Zakaria, Sri Rahmayanti Azhar
Sun exposure contain ultraviolet radiation that can cause a variety of skin disorders ranging from reddish, black spots, dryness, wrinkles to skin cancer. Cosmetic sunscreen can filter the sun or hold the entire sun exposure to reduce the adverse effects of sunlight. Octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) is an active substance which works chemically to absorb ultraviolet light (UV) into the epidermal layer of the skin. Another active subtance is a jamblang leaf (Syzigium cumini (L) Skeels) because it ...
A secretory structure is a structure that produces a plant's metabolite substances. Secretory structures are grouped into an internal and external. Zingiberaceae plants are known as traditional medicine plants and as spice plants due to secretory structures in their tissues. The objective of the research were to describe the secretory structure of Zingiberaceae plants and to discover the qualitatively primary metabolite substances in plant's tissues via histochemistry test. The research was conducted by observation descriptive design, quantitative data including the density of secretory cells per mm². The quantitative data were analyzed by ANOVA and continued by Duncan at α = 5 %. The results showed that the secretory structures in leaves, rhizome, and the root of 14 species of Zingiberaceae plants are found in the mesophyll of leaves and cortex, and also pith in rhizome and roots. The type of secretory structure is internal. Within the root of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.(bengle), Curcuma domestica Val. (kunyit), Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Roscoe (kunyit putih), Zingiber zerumbet (L.) J.E. Smith (lempuyang), Alpiniapurpurata K. Schum (lengkuas merah), and Curcuma aeruginosa Val. (temu ireng) were found amylum grains, while in Kaemferia galanga L. (kencur), Boesen bergiapandurata L. (temu kunci), and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (temulawak) there were no amylum grains in the root as well as in the leaves. The roots of bengle had the greatest density of amylum grain, it had 248.1 ± 9.8 secretory cells of amylum grains per mm². Lipids (oil droplets) were found in the root of bengle, Zingiber officinale Roxb. Var. emprit (jahe emprit), Zingiber officinale Roxb. Var. Gajah (jahe gajah), Zingiber officinale Roxb. Var. Rubrum (jahe merah), Keampferia angustifolia L. (kunci pepet), kunyit, kunyit putih, lempuyang, lengkua smerah, Curcuma aeruginosa Val. (temu ireng), and Curcuma mangga Val. and van Zijp (temu mangga); the root of lempuyang had the greatest density of oil
Lukoyanychev E.E.; Ryabkov M.G.; Kudykin M.N.
The aim of the study is to determine the influence of intra-enteric pressure level on the mechanism causing decompensation of microcirculation defects in the wall of a small intestine and to assess the effectiveness of enteral lavage by hydroxyethyl amylum in case of an increased intra-enteric pressure in acute intestinal obstruction. Materials and Methods. The experiment was carried out on 54 laboratory animals. In I series of the experiment (36 non-pedigree dogs) the processes of microc...
Dani, Mohammad; H, Bagyo; Minsyahril, B.
It has been done the study of thermal gravimetric analyse (TGA) accompanied with magnetic suspension balance (MSB) on the diesel machine of sample A (HV = 256.78 kgf/mm 2 , ρ = 6.65-7.16 g/cm 3 ) and sample B (HV 166.67 kgf/mm 2 , ρ= 5.39-5.57 g/cm 3 ). The samples were oxidized at 900 o C for 24 hours in the variation of with and without additives (Diesel Booster + Amylum Nitrate; DBANI and Diesel Booster;DB) in solar oil of 1: 1500. The samples were, then, characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (crystal structures) and Scanning Electron Microscope (microstructures). The result shows that the Fe 2 O 3 layers spread out over the sample surfaces and the oxidant grain boundaries are very compacted
Skaftason, Jóhannes F; Jóhannesson, Thorkell
Modern tablet compression was instituted in England in 1844 by William Brockedon (1787-1854). The first tablets made according to Brockedon´s procedures contained watersoluble salts and were most likely compressed without expedients. In USA a watershed occurred around 1887 when starch (amylum maydis) was introduced to disperse tablets in aqueous milieu in order to corroborate bioavailability of drugs in the almentary canal. About the same time great advances in tablet production were introduced by the British firm Burroughs Wellcome and Co. In Denmark on the other hand tablet production remained on low scale until after 1920. As Icelandic pharmacies and drug firms modelled themselves mostly upon Danish firms tablet production was first instituted in Iceland around 1930. The first tablet machines in Iceland were hand-driven. More efficent machines came after 1945. Around 1960 three sizeable tablet producers were in Iceland; now there is only one. Numbers of individual tablet species (generic and proprietary) on the market rose from less than 10 in 1913 to 500 in 1965, with wide variations in numbers in between. Tablets have not wiped out other medicinal forms for peroral use but most new peroral drugs have been marketed in the form of tablets during the last decades.
