = 0.742, p < 0.001) with similar LOD and LOQ values. Using the two qPCR protocols, we succeeded in measuring different levels of ARG and GSG copies in different freshwater systems with high incidence environmental substrata and diverse ecological conditions, showing that the methods developed could be applied for environmental monitoring. Moreover, comparing to the microscopic count and GC-MS analytical methods, the qPCR methods can reduce the time-to-results from several days to a few hours and require considerably less traditional algal identification and taxonomic expertise. PMID:23622984

  6. Sequence of the gene coding for the β-subunit of dinitrogenase from the blue-green alga Anabaena

    OpenAIRE

    Mazur, Barbara J.; Chui, Chok-Fun

    1982-01-01

    The nitrogen fixation nif K gene of the blue-green alga Anabaena, which codes for the β-subunit of dinitrogenase, has been subjected to sequence analysis. The nif K protein is predicted to be 512 amino acids long, to have a Mr or 57,583, and to contain six cysteine residues. Three of these cysteines are within peptides homologous to FeS cluster-binding cysteinyl peptides from ferredoxins and from a high potential iron protein and, thus, may be ligands to which FeS clusters bind in dinitrogena...

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, Isha; Chakrapani, Harinath; Chopra, Sidharth

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 29213 is one of the most commonly used strains in drug discovery research and for quality control. We report the completed draft genome sequence for the strain.

  8. Colonization and Immunomodulation by Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Valeur, Nana; Engel, Peter; Carbajal, Noris; Connolly, Eamonn; Ladefoged, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 is a probiotic (health-promoting) bacterium widely used as a dietary supplement. This study was designed to examine local colonization of the human gastrointestinal mucosa after dietary supplementation with L. reuteri ATCC 55730 and to determine subsequent immune responses at the colonized sites. In this open clinical investigation, 10 healthy volunteers and 9 volunteers with ileostomy underwent gastroscopy or ileoscopy and biopsy samples were taken from the s...

  9. Trehalose induces antagonism towards Pythium debaryanum in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaballa, A.; Abeysinghe, P D; Urich, G; Matthijs, S.; De Greve, H; Cornelis, P; N. Koedam

    1997-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400 shows in vitro activity against Pythium debaryanum under conditions of iron limitation. A lacZ reporter gene introduced by transposon mutagenesis into the P. fluorescens ATCC 17400 trehalase gene (treA) was induced by a factor released by the phytopathogen Pythium debaryanum. The induction of the lacZ gene was lost upon treatment of the Pythium supernatant with commercial trehalase. A trehalose concentration as low as 1 microM could induce the expression of ...

  10. In situ release of mucus and DOC-lipid from the corals Acropora variabilis and Stylophora pistillata in different light regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, C. J.

    1987-07-01

    Rates of mucus and DOC-lipid release were determined for colonies of Acropora variabilis and Stylophora pistillata at 5 m depth and for a colony of A. variabilis at 23 m depth. In addition, colonies at 5 m were shaded to simulate ambient irradiance at 6 m, 10 m and 16 m depth to evaluate the effect of light on the rates of release. A. variabilis released more mucus and DOC-lipid at 5 m than at 23 m depth. For both corals, the night rates were about 30% those of the day. A reduction in total integrated irradiance decreased mucus output from the corals. Similarly, DOC-lipid release showed a diurnal pattern and diminished with reduction in daily irradiance. For both coral species, DOC-lipid release rates were greater in the afternoon than in the morning. The night rates were less than 55% those of the day. The DOC-lipid comprised wax esters and a phospholipid fraction. The diurnal variation was due to changes in yield of wax esters which contributed >90% of the carbon released as DOC-lipid. In situ release of mucus and DOC-lipid was infuenced by light effects on phototrophic carbon metabolism. A daily budget for carbon released as mucus and DOC-lipid was estimated for each coral species at 5 m depth.

  11. Whole Cell Biosensor Using Anabaena torulosa with Optical Transduction for Environmental Toxicity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Shing Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A whole cell-based biosensor using Anabaena torulosa for the detection of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, and Cd, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D, and chlorpyrifos was constructed. The cyanobacteria were entrapped on a cellulose membrane through filtration. Then, the membrane was dried and fixed into a cylindrical well, which was designed to be attached to an optical probe. The probe was connected to fluorescence spectrometer with optical fibre. The presence of the toxicants was indicated by the change of fluorescence emission, before and after the exposure. The linear detection ranges for Cu, Pb, and Cd were 2.5–10.0 µg/L, 0.5–5.0 µg/L, and 0.5–10.0 µg/L, respectively, while 2,4-D and chlorpyrifos shared similar linear ranges of 0.05–0.75 µg/L. The biosensor showed good sensitivity with the lowest limits of detection (LLD for Cu, Pb, Cd, 2,4-D and chlorpyrifos determined at 1.195 µg/L, 0.100 µg/L, 0.027 µg/L, 0.025 µg/L, and 0.025 µg/L, respectively. The overall reproducibility of the biosensor (n=3 was <±6.35%. The biosensor had been tested with different combinations of toxicants, with the results showing predominantly antagonistic responses. The results confirmed that the biosensor constructed in this report is suitable to be used in quantitative and qualitative detections of heavy metals and pesticides.

  12. Structure of an Inward Proton-Transporting Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin Mutant: Mechanistic Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bamboo; Sánchez-Magraner, Lissete; Luecke, Hartmut

    2016-09-01

    Microbial rhodopsins are light-activated, seven-α-helical, retinylidene transmembrane proteins that have been identified in thousands of organisms across archaea, bacteria, fungi, and algae. Although they share a high degree of sequence identity and thus similarity in structure, many unique functions have been discovered and characterized among them. Some function as outward proton pumps, some as inward chloride pumps, whereas others function as light sensors or ion channels. Unique among the microbial rhodopsins characterized thus far, Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR) is a photochromic sensor that interacts with a soluble 14-kDa cytoplasmic transducer that is encoded on the same operon. The sensor itself stably interconverts between all-trans-15-anti and 13-cis-15-syn retinal forms depending on the wavelength of illumination, although only the former participates in a photocycle with a signaling M intermediate. A mutation in the cytoplasmic half-channel of the protein, replacing Asp217 with Glu (D217E), results in the creation of a light-driven, single-photon, inward proton transporter. We present the 2.3 Å structure of dark-adapted D217E ASR, which reveals significant changes in the water network surrounding Glu217, as well as a shift in the carbon backbone near retinal-binding Lys210, illustrating a possible pathway leading to the protonation of Glu217 in the cytoplasmic half-channel, located 15 Å from the Schiff base. Crystallographic evidence for the protonation of nearby Glu36 is also discussed, which was described previously by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Finally, two histidine residues near the extracellular surface and their possible role in proton uptake are discussed. PMID:27602724

  13. PHOTOSYNTHETIC, BIOCHEMICAL AND ENZYMATIC INVESTIGATION OF Anabaena fertilissima IN RESPONSE TO AN INSECTICIDE-HEXACHLORO-HEXAHYDRO-METHANOBENZODIOXATHIEPINE- OXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar, Nirmal J.I

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A study on the heterocystous, nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena fertilissima was carried out to investigate the effect of an organochlorine insecticide (hexachloro-hexahydro-methano-benzodioxathiepineoxide, called as endosulfan at different concentrations of 3, 6 and 12 μgml-1 on the photosynthetic pigments-Chl-a, Carotenoids and Phycobiliproteins-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin, stress metabolites such as carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, phenols and enzyme activities-nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase. The insecticide- Endosulfan showed to be deleteriously affecting the activities in the cyanobacterium. As early as the 4th day, chl-a and carotenoids reduced by 38% and 20% respectively. The phycobiliproteins declined by 60%, 64% and 28% with respect to Phycocyanin, Allophycocyanin and Phycoerythrin. Moreover, Endosulfan adversely depleted the cellular activities, leading to a marked decrease in the carbohydrates, proteins, phenols and amino acids and enzymes-nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase. Despite of deleterious effects of Endosulfan on the cyanobacterium Anabaena fertilissima, a unique regenerating ability in presence of the insecticide was observed by the end of 12 days in the lower doses of insecticide.

  14. Time-dependent growth of crystalline Au(0)-nanoparticles in cyanobacteria as self-reproducing bioreactors: 2. Anabaena cylindrica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösken, Liz M; Cappel, Felix; Körsten, Susanne; Fischer, Christian B; Schönleber, Andreas; van Smaalen, Sander; Geimer, Stefan; Beresko, Christian; Ankerhold, Georg; Wehner, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Microbial biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles as needed in catalysis has shown its theoretical ability as an extremely environmentally friendly production method in the last few years, even though the separation of the nanoparticles is challenging. Biosynthesis, summing up biosorption and bioreduction of diluted metal ions to zero valent metals, is especially ecofriendly, when the bioreactor itself is harmless and needs no further harmful reagents. The cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica (SAG 1403.2) is able to form crystalline Au(0)-nanoparticles from Au(3+) ions and does not release toxic anatoxin-a. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are applied to monitor the time-dependent development of gold nanoparticles for up to 40 hours. Some vegetative cells (VC) are filled with nanoparticles within minutes, while the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of vegetative cells and the heterocyst polysaccharide layer (HEP) are the regions, where the first nanoparticles are detected on most other cells. The uptake of gold starts immediately after incubation and within four hours the average size remains constant around 10 nm. Analyzing the TEM images with an image processing program reveals a wide distribution for the diameter of the nanoparticles at all times and in all regions of the cyanobacteria. Finally, the nanoparticle concentration in vegetative cells of Anabaena cylindrica is about 50% higher than in heterocysts (HC). These nanoparticles are found to be located along the thylakoid membranes. PMID:27335727

  15. Time-dependent growth of crystalline Au0-nanoparticles in cyanobacteria as self-reproducing bioreactors: 2. Anabaena cylindrica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösken, Liz M; Cappel, Felix; Körsten, Susanne; Fischer, Christian B; Schönleber, Andreas; van Smaalen, Sander; Geimer, Stefan; Beresko, Christian; Ankerhold, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Summary Microbial biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles as needed in catalysis has shown its theoretical ability as an extremely environmentally friendly production method in the last few years, even though the separation of the nanoparticles is challenging. Biosynthesis, summing up biosorption and bioreduction of diluted metal ions to zero valent metals, is especially ecofriendly, when the bioreactor itself is harmless and needs no further harmful reagents. The cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica (SAG 1403.2) is able to form crystalline Au0-nanoparticles from Au3+ ions and does not release toxic anatoxin-a. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are applied to monitor the time-dependent development of gold nanoparticles for up to 40 hours. Some vegetative cells (VC) are filled with nanoparticles within minutes, while the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of vegetative cells and the heterocyst polysaccharide layer (HEP) are the regions, where the first nanoparticles are detected on most other cells. The uptake of gold starts immediately after incubation and within four hours the average size remains constant around 10 nm. Analyzing the TEM images with an image processing program reveals a wide distribution for the diameter of the nanoparticles at all times and in all regions of the cyanobacteria. Finally, the nanoparticle concentration in vegetative cells of Anabaena cylindrica is about 50% higher than in heterocysts (HC). These nanoparticles are found to be located along the thylakoid membranes. PMID:27335727

  16. The LysR-type transcription factor PacR is a global regulator of photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Anabaena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picossi, Silvia; Flores, Enrique; Herrero, Antonia

    2015-09-01

    Cyanobacteria perform water-splitting photosynthesis and are important primary producers impacting the carbon and nitrogen cycles at global scale. They fix CO2 through ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCo) and have evolved a distinct CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) that builds high CO2 concentrations in the vicinity of RuBisCo favouring its carboxylase activity. Filamentous cyanobacteria such as Anabaena fix CO2 in photosynthetic vegetative cells, which donate photosynthate to heterocysts that rely on a heterotrophic metabolism to fix N2 . CCM elements are induced in response to inorganic carbon limitation, a cue that exposes the photosynthetic apparatus to photodamage by over-reduction. An Anabaena mutant lacking the LysR-type transcription factor All3953 grew poorly and dies under high light. The rbcL operon encoding RuBisCo was induced upon carbon limitation in the wild type but not in the mutant. ChIP-Seq analysis was used to globally identify All3953 targets under carbon limitation. Targets include, besides rbcL, genes encoding CCM elements, photorespiratory pathway- photosystem- and electron transport-related components, and factors, including flavodiiron proteins, with a demonstrated or putative function in photoprotection. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of selected All3953 targets showed regulation in the wild type but not in the mutant. All3953 (PacR) is a global regulator of carbon assimilation in an oxygenic photoautotroph. PMID:25684321

  17. Sequence of the nifD gene coding for the α subunit of dinitrogenase from the cyanobacterium Anabaena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Peter J.; Haselkorn, Robert

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of nifD, the structural gene for the α subunit of dinitrogenase from Anabaena 7120, has been determined. The coding sequence contains 1,440 nucleotides, which predict an amino acid sequence of 480 residues and Mr of 54,283. The predicted sequence contains eight cysteines, of which five are conserved with respect to adjoining sequences and position relative to the α subunits of dinitrogenase from Azotobacter, Clostridium, and Klebsiella. Because there are also five conserved cysteines in the β subunit of Anabaena dinitrogenase [Mazur, B. J. & Chiu, C.-F. (1982) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 6782-6786], the number of cysteine residues participating as ligands to FeS clusters is likely to be 20 per α2β2 tetramer. This number is sufficient to accommodate the known four Fe4S4 clusters, leaving at least four cysteines to be shared among the two FeMo cofactors and the more poorly characterized two-iron center. Although the α- and β-subunit gene sequences are not recognizably homologous, their secondary structures, predicted from the sequences, indicate similar domains around three of the conserved cysteine residues. PMID:16593347

  18. Nuevas funciones de las proteínas Fur en cianobacterias: Contribución a la definición del regulón FurA en Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    OpenAIRE

    González Rodríguez, Andrés; Fillat Castejón, María Francisca

    2013-01-01

    En el presente trabajo de tesis nos propusimos avanzar en el conocimiento de la funciones de las proteínas Fur en cianobacterias mediante el estudio del regulón FurA de la cianobacteria filamentosa formadora de heterocistos Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Como herramienta de trabajo para el estudio del regulón construimos una estirpe de sobreexpresión de FurA en Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, empleando un vector lanzadera con orígenes de replicación en E. coli y Anabaena sp. que logró incrementar hasta ~32 ve...

  19. in-silico analysis suggests alterations in the function of XisA protein as a possible mechanism of butachlor toxicity in the nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Shilpi; Singh, Prem Pal

    2013-01-01

    Butachlor, a commonly used herbicide adversely affects the nitrogen fixing capability of Anabaena, an acclaimed nitrogen fixer in the Indian paddy fields. The nitrogen fixation in Anabaena is triggered by the excision of nifD element by xisA gene leading to rearrangement of nifD forming nifHDK operon in the heterocyst of Anabaena sp. PCC7120. Functional elucidation adjudged through in-silico analysis revealed that xisA belongs to integrase family of tyrosine recombinase. The predicted functio...

  20. Histological and ultrastructural observation of the ink sac of Octopus variabilis%长蛸墨囊的组织学及其墨腺超微结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚; 王春琳; 詹萍萍; 宋微微; 母昌考; 邵楚; 刘帅

    2011-01-01

    分析了长蛸墨囊组织学及墨腺细胞的超微结构.结果表明,墨囊由墨囊体、导管和墨腺3部分组成,墨囊壁和导管壁分为外膜、肌肉层、粘膜下层和粘膜层,墨囊壁与肝脏外膜紧密相连,墨囊导管开口于直肠末端近肛门处;墨腺集中在墨囊底部靠近肝脏的一侧,由粘膜上皮细胞向囊腔内增生形成,呈索状,腺体中部含丰富的结缔组织;墨腺细胞分为具有无分泌功能的A型细胞和有分泌功能的B型细胞,微绒毛分布于B型细胞的顶端;墨汁颗粒在墨腺细胞囊泡中形成,并以胞吐或细胞破碎的形式将墨汁颗粒排出.%Octopus variabilis has become one of the most popular seafood for its delicious taste, which has large market demand in China and is advantaged in marine products exports. However, due to the over fishing and water pollution, the natural resource of Octopus variabilis declined rapidly. For this reason,the industry of artificial culturing got rapid development. The Octopus variabilis will spurt the ink when meeting the stimulation originally. The peculiar ink defence system of Octopus variabilis is based on the activity of the highly specialized ink gland which is deputed to the continuous production of the black insoluble melanin pigment that is stored in the ink sac. This organ has been studied in other cephalopod, but the ink gland in Octopus variabilis is different from the others. Therefore, the histology of the ink sac and ultrastructural structure of the ink gland of Octopus variabilis was studied using light microscopy and electron microscopy in this paper. The observed results showed that the ink sac was composed of ink sac body, pipe and ink glands. The ink sac of Octopus variabilis opened into the end of the recta near the anus by pipe. The wall of the ink sac and pipe were both composed of epicardial,muscular layer,submucosa layer and mucosa layer. And the epicardial of ink sac wall were stratified squamous

  1. Directional RNA deep sequencing sheds new light on the transcriptional response of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 to combined-nitrogen deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Head Steven R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyanobacteria are potential sources of renewable chemicals and biofuels and serve as model organisms for bacterial photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and responses to environmental changes. Anabaena (Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 (hereafter Anabaena is a multicellular filamentous cyanobacterium that can "fix" atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia when grown in the absence of a source of combined nitrogen. Because the nitrogenase enzyme is oxygen sensitive, Anabaena forms specialized cells called heterocysts that create a microoxic environment for nitrogen fixation. We have employed directional RNA-seq to map the Anabaena transcriptome during vegetative cell growth and in response to combined-nitrogen deprivation, which induces filaments to undergo heterocyst development. Our data provide an unprecedented view of transcriptional changes in Anabaena filaments during the induction of heterocyst development and transition to diazotrophic growth. Results Using the Illumina short read platform and a directional RNA-seq protocol, we obtained deep sequencing data for RNA extracted from filaments at 0, 6, 12, and 21 hours after the removal of combined nitrogen. The RNA-seq data provided information on transcript abundance and boundaries for the entire transcriptome. From these data, we detected novel antisense transcripts within the UTRs (untranslated regions and coding regions of key genes involved in heterocyst development, suggesting that antisense RNAs may be important regulators of the nitrogen response. In addition, many 5' UTRs were longer than anticipated, sometimes extending into upstream open reading frames (ORFs, and operons often showed complex structure and regulation. Finally, many genes that had not been previously identified as being involved in heterocyst development showed regulation, providing new candidates for future studies in this model organism. Conclusions Directional RNA-seq data were obtained that provide

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09362-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sp. ATCC 51142 circu... 102 1e-20 ( Q01277 ) RecName: Full=Sulfur controller 2; Short=SCON2... 102 1e-20 CP0...18 ( Q00659 ) RecName: Full=Sulfur metabolite repression control prot... 94 6e-18 U21220_1( U21220 |pid:none) Emericell...8e-26 ( P87053 ) RecName: Full=F-box/WD repeat-containing protein pof1; ... 120 8e-26 AM778957_201( AM778957 |pid:none) Microc...000117_5003( CP000117 |pid:none) Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413,... 107 7e-22 ( P07834 ) RecName: Full=Cell division control pro...e) Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 genomic... 87 6e-16 (Q9D7H2) RecName: Full=WD repeat-containing pro

  3. Brachidontes variabilis and Patella sp. as quantitative biological indicators for cadmium, lead and mercury in the Lebanese coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mussel, Brachidontes variabilis, and the limpet, Patella sp., were used as indicators to monitor cadmium, lead and mercury concentrations along the Lebanese coast. Studies were carried out in order to define the best strategy for assessing and minimizing the effects of size and physiological condition on the metal contents of the molluscs, and corrective models were constructed. Metal concentrations in surface water were measured to estimate bioconcentration factors (BCFs). The BCFs varied from 8.3 x 103 to 3.4 x 104, from 7.5 x 103 to 8.0 x 103 and from 3.0 x 104 to 3.2 x 104, for Cd, Pb and Hg, respectively. For limpets, BCFs varied from 1.7 x 104 to 7.4 x 104 for Cd, from 2.5 x 103 to 6 x 103 for Pb and remained fairly constant at around 104 for Hg. The highest BCFs were associated with lowest contamination levels. The results of the geographical survey exhibited a similar large-scale spatial pattern for the two species and followed the metal concentration distributions measured in the waters. - Two molluscs were effective bioindicators for metal pollution in waters along the Lebanese coast

  4. The Chlorella variabilis NC64A Genome Reveals Adaptation to Photosymbiosis, Coevolution with Viruses, and Cryptic Sex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, Guillaume; Duncan, Garry A.; Agarakova, Irina; Borodovsky, Mark; Gurnon, James; Kuo, Alan; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Pangailinan, Jasmyn; Polle, Juergen; Salamov, Asaf; Terry, Astrid; Yamada, Takashi; Dunigan, David D.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Etten, James L. Van

    2010-05-06

    Chlorella variabilis NC64A, a unicellular photosynthetic green alga (Trebouxiophyceae), is an intracellular photobiont of Paramecium bursaria and a model system for studying virus/algal interactions. We sequenced its 46-Mb nuclear genome, revealing an expansion of protein families that could have participated in adaptation to symbiosis. NC64A exhibits variations in GC content across its genome that correlate with global expression level, average intron size, and codon usage bias. Although Chlorella species have been assumed to be asexual and nonmotile, the NC64A genome encodes all the known meiosis-specific proteins and a subset of proteins found in flagella. We hypothesize that Chlorella might have retained a flagella-derived structure that could be involved in sexual reproduction. Furthermore, a survey of phytohormone pathways in chlorophyte algae identified algal orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana genes involved in hormone biosynthesis and signaling, suggesting that these functions were established prior to the evolution of land plants. We show that the ability of Chlorella to produce chitinous cell walls likely resulted from the capture of metabolic genes by horizontal gene transfer from algal viruses, prokaryotes, or fungi. Analysis of the NC64A genome substantially advances our understanding of the green lineage evolution, including the genomic interplay with viruses and symbiosis between eukaryotes.

  5. Biological activities of skin and parotoid gland secretions of bufonid toads (Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis) from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Karış, Mert; Yalcin, Husniye Tansel; Göçmen, Bayram

    2016-05-01

    Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain numerous natural agents which may provide unique resources for novel drug development. Especially the skin-parotoid gland secretions of toads from genus Bufo contain as many as 86 different types of active compounds, each with the potential of becoming a potent drug. In the present study, crude skin-parotoid gland secretions from Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis from Turkey were screened against various cancer cells together with normal cells using MTT assay. Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties of skin secretions were tested on selected bacterial and fungal species for assessing the possible medical applications. Antimicrobial activity of skin secretions was studied by determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity of each skin-secretion was also estimated for evaluating pharmaceutical potential. Both skin-parotoid gland secretions showed high cytotoxic effect on all cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines with IC50 values varying between cancer and antimicrobial agents without hemolytic activities. PMID:27133069

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 cellulose fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, Catherine K [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The ability of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 wild-type strain to hydrolyze cellulose and ferment the degradation products directly to ethanol and other metabolic byproducts makes it an attractive candidate for consolidated bioprocessing of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. In this study, whole-genome microarrays were used to investigate the expression of C. thermocellum mRNA during growth on crystalline cellulose in controlled replicate batch fermentations. A time-series analysis of gene expression revealed changes in transcript levels of {approx}40% of genes ({approx}1300 out of 3198 ORFs encoded in the genome) during transition from early-exponential to late-stationary phase. K-means clustering of genes with statistically significant changes in transcript levels identified six distinct clusters of temporal expression. Broadly, genes involved in energy production, translation, glycolysis and amino acid, nucleotide and coenzyme metabolism displayed a decreasing trend in gene expression as cells entered stationary phase. In comparison, genes involved in cell structure and motility, chemotaxis, signal transduction and transcription showed an increasing trend in gene expression. Hierarchical clustering of cellulosome-related genes highlighted temporal changes in composition of this multi-enzyme complex during batch growth on crystalline cellulose, with increased expression of several genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes involved in degradation of non-cellulosic substrates in stationary phase. Overall, the results suggest that under low substrate availability, growth slows due to decreased metabolic potential and C. thermocellum alters its gene expression to (i) modulate the composition of cellulosomes that are released into the environment with an increased proportion of enzymes than can efficiently degrade plant polysaccharides other than cellulose, (ii) enhance signal transduction and chemotaxis mechanisms perhaps to sense the oligosaccharide hydrolysis products

  7. The Zur regulon of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochmann Nina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc is considered as an essential element for all living organisms, but it can be toxic at large concentrations. Bacteria therefore tightly regulate zinc metabolism. The Cg2502 protein of Corynebacterium glutamicum was a candidate to control zinc metabolism in this species, since it was classified as metalloregulator of the zinc uptake regulator (Zur subgroup of the ferric uptake regulator (Fur family of DNA-binding transcription regulators. Results The cg2502 (zur gene was deleted in the chromosome of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 by an allelic exchange procedure to generate the zur-deficient mutant C. glutamicum JS2502. Whole-genome DNA microarray hybridizations and real-time RT-PCR assays comparing the gene expression in C. glutamicum JS2502 with that of the wild-type strain detected 18 genes with enhanced expression in the zur mutant. The expression data were combined with results from cross-genome comparisons of shared regulatory sites, revealing the presence of candidate Zur-binding sites in the mapped promoter regions of five transcription units encoding components of potential zinc ABC-type transporters (cg0041-cg0042/cg0043; cg2911-cg2912-cg2913, a putative secreted protein (cg0040, a putative oxidoreductase (cg0795, and a putative P-loop GTPase of the COG0523 protein family (cg0794. Enhanced transcript levels of the respective genes in C. glutamicum JS2502 were verified by real-time RT-PCR, and complementation of the mutant with a wild-type zur gene reversed the effect of differential gene expression. The zinc-dependent expression of the putative cg0042 and cg2911 operons was detected in vivo with a gfp reporter system. Moreover, the zinc-dependent binding of purified Zur protein to double-stranded 40-mer oligonucleotides containing candidate Zur-binding sites was demonstrated in vitro by DNA band shift assays. Conclusion Whole-genome expression profiling and DNA band shift assays demonstrated that Zur directly

  8. Optimización del cultivo a la intemperie y producción de exopolisacárido por el alga verde-azulada, (cianobacteria) Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Fernández, José

    1995-01-01

    Las microalgas constituyen un conjunto heterogéneo de microorganismos que poseen clorofila a y otros pigmentos, con características metabólicas propias de plantas superiores, entre las que destacan la capacidad de convertir eficientemente energía solar en en ... ergía química, vía fotosíntesis oxigénica (con agua como donador de electrones), y la simplicidad de sus requerimientos nutritivos, pudiendo sintetizar una variedad de biomoléculas a partir de sustratos inorgánicos disponibles en abun...

  9. Generación de materia orgánica acoplada a la eliminación de CO2 por Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047 y su utilización para la remoción de cadmio

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban Clares, Marta

    2011-01-01

    El incremento del nivel atmosférico de dióxido de carbono, gas de efecto invernadero, y la necesidad de reducir el mismo constituye un problema global de ingentes proporciones. Una aproximación a este problema consiste en la utilización de microorganismos fotosintéticos para la retirada del CO2. Microalgas y cianobacterias se encuentran entre los más efectivos fijadores de CO2 del planeta, con rendimientos considerablemente superiores a los de los cultivos agrícolas más productivos. En este t...

  10. DNA Probes Show Genetic Variation in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of the Azolla Fern and a Closer Relationship to Free-Living Nostoc Strains than to Free-Living Anabaena Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Plazinski, Jacek; Zheng, Qi; Taylor, Rona; Croft, Lynn; Rolfe, Barry G.; Gunning, Brian E. S.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-two isolates of Anabaena azollae derived from seven Azolla species from various geographic and ecological sources were characterized by DNA-DNA hybridization. Cloned DNA fragments derived from the genomic sequences of three different A. azollae isolates were used to detect restriction fragment length polymorphism among all symbiotic anabaenas. DNA clones were radiolabeled and hybridized against southern blot transfers of genomic DNAs of different isolates of A. azollae digested with re...

  11. Susceptibility of four tick species, Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae), to nootkatone from essential oil of grapefruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor-Weiler, Lina B; Behle, Robert W; Stafford, Kirby C

    2011-03-01

    Toxicity of nootkatone was determined in laboratory assays against unfed nymphs of Amblyomma americanum L., Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Ixodes scapularis Say, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille. We determined the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and 90% lethal concentration (LC90) of nootkatone by recording tick mortality 24 h after exposure in treated glass vials. Nymphs were susceptible to nootkatone with LC50 values of 0.352, 0.233, 0.169, and 0.197 microg/cm2, and LC90 values of 1.001, 0.644, 0.549, and 0.485 microg/cm2 for A. americanum, D. variabilis, I. scapularis, and R. sanguineus, respectively. The LC50 value for R. sanquineus was not significantly different from D. variabilis or I. scapularis. Other LC50 comparisons were significantly different. The LC90 for A. americanum was higher when compared with the three other tick species, which were not significantly different. Because nootkatone is volatile, we measured the amount of nootkatone recovered from duplicate-treated vials before tick exposure and from vials after tick exposure. Nootkatone recovered from vials before exposure ranged from 82 to 112% of the expected amounts. The nootkatone recovered after the 24-h exposure period ranged from 89% from vials coated with higher concentrations of nootkatone, down to 29% from vials coated with low nootkatone concentrations. Determination of the nootkatone residue after vial coating demonstrated loss of the active compound while verifying the levels of tick exposure. Toxicity of low concentrations of nootkatone to the active questing stage of ticks reported in this study provides a reference point for future formulation research to exploit nootkatone as a safe and environment-friendly tick control. PMID:21485368

  12. Steady state emission of the fluorescent intermediate of Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin as a function of light adaptation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheminal, A.; Léonard, J.; Kim, S. Y.; Jung, K.-H.; Kandori, H.; Haacke, S.

    2013-11-01

    Steady-state fluorescence measurements of the first excited state of the anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR), and Bacteriorhodopsin are reported for different light stabilization conditions, including the dark-adapted state. We determine the fluorescence spectra of both all-trans (AT), and 13-cis (13C) protonated Schiff base of retinal, and compare the effect of the proteins. Referenced against the fluorescence quantum yield of AT-bR (2.5 × 10-4) we find for AT-ASR, 13C-ASR, and 13C-bR the values of 3.3 × 10-4, 0.8 × 10-4, and 1.7 × 10-4, respectively. Using reported excited state lifetimes, the radiative rates are deduced, and their differences discussed on the basis of a configuration-dependent oscillator strength.

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Sanguibacteroides justesenii, gen. nov., sp. nov., Strains OUH 308042T (= ATCC BAA-2681T) and OUH 334697 (= ATCC BAA-2682), Isolated from Blood Cultures from Two Different Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydenham, Thomas Vognbjerg; Hasman, Henrik; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2015-01-01

    We announce here the draft genome sequences of Sanguibacteroides justesenii, gen. nov., sp. nov., strains OUH 308042T (= DSM 28342T = ATCC BAA-2681T) and OUH 334697 (= DSM 28341 = ATCC BAA-2682), isolated from blood cultures from two different patients and composed of 51 and 39 contigs for totals...

  14. Growth of Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334 in a cheese model system: a biochemical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Budinich, M.; Diaz-Muniz, I.; Cai, H; Rankin, S. A.; Broadbent, Jeffery R.; Steele, J L

    2011-01-01

    Growth of Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334, in a cheese-ripening model system based upon a medium prepared from ripening Cheddar cheese extract (CCE) was evaluated. Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334 grows in CCE made from cheese ripened for 2 (2mCCE), 6 (6mCCE), and 8 (8mCCE) mo, to final cell densities of 5.9 × 108, 1.2 × 108, and 2.1 × 107 cfu/mL, respectively. Biochemical analysis and mass balance equations were used to determine substrate consumption patterns and products formed in 2mCCE. ...

  15. Complete Genome and Methylome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Sloterdijk (ATCC 15791)

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Kuan; Muruvanda, Tim; Roberts, Richard J.; Payne, Justin; Allard, Marc W.; Hoffmann, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica spp. are pathogenic bacteria commonly associated with food-borne outbreaks in human and animals. Salmonella enterica spp. are characterized into more than 2,500 different serotypes, which makes epidemiological surveillance and outbreak control more difficult. In this report, we announce the first complete genome and methylome sequences from two Salmonella type strains associated with food-borne outbreaks, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and S...

  16. Silencing of genes involved in Anaplasma marginale-tick interactions affects the pathogen developmental cycle in Dermacentor variabilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almazán Consuelo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle pathogen, Anaplasma marginale, undergoes a developmental cycle in ticks that begins in gut cells. Transmission to cattle occurs from salivary glands during a second tick feeding. At each site of development two forms of A. marginale (reticulated and dense occur within a parasitophorous vacuole in the host cell cytoplasm. However, the role of tick genes in pathogen development is unknown. Four genes, found in previous studies to be differentially expressed in Dermacentor variabilis ticks in response to infection with A. marginale, were silenced by RNA interference (RNAi to determine the effect of silencing on the A. marginale developmental cycle. These four genes encoded for putative glutathione S-transferase (GST, salivary selenoprotein M (SelM, H+ transporting lysosomal vacuolar proton pump (vATPase and subolesin. Results The impact of gene knockdown on A. marginale tick infections, both after acquiring infection and after a second transmission feeding, was determined and studied by light microscopy. Silencing of these genes had a different impact on A. marginale development in different tick tissues by affecting infection levels, the densities of colonies containing reticulated or dense forms and tissue morphology. Salivary gland infections were not seen in any of the gene-silenced ticks, raising the question of whether these ticks were able to transmit the pathogen. Conclusion The results of this RNAi and light microscopic analyses of tick tissues infected with A. marginale after the silencing of genes functionally important for pathogen development suggest a role for these molecules during pathogen life cycle in ticks.

  17. Characterisation of the paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis gene clusters in Anabaena circinalis AWQC131C and Aphanizomenon sp. NH-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neilan Brett A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saxitoxin and its analogues collectively known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs are neurotoxic alkaloids and are the cause of the syndrome named paralytic shellfish poisoning. PSTs are produced by a unique biosynthetic pathway, which involves reactions that are rare in microbial metabolic pathways. Nevertheless, distantly related organisms such as dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria appear to produce these toxins using the same pathway. Hypothesised explanations for such an unusual phylogenetic distribution of this shared uncommon metabolic pathway, include a polyphyletic origin, an involvement of symbiotic bacteria, and horizontal gene transfer. Results We describe the identification, annotation and bioinformatic characterisation of the putative paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis clusters in an Australian isolate of Anabaena circinalis and an American isolate of Aphanizomenon sp., both members of the Nostocales. These putative PST gene clusters span approximately 28 kb and contain genes coding for the biosynthesis and export of the toxin. A putative insertion/excision site in the Australian Anabaena circinalis AWQC131C was identified, and the organization and evolution of the gene clusters are discussed. A biosynthetic pathway leading to the formation of saxitoxin and its analogues in these organisms is proposed. Conclusion The PST biosynthesis gene cluster presents a mosaic structure, whereby genes have apparently transposed in segments of varying size, resulting in different gene arrangements in all three sxt clusters sequenced so far. The gene cluster organizational structure and sequence similarity seems to reflect the phylogeny of the producer organisms, indicating that the gene clusters have an ancient origin, or that their lateral transfer was also an ancient event. The knowledge we gain from the characterisation of the PST biosynthesis gene clusters, including the identity and sequence of the genes involved

  18. Proteomic strategy for the analysis of the polychlorobiphenyl-degrading cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1 exposed to Aroclor 1254.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangjun Zhang

    Full Text Available The cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1, which was originally isolated from polychlorobiphenyl (PCB-contaminated paddy soils, has capabilities for dechlorinatin and for degrading the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1254. In this study, 25 upregulated proteins were identified using 2D electrophoresis (2-DE coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. These proteins were involved in (i PCB degradation (i.e., 3-chlorobenzoate-3,4-dioxygenase; (ii transport processes [e.g., ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, peptide ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, putrescine-binding protein, periplasmic solute-binding protein, branched-chain amino acid uptake periplasmic solute-binding protein, periplasmic phosphate-binding protein, phosphonate ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, and xylose ABC transporter substrate-binding protein]; (iii energetic metabolism (e.g., methanol/ethanol family pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ-dependent dehydrogenase, malate-CoA ligase subunit beta, enolase, ATP synthase β subunit, FOF1 ATP synthase subunit beta, ATP synthase α subunit, and IMP cyclohydrolase; (iv electron transport (cytochrome b6f complex Fe-S protein; (v general stress response (e.g., molecular chaperone DnaK, elongation factor G, and translation elongation factor thermostable; (vi carbon metabolism (methanol dehydrogenase and malate-CoA ligase subunit beta; and (vii nitrogen reductase (nitrous oxide reductase. The results of real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the genes encoding for dioxygenase, ABC transporters, transmembrane proteins, electron transporter, and energetic metabolism proteins were significantly upregulated during PCB degradation. These genes upregulated by 1.26- to 8.98-fold. These findings reveal the resistance and adaptation of cyanobacterium to the presence of PCBs, shedding light on the

  19. Genome sequence and plasmid transformation of the model high-yield bacterial cellulose producer Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 53582

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Michael; Reeve, Benjamin; Abbott, James; Freemont, Paul S.; Ellis, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial cellulose is a strong, highly pure form of cellulose that is used in a range of applications in industry, consumer goods and medicine. Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 53582 is one of the highest reported bacterial cellulose producing strains and has been used as a model organism in numerous studies of bacterial cellulose production and studies aiming to increased cellulose productivity. Here we present a high-quality draft genome sequence for G. hansenii ATCC 53582 and find that in addition to the previously described cellulose synthase operon, ATCC 53582 contains two additional cellulose synthase operons and several previously undescribed genes associated with cellulose production. In parallel, we also develop optimized protocols and identify plasmid backbones suitable for transformation of ATCC 53582, albeit with low efficiencies. Together, these results provide important information for further studies into cellulose synthesis and for future studies aiming to genetically engineer G. hansenii ATCC 53582 for increased cellulose productivity.

  20. Genome sequence of the vertebrate gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 53608.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, Darren; Tailford, Louise E; Crossman, Lisa; Jeffers, Faye; Mackenzie, Donald A; Caccamo, Mario; Juge, Nathalie

    2011-08-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri, inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of a range of vertebrates, is a true symbiont with effects established as beneficial to the host. Here we describe the draft genome of L. reuteri ATCC 53608, isolated from a pig. The genome sequence provides important insights into the evolutionary changes underlying host specialization. PMID:21622738

  1. Genome Sequence of the Vertebrate Gut Symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 53608 ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Heavens, Darren; Tailford, Louise E.; Crossman, Lisa; Jeffers, Faye; MacKenzie, Donald A.; Caccamo, Mario; Juge, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri, inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of a range of vertebrates, is a true symbiont with effects established as beneficial to the host. Here we describe the draft genome of L. reuteri ATCC 53608, isolated from a pig. The genome sequence provides important insights into the evolutionary changes underlying host specialization.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Maria Mercedes; Allievi, Mariana C; Fina Martin, Joaquina; Waehner, Pablo M; Prado Acosta, Mariano; Sanchez Rivas, Carmen; Ruzal, Sandra M

    2015-01-01

    We present the 1,956,699-bp draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain ATCC 4356. Comparative genomic analysis revealed 99.96% similarity with L. acidophilus NCFM NC_006814.3 and 99.97% with La-14 NC_021181.2 genomes. PMID:25593259

  3. Phenotypic and Transcriptomic Analyses of Mildly and Severely Salt-Stressed Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den H.M.W.; Mols, J.M.; Moezelaar, R.; Zwietering, M.H.; Abee, T.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria are able to cope with the challenges of a sudden increase in salinity by activating adaptation mechanisms. In this study, exponentially growing cells of the pathogen Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 were exposed to both mild (2.5% [wt/vol] NaCl) and severe (5% [wt/vol] NaCl) salt stress condition

  4. Multigene disruption in undomesticated Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051a using the CRISPR/Cas9 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kang; Duan, Xuguo; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051a is an undomesticated strain used in the industrial production of enzymes. Because it is poorly transformable, genetic manipulation in this strain requires a highly efficient genome editing method. In this study, a Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR/Cas9 system consisting of an all-in-one knockout plasmid containing a target-specific guide RNA, cas9, and a homologous repair template was established for highly efficient gene disruption in B. subtilis ATCC 6051a. With an efficiency of 33% to 53%, this system was used to disrupt the srfC, spoIIAC, nprE, aprE and amyE genes of B. subtilis ATCC 6051a, which hamper its use in industrial fermentation. Compared with B. subtilis ATCC 6051a, the final mutant, BS5 (ΔsrfC, ΔspoIIAC, ΔnprE, ΔaprE, ΔamyE), produces much less foam during fermentation, displays greater resistant to spore formation, and secretes 2.5-fold more β-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase into the fermentation medium. Thus, the CRISPR/Cas9 system proved to be a powerful tool for targeted genome editing in an industrially relevant, poorly transformable strain. PMID:27305971

  5. Antimicrobial mechanism of flavonoids against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 by model membrane study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antimicrobial mechanism of four flavonoids (kaempferol, hesperitin, (+)-catechin hydrate, biochanin A) against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was investigated through cell membranes and a liposome model. The release of bacterial protein and images from transmission electron microscopy demonstrated damage to the E. coli ATCC 25922 membrane. A liposome model with dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) (0.6 molar ratio) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) (0.4 molar ratio), representative of the phospholipid membrane of E. coli ATCC 25922, was used to specify the mode of action of four selected flavonoids through Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. It is suggested that for flavonoids, to be effective antimicrobials, interaction with the polar head-group of the model membrane followed by penetration into the hydrophobic regions must occur. The antimicrobial efficacies of the flavonoids were consistent with liposome interaction activities, kaempferol > hesperitin > (+)-catechin hydrate > biochanin A. This study provides a liposome model capable of mimicking the cell membrane of E. coli ATCC 25922. The findings are important in understanding the antibacterial mechanism on cell membranes.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence and Methylome Analysis of Bacillus globigii ATCC 49760

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenburg) Cohn ATCC 49760, deposited as Bacillus globigii, is the source strain for the restriction enzymes BglI and BglII. Its complete sequence and full methylome were determined using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing. PMID:27231364

  7. Interaction of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633 and Bacteriophage gh-1 in Berea Sandstone Rock

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Philip Lee; Yen, Teh Fu

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the passage of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633 and a phage-resistant mutant through Berea sandstone rock were made. When bacteriophage gh-1 was adsorbed within the rock matrix, a reduction in the passage of the susceptible but not the resistant cells through the rock was observed.

  8. Interaction of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633 and Bacteriophage gh-1 in Berea Sandstone Rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P L; Yen, T F

    1985-12-01

    Measurements of the passage of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633 and a phage-resistant mutant through Berea sandstone rock were made. When bacteriophage gh-1 was adsorbed within the rock matrix, a reduction in the passage of the susceptible but not the resistant cells through the rock was observed. PMID:16346956

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Strain ATCC 35246

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Zhe; Geng, Jianing; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Haiying; Yi, Li; Lei, Meng; Lu, Cheng-Ping; Fan, Hong-Jie; Hu, Songnian

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is an opportunistic pathogen. It has caused a very large economic loss in the swine industry of China and has become a threat to human health. We announce the complete genome sequence of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain ATCC 35246, which provides opportunities to understand its pathogenesis mechanism and genetic basis.

  10. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain ATCC 35246.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhe; Geng, Jianing; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Haiying; Yi, Li; Lei, Meng; Lu, Cheng-ping; Fan, Hong-jie; Hu, Songnian

    2011-10-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is an opportunistic pathogen. It has caused a very large economic loss in the swine industry of China and has become a threat to human health. We announce the complete genome sequence of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain ATCC 35246, which provides opportunities to understand its pathogenesis mechanism and genetic basis. PMID:21914890

  11. Multigene disruption in undomesticated Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051a using the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kang; Duan, Xuguo; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051a is an undomesticated strain used in the industrial production of enzymes. Because it is poorly transformable, genetic manipulation in this strain requires a highly efficient genome editing method. In this study, a Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR/Cas9 system consisting of an all-in-one knockout plasmid containing a target-specific guide RNA, cas9, and a homologous repair template was established for highly efficient gene disruption in B. subtilis ATCC 6051a. With an efficiency of 33% to 53%, this system was used to disrupt the srfC, spoIIAC, nprE, aprE and amyE genes of B. subtilis ATCC 6051a, which hamper its use in industrial fermentation. Compared with B. subtilis ATCC 6051a, the final mutant, BS5 (ΔsrfC, ΔspoIIAC, ΔnprE, ΔaprE, ΔamyE), produces much less foam during fermentation, displays greater resistant to spore formation, and secretes 2.5-fold more β-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase into the fermentation medium. Thus, the CRISPR/Cas9 system proved to be a powerful tool for targeted genome editing in an industrially relevant, poorly transformable strain. PMID:27305971

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces silvensis ATCC 53525, a Producer of Novel Hormone Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Chad W; Li, Yongchang; Magarvey, Nathan A

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces silvensis produces nonribosomal peptides that act as antagonists of the human oxytocin and vasopressin receptors. Here, we present the genome sequence of S. silvensis ATCC 53525 and demonstrate that this organism possesses a number of additional biosynthetic gene clusters and might be a promising source for genome-guided drug discovery efforts. PMID:26893408

  13. Glucose metabolism in the antibiotic producing actinomycete Nonomuraea sp ATCC 39727

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Nina; Bruheim, Per; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727, producer of the glycopeptide A40926 that is used as precursor for the novel antibiotic dalbavancin, has an unusual carbon metabolism. Glucose is primarily metabolized via the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway, although the energetically more favorable Embde...