Schuettler, C.; Gebhardt, G.; Stock, A.; Helle, N.; Boegl, K.W.
Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae radix), redberry leaves (uvae ursi folium), birch leaves (betulae folium), greek hay seeds (foenugraeci semen), cayenne pepper (capsici fructus acer), black-aldertee bark (frangulae cortex), fennel fruits (feoniculi fructus), rose hip shells (cynosbati fructus), coltsfoot (farfarae folium), acorus roots (calami rhizoma), chamomile flowers (matricariae flos), caraway (carvi fructus), lavender flowers (lavandulae flos), linseed (lini semen), lime tree flowers (tiliae flos), St. Mary's thistle fruit (cardui mariae herba), lemon balm (melissae folium), java tea (orthosiphonis folium), peppermint (menthae piperitae folium), sage leaves (salviae folium), scouring rush (equiseti herba), senna leaves (sennae folium), plantain herbs (plantaginis lanceolata herba), thyme herbs (thymi herba), juniper berries (juniperi fructus), hawthorne herbs (crataegi folium), wheat starch (amylum tritici) and wormwood (absinthii herba). Depending on the herbs, the methods used were more or less suitable. Chemiluminescence measurements showed the smallest differences between untreated and irradiated samples whereas thermoluminescence measurements on isolated minerals from the vegetable drugs gave better results. In some herbs radiation-specific radicals could be identified by ESR spectroscopy. Viscosity measurement is suitable for some herbs as fast and inexpensive method for screening. (orig.) [de
Jia, Yongzhong; Han, Jinduo; Jing, Yan; Jin, Shan; Qi, Taiyuan
Cathode materials for Li-ion battery LiMn2O4 and LiCo0.1Mn1.9O4 were prepared by soft chemical method. Carbon, which was made by decomposing organic compounds, was used as modifying agent. Cathode material matrix was mixed with water solution that had contained organic compound such as cane sugar, soluble amylum, levulose et al. These mixture were reacted at 150 200 °C for 0.5 4 h in a Teflon-lined autoclave to get a series of homogeneously C-coated cathode materials. The new products were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (IR). Morphology of cathode materials was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transition electron microscope (TEM). The new homogeneously C-coated products that were used as cathode materials of lithium-ion battery had good electrochemical stability and cycle performance. This technique has free-pollution, low cost, simpleness and easiness to realize the industrialization of the cathode materials for Li-ion battery.
Tian, J.; Jin, L. H.; Li, J. M.; Shen, B. J.; Wang, C. Y.; Lu, X.; Zhao, X. L.
We took soybeans as experimental substance to study how the 532nm laser with different power density and irradiation time affected the pullulation ratio of the soybeans, average height of seedlings and the isoflavone content of seedlings' cotyledon and laminae. The mechanism that laser pretreatment of soybean seeds could increase the isoflavone content of the seedlings was discussed in such both aspects as the efficiency of the photosynthesis and the activity of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) as an initial enzyme for synthesizing the isoflavone. The results showed that after the soybean seeds were pretreated by laser, the activity of the PAL and the resultants of the photosynthesis such as the sugar of dissolubility, the sucrose, and the amylum all increased with the soybean seeds irradiated by laser in which the effect on the soybean seeds pretreated by 15mW/mm2 laser for 5 min was the most obvious. As a result, the photosynthesis efficiency of the soybean seedlings increased after being pretreated by laser, which might offer the foundation for accumulating a large amount of isoflavone.