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of the Bioluminescent Marine Bacterium Vibrio harveyi ATCC 33843 (392 [MAV]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Hervey, W Judson; Kim, Seongwon; Lin, Baochuan; Vora, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a Gram-negative marine γ-proteobacterium that is known to be a formidable pathogen of aquatic animals and is a model organism for the study of bacterial bioluminescence and quorum sensing. In this report, we describe the complete genome sequence of the most studied strain of this species: V. harveyi ATCC 33843 (392 [MAV]). PMID:25635019

  15. Purification and Characterization of an Extracellular Proteinase from Brevibacterium-Linens ATCC-9174

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattray, F P; Bockelmann, W; Fox, P F

    1995-01-01

    An extracellular serine proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 was purified to homogeneity. pH and temperature optima were 8,5 and 50 degrees C, respectively. The results for the molecular mass of the proteinase were 56 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and...

  16. Evaluation of Nostoc Strain ATCC 53789 as a Potential Source of Natural Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Biondi, Natascia; Piccardi, Raffaella; Margheri, M. Cristina; Rodolfi, Liliana; Smith, Geoffrey D.; Tredici, Mario R.

    2004-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Nostoc strain ATCC 53789, a known cryptophycin producer, was tested for its potential as a source of natural pesticides. The antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, nematocidal, and cytotoxic activities of methanolic extracts of the cyanobacterium were evaluated. Among the target organisms, nine fungi (Armillaria sp., Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, Penicillium expansum, Phytophthora cambivora, P. cinnamomi, Rhizoctonia solani, Rosellinia, sp., Sclerotinia sclerotiorum,...

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Thiostrepton-Producing Streptomyces laurentii ATCC 31255

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yasuhiro; Nagayoshi, Yuko; Ohshima, Toshihisa; Ogata, Seiya

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces laurentii ATCC 31255 produces thiostrepton, a thiopeptide class antibiotic. Here, we report the complete genome sequence for this strain, which contains a total of 8,032,664 bp, 7,452 predicted coding sequences, and a G+C content of 72.3%. PMID:27257211

  18. Antimicrobial mechanism of flavonoids against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 by model membrane study

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mengying; Wu, Ting; Pan, Siyi; Xu, Xiaoyun

    2014-06-01

    Antimicrobial mechanism of four flavonoids (kaempferol, hesperitin, (+)-catechin hydrate, biochanin A) against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was investigated through cell membranes and a liposome model. The release of bacterial protein and images from transmission electron microscopy demonstrated damage to the E. coli ATCC 25922 membrane. A liposome model with dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) (0.6 molar ratio) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) (0.4 molar ratio), representative of the phospholipid membrane of E. coli ATCC 25922, was used to specify the mode of action of four selected flavonoids through Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. It is suggested that for flavonoids, to be effective antimicrobials, interaction with the polar head-group of the model membrane followed by penetration into the hydrophobic regions must occur. The antimicrobial efficacies of the flavonoids were consistent with liposome interaction activities, kaempferol > hesperitin > (+)-catechin hydrate > biochanin A. This study provides a liposome model capable of mimicking the cell membrane of E. coli ATCC 25922. The findings are important in understanding the antibacterial mechanism on cell membranes.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356

    OpenAIRE

    Palomino, Maria Mercedes; Allievi, Mariana C.; Fina Martin, Joaquina; Waehner, Pablo M.; Prado Acosta, Mariano; Sanchez Rivas, Carmen; Ruzal, Sandra M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the 1,956,699-bp draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain ATCC 4356. Comparative genomic analysis revealed 99.96% similarity with L. acidophilus NCFM NC_006814.3 and 99.97% with La-14 NC_021181.2 genomes.

  20. Genome sequence of the Bacteroides fragilis phage ATCC 51477-B1

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins Shawn A; Layton Alice C; Ripp Steven; Williams Dan; Sayler Gary S

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The genome of a fecal pollution indicator phage, Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 51477-B1, was sequenced and consisted of 44,929 bases with a G+C content of 38.7%. Forty-six putative open reading frames were identified and genes were organized into functional clusters for host specificity, lysis, replication and regulation, and packaging and structural proteins.

  1. Genome sequence of the Bacteroides fragilis phage ATCC 51477-B1

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Shawn A; Layton, Alice C.; Ripp, Steven; Williams, Dan; Sayler, Gary S.

    2008-01-01

    The genome of a fecal pollution indicator phage, Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 51477-B1, was sequenced and consisted of 44,929 bases with a G+C content of 38.7%. Forty-six putative open reading frames were identified and genes were organized into functional clusters for host specificity, lysis, replication and regulation, and packaging and structural proteins.

  2. Azolla-Anabaena as a Biofertilizer for Rice Paddy Fields in the Po Valley, a Temperate Rice Area in Northern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Bocchi; Antonino Malgioglio

    2010-01-01

    Azolla is a floating pteridophyte, which contains as endosymbiont the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae (Nostocaceae family). Widely cultivated in the Asian regions, Azolla is either incorporated into the soil before rice transplanting or grown as a dual crop along with rice. To examine the feasibility of its use in flooded rice fields sited in the Temperate European Areas, we carried out a series of experiments in PVC tanks during 2000–2002 in Po Valley (northern Italy) conditi...

  3. Alterations in proteins and amino acids of the Nile cyanobacteria Pseudanabaena limnetica and Anabaena wisconsinense in response to industrial wastewater pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Mohamed El-Sheekh; Ahmed Mohamed El-Otify; Hani Saber

    2011-01-01

    The effect of industrial wastewater on the Nile cyanobacteria Pseudanabaena limnetica and Anabaena wisconsinense was investigated. The data showed that P. limnetica was more sensitive to pollution than A. wisconsinense. The treatments with different levels of wastewater exerted pronounced reductions in protein and amino acids content. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the cyanobacteria grown in the industrial wastewater showed induction in the synthesis of certain polypeptides and repression of...

  4. Detection of Anatoxin-a and Three Analogs in Anabaena spp. Cultures: New Fluorescence Polarization Assay and Toxin Profile by LC-MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Jon A.; Paz Otero; Amparo Alfonso; Vitor Ramos; Vitor Vasconcelos; Romulo Aráoz; Jordi Molgó; Vieytes, Mercedes R.; Botana, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    Anatoxin-a (ATX) is a potent neurotoxin produced by several species of Anabaena spp. Cyanobacteria blooms around the world have been increasing in recent years; therefore, it is urgent to develop sensitive techniques that unequivocally confirm the presence of these toxins in fresh water and cyanobacterial samples. In addition, the identification of different ATX analogues is essential to later determine its toxicity. In this paper we designed a fluorescent polarization (FP) method to detect ...

  5. Improvement of endophytic Azospirillum colonization by co-inoculation with Cellulomonas Uda ATCC 491

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Mehdipour Moghaddam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Most of the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR such as Azopirillum if accompanied with strong cellulase producing bacteria such as Cellulomonas, their colonization may be increased and their host plants growth improved. Materials and methods: Six endophytic Azospirilla which isolated from three rice and three wheat cultivars and also one strain from commercial biofertilizer (Green Biotech Co., identified by biochemical tests and 16S rDNA analysis and were studied on the basis of cellulase, pectinase and auxin production and also their chemotaxis toward rice and wheat cultivars exudates was investigated. Two cellulase positive (A5 and A6 and two negative (A2 and A3 strains were selected and their interaction with C. uda ATCC 491 on auxin production and colonization on roots were compared. Results: This study showed that none of the strains had pectinase activity, but the strain isolated from rice had more Carboxy methyl cellulase (CMCase activity. Selected isolates and C. uda ATCC 491 showed chemotaxis toward roots exudates. In most of the isolates, rate of auxin production increased by coculture with C. uda ATCC 491. Also, it was determined that C. uda ATCC 491 promoted the colonization of Azospirillum without or with cellulase activity on rice and wheat roots, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: Co-inoculation Azospirillum with C. uda ATCC 491 improves plant root system due to stimulation or additive effect of auxin production and cellulase activity, followed by more uptakes of water and minerals by roots. Also, it raises the number of colonization niches for useful bacteria such as Azospirillum and finally quantitative and qualitative plant parameters.

  6. Expression, nucleotide sequence and mutational analysis of two open reading frames in the nif gene region of Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthakur, D; Basche, M; Buikema, W J; Borthakur, P B; Haselkorn, R

    1990-04-01

    A 1.8 kb transcript corresponding to a region of the Anabaena 7120 chromosome 4 kb downstream of the nifHDK operon appears 12-18 h after heterocyst induction. The DNA corresponding to this transcript was sequenced and found to contain two open reading frames, designated ORF 1 and ORF 2. Two polypeptides, of 30 kDa and 13 kDa, encoded by these ORFs were expressed in Escherichia coli. An apparent start site for the transcript, detected by S1 nuclease protection, was located 42 bp upstream of the ATG start codon of ORF 1. ORF 2 shows strong sequence similarity to ORF 6 in the nif gene region of Azotobacter vinelandii. ORF 1 was interrupted using a 1.4 kb neomycin resistance cassette and the resulting mutant grew very slowly on medium lacking combined nitrogen. The mutant had 45% of wild-type acetylene reduction activity, which could be complemented by a 2.8 kb EcoRI fragment of wild-type Anabaena DNA containing only ORF 1 and ORF 2. Thus, one or both of these ORFs is required for efficient nitrogen fixation in Anabaena. PMID:2115111

  7. Stability of free and encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 in yogurt and in an artificial human gastric digestion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortakci, F; Sert, S

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of encapsulation on survival of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 (ATCC 4356) in yogurt and during artificial gastric digestion. Strain ATCC 4356 was added to yogurt either encapsulated in calcium alginate or in free form (unencapsulated) at levels of 8.26 and 9.47 log cfu/g, respectively, and the influence of alginate capsules (1.5 to 2.5mm) on the sensorial characteristics of yogurts was investigated. The ATCC 4356 strain was introduced into an artificial gastric solution consisting of 0.08 N HCl (pH 1.5) containing 0.2% NaCl or into artificial bile juice consisting of 1.2% bile salts in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth to determine the stability of the probiotic bacteria. When incubated for 2h in artificial gastric juice, the free ATCC 4356 did not survive (reduction of >7 log cfu/g). We observed, however, greater survival of encapsulated ATCC 4356, with a reduction of only 3 log cfu/g. Incubation in artificial bile juice (6 h) did not significantly affect the viability of free or encapsulated ATCC 4356. Moreover, statistically significant reductions (~1 log cfu/g) of both free and encapsulated ATCC 4356 were observed during 4-wk refrigerated storage of yogurts. The addition of probiotic cultures in free or alginate-encapsulated form did not significantly affect appearance/color or flavor/odor of the yogurts. However, significant deficiencies were found in body/texture of yogurts containing encapsulated ATCC 4356. We concluded that incorporation of free and encapsulated probiotic bacteria did not substantially change the overall sensory properties of yogurts, and encapsulation in alginate using the extrusion method greatly enhanced the survival of probiotic bacteria against an artificial human gastric digestive system. PMID:23021757

  8. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 Prevents Atherosclerosis via Inhibition of Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ying; WANG, Jinfeng; Quan, Guihua; Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, Longfei; Zhong, Lili

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE−/−) mice. Eight-week-old ApoE−/− mice were fed a Western diet with or without L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 daily for 16 weeks. L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 protected ApoE−/− mice from atherosclerosis by reducing their plasma cholesterol levels from 923 ± 44 to 581 ± 18 mg/dl, likely via a marked decrease in cholesterol absorption cau...

  9. Characterization of the binding of Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 19246) to glycosphingolipids, using a solid-phase overlay approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 19246) were radiolabeled externally (125I) or metabolically (35S) and analyzed for their ability to bind glycosphingolipids separated on thin layer chromatograms or coated in microtiter wells. Two binding properties were found and characterized in detail. (i) Both bacteria showed binding to lactosylceramide (LacCer) in a fashion similar to bacteria characterized earlier. The activity of free LacCer was dependent on the ceramide structure; species with 2-hydroxy fatty acid and/or a trihydroxy base were positive, while species with nonhydroxy fatty acid and a dihydroxy base were negative binders. Several glycolipids with internal lactose were active but only gangliotriaosylceramide and gangliotetraosylceramide were as active as free LacCer. The binding to these three species was half-maximal at about 200 ng of glycolipid and was not blocked by preincubation of bacteria with free lactose or lactose-bovine serum albumin. (ii) A. naeslundii, unlike A. viscosus, showed a superimposed binding concluded to be to terminal or internal GalNAc beta and equivalent to a lactose-inhibitable specificity previously analyzed by other workers. Terminal Gal beta was not recognized in several glycolipids, although free Gal and lactose were active as soluble inhibitors. The binding was half-maximal at about 10 ng of glycolipid. A glycolipid mixture prepared from a scraping of human buccal epithelium contained an active glycolipid with sites for both binding specificities

  10. Bio desulfurization of a system containing synthetic fuel by rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277; Remocao de compostos sulfurosos de sitema bifasico contendo combustivel sintetico por Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maass, Danielle; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    For decades the burning of fossil fuels released a lot of pollutants in the atmosphere. Among the most harmful is sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), which reacts with the moisture in the air and turns into sulfuric acid, being the main cause of acid rain. Acid rain is very harmful to animal and plant kingdoms; accelerates the corrosion's processes of buildings and monuments, and causes serious health problems for humans. As a result, many countries have reformed their legislation to require the sale of fuels with very low sulfur content. The existing processes of desulfurization are not capable of removing sulfur so low. Therefore, there has developed a new process called bio desulfurization. In this process, the degradation of sulfur occurs through the action of microorganisms that act as catalysts. The bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis has emerged as one of the most promising for bio desulfurization because it removes the sulfur without breaking the benzene rings, thereby maintaining the potential energy of the same. Using dibenzothiophene as a model of sulfur compounds, the products of the bio desulfurization process are 2- hydroxybiphenyl and sulfate. In this study we sought to examine the desulfurizing capacity of national Rhodococcus erythropolis strain ATCC4277 in a batch reactor using concentrations of organic phase (n-dodecane) of 20 and 80% (v/v). Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC4277 was capable of degrading DBT in 93.3 and 98.0% in the presence of 20 and 80% (v/v) of synthetic fuel, respectively. (author)

  11. Characterization of the binding of Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 19246) to glycosphingolipids, using a solid-phase overlay approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemberg, N.K.; Karlsson, K.A. (Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1990-07-05

    Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 19246) were radiolabeled externally (125I) or metabolically (35S) and analyzed for their ability to bind glycosphingolipids separated on thin layer chromatograms or coated in microtiter wells. Two binding properties were found and characterized in detail. (i) Both bacteria showed binding to lactosylceramide (LacCer) in a fashion similar to bacteria characterized earlier. The activity of free LacCer was dependent on the ceramide structure; species with 2-hydroxy fatty acid and/or a trihydroxy base were positive, while species with nonhydroxy fatty acid and a dihydroxy base were negative binders. Several glycolipids with internal lactose were active but only gangliotriaosylceramide and gangliotetraosylceramide were as active as free LacCer. The binding to these three species was half-maximal at about 200 ng of glycolipid and was not blocked by preincubation of bacteria with free lactose or lactose-bovine serum albumin. (ii) A. naeslundii, unlike A. viscosus, showed a superimposed binding concluded to be to terminal or internal GalNAc beta and equivalent to a lactose-inhibitable specificity previously analyzed by other workers. Terminal Gal beta was not recognized in several glycolipids, although free Gal and lactose were active as soluble inhibitors. The binding was half-maximal at about 10 ng of glycolipid. A glycolipid mixture prepared from a scraping of human buccal epithelium contained an active glycolipid with sites for both binding specificities.

  12. Phosphoketolase Pathway Dominates in Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 Containing Dual Pathways for Glycolysis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Årsköld, Emma; Lohmeier-Vogel, Elke; Cao, Rong; Roos, Stefan; Rådström, Peter; van Niel, Ed W. J.

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic flux analysis indicated that the heterofermentative Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 uses both the Embden-Meyerhof pathway (EMP) and phosphoketolase pathway (PKP) when glucose or sucrose is converted into the three-carbon intermediate stage of glycolysis. In all cases studied, the main flux is through the PKP, while the EMP is used as a shunt. In the exponential growth phase, 70%, 73%, and 84% of the flux goes through the PKP in cells metabolizing (i) glucose plus fructose, (...

  13. Phosphoketolase pathway dominates in Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 containing dual pathways for glycolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Årsköld, Emma; Lohmeier-Vogel, Elke; Cao, Rong; Roos, Stefan; Rådström, Peter; van Niel, Ed

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic flux analysis indicated that the heterofermentative Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 uses both the Embden-Meyerhof pathway (EMP) and phosphoketolase pathway (PKP) when glucose or sucrose is converted into the three-carbon intermediate stage of glycolysis. In all cases studied, the main flux is through the PKP, while the EMP is used as a shunt. In the exponential growth phase, 70%, 73%, and 84% of the flux goes through the PKP in cells metabolizing (i) glucose plus fructose, (...

  14. Study of Nano-fiber Cellulose Production by Glucanacetobacter xylinum ATCC 10245

    OpenAIRE

    A. Akbarzadeh; Farahnak, M.; Ghassemi, S.; Chiani, M.; Mehrabi, M. R.; Saffari, Z.; Tolooei, S.; Farhangi, A.; Norouzian, D.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial Celluloses (BC) are gaining importance in research and commerce due to numerous factors affecting the bacterial cellulose characteristics and application in different industries. The aim of the present study was to produce bacterial cellulose in different media using different cultivation vessels. Bacterial cellulose was produced by static cultivation of Glucanacetobacter xylinum ATCC 10245 in different culture media such as Brain Heart Agar, Luria Bertani Agar /Broth, Brain Heart I...

  15. Degradation of the Phosphonate Herbicide Glyphosate by Arthrobacter atrocyaneus ATCC 13752

    OpenAIRE

    Pipke, Rüdiger; Amrhein, Nikolaus

    1988-01-01

    Of nine authentic Arthrobacter strains tested, only A. atrocyaneus ATCC 13752 was capable of using the herbicide glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] as its sole source of phosphorus. Contrary to the previously isolated Arthrobacter sp. strain GLP-1, which degrades glyphosate via sarcosine, A. atrocyaneus metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid. The carbon of aminomethylphosphonic acid was entirely converted to CO2. This is the first report on glyphosate degradation by a bacte...

  16. Genome sequence of the methanotrophic Alphaproteobacterium, Methylocystis sp. Rockwell (ATCC 49242)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Lisa Y. [University of Alberta, Edmondton, Canada; Bringel, Francoise O. [University of Strasbourg; DiSpiritto, Alan A. [University of Iowa; Han, Sukkyun [University of Alberta, Edmondton, Canada; Jetten, MSM [Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G. [University of Washington, Seattle; Kits, K. Dimitri [University of Alberta, Edmondton, Canada; Klotz, Martin G [University of Louisville, Louisville; Op den Camp, HJM [Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Semrau, Jeremy D. [University of Michigan; Vuilleumier, Stephane [University of Strasbourg; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Davenport, Karen W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Lajus, Aurelie [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Medigue, Claudine [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2011-01-01

    Methylocystis sp. strain Rockwell (ATCC 49242) is an aerobic methane-oxidizing Alphaproteobacterium isolated from an aquifer in southern California. Unlike most methanotrophs in the Methylocystaceae family, this strain has a single pmo operon encoding particulate methane monooxygenase and no evidence of the genes encoding soluble methane monooxygenase. This is the first reported genome sequence of a member of the Methylocystis species of the Methylocystaceae family in the order Rhizobiales.

  17. Agroindustrial Byproducts For The Production Of Hyaluronic Acid By Streptococcus Zooepidemicus ATCC 39920

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Caldas Pan; Josiane Alessandra Vignoli; Cristiani Baldo; Hanny Cristina Braga Pereira; Rui Srgio dos Santos Ferreira da Silva; Maria Antonia Pedrine Colabone Celligoi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Agroindustrial derivatives are alternative nutritional sources employed in bioprocesses that reduce costs and corroborate with social sustainability. In this study alternative carbon sugarcane juice sugarcane molasses and soy molasses and nitrogen sources corn steep liquor soy protein and whey protein were evaluated for hyaluronic acid production by Streptococcus zooepidemicus ATCC 39920. The medium containing sugarcane molasses archived high yield of hyaluronic acid 0.066 g.g-1 when...

  18. Elucidating the molecular physiology of lantibiotic NAI-107 production in Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Giuseppe; Renzone, Giovanni; Palazzotto, Emilia; Monciardini, Paolo; Arena, Simona; Faddetta, Teresa; Giardina, Anna; Alduina, Rosa; Weber, Tilmann; Sangiorgi, Fabio; Russo, Alessandro; Spinelli, Giovanni; Sosio, Margherita; Scaloni, Andrea; Puglia, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background The filamentous actinomycete Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024 produces the lantibiotic NAI-107, which is an antibiotic peptide effective against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. In actinomycetes, antibiotic production is often associated with a physiological differentiation program controlled by a complex regulatory and metabolic network that may be elucidated by the integration of genomic, proteomic and bioinformatic tools. Accordingly, an extensive evaluation of the proteomi...

  19. Cloning, expression and bioinformatics analysis of ATP sulfurylase from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo, Michael L; Abanto, Michel; Quispe, Ruth L; Calderón, Julio; del Valle, Luís J; Talledo, Miguel; Ramírez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Molecular studies of enzymes involved in sulfite oxidation in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans have not yet been developed, especially in the ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) of these acidophilus tiobacilli that have importance in biomining. This enzyme synthesizes ATP and sulfate from adenosine phosphosulfate (APS) and pyrophosphate (PPi), final stage of the sulfite oxidation by these organisms in order to obtain energy. The atpS gene (1674 bp) encoding the ATPS from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC ...

  20. Effects of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase desensitization on glutamic acid production in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masaru; Sawada, Kazunori; Ogura, Kotaro; Shimono, Yuta; Hagiwara, Takuya; Sugimoto, Masakazu; Onuki, Akiko; Yokota, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032, a glutamic-acid producing actinobacterium, is subject to feedback inhibition by metabolic intermediates such as aspartic acid and 2-oxoglutaric acid, which implies the importance of PEPC in replenishing oxaloacetic acid into the TCA cycle. Here, we investigated the effects of feedback-insensitive PEPC on glutamic acid production. A single amino-acid substitution in PEPC, D299N, was found to relieve the feedback control by aspartic acid, but not by 2-oxoglutaric acid. A simple mutant, strain R1, having the D299N substitution in PEPC was constructed from ATCC 13032 using the double-crossover chromosome replacement technique. Strain R1 produced glutamic acid at a concentration of 31.0 g/L from 100 g/L glucose in a jar fermentor culture under biotin-limited conditions, which was significantly higher than that of the parent, 26.0 g/L (1.19-fold), indicative of the positive effect of desensitized PEPC on glutamic acid production. Another mutant, strain DR1, having both desensitized PEPC and PYK-gene deleted mutations, was constructed in a similar manner using strain D1 with a PYK-gene deleted mutation as the parent. This mutation had been shown to enhance glutamic acid production in our previous study. Although marginal, strain D1 produced higher glutamic acid, 28.8 g/L, than ATCC13032 (1.11-fold). In contrast, glutamic acid production by strain DR-1 was elevated up to 36.9 g/L, which was 1.42-fold higher than ATCC13032 and significantly higher than the other three strains. The results showed a synergistic effect of these two mutations on glutamic acid production in C. glutamicum. PMID:26168906

  1. Optimization of probiotic lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 production using date powder as carbon source

    OpenAIRE

    Shahravy A.; Tabandeh F.; Bambai B.; Zamanizadeh H.R.; Mizani M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to optimize culture conditions for economic production of a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334, in which palm date powder was applied for the first time as a low-cost main carbon source. The effect of eleven factors on bacterial growth was investigated using the Taguchi experimental design, and three factors including palm date powder, tryptone and agitation rate were found to be the most significant parameters. The optimum conditions including da...

  2. Study of nano-fiber cellulose production by Glucanacetobacter xylinum ATCC 10245.

    OpenAIRE

    Norouzian, D.; Farhangi, Ali; Tolooei, S.; Saffari, Z.; Mehrabi, M. R.; Chiani, M.; Ghassemi, S.; Farahnak, M.; Akbarzadeh, Azim

    2011-01-01

    International audience Bacterial Celluloses (BC) are gaining importance in research and commerce due to numerous factors affecting the bacterial cellulose characteristics and application in different industries. The aim of the present study was to produce bacterial cellulose in different media using different cultivation vessels. Bacterial cellulose was produced by static cultivation of Glucanacetobacter xylinum ATCC 10245 in different culture media such as Brain Heart Agar, Luria Bertani ...

  3. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis ATCC 27673 Is a Genomically Unique Strain within Its Conserved Subspecies

    OpenAIRE

    Loquasto, Joseph R.; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Dudley, Edward G.; Stahl, Buffy; Chen, Chun; Roberts, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Many strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are considered health-promoting probiotic microorganisms and are commonly formulated into fermented dairy foods. Analyses of previously sequenced genomes of B. animalis subsp. lactis have revealed little genetic diversity, suggesting that it is a monomorphic subspecies. However, during a multilocus sequence typing survey of Bifidobacterium, it was revealed that B. animalis subsp. lactis ATCC 27673 gave a profile distinct from that of the ...

  4. Genome sequence of the Bacteroides fragilis phage ATCC 51477-B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkins Shawn A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genome of a fecal pollution indicator phage, Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 51477-B1, was sequenced and consisted of 44,929 bases with a G+C content of 38.7%. Forty-six putative open reading frames were identified and genes were organized into functional clusters for host specificity, lysis, replication and regulation, and packaging and structural proteins.

  5. Advanced solid-state NMR techniques for characterization of membrane protein structure and dynamics: Application to Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Meaghan E.; Brown, Leonid S.; Ladizhansky, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Studies of the structure, dynamics, and function of membrane proteins (MPs) have long been considered one of the main applications of solid-state NMR (SSNMR). Advances in instrumentation, and the plethora of new SSNMR methodologies developed over the past decade have resulted in a number of high-resolution structures and structural models of both bitopic and polytopic α-helical MPs. The necessity to retain lipids in the sample, the high proportion of one type of secondary structure, differential dynamics, and the possibility of local disorder in the loop regions all create challenges for structure determination. In this Perspective article we describe our recent efforts directed at determining the structure and functional dynamics of Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin, a heptahelical transmembrane (7TM) protein. We review some of the established and emerging methods which can be utilized for SSNMR-based structure determination, with a particular focus on those used for ASR, a bacterial protein which shares its 7TM architecture with G-protein coupled receptors.

  6. Primary structural response in tryptophan residues of Anabaena sensory rhodopsin to photochromic reactions of the retinal chromophore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Seisuke; Mizuno, Misao; Kato, Yoshitaka; Kawanabe, Akira; Kandori, Hideki; Wei, Zhengrong; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Tahara, Tahei; Mizutani, Yasuhisa

    2013-06-01

    Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR) is a microbial rhodopsin found in eubacteria and functions as a photosensor. The photoreaction of ASR is photochromic between all-trans, 15-anti (ASRAT), and 13-cis, 15-syn (ASR13C) isomers. To understand primary protein dynamics in the photoreaction starting in ASRAT and ASR13C, picosecond time-resolved ultraviolet resonance Raman spectra were obtained. In the intermediate state appearing in the picosecond temporal region, spectral changes of Trp bands were observed. For both ASRAT and ASR13C, the intensities of the Trp bands were bleached within the instrumental response time and recovered with a time constant of 30 ps. This suggests that the rates of structural changes in the Trp residue in the vicinity of the chromophore do not depend on the direction of the isomerization of retinal. A comparison between spectra of the wild-type and Trp mutants indicates that the structures of Trp76 and Trp46 change upon the primary photoreaction of retinal.

  7. The FurA regulon in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120: in silico prediction and experimental validation of novel target genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Andrés; Angarica, Vladimir Espinosa; Sancho, Javier; Fillat, María F.

    2014-01-01

    In the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the ferric uptake regulator FurA functions as a global transcriptional regulator. Despite several analyses have focused on elucidating the FurA-regulatory network, the number of target genes described for this essential transcription factor is limited to a handful of examples. In this article, we combine an in silico genome-wide predictive approach with experimental determinations to better define the FurA regulon. Predicted FurA-binding sites were identified upstream of 215 genes belonging to diverse functional categories including iron homeostasis, photosynthesis and respiration, heterocyst differentiation, oxidative stress defence and light-dependent signal transduction mechanisms, among others. The probabilistic model proved to be effective at discerning FurA boxes from non-cognate sequences, while subsequent electrophoretic mobility shift assay experiments confirmed the in vitro specific binding of FurA to at least 20 selected predicted targets. Gene-expression analyses further supported the dual role of FurA as transcriptional modulator that can act both as repressor and as activator. In either role, the in vitro affinity of the protein to its target sequences is strongly dependent on metal co-regulator and reducing conditions, suggesting that FurA couples in vivo iron homeostasis and the response to oxidative stress to major physiological processes in cyanobacteria. PMID:24503250

  8. Integrated membrane systems incorporating coagulation, activated carbon and ultrafiltration for the removal of toxic cyanobacterial metabolites from Anabaena circinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, M B; Richard, Y; Ho, L; Chow, C W K; O'Neill, B K; Newcombe, G

    2011-01-01

    The use of integrated membrane systems (a train of treatment processes incorporating one or more membranes) is increasing globally as the technology is very effective for the production of high quality drinking water. In this investigation a laboratory scale integrated membrane system (IMS) featuring coagulation, powdered activated carbon (PAC) and ultrafiltration (UF) was investigated for the removal of an Australian strain of the cyanobacteria Anabaena circinalis and the cyanotoxin it produced. Three coagulants were compared, aluminium chlorohydrate (ACH), aluminium sulphate (alum) and an engineered aluminium coagulant referred to as high performance aluminium chlorohydrate (HPAC). PAC (Acticarb PS1000) was tested to determine adsorption of extracellular saxitoxin. Removal of A. circinalis cells was 100% by UF alone and the removal of cells prior to the membrane by coagulation reduced fouling attributed to algogenic organic material. Alum was the least efficient coagulant for removal of cells while ACH and HPAC were similar. Saxitoxin removal reached a maximum of 80% using ACH and PAC. The UF-IMS was challenged using a natural bloom of A. circinalis that occurred in the Myponga Reservoir in South Australia. PMID:21508543

  9. AhpC (alkyl hydroperoxide reductase) from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 protects Escherichia coli from multiple abiotic stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC) is known to detoxify peroxides and reactive sulfur species (RSS). However, the relationship between its expression and combating of abiotic stresses is still not clear. To investigate this relationship, the genes encoding the alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (ahpC) from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 were introduced into E. coli using pGEX-5X-2 vector and their possible functions against heat, salt, carbofuron, cadmium, copper and UV-B were analyzed. The transformed E. coli cells registered significantly increase in growth than the control cells under temperature (47 oC), NaCl (6% w/v), carbofuron (0.025 mg ml-1), CdCl2 (4 mM), CuCl2 (1 mM), and UV-B (10 min) exposure. Enhanced expression of ahpC gene as measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR under aforementioned stresses at different time points demonstrated its role in offering tolerance against multiple abiotic stresses.

  10. In silico analysis and experimental validation of lipoprotein and novel Tat signal peptides processing in Anabaena sp. PCC7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sonika; Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Signal peptide (SP) plays a pivotal role in protein translocation. Lipoprotein- and twin arginine translocase (Tat) dependent signal peptides were studied in All3087, a homolog of competence protein of Synechocystis PCC6803 and in two putative alkaline phosphatases (ALPs, Alr2234 and Alr4976), respectively. In silico analysis of All3087 is shown to possess the characteristics feature of competence proteins such as helix-hairpin-helix, N and C-terminal HKD endonuclease domain, calcium binding domain and N-terminal lipoprotein signal peptide. The SP recognition-cleavage site in All3087 was predicted (AIA-AC) using SignalP while further in-depth analysis using Pred-Lipo and WebLogo analysis for consensus sequence showed it as IAA-C. Activities of putative ALPs were confirmed by heterologous overexpression, activity assessment and zymogram analysis. ALP activity in Anabaena remains cell bound in log-phase, but during late log/stationary phase, an enhanced ALP activity was detected in extracellular milieu. The enhancement of ALP activity during stationary phase was not only due to inorganic phosphate limitation but also contributed by the presence of novel bipartite Tat-SP. The Tat signal transported the folded active ALPs to the membrane, followed by anchoring into the membrane and successive cleavage enabling transportation of the ALPs to the extracellular milieu, because of bipartite architecture and processing of transit Tat-SP. PMID:26626354

  11. Advanced solid-state NMR techniques for characterization of membrane protein structure and dynamics: application to Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Meaghan E; Brown, Leonid S; Ladizhansky, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Studies of the structure, dynamics, and function of membrane proteins (MPs) have long been considered one of the main applications of solid-state NMR (SSNMR). Advances in instrumentation, and the plethora of new SSNMR methodologies developed over the past decade have resulted in a number of high-resolution structures and structural models of both bitopic and polytopic α-helical MPs. The necessity to retain lipids in the sample, the high proportion of one type of secondary structure, differential dynamics, and the possibility of local disorder in the loop regions all create challenges for structure determination. In this Perspective article we describe our recent efforts directed at determining the structure and functional dynamics of Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin, a heptahelical transmembrane (7TM) protein. We review some of the established and emerging methods which can be utilized for SSNMR-based structure determination, with a particular focus on those used for ASR, a bacterial protein which shares its 7TM architecture with G-protein coupled receptors. PMID:25637099

  12. Effect of Iron Deficiency on Heterocyst Differentiation and Physiology of the Filamentous Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuWen-liang; LiuYong-ding; ZhangCheng-cai

    2003-01-01

    The effect of iron deficiency on heterocyst differentiation and some physiological properties of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 was investigated. Under moderate iron limitation conditions, achieved by addition of iron chelator 2,2′-Dipyridyl (<80 μmol/L) led to delayed heterocyst differentiation,no heterocyst differentiation was observed under severe iron limitation conditions,when the concentration of 2,2′-Dipyridyl in the medium was more than 100 μmol/L.It seemed that there are certain iron-regulated genes or operons whose function is to control heterocyst development. In addition, iron deficiency impaired the growth.Low-iron cells had a decrease in the quantities of pigment content (chlorophyll and phycocyanin content), the whole cell in vivo absorbance spectra confirmed the decrease, the protein electrophoretic profiles revealed that iron-deficient cells had less protein bands, with the increase of 2,2'-Dipyridyl , the protein bands was more and more less. And differently, iron deficiency also caused an increase of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species)and SOD activity, it suggests that iron deficiency led to oxidative stress, which uenerallv occured under hiuh-iron conditions.

  13. Effect of Iron Deficiency on Heterocyst Differentiation and Physiology of the Filamentous Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Cheng-cai

    2003-01-01

    The effect of iron deficiency on heterocyst differentiation and some physiological properties of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120was investigated. Under moderate iron limitation conditions, achieved by addition of iron chelator 2,2′-Dipyridyl (<80 μmol/L) led to delayed heterocyst differentiation,no heterocyst differentiation was observed under severe iron limitation conditions,when the concentration of 2,2′-Dipyridyl in the medium was more than 100 μmol/L.It seemed that there are certain iron-regulated genes or operons whose function is to control heterocyst development. In addition, iron deficiency impaired the growth.Low-iron cells had a decrease in the quantities of pigment content (chlorophyll and phycocyanin content), the whole cell in vivo absorbance spectra confirmed the de crease, the protein electrophoretic profiles revealed that iron-deficient cells had less protein bands, with the increase of 2,2′ Dipyridyl , the protein bands was more and more less. And differently, iron deficiency also caused an increase of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species)and SOD activity, it suggests that iron deficiency led to oxidative stress, which generally occured under high-iron conditions.

  14. Elucidating the molecular physiology of lantibiotic NAI-107 production in Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallo, Giuseppe; Renzone, Giovanni; Palazzotto, Emilia;

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous actinomycete Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024 produces the lantibiotic NAI-107, which is an antibiotic peptide effective against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. In actinomycetes, antibiotic production is often associated with a physiological differentiation program controlle...

  15. Genome-scale reconstruction of metabolic networks of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 and 12A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vinay-Lara

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus casei strains are widely used in industry and the utility of this organism in these industrial applications is strain dependent. Hence, tools capable of predicting strain specific phenotypes would have utility in the selection of strains for specific industrial processes. Genome-scale metabolic models can be utilized to better understand genotype-phenotype relationships and to compare different organisms. To assist in the selection and development of strains with enhanced industrial utility, genome-scale models for L. casei ATCC 334, a well characterized strain, and strain 12A, a corn silage isolate, were constructed. Draft models were generated from RAST genome annotations using the Model SEED database and refined by evaluating ATP generating cycles, mass-and-charge-balances of reactions, and growth phenotypes. After the validation process was finished, we compared the metabolic networks of these two strains to identify metabolic, genetic and ortholog differences that may lead to different phenotypic behaviors. We conclude that the metabolic capabilities of the two networks are highly similar. The L. casei ATCC 334 model accounts for 1,040 reactions, 959 metabolites and 548 genes, while the L. casei 12A model accounts for 1,076 reactions, 979 metabolites and 640 genes. The developed L. casei ATCC 334 and 12A metabolic models will enable better understanding of the physiology of these organisms and be valuable tools in the development and selection of strains with enhanced utility in a variety of industrial applications.

  16. Evaluating Chemical Mitigation of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 in Animal Feed Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Roger A; Huss, Anne R; Aldrich, Gregory C; Stark, Charles R; Jones, Cassandra K

    2016-04-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is a potential feed safety hazard in animal feed ingredients. Thermal mitigation of Salmonella spp. during rendering is effective but does not eliminate the potential for cross-contamination. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of chemicals to mitigate postrendering Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 contamination in rendered proteins over time. Treatments were arranged in a 6 × 4 factorial with six chemical treatments and four rendered protein meals. The chemical treatments included (i) control without chemical treatment, (ii) 0.3% commercial formaldehyde product, (iii) 2% essential oil blend, (iv) 2% medium chain fatty acid blend, (v) 3% organic acid blend, and (vi) 1% sodium bisulfate. The four rendered protein meals included (i) feather meal, (ii) blood meal, (iii) meat and bone meal, and (iv) poultry by-product meal. After matrices were chemically treated, they were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, stored at room temperature, and enumerated via plate counts on days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 42 postinoculation. The Salmonella concentration in ingredients treated with medium chain fatty acid and commercial formaldehyde were similar to one another (P = 0.23) but were 2 log lower than the control (P organic acids and essential oils also had lower Salmonella concentrations than the control (P poultry by-product meal (P acids or a commercial formaldehyde product were most effective at mitigating Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 in rendered protein meals. PMID:27052874

  17. Cloning, characterization, and production of three α-l-fucosidases from Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuquan; Zhang, Huaqin; Chen, Xiaodi; Lu, Lili; Xu, Li; Xiao, Min

    2016-04-01

    α-l-Fucosidases are key enzymes for the degradation of intestinal glycans by gut microbes. In this work, three putative α-l-fucosidases (Afc1, Afc2, and Afc3) genes from Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124 were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Afc1 had the α-l-fucosidase domain of glycoside hydrolase (GH) 29 family but showed no enzyme activity toward all the substrates examined. The putative acid/base residue of Afc1, Ser205, was replaced by a glutamic acid which is conserved in GH29-B α-l-fucosidases. However, the mutant Afc1-S205E still failed to show enzyme activity. Afc2 and Afc3 were determined to be 1,3-1,4-α-l-fucosidase of GH29-B subfamily and 1,2-α-l-fucosidase of GH95 family, respectively, and both of them could release fucose from porcine gastric mucin (PGM). When C. perfringens ATCC 13124 grew with the presence of PGM, the transcription of afc1 decreased slightly, while those of afc2 and afc3 increased to 2.2-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively, and the enzyme activities of Afc2 and Afc3 in the culture increased to 2.2-fold and 2.6-fold, respectively. These results suggest that Afc2 and Afc3 are involved in the degradation of intestinal fucosyl glycans by C. perfringens ATCC 13124. PMID:26663202

  18. Glutamine Assimilation and Feedback Regulation of L-acetyl-N-glutamate Kinase Activity in Chlorella variabilis NC64A Results in Changes in Arginine Pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaeva, Ekaterina; Forchhammer, Karl; Ermilova, Elena

    2015-11-01

    Glutamine is a metabolite of central importance in nitrogen metabolism of microorganisms and plants. The Chlorella PII signaling protein controls, in a glutamine-dependent manner, the key enzyme of the ornithine/arginine biosynthesis pathway, N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK) that leads to arginine formation. We provide evidence that glutamine promotes effective growth of C. variabilis strain NC64A. The present study shows that externally supplied glutamine directly influences the internal pool of arginine in NC64A. Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ATP-dependent conversion of glutamate and ammonium to glutamine. The results of this study demonstrate that glutamine acts as a negative effector of GS activity. These data emphasize the importance of glutamine-dependent coupling of metabolism and signaling as components of an efficient pathway allowing the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis and sustaining growth of Chlorella. PMID:26356535

  19. Variation of Oriental Oak (Quercus variabilis Leaf δ13C across Temperate and Subtropical China: Spatial Patterns and Sensitivity to Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoming Du

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of the carbon-13 isotope (leaf δ13C in leaves is negatively correlated with the mean annual precipitation (MAP atlarge geographical scales. In this paper, we explain the spatial pattern of leaf δ13C variation for deciduous oriental oak (Quercus variabilis Bl. across temperate and subtropical biomes and its sensitivity to climate factors such as MAP. There was a 6‰ variation in the leaf δ13C values of oak with a significant positive correlation with latitude and negative correlations with the mean annual temperature (MAT and MAP. There was no correlation between leaf δ13C and altitude or longitude. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that leaf δ13C decreased 0.3‰ per 100 mm increase in MAP. MAP alone could account for 68% of the observed variation in leaf δ13C. These results can be used to improve predictions for plant responses to climate change and particularly lower rainfall.

  20. Genome sequence and plasmid transformation of the model high-yield bacterial cellulose producer Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 53582

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Florea; Benjamin Reeve; James Abbott; Freemont, Paul S.; Tom Ellis

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose is a strong, highly pure form of cellulose that is used in a range of applications in industry, consumer goods and medicine. Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 53582 is one of the highest reported bacterial cellulose producing strains and has been used as a model organism in numerous studies of bacterial cellulose production and studies aiming to increased cellulose productivity. Here we present a high-quality draft genome sequence for G. hansenii ATCC 53582 and find that in ...

  1. Efecto del Cromo Hexavalente y Trivalente sobre el Crecimiento de Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 Effects of Hexavalent and Trivalent Chromium on the Growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 35218

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo R Azario

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de cromo (VI y (III sobre el crecimiento de Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 con el fin de determinar la toxicidad de estas especies químicas. El estudio fue realizado en dos condiciones experimentales: soluciones unimetal de cromo (III o VI y en soluciones multimetal conteniendo además plomo y cadmio. Se observa que el cromo hexavalente inhibe el crecimiento de Escherichia coli, cuando se encuentra en un rango de concentración de 25 a 100 ppm, similar al de efluentes industriales, y que dicho efecto es potenciado por la presencia de plomo, que per se no modifica la viabilidad bacteriana. Por otro lado, las concentraciones bajas de cromo (VI, 0.05 - 5 ppm no alteran el crecimiento pero producen una estimulación en presencia de plomo o cadmio. La forma trivalente de cromo no modifica el crecimiento bacteriano a concentraciones bajas (25 a 100 ppm pero causa una estimulación a concentraciones más altas (200 a 400 ppm.The effect of chromium (III and (VI on the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 was studied to determine the toxicity of these chemical species. The study was performed in two experimental conditions: single chromium solutions (III or VI and multimetal solutions containing chromium and either lead or cadmium. Hexavalent chromium, at concentrations from 25 to 100 ppm, similar to those found in industrial effluents, inhibits the growth of Escherichia coli. This inhibitory effect is increased by the presence of lead, which does not modify per se the bacterial viability. On the other hand, low concentrations of chromium (VI, 0.05-5 ppm do not alter bacterial growth but cause stimulation in the presence of either lead or cadmium. The trivalent form of chromium does not modify the bacterial growth at low concentrations (25 to 100 ppm but causes stimulation at high concentrations (200 to 400 ppm.

  2. Genes encoding the alpha, gamma, delta, and four F0 subunits of ATP synthase constitute an operon in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    OpenAIRE

    McCarn, D F; R A Whitaker; Alam, J; Vrba, J M; Curtis, S E

    1988-01-01

    A cluster of genes encoding subunits of ATP synthase of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 was cloned, and the nucleotide sequences of the genes were determined. This cluster, denoted atp1, consists of four F0 genes and three F1 genes encoding the subunits a (atpI), c (atpH), b' (atpG), b (atpF), delta (atpD), alpha (aptA), and gamma (atpC) in that order. Closely linked upstream of the ATP synthase subunit genes is an open reading frame denoted gene 1, which is equivalent to the uncI gene of Escher...

  3. Conformational dynamics of a seven transmembrane helical protein Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin probed by solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Daryl B; Wang, Shenlin; Ward, Meaghan E; Struppe, Jochem; Brown, Leonid S; Lewandowski, Józef R; Ladizhansky, Vladimir

    2014-02-19

    The ability to detect and characterize molecular motions represents one of the unique strengths of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In this study, we report solid-state NMR site-specific measurements of the dipolar order parameters and (15)N rotating frame spin-lattice (R1ρ) relaxation rates in a seven transmembrane helical protein Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin reconstituted in lipids. The magnitudes of the observed order parameters indicate that both the well-defined transmembrane regions and the less structured intramembrane loops undergo restricted submicrosecond time scale motions. In contrast, the R1ρ rates, which were measured under fast magic angle spinning conditions, vary by an order of magnitude between the TM and exposed regions and suggest the presence of intermediate time scale motions. Using a simple model, which assumes a single exponential autocorrelation function, we estimated the time scales of dominant stochastic motions to be on the order of low tens of nanoseconds for most residues within the TM helices and tens to hundreds of nanoseconds for the extracellular B-C and F-G loops. These relatively slow time scales could be attributed to collective anisotropic motions. We used the 3D Gaussian axial fluctuations model to estimate amplitudes, directions, and time scales of overall motions for helices and the extracellular B-C and F-G loops. Within this model, the TM helices A,B,C,D,E,F undergo rigid body motions on a time scale of tens of nanoseconds, while the time scale for the seventh helix G approaches 100 ns. Similar time scales of roughly 100-200 ns are estimated for the B-C and F-G loops. PMID:24467417

  4. The susceptibility of five African Anopheles species to Anabaena PCC 7120 expressing Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis mosquitocidal cry genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketseoglou Irene

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria, one of the leading causes of death in Africa, is transmitted by the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. Problems associated with the development of resistance to chemical insecticides and concerns about the non-target effects and persistence of chemical insecticides have prompted the development of environmentally friendly mosquito control agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of a genetically engineered cyanobacterium, Anabaena PCC 7120#11, against five African Anopheles species in laboratory bioassays. Findings There were significant differences in the susceptibility of the anopheline species to PCC 7120#11. The ranking of the larvicidal activity of PCC 7120#11 against species in the An. gambiae complex was: An. merus An. arabiensis An. gambiae An. quadriannulatus, where 50. The LC50 of PCC 7120#11 against the important malaria vectors An. gambiae and An. arabiensis was 12.3 × 105 cells/ml and 8.10 × 105 cells/ml, respectively. PCC 7120#11 was not effective against An. funestus, with less than 50% mortality obtained at concentrations as high as 3.20 × 107 cells/ml. Conclusions PCC 7120#11 exhibited good larvicidal activity against larvae of the An. gambiae complex, but relatively weak larvicidal activity against An. funestus. The study has highlighted the importance of evaluating a novel mosquitocidal agent against a range of malaria vectors so as to obtain a clear understanding of the agent’s spectrum of activity and potential as a vector control agent.

  5. Cyclic nucleotide binding and structural changes in the isolated GAF domain of Anabaena adenylyl cyclase, CyaB2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Hassan Biswas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available GAF domains are a large family of regulatory domains, and a subset are found associated with enzymes involved in cyclic nucleotide (cNMP metabolism such as adenylyl cyclases and phosphodiesterases. CyaB2, an adenylyl cyclase from Anabaena, contains two GAF domains in tandem at the N-terminus and an adenylyl cyclase domain at the C-terminus. Cyclic AMP, but not cGMP, binding to the GAF domains of CyaB2 increases the activity of the cyclase domain leading to enhanced synthesis of cAMP. Here we show that the isolated GAFb domain of CyaB2 can bind both cAMP and cGMP, and enhanced specificity for cAMP is observed only when both the GAFa and the GAFb domains are present in tandem (GAFab domain. In silico docking and mutational analysis identified distinct residues important for interaction with either cAMP or cGMP in the GAFb domain. Structural changes associated with ligand binding to the GAF domains could not be detected by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET experiments. However, amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDXMS experiments provided insights into the structural basis for cAMP-induced allosteric regulation of the GAF domains, and differences in the changes induced by cAMP and cGMP binding to the GAF domain. Thus, our findings could allow the development of molecules that modulate the allosteric regulation by GAF domains present in pharmacologically relevant proteins.

  6. AcEST: BP918217 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available p_hit_id Q3MFQ8 Definition sp|Q3MFQ8|ARGB_ANAVT Acetylglutamate kinase OS=Anabaena variabilis (strain ATCC 2...|Q1XDF8|ARGB_PORYE Acetylglutamate kinase OS=Porphyra yezoensi... 106 8e-23 sp|Q7...9 sp|A2C7M5|ARGB_PROM3 Acetylglutamate kinase OS=Prochlorococcus m... 96 1e-19 sp|Q6B8Z0|ARGB_GRATL Acetylglutamate kinase OS=Gra...sp|B0JHB1|ARGB_MICAN Acetylglutamate kinase OS=Microcystis aeruginosa (strain NIES-843) GN=argB PE=3 SV=1 Le... 55 GIRPVVVHGGGPEINTWLAKLNIEP 79 >sp|P73326|ARGB_SYNY3 Acetylglutamate kinase OS=Synechocystis sp. (strain P

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12447-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MAL4P3. 32 0.13 17 ( Y08926 ) P.falciparum mRNA for AARP1 protein, partial. 32 0.14 6 ( CR501856 ) mth2-144D18FM1 BAC end, cultivar...9F7, *** SEQUENCI... 40 0.74 7 ( DQ364229 ) Xenos vesparum mitochondrion, partial genome. 40 0.76 5 ( AP009180 ) Candidatus Carsone...3 0.035 AM267996_1( AM267996 |pid:none) Picea abies partial vip gene for p... 43 0.035 AM267970_1( AM267970 |pid:none...CP000117_2838( CP000117 |pid:none) Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413,... 40 0.22 (Q5JTN6) RecName: Full=WD repeat-containing protein...e)... 32 0.57 19 ( EF623855 ) Glycine max cultivar Williams 82 clone BAC 27P17,... 32 0.59 8

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16356-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... 35 5.9 DQ831224_2( DQ831224 |pid:none) Heliobacillus mobilis sporulation ... ....074 2 ( EF120464 ) Pocillopora damicornis clone PD3 microsatellite s... 40 0.11 2 ( AC115682 ) Dictyostelium discoideum chromo...sis tha... 44 3.7 2 ( BX020815 ) Single read from an extremity of a full-length cD... 36 3.7 2 ( EY374684 ) CAXA1521.fwd CAXA Helob... BX066955 ) Single read from an extremity of a full-length cD... 36 7.3 2 ( AL121814 ) Drosophila melanogast..., compl... 37 1.6 CP000117_1561( CP000117 |pid:none) Anabaena variabilis ATCC 294

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15907-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available atta Major Histocompatibility Complex B... 56 0.005 1 ( AC148668 ) Macaca mulatta Major Histocompatibility...1297( CP000879 |pid:none) Petrotoga mobilis SJ95, complet... 149 6e-53 CP000382_9...1e-54 CP000117_3001( CP000117 |pid:none) Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413,... 167 1e-54 BA000039_961( BA000039 |pid:none) Thermo...DQ157431_1( DQ157431 |pid:none) Canis lupus familiaris ATP-binding... 150 1e-60 BC042531_1( BC042531 |pid:none) Homo sapiens ATP-bi...e-55 CP000557_469( CP000557 |pid:none) Geobacillus thermodenitrificans ... 162 1e-55 AL022197_18( AL022197 |pid:none) Arabi

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15284-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4 CU928175_464( CU928175 |pid:none) Zygosaccharomyces rouxii strain ... 41 5e-04 (Q9HAD4) RecName: Full=WD r...2 |pid:none) Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-843... 57 1e-06 CP001037_1432( CP001037 |pid:none) Nostoc punctifor...m cDNA clone:ddc39h18, 5' ... 44 0.001 2 ( EC853652 ) HDE00001341 Hyperamoeba dachnaya Non-normalized (... 4... 55 7e-06 CP001099_247( CP001099 |pid:none) Chlorobaculum parvum NCIB 8327, ... 55 7e-06 CP001037_4354( CP001037 |pid:none) Nos... Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 p... 53 2e-05 AE010299_2454( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina acetivorans

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (ATCC 55826) in combination with Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (ATCC 55845) and defence against vaginal pathogens by increasing the

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (ATCC 55826) in combination with Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (ATCC 55845) and defence against vaginal pathogens by increasing the proportion of lactobacilli and/or decreasing the proportion of potentially pathogenic bacteria and/or yeasts. The scientific...... 55826) in combination with Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (ATCC 55845). The Panel considers that Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (ATCC 55826) and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (ATCC 55845) are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “vaginal health/flora”. The target population is assumed to be the....... On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (ATCC 55826) in combination with Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (ATCC 55845) and defence against vaginal pathogens by increasing...

  12. Modeling for Gellan Gum Production by Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461 in a Simplified Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xia; Xu, Ping; Yuan, Yong; Liu, Changlong; Zhang, Dezhong; Yang, Zhengting; Yang, Chunyu; Ma, Cuiqing

    2006-01-01

    Gellan gum production was carried out by Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461 in a simplified medium with a short incubation time, and a kinetic model for understanding, controlling, and optimizing the fermentation process was proposed. The results revealed that glucose was the best carbon source and that the optimal concentration was 30 g liter−1. As for the fermenting parameters, considerably large amounts of gellan gum were yielded by an 8-h-old culture and a 4% inoculum at 200 rpm on a ro...

  13. DNA Sequence and Comparison of Virulence Plasmids from Rhodococcus equi ATCC 33701 and 103

    OpenAIRE

    Takai, Shinji; Hines, Stephen A.; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Nicholson, Vivian M.; Alperin, Debra A.; Osaki, Makoto; Takamatsu, Daisuke; Nakamura, Mutsu; SUZUKI, KAYO; Ogino, Nobuko; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Dan, Hanhong; Prescott, John F.

    2000-01-01

    The virulence plasmids of the equine virulent strains Rhodococcus equi ATCC 33701 and 103 were sequenced, and their genetic structure was analyzed. p33701 was 80,610 bp in length, and p103 was 1 bp shorter; their sequences were virtually identical. The plasmids contained 64 open reading frames (ORFs), 22 of which were homologous with genes of known function and 3 of which were homologous with putative genes of unknown function in other species. Putative functions were assigned to five ORFs ba...

  14. Multicenter Investigation of Gepotidacin (GSK2140944) Agar Dilution Quality Control Determinations for Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronald N; Fedler, Kelley A; Scangarella-Oman, Nicole E; Ross, James E; Flamm, Robert K

    2016-07-01

    Gepotidacin, a novel triazaacenaphthylene antibacterial agent, is the first in a new class of type IIA topoisomerase inhibitors with activity against many biothreat and conventional pathogens, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae To assist ongoing clinical studies of gepotidacin to treat gonorrhea, a multilaboratory quality assurance investigation determined the reference organism (N. gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226) quality control MIC range to be 0.25 to 1 μg/ml (88.8% of gepotidacin MIC results at the 0.5 μg/ml mode). PMID:27161642

  15. SpoIIE Regulates Sporulation but Does Not Directly Affect Solventogenesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824

    OpenAIRE

    Scotcher, Miles C.; Bennett, George N.

    2005-01-01

    Using gene expression reporter vectors, we examined the activity of the spoIIE promoter in wild-type and spo0A-deleted strains of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. In wild-type cells, the spoIIE promoter is active in a transient manner during late solventogenesis, but in strain SKO1, where the sporulation initiator spo0A is disrupted, no spoIIE promoter activity is detectable at any stage of growth. Strains 824(pMSpo) and 824(pASspo) were created to overexpress spoIIE and to decrease spoII...

  16. Isolation and purification of complex II from proteus mirabilis strain ATCC 29245

    OpenAIRE

    Khadija Shabbiri; Waqar Ahmad; Quratulain Syed; Ahmad Adnan

    2010-01-01

    A respiratory complex was isolated from plasma membrane of pathogenic Proteus mirabilis strain ATCC 29245. It was identified as complex II consisting of succinate:quinone oxidoreductase (EC 1.3.5.1) containing single heme b. The complex II was purified by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The molecular weight of purified complex was 116.5 kDa and it was composed of three subunits with molecular weights of 19 kDa, 29 kDa and 68.5 kDa. The complex II contained 9.5 nmoles of cytoch...

  17. Reducing the Bitterness of Tuna (Euthynnus pelamis) Dark Meat with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoldi, Fabiano Cleber; Ernani S. Sant’Anna; Luiz H. Beirão

    2004-01-01

    During the process of canning tuna fish, considerable amounts of dark tuna meat are left over because of its bitterness, which are then used in the production of animal food. Fermentation with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393 was used as an alternative to reduce this bitter taste. Samples of meat were prepared, vacuum packed and then stored at –18 °C. The frozen dark meat was used immediately after defrosting and the experiment was carried out with 2 and 4 % of NaCl with the addition...

  18. Specificity of an extracellular proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 on bovine beta-casein.

    OpenAIRE

    Rattray, F P; Fox, P. F.; Healy, A.

    1997-01-01

    The specificity of the extracellular proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 on bovine beta-casein was studied. Hydrolysis was monitored over time by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and urea-PAGE. The major pH 4.6-soluble peptides were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by N-terminal amino acid sequencing and mass spectrometry. The major sites of hydrolysis were Ser-18-Ser-19, Glu-20-Glu-21, Gln-56-Ser-57, Gln-72-Asn-73, ...

  19. Purification and Characterization of an Extracellular Proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174

    OpenAIRE

    Rattray, F P; Bockelmann, W; Fox, P. F.

    1995-01-01

    An extracellular serine proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 was purified to homogeneity. pH and temperature optima were 8.5 and 50(deg)C, respectively. The results for the molecular mass of the proteinase were 56 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 126 kDa by gel filtration, indicating that the native enzyme exists as a dimer. Mg(sup2+) and Ca(sup2+) activated the proteinase, as did NaCl; however, Hg(sup2+), Fe(sup2+), and Zn(sup2+) caused strong i...

  20. Specificity of an extracellular proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 on bovine alpha s1-casein.

    OpenAIRE

    Rattray, F P; Fox, P. F.; Healy, A.

    1996-01-01

    The specificity of the extracellular proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 on bovine alpha s1-casein was studied. Hydrolysis was monitored over time by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and urea-PAGE. The major pH 4.6-soluble peptides were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by N-terminal amino acid sequencing and mass spectrometry. The time course of peptide formation indicated that His-8-Gln-9, Ser-161-Gly-162, and eithe...

  1. Assessment of CcpA-mediated catabolite control of gene expression in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buist Girbe

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The catabolite control protein CcpA is a transcriptional regulator conserved in many Gram-positives, controlling the efficiency of glucose metabolism. Here we studied the role of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 CcpA in regulation of metabolic pathways and expression of enterotoxin genes by comparative transcriptome analysis of the wild-type and a ccpA-deletion strain. Results Comparative analysis revealed the growth performance and glucose consumption rates to be lower in the B. cereus ATCC 14579 ccpA deletion strain than in the wild-type. In exponentially grown cells, the expression of glycolytic genes, including a non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that mediates conversion of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to 3-phospho-D-glycerate in one single step, was down-regulated and expression of gluconeogenic genes and genes encoding the citric acid cycle was up-regulated in the B. cereus ccpA deletion strain. Furthermore, putative CRE-sites, that act as binding sites for CcpA, were identified to be present for these genes. These results indicate CcpA to be involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism, thereby optimizing the efficiency of glucose catabolism. Other genes of which the expression was affected by ccpA deletion and for which putative CRE-sites could be identified, included genes with an annotated function in the catabolism of ribose, histidine and possibly fucose/arabinose and aspartate. Notably, expression of the operons encoding non-hemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe and hemolytic enterotoxin (Hbl was affected by ccpA deletion, and putative CRE-sites were identified, which suggests catabolite repression of the enterotoxin operons to be CcpA-dependent. Conclusion The catabolite control protein CcpA in B. cereus ATCC 14579 is involved in optimizing the catabolism of glucose with concomitant repression of gluconeogenesis and alternative metabolic pathways. Furthermore, the results point to metabolic control

  2. 栓皮栎栲胶品质与生态因子的相关分析%Correlation between Quality of Tannin Extract of Quercus variabilis and the Main Ecological Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹艺凝; 张文辉

    2014-01-01

    研究秦岭南坡、秦岭北坡和黄土高原3个分布区6个地点的栓皮栎橡、树皮、叶片、枝条、根和主干木材的单宁含量及其差异,并采用灰色关联度分析其与生态因子的关系,结果表明:3个分布区栓皮栎各器官单宁含量存在显著差异,各器官单宁含量由高到低为秦岭南坡>秦岭北坡>黄土高原,秦岭南坡栓皮栎是生产栲胶的最适林地。各地区均为橡单宁含量最高,其次是树皮、叶片、枝条,根和主干木材单宁含量最低。土壤速效磷、速效氮和速效钾是影响栓皮栎各器官单宁含量的主导土壤因子,土壤有机质是影响栓皮栎各器官单宁含量的重要土壤因子,且均与栓皮栎各器官单宁含量呈正相关。无霜期、年日照时数、年均降水量是影响栓皮栎各个器官单宁含量的主导气候因子,其中无霜期和年均降水量与栓皮栎各器官单宁含量呈正相关,年日照时数与其呈负相关。无霜期较长,降水量较高,日照时数较低,土壤速效磷、速效氮和速效钾和有机质含量较高的地区是栓皮栎栲胶生产的优先区域。%The tannin extract contents in different organs of Quercus variabilis are mainly influenced by ecological factors. In order to understand the principal ecological factors affecting Q. variabilis tannin extract,and to provide scientific cultivation measures of Q. variabilis and an reference for efficient utilization of the tannin extract resources of Q. variabilis,a total of 108 Q. variabilis trees and the major ecological factors were investigated and determined in 6 sample plots of three different distribution regions ( south slope of Qinling Mountains,north slope of Qinling Mountains,Loess Plateau) in September 2012. The tannin content of different organs of Q. variabilis in the 3 different distribution regions (6 sample sites) was analyzed by UV spectrophotometry and the grey correlation

  3. 栓皮栎栲胶品质与生态因子的相关分析%Correlation between Quality of Tannin Extract of Quercus variabilis and the Main Ecological Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹艺凝; 张文辉

    2014-01-01

    The tannin extract contents in different organs of Quercus variabilis are mainly influenced by ecological factors. In order to understand the principal ecological factors affecting Q. variabilis tannin extract,and to provide scientific cultivation measures of Q. variabilis and an reference for efficient utilization of the tannin extract resources of Q. variabilis,a total of 108 Q. variabilis trees and the major ecological factors were investigated and determined in 6 sample plots of three different distribution regions ( south slope of Qinling Mountains,north slope of Qinling Mountains,Loess Plateau) in September 2012. The tannin content of different organs of Q. variabilis in the 3 different distribution regions (6 sample sites) was analyzed by UV spectrophotometry and the grey correlation degrees with the ecological factors were calculated. The results showed that there was a significant difference in tannin content among the different regions. The tannin content in the 3 different distribution regions from high to low was the south slope of Qinling Mountains,the north slope of Qinling Mountains and the Loess Plateau. The tannin content of Q. variabilis valonea in the 6 regions was highest,followed by the bark,leaf,branch,and the tannin content of root and stem was lowest. The principal soil factors that influenced tannin content of different organs of Q. variabilis were available nitrogen,available phosphorus,and available potassium. Soil organic matter was one the main factors affecting the effective component content of tannin extract of Q. variabilis. There was a positive correlation between tannin content of organs and these main soil factors. The principal climatic factors that affected tannin content of different organs were frost-free periods,annual sunshine hours and annual mean rainfall. The frost-free periods and annual mean rainfall were positively correlated with tannin content in different organs of Q. variabilis,while the annual sunshine hours was

  4. Construction of shuttle, expression vector of human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNF-α) gene and its expression in a cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤龙; 施定基; 商之狄; 邵宁; 徐旭东; 钟泽璞; 张宏斌; 吴锦银; 王捷; 江悦华; 赵树进; 林晨; 张雪艳; 吴旻; 彭国宏; 张海霞; 曾呈奎

    1999-01-01

    The construction of the shuttle, expression vector of human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNF-a) gene and its expression in a cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 was reported. The 700-bp hTNF cDNA fragments have been recovered from plasmid pRL-rhTNF, then inserted downstream of the promoter PpsbA in the plasmid pRL439. The resultant intermediary plasmid pRL-TC has further been combined with the shuttle vector pDC-8 to get the shuttle, expression vector pDC-TNF. The expression of the rhTNF gene in Escherichia coli has been analyzed by SDS-PAGE and thin-layer scanning, and the results show that the expressed TNF protein with these two vectors is 16.9 percent (pRL-TC) and 15.0 percent (pDC-TNF) of the total proteins in the cells, respectively, while the expression level of TNF gene in plasmid pRL-rhTNF is only 11.8 percent. Combined with the participation of the conjugal and helper plasmids, pDC-TNF has been introduced into Anabaena sp PCC 7120 by triparental conjugative transfer, and the stable transgenic

  5. Photodegradation of 17α-ethynylestradiol in Aqueous Solution with Anabaena HB101%含鱼腥藻水溶液中17α-乙炔雌二醇光降解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘先利; 邓南圣; 徐栋; 邓琳

    2003-01-01

    研究了含鱼腥藻Anabaena HB101水溶液中17α-乙炔雌二醇在250W高压汞灯光照下的光降解,并进行了动力学分析,研究结果表明,水溶液中鱼腥藻Anabaena HB101能促进17α-乙炔雌二醇光降解,随着水溶液中鱼腥藻Anabaena HB101的浓度增大,其光降解效率也增大,表明了鱼腥藻对17α-乙炔雌二醇光降解有明显的催化作用.同时也研究了在紫外光下的光降解情况,结果表明其光降解效率比高压汞灯光照下的光降解效率高,总体上讲,藻具有催化光降解作用.探讨分析了鱼腥藻Anabaena HB101催化17α-乙炔雌二醇光降解的作用与机理.

  6. Phosphoketolase pathway dominates in Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 containing dual pathways for glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsköld, Emma; Lohmeier-Vogel, Elke; Cao, Rong; Roos, Stefan; Rådström, Peter; van Niel, Ed W J

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic flux analysis indicated that the heterofermentative Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 uses both the Embden-Meyerhof pathway (EMP) and phosphoketolase pathway (PKP) when glucose or sucrose is converted into the three-carbon intermediate stage of glycolysis. In all cases studied, the main flux is through the PKP, while the EMP is used as a shunt. In the exponential growth phase, 70%, 73%, and 84% of the flux goes through the PKP in cells metabolizing (i) glucose plus fructose, (ii) glucose alone, and (iii) sucrose alone, respectively. Analysis of the genome of L. reuteri ATCC 55730 confirmed the presence of the genes for both pathways. Further evidence for the simultaneous operation of two central carbon metabolic pathways was found through the detection of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, phosphofructokinase, and phosphoglucoisomerase activities and the presence of phosphorylated EMP and PKP intermediates using in vitro 31P NMR. The maximum specific growth rate and biomass yield obtained on glucose were twice as low as on sucrose. This was the result of low ATP levels being present in glucose-metabolizing cells, although the ATP production flux was as high as in sucrose-metabolizing cells due to a twofold increase of enzyme activities in both glycolytic pathways. Growth performance on glucose could be improved by adding fructose as an external electron acceptor, suggesting that the observed behavior is due to a redox imbalance causing energy starvation. PMID:17965151

  7. Genomic and genetic characterization of the bile stress response of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Kristi; Versalovic, James; Roos, Stefan; Britton, Robert A

    2008-03-01

    Probiotic bacteria encounter various stresses after ingestion by the host, including exposure to the low pH in the stomach and bile in the small intestine. The probiotic microorganism Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 has previously been shown to survive in the human small intestine. To address how L. reuteri can resist bile stress, we performed microarray experiments to determine gene expression changes that occur when the organism is exposed to physiological concentrations of bile. A wide variety of genes that displayed differential expression in the presence of bile indicated that the cells were dealing with several types of stress, including cell envelope stress, protein denaturation, and DNA damage. Mutations in three genes were found to decrease the strain's ability to survive bile exposure: lr1864, a Clp chaperone; lr0085, a gene of unknown function; and lr1516, a putative esterase. Mutations in two genes that form an operon, lr1584 (a multidrug resistance transporter in the major facilitator superfamily) and lr1582 (unknown function), were found to impair the strain's ability to restart growth in the presence of bile. This study provides insight into the possible mechanisms that L. reuteri ATCC 55730 may use to survive and grow in the presence of bile in the small intestine. PMID:18245259

  8. Cloning, expression and characterization of 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas denitrificans ATCC 13867.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengfang Zhou

    Full Text Available The gene encoding an NAD(+-dependent, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase (3HIBDH-IV from Pseudomonas denitrificans ATCC 13867 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL 21 (DE3 and characterized to understand its physiological relevance in the degradation of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity to other 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase isozymes (3HIBDHs of P. denitrificans ATCC 13867. A comparison of 3HIBDH-IV with its relevant enzymes along with molecular docking studies suggested that Lys171, Asn175 and Gly123 are important for its catalytic function on 3-hydroxyacids. The recombinant 3HIBDH-IV was purified to homogeneity utilizing a Ni-NTA-HP resin column in high yield. 3HIBDH-IV was very specific to (S-3-hydroxyisobutyrate, but also catalyzed the oxidation of 3-HP to malonate semialdehyde. The specific activity and half-saturation constant (K m for 3-HP at 30°C and pH 9.0 were determined to be 17 U/mg protein and 1.0 mM, respectively. Heavy metals, such as Ag(+ and Hg(2+, completely inhibited the 3HIBDH-IV activity, whereas dithiothreitol, 2-mercaptoethanol and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid increased its activity 1.5-1.8-fold. This paper reports the characteristics of 3HIBDH-IV as well as its probable role in 3-HP degradation.

  9. Ferulic acid transformation into the main vanilla aroma compounds by Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza; Agrasar, Ana María Torrado; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-02-01

    The wild strain Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 was explored in ferulic acid-based media to produce naturally the aroma components of the cured vanilla pod, namely vanillin,vanillic acid, and vanillyl alcohol. Other phenolic compounds(4-vinyl guaiacol, guaiacol, and protocatechuic acid) were also evaluated. The influence of medium composition,fermentation technology (batch or fed-batch), supplementation with vanillic acid, and inoculum concentration on ferulic acid biotransformation were evaluated. The results postulate the initial concentration of cell mass as the variable with the strongest impact on ferulic acid metabolization under the studied conditions. The highest amounts of vanillin and vanillic acid were achieved at intermediate values of cell mass.Vanillyl alcohol and protocatechuic acid were more closely linked to high cell mass concentrations. Conversely, 4-vinyl guaiacol reached its highest amount at the lowest amount of cell mass. Guaiacol was not detected in any case. Therefore,the initial cell concentration must be considered a critical parameter when using Amycolaptosis sp. ATCC 39116 for the production of vanillin and related compounds. PMID:26476645

  10. Global transcriptome analysis of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 in response to silver nitrate stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Babu Malli Mohan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were synthesized using Bacillus cereus strains. Earlier, we had synthesized monodispersive crystalline silver nanoparticles using B. cereus PGN1 and ATCC14579 strains. These strains have showed high level of resistance to silver nitrate (1 mM but their global transcriptomic response has not been studied earlier. In this study, we investigated the cellular and metabolic response of B. cereus ATCC14579 treated with 1 mM silver nitrate for 30 & 60 min. Global expression profiling using genomic DNA microarray indicated that 10% (n = 524 of the total genes (n = 5234 represented on the microarray were up-regulated in the cells treated with silver nitrate. The majority of genes encoding for chaperones (GroEL, nutrient transporters, DNA replication, membrane proteins, etc. were up-regulated. A substantial number of the genes encoding chemotaxis and flagellar proteins were observed to be down-regulated. Motility assay of the silver nitrate treated cells revealed reduction in their chemotactic activity compared to the control cells. In addition, 14 distinct transcripts overexpressed from the 'empty' intergenic regions were also identified and proposed as stress-responsive non-coding small RNAs.

  11. Transcriptomic analysis of (group I Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 cold shock response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Dahlsten

    Full Text Available Profound understanding of the mechanisms foodborne pathogenic bacteria utilize in adaptation to the environmental stress they encounter during food processing and storage is of paramount importance in design of control measures. Chill temperature is a central control measure applied in minimally processed foods; however, data on the mechanisms the foodborne pathogen Clostridium botulinum activates upon cold stress are scarce. Transcriptomic analysis on the C. botulinum ATCC 3502 strain upon temperature downshift from 37°C to 15°C was performed to identify the cold-responsive gene set of this organism. Significant up- or down-regulation of 16 and 11 genes, respectively, was observed 1 h after the cold shock. At 5 h after the temperature downshift, 199 and 210 genes were up- or down-regulated, respectively. Thus, the relatively small gene set affected initially indicated a targeted acute response to cold shock, whereas extensive metabolic remodeling appeared to take place after prolonged exposure to cold. Genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis, oxidative stress response, and iron uptake and storage were induced, in addition to mechanisms previously characterized as cold-tolerance related in bacteria. Furthermore, several uncharacterized DNA-binding transcriptional regulator-encoding genes were induced, suggesting involvement of novel regulatory mechanisms in the cold shock response of C. botulinum. The role of such regulators, CBO0477 and CBO0558A, in cold tolerance of C. botulinum ATCC 3502 was demonstrated by deteriorated growth of related mutants at 17°C.

  12. Reclassification of a parathione-degrading Flavobacterium sp. ATCC 27551 as Sphingobium fuliginis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Kazuyoshi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Yoon, Jaewoo; Yokota, Akira

    2010-06-01

    A parathione-degrading bacterium isolated from rice field in the Philippines, Flavobacterium sp. ATCC 27551 (Sethunathan and Yoshida, 1973, Can. J. Microbiol., 19, 873-875), was re-examined chemotaxonomically and phylogenetically. The strain contained 2-hydroxymyristic acid (2-OH 14 : 0), cis-vaccenic acid (18 : 1 omega7c), and palmitic acid (16 : 0) as major cellular fatty acids, two kinds of glycosphingolipids, and ubiquinone-10 as a sole quinone component. The G+C content of genomic DNA of the strain was 65.9 mol%. The phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the strain was included in the family Sphingomonadaceae, and most closely related to Sphingobium fuliginis (98.0% similarity) and Sphingobium herbicidovorans (97.3%). The strain showed similar physiological characteristics and a moderate value of DNA-DNA relatedness to S. fuliginis. These data suggested it reasonable to conclude that strain ATCC 27551 was identified as S. fuliginis. PMID:20647682

  13. GAMMA Radiation Effect On Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 19095) in Cheese MINAS FRESCALIRRADIATED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milk is an excellent medium of culture for development of Staphylococcus aureus. Gamma radiation can be an alternative method to guarantee the safety of the contaminated cheeses. The objective of this research was determine the effects of the gamma radiation on the resistance of S.aureus (ATCC 19095) in cheese Minas Frescalirradiated. The cheeses elaborated in the Laboratory of Food Irradiation of CENA/USP, were contaminated during their production with 10 6 CFU/mL of culture of S.aureus (ATCC 19095). The cheeses were irradiated with 0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 kGy, maintained under refrigeration condition (50C) and analyzed at 1, 7 and 14 days of storage. The evaluation microbiology was made through the S.aureus survival analysis using Baird Parker selective medium and confirmative test of coagulase, catalase and fermentation aerobics of the manitol. The capacity of enterotoxins production by irradiated S.aureus was detected by the method of Passive Reverse Agglutination Latex. Results showed that 3 kGy is enough to destroy the S.aureus and 2 kGy to inhibited its toxins production

  14. Gamma radiation effect on staphylococcus aureus (atcc 19095) in cheese minas frescal irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milk is an excellent medium of culture for development of staphylococcus aureus. Gamma Radiation can be an alternative method to guarantee the safety of the comtamined cheeses. The objective of this research was determine the effects of the gamma radiation on the resistance of S.aureus (atcc 19095) in cheese minas frescal irradiated. The cheeses elaborated in the Laboratory of food irradiation of cena/usp, were contaminated during their production with 10 6 cfu/ml of culture of s.aureus (atcc 19095). The cheeses were irradiated with 0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 kgy, maintained under refrigeration condition (± 50c) and analyzed at 1, 7 and 14 days of storage. The evaluation microbiology was made through the s.aureus survival analysis using baird parker selective medium and confirmative test of coagulase, catalase and fermentation aerobics of the manitol. The capacity of enterotoxins production by irradiated s.aureus was detected by the method of passive reverse agglutination latex. results showed that 3 kgy is enough to destroy the s.aureus and 2 kgy to inhibited its toxins production

  15. Next-generation sequencing-based transcriptome analysis of L-lysine-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21300 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Il; Nam, Jae-Young; Cho, Jae-Yong; Lee, Chang-Soo; Park, Young-Jin

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, 151 genes showed a significant change in their expression levels in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21300 compared with those of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032. Of these 151 genes, 56 genes (2%) were up-regulated and 95 genes (3%) were down-regulated. RNA sequencing analysis also revealed that 11 genes, involved in the L-lysine biosynthetic pathway of C. glutamicum, were up- or down-regulated compared with those of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032. Of the 151 genes, 10 genes were identified to have mutations including SNP (9 genes) and InDel (1 gene). This information will be useful for genome breeding of C. glutamicum to develop an industrial amino acid-producing strain with minimal mutation. PMID:24385368

  16. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 on fresh-cut tomato using nisin in combinations with organic salts

    OpenAIRE

    Oladunjoye, Adebola O.; Singh, Suren; Ijabadeniyi, Oluwatosin A.

    2016-01-01

    The inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 on fresh-cut tomato was investigated using nisin alone, and in combinations with organic salts. Nisin at a concentration of 5000 UI/mL was introduced alone or in combination with an organic salt (sodium citrate or sodium acetate each at 3 and 5 g/100 mL each) on fresh-cut tomato previously inoculated with 108 CFU/mL of L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644. Chlorine at 200 ppm was used as a control. The inoculated samples were incubated at different tem...

  17. Suitability of Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis ATCC 11454 as a protective culture for lightly preserved fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Stephen Wallace; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    This study is part of strategy to control the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in lightly preserved fish products by using food-grade lactic acid bacteria. When the nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis ATCC 11454 was cultured in the same vessel as L-monocytogenes Scott A in brain......-heart infusion broth (BHI) at 30-degrees C, the pathogen declined from 5x10(5) to fewer than 5 cfu ml(-1) within 31 h. The effect was not due to lactic acid inhibition. Growth and nisin production by L- lactis ATCC 11454 were investigated under the conditions of temperature and salt used for light preservation...

  18. Seed-hoarding of Edward's long-tailed rats Leopoldamys edwardsi in response to weevil infestation in cork oak Quercus variabilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinrui CHENG; Hongmao ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    Seed hoarders show different hoarding and eating responses towards insect-infested seeds that can affect the fitness of both the seeds and insects. It remains unclear how seed hoarders adopt different strategies in eating and hoarding infested seeds with and without larvae concealed inside. Here we investigated hoarding and eating responses of Edward's long-tailed rats Leopoldamys edwardsi (scatter hoarders) to weevil infestation of cork oak Quercus variabilis seeds within outdoor enclosures. We provided sound seeds, larvae-emerged seeds, (infested seeds where larvae have emerged) and larvae-concealed seeds (infested seeds with larvae concealed inside) to subjects independently (each seed type presented separately) and in pai-wise combinations (sound and larvae-emerged seeds; sound and larvae-concealed seeds). We found that L. Edwardsi removed, scatter hoarded and ate fewer larvae-emerged seeds than sound seeds. No difference was found between sound seeds and larvae-concealed seeds. These results suggest that sound and larvae-concealed seeds are more favored by L. Edwardsi than larvae-emerged seeds. We posit that not only plants but also insects may benefit from the behavioral responses of hoarders to seed infestation under natural conditions.

  19. Modelling spatial concordance between Rocky Mountain spotted fever disease incidence and habitat probability of its vector Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel F. Atkinson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of Dermacentor variabilis, the most commonly identified vector of the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii which causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF in humans, and the spatial distribution of RMSF, have not been previously studied in the south central United States of America, particularly in Texas. From an epidemiological perspective, one would tend to hypothesise that there would be a high degree of spatial concordance between the habitat suitability for the tick and the incidence of the disease. Both maximum-entropy modelling of the tick’s habitat suitability and spatially adaptive filters modelling of the human incidence of RMSF disease provide reliable portrayals of the spatial distributions of these phenomenons. Even though rates of human cases of RMSF in Texas and rates of Dermacentor ticks infected with Rickettsia bacteria are both relatively low in Texas, the best data currently available allows a preliminary indication that the assumption of high levels of spatial concordance would not be correct in Texas (Kappa coefficient of agreement = 0.17. It will take substantially more data to provide conclusive findings, and to understand the results reported here, but this study provides an approach to begin understanding the discrepancy.

  20. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Aneurinibacillus migulanus ATCC 9999T (DSM 2895), a Gramicidin S-Producing Bacterium Isolated from Garden Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-Ping; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guo-Hong; Ge, Ci-Bin; Xiao, Rong-Feng; Zheng, Xue-Fang; Shi, Huai

    2015-01-01

    Aneurinibacillus migulanus ATCC 9999(T) (DSM 2895) is a Gram-positive, round-spore-forming, and gramicidin S-producing bacterium. Here, we report the 6.35-Mb high-quality draft genome sequence of A. migulanus ATCC 9999(T), which will provide useful information for the genomic taxonomy and phylogenomics of Bacillus-like bacteria. PMID:26494674

  1. Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 and L22 display probiotic potential in vitro and protect against Salmonella-induced pullorum disease in a chick model of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dexian; Li, Rui; Li, Jichang

    2012-08-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 (L. reuteri ATCC 55730) and L. reuteri L22 were studied for their probiotic potential. These two strains were able to produce an antimicrobial substance, termed reuterin, the maximum production of reuterin by these two strains was detected in the late logarithmic growth phase (16 h in MRS and 20 h in LB broths). These two strains could significantly reduce the growth of Salmonella pullorum ATCC 9120 in MRS broth, L. reuteri ATCC 55730 with a reduction of 48.2±4.15% (in 5 log) and 89.7±2.59% (in 4 log) respectively, at the same time, L. reuteri L22 was 69.4±3.48% (in 5 log) and 80.4±3.22% respectively. L. reuteri ATCC 55730 was active against the majority of the pathogenic species, including S. pullorum ATCC 9120 and Escherichia coli O(78), while L. reuteri L22 was not as effective as L. reuteri ATCC 55730. The two potential strains were found to survive variably at pH 2.5 and were unaffected by bile salts, while neither of the strains was haemolytic. Moreover, L. reuteri ATCC 55730 exhibited variable susceptibility towards commonly used antibiotics; but L. reuteri L22 showed resistant to most antibiotics in this study. L. reuteri ATCC 55730 consequently was found to significantly increase survival rate in a Salmonella-induced pullorum disease model in chick. To conclude, strain L. reuteri ATCC 55730 possesses desirable probiotic properties, such as antimicrobial activity and immunomodulation in vitro, which were confirmed in vivo by the use of animal models. PMID:21764090

  2. Crude glycerol from biodiesel industry as substrate for biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylane de Sousa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol, a co-product of the biodiesel industry, may be a suitable raw material for the production of high added-value compounds by the microorganisms. This study aimed to use the glycerol obtained from the biodiesel production process as the main carbon source for biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. Results indicated that the strain lowered the surface tension of the cell-free fermented broth to 31.5 ± 1.6 mN/m, indicating the production of biosurfactant. The critical micelle concentration (CMC = 33.6 mN/m obtained was similar to the previously reported for biossurfactants isolated from other Bacillus. The produced biosurfactant was able to emulsify n-hexadecane and soybean oil.

  3. Desulfurization and denitrogenation of heavy gas oil by Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, D; Todescato, D; Moritz, D E; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Oliveira, D; Ulson de Souza, A A; Guelli Souza, S M A

    2015-08-01

    Some of the noxious atmospheric pollutants such as nitrogen and sulfur dioxides come from the fossil fuel combustion. Biodesulfurization and biodenitrogenation are processes which remove those pollutants through the action of microorganisms. The ability of sulfur and nitrogen removal by the strain Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277 was tested in a biphasic system containing different heavy gas oil concentrations in a batch reactor. Heavy gas oil is an important fraction of petroleum, because after passing through, the vacuum distillation is incorporated into diesel oil. This strain was able to remove about 40% of the nitrogen and sulfur present in the gas heavy oil. Additionally, no growth inhibition occurred even when in the presence of pure heavy gas oil. Results present in this work are considered relevant for the development of biocatalytic processes for nitrogen and sulfur removal toward building feasible industrial applications. PMID:25759162

  4. Sensibility of salmonella typhimurium (atcc 0626) to gamma radiation in minced breast chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of raw minced breast chicken were inoculated with 10 7 cfu/ml of salmonella typhimurium (atcc 0626) and submitted to gamma radiation.The cobalt-60 source was a gamma beam 650, with a dose rate of 929 Gy/h.Samples were irradiated at room temperature (25-27 0c) with doses of 2, 4, 6 and 8 KGy. After irradiation the samples, including the control, were kept under refrigeration condition (5 0c) and at day 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of storage, were analyzed for s. Typhimurium presence. The 2 KGy dose inhibited the bacteria growth at the 21 st day; the dose of 4 KGy was effective at the 7 t h day. The doses of 6 KGy and 8 KGy destroyed the bacteria just after the irradiation process

  5. Sensibility Of Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 0626) to gamma radiation in minced breast Chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of raw minced breast chicken were inoculated with 10 7 CFU/mL of Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 0626) and submitted to gamma radiation. The Cobalt-60 source was a Gamma beam 650, with a dose rate of 929 Gy/h. Samples were irradiated at room temperature (25-270C) with doses of 2, 4, 6 and 8 kGy. After irradiation the samples, including the control, were kept under refrigeration condition (5 0C) and at day 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of storage, were analyzed for S. typhimurium presence. The 2 kGy dose inhibited the bacteria growth at the 21 st day; the dose of 4 kGy was effective at the 7 t h day. The doses of 6 kGy and 8 kGy destroyed the bacteria just after the irradiation process

  6. Quantitative analysis of population heterogeneity of the adaptive salt stress response and growth capacity of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den H.M.W.; Ingham, C.J.; Hylckama Vlieg, van J.E.T.; Beerthuyzen, M.M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Abee, T.

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial populations can display heterogeneity with respect to both the adaptive stress response and growth capacity of individual cells. The growth dynamics of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 during mild and severe salt stress exposure were investigated for the population as a whole in liquid culture.

  7. Construction of expression vectors for metabolic engineering of the vanillin-producing actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleige, Christian; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 is able to synthesize the important flavoring agent vanillin from cheap natural substrates. The bacterium is therefore of great interest for the industry and used for the fermentative production of vanillin. In order to improve the production of natural vanillin with Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116, the strain has been genetically engineered to optimize the metabolic flux towards the desired product. Extensive metabolic engineering was hitherto hampered, due to the lack of genetic tools like functional promoters and expression vectors. In this study, we report the establishment of a plasmid-based gene expression system for Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 that allows a further manipulation of the genotype. Four new Escherichia coli-Amycolatopsis shuttle vectors harboring different promoter elements were constructed, and the functionality of these regulatory elements was proven by the expression of the reporter gene gusA, encoding a β-glucuronidase. Glucuronidase activity was detected in all plasmid-harboring strains, and remarkable differences in the expression strength of the reporter gene depending on the used promoter were observed. The new expression vectors will promote the further genetic engineering of Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 to get insight into the metabolic network and to improve the strain for a more efficient industrial use. PMID:24743982

  8. Production of the glycopeptide antibiotic A40926 by Nonomuraea sp ATCC 39727: influence of medium composition in batch fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Nina; Bruheim, Per; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 is a novel actinomycete species and the producer of A40926, a glycopeptide antibiotic structurally similar to teichoplanin. In the present study, a defined minimal medium was designed for Nonomuraea fermentation. The influence of initial phosphate, glucose and ammonium...

  9. Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 14067, Which Provides Insight into Amino Acid Biosynthesis in Coryneform Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Yangyong; Liao, Juanjun; Wu, Zhanhong; Han, Shuangyan; Lin, Ying; Zheng, Suiping

    2012-01-01

    We report the genome sequence of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 14067 (once named Brevibacterium flavum), which is useful for taxonomy research and further molecular breeding in amino acid production. Preliminary comparison with those of the reported coryneform strains revealed some notable differences that might be related to the difficulties in molecular manipulation.

  10. Fe(III) stimulates 3-methylindole and 4-methylphenol production in swine lagoon enrichments and Clostridium scatologenes ATCC 25775

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To determine the effects of anaerobic electron acceptors on 3-methylindole (3-MI) and 4-methylphenol (4-MP) production in swine waste lagoon enrichments and Clostridium scatologenes ATCC 25775. Methods and Results: Swine waste lagoon sediment was incubated anaerobically in tryptone-yeast ext...

  11. Direct-Imaging-Based Quantification of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 Population Heterogeneity at a Low Incubation Temperature▿

    OpenAIRE

    Besten, den, H.; Garcia, D.; Moezelaar, R.; Zwietering, M.H.; Abee, T.

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 was cultured in microcolonies on Anopore strips near its minimum growth temperature to directly image and quantify its population heterogeneity at an abusive refrigeration temperature. Eleven percent of the microcolonies failed to grow during low-temperature incubation, and this cold-induced population heterogeneity could be partly attributed to the loss of membrane integrity of individual cells.

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Gluconacetobacter hansenii Strain NQ5 (ATCC 53582), an Efficient Producer of Bacterial Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Sarah; Mehta, Kalpa; Brown, R Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the release of the complete nucleotide sequence of Gluconacetobacter hansenii strain NQ5 (ATCC 53582). This strain was isolated by R. Malcolm Brown, Jr. in a sugar mill in North Queensland, Australia, and is an efficient producer of bacterial cellulose. The elucidation of the genome will contribute to the study of the molecular mechanisms necessary for cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:27516505

  13. Genome sequence alterations detected upon passage of Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344 in culture and in mammalian hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 12,000 simple sequence repeats (SSRs have been identified in the genome of Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344. As a demonstrated mechanism of phase variation in other pathogenic bacteria, these may function as mutable loci leading to altered protein expression or structure variation. To determine if such alterations are occurring in vivo, the genomes of various single-colony passaged B. mallei ATCC 23344 isolates, one from each source, were sequenced from culture, a mouse, a horse, and two isolates from a single human patient, and the sequence compared to the published B. mallei ATCC 23344 genome sequence. Results Forty-nine insertions and deletions (indels were detected at SSRs in the five passaged strains, a majority of which (67.3% were located within noncoding areas, suggesting that such regions are more tolerant of sequence alterations. Expression profiling of the two human passaged isolates compared to the strain before passage revealed alterations in the mRNA levels of multiple genes when grown in culture. Conclusion These data support the notion that genome variability upon passage is a feature of B. mallei ATCC23344, and that within a host B. mallei generates a diverse population of clones that accumulate genome sequence variation at SSR and other loci.

  14. Characterization of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase from Staphylococcus aureus ATCC12600 and its involvement in biofilm formation

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    S. Yeswanth

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Staphylococcus aureus purine metabolism plays a crucial role in the formation of biofilm which is a key pathogenic factor. The present study is aimed in the characterization of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH from Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600. Methods: IMPDH gene was amplified using primers designed from IMPDH gene sequence of S. aureus reported in the database. Then polymerase chain reaction (PCR product was cloned in the Sma I site of M13mp18 and expressed in Escherichia coli JM109. The recombinant IMPDH (rIMPDH was overexpressed with 1 mM isopropyl beta-D-1- thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG; Michaelis constant (Km, maximum enzyme velocity (Vmax and catalytic constant (Kcat of expressed IMPDH were determined. Results: The enzyme kinetics of IMPDH grown under aerobic conditions showed a Km of 43.71±1.56 µM, Vmax of 0.247±0.84/µM/mg/min and Kcat of 2.74±0.015/min while in anaerobic conditions the kinetics showed Km of 42.81±3.154/ µM, Vmax of 0.378±0.036 µM/mg/min and Kcat of 4.78±0.021 /min, indicating elevated levels of IMPDH activity under anaerobic conditions. Three-folds increased activity in the presence of 1 mM adenosine triphosphate (ATP correlated with biofilm formation. The kinetics of pure rIMPDH were close to the native IMPDH of S. aureus ATCC12600 and the enzyme showed single band in sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a molecular weight of 53 KDa. Conclusions: Elevated activity of IMPDH was observed in S. aureus grown under anaerobic conditions and this was correlated with the biofilm formation indicating the linkage between purine metabolism and pathogenesis.

  15. Sugar supported H/sub 2/ production and C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reduction by the cyanobiont Anabaena azollae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozen, A.; Tel-Or, E.

    1986-01-01

    Sugar supported activities of H/sub 2/ production and C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reduction were characterized in axenic cell cultures of the cyanobiont Anabaena azollae isolated from the water fern Azolla filiculoides. Fructose was found to be the favoured substrate, enhancing activities in both the light and the dark even at relatively low concentrations of 0.5-1.0 mM. Higher concentrations of sucrose, (10-20mM) also supported H/sub 2/ production and C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reduction, while glucose was less effective. Levels of H/sub 2/ production were always lower than those of C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reduction. 13 references.

  16. Physiological Effects of Lanthanum on Cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae%稀土元素镧对满江红鱼腥藻的生理影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋凌云; 胡文月; 赵继贞; 邵宏翔; 张昀

    2000-01-01

    对稀土元素镧(La)对满江红鱼腥藻(Anabaena azollae)的生理影响和满江红鱼腥藻对镧的富集作用进行了研究.结果显示低浓度镧对满江红鱼腥藻生长表现出促进作用,高浓度则表现出抑制作用.镧对满江红鱼腥藻的叶绿素a的合成、光合放氧活性也有影响,同样表现为低浓度促进,高浓度抑制.满江红鱼腥藻对镧的富集作用可能与其光合作用电子传递和能量合成有关.

  17. Copper—Induced Changes in the Urea Uptake and Urease Activity in the Cyanobacteria Anabaena doliolum and Anacystis Nidulans:Interaction With Sulphur Containing Amino Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.SINGH; B.B.SINGH; 等

    1995-01-01

    Copper-induced changes in the urea uptake and urease activity have been investigated in the cyanobacteria Anabaena doliolum and Anacystis nidulans.Copper,at and above 5μmol/L concentration,inhibited urea uptake and urease activity systems in both the cyanobacteria in a concentration dependent manner,However,the urea uptake and urease activity systems in A.nidulans apeared slightly more tolerant to copper than that of A.doliolum.The inhibitory effect of copeer on urea uptake and urease activity was mitigated by sulphur containing amino acids(cystine and cysteine),however,methionine could not do so,indicating the involvement of sulfhydryl(-SH) groups in the assimilation of urea in cyanobacteria.

  18. Inactivation of uptake hydrogenase leads to enhanced and sustained hydrogen production with high nitrogenase activity under high light exposure in the cyanobacterium Anabaena siamensis TISTR 8012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khetkorn Wanthanee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biohydrogen from cyanobacteria has attracted public interest due to its potential as a renewable energy carrier produced from solar energy and water. Anabaena siamensis TISTR 8012, a novel strain isolated from rice paddy field in Thailand, has been identified as a promising cyanobacterial strain for use as a high-yield hydrogen producer attributed to the activities of two enzymes, nitrogenase and bidirectional hydrogenase. One main obstacle for high hydrogen production by A. siamensis is a light-driven hydrogen consumption catalyzed by the uptake hydrogenase. To overcome this and in order to enhance the potential for nitrogenase based hydrogen production, we engineered a hydrogen uptake deficient strain by interrupting hupS encoding the small subunit of the uptake hydrogenase. Results An engineered strain lacking a functional uptake hydrogenase (∆hupS produced about 4-folds more hydrogen than the wild type strain. Moreover, the ∆hupS strain showed long term, sustained hydrogen production under light exposure with 2–3 folds higher nitrogenase activity compared to the wild type. In addition, HupS inactivation had no major effects on cell growth and heterocyst differentiation. Gene expression analysis using RT-PCR indicates that electrons and ATP molecules required for hydrogen production in the ∆hupS strain may be obtained from the electron transport chain associated with the photosynthetic oxidation of water in the vegetative cells. The ∆hupS strain was found to compete well with the wild type up to 50 h in a mixed culture, thereafter the wild type started to grow on the relative expense of the ∆hupS strain. Conclusions Inactivation of hupS is an effective strategy for improving biohydrogen production, in rates and specifically in total yield, in nitrogen-fixing cultures of the cyanobacterium Anabaena siamensis TISTR 8012.

  19. Meta-analysis: Lactobacillus reuteri strain DSM 17938 (and the original strain ATCC 55730) for treating acute gastroenteritis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajewska, H; Urbańska, M; Chmielewska, A; Weizman, Z; Shamir, R

    2014-09-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 has been shown to provide a moderate clinical effect in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children. However, as the L. reuteri ATCC 55730 strain was found to carry potentially transferable resistance traits for tetracycline and lincomycin, it was replaced by a new strain, L. reuteri DSM 17938, without unwanted plasmid-borne antibiotic resistance. Bioequivalence of the two strains has been suggested. We aimed to systematically evaluate data on the effectiveness of L. reuteri DSM 17938 and the original strain, L. reuteri ATCC 55730, in the treatment of AGE in children. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases, reference lists, and abstract books of major scientific meetings were searched in August 2013, with no language restrictions, for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Two RCTs (n=196) that evaluated L. reuteri DSM 17938 and three RCTs (n=156) that evaluated L. reuteri ATCC 55730, which involved hospitalised children aged 3 to 60 months, met the inclusion criteria. Compared with placebo or no treatment, DSM 17938 significantly reduced the duration of diarrhoea (mean difference -32 h, 95% confidence interval (CI): -41 to -24) and increased the chance of cure on day 3 (relative risk: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.2 to 10.8, random effects model). Similar results were obtained with the original strain, L. reuteri ATCC 55730. In conclusion, in hospitalised children, use of both strains of L. reuteri reduced the duration of diarrhoea, and more children were cured within 3 days. Data from outpatients and countryspecific cost-effectiveness analyses are needed. Given the limited data and the methodological limitations of the included trials, the evidence should be viewed with caution. PMID:24463209

  20. In situ hydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from oleaginous fungal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Elhagag Ahmed; Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Bagy, Magdy Mohamed Khalil; Morsy, Fatthy Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    An in situ batch fermentation technique was employed for biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production from oleaginous fungal biomass using the anaerobic fermentative bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Oleaginous fungal Cunninghamella echinulata biomass which has ability to accumulate up to 71% cellular lipid was used as the substrate carbon source. The maximum cumulative hydrogen by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from crude C. echinulata biomass was 260 ml H2 l(-1), hydrogen production efficiency was 0.32 mol H2 mole(-1) glucose and the hydrogen production rate was 5.2 ml H2 h(-1). Subsequently, the produced acids (acetic and butyric acids) during acidogenesis phase are re-utilized by ABE-producing clostridia and converted into acetone, butanol, and ethanol. The total ABE produced by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 during batch fermentation was 3.6 g l(-1) from crude fungal biomass including acetone (1.05 g l(-1)), butanol (2.19 g l(-1)) and ethanol (0.36 g l(-1)). C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 has ability to produce lipolytic enzymes with a specific activity 5.59 U/mg protein to hydrolyze ester containing substrates. The lipolytic potential of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was used as a biocatalyst for a lipase transesterification process using the produced ethanol from ABE fermentation for microdiesel production. The fatty acid ethyl esters (microdiesel) generated from the lipase transesterification of crude C. echinulata dry mass was analyzed by GC/MS as 15.4% of total FAEEs. The gross energy content of biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and biodiesel generated through C. acetobutylicum fermentation from crude C. echinulata dry mass was 3113.14 kJ mol(-1). These results suggest a possibility of integrating biohydrogen, acetone, butanol and ethanol production technology by C. acetobutylicum with microdiesel production from crude C. echinulata dry mass and therefore improve the feasibility and commercialization of bioenergy production. PMID

  1. Sulfurifustis variabilis gen. nov., sp. nov., a sulfur oxidizer isolated from a lake, and proposal of Acidiferrobacteraceae fam. nov. and Acidiferrobacterales ord. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hisaya; Shinohara, Arisa; Fukui, Manabu

    2015-10-01

    A novel autotrophic bacterium, strain skN76T, was isolated from sediment of a lake in Japan. As sole electron donor to support chemolithoautotrophic growth, the strain oxidized thiosulfate, tetrathionate and elemental sulfur. For growth, the optimum temperature was 42–45 °C and the optimum pH was 6.8–8.2. The cells were Gram-stain-negative, catalase-positive and oxidase-positive. The strain exhibited changes in morphology depending on growth temperature. Cells grown at the optimum temperature were rod-shaped (0.9–3.0 μm long and 0.3–0.5 μm wide), whereas a filamentous form was observed when the strain was cultured at the lowest permissive growth temperatures. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 69 mol%. The major components in the fatty acid profile were C16 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and summed feature 9 (iso-C17 : 1ω9c and/or 10-methyl C16 : 0). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the closest cultivated relative of strain skN76T was Acidiferrobacter thiooxydans m-1T, with sequence similarity of 93 %. On the basis of its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, strain skN76T ( = DSM 100313T =  NBRC 110942T) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species of a novel genus, Sulfurifustis variabilis gen. nov., sp. nov. Novel taxa, Acidiferrobacteraceae fam. nov. and Acidiferrobacterales ord. nov., are also proposed to accommodate the genera Acidiferrobacter and Sulfurifustis gen. nov. PMID:26220671

  2. Flavodoxin from Anabaena 7120: uniform nitrogen-15 enrichment and hydrogen-1, nitrogen-15, and phosphorus-31 NMR investigation of the flavin mononucleotide binding site in the reduced and oxidized states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interactions between flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and apoprotein have been investigated in the reduced and oxidized states of the flavodoxin isolated from Anabaena 7120 (M/sub r/ ∼ 21,000). 1H, 15N, and 31P NMR have been used to characterize the FMN-protein interactions in both redox states. These are compared with those seen in other flavodoxins. Uniformly enriched [15N] flavodoxin was isolated from Anabaena 7120 grown on K15NO3 as the sole nitrogen source. 15N insensitive nucleus enhanced by polarization transfer (INEPT) and nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) studies of this sample provided information regarding protein structure and dynamics. A 1H-detected 15N experiment allowed the correlation of nitrogen resonances to those of their attached protons. Over 90% of the expected N-H cross peaks could be resolved in this experiment

  3. Mutations in Genes patA and patL of Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120 Result in Similar Phenotypes, and the Proteins Encoded by Those Genes May Interact ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jinjie; Wolk, C. Peter

    2011-01-01

    PatA resembles a response regulator protein with a defective DNA-binding domain, and PatL (All3305) is a pentapeptide repeat protein. A yeast two-hybrid library identified PatL as a protein with which PatA may interact. Heterocysts of patA and patL Anabaena sp. form nearly exclusively terminally in long filaments, further linking the genes.

  4. Structural analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 glycoside hydrolase from CAZy family GH105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germane, Katherine L., E-mail: katherine.germane.civ@mail.mil [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 4692 Millennium Drive, Suite 101, Belcamp, MD 21017 (United States); Servinsky, Matthew D. [US Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Gerlach, Elliot S. [Federal Staffing Resources, 2200 Somerville Road, Annapolis, MD 21401 (United States); Sund, Christian J. [US Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Hurley, Margaret M., E-mail: katherine.germane.civ@mail.mil [US Army Research Laboratory, 4600 Deer Creek Loop, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 4692 Millennium Drive, Suite 101, Belcamp, MD 21017 (United States)

    2015-07-29

    The crystal structure of the protein product of the C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 is structurally similar to YteR, an unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase from B. subtilis strain 168. Substrate modeling and electrostatic studies of the active site of the structure of CA-C0359 suggests that the protein can now be considered to be part of CAZy glycoside hydrolase family 105. Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 encodes a putative unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase (URH) with distant amino-acid sequence homology to YteR of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. YteR, like other URHs, has core structural homology to unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolases, but hydrolyzes the unsaturated disaccharide derivative of rhamnogalacturonan I. The crystal structure of the recombinant CA-C0359 protein was solved to 1.6 Å resolution by molecular replacement using the phase information of the previously reported structure of YteR (PDB entry (http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm)) from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. The YteR-like protein is a six-α-hairpin barrel with two β-sheet strands and a small helix overlaying the end of the hairpins next to the active site. The protein has low primary protein sequence identity to YteR but is structurally similar. The two tertiary structures align with a root-mean-square deviation of 1.4 Å and contain a highly conserved active pocket. There is a conserved aspartic acid residue in both structures, which has been shown to be important for hydration of the C=C bond during the release of unsaturated galacturonic acid by YteR. A surface electrostatic potential comparison of CA-C0359 and proteins from CAZy families GH88 and GH105 reveals the make-up of the active site to be a combination of the unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase and the unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. Structural and electrostatic comparisons suggests that the protein may have a slightly different substrate

  5. Actinoplanes teichomyceticus ATCC 31121 as a cell factory for producing teicoplanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taurino Carlo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teicoplanin is a glycopeptide antibiotic used clinically in Europe and in Japan for the treatment of multi-resistant Gram-positive infections. It is produced by fermenting Actinoplanes teichomyceticus. The pharmaceutically active principle is teicoplanin A2, a complex of compounds designated T-A2-1-A2-5 differing in the length and branching of the fatty acid moiety linked to the glucosamine residue on the heptapeptide scaffold. According to European and Japanese Pharmacopoeia, components of the drug must be reproduced in fixed amounts to be authorized for clinical use. Results We report our studies on optimizing the fermentation process to produce teicoplanin A2 in A. teichomyceticus ATCC 31121. Robustness of the process was assessed on scales from a miniaturized deep-well microtiter system to flasks and 3-L bioreactor fermenters. The production of individual factors T-A2-1-A2-5 was modulated by adding suitable precursors to the cultivation medium. Specific production of T-A2-1, characterized by a linear C10:1 acyl moiety, is enhanced by adding methyl linoleate, trilinoleate, and crude oils such as corn and cottonseed oils. Accumulation of T-A2-3, characterized by a linear C10:0 acyl chain, is stimulated by adding methyl oleate, trioleate, and oils such as olive and lard oils. Percentages of T-A2-2, T-A2-4, and, T-A2-5 bearing the iso-C10:0, anteiso-C11:0, and iso-C11:0 acyl moieties, respectively, are significantly increased by adding precursor amino acids L-valine, L-isoleucine, and L-leucine. Along with the stimulatory effect on specific complex components, fatty acid esters, oils, and amino acids (with the exception of L-valine inhibit total antibiotic productivity overall. By adding industrial oils to medium containing L-valine the total production is comparable, giving unusual complex compositions. Conclusions Since the cost and the quality of teicoplanin production depend mainly on the fermentation process, we

  6. Development of a potential functional food prepared with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), oats and Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Yasmina; Márquez, Enrique; Parra, Katynna; Piñero, M Patricia; Medina, Luis M

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the survival of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 in creams, prepared with pigeon peas and oat. Products were analysed to determine their content of protein, fibre, fat, carbohydrates and degree of likeness. Viable numbers of L. reuteri and pH were determined after 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 4°C. Results showed significant differences (P 0.05) were found on sensory quality between control and creams with L. reuteri. After 28 days, the cell viability was above 7 log cfu/g in all creams. L. reuteri ATCC 55730 had the highest viability in cream with 40% pigeon pea and 20% oat (8.16 log cfu/g). In conclusion, due to its acceptability and highly nutritious value, the product could be used so as to support the growth of L. reuteri. PMID:22533458

  7. Incorporation of cholesterol into the cellular membrane of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholesterol that was assimilated by Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 was not metabolically degraded; most of it was recovered with the cells. Cells that were grown in the presence of cholesterol micelles and bile salts were more resistant to lysis by sonication than were those grown in their absence, suggesting a possible alteration of the cell wall or membrane. Cholesterol assimilation occurred during growth at pH 6.0 as well as during growth without pH control. Part of the cholesterol that was assimilated by cells was recovered in the membrane fractions of cells grown under both conditions. There was no difference in the amount taken up from cholesterol micelles that were prepared using dioleoyl L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine or distearoyl L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine. Thus, the type of fatty acid (unsaturated or saturated) in the phospholipid did not influence the assimilation. As the amount of Tween 80 in the growth media increased beyond 0.05%, cholesterol uptake decreased, and the amount of growth remained the same. The higher concentrations of Tween 80 may have adversely affected the permeability of the cells

  8. Modeling for gellan gum production by Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461 in a simplified medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Xu, Ping; Yuan, Yong; Liu, Changlong; Zhang, Dezhong; Yang, Zhengting; Yang, Chunyu; Ma, Cuiqing

    2006-05-01

    Gellan gum production was carried out by Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461 in a simplified medium with a short incubation time, and a kinetic model for understanding, controlling, and optimizing the fermentation process was proposed. The results revealed that glucose was the best carbon source and that the optimal concentration was 30 g liter(-1). As for the fermenting parameters, considerably large amounts of gellan gum were yielded by an 8-h-old culture and a 4% inoculum at 200 rpm on a rotary shaker. Under the optimized conditions, the maximum level of gellan gum (14.75 g liter(-1)) and the highest conversion efficiency (49.17%) were obtained in a 30-liter fermentor in batch fermentation. Logistic and Luedeking-Piret models were confirmed to provide a good description of gellan gum fermentation, which gave some support for the study of gellan gum fermentation kinetics. Additionally, this study is the first demonstration that gellan gum production is largely growth associated by analysis of kinetics in its batch fermentation process. Based on model prediction, higher gellan gum production (17.71 g liter(-1)) and higher conversion efficiency (57.12%) were obtained in fed-batch fermentation at the same total glucose concentration (30 g liter(-1)). PMID:16672479

  9. Pivotal role of anthranilate dioxygenase genes in the adaptation of Burkholderia multivorans ATCC 17616 in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Eri; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Nagata, Yuji; Tsuda, Masataka

    2012-05-01

    In our recent screen for soil-induced genes, the expression of andA operon (andAcAdAbAa) for anthranilate catabolism in Burkholderia multivorans ATCC 17616 was found to increase dramatically in a soil sample (Nishiyama et al., Environ Microbiol 12: 2539, 2010). The operon was preceded by andR encoding a putative transcriptional regulator for the andA operon. In this study, the andA promoter was induced by tryptophan and anthranilate in an andR-dependent manner. The andA promoter in a deletion mutant lacking tryptophan dioxygenase (one of enzymes for the catabolism of tryptophan to anthranilate) did not respond to tryptophan, indicating that not tryptophan but anthranilate is the effector of AndR. Although both anthranilate and tryptophan were under the detection levels in the soil sample, andA promoter showed higher activity in the soil sample than in a laboratory medium. Such induction required andR and was moderately dependent on the ferric uptake regulator (Fur). The proliferation ability of andAc mutant in the sterile soil was low compared with the co-incubated wild-type cells. These findings suggested that in the soil environment, anthranilate dioxygenase genes are induced by AndR and Fur, and play a pivotal role in the proliferation in the soil environment. PMID:22360670

  10. Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinase from Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC 607.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Giri, S; Khuller, G K

    1998-06-01

    A soluble Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinase has been partially purified (approximately 400 fold) from Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC 607 using several purification steps like ammonium sulphate precipitation (30-60%), Sepharose CL-6B gel filtration, DEAE-cellulose and finally calmodulin-agarose affinity chromatography. On SDS-PAGE, this enzyme preparation showed a major protein band of molecular mass 35 kD and its activity was dependent on calcium, calmodulin and ATP when measured under saturating histone IIs (exogenous substrate) concentration. Phosphorylation of histone IIs was inhibited by W-7 (calmodulin inhibitor) and KN-62 (CaM-kinase inhibitor) with IC50 of 1.5 and 0.25 microm respectively, but was not affected by inhibitors of PKA (Sigma P5015) and PKC (H-7). All these results confirm that purified enzyme is Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinase of M. smegmatis. The protein kinase of M. smegmatis demonstrated a narrow substrate specificity for both exogenous as well as endogenous substrates. These results suggest that purified CaM-kinase must be involved in regulating specific function(s) in this organism. PMID:9655195

  11. Evaluation of Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 as a candidate for inclusion in a CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneegurt, M. A.; Arieli, B.; Nielsen, S. S.; Trumbo, P. R.; Sherman, L. A.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) have been proposed to make long-duration manned space flights more cost-effective. Higher plants will presumably provide food and a breathable atmosphere for the crew. It has been suggested that imbalances between the CO2/O2 gas exchange ratios of the heterotrophic and autotrophic components of the system will inevitably lead to an unstable system, and the loss of O2 from the atmosphere. Ratio imbalances may be corrected by including a second autotroph with an appropriate CO2/O2 gas exchange ratio. Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 is a large unicellular N2-fixing cyanobacterium, exhibiting high growth rates under diverse physiological conditions. A rat-feeding study showed the biomass to be edible. Furthermore, it may have a CO2/O2 gas exchange ratio that theoretically can compensate for ratio imbalances. It is suggested that Cyanothece spp. could fulfill several roles in a CELSS: supplementing atmosphere recycling, generating fixed N from the air, providing a balanced protein supplement, and protecting a CELSS in case of catastrophic crop failure.

  12. Heterologous expression and localization of gentisate transporter Ncg12922 from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralstonia sp. strain U2 metabolizes naphthalene via gentisate (2,5-dihydroxybenzoate) to central metabolites, but it was found unable to utilize gentisate as growth substrate. A putative gentisate transporter encoded by ncg12922 from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 was functionally expressed in Ralstonia sp. strain U2, converting strain U2 to a gentisate utilizer. After ncg12922 was inserted into plasmid pGFPe with green fluorescence protein gene gfp, the expressed fusion protein Ncg12922-GFP could be visualized in the periphery of Escherichia coli cells under confocal microscope, consistent with a cytoplasmic membrane location. In contrast, GFP was ubiquitous in the cytoplasm of E. coli cells carrying pGFPe only. Gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase activity was present in the cell extract from strain U2 induced with gentisate but at a much lower level (one-fifth) than that obtained with salicylate. However, it exhibited a similar level in strain U2 containing Ncg12922 induced either by salicylate or gentisate

  13. Uso do açafrão (Curcuma longa L. na redução da Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 e Enterobacter aerogenes (ATCC 13048 em ricota The use of turmeric in the reduction of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Enterobacter aerogenes (ATCC 13048 in ricotta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ribeiro Maia

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Considerando o envolvimento de queijos como veículo de microrganismos patogênicos, foi avaliada a eficiência do extrato alcoólico de cúrcuma adicionado à ricota, na redução de Escherichia coli e Enterobacter aerogenes. Foram fabricados três lotes de ricota cremosa e inoculados com 104 UFC/mL de Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 e 105 UFC/mL de Enterobacter aerogenes (ATCC 13048. Às ricotas, foram adicionados 0,4% de NaCl e extrato alcoólico de Curcuma longa L., em concentrações que variaram de 0,0% a 2,0%. As ricotas foram avaliadas físico-química e microbiologicamente em 0, 1, 7, 14 e 21 dias de armazenamento refrigerado. O percentual de umidade das ricotas foi, em média, de 73%. O pH médio observado foi de 5,4 e o percentual de gordura de 3%. Pelos resultados, evidenciou-se, após 21 dias, uma redução do número de Escherichia coli de aproximadamente dois ciclos logaritmicos nos tratamentos utilizados de 0,5%, 1,0%, 1,5% e 2,0% de cúrcuma. Já para Enterobacter aerogenes, a redução foi menor, de aproximadamente um ciclo logaritmico, de 105 UFC/mL para 104 UFC/mL, também nos tratamentos utilizados de 0,5%, 1,0%, 1,5% e 2,0% de cúrcuma. Apesar de os resultados evidenciarem uma redução do número de células viáveis dos microrganismos avaliados, a cúrcuma não deverá ser o único meio preservativo, considerando uma contaminação inicial de 104 UFC/mL de Escherichia coli e 105 UFC/mL de Enterobacter aerogenes, pois não atenderia à legislação vigente quanto aos requisitos microbiológicos para queijos.Considering the cheese involvement as a vehicle of pathogenic microorganisms it was evaluated the eficciency of the ethanolic turmeric extract added to ricotta, in the reduction of Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes. Three lots of creamy ricotta were manufacturated and inoculated with 104 UFC/mL of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and 105 UFC/mL of Enterobacter aerogenes (ATCC 13048. It was added 0,4% of NaCl and

  14. Mutation of aspartic acid residues in the fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, D D; Jacques, N A

    1999-01-01

    The site-directed mutated fructosyltransferases (Ftfs) of Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975, D312E, D312S, D312N and D312K were all active at 37 degrees C, indicating that Asp-312 present in the 'sucrose box' was not the nucleophilic Asp residue responsible for the formation of a covalent fructosyl-enzyme intermediate required for enzyme activity. Analysis of the kinetic constants of the purified mutated forms of the enzyme showed that Asp-312 was most likely an essential amino acid involved in determining acceptor recognition and/or stabilizing a beta-turn in the protein. In contrast, when the Asp-397 of the Ftf present in the conserved triplet RDP motif of all 60 bacterial and plant family-32 glycosylhydrolases was mutated to a Ser residue, both sucrose hydrolysis and polymerization ceased. Tryptophan emission spectra confirmed that this mutation did not alter protein structure. Comparison of published data from other site-directed mutated enzymes implicated the Asp residue in the RDP motif as the one that may form a transient covalent fructosyl intermediate during the catalysis of sucrose by the Ftf of S. salivarius. PMID:10548559

  15. Cloning, expression and bioinformatics analysis of ATP sulfurylase from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Michael L; Abanto, Michel; Quispe, Ruth L; Calderón, Julio; Del Valle, Luís J; Talledo, Miguel; Ramírez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Molecular studies of enzymes involved in sulfite oxidation in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans have not yet been developed, especially in the ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) of these acidophilus tiobacilli that have importance in biomining. This enzyme synthesizes ATP and sulfate from adenosine phosphosulfate (APS) and pyrophosphate (PPi), final stage of the sulfite oxidation by these organisms in order to obtain energy. The atpS gene (1674 bp) encoding the ATPS from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 was amplified using PCR, cloned in the pET101-TOPO plasmid, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli obtaining a 63.5 kDa ATPS recombinant protein according to SDS-PAGE analysis. The bioinformatics and phylogenetic analyses determined that the ATPS from A. ferrooxidans presents ATP sulfurylase (ATS) and APS kinase (ASK) domains similar to ATPS of Aquifex aeolicus, probably of a more ancestral origin. Enzyme activity towards ATP formation was determined by quantification of ATP formed from E. coli cell extracts, using a bioluminescence assay based on light emission by the luciferase enzyme. Our results demonstrate that the recombinant ATP sulfurylase from A. ferrooxidans presents an enzymatic activity for the formation of ATP and sulfate, and possibly is a bifunctional enzyme due to its high homology to the ASK domain from A. aeolicus and true kinases. PMID:23055613

  16. CHANGES OF THE SELECTED PROPERTIES OF LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM ATCC 4080 DURING STORAGE OF MALT BEVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kraszewska

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to obtain malt beverage, which includes high number of viable lactic acid bacteria and has a good sensor quality for eight weeks of storage at the temperature of 22°C. L. plantarum ATCC 4080 strain after four weeks of storage did not reveal antagonistic activity against spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. This strain after two, six and eight weeks of storage had antagonistic properties. The tested strain after two and four weeks of storage did not survive during incubation at pH 2.5 and next in malt beverage with 3 mmol/dm3 deoxycholate sodium, while survived in these conditions after six and eight weeks. In case of incubation at pH 2.5 and next in aqueous solution of deoxycholate sodium tested strain after four and six weeks of storage had survival ability. The survival ability in these conditions of the tested strain after two and eight weeks of storage were not investigated.

  17. Sophorolipids Production by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and its Potential Application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E.; Joshi, Sanket J.; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M.; Al-Bemani, Ali S.; Al-Bahry, Saif N.; Al-Maqbali, Dua’a; Banat, Ibrahim M.

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactant production using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214, its characterization and potential applications in enhancing oil recovery were studied at laboratory scale. The seed media and the production media were standardized for optimal growth and biosurfactant production. The production media were tested with different carbon sources: glucose (2%w/v) and corn oil (10%v/v) added separately or concurrently. The samples were collected at 24 h interval up to 120 h and checked for growth (OD660), and biosurfactant production [surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT)]. The medium with both glucose and corn oil gave better biosurfactant production and reduced both ST and IFT to 28.56 + 0.42mN/m and 2.13 + 0.09mN/m, respectively within 72 h. The produced biosurfactant was quite stable at 13–15% salinity, pH range of 2–12, and at temperature up to 100°C. It also produced stable emulsions (%E24) with different hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane, heptane, tridecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2,2,4,4,6,8-heptamethylnonane, light and heavy crude oil). The produced biosurfactant was extracted using ethyl acetate and characterized as a mixture of sophorolipids (SPLs). The potential of SPLs in enhancing oil recovery was tested using core-flooding experiments under reservoir conditions, where additional 27.27% of residual oil (Sor) was recovered. This confirmed the potential of SPLs for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery. PMID:26635782

  18. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032 to produce S-adenosyl-L-methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guoqiang; Hu, Xiaoqing; Qin, Tianyu; Li, Ye; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2016-02-01

    As an important biological methyl group donor, S-adenosyl-L-methionine is used as nutritional supplement or drug for various diseases, but bacterial strains that can efficiently produce S-adenosyl-L-methionine are not available. In this study, Corynebacterium glutamicum strain HW104 which can accumulate S-adenosyl-L-methionine was constructed from C. glutamicum ATCC13032 by deleting four genes thrB, metB, mcbR and Ncgl2640, and six genes metK, vgb, lysC(m), hom(m), metX and metY were overexpressed in HW104 in different combinations, forming strains HW104/pJYW-4-metK-vgb, HW104/pJYW-4-SAM2C-vgb, HW104/pJYW-4-metK-vgb-metYX, and HW104/pJYW-4-metK-vgb-metYX-hom(m)-lysC(m). Fermentation experiments showed that HW104/pJYW-4-metK-vgb produced more S-adenosyl-L-methionine than other strains, and the yield achieved 196.7 mg/L (12.15 mg/g DCW) after 48h. The results demonstrate the potential application of C. glutamicum for production of S-adenosyl-L-methionine without addition of L-methionine. PMID:26777246

  19. Clavulanic acid production by the MMS 150 mutant obtained from wild type Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliton da Silva Vasconcelos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavulanic acid (CA is a powerful inhibitor of the beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistants to penicillin and cefalosporin. This molecule is produced industrially by strains of Streptomyces clavuligerus in complex media which carbon and nitrogen resources are supplied by inexpensive compounds still providing high productivity. The genetic production improvement using physical and chemical mutagenic agents is an important strategy in programs of industrial production development of bioactive metabolites. However, parental strains are susceptible to loss of their original productivity due genetic instability phenomenona. In this work, some S. clavuligerus mutant strains obtained by treatment with UV light and with MMS are compared with the wild type (Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064. The results indicated that the random mutations originated some strains with different phenotypes, most divergent demonstrated by the mutants strains named AC116, MMS 150 and MMS 54, that exhibited lack of pigmentation in their mature spores. Also, the strain MMS 150 presented a larger production of CA when cultivated in semi-synthetics media. Using other media, the wild type strain obtained a larger CA production. Besides, using the modifed complex media the MMS 150 strain showed changes in its lipolitic activity and a larger production of CA. The studies also allowed finding the best conditions for a lipase activity exhibited by wild type S. clavuligerus and the MMS150 mutant.

  20. Isolation and characterisation of dipeptidyl peptidase IV from Prevotella loescheii ATCC 15930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koreeda, Y; Hayakawa, M; Ikemi, T; Abiko, Y

    2001-08-01

    A proline-specific dipeptidyl aminopeptidase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (EC 3.4.14.5), was purified from a cell sonicate soluble fraction of Prevotella loescheii ATCC 15930 by sequential column chromatography. The molecular mass of the native enzyme was estimated as 160 kDa by high-pressure liquid gel filtration column chromatography and unheated sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The subunit molecular mass was 80 kDa when the enzyme was heated to 100 degrees C in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol before SDS-PAGE, suggesting that the native enzyme consists of two identical subunits and is folded in 2% SDS. The optimum pH, with glycyl-prolyl-4-methyl-coumaryl-7-amide as the substrate, was 8.0; the isoelectric point was 5.2. Purified enzyme showed a strong preference for dipeptide substrates containing proline and, less efficiently, alanine in the P1 position. The enzyme was markedly inhibited by Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Hg(2+), Co(2+), and serine proteinase inhibitor di-isopropylfluorophosphate. PMID:11389867

  1. Degradation of waste waters from olive oil mills by Yarrowia lipolytica ATCC 20255 and Pseudomonas putida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Felice, B.; Pontecorvo, G.; Carfagna, M. [Univ. of Naples, Caserta (Italy). Inst. of Biology

    1997-12-31

    Waste water from olive oil processing may cause severe pollution in the Mediterranean area, since they have a high level of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (100-200 g/l) and contain other organic and inorganic compounds. In all olive oil producing countries, the reduction of pollution in olive oil mill waste waters at reasonable costs and using techniques suitable for most industrial applications is an unsolved problem. For this paper, the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica ATCC 20255 was grown on waste waters from an olive oil mill in a 3.5 l fermenter under batch culture conditions. The results showed that the yeast was capable of reducing the COD value by 80% in 24 h. In this way, a useful biomass of 22.45 g/l as single cell protein (SCP) and enzyme lipase were produced. During this process, most of the organic and inorganic substances were consumed, only aromatic pollutants were still present in the fermentation effluents. Therefore, we used a phenol degrader, namely Pseudomonas putida, to reduce phenolic compounds in the fermentation effluents after removing Yarrowia lipolytica cells. P. putida was effective in reducing phenols in only 12 h. (orig.)

  2. Optimization of probiotic lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 production using date powder as carbon source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahravy A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to optimize culture conditions for economic production of a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334, in which palm date powder was applied for the first time as a low-cost main carbon source. The effect of eleven factors on bacterial growth was investigated using the Taguchi experimental design, and three factors including palm date powder, tryptone and agitation rate were found to be the most significant parameters. The optimum conditions including date powder concentration, 38 g/L; tryptone concentration, 30 g/L; and an agitation rate of 320 rpm were determined by response surface methodology of Box-Behnken. A third-order polynomial model was suggested to predict the design space following which the predicted values were validated experimentally. The maximum log value of the viable cells in the optimized alternative medium was 9.97 at 24 h of incubation which was comparable to that obtained in the complex and expensive MRS medium (10.06.

  3. Proteome data to explore the impact of pBClin15 on Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Jean-Paul; Alpha-Bazin, Béatrice; Armengaud, Jean; Omer, Hélène; Duport, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    This data article reports changes in the cellular and exoproteome of B. cereus cured from pBClin15.Time-course changes of proteins were assessed by high-throughput nanoLC-MS/MS. We report all the peptides and proteins identified and quantified in B. cereus with and without pBClin15. Proteins were classified into functional groups using the information available in the KEGG classification and we reported their abundance in term of normalized spectral abundance factor. The repertoire of experimentally confirmed proteins of B. cereus presented here is the largest ever reported, and provides new insights into the interplay between pBClin15 and its host B. cereus ATCC 14579. The data reported here is related to a published shotgun proteomics analysis regarding the role of pBClin15, "Deciphering the interactions between the Bacillus cereus linear plasmid, pBClin15, and its host by high-throughput comparative proteomics" Madeira et al. [1]. All the associated mass spectrometry data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org) via the PRIDE partner repository (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/), with the dataset identifier PRIDE: PXD001568, PRIDE: PXD002788 and PRIDE: PXD002789. PMID:27547804

  4. Identification of galacto-N-biose phosphorylase from Clostridium perfringens ATCC13124.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Masahiro; Nihira, Takanori; Nishimoto, Mamoru; Kitaoka, Motomitsu

    2008-03-01

    Lacto-N-biose phosphorylase (LNBP) from bifidobacteria is involved in the metabolism of lacto-N-biose I (Galbeta1-->3GlcNAc, LNB) and galacto-N-biose (Galbeta1-->3GalNAc, GNB). A homologous gene of LNBP (CPF0553 protein) was identified in the genome of Clostridium perfringens ATCC13124, which is a gram-positive anaerobic intestinal bacterium. In the present study, we cloned the gene and compared the substrate specificity of the CPF0553 protein with LNBP from Bifidobacterium longum JCM1217 (LNBPBl). In the presence of alpha-galactose 1-phosphate (Gal 1-P) as a donor, the CPF0553 protein acted only on GlcNAc and GalNAc, and GalNAc was a more effective acceptor than GlcNAc. The reaction product from GlcNAc/GalNAc and Gal 1-P was identified as LNB or GNB. The CPF0553 protein also phosphorolyzed GNB much faster than LNB, which suggests that the protein should be named galacto-N-biose phosphorylase (GNBP). GNBP showed a kcat/Km value for GNB that was approximately 50 times higher than that for LNB, whereas LNBPBl showed similar kcat/Km values for both GNB and LNB. Because C. perfringens possesses a gene coding endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, GNBP may play a role in the intestinal residence by metabolizing GNB that is available as a mucin core sugar. PMID:18183385

  5. Sulphate production by Paracoccus pantotrophus ATCC 35512 from different sulphur substrates: sodium thiosulphate, sulphite and sulphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Daniel Derrossi; Andrino, Felipe Gabriel; Possedente de Lira, Simone; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Corção, Gertrudes; Brandelli, Adriano

    2016-03-01

    One of the problems in waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) is the increase in emissions of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), which can cause damage to the health of human populations and ecosystems. To control emissions of this gas, sulphur-oxidizing bacteria can be used to convert H2S to sulphate. In this work, sulphate detection was performed by spectrophotometry, ion chromatography and atomic absorption spectrometry, using Paracoccus pantotrophus ATCC 35512 as a reference strain growing in an inorganic broth supplemented with sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3·5H2O), sodium sulphide (Na2S) or sodium sulphite (Na2SO3), separately. The strain was metabolically competent in sulphate production. However, it was only possible to observe significant differences in sulphate production compared to abiotic control when the inorganic medium was supplemented with sodium thiosulphate. The three methods for sulphate detection showed similar patterns, although the chromatographic method was the most sensitive for this study. This strain can be used as a reference for sulphate production in studies with sulphur-oxidizing bacteria originating from environmental samples of WWTPs. PMID:26269005

  6. Effect of fermentation conditions on the production of hyaluronic acid by Streptococcus zooepidemicus ATCC 39920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Caldas Pan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of hyaluronic acid by Streptococcus zooepidemicus ATCC 39920 with varying rates of pH (6.0, 7.0, 8.0, temperature (34; 37; 40°C, agitation (100, 150, 200 rpm, glucose (10, 20, 30 g L-1 and yeast extract concentration (10, 20, 30 g L-1 was evaluated by statistical approaches. The best conditions for the production of hyaluronic acid was pH 8.0, 37°C and 100 rpm in a medium containing 30 g L-1 glucose and yeast extract, for a production of 0.787 g L-1. Temperature, pH and yeast extract were significant variables (p < 0.05. Yeast extract and pH had a positive effect on the production of the polymer. Lactate, formate and acetate synthesis were also analyzed. Current assay showed the feasibility of statistical tools to optimize the physical and nutritional parameters for the production of hyaluronic acid and the improvement of the fermentation process.

  7. Effect of Low Shear Modeled Microgravity (LSMMG) on the Probiotic Lactobacillus Acidophilus ATCC 4356

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, S.; Voorhies, A.; Lorenzi, H.; Castro-Wallace, S.; Douglas, G.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) probiotic microbes into the spaceflight food system has the potential for use as a safe, non-invasive, daily countermeasure to crew microbiome and immune dysregulation. However, the microgravity effects on the stress tolerances and genetic expression of probiotic bacteria must be determined to confirm translation of strain benefits and to identify potential for optimization of growth, survival, and strain selection for spaceflight. The work presented here demonstrates the translation of characteristics of a GRAS probiotic bacteria to a microgravity analog environment. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 was grown in the low shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG) orientation and the control orientation in the rotating wall vessel (RWV) to determine the effect of LSMMG on the growth, survival through stress challenge, and gene expression of the strain. No differences were observed between the LSMMG and control grown L. acidophilus, suggesting that the strain will behave similarly in spaceflight and may be expected to confer Earth-based benefits.

  8. Genomic and Genetic Characterization of the Bile Stress Response of Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, Kristi; Versalovic, James; Roos, Stefan; Britton, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria encounter various stresses after ingestion by the host, including exposure to the low pH in the stomach and bile in the small intestine. The probiotic microorganism Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 has previously been shown to survive in the human small intestine. To address how L. reuteri can resist bile stress, we performed microarray experiments to determine gene expression changes that occur when the organism is exposed to physiological concentrations of bile. A wide va...

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of the aklavinone 11-hydroxylase gene of Streptomyces peucetius subsp. caesius ATCC 27952.

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Y S; Hwang, C K; Hong, S. K.; Kim, Y.H.(Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejon, 305-811, Korea); Lee, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    The gene encoding aklavinone 11-hydroxylase of Streptomyces peucetius subsp. caesius ATCC 27952 was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene contains at least two common motifs of well-conserved amino acid sequences of several flavin-type bacterial hydroxylases. The hydroxylase gene is apparently transcribed from a single transcriptional start point. The phenotype of a dnrF mutant generated by gene disruption supports the idea that the dnrF gene encodes aklavinone 11-...

  10. Microbial Corrosion of API 5L X-70 Carbon Steel by ATCC 7757 and Consortium of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Various cases of accidents involving microbiology influenced corrosion (MIC) were reported by the oil and gas industry. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) have always been linked to MIC mechanisms as one of the major causes of localized corrosion problems. In this study, SRB colonies were isolated from the soil in suspected areas near the natural gas transmission pipeline in Malaysia. The effects of ATCC 7757 and consortium of isolated SRB upon corrosion on API 5L X-70 carbon steel coupon were i...

  11. In vitro and in vivo activities of ticarcillin-loaded nanoliposomes with different surface charges against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 29248

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharib Amir

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Different studies have shown that entrapment of antibiotics into liposomes could increase their anti-Pseudomonas activity. The objectives of this study were to prepare ticarcillin loaded-nanoliposomes with variable surface charges and evaluate their in vitro and in vivo efficacies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 29248. Methods Ticarcillin-loaded nanoliposomes with positive, negative and neutral surface charges were prepared by extrusion method. Ticarcillin encapsulation efficacies for different formulations were measured by HPLC method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of ticarcillin nanoliposomal forms against strain ATCC 29248 were determined by broth dilution method. The killing rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was exposed to various concentrations of ticarcillin in free and nanoliposomal forms were analyzed. Ultimately, in vivo therapeutic efficacy of nanoliposomes in burned mice skin infected with strain ATCC 29248 was investigated. Results The encapsulation efficacies for ticarcillin-loaded cationic nanoliposomes were significantly higher (76% ± 0.17 than those of neutral (55% ± 0.14 and anionic (43% ± 0.14 nanoliposomes. The MIC of free, cationic, neutral and anionic nanoliposomal forms of ticarcillin against ATCC 29248 were to 24, 3, 6 and 48 mg/L, respectively. The killing rates of ticarcillin-loaded cationic nanoliposomes were higher than those of free and other drug formulations. Treatment by ticarcillin-loaded nanoliposomes with positive, neutral and negative surface charges resulted in almost 100, 60 and 20% survival rates, respectively. Conclusion Our data suggested that cationic ticarcillin-loaded nanoliposomes because of high effectiveness would be a good choice to treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

  12. In Vitro and in Vivo Activities of Ticarcillin-Loaded Nanoliposomes with Different Surface Charges Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (ATCC 29248

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Faezizadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Different studies have shown that entrapment of antibiotics into liposomes could increase their anti-Pseudomonas activity. The objectives of this study were to prepare ticarcillin loadednanoliposomes with variable surface charges and evaluate their in vitro and in vivo efficacies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 29248.Methods:Ticarcillin-loaded nanoliposomes with positive, negative and neutral surface charges were prepared by extrusion method. Ticarcillin encapsulation efficacies for different formulationswere measured by HPLC method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of ticarcillin nanoliposomal forms against strain ATCC 29248 were determined by broth dilution method.The killing rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was exposed to various concentrations of ticarcillin in free and nanoliposomal forms were analyzed. Ultimately, in vivo therapeutic efficacy of nanoliposomes in burned mice skin infected with strain ATCC 29248 was investigated.Results:The encapsulation efficacies for ticarcillin-loaded cationic nanoliposomes were significantly higher (76%±0.17 than those of neutral (55%±0.14 and anionic (43%±0.14 nanoliposomes.The MIC of free, cationic, neutral and anionic nanoliposomal forms of ticarcillin against ATCC 29248 were to 24, 3, 6 and 48 mg/L, respectively. The killing rates of ticarcillinloaded cationic nanoliposomes were higher than those of free and other drug formulations.Treatment by ticarcillin-loaded nanoliposomes with positive, neutral and negative surface charges resulted in almost 100, 60 and 20% survival rates, respectively.Conclusion:Our data suggested that cationic ticarcillin-loaded nanoliposomes because of high effectiveness would be a good choice to treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

  13. Multi-Omic Dynamics Associate Oxygenic Photosynthesis with Nitrogenase-Mediated H2 Production in Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Hans C.; Charania, Moiz A.; Ryan S. McClure; Sadler, Natalie C; Melnicki, Matthew R.; Eric A. Hill; Lye Meng Markillie; Nicora, Carrie D.; Wright, Aaron T.; Romine, Margaret F; Beliaev, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    To date, the proposed mechanisms of nitrogenase-driven photosynthetic H2 production by the diazotrophic unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 have assumed that reductant and ATP requirements are derived solely from glycogen oxidation and cyclic-electron flow around photosystem I. Through genome-scale transcript and protein profiling, this study presents and tests a new hypothesis on the metabolic relationship between oxygenic photosynthesis and nitrogenase-mediated H2 productio...

  14. Investigation of the Amycolatopsis sp. Strain ATCC 39116 Vanillin Dehydrogenase and Its Impact on the Biotechnical Production of Vanillin

    OpenAIRE

    Fleige, Christian; Hansen, Gunda; Kroll, Jens; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. strain ATCC 39116 is capable of synthesizing large amounts of vanillin from ferulic acid, which is a natural cell wall component of higher plants. The desired intermediate vanillin is subject to undesired catabolism caused by the metabolic activity of a hitherto unknown vanillin dehydrogenase (VDHATCC 39116). In order to prevent the oxidation of vanillin to vanillic acid and thereby to obtain higher yields and concentrations of vanillin, the responsible vani...

  15. Deletion of the sigB Gene in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 Leads to Hydrogen Peroxide Hyperresistance

    OpenAIRE

    Schaik, van, G.; Zwietering, M.H.; Vos, de, W.M.; Abee, T.

    2005-01-01

    The sigB gene of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 encodes the alternative sigma factor σB. Deletion of sigB in B. cereus leads to hyperresistance to hydrogen peroxide. The expression of katA, which encodes one of the catalases of B. cereus, is upregulated in the sigB deletion mutant, and this may contribute to the hydrogen peroxide-resistant phenotype.

  16. Expression of arsenic resistance genes in the obligate anaerobe Bacteroides vulgatus ATCC 8482, a gut microbiome bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaojiao; Mandal, Goutam; Rosen, Barry P

    2016-06-01

    The response of the obligate anaerobe Bacteroides vulgatus ATCC 8482, a common human gut microbiota, to arsenic was determined. B. vulgatus ATCC 8482 is highly resistant to pentavalent As(V) and methylarsenate (MAs(V)). It is somewhat more sensitive to trivalent inorganic As(III) but 100-fold more sensitive to methylarsenite (MAs(III)) than to As(III). B. vulgatus ATCC 8482 has eight continuous genes in its genome that we demonstrate form an arsenical-inducible transcriptional unit. The first gene of this ars operon, arsR, encodes a putative ArsR As(III)-responsive transcriptional repressor. The next three genes encode proteins of unknown function. The remaining genes, arsDABC, have well-characterized roles in detoxification of inorganic arsenic, but there are no known genes for MAs(III) resistance. Expression of each gene after exposure to trivalent and pentavalent inorganic and methylarsenicals was analyzed. MAs(III) was the most effective inducer. The arsD gene was the most highly expressed of the ars operon genes. These results demonstrate that this anaerobic microbiome bacterium has arsenic-responsive genes that confer resistance to inorganic arsenic and may be responsible for the organism's ability to maintain its prevalence in the gut following dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic. PMID:27040269

  17. Microbial Corrosion of API 5L X-70 Carbon Steel by ATCC 7757 and Consortium of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various cases of accidents involving microbiology influenced corrosion (MIC were reported by the oil and gas industry. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB have always been linked to MIC mechanisms as one of the major causes of localized corrosion problems. In this study, SRB colonies were isolated from the soil in suspected areas near the natural gas transmission pipeline in Malaysia. The effects of ATCC 7757 and consortium of isolated SRB upon corrosion on API 5L X-70 carbon steel coupon were investigated using a weight loss method, an open circuit potential method (OCP, and a potentiodynamic polarization curves method in anaerobic conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS were then used to determine the corrosion morphology in verifying the SRB activity and corrosion products formation. Results from the study show that the corrosion rate (CR of weight loss method for the isolated SRB is recorded as 0.2017 mm/yr compared to 0.2530 mm/yr for ATCC 7757. The Tafel plot recorded the corrosion rate of 0.3290 mm/yr for Sg. Ular SRB and 0.2500 mm/yr for Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The results showed that the consortia of isolated SRB were of comparable effects and features with the single ATCC 7757 strain.

  18. Genome mining of astaxanthin biosynthetic genes from Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 55669 for heterologous overproduction in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tian; Zhou, Yuanjie; Li, Xiaowei; Zhu, Fayin; Cheng, Yongbo; Liu, Yi; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2016-02-01

    As a highly valued keto-carotenoid, astaxanthin is widely used in nutritional supplements and pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the demand for biosynthetic astaxanthin and improved efficiency of astaxanthin biosynthesis has driven the investigation of metabolic engineering of native astaxanthin producers and heterologous hosts. However, microbial resources for astaxanthin are limited. In this study, we found that the α-Proteobacterium Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 55669 could produce astaxanthin naturally. We used whole-genome sequencing to identify the astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway using a combined PacBio-Illumina approach. The putative astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway in Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 55669 was predicted. For further confirmation, a high-efficiency targeted engineering carotenoid synthesis platform was constructed in E. coli for identifying the functional roles of candidate genes. All genes involved in astaxanthin biosynthesis showed discrete distributions on the chromosome. Moreover, the overexpression of exogenous E. coli idi in Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 55669 increased astaxanthin production by 5.4-fold. This study described a new astaxanthin producer and provided more biosynthesis components for bioengineering of astaxanthin in the future. PMID:26580858

  19. Cadmium and zinc capture capacity by bacteria, microalgae and yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Carballo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The elimination of toxic heavy metals present in wa-tery solutions has been performed with the employ-ment of biosorbent materials coming from microbial sources, considering the capacities they have for the metallic ions uptake. Microbial sivings to deter-mine metal uptake level is the base in order to find appropriate biosorbents for its application in this process, aspect that has been the principal objective in the present work. The cadmium and zinc uptake capacity was evaluated in different microorganisms such as Gram positive and Gram negative bacterias, phototrophic bacteria, microalgae and yeasts. The capture levels of both metals were variable among the strains, which indicate different uptake capaci-ties of cadmium and zinc. The best biosorbents from 64 analyzed microorganisms were: isolated bacteria CB-M4 y A-6, Pseudomonas mendocina, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, Anabaena variabilisATCC 29413, Chloroglocopsis fritschii, Chaetoceros ceratospho-rus, Tetraselmis suesica,isolated microalgae CM3, CM5, CM6 y CMV and the strains 10 and 12 of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  20. The mycosubtilin synthetase of Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633: A multifunctional hybrid between a peptide synthetase, an amino transferase, and a fatty acid synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Duitman, Erwin H.; Hamoen, Leendert W.; Rembold, Martina; Venema, Gerard; Seitz, Harald; Saenger, Wolfram; Bernhard, Frank; Reinhardt, Richard; Schmidt, Manuel; Ullrich, Christian; Stein, Torsten; Leenders, Frank; Vater, Joachim

    1999-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis strain ATCC6633 has been identified as a producer of mycosubtilin, a potent antifungal peptide antibiotic. Mycosubtilin, which belongs to the iturin family of lipopeptide antibiotics, is characterized by a β-amino fatty acid moiety linked to the circular heptapeptide Asn-Tyr-Asn-Gln-Pro-Ser-Asn, with the second, third, and sixth position present in the D-configuration. The gene cluster from B. subtilis ATCC6633 specifying the biosynthesis of mycosubtilin was identified. The ...

  1. Triclosan Can Select for an AdeIJK-Overexpressing Mutant of Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978 That Displays Reduced Susceptibility to Multiple Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, Dinesh M.; Xu, Wayne; Loewen, Peter C.; Zhanel, George G; Kumar, Ayush

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine if triclosan can select for mutants of Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978 that display reduced susceptibilities to antibiotics, we isolated a triclosan-resistant mutant, A. baumannii AB042, by serial passaging of A. baumannii ATCC 17978 in growth medium supplemented with triclosan. The antimicrobial susceptibility of AB042 was analyzed by the 2-fold serial dilution method. Expression of five different resistance-nodulation-division (RND) pump-encoding genes (adeB, adeG, ...

  2. 光照对普通小球藻和鱼腥藻生长竞争的影响%Effect of Light Intensity on Growth and Competition between Chlorella Vulgaris and Anabaena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟顺龙; 邴旭文; 裘丽萍; 王菁; 胡庚东; 瞿建宏; 范立民; 宋超; 吴伟; 陈家长

    2015-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris and Anabaena sp. are the most common algae in eutrophication ponds. In order to know the growth process of the two species of algae in eutrophication ponds and the relationship between algae growth and light intensity, the experiment was carried out to research the interspecies competition between Chlorella vulgaris and Anabaena sp. at different light intensity (660, 2 200, 4 400, 6 600 lx) by the methods of special growth rate, growth curve and inhibition parameters through indoors experiment. For the experiment could help clarify how to promote the growth of useful algae and restrain the growth of harmful algae by the way of regulating the environment factors, so the study is very important for regulating aquaculture eco-environment and improving primary productivity of water body. The results indicated that maximum biomass of both Chlorella vulgaris and Anabaena sp. increased with the increase of light intensity in the uni-culture system, and the maximum biomass of Chlorella vulgaris in the light intensity of 660, 2200, 4 400, 6 600 lx were 961.2×104, 1 858.3×104, 3 258.8×104, 3 227.2×104 cells·mL-1 respectively, and the maximum biomass of Anabaena sp. in the light intensity of 660, 2 200, 4 400, 6600 lx were 4 018.3×104, 8 325.0×104, 10 552.8×104, 10 073.4×104 cells·mL-1 respectively. Light intensity could influence the competition between Chlorella vulgaris and Anabaena sp. significantly. The results of inhibition parameter of interspecies competition showed that the inhibition parameters of Anabaena sp. against Chlorella vulgaris were all lower than that of Chlorella vulgaris against Anabaena sp. at the experiment condition. The inhibition parameter of Chlorella vulgaris against Anabaena sp. reached the peak at the 6 600 lx group, and the maximum was 7.94. The inhibition parameter of Anabaena sp. against Chlorella vulgaris reached the peak at the 4 400 lx group, and the maximum was 0.45. Chlorella vulgaris dominated in the 2 200

  3. 鱼腥蓝细菌PCC7120铁吸收机制%Iron Uptake by Anabaena sp.Strain PCC7120

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董妍玲; 潘学武

    2012-01-01

    As a cofactor in photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen fixation, Iron is essential for cyanobacteria, and iron deficiency would affect the productivity. Iron is present in oxic ecosystems as insoluble iron (III) oxide minerals and thus is not readily available for living organisms to acquire and use. Under iron-limiting conditions, siderophores are exported from the Anabaena cell, where they chelate ferric ions in the environment. Specific ferric-siderophore complexes are recognized by cognate outer-membrane transporters, which initiate the process of iron transport into the cell where the iron becomes available for metabolic functions. Recent progress of siderophores including the types and their biosynthetic pathway was summarized. The components of the putative iron transport system was analyzed. The regulation mechanism of iron uptake was also discussed. This review would provide new evidence for advanced research on iron uptake by Anabaena.%铁离子是鱼腥蓝细菌PCC7120进行呼吸作用、光合作用和固氮作用中相关酶的重要辅基之一,缺铁将严重影响蓝细菌的生存.富氧的生态环境中铁通常以不溶的Fe3+形式存在,不易被细胞吸收利用.低铁条件下,鱼腥蓝细菌PCC7120分泌能螯合铁离子的嗜铁素,通过外膜上相应的转运体将嗜铁素-铁复合物转运到细胞内.综述了近年来在嗜铁素的种类及其生物合成途径、铁吸收系统的组成和功能等方面的最新进展,分析了铁吸收系统的调控机制,为进一步开展鱼腥蓝细菌铁吸收机制的研究提供依据.

  4. Antibacterial activity of antagonistic bacterium Bacillus subtilis DJM-51 against phytopathogenic Clavibacter michiganense subsp. michiganense ATCC 7429 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, W J; Mabood, F; Souleimanov, A; Whyte, L G; Niederberger, T D; Smith, D L

    2014-12-01

    To investigate antibacterial activity against the tomato pathogen Clavibacter michiganense subsp. michiganense ATCC 7429 (Cmm ATCC 7429), Bacillus subtilis DJM-51 was isolated from rhizosphere soil. For isolation of bacteria, samples were taken from rhizosphere soil. The isolate, DJA-51, had strong antagonistic ability against Tomato pathogen Cmm ATCC 7429 on nutrient-broth yeast extract agar (NBYA) as indicated by inhibition zones around colonies. On the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a conserved segment of the 16S rRNA gene, the bacterium has been identified as B. subtilis DJM-51. The growth of Cmm ATCC 7429 on NBYA plates was inhibited by culture broth of B. subtilis DJM-51 including cells, by the supernatant of culture broth of B. subtilis DJM-51, and by the liquid material resulting from butanol extract of bacterial cultures. The OD value in co-culture mixture was lower than the control throughout the entire incubation period. Antibiotics obtained from B. subtilis DJM-51 inhibited the growth of Tomato pathogen Cmm ATCC 7429. These results provide potentially information about the protection of tomato from pathogen Cmm ATCC 7429 under greenhouse conditions in Quebec. PMID:25457795

  5. DNA Sequence and Comparison of Virulence Plasmids from Rhodococcus equi ATCC 33701 and 103

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Shinji; Hines, Stephen A.; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Nicholson, Vivian M.; Alperin, Debra A.; Osaki, Makoto; Takamatsu, Daisuke; Nakamura, Mutsu; Suzuki, Kayo; Ogino, Nobuko; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Dan, Hanhong; Prescott, John F.

    2000-01-01

    The virulence plasmids of the equine virulent strains Rhodococcus equi ATCC 33701 and 103 were sequenced, and their genetic structure was analyzed. p33701 was 80,610 bp in length, and p103 was 1 bp shorter; their sequences were virtually identical. The plasmids contained 64 open reading frames (ORFs), 22 of which were homologous with genes of known function and 3 of which were homologous with putative genes of unknown function in other species. Putative functions were assigned to five ORFs based on protein family characteristics. The most striking feature of the virulence plasmids was the presence of a 27,536-bp pathogenicity island containing seven virulence-associated protein (vap) genes, including vapA. These vap genes have extensive homology to vapA, which encodes a thermoregulated and surface-expressed protein. The pathogenicity island contained a LysR family transcriptional regulator and a two-component response regulator upstream of six of the vap genes. The vap genes were present as a cluster of three (vapA, vapC, and vapD), as a pair (vapE and vapF), or individually (vapG; vapH). A region of extensive direct repeats of unknown function, possibly associated with thermoregulation, was present immediately upstream of the clustered and the paired genes but not the individual vap genes. There was extensive homology among the C-terminal halves of all vap genes but not generally among the N-terminal halves. The remainder of the plasmid consisted of a large region which appears to be associated with conjugation functions and a large region which appears to be associated with replication and partitioning functions. PMID:11083803

  6. The Complete Genome Sequence of the Marine, Chemolithoautotrophic, Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrosococcus oceani ATCC19707

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, M G; Arp, D J; Chain, P S; El-Sheikh, A F; Hauser, L J; Hommes, N G; Larimer, F W; Malfatti, S A; Norton, J M; Poret-Peterson, A T; Vergez, L M; Ward, B B

    2006-08-03

    The Gammaproteobacterium, Nitrosococcus oceani (ATCC 19707), is a Gram-negative obligate chemolithoautotroph capable of extracting energy and reducing power from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Sequencing and annotation of the genome revealed a single circular chromosome (3,481,691 bp; 50.4% G+C) and a plasmid (40,420 bp) that contain 3052 and 41 candidate protein-encoding genes, respectively. The genes encoding proteins necessary for the function of known modes of lithotrophy and autotrophy were identified. In contrast to betaproteobacterial nitrifier genomes, the N. oceani genome contained two complete rrn operons. In contrast, only one copy of the genes needed to synthesize functional ammonia monooxygenase and hydroxylamine oxidoreductase, as well as the proteins that relay the extracted electrons to a terminal electron acceptor were identified. The N. oceani genome contained genes for 13 complete two-component systems. The genome also contained all the genes needed to reconstruct complete central pathways, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnass and pentose phosphate pathways. The N. oceani genome contains the genes required to store and utilize energy from glycogen inclusion bodies and sucrose. Polyphosphate and pyrophosphate appear to be integrated in this bacterium's energy metabolism, stress tolerance and the ability to assimilate carbon via gluconeogenesis. One set of genes for type I RuBisCO was identified, while genes necessary for methanotrophy and for carboxysome formation were not identified. The N. oceani genome contains two copies each of the genes or operons necessary to assemble functional complexes I and IV as well as ATP synthase (one H{sup +}-dependent F{sub 0}F{sub 1}-type, one Na{sup +}-dependent V-type).

  7. Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975 possesses at least two genes coding for primer-independent glucosyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, C L; Giffard, P M; Jacques, N A

    1995-01-01

    Fractionation of the culture medium showed that Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975 secreted a glucosyltransferase (Gtf) that was primer independent. On the basis of this observation, a gene library of S. salivarius chromosomal DNA cloned into lambda L47.1 was screened for a gene(s) coding for such an activity. As a result of this screening process, two new gtf genes, gtfL and gtfM, both of which coded for primer-independent Gtf activities, were isolated. GtfL produced an insoluble glucan that was refractory to digestion by the endo-(1-->6)-alpha-D-glucanase. of Chaetonium gracile, while GtfM produced a soluble glucan that was readily degraded by the glucanase. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of gtfL and gtfM with 10 other available Gtf sequences allowed the relatedness of the conserved catalytic regions to be assessed. This analysis showed that the 12 enzymes did not form clusters based on their primer dependencies or on their product solubilities. Further analysis of the YG repeats in the C-terminal glucan-binding domains of GtfJ, GtfK, GtfL, and GtfM from S. salivarius showed that there was strong homology between a block of contiguous triplet YG repeats present in the four alleles. These blocks of YG repeats were coded for by a region of each gene that appeared to have arisen as a result of a recent duplication event(s). PMID:7822030

  8. Induction of secondary metabolism of Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in the batch bioreactor cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruta, Tomasz; Bizukojc, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    Cultivation of Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in a stirred tank bioreactor was performed to induce the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and provide the bioprocess-related insights into the metabolic capabilities of the investigated strain. The activation of biosynthetic routes was attempted by the diversification of process conditions and growth media. Several strategies were tested, including the addition of rapeseed oil or inulin, changing the concentration of nitrogen source, reduction of chlorine supply, cultivation under saline conditions, and using various aeration schemes. Fifteen secondary metabolites were identified in the course of the study by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, namely mevinolinic acid, 4a,5-dihydromevinolinic acid, 3α-hydroxy-3,5-dihydromonacolin L acid, terrein, aspulvinone E, dihydroisoflavipucine, (+)-geodin, (+)-bisdechlorogeodin, (+)-erdin, asterric acid, butyrolactone I, desmethylsulochrin, questin, sulochrin, and demethylasterric acid. The study also presents the collection of mass spectra that can serve as a resource for future experiments. The growth in a salt-rich environment turned out to be strongly inhibitory for secondary metabolism and the formation of dense and compact pellets was observed. Generally, the addition of inulin, reducing the oxygen supply, and increasing the content of nitrogen source did not enhance the production of examined molecules. The most successful strategy involved the addition of rapeseed oil to the chlorine-deficient medium. Under these conditions, the highest levels of butyrolactone I, asterric acid, and mevinolinic acid were achieved and the presence of desmethylsulochrin and (+)-bisdechlorogeodin was detected in the broth. The constant and relatively high aeration rate in the idiophase was shown to be beneficial for terrein and (+)-geodin biosynthesis. PMID:26603760

  9. Preparation of Calibration Standards of N1-H Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Analogues by Large-Scale Culture of Cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis (TA04

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Suzuki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mouse bioassay is the official testing method to quantify paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs in bivalves. A number of alternative analytical methods have been reported. Some methods have been evaluated by a single laboratory validation. Among the different types of methods, chemical analyses are capable of identifying and quantifying the toxins, however a shortage of the necessary calibration standards hampers implementation of the chemical analyses in routine monitoring of PSTs in bivalves. In our present study, we studied preparation of major PST analogues as calibrants by large-scale cultivation of toxic freshwater cyanobacteria Anabaena circinalis TA04. The cells were steadily grown in 10 L bottle for 28 days. The primary N1-H toxins, C1/C2, were produced at a concentration of 1.3 ± 0.1 µmol/L. The intracellular and extracellular toxins occupied 80% and 20%, respectively. Over 220 µmol of the toxins was obtained from approximately 200 L of the culture over six months, demonstrating that it is sufficient to prepare saxitoxin analogues. The toxins were chemically converted to six N1-H analogues. Preparation of the analogues was carried out at relatively high yields (50–90%. The results indicate that our preparation method is useful to produce N1-H toxins. In our present study, detailed conditions for preparation of one of the rare N1-H analogues, gonyautoxin-5, were investigated.

  10. Azolla-Anabaena as a Biofertilizer for Rice Paddy Fields in the Po Valley, a Temperate Rice Area in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bocchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Azolla is a floating pteridophyte, which contains as endosymbiont the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae (Nostocaceae family. Widely cultivated in the Asian regions, Azolla is either incorporated into the soil before rice transplanting or grown as a dual crop along with rice. To examine the feasibility of its use in flooded rice fields sited in the Temperate European Areas, we carried out a series of experiments in PVC tanks during 2000–2002 in Po Valley (northern Italy conditions, to study the growth-development dynamics and the resistance/tolerance to low temperatures and to commonly used herbicides of several different Azolla strains. Three out of five strains tested survived the winter, with an increase in biomass from March to May producing approximately 30–40 kg ha−1 of nitrogen. One of these strains, named “Milan”, emerged as the most resistant to herbicide and the most productive. Of the herbicides tested, Propanil permitted the survival of growing Azolla.

  11. Heterologous expression of Anabaena PCC 7120 all3940 (a Dps family gene) protects Escherichia coli from nutrient limitation and abiotic stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents first hand data on the cloning and heterologous expression of Anabaena PCC 7120 all3940 (a dps family gene) in combating nutrients limitation and multiple abiotic stresses. The Escherichia coli transformed with pGEX-5X-2-all3940 construct when subjected to iron, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus limitation and carbofuron, copper, UV-B, heat, salt and cadmium stress registered significant increase in growth over the cells transformed with empty vector under iron (0%), carbon (0.05%), nitrogen (3.7 mM) and phosphorus (2 mM) limitation and carbofuron (0.025 mg ml-1), CuCl2 (1 mM), UV-B (10 min), heat (47 oC), NaCl (6% w/v) and CdCl2 (4 mM) stress. Enhanced expression of all3940 gene measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR at different time points under above mentioned treatments clearly demonstrates its role in tolerance against aforesaid abiotic stresses. This study opens the gate for developing transgenic cyanobacteria capable of growing successfully under above mentioned stresses.

  12. Removal of Anabaena flos-aquae in water treatment process using Moringa oleifera and assessment of fatty acid profile of generated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreti, Livia O R; Coldebella, Priscila Ferri; Camacho, Franciele P; Carvalho Bongiovani, Milene; Pereira de Souza, Aloisio Henrique; Kirie Gohara, Aline; Matsushita, Makoto; Fernandes Silva, Marcela; Nishi, Letícia; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the coagulation/flocculation/dissolved air flotation (C/F/DAF) process using the coagulant Moringa oleifera (MO) seed powder, and to analyse the profile of fatty acids present in the generated sludge after treatment. For the tests, deionized water artificially contaminated with cell cultures of Anabaena flos-aquae was used, with a cell density in the order of 10(4) cells mL(-1). C/F/DAF tests were conducted using 'Flotest' equipment. For fatty acid profile analyses, a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector was used. It was seen that the optimal dosage (100 mg L(-1)) of MO used in the C/F/DAF process was efficient at removing nearly all A. flos-aquae cells (96.4%). The sludge obtained after treatment contained oleic acid (61.7%) and palmitic acid (10.8%). Thus, a water treatment process using C/F/DAF linked to integral MO powder seed was found to be efficient in removing cells of cyanobacteria, and produced a sludge rich in oleic acid that is a precursor favourable for obtaining quality biodiesel, thus becoming an alternative application for the recycling of such biomass. PMID:26586082

  13. Treatment with moderate concentrations of NaHSO{sub 3} enhances photobiological H{sub 2} production in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lianjun; Chen, Ming; Wei, Lanzhen; Gao, Fudan; Lv, Zhongxian; Wang, Quanxi; Ma, Weimin [College of Life and Environment Sciences, Shanghai Normal University, Guilin Road 100, Shanghai 200234 (China)

    2010-12-15

    In cyanobacteria, treatment with low concentrations of NaHSO{sub 3} can enhance photosynthetic efficiency, whereas NaHSO{sub 3} in high amounts often inhibits cell growth and photosynthesis may even cause death. In the present study, our results showed that treatment with moderate concentrations of NaHSO{sub 3} considerably improved the yield of photobiological H{sub 2} production in the filamentous N{sub 2}-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. Under steady state conditions, the accumulated H{sub 2} levels in cells treated with 1 mM NaHSO{sub 3} were approximately 10 times higher than that in untreated cells. Such improvement occurred in heterocysts and was most likely caused by increases in the expression and activity of nitrogenase. The effects of treatment with low, moderate, and high concentrations of NaHSO{sub 3} in cyanobacteria were proposed on the basis of the results obtained in the present study and from previous knowledge. (author)

  14. Proteogenomics of a saxitoxin-producing and non-toxic strain of Anabaena circinalis (cyanobacteria) in response to extracellular NaCl and phosphate depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Paul M; Song, Xiaomin; Neilan, Brett A; Moffitt, Michelle C

    2016-02-01

    In Australia, saxitoxin production is strain dependent within the bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis. Freshwater cyanobacteria are exposed to rapid fluctuations in environmental nutrient concentrations, and their adaption is vital for competition, succession and dominance. Two elements of environmental significance, phosphorus and sodium chloride, are proposed to play a role in bloom development and saxitoxin biosynthesis respectively. The aim of our study was to comparatively analyse the model saxitoxin-producing A. circinalis AWQC131C and non-toxic A. circinalis AWQC310F at the genomic level and proteomic level, in response to phosphate depletion and increased extracellular NaCl. When challenged, photosynthesis, carbon/nitrogen metabolisms, transcription/translation, oxidative stress and nutrient transport functional categories demonstrated the largest changes in protein abundance. In response to increased NaCl, SxtC, a protein conserved in all known saxitoxin biosynthetic pathways, was downregulated. Additionally, toxin quantification revealed a decrease in total saxitoxin and decarbomoyl-gonyautoxin2/3 content in response to the NaCl treatment. In response to phosphate depletion, the toxic and non-toxic strain displayed similar proteomic profiles, although the toxic strain did not alter the abundance of as many proteins as the non-toxic strain. These findings have important implications for the future, since response and adaption mechanisms are directly related to in situ dominance of cyanobacteria. PMID:26568470

  15. Characterization and responses to environmental cues of a photosynthetic antenna-deficient mutant of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leganés, Francisco; Martínez-Granero, Francisco; Muñoz-Martín, M Ángeles; Marco, Eduardo; Jorge, Alberto; Carvajal, Laura; Vida, Teresa; González-Pleiter, Miguel; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca

    2014-07-01

    The cyanobacterial phycobilisome (PBS) is a giant pigment-protein complex which harvests light energy for photosynthesis and comprises two structures: a core and peripheral rods. Most studies on PBS structure and function are based on mutants of unicellular strains. In this report, we describe the phenotypic and genetic characterization of a transposon mutant of the filamentous Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, denoted LC1, which cannot synthesize the phycobiliprotein phycocyanin (PC), the main component of the rods; in this mutant, the transposon had inserted into the cpcB gene (orf alr0528) which putatively encodes PC-β chain. Mutant LC1 was able to synthesize phycoerythrocyanin (PEC), a phycobiliprotein (PBP) located at the terminal region of the rods; but in the absence of PC, PEC did not attach to the PBSs that only retained the allophycocyanin (APC) core; ferredoxin: NADP+-oxidoreductase (FNR) that is associated with the PBS in the wild type, was not found in isolated PBSs from LC1. The performance of the mutant exposed to different environmental conditions was evaluated. The mutant phenotype was successfully complemented by cloning and transfer of the wild type complete cpc operon to mutant LC1. Interestingly, LC1 compensated its mutation by significantly increasing the number of its core-PBS and the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry; this feature suggests a more efficient energy conversion in the mutant which may be useful for biotechnological applications. PMID:24913049

  16. Regulation of hepA of Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120 by Elements 5′ from the Gene and by hepK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinsong; Kong, Renqiu; Wolk, C. Peter

    1998-01-01

    In Anabaena spp., synthesis of the heterocyst envelope polysaccharide, required if the cell is to fix dinitrogen under aerobic conditions, is dependent on the gene hepA. A transcriptional start site of hepA was localized 104 bp 5′ from its translational initiation codon. A 765-bp open reading frame, denoted hepC, was found farther upstream. Inactivation of hepC led to constitutive expression of hepA and prevented the synthesis of heterocyst envelope polysaccharide. However, the glycolipid layer of the heterocyst envelope was synthesized. A hepK mutation blocked both the synthesis of the heterocyst envelope polysaccharide and induction of hepA. The predicted product of hepK resembles a sensory protein-histidine kinase of a two-component regulatory system. Analysis of the region between hepC and hepA indicated that DNA sequences required for the induction of hepA upon nitrogen deprivation are present between bp −574 and −440 and between bp −340 and −169 relative to the transcriptional start site of hepA. Gel mobility shift assays provided evidence that one or more proteins bind specifically to the latter sequence. The Fox box sequence downstream from hepA appeared inessential for the induction of hepA. PMID:9696774

  17. La stima di variabili latenti da variabili osservate miste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Giorgio Lovaglio

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a general nonparametric model to estimate latent variables with scores non indeterminate; in this paper, following other approaches (PLS, RCD, RCDR, a latent variable (LV is conceived as a linear combination of predictors (causes which best predicts a set of dependent variables (indicators, maximising, in this manner, all available information about a LV in the soecified model. The model is also extented to categorical variables (nominal, ordinal by means of optimal scaling methodology and applied to the estimate of a bidimensional LV as a proxy of human capital for US families in 1983.

  18. Analysis of the genome sequence of Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323 reveals the molecular basis of an autochthonous intestinal organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Altermann, Eric; Goh, Yong Jun; Tallon, Richard; Sanozky-Dawes, Rosemary B; Pfeiler, Erika A; O'Flaherty, Sarah; Buck, B Logan; Dobson, Alleson; Duong, Tri; Miller, Michael J; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2008-08-01

    This study presents the complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323, a neotype strain of human origin and a native species found commonly in the gastrointestinal tracts of neonates and adults. The plasmid-free genome was 1,894,360 bp in size and predicted to encode 1,810 genes. The GC content was 35.3%, similar to the GC content of its closest relatives, L. johnsonii NCC 533 (34%) and L. acidophilus NCFM (34%). Two identical copies of the prophage LgaI (40,086 bp), of the Sfi11-like Siphoviridae phage family, were integrated tandomly in the chromosome. A number of unique features were identified in the genome of L. gasseri that were likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer and may contribute to the survival of this bacterium in its ecological niche. L. gasseri encodes two restriction and modification systems, which may limit bacteriophage infection. L. gasseri also encodes an operon for production of heteropolysaccharides of high complexity. A unique alternative sigma factor was present similar to that of B. caccae ATCC 43185, a bacterial species isolated from human feces. In addition, L. gasseri encoded the highest number of putative mucus-binding proteins (14) among lactobacilli sequenced to date. Selected phenotypic characteristics that were compared between ATCC 33323 and other human L. gasseri strains included carbohydrate fermentation patterns, growth and survival in bile, oxalate degradation, and adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, in vitro. The results from this study indicated high intraspecies variability from a genome encoding traits important for survival and retention in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:18539810

  19. Transcriptomic and genomic analysis of cellulose fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, Babu [ORNL; McKeown, Catherine K [ORNL; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The ability of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 wild-type strain to hydrolyze cellulose and ferment the degradation products directly to ethanol and other metabolic byproducts makes it an attractive candidate for consolidated bioprocessing of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. In this study, whole-genome microarrays were used to investigate the expression of C. thermocellum mRNA during growth on crystalline cellulose in controlled replicate batch fermentations. A time-series analysis of gene expression revealed changes in transcript levels of {approx}40% of genes ({approx}1300 out of 3198 ORFs encoded in the genome) during transition from early-exponential to late-stationary phase. K-means clustering of genes with statistically significant changes in transcript levels identified six distinct clusters of temporal expression. Broadly, genes involved in energy production, translation, glycolysis and amino acid, nucleotide and coenzyme metabolism displayed a decreasing trend in gene expression as cells entered stationary phase. In comparison, genes involved in cell structure and motility, chemotaxis, signal transduction and transcription showed an increasing trend in gene expression. Hierarchical clustering of cellulosome-related genes highlighted temporal changes in composition of this multi-enzyme complex during batch growth on crystalline cellulose, with increased expression of several genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes involved in degradation of non-cellulosic substrates in stationary phase. Overall, the results suggest that under low substrate availability, growth slows due to decreased metabolic potential and C. thermocellum alters its gene expression to (i) modulate the composition of cellulosomes that are released into the environment with an increased proportion of enzymes than can efficiently degrade plant polysaccharides other than cellulose, (ii) enhance signal transduction and chemotaxis mechanisms perhaps to sense the oligosaccharide hydrolysis products

  20. Significance of CO2 donor on the production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Wei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Succinic acid is a building-block chemical which could be used as the precursor of many industrial products. The dissolved CO2 concentration in the fermentation broth could strongly regulate the metabolic flux of carbon and the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP carboxykinase, which are the important committed steps for the biosynthesis of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes. Previous reports showed that succinic acid production could be promoted by regulating the supply of CO2 donor in the fermentation broth. Therefore, the effects of dissolved CO2 concentration and MgCO3 on the fermentation process should be investigated. In this article, we studied the impacts of gaseous CO2 partial pressure, dissolved CO2 concentration, and the addition amount of MgCO3 on succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618. We also demonstrated that gaseous CO2 could be removed when MgCO3 was fully supplied. Results An effective CO2 quantitative mathematical model was developed to calculate the dissolved CO2 concentration in the fermentation broth. The highest succinic acid production of 61.92 g/L was obtained at 159.22 mM dissolved CO2 concentration, which was supplied by 40 g/L MgCO3 at the CO2 partial pressure of 101.33 kPa. When MgCO3 was used as the only CO2 donor, a maximal succinic acid production of 56.1 g/L was obtained, which was just decreased by 7.03% compared with that obtained under the supply of gaseous CO2 and MgCO3. Conclusions Besides the high dissolved CO2 concentration, the excessive addition of MgCO3 was beneficial to promote the succinic acid synthesis. This was the first report investigating the replaceable of gaseous CO2 in the fermentation of succinic acid. The results obtained in this study may be useful for reducing the cost of succinic acid fermentation process.

  1. The Biosynthesis of UDP-D-QuiNAc in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoun Hwang

    Full Text Available N-acetylquinovosamine (2-acetamido-2,6-di-deoxy-D-glucose, QuiNAc is a relatively rare amino sugar residue found in glycans of few pathogenic gram-negative bacteria where it can play a role in infection. However, little is known about QuiNAc-related polysaccharides in gram-positive bacteria. In a routine screen for bacillus glycan grown at defined medium, it was surprising to identify a QuiNAc residue in polysaccharides isolated from this gram-positive bacterium. To gain insight into the biosynthesis of these glycans, we report the identification of an operon in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 that contains two genes encoding activities not previously described in gram-positive bacteria. One gene encodes a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine C4,6-dehydratase, (abbreviated Pdeg that converts UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-4-keto-4,6-D-deoxy-GlcNAc (UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-α-D-xylo-4-hexulose; and the second encodes a UDP-4-reductase (abbr. Preq that converts UDP-4-keto-4,6-D-deoxy-GlcNAc to UDP-N-acetyl-quinovosamine in the presence of NADPH. Biochemical studies established that the sequential Pdeg and Preq reaction product is UDP-D-QuiNAc as determined by mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments. Also, unambiguous evidence for the conversions of the dehydratase product, UDP-α-D-4-keto-4,6-deoxy-GlcNAc, to UDP-α-D-QuiNAc was obtained using real-time 1H-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The two genes overlap by 4 nucleotides and similar operon organization and identical gene sequences were also identified in a few other Bacillus species suggesting they may have similar roles in the lifecycle of this class of bacteria important to human health. Our results provide new information about the ability of Bacilli to form UDP-QuiNAc and will provide insight to evaluate their role in the biology of Bacillus.

  2. Characterization of Metal Binding in the Active Sites of acireductone dioxygenase Isoforms from Klebsiella ATCC 8724

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Chai; T Ju; M Dang; R Goldsmith; M Maroney; T Pochapsky

    2011-12-31

    The two acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) isozymes from the methionine salvage pathway of Klebsiella ATCC 8724 present an unusual case in which two enzymes with different structures and distinct activities toward their common substrates (1,2-dihydroxy-3-oxo-5-(methylthio)pent-1-ene and dioxygen) are derived from the same polypeptide chain. Structural and functional differences between the two isozymes are determined by the type of M{sup 2+} metal ion bound in the active site. The Ni{sup 2+}-bound NiARD catalyzes an off-pathway shunt from the methionine salvage pathway leading to the production of formate, methylthiopropionate, and carbon monoxide, while the Fe{sup 2+}-bound FeARD catalyzes the on-pathway formation of methionine precursor 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyrate and formate. Four potential protein-based metal ligands were identified by sequence homology and structural considerations. Based on the results of site-directed mutagenesis experiments, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and isothermal calorimetry measurements, it is concluded that the same four residues, His96, His98, Glu102 and His140, provide the protein-based ligands for the metal in both the Ni- and Fe-containing forms of the enzyme, and subtle differences in the local backbone conformations trigger the observed structural and functional differences between the FeARD and NiARD isozymes. Furthermore, both forms of the enzyme bind their respective metals with pseudo-octahedral geometry, and both may lose a histidine ligand upon binding of substrate under anaerobic conditions. However, mutations at two conserved nonligand acidic residues, Glu95 and Glu100, result in low metal contents for the mutant proteins as isolated, suggesting that some of the conserved charged residues may aid in transfer of metal from in vivo sources or prevent the loss of metal to stronger chelators. The Glu100 mutant reconstitutes readily but has low activity. Mutation of Asp101 results in an active enzyme that incorporates

  3. Crude fatty acid extracts of Streptomyces sps inhibits the biofilm forming Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajalakshm Manickam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Crude fatty acid extract of soil Streptomyces sps on the biofilm formation by Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615 was investigated. Totally, 25 Streptomyces sps were isolated identified from the soil samples collected from Nilgiris hill station. All the isolates were subjected to hydrogen peroxide assay, fatty acid extraction and antibiofilm assay. The fatty acid extracts of S8, S9, and S15 inhibited S. pyogenes at MIC 10 µg/ml. The BIC was observed as 84.6% , 96.41%, 80.5% at 50 µg/ml concentration. Streptolysin S assay showed that the crude lipid extracts have the capability of inhibiting the Streptolysin S activity. There were changes in extracellular protein of the pathogen exposed to the S8, S9 and S15 crude fatty acid extracts (50 µg/ml at the range of 100-120 kDa which elucidates that the fatty acid extracts have a significant role in altering the extracellular protein which might be responsible for virulence of the pathogen. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  4. 栓皮栎热值与苯—乙醇抽出物及半纤维素关系%Relationships Between Calorific Value and Contents of Benzene-Ethanol Extractives and Hemicellulose in Quercus variabilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 彭祚登; 汪力; 江丽媛; 何宝华

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the relationships between calorific value and contents of benzene-ethanol extractives and hemicellulose in four organs (bark, branches, leaves, trunk) of Quercus variabilis of six tree ages (16, 24, 32, 39,48, 55 years) by means of SPSS18.0 for partial correlation analysis. Results indicate that there are highly significant differences in calorific value and contents of benzene-ethanol extractives and hemicellulose in different organs of Q. variabilis. The content of benzene-ethanol extractives is positively correlated with gross caloric value and ash-free caloric value (not reaching the significance level of 0. 05). There are insignificant relationships between hemicellulose content and gross caloric value and ash-free caloric value, but there is a significantly positive correlation between hemicellulose content in branches and calorific value. The gross caloric value and ash-free caloric value in the bark of Q. variabilis are the highest, fallowed by leaves, branches, and trunk. The content of benzene-ethanol extractives in the leaves is the highest , followed by bark, branches, and trunk. The hemicellulose content in the trunk is the highest, followed by branches, leaves, and bark. The content of benzene-ethanol extractives from 24-year-old Q. variabilis was the highest, which can be used as forests for energy production.%对6个不同年龄(16、24、32、39、48、55 a)栓皮栎4个器官(干、皮、枝、叶)的苯—乙醇抽出物质量分数及半纤维素质量分数与热值的关系进行研究,利用SPSS18.0进行偏相关分析.结果表明:不同器官栓皮栎热值、苯—乙醇抽出物、半纤维素均具有极显著差异.对不同器官苯—乙醇抽出物、半纤维素与热值的相关性分析,得到苯—乙醇抽出物与干质量热值、去灰分热值均呈正相关,未达到显著水平;总体上半纤维素与干质量热值和去灰分热值相关性也不显著,而枝的半纤维素质量

  5. EFFECT OF CULTURE MEDIUM ON BACTERIOCIN PRODUCTION BY LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS HN001 AND LACTOBACILLUS REUTERI ATCC 53608

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar-Uscanga B. R.; Solís-Pacheco J. R.; Plascencia L.; Aguilar-Uscanga M. G.; García H. S.; Lacroix M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of media on bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 53608 using three different media: YPM, YPF and MRS supplemented with glucose and K2HPO4. The optimum temperature was 37°C and initial pH 6.5. Bacteriocin-like substances produced by tested bacteria in MRS medium supplemented with glucose and K2HPO4 exhibited a broad antimicrobial spectrum determined by well diffusion assay against indicator bacte...

  6. Growth of Cellulomonas sp. ATCC 21399 on different polysaccharides as sole carbon source induction of extracellular enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, O.M.; Petersen, L.W.

    1988-11-01

    Growth and extracellular enzyme production of Cellulomonas sp. ATCC 21399 on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel), xylan, galactomannan and starch were compared. The bacteria grew poorly on CMC, whereas high cell densities were obtained on the other substrates. Growth on Avicel resulted in extrecellular enzyme activities against CMC, Avicel, xylan, galactomannan and amylose. By contrast, growth on xylan, galactomannan and starch induced only the enzymes neccessary for the degradation of the growth substrate. Extracellular proteinase activity could be measured during growth on all substrates but CMC, and the possibility of proteolytic inactivation of some of the unstable enzymes (i.e. Avicelase and amylase) is discussed.

  7. Biochemical characterization of mutants in the active site residues of the β-galactosidase enzyme of Bacillus circulans ATCC 31382

    OpenAIRE

    Bultema, Jelle B; Bas J.H. Kuipers; Lubbert Dijkhuizen

    2014-01-01

    The Bacillus circulans ATCC 31382 β-galactosidase (BgaD) is a retaining-type glycosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 2 (GH2). Its commercial enzyme preparation, Biolacta N5, is used for commercial-scale production of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS). The BgaD active site and catalytic amino acid residues have not been studied. Using bioinformatic routines we identified two putative catalytic glutamates and two highly conserved active site histidines. The site-directed mutants E447N, E532Q, an...

  8. Cytochrome cb-type nitric oxide reductase with cytochrome c oxidase activity from Paracoccus denitrificans ATCC 35512.

    OpenAIRE

    T Fujiwara; Fukumori, Y

    1996-01-01

    A highly active nitric oxide reductase was purified from Paracoccus denitrificans ATCC 35512, formerly named Thiosphaera pantotropha, which was anaerobically cultivated in the presence of nitrate. The enzyme was composed of two subunits with molecular masses of 34 and 15 kDa and contained two hemes b and one heme c per molecule. Copper was not found in the enzyme. The spectral properties suggested that one of the two hemes b and heme c were in six-coordinated low-spin states and another heme ...

  9. Effect of fermentation conditions on the production of hyaluronic acid by Streptococcus zooepidemicus ATCC 39920

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Caldas Pan; Josiane Alessandra Vignoli; Cristiani Baldo; Hanny Cristina Braga Pereira; Rui Sérgio dos Santos Ferreira Silva; Maria Antonia Pedrine Colabone Celligoi

    2015-01-01

    The production of hyaluronic acid by Streptococcus zooepidemicus ATCC 39920 with varying rates of pH (6.0, 7.0, 8.0), temperature (34; 37; 40°C), agitation (100, 150, 200 rpm), glucose (10, 20, 30 g L-1) and yeast extract concentration (10, 20, 30 g L-1) was evaluated by statistical approaches. The best conditions for the production of hyaluronic acid was pH 8.0, 37°C and 100 rpm in a medium containing 30 g L-1 glucose and yeast extract, for a production of 0.787 g L-1. Temperature, pH and ye...

  10. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Vondervoot, Peter J.I. van de; Culley, David; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristen F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy M.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Dai, Ziyu; Dijck, Piet W.M. van; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnusson, Jon K.; Meijer, Susan L.; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; Ooyen, Albert J.J. van; Panther, Kathyrn S.; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob A.; Stam, Hen; Tsang, Adrian; Brink, Johannes M. van den; Atkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; Peij, Noel N.M.E. van; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-04-28

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up-regulation of genes relevant to glucoamylase A production, such as tRNA-synthases and protein transporters. Our results and datasets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi.[Supplemental materials (10 figures, three text documents and 16 tables) have been made available

  11. Isolation, sequence analysis, and comparison of two plasmids (28 and 29 kilobases) from the biomining bacterium Leptospirillum ferrooxidans ATCC 49879.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coram, Nicolette J; van Zyl, Leonardo J; Rawlings, Douglas E

    2005-11-01

    Two plasmids, of 28,878 bp and 28,012 bp, were isolated from Leptospirillum ferrooxidans ATCC 49879. Altogether, a total of 67 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified on both plasmids, of which 32 had predicted products with high homology to proteins of known function, while 11 ORFs had predicted products with homology to previously identified proteins of unknown function. Twenty-four ORFs had products with no homologues in the GenBank/NCBI database. An analysis of the ORFs and other features of the two plasmids, the first to be isolated from a bacterium of the genus Leptospirillum, is presented. PMID:16269793

  12. Isolation, Sequence Analysis, and Comparison of Two Plasmids (28 and 29 Kilobases) from the Biomining Bacterium Leptospirillum ferrooxidans ATCC 49879

    OpenAIRE

    Coram, Nicolette J.; van Zyl, Leonardo J.; Rawlings, Douglas E.

    2005-01-01

    Two plasmids, of 28,878 bp and 28,012 bp, were isolated from Leptospirillum ferrooxidans ATCC 49879. Altogether, a total of 67 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified on both plasmids, of which 32 had predicted products with high homology to proteins of known function, while 11 ORFs had predicted products with homology to previously identified proteins of unknown function. Twenty-four ORFs had products with no homologues in the GenBank/NCBI database. An analysis of the ORFs and other featu...

  13. Extracellular lipase of Pseudomonas sp. strain ATCC 21808: purification, characterization, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray diffraction data.

    OpenAIRE

    Kordel, M; Hofmann, B; Schomburg, D; Schmid, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    A procedure for the purification of a very hydrophobic lipase from Pseudomonas sp. strain ATCC 21808 was elaborated by avoiding the use of long-chain detergents in view of subsequent crystallization of the enzyme. The purification procedure included chromatography on Q-Sepharose in the presence of n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, Ca2+ precipitation of fatty acids, and Octyl-Sepharose chromatography. The enzyme was purified 260-fold to a yield of 35% and a specific activity of 3,300 U/mg. The m...

  14. Supplementation of Carbohydrate to Enhance the α-amylase Production by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 6346 in Presence of Seed Cakes

    OpenAIRE

    Vengadaramana, A.; Vasanthy, A.; Balakumar, S

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The effect of carbohydrate and amino acids on the production of a-amylase by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 6346 was investigated. Methodology and results: To find out the influence of carbohydrate the total carbohydrate content of the medium containing different concentration (2-18 g/L) of defatted seed cake powder of sesamum and mustard containing medium was kept constant by the addition of soluble starch separately. The highest a-amylase activity obtained in the medium containing 18g/L ...

  15. Cloning and Characterization of a Gene (mspA) Encoding the Major Sheath Protein of Treponema maltophilum ATCC 51939T

    OpenAIRE

    Heuner, Klaus; Choi, Bong-Kyu; Schade, Rüdiger; Moter, Annette; Otto, Albrecht; Göbel, Ulf B.

    1999-01-01

    The major sheath protein-encoding gene (mspA) of the oral spirochete Treponema maltophilum ATCC 51939T was cloned by screening a genomic library with an anti-outer membrane fraction antibody. The mspA gene encodes a precursor protein of 575 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 62.3 kDa, including a signal peptide of 19 amino acids. The native MspA formed a heat-modifiable, detergent- and trypsin-stable complex which is associated with the outer membrane. Hybridization with an mspA-s...

  16. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on ham steak by tea bioactive compounds incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodnar Dan C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumer demands for better quality and safety of food products have given rise to the development and implementation of edible films. The use of antimicrobial films can be a promising tool for controlling L. monocytogenes on ready to eat products. The aim of this study was to develop effective antimicrobial films incorporating bioactive compounds from green and black teas into chitosan, for controlling L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on vacuum-packaged ham steak. The effectiveness of these antimicrobial films was evaluated at room temperature (20°C for 10 days and at refrigerated temperature (4°C for 8 weeks. Results The HPLC results clearly show that relative concentrations of catechins and caffeine in green tea ranked EGCG>EGC>CAF>ECG>EC>C while in black tea extracts ranked CAF>EGCG>ECG>EGC>EC>C. The chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating green tea and black tea extracts shows specific markers identified by FTIR. Incorporating natural extracts into chitosan showed that the growth of L monocytogenes ATCC 19115 was inhibited. The efficacy of antimicrobial effect of tea extracts incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film was dose dependent. However, chitosan-coated films without addition of tea extracts did not inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. Chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating 4% Green tea extract was the most effective antimicrobial, reducing the initial counts from 3.2 to 2.65 log CFU/cm2 during room temperature storage and from 3.2 to 1–1.5 log CFU/cm2 during refrigerated storage. Conclusions Incorporation of tea extracts into the chitosan-coated films considerably enhanced their effectiveness against L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. 4% Green tea incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film had a better antilisterial effect than 2% green tea or 2% and 4% black tea. Data from this study would provide new formulation options for developing antimicrobial packaging films using tea

  17. Next-generation sequencing-based genome-wide mutation analysis of L-lysine-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21300 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Soo; Nam, Jae-Young; Son, Eun-Suk; Kwon, O-Chul; Han, Woorijarang; Cho, Jae-Yong; Park, Young-Jin

    2012-10-01

    In order to identify single nucleotide polymorphism and insertion/deletion mutations, we performed whole-genome re-sequencing of the enhanced L-lysine-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21300 strain. In total, 142 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 477 insertion/deletion mutations were identified in the ATCC 21300 strain when compared to 3,434 predicted genes of the wild-type C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 strain. Among them, 110 transitions and 29 transversions of single nucleotide polymorphisms were found from genes of the ATCC 21300 strain. In addition, 11 genes, involved in the L-lysine biosynthetic pathway and central carbohydrate metabolism, contained mutations including single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions. Interestingly, RT-PCR analysis of these 11 genes indicated that they were normally expressed in the ATCC 21300 strain. This information of genome-wide gene-associated variations will be useful for genome breeding of C. glutamicum in order to develop an industrial amino acid-producing strain with minimal mutation. PMID:23124757

  18. Evaluation of probiotic properties of Pediococcus acidilactici B14 in association with Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 for application in a soy based aerated symbiotic dessert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina de Oliveira Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the probiotic properties of Pediococcus acidilactici B14 and to study its resistance in the gastrointestinal system when combined with Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 and used in a potentially symbiotic aerated soy based dessert. P. acidilactici B14 showed some important probiotic characteristics such as survival rate of 45.9% at pH 2.5; 72.4% in 0.3% bile salts and 95.8% after gastrointestinal transit at pH 4.0. Tolerance against the antibiotics cephalexin, neomycin, vancomycin, cefotaxime and penicillin G was also observed. The strain inhibited antagonism against the following cultures: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus cereus ATCC 33018, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P and Salmonella sp. The mixed culture of P. acidilactici B14 with L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 showed a survival rate of 92.4% after the passage through the gastrointestinal system at pH 4.0. Furthermore, in the presence of the food matrix, an average increase in cell viability, after being subjected to the gastrointestinal system of 9.9% at pH 2.0 and 6.1% at pH 4.0, was observed. This characterized the adequacy of the associated culture as probiotic in the development of a functional food such as soy based aerated symbiotic dessert.

  19. Biogeographically interesting planktonic Nostocales (Cyanobacteria) in the Czech Republic and their polyphasic evaluation resulting in taxonomic revisions of Anabaena bergii Ostenfeld 1908 (Chrysosporum gen. nov.) and A. tenericaulis Nygaard 1949 (Dolichospermum tenericaule comb. nova)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapomělová, Eliška; Skácelová, O.; Pumann, P.; Kopp, R.; Janeček, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 698, č. 1 (2012), s. 353-365. ISSN 0018-8158. [Workshop of the International Association of Phytoplankton Taxonomy and Ecology. Trento, 21.08.2011-28.08.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/10/1501; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/09/0309 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : Anabaena * Dolichospermum * Sphaerospermopsis * taxonomy * identification * morphological variability * 16S rRNA gene * biogeography * alien species * cyanobacteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.985, year: 2012

  20. Effects of an Anatoxin-a(s)-Producing Strain of Anabaena spiroides (Cyanobacteria) on the Survivorship and Somatic Growth of Two Daphnia similis Clones

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Q. de Abreu; Aloysio da S. Ferrão-Filho

    2013-01-01

    The toxicity of an anatoxin-a(s) producer strain of Anabaena spiroides (ITEP-024) was estimated through sub-chronic bioassays with two clones of Daphnia similis (Labtox and Itajubá), both with intact cells and aqueous extracts of lyophilized material. Animals were grown as clonal cultures in the lab with mineral water plus 20% lake water. The concentrations used in the bioassays were 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, 0.50 and 1.00 mg·L-1 for intact cell cultures and 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg·L-1 for aqueous e...

  1. Caracterización citomorfomérica de Anabaena circinalis (Cyanophyta en una proliferación masiva en el embalse Paso de Las Piedras (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Cytomorphometric characterization of Anabaena circinalis (Cyanophyta from a bloom in the lake Embalse Paso de las Piedras (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimena Argañaraz Bonini

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue realizar un tratamiento estadístico de los caracteres morfológicos de los individuos de Anabaena circinalis presentes en una proliferación masiva del Embalse Paso de las Piedras (Buenos Aires, Argentina cuya identidad se determinó mediante técnicas moleculares. Se plantearon como objetivos específicos de este trabajo: 1 analizar las dimensiones celulares y parámetros estadísticos de centralización y dispersión; 2 analizar la posición relativa de los heterocistos y las acinetas en el tricoma; 3 analizar la composición porcentual de los distintos tipos de células del tricoma; 4 analizar relación entre valores promedio del ancho y largo celular; y 5 analizar la variación del largo celular en células vegetativas de diferentes tricomas. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que en condiciones eutróficas: 1 es posible caracterizar a los individuos de Anabaena circinalis mediante parámetros estadísticos referidos a las medidas de las células vegetativas de los tricomas, 2 el criterio basado en los caracteres morfológicos de las acinetas inmaduras no debe ser utilizado para ese fin, dadas la no-maduración de las acinetas en condiciones eutróficas y la tendencia a la uniformidad morfométrica entre las células vegetativas y las acinetas inmaduras, y 3 los heterocistos y las células vegetativas, uniformemente esféricos, sólo pueden diferenciarse entre sí por su tamaño y no por su forma, mientras que ambos a su vez pueden diferenciarse de las acinetas ovoidales por su forma. En cuanto al análisis de la varianza del largo de las células vegetativas, los resultados obtenidos confirman que todos los tricomas pertenecen a una misma especie.The principal goal of the work was to make a statistical analysis of the morphology of individuals of Anabaena circinalis growing in a bloom in Embalse Paso de las Piedras (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, identified by a gene probe for this species

  2. Relationships between the ABC-exporter HetC and peptides that regulate the spatiotemporal pattern of heterocyst distribution in Anabaena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Corrales-Guerrero

    Full Text Available In the model cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, cells called heterocysts that are specialized in the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen differentiate from vegetative cells of the filament in the absence of combined nitrogen. Heterocysts follow a specific distribution pattern along the filament, and a number of regulators have been identified that influence the heterocyst pattern. PatS and HetN, expressed in the differentiating cells, inhibit the differentiation of neighboring cells. At least PatS appears to be processed and transferred from cell to cell. HetC is similar to ABC exporters and is required for differentiation. We present an epistasis analysis of these regulatory genes and of genes, hetP and asr2819, successively downstream from hetC, and we have studied the localization of HetC and HetP by use of GFP fusions. Inactivation of patS, but not of hetN, allowed differentiation to proceed in a hetC background, whereas inactivation of hetC in patS or patS hetN backgrounds decreased the frequency of contiguous proheterocysts. A HetC-GFP protein is localized to the heterocysts and especially near their cell poles, and a putative HetC peptidase domain was required for heterocyst differentiation but not for HetC-GFP localization. hetP is also required for heterocyst differentiation. A HetP-GFP protein localized mostly near the heterocyst poles. ORF asr2819, which we denote patC, encodes an 84-residue peptide and is induced upon nitrogen step-down. Inactivation of patC led to a late spreading of the heterocyst pattern. Whereas HetC and HetP appear to have linked functions that allow heterocyst differentiation to progress, PatC may have a role in selecting sites of differentiation, suggesting that these closely positioned genes may be functionally related.

  3. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 on fresh-cut tomato using nisin in combinations with organic salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladunjoye, Adebola O; Singh, Suren; Ijabadeniyi, Oluwatosin A

    2016-01-01

    The inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 on fresh-cut tomato was investigated using nisin alone, and in combinations with organic salts. Nisin at a concentration of 5000UI/mL was introduced alone or in combination with an organic salt (sodium citrate or sodium acetate each at 3 and 5g/100mL each) on fresh-cut tomato previously inoculated with 10(8)CFU/mL of L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644. Chlorine at 200ppm was used as a control. The inoculated samples were incubated at different temperatures (4, 10 and 25°C) and examined at 0, 24, 48 and 72h. The effects of the antimicrobial treatments on quality parameters of tomato (pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity and vitamin C) were also evaluated, and colour parameters were observed at the lowest storage temperature for 10 days. Both nisin and the organic salts inhibited growth of L. monocytogenes, but the combinations of two compounds were more effective. The nisin-sodium citrate (5%) combination was significantly (p≤0.05) effective, while chlorine was least effective against L. monocytogenes. The quality parameters were substantially retained, especially at 4°C, suggesting good shelf stability at a low temperature. These results substantiate the use of the cheap and eco-friendly approach to reducing this pathogen of health concern in common fresh produce. PMID:27261167

  4. Cytochrome cb-type nitric oxide reductase with cytochrome c oxidase activity from Paracoccus denitrificans ATCC 35512.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, T; Fukumori, Y

    1996-04-01

    A highly active nitric oxide reductase was purified from Paracoccus denitrificans ATCC 35512, formerly named Thiosphaera pantotropha, which was anaerobically cultivated in the presence of nitrate. The enzyme was composed of two subunits with molecular masses of 34 and 15 kDa and contained two hemes b and one heme c per molecule. Copper was not found in the enzyme. The spectral properties suggested that one of the two hemes b and heme c were in six-coordinated low-spin states and another heme b was in a five-coordinated high-spin state and reacted with carbon monoxide. The enzyme showed high cytochrome c-nitric oxide oxidoreductase activity and formed nitrous oxide from nitric oxide with the expected stoichiometry when P. denitrificans ATCC 35512 ferrocytochrome c-550 was used as the electron donor. The V max and Km values for nitric oxide were 84 micromol of nitric oxide per min/mg of protein and 0.25 microM, respectively. Furthermore, the enzyme showed ferrocytochrome c-550-O2 oxidoreductase activity with a V max of 8.4 micromol of O2 per min/mg of protein and a Km value of 0.9 mM. Both activities were 50% inhibited by about 0.3 mM KCN. PMID:8606159

  5. Free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on whey protein as starter cultures for probiotic Feta-type cheese production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Sidira, Marianthi; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2014-01-01

    The use of free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on whey protein as starter culture in probiotic Feta-type cheese production was evaluated. The probiotic cultures resulted in significantly higher acidity; lower pH; reduced counts of coliforms, enterobacteria, and staphylococci; and improved quality characteristics compared with cheese with no culture. Microbiological and strain-specific multiplex PCR analysis showed that both free and immobilized L. casei ATCC 393 were detected in the novel products at levels required for conferring a probiotic effect at the end of the ripening. The effect of starter culture on production of volatile compounds was investigated by the solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis technique. The immobilized cells resulted in an improved profile of aroma-related compounds and the overall high quality of the novel products was ascertained by the preliminary sensory test. Finally, the high added value produced by exploitation of whey, which is an extremely polluting industrial waste, was highlighted and assessed. PMID:24931523

  6. Complete structure of the cell surface polysaccharide of Streptococcus oralis ATCC 10557: A receptor for lectin-mediated interbacterial adherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lectin-carbohydrate binding is known to play an important role in a number of different cell-cell interactions including those between certain species of oral streptococci and actinomyces that colonize teeth. The cell wall polysaccharides of Streptococcus oralis ATCC 10557, S. oralis 34, and Streptococcus mitis J22, although not identical antigenically, each function as a receptor molecule for the galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine reactive fimbrial lectins of Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii. Carbohydrate analysis of the receptor polysaccharide isolated from S. oralis ATCC 10557 shows galactose (3 mol), glucose (1 mol), GalNAc (1 mol), and rhamnose (1 mol). 1H NMR spectra of the polysaccharide show that is partially O-acetylated. Analysis of the 1H NMR spectrum of the de-O-acetylated polysaccharide shows that it is composed of repeating subunits containing six monosaccharides and that the subunits are joined by a phosphodiester linkage. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra were completely assigned by two-dimensional homonuclear correlation methods and by 1H-detected heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation (1H[13C]HMQC). The complete 1H and 13C assignment of the native polysaccharide was carried out by the same techniques augmented by a 13C-coupled hybrid HMQC-COSY method, which is shown to be especially useful for carbohydrates in which strong coupling and overlapping peaks in the 1H spectrum pose difficulties

  7. Oncocin Onc72 is efficacious against antibiotic-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 43816 in a murine thigh infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappe, Daniel; Adermann, Knut; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    Oncocins and apidaecins are short proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMPs) representing novel antibiotic drug lead compounds that kill bacteria after internalization and inhibition of intracellular targets (e.g. 70S ribosome and DnaK). Oncocin Onc72 is highly active against Gram-negative bacteria in vitro and in vivo protecting mice in systemic infection models with Escherichia coli and KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Here we studied its efficacy in a murine thigh infection model using meropenem as antibiotic comparator that had a 44-fold higher molar in vitro activity than Onc72. Male CD1 mice were rendered neutropenic using cyclophosphamide for four days before intramuscular infection with K. pneumoniae ATCC 43816. After 75 min oncocin Onc72 or the antibiotic comparator meropenem were administered subcutaneously with 100 mg (43 µmol) and 25 mg (65 µmol) per kg of body weight, respectively, six times every 75 min. Onc72 and meropenem administered subcutaneously reduced the thigh tissue burden of K. pneumoniae ATCC 43816 in neutropenic mice significantly by 4.14 and 4.65 a log10 cfu/g, respectively. The bacterial counts were ∼0.5 and ∼1 log10 below the pre-treatment burden, respectively, indicating bactericidal effects for both compounds. Thus, Onc72 was as efficacious as meropenem in vivo despite its much lower in vitro activity determined according to CLSI standard antimicrobial activity tests. PMID:25968331

  8. Complete structure of the cell surface polysaccharide of Streptococcus oralis ATCC 10557: A receptor for lectin-mediated interbacterial adherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeygunawardana, C.; Bush, C.A. (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (United States)); Cisar, J.O. (National Inst. of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-07-02

    Lectin-carbohydrate binding is known to play an important role in a number of different cell-cell interactions including those between certain species of oral streptococci and actinomyces that colonize teeth. The cell wall polysaccharides of Streptococcus oralis ATCC 10557, S. oralis 34, and Streptococcus mitis J22, although not identical antigenically, each function as a receptor molecule for the galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine reactive fimbrial lectins of Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii. Carbohydrate analysis of the receptor polysaccharide isolated from S. oralis ATCC 10557 shows galactose (3 mol), glucose (1 mol), GalNAc (1 mol), and rhamnose (1 mol). {sup 1}H NMR spectra of the polysaccharide show that is partially O-acetylated. Analysis of the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of the de-O-acetylated polysaccharide shows that it is composed of repeating subunits containing six monosaccharides and that the subunits are joined by a phosphodiester linkage. The {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectra were completely assigned by two-dimensional homonuclear correlation methods and by {sup 1}H-detected heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation ({sup 1}H({sup 13}C)HMQC). The complete {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C assignment of the native polysaccharide was carried out by the same techniques augmented by a {sup 13}C-coupled hybrid HMQC-COSY method, which is shown to be especially useful for carbohydrates in which strong coupling and overlapping peaks in the {sup 1}H spectrum pose difficulties.

  9. Microbioligcal Transformation of Bavachinin by Penicillium Raistrickii ATCC10490%雷斯青霉ATCC10490对补骨脂二氢黄酮甲醚转化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁奇坤; 王家明; 申雁冰; 陈曦; 孙华; 王敏

    2012-01-01

    The biotransformation of bavachinin with Penicillium raistrickii ATCC 10490 gave one compound with the name of BC-PC-4. This product was purified from broth culture supernatants by silica gel column chromatography. Bavachinin and BC-PC-4 were evaluated by the cell viability test through the way of MTT assay with the control of taxol. The compound BC-PC-4 exhibited the higher tumor cytotoxicity than that of bavachinin towards MCF-7 cell, with the IC50 value of 9. 31 μmol/L, which is 7. 04 μmol/L lower than that of bavachinin. On the other hand,the compound BC-PC-4 showed the ability of proliferating of HUVEC cells.%研究了雷斯青霉(Penicillium raistrickii ATCC 10490对补骨脂二氢黄酮甲醚生物的微生物转化,通过硅胶柱分离等技术得到转化产物BC-PC-4的纯品.在细胞水平上分析了该转化产物的抗肿瘤活性,结果发现产物BC-PC-4对细胞MCF-7的抗肿瘤活性IC50值为9.31 μmol/L,较底物补骨脂二氢黄酮甲醚降低了7.04 μmol/L,且对正常细胞HUVEC有促进增殖的作用.

  10. Growth and enzyme production of Cellulomonas sp. ATCC 21399 on microcrystalline cellulose. Effects of increasing concentration of a mineral medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, O.M.; Petersen, L.W.

    1989-05-01

    The kinetics and production of different extracellular enzyme activities were studied during growth of Cellulomonas sp. ATCC 21399 on 2% Avicel with different concentrations of M9 mineral medium. The lag phase and the doubling time increased with increasing ionic strength of the medium. The highest cell density was obtained during growth at 5xM9 mineral medium and Cellulomonas grew well at this high salinity. The enzyme activities against carboxymethylcellulose and xylan increased with increasing concentration of M9 medium up to 5xM9. By contrast, activities against microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel), galactomannan and amylose decreased with increasing concentration of M9 medium. The extracellular proteinase activity increased with increasing concentration of M9 medium, and it is possible that the lability of the cellulolytic and amylolytic enzymes may be due to their susceptibility to proteolytic inactivation by the extracellular proteinases.

  11. Characterization and replication mode determination of the minimal replicon of Tetragenococcus halophila ATCC33315 plasmid pUCL287.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benachour, A; Frère, J; Boutibonnes, P; Auffray, Y

    1995-01-01

    pUCL287 is a cryptic plasmid of Tetragenococcus halophila (formerly Pediococcus halophilus) ATCC33315 of relatively small size (8.7 kb). Its minimal replicon was located on a 1235 bp MamI-EcoRI fragment. This minimal replicon contains a non-translated region, followed by a gene encoding a putative 311 amino acid protein. Deletion experiments showed that the non-translated region corresponds to the replication origin. Determination of the replication mode was carried out in Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 harboring pUCL287 minimal replicon. The replicating intermediates detected revealed that pUCL287 minimal replicon follows a bidirectional theta replicating mode. PMID:8824766

  12. A Refined Model for the Structure of Acireductone Dioxygenase from Klebsiella ATCC 8724 Incorporating Residual Dipolar Couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) from Klebsiella ATCC 8724 is a metalloenzyme that is capable of catalyzing different reactions with the same substrates (acireductone and O2) depending upon the metal bound in the active site. A model for the solution structure of the paramagnetic Ni2+-containing ARD has been refined using residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) measured in two media. Additional dihedral restraints based on chemical shift (TALOS) were included in the refinement, and backbone structure in the vicinity of the active site was modeled from a crystallographic structure of the mouse homolog of ARD. The incorporation of residual dipolar couplings into the structural refinement alters the relative orientations of several structural features significantly, and improves local secondary structure determination. Comparisons between the solution structures obtained with and without RDCs are made, and structural similarities and differences between mouse and bacterial enzymes are described. Finally, the biological significance of these differences is considered

  13. Cloning and sequencing of the trpE gene from Arthrobacter globiformis ATCC 8010 and several related subsurface Arthrobacter isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernova, T.; Viswanathan, V.K.; Austria, N.; Nichols, B.P.

    1998-09-01

    Tryptophan dependent mutants of Arthrobacter globiformis ATCC 8010 were isolated and trp genes were cloned by complementation and marker rescue of the auxotrophic strains. Rescue studies and preliminary sequence analysis reveal that at least the genes trpE, trpC, and trpB are clustered together in this organism. In addition, sequence analysis of the entire trpE gene, which encodes component I of anthranilate synthase, is described. Segments of the trpE gene from 17 subsurface isolates of Arthrobacter sp. were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The partial trpE sequences from the various strains were aligned and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The data suggest that in addition to single base changes, recombination and genetic exchange play a major role in the evolution of the Arthrobacter genome.

  14. AcsA-AcsB: The core of the cellulose synthase complex from Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, John B; Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Kao, Teh-hui; Tien, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium, Gluconacetobacter hansenii, produces cellulose of exceptionally high crystallinity in comparison to the cellulose of higher plants. This bacterial cellulose is synthesized and extruded into the extracellular medium by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). The catalytic component of this complex is encoded by the gene AcsAB. However, several other genes are known to encode proteins critical to cellulose synthesis and are likely components of the bacterial CSC. We have purified an active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB from G. hansenii ATCC23769 to homogeneity by two different methods. With the purified protein, we have determined how it is post-translationally processed, forming the active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB. Additionally, we have performed steady-state kinetic studies on the AcsA-AcsB complex. Finally through mutagenesis studies, we have explored the roles of the postulated CSC proteins AcsC, AcsD, and CcpAx. PMID:26672449

  15. Supporting data for comparative proteomic analysis of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 exposed to a sublethal concentration of nisin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendi Nishino Miyamoto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we provide the LC–MS/MS data from a comparative analysis of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 treated and non-treated with a sublethal concentration of nisin (10−3 mg/mL. Protein samples were analyzed by multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT approach, in an off-line configuration. The raw MS/MS data allowed the detection of 49,591 spectra which resulted in 576 protein identifications. After Scaffold validation, 179 proteins were identified with high confidence. A label-free quantitative analysis based of normalized spectral abundance factor (NSAF was used and 13 proteins were found differentially expressed between nisin-treated and non-treated cells. Gene ontology analysis of differentially expressed proteins revealed that most of them are correlated to metabolic process, oxidative stress response mechanisms and molecular binding. A detailed analysis and discussion of these data may be found in Miyamoto et al. [1].

  16. Development of an Unnatural Amino Acid Incorporation System in the Actinobacterial Natural Product Producer Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingxuan; Van Treeck, Briana; Nguyen, Han B; Melançon, Charles E

    2016-02-19

    Many Actinobacteria, most notably Streptomyces, produce structurally diverse bioactive natural products, including ribosomally synthesized peptides, by multistep enzymatic pathways. The use of site-specific genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids to investigate and manipulate the functions of natural product biosynthetic enzymes, enzyme complexes, and ribosomally derived peptides in these organisms would have important implications for drug discovery and development efforts. Here, we have designed, constructed, and optimized unnatural amino acid systems capable of incorporating p-iodo-l-phenylalanine and p-azido-l-phenylalanine site-specifically into proteins in the model natural product producer Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439. We observed notable differences in the fidelity and efficiency of these systems between S. venezuelae and previously used hosts. Our findings serve as a foundation for using an expanded genetic code in Streptomyces to address questions related to natural product biosynthesis and mechanism of action that are relevant to drug discovery and development. PMID:26562751

  17. Relationship between Insect Infestation and Seed Rain Dynamics of Oriental Cork Oak (Quercus variabilis)%栓皮栎橡子虫蛀特征与种子雨进程的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹令立; 董钟; 刘文静; 雷晶洁; 申圳; 杨月琴

    2013-01-01

    为了解栓皮栎(Quercus variabilis)种子雨过程及昆虫捕食特征,于2008年和2009年秋季在洛阳天池山次生林中,对栓皮栎种群的种子雨过程和象甲虫的寄生特征进行了调查研究.结果表明,2008年和2009年栓皮栎的种子雨分别发生在8月24日-9月24日、8月22日-9月28日,密度分别为(18.33±10.05)粒/m2、(26.42±14.27)粒/m2,2009年种子雨产量显著大于2008年.2 a的种子雨构成比例有较大差异.2008年,完好种子、败育种子和虫蛀种子的比例分别为24.09%、55.90%和20.01%;2009年,完好种子比例为50.16%,显著高于2008年,败育种子比例为30.28%,显著低于2008年,而虫蛀种子比例为19.56%,2 a间无显著性差异.象甲幼虫寄生率与橡子大小呈显著正相关,说明象甲虫喜欢寄生较大的橡子.%The seed rain dynamics of Quercus variabilis and the characteristics of weevil infestation were investigated in 2008 and 2009 in Luoyang Tianchi mountain forests. Our results showed that the seed rain of Quercus variabilis began from 24 August and ceased on 24 September,with seed density of (18. 33 ± 10. 05) acorn/m2 in 2008. In 2009, the seed rain began from 22 August and ceased on 28 September, with seed density of (26. 42 ± 14. 27) acorn/m2,significantly larger than that in 2008. In addition,large difference was also found in the composition of seed rain in the two years. In 2008, the proportions of sound acorns, aborted acorns and insect-infested acorns were 24. 09%, 55. 90% and 20. 01% , respectively. In 2009, however, the corresponding proportions were 50. 16%,30. 28% and 19. 56% respectively. The proportion of sound acorns in 2009 was significantly higher than that in 2008,while the proportion of aborted acorns in 2009 was significantly lower than that in 2009, but no significant difference was found in the proportion of insect-infested acorns between the two years. A significant positive relationship was found between infestation rate and

  18. Effects of habitat change on nutrient contents in Quercus variabilis seedlings%生境变化对栓皮栎幼苗营养元素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷静品; 熊定鹏; 刘建锋; 肖文发; 王鹏程; 潘磊

    2012-01-01

    以栓皮栎在我国天然分布的南界、中部和北界为研究样点,将不同纬度的栓皮栎实生幼苗移栽到同一地点,于生长旺季同时在种源地和移栽地进行取样和测定,探讨生境变化对栓皮栎幼苗生长旺季营养元素含量特征的影响.结果表明:生境变化对栓皮栎幼苗各器官N含量和茎P含量的影响显著,而对各器官K含量和叶片、根P含量影响较小;在种源地,栓皮栎各器官的N含量与纬度间呈极显著的正相关,茎、根的全P含量随纬度升高而降低,叶片N/P的变化不明显;移栽后,北界栓皮栎幼苗各器官的N、P含量显著降低,不同纬度来源对栓皮栎幼苗N、P含量的影响更为明显;各纬度栓皮栎叶片的N/P均有不同程度的升高.不同纬度栓皮栎幼苗不同器官的营养元素含量存在差异,其对生境变化的响应也不相同.%Quercus variabilis seedlings were collected from the habitats at different latitudes, and transplanted on the same experimental sites installed in the central part and southern and northern boundaries of China, where Q. variabilis has a natural distribution, aimed to study the effects of habitat change on the nutrient contents in the seedlings in their vigorous growth period. With habitat change, the various organs nitrogen (N) content and the stem phosphorous ( P) content of the transplanted seedlings changed significantly, but the organs potassium ( K) content and the leaf-and root P content had less change. In the experimental sites, the organ N content of the transplanted seedlings had significant positive correlation with the latitudes where the seedlings grew, the stem- and root P contents decreased with the increasing latitude, while the leaf N; P ratio had less change. The organ N and P contents of the transplanted seedlings growing in northern boundary decreased significantly, and the effect of the latitudes was more obvious. The leaf N:P ratio of all the seedlings

  19. Primary cutaneous zygomycosis caused by Rhizomucor variabilis in China:a review of 13 cases%中国多变根毛霉感染性皮肤接合菌病13例回顾性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚毅; 方伟; 廖万清

    2013-01-01

    目的 总结我国自1991年至今报道的所有多变根毛霉感染所致皮肤接合菌病的临床资料,探讨其流行病学特点、临床特征和治疗.方法 文献搜索并回顾分析我国13例多变根毛霉原发性皮肤感染的临床资料.结果 13例皮肤多变根毛霉病,平均发病年龄为34±17(5~65)岁,男6例,女7例,病程5个月~16 a不等,感染报道多集中于长江流域;临床多表现为局部红斑、丘疹和/或结节,可缓慢扩展形成浸润性斑块伴溃疡坏死;发病前有明确皮肤损伤病史6例,无明确诱因7例.皮损多发生于暴露部位,面部10例,上肢3例.所有病例均经真菌学和病理学诊断确诊.治疗主要为两性霉素B和唑类抗真菌药物,其中8例治愈,2例疗效不佳,3例失随访.结论 多变根毛霉皮肤接合菌病是一种重要的毁容性感染病,多与皮肤屏障损伤有关,提高对本病的认识有利于开展早期诊断和及时治疗,治疗首选两性霉素B.%Objective To investigate the epidemic and clinical characteristics of primary cutaneous zygomycosis due to Rhizomucor variabilis in China since 1991. Methods Thirteen cases of cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Rhizomucor variabilis were searched from the electrical database, and all the clinical information was collected and evaluated. Results Of the 13 case records , 7 were female while 6 were male. Median age was 34 ± 17 (5-65) year and the course ranged from 5 months to 16 years. Most cases were mainly reported in Yangtze River valley. The major clinical manifestations were local erythema, papula, and/or nodule, which might spread into infiltrating plaque associated with ulceration and necrosis. Six patients had defined mucocutaneous damage histories before the onset. All the lesions primarily occurred in exposure parts of the body (10 in the face and 3 in the upper limb) and all the diagnoses were made by mycological and histopathological examinations. The major treatments were

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of a Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 23769 Isolate, AY201, Producer of Bacterial Cellulose and Important Model Organism for the Study of Cellulose Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kalpa

    2016-01-01

    The cellulose producer and model organism used for the study of cellulose biosynthesis, Gluconacetobacter hansenii AY201, is a variant of G. hansenii ATCC 23769. We report here the complete nucleotide sequence of G. hansenii AY201, information which may be utilized to further the research into understanding the genes necessary for cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:27516506

  1. The mycosubtilin synthetase of Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633 : A multifunctional hybrid between a peptide synthetase, an amino transferase, and a fatty acid synthase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duitman, EH; Hamoen, LW; Rembold, M; Venema, G; Seitz, H; Saenger, W; Bernhard, F; Reinhardt, R; Schmidt, M; Ullrich, C; Stein, T; Leenders, F; Vater, J

    1999-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis strain ATCC6633 has been identified as a producer of mycosubtilin, a potent antifungal peptide antibiotic. Mycosubtilin, which belongs to the iturin family of lipopeptide antibiotics, is characterized by a p-amino fatty acid moiety linked to the circular heptapeptide Asn-Tyr-Asn-Cl

  2. Draft genome sequence of the extremely acidophilic biomining bacterium Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ATCC 19377 provides insights into the evolution of the Acidithiobacillus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Jorge; Ossandon, Francisco; Quatrini, Raquel; Dopson, Mark; Holmes, David S

    2011-12-01

    Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans is a mesophilic, extremely acidophilic, chemolithoautotrophic gammaproteobacterium that derives energy from the oxidation of sulfur and inorganic sulfur compounds. Here we present the draft genome sequence of A. thiooxidans ATCC 19377, which has allowed the identification of genes for survival and colonization of extremely acidic environments. PMID:22123759

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of the Extremely Acidophilic Biomining Bacterium Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ATCC 19377 Provides Insights into the Evolution of the Acidithiobacillus Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Valdes, Jorge; Ossandon, Francisco; Quatrini, Raquel; Dopson, Mark; Holmes, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans is a mesophilic, extremely acidophilic, chemolithoautotrophic gammaproteobacterium that derives energy from the oxidation of sulfur and inorganic sulfur compounds. Here we present the draft genome sequence of A. thiooxidans ATCC 19377, which has allowed the identification of genes for survival and colonization of extremely acidic environments.

  4. No evidence of harms of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in healthy elderly-a Phase I Open Label Study to assess safety, tolerability and cytokine responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG) has been consumed since the mid 1990s by between 2 and 5 million people daily, the scientific literature lacks rigorous clinical trials that describe the potential harms of LGG, particularly in the elderly. The primary objective of this open label...

  5. Genome sequence of Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548, an anaerobic bacterium from the phylum Lentisphaerae, isolated from the human gastro-intestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Passel, Mark W.J. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Kant, Ravi [University of Helsinki; Palva, Airi [University of Helsinki; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Davenport, Karen W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Sims, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; De Vos, Willem M. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Smidt, Hauke [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Zoetendal, Erwin G. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands

    2011-01-01

    Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548 represents the first cultured representative from the novel phylum Lentisphaerae, a deep-branching bacterial lineage. Few cultured bacteria from this phylum are known, and V. vadensis therefore represents an important organism for evolutionary studies. V. vadensis is a strictly anaerobic sugar-fermenting isolate from the human gastro-intestinal tract.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of a Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 23769 Isolate, AY201, Producer of Bacterial Cellulose and Important Model Organism for the Study of Cellulose Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Sarah; Mehta, Kalpa; Brown, R Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    The cellulose producer and model organism used for the study of cellulose biosynthesis, Gluconacetobacter hansenii AY201, is a variant of G. hansenii ATCC 23769. We report here the complete nucleotide sequence of G. hansenii AY201, information which may be utilized to further the research into understanding the genes necessary for cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:27516506

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439, Producer of the Methymycin/Pikromycin Family of Macrolide Antibiotics, Using PacBio Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingxuan; Sundararajan, Anitha; Devitt, Nicholas P.; Schilkey, Faye D.; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439, a producer of the methymycin/pikromycin family of macrolide antibiotics and a model host for natural product studies, obtained exclusively using PacBio sequencing technology. The 9.03-Mbp genome harbors 8,775 genes and 11 polyketide and nonribosomal peptide natural product gene clusters. PMID:27151802

  8. Characterization of the major dehydrogenase related to d-lactic acid synthesis in Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides ATCC 8293.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Park, Jung-Mi; Seo, Eunyoung; Ahn, Ji Eun; Kim, Tae-Jip; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Han, Nam Soo

    2012-10-10

    Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides ATCC 8293 is a lactic acid bacterium that converts pyruvate mainly to d-(-)-lactic acid by using d-(-)-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhD). The aim of this study was to identify the gene responsible for d-lactic acid formation in this organism and to characterize the enzyme to facilitate the production of optically pure d-lactic acid. A genomic analysis of L. mesenteroides ATCC 8293 revealed that 7 genes encode lactate-related dehydrogenase. According to transcriptomic, proteomic, and phylogenetic analyses, LEUM_1756 was the major gene responsible for the production of d-lactic acid. The LEUM_1756 gene, of 996bp and encoding 332 amino acids (36.5kDa), was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) Star from an inducible pET-21a(+) vector. The enzyme was purified by Ni-NTA column chromatography and showed a specific activity of 4450U/mg, significantly higher than those of other previously reported ldhDs. The gel permeation chromatography analysis showed that the purified enzyme exists as tetramers in solution and this was the first report among lactic acid bacteria. The pH and temperature optima were pH 8.0 and 30°C, respectively, for the pyruvate reduction reaction, and pH 11.0 and 20°C, respectively, for the lactate oxidation reaction. The K(m) kinetic parameters for pyruvate and lactate were 0.58mM and 260mM, respectively. In addition, the k(cat) values for pyruvate and lactate were 2900s(-1) and 2280s(-1), respectively. The enzyme was not inhibited by Ca(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Na(+), or urea, but was inhibited by 1mM Zn(2+) and 1mM SDS. PMID:22975125

  9. THE GENETIC DIVERSITY OF ANABAENA AZOLLAE BASED ON RAPD ANALYSIS%满江红鱼腥藻遗传多样性的RAPD分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈坚; 郑伟文; 宋铁英; 徐国忠; 唐龙飞

    2001-01-01

    @@共生在水生蕨类植物满江红(又称“红萍”:Azolla)叶腔中的固氮兰细菌曾被认为是一个种满江红鱼腥藻(Anabaena azollae Strasb.)。但由于现存的满江红在分类学上有2个亚属,7个种[1],对不同满江红叶腔中鱼腥藻的鉴别,多年来引起人们的重视。80年代,鱼腥藻的单克隆抗体和RFLP的研究,发现了它与宿主分类上一定程度的对应关系[2,3]。90年代以后,Van Coppenolle和Eskew分别以RAPD-PCR和DAF-PCR对从满江红共生体中提取的DNA进行了分析[4,5],但后者发现了共生体中藻的DNA对整个PCR产物的干扰作用会影响满江红属本身系统分类。近年来对满江红鱼腥藻的脂肪酸组分,nif基因RFLP和STRR序列PCR产物指纹分析,建立了各自的聚类分支图[6—8],其间的结果有所差异。为此作者对征集的16种不同种属和地域来源的满江红叶腔中分离出来的鱼腥藻进行了RAPD分析,探讨了满江红鱼腥藻的遗传多样性。

  10. Rare data on a rocky shore fish reproductive biology: sex ratio, length of first maturation and spawning period of Abudefduf saxatilis (Linnaeus, 1758 with notes on Stegastes variabilis spawning period (Perciformes: Pomacentridae in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bessa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents data on the reproduction of Abudefduf saxatilis, a rocky shore inhabitant at the northern coast of São Paulo State. A total of 73 individuals were collected using hooks and baits. They were measured, weighed and dissected, sex and maturation stage were analysed, first macroscopically, then part of the material was taken for microscopical confirmation. Visual censuses were also done for underwater observation of egg's presence. Results showed equivalence of males and females in the population, first maturation occurring between 101 and 115mm of total length, spawning period occurs from November to February for Abudefduf saxatilis and October to January for Stegastes variabilis. Reproductive period for A. saxatilis was positively related to air temperature and thermic amplitude, but the environmental clue most likely to influence this rhythm is photoperiod. Transects with visual census of males guarding eggs were also a reliable tool for finding reproductive period in these demersal, egg-guarder species.Esse estudo apresenta dados sobre a reprodução de Abudefduf saxatilis, uma espécie habitante de costões rochosos no litoral norte do estado de São Paulo. Os peixes foram coletados com anzol e isca num total de 73 indivíduos, foram medidos, pesados, dissecados, seu sexo e maturidade gonadal foram analisados, primeiro macroscopicamente, depois parte desse material foi levado para confirmação microscópica. Censos visuais também foram feitos para observar a presença de ovos. Os resultados apontam para uma equivalência entre o número de machos e fêmeas na população, a primeira maturação ocorre entre 101 e 115 mm de comprimento total, a desova ocorre entre os meses de novembro a fevereiro em Abudefduf saxatilis e outubro a janeiro em Stegastes variabilis. O período reprodutivo de A. saxatilis está positivamente relacionado à temperatura do ar e amplitude térmica, mas o indicador ambiental mais provável de

  11. Study on Scaling-Up Method for Stand Water Consumption of Quercus variabilis Water Conservation Forest%栓皮栎水源林林木耗水尺度扩展方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华田; 邢黎峰; 马履一; 孙鹏森

    2004-01-01

    Single-tree's sapwood scattering style and diameter classes' diurnal water consumption rhythm were studied in a 48 years old Quercus variabilis stand at the east hill slope, located in the Forest Research Station of Beijing Forestry University in the water conservation area in Beijing (39°54'N, 116°28' E). Results showed that relation between tree's sapwood area and diameter at breast height (DBH) was significant. Single-tree's daily water consumption ascended as DBH and sapwood area increased,and related significantly, Daily water consumption of different diameter class in September ascended steeply from the early morning and got the peak around 11:00 pm, and then descended till 18:00 when it got the valley slowly. Three-dimension model of daily-accumulated water consumption was acquired by scaling-up method from the typical Richards model and characteristic parameters of daily stand water consumption course were calculated from modulated Richards equation derivative:Wditj=(-7.147+1.174di)[1-(-3025.937+di2.175)e(-0.011tj)]1/(1-di0.242)(R=0.9858).

  12. 栓皮栎种胚发育过程中储藏物质积累变化研究%Changes of Storage Substance Accumulation during Zygote Embryos Development of Quercus variabilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝丽丽; 张存旭; 杨阳

    2011-01-01

    Changes of several mainly storage substances as well as seed storage protein pattern during zygote embryos development of Quercus variabilis were studied. Similar variation trends were found among soluble sugar, reductant sugar,soluble starch and storage proteins content. The contents of these substances increased as the development of the embryo and decreased then. The storage protein band number also increased accordingly.%分析研究了栓皮栎种胚发育过程中几种主要储藏物质含量的变化,种胚储藏蛋白及其积累形式.结果表明:可溶性糖、还原糖、可溶性淀粉和可溶性蛋白含量变化趋势基本相同,随种胚的发育先上升后下降;蛋白电泳条带数随种胚发育也相应增加.

  13. Seedling regeneration and affecting factors of Quercus variabilis in different distribution regions%不同分布区栓皮栎实生苗更新及其影响因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敏; 张文辉; 周建云; 马闯; 马莉薇

    2013-01-01

    Twenty four fixed plots in three distribution regions of Quercus variabilis (Loess Plateau,marginal distribution zone; north slope of Qinling Mountains,semi-arid core area; and south slope of Qinling Mountains,moist core area) were installed,respectively,to investigate the age structure,growth status,and dry mass accumulation and allocation of 1-8 years old Q.variabilis seedlings,and path analysis was adopted to determine the key factors affecting the regeneration of the seedlings.In the distribution regions,the density of the seedlings decreased with their increasing age,and the density of the 1-8 years old seedlings all decreased in the order of south slope of Qinling Mountains > north slope of Qinling Mountains > Loess Plateau.The transformation rate of the seedlings with adjacent ages differed significantly among the three distribution regions.On Loess Plateau,the transformation rate of 7 years old to 8 years old seedlings was the lowest (30.2 ±2.9) % ; on the north and south slopes of Qinling Mountains,the transformation rate of 4 years old to 5 years old seedlings was the lowest,being (53.9±3.7) % and (50.0±2.1) %,respectively.With the increasing age of the seedlings,their height and dry mass presented an increasing trend,with the order of south slope of Qinling Mountains > north slope of Qinling Mountains > Loess Plateau,the rate of root length to plant height tended to decline,and the rates of root breadth to canopy breadth and of root dry mass to shoot dry mass decreased after an initial increase.The rates of root length to plant height,root breadth to canopy breadth,and root dry mass to shoot dry mass were all the highest on Loess Plateau,and the lowest on south slope of Qinling Mountains.Air temperature,irradiance,canopy density and shrub coverage were the direct key factors affecting Q.variabilis seedling regeneration,among which,air temperature and irradiance were the positive factors,while canopy density and shrub coverage were the

  14. Comparison of molecular and biological characteristics of a modified live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine (ingelvac PRRS MLV), the parent strain of the vaccine (ATCC VR2332), ATCC VR2385, and two recent field isolates of PRRSV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opriessnig, T; Halbur, P G; Yoon, K-J; Pogranichniy, R M; Harmon, K M; Evans, R; Key, K F; Pallares, F J; Thomas, P; Meng, X J

    2002-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the molecular and biological characteristics of recent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) field isolates to those of a modified live virus (MLV) PRRS vaccine and its parent strain. One hundred seventeen, 4-week-old pigs were randomly assigned to six groups. Group 1 (n = 20) served as sham-inoculated negative controls, group 2 (n = 19) was inoculated with Ingelvac PRRS MLV vaccine, group 3 (n = 20) was inoculated with the parent strain of the vaccine (ATCC VR2332), group 4 (n = 19) was inoculated with vaccine-like PRRSV field isolate 98-38803, group 5 (n = 19) was inoculated with PRRSV field isolate 98-37120, and group 6 (n = 20) was inoculated with known high-virulence PRRSV isolate ATCC VR2385. The levels of severity of gross lung lesions (0 to 100%) among the groups were significantly different at both 10 (P < 0.0001) and 28 days postinoculation (p.i.) (P = 0.002). At 10 days p.i., VR2332 (26.5% +/- 4.64%) and VR2385 (36.4% +/- 6.51%) induced gross lesions of significantly greater severity than 98-38803 (0.0% +/- 0.0%), 98-37120 (0.8% +/- 0.42%), Ingelvac PRRS MLV (0.9% +/- 0.46%), and negative controls (2.3% +/- 1.26%). At 28 days p.i., 98-37120 (17.2% +/- 6.51%) induced gross lesions of significantly greater severity than any of the other viruses. Analyses of the microscopic-interstitial-pneumonia-lesion scores (0 to 6) revealed that VR2332 (2.9 +/- 0.23) and VR2385 (3.1 +/- 0.35) induced significantly more severe lesions at 10 days p.i. At 28 days p.i., VR2385 (2.5 +/- 0.27), VR2332 (2.3 +/- 0.21), 98-38803 (2.6 +/- 0.29), and 98-37120 (3.0 +/- 0.41) induced significantly more severe lesions than Ingelvac PRRS MLV (0.7 +/- 0.17) and controls (0.7 +/- 0.15). The molecular analyses and biological characterizations suggest that the vaccine-like isolate 98-38803 (99.5% amino acid homology based on the ORF5 gene) induces microscopic pneumonia lesions similar in type to, but different in severity

  15. ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF HYDROXYAPATITE COATINGS CONTAINING OF CHITOSAN AND SILVER ON TITANIUM SUBSTRATES IN RELATION TO MICROORGANISMS E.COLI ATCC 25922

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhodub LB

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work it was studied the antibacterial properties of coatings based on HA, with Chitosan and silver ions additions, produced by substrates termodeposition method from aqueous solutions with varying concentrations of Chitosan (0.025 and 0.1 g/l and silver (1 mg/l as the antimicrobial components as well as three-part cover, consisting of a film of Chitosan, HA and silver. Study on antibacterial properties of composite coatings on the pathogen E.coli ATCC 25922 was held by Spectrophotometric measurement and analysis of optical density of suspensions, containing samples. 3 series of measurements data were averaged. The results showed that the concentration of antimicrobial components have indicated a bacteriostatic effect of coatings on the culture of E. coli AS ATCC 25922 in physiological solution at a temperature of 37 °C. The most effective was the three-part cover consisting of a film of chitosan, HA and silver.

  16. Biotransformation of natural compounds: unexpected thio conjugation of Sch-642305 with 3-mercaptolactate catalyzed by Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelin, Emilie; Martin, Marie-Thérèse; Bricot, Marie-Françoise; Cortial, Sylvie; Retailleau, Pascal; Ouazzani, Jamal

    2012-12-01

    Sch-642305 is produced by the endophytic fungi Phomopsis sp. CMU-LMA and exhibits both antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. The incubation of Sch-642305 with Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404 resting cells leads to two unexpected thio conjugates. Compound (1) is formed by the addition of the cysteine metabolite 3-mercaptolactate to the double bond of Sch-642305. Compound (1) undergoes an intramolecular rearrangement to give compound (2), which contains two rings: a five-membered hydroxylactone ring and a five-membered thiophene ring. The absolute configuration of compound (1) is similar to that of the parent compound, but the configuration of the mercaptolactate side-chain was not determined. The absolute configuration of compound (2) was deduced from the crystal structure and confirmed by the anomal effect of the sulfur atom. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such a conjugation rearrangement reactions were observed. The biological significance and the reaction mechanisms are discussed. Compound (1) exhibits a weak antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, whereas derivatives (1) and (2) showed an IC₅₀ of 1 and 1.2 μM, respectively, against colonic epithelial cancer cells. PMID:22975164

  17. EFFECT OF CULTURE MEDIUM ON BACTERIOCIN PRODUCTION BY LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS HN001 AND LACTOBACILLUS REUTERI ATCC 53608

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Uscanga B. R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of media on bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 53608 using three different media: YPM, YPF and MRS supplemented with glucose and K2HPO4. The optimum temperature was 37°C and initial pH 6.5. Bacteriocin-like substances produced by tested bacteria in MRS medium supplemented with glucose and K2HPO4 exhibited a broad antimicrobial spectrum determined by well diffusion assay against indicator bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, Lactobacillus sakei, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, but no antimicrobial spectrum against E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus was detected. Bacteriocin was sensitive to protease IV, trypsin, pepsin and -amylases, but resistant to lipase. It was also resistant to detergents such as Tween 80, Triton-X and SDS. This bacteriocin was thermo-stable (resistant at 60°C, 90°C and 100°C for 30 min. Tested bacteria showed the best antimicrobial (bacteriocin-like activity after growth in MRS medium. Bacteriocin substances produced by tested bacteria showed promising thermo-stable technological properties.

  18. Performance analyses of a neutralizing agent combination strategy for the production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Cheng; Zhu, Li-Wen; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2012-05-01

    A neutralizing agent combination strategy was developed to enhance the succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618. First, a maximal succinic acid production of 48.2 g/L was obtained at a culture pH of 7.5. Second, NaOH and KOH were screened to identify the optimal neutralizing agent for pH control. However, the production of succinic acid did not increase, and severe cell flocculation was observed due to a high concentration of metal ions when only one neutralizing agent was used to control pH. Finally, a neutralizing agent combination strategy was developed with a supply of neutralizing agents with OH(-) and carbonate. The cell flocculation was eliminated, and a maximum succinic acid production of 59.2 g/L was obtained with 5 M NaOH and 40 g/L of MgCO(3); this production was 27.9% higher than that obtained with NaOH alone. The results obtained in this study may be useful for the large-scale industrial production of succinic acid. PMID:22002101

  19. Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618 fermentation medium optimization for the production of succinic acid by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Wen; Wang, Cheng-Cheng; Liu, Rui-Sang; Li, Hong-Mei; Wan, Duan-Ji; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2012-01-01

    As a potential intermediary feedstock, succinic acid takes an important place in bulk chemical productions. For the first time, a method combining Plackett-Burman design (PBD), steepest ascent method (SA), and Box-Behnken design (BBD) was developed to optimize Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618 fermentation medium. First, glucose, yeast extract, and MgCO(3) were identified to be key medium components by PBD. Second, preliminary optimization was run by SA method to access the optimal region of the key medium components. Finally, the responses, that is, the production of succinic acid, were optimized simultaneously by using BBD, and the optimal concentration was located to be 84.6 g L(-1) of glucose, 14.5 g L(-1) of yeast extract, and 64.7 g L(-1) of MgCO(3). Verification experiment indicated that the maximal succinic acid production of 52.7 ± 0.8 g L(-1) was obtained under the identified optimal conditions. The result agreed with the predicted value well. Compared with that of the basic medium, the production of succinic acid and yield of succinic acid against glucose were enhanced by 67.3% and 111.1%, respectively. The results obtained in this study may be useful for the industrial commercial production of succinic acid. PMID:23093852

  20. Desulphurization of some low-rank Turkish lignites with crude laccase produced from Trametes versicolor ATCC 200801

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytar, Pinar; Gedikli, Serap [Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Eskisehir Osmangazi University (Turkey); Sam, Mesut [Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Science, Aksaray University (Turkey); Uenal, Arzu [Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, General Directorate of Agricultural Research, Ankara (Turkey); Cabuk, Ahmet [Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Science, Eskisehir Osmangazi University (Turkey); Kolankaya, Nazif [Department of Biology, Division of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Yueruem, Alp [Grand Water Research Institute, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, data obtained during the oxidative desulphurization of some low-rank Turkish lignites with crude laccase enzyme produced from Trametes versicolor ATCC 200801 are presented. In order to optimize desulphurization conditions, effects of incubation time, pulp density, incubation temperature, medium pH, and also lignite source on the desulphurization have been examined. The values for incubation period, pulp density, temperature and pH in optimum incubation condition were found as 30 min, 5%, 35 C, and pH 5.0, respectively. Under optimum conditions, treatment of coal samples with crude laccase has caused nearly 29% reduction in their total sulphur content. During the study, the rate of desulphurization of coal sample provided from Tuncbilek with crude laccase was found to be relatively higher than the other examined coal samples. Results of analytical assays have indicated that the treatment of coals with crude laccase has caused no change in their calorific values but reduced their sulphur emissions. 35%, 13%, and 25% reductions of pyritic sulphur, sulphate and organic sulphur in a period of 30 min were achieved, for a particle size of 200 {mu}m under optimal conditions with enzymatic desulphurization. Also, statistical analyses such as Tukey Multiple Comparison tests and ANOVA were performed. (author)

  1. Coupling of Cellular Processes and Their Coordinated Oscillations under Continuous Light in Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, a Diazotrophic Unicellular Cyanobacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Krishnakumar

    Full Text Available Unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria such as Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 (henceforth Cyanothece, temporally separate the oxygen sensitive nitrogen fixation from oxygen evolving photosynthesis not only under diurnal cycles (LD but also in continuous light (LL. However, recent reports demonstrate that the oscillations in LL occur with a shorter cycle time of ~11 h. We find that indeed, majority of the genes oscillate in LL with this cycle time. Genes that are upregulated at a particular time of day under diurnal cycle also get upregulated at an equivalent metabolic phase under LL suggesting tight coupling of various cellular events with each other and with the cell's metabolic status. A number of metabolic processes get upregulated in a coordinated fashion during the respiratory phase under LL including glycogen degradation, glycolysis, oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and tricarboxylic acid cycle. These precede nitrogen fixation apparently to ensure sufficient energy and anoxic environment needed for the nitrogenase enzyme. Photosynthetic phase sees upregulation of photosystem II, carbonate transport, carbon concentrating mechanism, RuBisCO, glycogen synthesis and light harvesting antenna pigment biosynthesis. In Synechococcus elongates PCC 7942, a non-nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria, expression of a relatively smaller fraction of genes oscillates under LL condition with the major periodicity being 24 h. In contrast, the entire cellular machinery of Cyanothece orchestrates coordinated oscillation in anticipation of the ensuing metabolic phase in both LD and LL. These results may have important implications in understanding the timing of various cellular events and in engineering cyanobacteria for biofuel production.

  2. Overcoming hydrolysis of raw corn starch under industrial conditions with Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a α-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šokarda Slavić, Marinela; Pešić, Milja; Vujčić, Zoran; Božić, Nataša

    2016-03-01

    α-Amylase from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a (BliAmy) was proven to be very efficient in hydrolysis of granular starch below the temperature of gelatinization. By applying two-stage feeding strategy to achieve high-cell-density cultivation of Escherichia coli and extracellular production of BliAmy, total of 250.5 U/mL (i.e. 0.7 g/L) of enzyme was obtained. Thermostability of amylase was exploited to simplify purification. The hydrolysis of concentrated raw starch was optimized using response surface methodology. Regardless of raw starch concentration tested (20, 25, 30 %), BliAmy was very effective, achieving the final hydrolysis degree of 91 % for the hydrolysis of 30 % starch suspension after 24 h. The major A-type crystalline structure and amorphous domains of the starch granule were degraded at the same rates, while amylose-lipid complexes were not degraded. BliAmy presents interesting performances on highly concentrated solid starch and could be of value for starch-consuming industries while response surface methodology (RSM) could be efficiently applied for the optimization of the hydrolysis. PMID:26545758

  3. Reaction engineering studies on the biodegradation of anthracene on bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil using Acinetobacter sp. (ATCC no. 14293)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, R.; Bhattacharya, P.; Chowdhury, R. [Jadavpur Univ., Kolkata, West Bengal (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-08-15

    Bioremediation is a simple and cost-effective means of cleaning up chemically contaminated soil. This study was conducted to better understand the complex reaction chemistry associated with the biodegradation of anthracene. Anthracene was selected as a model PAH because it represents a typical polyaromatic hydrocarbon found in diesel. This paper presented the results of a systematic bioprocess study of the monoculture system that can decompose anthracene from its simulated mixture in methanol using a pure bacterial strain, Acinetobacter sp. (ATCC no. 14293). In a separate attempt, bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil to reduce total aromatic content using the same bacterial strain was carried out. The kinetic parameters needed for bioreactor design were also evaluated. It was observed that Monod's classical substrate uninhibited model can predict cell growth rate and substrate depletion kinetics. When coupled with first order cell decay rate, it can also be used to express the reaction engineering behaviour of the bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil. It was shown that the maximum specific cell growth rate in soil depends on moisture content of the oil-contaminated soil. 20 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  4. Influence of nutritive factors on C50 carotenoids production by Haloferax mediterranei ATCC 33500 with two-stage cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chun-Jen; Ku, Kuo-Lung; Lee, Min-Hsiung; Su, Nan-Wei

    2010-08-01

    The production of pigments by Haloferax mediterranei ATCC 33500 with two-stage cultivation in response to nutritive factors in culture media was studied. Sodium chloride and magnesium sulfate in the second-stage media showed a marked effect upon the production of pigments, and sodium acetate could enhance the production. As the cells were harvested at mid-log phase of growth in first-stage cultivation and transferred to the defined media containing 5% sodium chloride, 0.1% sodium acetate and 8% magnesium sulfate at 37 degrees C, 120 rpm for further 24 h of cultivation, H. mediterranei exhibited to be an efficient producer of pigments. The yield of pigments could reach up to 0.604 A(494 nm) mL(-1) broth. TLC analysis and the UV-Vis spectra of individual spots thereof revealed that H. mediterranei produced three red pigments of C(50) carotenoid, namely bisanhydrobacterioruberin, monoanhydrobacterioruberin and bacterioruberin, as well as a C(45) carotenoid, 2-isopentenyl-3,4-dehydrorhodopin. PMID:20362434

  5. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of allantoinase from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejero-Muriel, Mayte; Martínez-Gómez, Ana Isabel; Martínez-Rodríguez, Sergio; Gavira, Jose A

    2014-11-01

    Allantoinase, a member of the amidohydrolase superfamily, exists in a wide variety of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants and a few animals, such as fishes and amphibians. Allantoinase catalyzes the reversible hydrolysis of allantoin into allantoate by hydrolytic cleavage of the N1-C2 amide bond of the five-membered hydantoin ring. Allantoinase from Bacillus licheniformis (AllBali) presents an inverted enantioselectivity towards allantoin (R-enantioselective), which is a distinguishable feature that is not observed for other allantoinases. In this work, B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 allantoinase (AllBali) containing a C-terminal His6 tag was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Crystals of AllBali were obtained by the vapour-diffusion method using 0.1 M potassium thiocyanate, 20%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 as a crystallization solution. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 3.5 Å with an Rmerge of 29.2% from a crystal belonging to space group P12₁1, with unit-cell parameters a=54.93, b=164.74, c=106.89 Å, β=98.49°. There are four molecules in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 47% as estimated from the Matthews coefficient (VM=2.34 Å3 Da(-1)). PMID:25372819

  6. Die another day: Fate of heat-treated Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 spores during storage under growth-preventing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtimet, Narjes; Trunet, Clément; Mathot, Anne-Gabrielle; Venaille, Laurent; Leguérinel, Ivan; Coroller, Louis; Couvert, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores are recognized as one of the most wet-heat resistant among aerobic spore-forming bacteria and are responsible for 35% of canned food spoilage after incubation at 55 °C. The purpose of this study was to investigate and model the fate of heat-treated survivor spores of G. stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 in growth-preventing environment. G. stearothermophilus spores were heat-treated at four different conditions to reach one or two decimal reductions. Heat-treated spores were stored in nutrient broth at different temperatures and pH under growth-preventing conditions. Spore survival during storage was evaluated by count plating over a period of months. Results reveal that G. stearothermophilus spores surviving heat treatment lose their viability during storage under growth-preventing conditions. Two different subpopulations were observed during non-thermal inactivation. They differed according to the level of their resistance to storage stress, and the proportion of each subpopulation can be modulated by heat treatment conditions. Finally, tolerance to storage stress under growth-preventing conditions increases at refrigerated temperature and neutral pH regardless of heat treatment conditions. Such results suggest that spore inactivation due to heat treatment could be completed by storage under growth-preventing conditions. PMID:26919821

  7. Removal of antibiotic resistance gene-carrying plasmids from Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 and characterization of the resulting daughter strain, L. reuteri DSM 17938.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosander, Anna; Connolly, Eamonn; Roos, Stefan

    2008-10-01

    The spread of antibiotic resistance in pathogens is primarily a consequence of the indiscriminate use of antibiotics, but there is concern that food-borne lactic acid bacteria may act as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes when distributed in large doses to the gastrointestinal tract. Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 is a commercially available probiotic strain which has been found to harbor potentially transferable resistance genes. The aims of this study were to define the location and nature of beta-lactam, tetracycline, and lincosamide resistance determinants and, if they were found to be acquired, attempt to remove them from the strain by methods that do not genetically modify the organism before subsequently testing whether the probiotic characteristics were retained. No known beta-lactam resistance genes was found, but penicillin-binding proteins from ATCC 55730, two additional resistant strains, and three sensitive strains of L. reuteri were sequenced and comparatively analyzed. The beta-lactam resistance in ATCC 55730 is probably caused by a number of alterations in the corresponding genes and can be regarded as not transferable. The strain was found to harbor two plasmids carrying tet(W) tetracycline and lnu(A) lincosamide resistance genes, respectively. A new daughter strain, L. reuteri DSM 17938, was derived from ATCC 55730 by removal of the two plasmids, and it was shown to have lost the resistances associated with them. Direct comparison of the parent and daughter strains for a series of in vitro properties and in a human clinical trial confirmed the retained probiotic properties of the daughter strain. PMID:18689509

  8. Removal of Antibiotic Resistance Gene-Carrying Plasmids from Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 and Characterization of the Resulting Daughter Strain, L. reuteri DSM 17938▿

    OpenAIRE

    Rosander, Anna; Connolly, Eamonn; Roos, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The spread of antibiotic resistance in pathogens is primarily a consequence of the indiscriminate use of antibiotics, but there is concern that food-borne lactic acid bacteria may act as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes when distributed in large doses to the gastrointestinal tract. Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 is a commercially available probiotic strain which has been found to harbor potentially transferable resistance genes. The aims of this study were to define the location an...

  9. Impact of an external energy on Enterococcus faecalis [ATCC – 51299] in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and biochemical reactions – An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: While spiritual and mental energies are known to man, their impact has never been scientifically measurable in the material world and they remain outside the domain of science. The present experiments on Enterococcus faecalis [ATCC –51299], report the effects of such energy transmitted through a person, Mahendra Trivedi, which has produced an impact measurable in scientifically rigorous manner. Methods: Enterococcus faecalis strains in revived and lyophilized state were subj...

  10. Impact of an external energy on Yersinia enterocolitica [ATCC –23715] in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and biochemical reactions: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2008-01-01

    While spiritual and mental energies are known to man, their impact has never been scientifically measurable in the material world and they remain outside the domain of science. The present experiments on Yersinia enterocolitica[ATCC –23715], report the effects of such energy transmitted through a person, Mr. Mahendrakumar Trivedi, which has produced an impact measurable in scientifically rigorous manner. Yersinia enterocolitica strains in revived and lyophilized state were ...

  11. Impact of an external energy on Staphylococcus epidermis [ATCC –13518] in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and biochemical reactions – An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: While spiritual and mental energies are known to man, their impact has never been scientifically measurable in the material world and they remain outside the domain of science. The present experiment on Staphylococcus epidermis [ATCC –13518], validate the effects of such energy transmitted through a person, Mahendra Trivedi, which has produced an impact measurable in scientifically rigorous manner. Methods: Staphylococcus epidermis strains in revived and lyophilized state were ...

  12. Comparative studies for the biotechnological production of l-Lysine by immobilized cells of wild-type Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 and mutant MH 20-22 B

    OpenAIRE

    Razak, Meerza Abdul; Viswanath, Buddolla

    2015-01-01

    Establishing a cost and time efficient approach for bioprocess optimization is desired but is challenging. In the present work, we have addressed the effectiveness of using immobilized cells for aerobic processes, behaviour of immobilized cells, optimization and upstream bioprocess analysis for the production of lysine by immobilized cells of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 and MH 20-22 B in stirred tank bioreactor. Optimized operational conditions for maximal yield and productivity wer...

  13. Structures and Properties of Gellan Polymers Produced by Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461 from Lactose Compared with Those Produced from Glucose and from Cheese Whey

    OpenAIRE

    Fialho, Arsénio M.; Martins, Lígia O; Donval, Marie-Lucie; Leitão, Jorge H.; Ridout, Michael J.; Jay, Andrew J.; Morris, Victor J.; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    1999-01-01

    The dairy industry produces large quantities of whey as a by-product of cheese production and is increasingly looking for new ways to utilize this waste product. Gellan gum is reliably produced by Sphingomonas paucimobilis in growth media containing lactose, a significant component of cheese whey, as a carbon source. We studied and compared polysaccharide biosynthesis by S. paucimobilis ATCC 31461 in media containing glucose, lactose (5 to 30 g/liter), and sweet cheese whey. We found that alt...

  14. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substances Beauveria bassiana strains ATCC-74040 and GHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Germany, for the pesticide active substances Beauveria bassiana strains ATCC-74040 and GHA are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EC No 2229/2004, as amended by Commission Regulation (EC No 1095/2007 and Commission Regulation (EU No 114/2010. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of Beauveria bassiana strains ATCC-74040 and GHA as an insecticide on tomatoes for strain ATCC-74040 and on tomatoes, cucumbers and ornamentals for strain GHA. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  15. Crystal Structure of the Zorbamycin-Binding Protein ZbmA, the Primary Self-Resistance Element in Streptomyces flavoviridis ATCC21892

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolf, Jeffrey D. [Scripps Research Inst., Jupiter, FL (United States); Bigelow, Lance [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chang, Changsoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cuff, Marianne E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lohman, Jeremy R. [Scripps Research Inst., Jupiter, FL (United States); Chang, Chin-Yuan [Scripps Research Inst., Jupiter, FL (United States); Ma, Ming [Scripps Research Inst., Jupiter, FL (United States); Yang, Dong [Scripps Research Inst., Jupiter, FL (United States); Clancy, Shonda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Babnigg, Gyorgy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Joachimiak, Andrzej [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Phillips, George N. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Shen, Ben [Scripps Research Inst., Jupiter, FL (United States)

    2015-11-17

    The bleomycins (BLMs), tallysomycins (TLMs), phleomycin, and zorbamycin (ZBM) are members of the BLM family of glycopeptide-derived antitumor antibiotics. The BLM-producing Streptomyces verticillus ATCC15003 and the TLM-producing Streptoalloteichus hindustanus E465-94 ATCC31158 both possess at least two self-resistance elements, an N-acetyltransferase and a binding protein. The N-acetyltransferase provides resistance by disrupting the metal-binding domain of the antibiotic that is required for activity, while the binding protein confers resistance by sequestering the metal-bound antibiotic and preventing drug activation via molecular oxygen. We recently established that the ZBM producer, Streptomyces flavoviridis ATCC21892, lacks the N-acetyltransferase resistance gene and that the ZBM-binding protein, ZbmA, is sufficient to confer resistance in the producing strain. To investigate the resistance mechanism attributed to ZbmA, we determined the crystal structures of apo and Cu(II)-ZBM-bound ZbmA at high resolutions of 1.90 and 1.65 angstrom, respectively. A comparison and contrast with other structurally characterized members of the BLM-binding protein family revealed key differences in the protein ligand binding environment that fine-tunes the ability of ZbmA to sequester metal-bound ZBM and supports drug sequestration as the primary resistance mechanism in the producing organisms of the BLM family of antitumor antibiotics.

  16. 气相色谱内标法测定苦马豆素的含量%Determination of Sw ainsonine of Astragalus variabilis Bunge by Gas Chromatography with Solvent Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兴华; 何欣; 王建华

    2011-01-01

    以气相色谱内标法测定变异黄芪中苦马豆素的含量.用超声波协助提取并用溶剂萃取变异黄芪样品,选用D-甘露醇为内标物,采用AT.SE-54毛细管作为色谱柱,柱温210℃,气化室300℃,检测器280℃,分流比30:1,氢火焰离子化检测器.结果表明,苦马豆素与内标分离良好,在0.015 6~1.0 g/L时线性关系良好(R2=0.999 7),平均加样回收率为90.6%(RSD=2.41%).该方法简便、灵敏、易操作,可用于疯草类植物样品中苦马豆素含量的检测.%To develop a reliable method for determination of swainsonine of Astragalus variabilis Bunge by gas chromatography(GC), swainsonine was extracted with ultrasound-assisted liquid extraction method. AT. SE-54 capillary column was used and temperature was 210℃, injection temperature was 300℃, detector temperature was 280℃, splitting ratio was 30 : 1, FID detector, the internal standard was D-Mannito. Swainsonine and D-Mannito were well separated, the standard curve was linear in the concentration range of 0. 015 6- 1.0 g/L(R2 = 0. 999 7). The average recovery was 90.6% (RSD=2.41%). The method can be used to determine swainsonine of locoweed with high sensitivity, precise and good reproducibility.

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (ATCC 55826) in combination with Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (ATCC 55845) and defence against vaginal pathogens by increasing the proportion of lactobacilli and/or decreasing the proportion of potentially pathogenic bacteria and/or yeasts (ID 945) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (ATCC 55826) in combination with Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (ATCC 55845) and defence against vaginal pathogens by increasing the proportion of lactobac...

  18. 基于FVS的秦岭地区栓皮栎天然次生林单木模型构建%Individual growth simulation for natural secondary forest of Quercus variabilis in Qinling Area based on FVS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张西; 贾黎明; 张瑜; 郑聪慧

    2015-01-01

    Quercus variabilis is a precious economic and timber tree species with a broad range of uses. It is distributed in the whole country of China, and the area from Qinling Mountain to Dabieshan Mountain is one of its main distribution ranges. In this study we took natural secondary forest of Q. variabilis from both northern and southern slopes of Qinling Mountain as research object, set up temporary sample plots and took on investigations at Shanyang and Zhen’ an counties of Shangluo City, Zhouzhi County of Xi’ an City and Taibai County of Baoji City in Shaanxi Province, and used the data from totally 104 sample plots and 150 analytical trees to build five individual Q. variabilis core growth models based on Quercus FVS ( forest vegetation simulator) system, including DBH-tree height model, crown width model, DBH growth model, tree height growth model, and volume model. Results were as follows:the equation of DBH-tree height model was determined as H (=1. 082 e 3. 245- 17. 291 )DBH+1 +3. 56 , the crown width model expression as CW=0. 257 +0. 244DBH-0. 002DBH2, the equation of DBH (5 years) growth model as ln(DDS) =-12. 669-0. 055A -0. 004DBH2 +0. 117SI -39. 181ln(DBH) +43. 138ln(DBH +1) +0. 013· sin(SL), the equation expression of tree height growth model as HTG = 6. 372 + 0. 025AvgH +0. 108DomtH+0. 008DBH2 -0. 254SD+0. 168SI+0. 038 sin(SL) -3. 613ln(DBH), and the equation of volume model as V =0. 338 +11. 477DBH -11. 582DBH0. 997·H0. 001 +0. 002DBH·H. The bark adjustment factor was calculated as 1. 159 2 , the upper limit of the crown competition factor was close to 450, and the maximum of stand density index was 923 plants/ha. Taking t-test and residual distribution test with each model, the results showed that the fitting is good. The models are expected to lay the foundation of FVS system localization research on cork oak forests in Qinling Region, and provide the basis for the management decision of local oak forest.%栓皮栎是珍贵的经济树种和

  19. Response of the cytoplasmic and membrane proteome of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 to pH changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poetsch Ansgar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background C. glutamicum has traditionally been grown in neutral-pH media for amino acid production, but in a previous article we reported that this microorganism is a moderate alkaliphile since it grows optimally at pH 7.0–9.0, as shown in fermentor studies under tightly controlled pH conditions. We determined the best pH values to study differential expression of several genes after acidic or basic pH conditions (pH 6.0 for acidic expression and pH 9.0 for alkaline expression. Thus, it was interesting to perform a detailed analysis of the pH-adaptation response of the proteome of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 to clarify the circuits involved in stress responses in this bacterium. In this paper we used the above indicated pH conditions, based on transcriptional studies, to confirm that pH adaptation results in significant changes in cytoplasmatic and membrane proteins. Results The cytoplasmatic and membrane proteome of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 at different pH conditions (6.0, 7.0 and 9.0 was analyzed by classical 2D-electrophoresis, and by anion exchange chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE (AIEC/SDS-PAGE. A few cytoplasmatic proteins showed differential expression at the three pH values with the classical 2D-technique including a hypothetical protein cg2797, L-2.3-butanediol dehydrogenase (ButA, and catalase (KatA. The AIEC/SDS-PAGE technique revealed several membrane proteins that respond to pH changes, including the succinate dehydrogenase complex (SdhABCD, F0F1-ATP synthase complex subunits b, α and δ (AtpF, AtpH and AtpA, the nitrate reductase II α subunit (NarG, and a hypothetical secreted/membrane protein cg0752. Induction of the F0F1-ATP synthase complex β subunit (AtpD at pH 9.0 was evidenced by Western analysis. By contrast, L-2.3-butanediol dehydrogenase (ButA, an ATPase with chaperone activity, the ATP-binding subunit (ClpC of an ATP-dependent protease complex, a 7 TMHs hypothetical protein cg0896, a conserved

  20. Increased mannitol production in Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 production strain with a modified 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagianni, Maria; Legiša, Matic

    2014-07-10

    Based on established knowledge of the simultaneous use of the phosphoketolase pathway (PKP) and the Embden-Meyerhof pathway (EMP) - as a secondary pathway with a smaller flux - by mannitol producer Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730, we demonstrated the hypothesis that by enhancing the flux through the EMP the ability of the microorganism to handle elevated glucose concentrations will be improved, in addition to its growth rate and biomass yield. NADH availability will be increased and its demand will be satisfied, allowing the electron acceptor fructose to be more efficiently transformed into mannitol. A truncated version of the gene encoding 6-phospho-1-fructokinase (tpfkA) from the NRRL 2270 strain of Aspergillus niger along with its activator pkaC were introduced into the microorganism by plasmid transformation. Growth of the transformants at elevated glucose concentrations in the presence of fructose resulted in improved assimilation of the provided carbohydrates and a significant increase in the overall fermentation productivities. At the highest tested levels of glucose and fructose (75g/l each), the transformant strain experienced a 4-fold increase in PFK activity and a 2.3-fold increase in the glycolytic flux while the biomass yield reached 7g/l (1.6g/l in the parental strain), the mannitol yield was 56g/l (10g/l in the parental strain) and the lactate yield was 21g/l (3.5g/l in the parental strain). A high NADH/NAD(+) ratio occurred under increased glycolytic flux conditions and facilitated the efficient conversion of fructose to mannitol. A direct effect of deregulated PFK activity on the glycolytic flux is therefore demonstrated in the present case suggesting an alternative approach of metabolic engineering in L. reuteri for increased mannitol production. PMID:24742994

  1. Radiosensibilisation of bacteria on beef minced by essential oils with special reference to the spores of Bacillus cereus ATCC 7004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiosensitization of Bacillus Cereus ATCC 7004 spores was evaluated in the presence of thymol, thyme, D-L menthol, trans-cinnamaldehyde and eugenol in ground beef. Meat cattle minced (5 % fat) was inoculated with spores of Bacillus Cereus (10 5 - 10 6 CFU / g), and each compound was added separately at various concentrations. The antimicrobial potential was evaluated in unirradiated meat by determining the MIC in percentage (wt / wt) after 24 h of storage at 4± 1C. Results showed that the best antimicrobial compound was the trans-cinnamaldehyde with MIC of 1.47%, wt/wt. In presence of cinnamaldehyde, the addition of sodium pyrophosphate decahydrate (0.1%, wt/wt) increased significantly (p < 0.05) the relative sensitivity of Bacillus Cereus spores 2 times. However, the presence of ascorbic acid in the media reduced significantly (p < 0.05) the radiosensitivity of bacteria. The combined effect of gamma irradiation in presence of cinnamaldehyde, added with ascorbic acid or sodium pyrophosphate decahydrate, on the microbiological and physico-chemical characteristic of meat samples was evaluated at 2 kGy under air. The use of the active compounds with the irradiation reduced significantly (p < 0.05) the count of total bacteria with a concomitant effect in the extension periods of shelf life. The addition of the cinnamaldehyde induced a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in TVN and free amino acids of irradiated samples. In presence of ascorbic acid the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) concentration was significantly reduced (P...0.05). A significant reduction (p < 0.05) of a* and C* of color values and a significant increase (p < 0.05 ) of b* value were obtained for the samples treated by the cinnamaldehyde. The application of bioactive films for the immobilization of the essential oils is a good alternate to check their stability during storage time. (Author). 155 refs

  2. Growth and acid production of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 in the fermentation of algal carcass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Zhang, G F; Mao, X; Wang, J Y; Duan, C Y; Wang, Z J; Liu, L B

    2016-06-01

    Algal carcass is a low-value byproduct of algae after its conversion to biodiesel. Dried algal carcass is rich in protein, carbohydrate, and multiple amino acids, and it is typically well suited for growth and acid production of lactic acid bacteria. In this study, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was used to ferment different algal carcass media (ACM), including 2% ACM, 2% ACM with 1.9% glucose (ACM-G), and 2% ACM with 1.9% glucose and 2g/L amino acid mixture (ACM-GA). Concentrations of organic acids (lactic acid and acetic acid), acetyl-CoA, and ATP were analyzed by HPLC, and activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acetokinase (ACK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK) were determined by using a chemical approach. The growth of L. bulgaricus cells in ACM-GA was close to that in the control medium (de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe). Lactic acid and acetic acid contents were greatly reduced when L. bulgaricus cells were grown in ACM compared with the control medium. Acetyl-CoA content varied with organic acid content and was increased in cells grown in different ACM compared with the control medium. The ATP content of L. bulgaricus cells in ACM was reduced compared with that of cells grown in the control medium. Activities of PFK and ACK of L. bulgaricus cells grown in ACM were higher and those of PK and LDH were lower compared with the control. Thus, ACM rich in nutrients may serve as an excellent substrate for growth by lactic acid bacteria, and addition of appropriate amounts of glucose and amino acids can improve growth and acid production. PMID:26995135

  3. Chitinase production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 11774 and its effect on biocontrol of Rhizoctonia diseases of potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Wesam I A; Ghoneem, Khalid M; Al-Askar, Abdulaziz A; Rashad, Younes M; Ali, Abeer A; Rashad, Ehsan M

    2015-12-01

    Stem canker and black scurf of potato, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, can be serious diseases causing an economically significant damage. Biocontrol activity of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 11774 against the Rhizoctonia diseases of potato was investigated in this study. Chitinase enzyme was optimally produced by B. subtilis under batch fermentation conditions similar to those of the potato-growing soil. The maximum chitinase was obtained at initial pH 8 and 30 °C. In vitro, the lytic action of the B. subtilis chitinase was detected releasing 355 μg GlcNAc ml⁻¹ from the cell wall extract of R. solani and suggesting the presence of various chitinase enzymes in the bacterial filtrate. In dual culture test, the antagonistic behavior of B. subtilis resulted in the inhibition of the radial growth of R. solani by 48.1% after 4 days. Moreover, the extracted B. subtilis chitinase reduced the growth of R. solani by 42.3% when incorporated with the PDA plates. Under greenhouse conditions, application of a bacterial suspension of B. subtilis at 109 cell mL⁻¹ significantly reduced the disease incidence of stem canker and black scurf to 22.3 and 30%, respectively. In addition, it significantly improved some biochemical parameters, growth and tubers yield. Our findings indicate two points; firstly, B. subtilis possesses a good biocontrol activity against Rhizoctonia diseases of potato, secondly, the harmonization and suitability of the soil conditions to the growth and activity of B. subtilis guaranteed a high controlling capacity against the target pathogen. PMID:26616375

  4. Growth inhibitory response and ultrastructural modification of oral-associated candidal reference strains (ATCC) by Piper betle L. extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohd-Al-Faisal Nordin; Wan Himratul-Aznita Wan Harun; Fathilah Abdul Razak; Md Yusoff Musa

    2014-01-01

    Candida species have been associated with the emergence of strains resistant to selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease mucosal fungal infections. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper betle extract on the growth profile and the ultrastructure of commonly isolated oral candidal cells. The major component of P. betle was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS). Seven ATCC control strains of Candida species were cultured in yeast peptone dextrose broth under four different growth environments:(i) in the absence of P. betle extract;and in the presence of P. betle extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg?mL21;(iii) 3 mg?mL21;and (iv) 6 mg?mL21. The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific growth rates (m). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe any ultrastructural alterations in the candida colonies. LC-MS/MS was performed to validate the presence of bioactive compounds in the extract. Following treatment, it was observed that the m-values of the treated cells were significantly different than those of the untreated cells (P,0.05), indicating the fungistatic properties of the P. betle extract. The candidal population was also reduced from an average of 13.443106 to 1.783106 viable cell counts (CFU)?mL21. SEM examination exhibited physical damage and considerable morphological alterations of the treated cells. The compound profile from LC-MS/MS indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid, chavibetol and hydroxychavicol in P. betle extract. The effects of P. betle on candida cells could potentiate its antifungal activity.

  5. A quantitative metabolomics study of high sodium response in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinhe; Condruz, Stefan; Chen, Jingkui; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Hemicellulose hydrolysates, sugar-rich feedstocks used in biobutanol refinery, are normally obtained by adding sodium hydroxide in the hydrolyze process. However, the resulting high sodium concentration in the hydrolysate inhibits ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation, and thus limits the use of these low-cost feedstocks. We have thus studied the effect of high sodium on the metabolic behavior of Clostridium acetobutyricum ATCC 824, with xylose as the carbon source. At a threshold sodium concentration of 200 mM, a decrease of the maximum cell dry weight (-19.50 ± 0.85%) and of ABE yield (-35.14 ± 3.50% acetone, -33.37 ± 0.74% butanol, -22.95 ± 1.81% ethanol) were observed compared to control culture. However, solvents specific productivities were not affected by supplementing sodium. The main effects of high sodium on cell metabolism were observed in acidogenesis, during which we observed the accumulation of ATP and NADH, and the inhibition of the pentose phosphate (PPP) and the glycolytic pathways with up to 80.73 ± 1.47% and 68.84 ± 3.42% decrease of the associated metabolic intermediates, respectively. However, the NADP(+)-to-NADPH ratio was constant for the whole culture duration, a phenomenon explaining the robustness of solvents specific productivities. Therefore, high sodium, which inhibited biomass growth through coordinated metabolic effects, interestingly triggered cell robustness on solvents specific productivity. PMID:27321153

  6. Role of Fimbriae, Flagella and Cellulose on the Attachment of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 to Plant Cell Wall Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle S F Tan

    Full Text Available Cases of foodborne disease caused by Salmonella are frequently associated with the consumption of minimally processed produce. Bacterial cell surface components are known to be important for the attachment of bacterial pathogens to fresh produce. The role of these extracellular structures in Salmonella attachment to plant cell walls has not been investigated in detail. We investigated the role of flagella, fimbriae and cellulose on the attachment of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 and a range of isogenic deletion mutants (ΔfliC fljB, ΔbcsA, ΔcsgA, ΔcsgA bcsA and ΔcsgD to bacterial cellulose (BC-based plant cell wall models [BC-Pectin (BCP, BC-Xyloglucan (BCX and BC-Pectin-Xyloglucan (BCPX] after growth at different temperatures (28°C and 37°C. We found that all three cell surface components were produced at 28°C but only the flagella was produced at 37°C. Flagella appeared to be most important for attachment (reduction of up to 1.5 log CFU/cm2 although both cellulose and fimbriae also aided in attachment. The csgD deletion mutant, which lacks both cellulose and fimbriae, showed significantly higher attachment as compared to wild type cells at 37°C. This may be due to the increased expression of flagella-related genes which are also indirectly regulated by the csgD gene. Our study suggests that bacterial attachment to plant cell walls is a complex process involving many factors. Although flagella, cellulose and fimbriae all aid in attachment, these structures are not the only mechanism as no strain was completely defective in its attachment.

  7. Protoplast fusion technology for improved production of coenzyme Q10 using Paracoccus denitrificans ATCC 19367 mutant strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradipta Tokdar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Induced mutants generated from Paracoccus denitrificans ATCC 19367 having antibiotic resistant markers, were used as parent strains to carry out protoplast fusion. The generated fusants were screened using standardized protocol for CoQ10 production. Among the generated fusants, one fusant namely PF-P1 showed 1.73 folds enhancements in specific CoQ10 content than wild type strain. Fusant PF-P1 was characterized by biochemical and molecular approaches where it showed differences than wild type strain. The fusant was further identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis that showed eight nucleotide base pair mutation on conserved region and 99% homology with Paracoccus denitrificans strains. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  8. Dicty_cDB: VFI888 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sicnqlsqklldqskkpyfkwvnklqlsdyvigtlaghedfircvlyrddgkliascsdd ktiriwsgetsslirvfpkvhtdkitsliwrgnqlisvgrdkkilm...scsdd ktiriwsgetsslirvfpkvhtdkitsliwrgnqlisvgrdkkilmwdeygkv...ogy vs Protein Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CP000117_1553( CP000117 |pid:none) Anabaena variabili...AATAAAT AAAAAATA sequence update 2001.11.22 Translated Amino Acid sequence sicnqlsqklldqskkpyfkwvnklqlsdyvigtlaghedfircvlyrddgklia...*ckw*w*tfshcklgskcnhlgy*keseiiliketyq*tfnlclls**qidc srllew--- ---llixllkkkk***kkqikiinnkkkiik**ikn Frame B:

  9. Estudios hematológicos y patológicos comparativos de cerdos inoculados con un aislado de campo y el serotipo 5 ATCC de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Comparative hematological and pathological study of inoculated pigs with a field isolate and an ATCC serotype 5 of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Muñoz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una inoculación experimental de A. pleuropneumoniae utilizando un aislado de campo y una cepa de referencia ATCC serotipo 5, para lo cual se utilizaron tres grupos de animales (n = 15 para cada grupo. El grupo 1 (G1 fue inoculado con medio estéril, el grupo (G2 con serotipo 5 ATCC y el grupo 3 (G3 fue inoculado con un aislado de campo (418/07. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas (P ≤ 0,05 en el recuento de leucocitos totales entre el grupo G1 v/s G2 y G1 v/s G3 y los grados de las lesiones pulmonares totales evidenciaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (P ≤ 0,05 entre los tres grupos de estudio. Las lesiones histopatológicas pulmonares mostraron diferencias estadísticas relevantes sólo entre G1 y G3 (P ≤ 0,05. En este trabajo se verifican diferencias importantes del comportamiento entre el aislado de campo y el serotipo 5 ATCC, sobre los cambios hematológicos y las lesiones macroscópicas e histopatológicas ocasionadas por ellos, lo cual podría indicar una mayor virulencia y patogenicidad del aislado nacional. Se espera en un futuro próximo serotipificar este aislado nacional de App.An experimental inoculation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App was carried out with a field isolate and an ATCC serotype 5. Three groups of 15 pigs each were used. Group 1 (G1 was the control group inoculated with sterile media, Group 2 was inoculated with the serotype 5 ATCC, and Group 3 (G3 was inoculated with a field isolate (418/07. The results showed statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 in the total leukocytes count between G1 v/s G2 and G1 v/s G3. The total macroscopic lung lesions scores were statistically different among the 3 groups (P ≤ 0.05. However, statistical difference was found only between G1 and G3 in the histopathological lung lesions (P ≤ 0.05. This work shows a clear difference in the hematological changes and the macroscopic and histopathological lesions between the

  10. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF GARLIC, CINNAMON AND TURMERIC AGAINST ESCHERICHIA COLI ATCC 25922 AND BACILLUS SUBTILIS DSM 3256

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Mukhtar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Many of the spices used daily have been documented to be antimicrobial and have medicinal value as well. Most bacteria are sensitive to the extracts from plants such as clove, garlic, mustard, onion, oregano, turmeric etc. spices such as garlic turmeric and cinnamon has been used as antimicrobial agents in their raw form for the treatment of wounds and injuries and joint pains etc. The present study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial activity of garlic, cinnamon and turmeric. Different concentrations of extracts were prepared by using two solvents water and ethanol. The antibacterial activity was tested against Bacillus subtilus (DSM 3256 and E.coli (ATCC 25922 at different concentration of extracts of spices by using disc diffusion method. According to the results among the selected spices garlic had the best inhibitory activity showing maximum zone of 26mm against Bacillus subtilis DSM and a zone of 22mm against E.coli ATCC 25922. The aqueous extracts of garlic were more effective than ethanolic extract. In the case of cinnamon and turmeric, the ethanolic extracts were more effective exhibiting zones of 16mm against B.subtilis DSM 3256 and 17mm against E.coli , which showed that the cinnamon ethanolic extracts are equally effective against both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. The widest zones formed by ethanolic extract of turmeric against B.subtilis was measured as 14mm and it was 11mm for E.coli ATCC 25922. The results showed that B.subtilus is more susceptible to test spices as compared to E.coli.

  11. Efecto del sistema glucosa oxidasa/glucosa sobre el crecimiento de Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 en leche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirza Noguera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La leche es uno de los alimentos de mayor importancia por ser rico en nutrientes y porque constituye la materia prima para la elaboración de una amplia gama de productos. Se ha demostrado que en leches pasteurizadas de marcas comerciales, pueden ocurrir contaminaciones postproceso, lo que representa un riesgo para la salud pública. Es por ello que en las últimas décadas, ha ganado importancia el uso de aditivos sintéticos u orgánicos como técnica complementaria durante el procesamiento de alimentos. La enzima glucosa oxidasa (GOX tiene amplio uso en la industria de alimentos gracias a sus propiedades antioxidante y antimicrobiana. Adicionalmente, se ha demostrado su capacidad de inhibir el crecimiento de diferentes enterobacterias. Por tal motivo, en el presente trabajo se planteó adicionar la enzima GOX en la leche y evaluar su efecto sobre el crecimiento de una cepa deEscherichia coli ATCC 25922. Se estandarizó la concentración de GOX y glucosa que ocasionaba la inhibición del crecimiento bacteriano en medio Luria-Bertani y en función de los resultados, se decidió utilizar la combinación de 2 U de GOX y 2,0 % de glucosa para agregarlos como aditivos en la leche y se establecieron dos sistemas: GOX/G sin pasteurizar y GOX/G pasteurizado. El crecimiento fue monitoreado por la técnica de contaje de colonias en placa-agar, a partir de 1 mL de cultivo a las 4, 6 y 24 h de incubación. Se encontró que los sistemas con GOX hasta las 6 horas presentaron efectos similares, inhibiendo significativamente el crecimiento de la bacteria, mientras que a las 24 h ya no se observó dicha inhibición, pero sí que el sistema con GOX pasteurizada exhibió una población menor que el sistema GOX sin pasteurizar. Estos hallazgos proyectan a la enzima GOX como una alternativa para la conservación de la leche, tanto cruda como pasteurizada.

  12. Efecto del sistema glucosa oxidasa/glucosa sobre el crecimiento de Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 en leche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirza Noguera

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La leche es uno de los alimentos de mayor importancia por ser rico en nutrientes y porque constituye la materia prima para la elaboración de una amplia gama de productos. Se ha demostrado que en leches pasteurizadas de marcas comerciales, pueden ocurrir contaminaciones postproceso, lo que representa un riesgo para la salud pública. Es por ello que en las últimas décadas, ha ganado importancia el uso de aditivos sintéticos u orgánicos como técnica complementaria durante el procesamiento de alimentos. La enzima glucosa oxidasa (GOX tiene amplio uso en la industria de alimentos gracias a sus propiedades antioxidante y antimicrobiana. Adicionalmente, se ha demostrado su capacidad de inhibir el crecimiento de diferentes enterobacterias. Por tal motivo, en el presente trabajo se planteó adicionar la enzima GOX en la leche y evaluar su efecto sobre el crecimiento de una cepa de Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Se estandarizó la concentración de GOX y glucosa que ocasionaba la inhibición del crecimiento bacteriano en medio Luria-Bertani y en función de los resultados, se decidió utilizar la combinación de 2 U de GOX y 2,0 % de glucosa para agregarlos como aditivos en la leche y se establecieron dos sistemas: GOX/G sin pasteurizar y GOX/G pasteurizado. El crecimiento fue monitoreado por la técnica de contaje de colonias en placa-agar, a partir de 1 mL de cultivo a las 4, 6 y 24 h de incubación. Se encontró que los sistemas con GOX hasta las 6 horas presentaron efectos similares, inhibiendo significativamente el crecimiento de la bacteria, mientras que a las 24 h ya no se observó dicha inhibición, pero sí que el sistema con GOX pasteurizada exhibió una población menor que el sistema GOX sin pasteurizar. Estos hallazgos proyectan a la enzima GOX como una alternativa para la conservación de la leche, tanto cruda como pasteurizada.

  13. Transcriptional response of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 to hydrogen peroxide stress and characterization of the OxyR regulon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milse, Johanna; Petri, Kathrin; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2014-11-20

    The aerobic soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 has a remarkable natural resistance to hydrogen peroxide. A major player in hydrogen peroxide defense is the LysR type transcriptional regulator OxyR, homologs of which are present in a wide range of bacteria. In this study, the global transcriptional response of C. glutamicum to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide was examined using whole genome DNA microarrays, demonstrating the dynamic reaction of the regulatory networks. Deletion of oxyR resulted in an increased resistance of the C. glutamicum mutant to hydrogen peroxide. By performing DNA microarray hybridizations and RT-qPCR, differentially expressed genes were detected in the mutant. The direct control by OxyR was verified by electrophoretic mobility shift assays for 12 target regions. The results demonstrated that OxyR in C. glutamicum acts as a transcriptional repressor under non-stress conditions for a total of 23 genes. The regulated genes encode proteins related to oxidative stress response (e.g. katA), iron homeostasis (e.g. dps) and sulfur metabolism (e.g. suf cluster). Besides the regulator of the suf cluster, SufR, OxyR regulated the gene cg1695 encoding a putative transcriptional regulator, indicating the role of OxyR as a master regulator in defense against oxidative stress. Using a modified DNase footprint approach, the OxyR-binding sites in five target promoter regions, katA, cydA, hemH, dps and cg1292, were localized and in each upstream region at least two overlapping binding sites were found. The DNA regions protected by the OxyR protein are about 56bp in length and do not have evident sequence similarities. Still, by giving an insight in the H2O2 stimulon and extending the OxyR regulon this study considerably contributes to the understanding of the response of C. glutamicum to hydrogen peroxide-mediated oxidative stress. PMID:25107507

  14. A comparative genomics perspective on the genetic content of the alkaliphilic haloarchaeon Natrialba magadii ATCC 43099T

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    Siddaramappa Shivakumara

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natrialba magadii is an aerobic chemoorganotrophic member of the Euryarchaeota and is a dual extremophile requiring alkaline conditions and hypersalinity for optimal growth. The genome sequence of Nab. magadii type strain ATCC 43099 was deciphered to obtain a comprehensive insight into the genetic content of this haloarchaeon and to understand the basis of some of the cellular functions necessary for its survival. Results The genome of Nab. magadii consists of four replicons with a total sequence of 4,443,643 bp and encodes 4,212 putative proteins, some of which contain peptide repeats of various lengths. Comparative genome analyses facilitated the identification of genes encoding putative proteins involved in adaptation to hypersalinity, stress response, glycosylation, and polysaccharide biosynthesis. A proton-driven ATP synthase and a variety of putative cytochromes and other proteins supporting aerobic respiration and electron transfer were encoded by one or more of Nab. magadii replicons. The genome encodes a number of putative proteases/peptidases as well as protein secretion functions. Genes encoding putative transcriptional regulators, basal transcription factors, signal perception/transduction proteins, and chemotaxis/phototaxis proteins were abundant in the genome. Pathways for the biosynthesis of thiamine, riboflavin, heme, cobalamin, coenzyme F420 and other essential co-factors were deduced by in depth sequence analyses. However, approximately 36% of Nab. magadii protein coding genes could not be assigned a function based on Blast analysis and have been annotated as encoding hypothetical or conserved hypothetical proteins. Furthermore, despite extensive comparative genomic analyses, genes necessary for survival in alkaline conditions could not be identified in Nab. magadii. Conclusions Based on genomic analyses, Nab. magadii is predicted to be metabolically versatile and it could use different carbon and energy

  15. Presensitization of microorganisms by essential oils treatments to low dose gamma irradiation with special reference to Bacillus cereus ATCC 7004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiosensitization of B.cereus ATCC 7004 spores was evaluated in the presence of thymol, thyme, D-L menthol, trans-cinnamaldehyde and eugenol in ground beef. Cattle minced meat (5% fat) was inoculated with spores of B.cereus (10 5 - 10 6 CFU/g), and each compound was added separately at various concentrations. The antimicrobial potential was evaluated in unirradiated meat by determining the MIC in percentage (wt/wt) after 24 h of storage at 4 ± 1 C. Results showed that the best antimicrobial compound was the trans-cinnamaldehyde with MIC of 1.47%, wt/wt. In presence of cinnamaldehyde, the addition of sodium pyrophosphate decahydrate (0.1% wt/wt) increased significantly (P < 0.05) the relative sensitivity of B.cereus spores 2 times. However, the presence of ascorbic acid in the media reduced significantly (p<0.05) the radiosensitivity of bacteria. The combined effect of gamma irradiation in presence of cinnamaldehyde, added with ascorbic acid or sodium pyrophosphate decahydrate, on the microbiological and physicochemical characteristic of meat samples was evaluated at 2kGy under air. The use of the active compounds with the irradiation reduced significantly (p<0.05) the count of total bacteria with a concomitant effect in the extension periods of shelf life. The addition of the cinnamaldehyde induced a significant reduction (p<0.05) in TVN and free amino acids of irradiated samples. In presence of ascorbic acid the thiobarbituric acid-reactive amino acids of irradiated samples. In presence of ascorbic acid the thiobarbiturate acid-reactive substances (TBARS) concentration was significantly reduced (p<0.05). A significant reduction (p<0.05) of a* and c* of color values and a significant increase (p<0.05) of b* value were obtained for the samples treated by the cinnamaldehyde. The application of bioactive films for the immobilization of the essential oils is a good alternate to check their stability during storage time

  16. The genome of the insecticidal Chromobacterium subtsugae PRAA4-1 and its comparison with that of Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Michael B; Sparks, Michael E; Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn E

    2016-12-01

    The genome of Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1, a betaproteobacterium producing insecticidal compounds, was sequenced and compared with the genome of C. violaceum ATCC 12472. The genome of C. subtsugae displayed a reduction in genes devoted to capsular and extracellular polysaccharide, possessed no genes encoding nitrate reductases, and exhibited many more phage-related sequences than were observed for C. violaceum. The genomes of both species possess a number of gene clusters predicted to encode biosynthetic complexes for secondary metabolites; these clusters suggest they produce overlapping, but distinct assortments of metabolites. PMID:27617206

  17. Expression of cbsA Encoding the Collagen-Binding S-Protein of Lactobacillus crispatus JCM5810 in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393T

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Beatriz; Sillanpää, Jouko; Smit, Egbert,; Korhonen, Timo K.; Pouwels, Peter H.

    2000-01-01

    The cbsA gene encoding the collagen-binding S-layer protein of Lactobacillus crispatus JCM5810 was expressed in L. casei ATCC 393T. The S-protein was not retained on the surface of the recombinant bacteria but was secreted into the medium. By translational fusion of CbsA to the cell wall sorting signal of the proteinase, PrtP, of L. casei, CbsA was presented at the surface, rendering the transformants able to bind to immobilized collagens.

  18. Enantioselective microbial reduction of 1,1-dimethyl-1-sila-cyclohexan-2-one with growing cells of the yeast Kloeckera corticis (ATCC 20109)

    OpenAIRE

    Tacke, Reinhold; Hengelsberg, H.; Zilch, H.; Stumpf, B

    2012-01-01

    (R)-1,1-Dimethyl-1-sila-cyclohexan-2-ol [(R)-2] was prepared by enantioselective microbial reduction of 1,1-dimethyl-1-sila-cyclohexan-2-one (1) with growing cells of the yeast Kloeckera corticis (ATCC 20109). At a substrate concentration of 0.5 g/1 (temperature 27° C, incubation time 16 h), (R}-2 was obtained on a preparative scale in 60% yield and with an enantiomeric purity of 92% ee. Repeated recrystallization of the biotransformation product from n-hexane raised the enantiomeric purity t...

  19. Transcriptomic Profile of Whole Blood Cells from Elderly Subjects Fed Probiotic Bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG) in a Phase I Open Label Study

    OpenAIRE

    Solano-Aguilar, Gloria; Molokin, Aleksey; Botelho, Christine; Fiorino, Anne-Maria; Vinyard, Bryan; Li, Robert; Chen, Celine; Urban, Joseph; Dawson, Harry; Andreyeva, Irina; Haverkamp, Miriam; Hibberd, Patricia L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined gene expression of whole blood cells (WBC) from 11 healthy elderly volunteers participating on a Phase I open label study before and after oral treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-ATCC 53103 (LGG)) using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Elderly patients (65–80 yrs) completed a clinical assessment for health status and had blood drawn for cellular RNA extraction at study admission (Baseline), after 28 days of daily LGG treatment (Day 28) and at the end of the study (Day 56) after LG...

  20. Effects of environment factors on the culture of recombinant Anabaena sp. PCC7120%环境因子对转基因鱼腥藻培养的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨; 刘志伟; 郭勇

    2002-01-01

    摇瓶中对转TNF-α基因鱼腥藻7120(Anabaena sp.PCC7120,pDC-TNF)混合培养条件进行了研究,在含蔗糖9 g/L,NaNO3 2.25 g/L的BG-11培养基混合培养时,得到最适培养条件接种量5%,光照强度为1000Lux,光/暗周期(光照时间/黑暗时间)12h/12h,温度25~30℃,自然初始pH值,100mL摇瓶装液量40mL,转基因鱼腥藻15d生物量可达到3g/L以上,可溶性蛋白含量接近30%,TNF表达水平大于22%,与自养相比,生物量增加82.06%,表达水平提高38.79%.证明混合营养型培养是转rhTNF-α基因鱼腥藻7120实现高密度、高表达培养的途径.

  1. Expression of Lactobacillus reuteri Pg4 collagen-binding protein gene in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 increases its adhesion ability to Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Hsiang-Yun; Yueh, Pei-Ying; Yu, Bi; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Je-Ruei

    2010-12-01

    The collagen-binding protein gene cnb was cloned from the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strain Pg4. The DNA sequence of the cnb gene (792 bp) has an open reading frame encoding 263 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 28.5 kDa. The cnb gene was constructed so as to constitutively express under the control of the Lactococcus lactis lacA promoter and was transformed into Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393, a strain isolated from dairy products with poor ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopic and flow cytometric analysis of the transformed strain Lb. casei pNZ-cnb indicated that Cnb was displayed on its cell surface. Lb. casei pNZ-cnb not only showed a higher ability to adhere to Caco-2 cells but also exhibited a higher competition ability against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes adhesion to Caco-2 cells than Lb. casei ATCC 393. PMID:21070005

  2. Effect of bioconversion conditions on vanillin production by Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 through an analysis of competing by-product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-kui; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of transformation conditions such as initial pH, the initial concentration of glucose and yeast extract in the medium, and the separate addition of ferulic acid and vanillic acid, on the production of vanillin through an analysis of competing by-product formation by Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116. The extent and nature of by-product formation and vanillin yield were affected by initial pH and different initial concentrations of glucose and yeast extract in the medium, with a high yield of vanillin and high cell density obtained at pH 8.0, 10 g/l glucose, and 8 g/l yeast extract. High concentrations of ferulic acid were found to negatively affect cell density. Additional supplementation of 100 mg/l vanillic acid, a metabolically linked by-product, was found to result in a high concentration of vanillin and guaiacol, an intermediate of vanillin. Via an analysis of the effect of these transformation conditions on competing by-product formation, high concentrations of ferulic acid were transformed with a molar yield to vanillin of 96.1 and 95.2 %, by Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 and Streptomyces V1, respectively, together with a minor accumulation of by-products. These are among the highest performance values reported in the literature to date for Streptomyces in batch cultures. PMID:24078147

  3. Batch production of Pyranose 2-oxidase from Trametes versicolor (ATCC 11235) in medium with a lignocellulosic substrate and enzymatic bleaching of cotton fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara; Erden, Emre; Ucar, M Cigdem; Akkaya, Alper; Sariisik, A Merih

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work was to determine new, different and low-cost substrates that can be used for enzyme production from the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor (ATCC 11235) by taking advantage of the broad substrate specificity of pyranose 2-oxidase. In this report, we investigated the production of pyranose 2-oxidase from T. versicolor (ATCC 11235) using ten different agricultural residues such as clover straw, almond shells, hazelnut cobs, grass and others. Pyranose 2-oxidase activity was determined as 2.332 U/g at the 9th day in a submerged culture containing clover straw and tap water shaken at 150 rpm and 26°C, and the optimum clover straw concentration was determined to be 12 g/l. The effects of different glucose, nitrogen and phosphate sources on the production of pyranose 2-oxidase were studied in the clover straw medium. Analyses of biomass, protein, reduced sugar and nitrogen concentrations were also monitored in a clover straw medium that did not contain carbon or nitrogen and phosphate sources under the parameters determined. The produced pyranose 2-oxidase was used for improving the properties of cotton fabrics. PMID:22805934

  4. Genome-scale modeling of light-driven reductant partitioning and carbon fluxes in diazotrophic unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, Trang; Stolyar, Sergey; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Hill, Eric A.; Kucek, Leo A.; Brown, Roslyn N.; Lipton, Mary S.; Osterman, Andrei L.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Reed, Jennifer L.

    2012-04-05

    Genome-scale metabolic models have proven useful for answering fundamental questions about metabolic capabilities of a variety of microorganisms, as well as informing their metabolic engineering. However, only a few models are available for oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms, particularly in cyanobacteria in which photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains (ETC) share components. We addressed the complexity of cyanobacterial ETC by developing a genome-scale model for the diazotrophic cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142. The resulting metabolic reconstruction, iCce806, consists of 806 genes associated with 667 metabolic reactions and includes a detailed representation of the ETC and a biomass equation based on experimental measurements. Both computational and experimental approaches were used to investigate light-driven metabolism in Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, with a particular focus on reductant production and partitioning within the ETC. The simulation results suggest that growth and metabolic flux distributions are substantially impacted by the relative amounts of light going into the individual photosystems. When photosystem II flux is high, terminal oxidases of respiratory electron transport are predicted to be an important mechanism for removing excess electrons. When photosystem I flux is high cyclic electron transport becomes important. Model predictions of growth rates were in good quantitative agreement with measured growth rates, and predictions of reaction usage were qualitatively consistent with protein and mRNA expression data, when these latter datasets were used to constrain the model.

  5. Switching antibiotics production on and off in actinomycetes by an IclR family transcriptional regulator from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Amit Kumar; Singh, Bijay; Maharjan, Sushila; Jha, Amit Kumar; Kim, Byung-Gee; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2014-08-01

    Doxorubicin, produced by Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952, is tightly regulated by dnrO, dnrN, and dnrI regulators. Genome mining of S. peucetius revealed the presence of the IclR (doxR) type family of transcription regulator mediating the signal-dependent expression of operons at the nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene cluster. Overexpression of doxR in native strain strongly repressed the drug production. Furthermore, it also had a negative effect on the regulatory system of doxorubicin, wherein the transcript of dnrI was reduced to the maximum level in comparision with the other two. Interestingly, the overexpression of the same gene also had strong inhibitory effects on the production of actinorhodin (blue pigment) and undecylprodigiosin (red pigment) in Streptomyces coelicolor M145, herboxidiene production in Streptomyces chromofuscus ATCC 49982, and spinosyn production in Saccharopolyspora spinosa NRRL 18395, respectively. Moreover, DoxR exhibited pleiotropic effects on the production of blue and red pigments in S. coelicolor when grown in different agar media, wherein the production of blue pigment was inhibited in R2YE medium and the red pigment was inhibited in YEME medium. However, the production of both blue and red pigments from S. coelicolor harboring doxR was halted in ISP2 medium, whereas S. coelicolor produced both pigmented antibiotics in the same plate. These consequences demonstrate that the on and off production of these antibiotics was not due to salt stress or media compositions, but was selectively controlled in actinomycetes. PMID:24786531

  6. Random mutagenesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 using an IS6100-based transposon vector identified the last unknown gene in the histidine biosynthesis pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaigalat Lars

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corynebacterium glutamicum, a Gram-positive bacterium of the class Actinobacteria, is an industrially relevant producer of amino acids. Several methods for the targeted genetic manipulation of this organism and rational strain improvement have been developed. An efficient transposon mutagenesis system for the completely sequenced type strain ATCC 13032 would significantly advance functional genome analysis in this bacterium. Results A comprehensive transposon mutant library comprising 10,080 independent clones was constructed by electrotransformation of the restriction-deficient derivative of strain ATCC 13032, C. glutamicum RES167, with an IS6100-containing non-replicative plasmid. Transposon mutants had stable cointegrates between the transposon vector and the chromosome. Altogether 172 transposon integration sites have been determined by sequencing of the chromosomal inserts, revealing that each integration occurred at a different locus. Statistical target site analyses revealed an apparent absence of a target site preference. From the library, auxotrophic mutants were obtained with a frequency of 2.9%. By auxanography analyses nearly two thirds of the auxotrophs were further characterized, including mutants with single, double and alternative nutritional requirements. In most cases the nutritional requirement observed could be correlated to the annotation of the mutated gene involved in the biosynthesis of an amino acid, a nucleotide or a vitamin. One notable exception was a clone mutagenized by transposition into the gene cg0910, which exhibited an auxotrophy for histidine. The protein sequence deduced from cg0910 showed high sequence similarities to inositol-1(or 4-monophosphatases (EC 3.1.3.25. Subsequent genetic deletion of cg0910 delivered the same histidine-auxotrophic phenotype. Genetic complementation of the mutants as well as supplementation by histidinol suggests that cg0910 encodes the hitherto unknown

  7. pUCL287 plasmid from Tetragenococcus halophila (Pediococcus halophilus) ATCC 33315 represents a new theta-type replicon family of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benachour, A; Frère, J; Novel, G

    1995-05-01

    A cryptic plasmid, pUCL287, was isolated from Tetragenococcus halophila (Pediococcus halophilus) ATCC 33315. It had a theta-type mechanism of replication in its natural host. Its minimal replicon, Rep287, was isolated on a 1.6-kb EcoRI fragment. The Rep287 host range included the genera Pediococcus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc but not genus Lactococcus. Plasmids hybridizing to pUCL287 are rare among lactic acid bacteria. As assessed by hybridization, Rep287 is dissimilar to pAM beta 1, pIP501 and pUCL22, representatives of the most common theta-type replicon groups in Gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, pUCL287 appears to represent a new theta-type replicon family from lactic acid bacteria. PMID:7750734

  8. Identification of Specific Variations in a Non-Motile Strain of Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Originated from ATCC 27184 by Whole Genome Resequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglong Ding

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a widely used model organism in basic research and biofuel biotechnology application. Here, we report the genomic sequence of chromosome and seven plasmids of a glucose-tolerant, non-motile strain originated from ATCC 27184, GT-G, in use at Guangzhou. Through high-throughput genome re-sequencing and verification by Sanger sequencing, eight novel variants were identified in its chromosome and plasmids. The eight novel variants, especially the five non-silent mutations might have interesting effects on the phenotype of GT-G strains, for example the truncated Sll1895 and Slr0322 protein. These resequencing data provide background information for further research and application based on the GT-G strain and also provide evidence to study the evolution and divergence of Synechocystis 6803 globally.

  9. No evidence of harms of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in healthy elderly-a phase I open label study to assess safety, tolerability and cytokine responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Hibberd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG has been consumed by 2 to 5 million people daily since the mid 1990s, there are few clinical trials describing potential harms of LGG, particularly in the elderly. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this open label clinical trial is to assess the safety and tolerability of 1×1010 colony forming units (CFU of LGG administered orally twice daily to elderly volunteers for 28 days. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the effects of LGG on the gastrointestinal microbiome, host immune response and plasma cytokines. METHODS: Fifteen elderly volunteers, aged 66-80 years received LGG capsules containing 1×1010 CFU, twice daily for 28 days and were followed through day 56. Volunteers completed a daily diary, a telephone call on study days 3, 7 and 14 and study visits in the Clinical Research Center at baseline, day 28 and day 56 to determine whether adverse events had occurred. Assessments included prompted and open-ended questions. RESULTS: There were no serious adverse events. The 15 volunteers had a total of 47 events (range 1-7 per volunteer, 39 (83% of which were rated as mild and 40% of which were considered related to consuming LGG. Thirty-one (70% of the events were expected, prompted symptoms while 16 were unexpected events. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal (bloating, gas, and nausea, 27 rated as mild and 3 rated as moderate. In the exploratory analysis, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 decreased during LGG consumption, returning towards baseline one month after discontinuing LGG (p = 0.038 while there was no difference in other pro- or anti-inflammatory plasma cytokines. CONCLUSIONS: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 is safe and well tolerated in healthy adults aged 65 years and older. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 01274598.

  10. Proteome Analyses of Strains ATCC 51142 and PCC 7822 of the Diazotrophic Cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp under Culture Conditions Resulting in Enhanced H-2 Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aryal, Uma K.; Callister, Stephen J.; Mishra, Sujata; Zhang, Xiaohui; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Angel, Thomas E.; Shukla, Anil K.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Moore, Ronald J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Smith, Richard D.; Sherman, Louis

    2013-02-01

    Cultures of the cyanobacterial genus Cyanothece have been shown to produce high levels of biohydrogen. These strains are diazotrophic and undergo pronounced diurnal cycles when grown under N2-fixing conditions in light-dark cycles. We seek to better understand the way in which proteins respond to these diurnal changes and we performed quantitative proteome analysis of Cyanothece ATCC 51142 and PCC 7822 grown under 8 different nutritional conditions. Nitrogenase expression was limited to N2-fixing conditions, and in the absence of glycerol, nitrogenase gene expression was linked to the dark period. However, glycerol induced expression of nitrogenase during part of the light period, together with cytochrome c oxidase (Cox), glycogen phosphorylase (Glp), and glycolytic and pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP) enzymes. This indicated that nitrogenase expression in the light was facilitated via higher respiration and glycogen breakdown. Key enzymes of the Calvin cycle were inhibited in Cyanothece ATCC 51142 in the presence of glycerol under H2 producing conditions, suggesting a competition between these sources of carbon. However, in Cyanothece PCC 7822, the Calvin cycle still played a role in cofactor recycling during H2 production. Our data comprise the first comprehensive profiling of proteome changes in Cyanothece PCC 7822, and allows an in-depth comparative analysis of major physiological and biochemical processes that influence H2-production in both the strains. Our results revealed many previously uncharacterized proteins that may play a role in nitrogenase activity and in other metabolic pathways and may provide suitable targets for genetic manipulation that would lead to improvement of large scale H2 production.

  11. Transcriptome sequence and plasmid copy number analysis of the brewery isolate Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344 T during growth in beer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pittet

    Full Text Available Growth of specific lactic acid bacteria in beer leads to spoiled product and economic loss for the brewing industry. Microbial growth is typically inhibited by the combined stresses found in beer (e.g., ethanol, hops, low pH, minimal nutrients; however, certain bacteria have adapted to grow in this harsh environment. Considering little is known about the mechanisms used by bacteria to grow in and spoil beer, transcriptome sequencing was performed on a variant of the beer-spoilage organism Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T (Pc344-358. Illumina sequencing was used to compare the transcript levels in Pc344-358 growing mid-exponentially in beer to those in nutrient-rich MRS broth. Various operons demonstrated high gene expression in beer, several of which are involved in nutrient acquisition and overcoming the inhibitory effects of hop compounds. As well, genes functioning in cell membrane modification and biosynthesis demonstrated significantly higher transcript levels in Pc344-358 growing in beer. Three plasmids had the majority of their genes showing increased transcript levels in beer, whereas the two cryptic plasmids showed slightly decreased gene expression. Follow-up analysis of plasmid copy number in both growth environments revealed similar trends, where more copies of the three non-cryptic plasmids were found in Pc344-358 growing in beer. Transcriptome sequencing also enabled the addition of several genes to the P. claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T genome annotation, some of which are putatively transcribed as non-coding RNAs. The sequencing results not only provide the first transcriptome description of a beer-spoilage organism while growing in beer, but they also highlight several targets for future exploration, including genes that may have a role in the general stress response of lactic acid bacteria.

  12. Effects of insect infestation on morphological traits and germination behavior of Quercus variabilis nuts%昆虫寄生对栓皮栎坚果特征和萌发行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明洋; 王振龙; 王永红; 郭彩茹; 田澍辽; 路纪琪

    2011-01-01

    Acorns, nuts/seeds of Quercus plants, are commonly infested by insect larvae under natural condition, and consequently, seed quality, germination and seedling recruitment are impacted by infestation. From 2007 to 2008, insect infestation of nuts of Chinese cork oak, Quercus variabilis, was investigated in Jiyuan of Mt. Taihangshan area, and infested and perfect nuts were selected and planted in soil of 4 cm depths in Sep., 2007. We aimed to understand the effects of infestation on acorn quality,germination, seedling growth, and to clarify the interaction between infestation and above-mentioned procedure within plant recruitment. The results showed that: 1 ) infested rates of nuts were 30.04% and 47.68% in 2007 and 2008, respectively; 2) tannic acid (TA) content in infested nuts ( 11.54% ± 1.36% ) was significantly larger than that in perfect ones (7.36% ± 1.31% ) (P =0. 004); 3) the freshweight, diameter, and length of infested acorns were less than those in perfect nuts; 4) the rates of rotten nuts (28%) and partially germinated nuts (28%) in infested nuts were larger than those in perfect nuts (0% rotten and 2% partially germinated), while seedling establishment rate in infested nuts (56%) was less than that in perfect nuts (92%); germination duration of infested nuts (35 weeks after burial) was shorter than that of perfect nuts (37 weeks after burial); 5 ) at the time of early winter of experimental year, there were insignificant differences in height and leaf number of seedlings between infested and perfect nuts; and 6) at the end of experiment, June, 2008, there were no significant differences in leaf number,stem length, leaf weight and stem weight, except for root length, root weight and biomass, between seedlings derived from infested and perfect nuts. The results suggest that infestation would exert negative impact on seed quality and germination behavior; nonetheless, infestation is presumably reasonable for Quercus plant

  13. Diversity and transcription of proteases involved in the maturation of hydrogenases in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 and Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindblad Peter

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The last step in the maturation process of the large subunit of [NiFe]-hydrogenases is a proteolytic cleavage of the C-terminal by a hydrogenase specific protease. Contrary to other accessory proteins these hydrogenase proteases are believed to be specific whereby one type of hydrogenases specific protease only cleaves one type of hydrogenase. In cyanobacteria this is achieved by the gene product of either hupW or hoxW, specific for the uptake or the bidirectional hydrogenase respectively. The filamentous cyanobacteria Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 and Nostoc sp strain PCC 7120 may contain a single uptake hydrogenase or both an uptake and a bidirectional hydrogenase respectively. Results In order to examine these proteases in cyanobacteria, transcriptional analyses were performed of hupW in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 and hupW and hoxW in Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120. These studies revealed numerous transcriptional start points together with putative binding sites for NtcA (hupW and LexA (hoxW. In order to investigate the diversity and specificity among hydrogeanse specific proteases we constructed a phylogenetic tree which revealed several subgroups that showed a striking resemblance to the subgroups previously described for [NiFe]-hydrogenases. Additionally the proteases specificity was also addressed by amino acid sequence analysis and protein-protein docking experiments with 3D-models derived from bioinformatic studies. These studies revealed a so called "HOXBOX"; an amino acid sequence specific for protease of Hox-type which might be involved in docking with the large subunit of the hydrogenase. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the hydrogenase specific proteases are under similar regulatory control as the hydrogenases they cleave. The result from the phylogenetic study also indicates that the hydrogenase and the protease have co-evolved since ancient time and suggests that at least one major horizontal gene transfer

  14. Cloning and sequencing of the kedarcidin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptoalloteichus sp. ATCC 53650 revealing new insights into biosynthesis of the enediyne family of antitumor antibiotics†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Jeremy R.; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Horsman, Geoffrey P.; Dilfer, Paul E.; Huang, Tingting; Chen, Yihua; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Shen, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Enediyne natural product biosynthesis is characterized by a convergence of multiple pathways, generating unique peripheral moieties that are appended onto the distinctive enediyne core. Kedarcidin (KED) possesses two unique peripheral moieties, a (R)-2-aza-3-chloro-β-tyrosine and an iso-propoxy-bearing 2-naphthonate moiety, as well as two deoxysugars. The appendage pattern of these peripheral moieties to the enediyne core in KED differs from the other enediynes studied to date with respect to stereochemical configuration. To investigate the biosynthesis of these moieties and expand our understanding of enediyne core formation, the biosynthetic gene cluster for KED was cloned from Streptoalloteichus sp. ATCC 53650 and sequenced. Bioinformatics analysis of the ked cluster revealed the presence of the conserved genes encoding for enediyne core biosynthesis, type I and type II polyketide synthase loci likely responsible for 2-aza-L-tyrosine and 3,6,8-trihydroxy-2-naphthonate formation, and enzymes known for deoxysugar biosynthesis. Genes homologous to those responsible for the biosynthesis, activation, and coupling of the L-tyrosine-derived moieties from C-1027 and maduropeptin and of the naphthonate moiety from neocarzinostatin are present in the ked cluster, supporting 2-aza-L-tyrosine and 3,6,8-trihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid as precursors, respectively, for the (R)-2-aza-3-chloro-β-tyrosine and the 2-naphthonate moieties in KED biosynthesis. PMID:23360970

  15. Cloning and sequencing of the kedarcidin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptoalloteichus sp. ATCC 53650 revealing new insights into biosynthesis of the enediyne family of antitumor antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Jeremy R; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Horsman, Geoffrey P; Dilfer, Paul E; Huang, Tingting; Chen, Yihua; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Shen, Ben

    2013-03-01

    Enediyne natural product biosynthesis is characterized by a convergence of multiple pathways, generating unique peripheral moieties that are appended onto the distinctive enediyne core. Kedarcidin (KED) possesses two unique peripheral moieties, a (R)-2-aza-3-chloro-β-tyrosine and an iso-propoxy-bearing 2-naphthonate moiety, as well as two deoxysugars. The appendage pattern of these peripheral moieties to the enediyne core in KED differs from the other enediynes studied to date with respect to stereochemical configuration. To investigate the biosynthesis of these moieties and expand our understanding of enediyne core formation, the biosynthetic gene cluster for KED was cloned from Streptoalloteichus sp. ATCC 53650 and sequenced. Bioinformatics analysis of the ked cluster revealed the presence of the conserved genes encoding for enediyne core biosynthesis, type I and type II polyketide synthase loci likely responsible for 2-aza-l-tyrosine and 3,6,8-trihydroxy-2-naphthonate formation, and enzymes known for deoxysugar biosynthesis. Genes homologous to those responsible for the biosynthesis, activation, and coupling of the l-tyrosine-derived moieties from C-1027 and maduropeptin and of the naphthonate moiety from neocarzinostatin are present in the ked cluster, supporting 2-aza-l-tyrosine and 3,6,8-trihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid as precursors, respectively, for the (R)-2-aza-3-chloro-β-tyrosine and the 2-naphthonate moieties in KED biosynthesis. PMID:23360970

  16. Synergistic Interaction of Methanol Extract from Canarium odontophyllum Miq. Leaf in Combination with Oxacillin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33591.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Sandra, Vimashiinee

    2016-01-01

    Canarium odontophyllum (CO) Miq. has been considered as one of the most sought-after plant species in Sarawak, Malaysia, due to its nutritional and pharmacological benefits. This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacodynamic interaction of crude methanol and acetone extracts from CO leaves in combination with oxacillin, vancomycin, and linezolid, respectively, against MRSA ATCC 33591 as preliminary study has reported its potential antistaphylococcal activity. The broth microdilution assay revealed that both methanol and acetone extracts were bactericidal with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 312.5 μg/mL and 156.25 μg/mL and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of 625 μg/mL and 312.5 μg/mL, respectively. Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) indices were obtained via the chequerboard dilution assay where methanol extract-oxacillin, acetone extract-oxacillin, methanol extract-linezolid, and acetone extract-linezolid combinations exhibited synergism (FIC index ≤ 0.5). The synergistic action of the methanol extract-oxacillin combination was verified by time-kill analysis where bactericidal effect was observed at concentration of 1/8 × MIC of both compounds at 9.6 h compared to oxacillin alone. As such, these findings postulated that both extracts exert their anti-MRSA mechanism of action similar to that of vancomycin and provide evidence that the leaves of C. odontophyllum have the potential to be developed into antistaphylococcal agents. PMID:27006659

  17. Sugarcane molasses and yeast powder used in the Fructooligosaccharides production by Aspergillus japonicus-FCL 119T and Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorta, Claudia; Cruz, Rubens; de Oliva-Neto, Pedro; Moura, Danilo José Camargo

    2006-12-01

    Different concentrations of sucrose (3-25% w/v) and peptone (2-5% w/v) were studied in the formulation of media during the cultivation of Aspergillus japonicus-FCL 119T and Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611. Moreover, cane molasses (3.5-17.5% w/v total sugar) and yeast powder (1.5-5% w/v) were used as alternative nutrients for both strains' cultivation. These media were formulated for analysis of cellular growth, beta-Fructosyltransferase and Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) production. Transfructosylating activity (U ( t )) and FOS production were analyzed by HPLC. The highest enzyme production by both the strains was 3% (w/v) sucrose and 3% (w/v) peptone, or 3.5% (w/v) total sugars present in cane molasses and 1.5% (w/v) yeast powder. Cane molasses and yeast powder were as good as sucrose and peptone in the enzyme and FOS (around 60% w/w) production by studied strains. PMID:16835781

  18. Sequence Analysis of Inducible Prophage phIS3501 Integrated into the Haemolysin II Gene of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis ATCC35646

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouziane Moumen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheic food poisoning by bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group is mostly due to several toxins encoded in the genomes. One of them, cytotoxin K, was recently identified as responsible for severe necrotic syndromes. Cytotoxin K is similar to a class of proteins encoded by genes usually annotated as haemolysin II (hlyII in the majority of genomes of the B. cereus group. The partially sequenced genome of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis ATCC35646 contains several potentially induced prophages, one of them integrated into the hlyII gene. We determined the complete sequence and established the genomic organization of this prophage-designated phIS3501. During induction of excision of this prophage with mitomycin C, intact hlyII gene is formed, thus providing to cells a genetic ability to synthesize the active toxin. Therefore, this prophage, upon its excision, can be implicated in the regulation of synthesis of the active toxin and thus in the virulence of bacterial host. A generality of selection for such systems in bacterial pathogens is indicated by the similarity of this genetic arrangement to that of Staphylococcus aureus  β-haemolysin.

  19. Determination of the folate content in cladodes of nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) by microbiological assay utilizing Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 7469) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Escobar, Tania Breshkovskaya; Valverde-González, Maria Elena; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2010-05-26

    Prickly pear cactus has been an important food source in Mexico since ancient times due to its economical and ecological benefits and potential nutraceutical value. Nevertheless, studies on the nutritional aspects and health benefits have been scarce. The purpose of this study was to assess, apparently for the first time, the folate contents of cladodes of nopal by a microbiological assay, using Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 7469) in extracts that were enzymatically treated to release the bound vitamin, employing single, dual, and trienzymatic procedures, and using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We used Opuntia cladodes of different length sizes. The microbiological assay showed some differences among enzyme treatments and sizes of nopal; the trienzyme treatment (alpha-amylase-protease-conjugase) was more efficient in determining the folate content in nopal, giving 5.0 ng/g in the small size cladodes at 54 h of testing time, while ELISA showed no significant differences in the folate content among sizes of cladodes (5.5-5.62 ng/g at 0 min testing time). Both techniques may be used for the assessment of folate content in cladodes, but ELISA is more rapid and reliable. PMID:20441169

  20. Molecular analysis of the replication region of the theta-replicating plasmid pUCL287 from Tetragenococcus (Pediococcus) halophilus ATCC33315.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benachour, A; Frère, J; Flahaut, S; Novel, G; Auffray, Y

    1997-08-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the 8.7-kb theta-replicating plasmid pUCL287 from Tetragenococcus halophilus (formerly Pediococcus halophilus) ATCC33315 has been determined. The replication region was identified and analyzed. Its nucleotide sequence contains an untranslated region, the replication origin, followed by two open reading frames (ORFs) encoding two proteins of 311 (RepA287) and 168 (RepB287) amino acids, respectively. Evidence is presented to show that RepA287 represents the plasmid replication protein. RepB287, which is non-essential for replication, is involved in the plasmid copy-number control and segregational stability. The roles of lactococcal proteins homologous to RepB287 have not been defined so far. Nevertheless, the structural organization of the pUCL287 replication region is remarkably similar to those of well known theta-replicating lactococcal plasmids despite the absence of homology of the replication origin and of the replication protein, and this suggests that pUCL287 uses the same mechanism of replication. Nucleotide sequence comparisons show that pSMB74, a pediococcal plasmid encoding bacteriocin production, is a member of the pUCL287 replicon family. PMID:9294035