NINING NURUL AZIZAH
Full Text Available Fluorescent pseudomonass isolated from local plants-rishosphere in temanggung controlled lincat disease of tobacco. This report describe phenotypic charactheristics of the bacteria in order to be used as a base for the development of the bacteria as a biological control agent of lincat disease. Phenotypic charactheristics of six isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonass which controlled lincat disease in the field were determined in the laboratory of Plant Bacteriology, Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University. Plant pathogenicity tests were conducted by hypersensitive reaction into tobacco leaf and inoculation to tobacco plants. Antagonism test between fluorescent Pseudomonass and other candidate of biological control agents were also conducted. The results indicated that the bacteria were rod shape, Gram negative, positive reaction in catalase and oxidase tests. Nitrate reduce to nitrite, arginine was hydrolysed, fluorescent pigment were produced on King’s B medium, levan formation positive and all bacteria denitrifiy. The bacteria used urea, tween 80 and amylum were not hydrolised, poly--hydroxybutyrate was not accumulated in the cells. Negative reactions were observed for lysine decarboxylation, indol production, VP/MR reaction, and gelatn liquefation. Some compounds could be used as solely carbon sources. All isolates grew on the medium containing 2% NaCl. The best pH for growth was 6-7 and all isolates grew at 20-41C. Negative result were obtained for hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity tests.
Suitability of thermoluminescence, chemiluminescence, ESR and viscosity measurements as detection method for the irradiation of medicinal herbs; Eignung von Thermolumineszenz-, Chemilumineszenz-, ESR- und Viskositaetsmessungen zur Identifizierung strahlenbehandelter Arzneidrogen
Schuettler, C.; Gebhardt, G.; Stock, A.; Helle, N.; Boegl, K.W.
Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae radix), redberry leaves (uvae ursi folium), birch leaves (betulae folium), greek hay seeds (foenugraeci semen), cayenne pepper (capsici fructus acer), black-aldertee bark (frangulae cortex), fennel fruits (feoniculi fructus), rose hip shells (cynosbati fructus), coltsfoot (farfarae folium), acorus roots (calami rhizoma), chamomile flowers (matricariae flos), caraway (carvi fructus), lavender flowers (lavandulae flos), linseed (lini semen), lime tree flowers (tiliae flos), St. Mary`s thistle fruit (cardui mariae herba), lemon balm (melissae folium), java tea (orthosiphonis folium), peppermint (menthae piperitae folium), sage leaves (salviae folium), scouring rush (equiseti herba), senna leaves (sennae folium), plantain herbs (plantaginis lanceolata herba), thyme herbs (thymi herba), juniper berries (juniperi fructus), hawthorne herbs (crataegi folium), wheat starch (amylum tritici) and wormwood (absinthii herba). Depending on the herbs, the methods used were more or less suitable. Chemiluminescence measurements showed the smallest differences between untreated and irradiated samples whereas thermoluminescence measurements on isolated minerals from the vegetable drugs gave better results. In some herbs radiation-specific radicals could be identified by ESR spectroscopy. Viscosity measurement is suitable for some herbs as fast and inexpensive method for screening. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Eignung von Chemilumineszenz-, ESR-, Thermolumineszenz- und Viskositaetsmessungen als Nachweismethode fuer die Behandlung von Arzneidrogen mit ionisierenden Strahlen wurde an Anis, Baldrianwurzel, Baerentraubenblaettern, Birkenblaettern, Bockshornsamen, Cayennepfeffer, Faulbaumrinde, Fenchel, Hagebuttenschalen, Huflattichblaettern
Tan, Zhilei; Wang, Hongcui; Wei, Yuqiao; Li, Yanyan; Zhong, Cheng; Jia, Shiru
Gluconobacter oxydans is known to oxidize glucose to gluconic acid (GA), and subsequently, to 2-keto-gluconic acid (2KGA) and 5-keto-gluconic acid (5KGA), while 5KGA can be converted to L-(+)-tartaric acid. In order to increase the production of 5KGA, Gluconobacter oxydans HGI-1 that converts GA to 5KGA exclusively was chosen in this study, and effects of carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose, amylum and glucose) and nitrogen sources (yeast extract, fish meal, corn steep liquor, soybean meal and cotton-seed meal) on 5KGA production were investigated. Results of experiment in 500 mL shake-flask show that the highest yield of 5KGA (98.20 g/L) was obtained using 100 g/L glucose as carbon source. 5KGA reached 100.20 g/L, 109.10 g/L, 99.83 g/L with yeast extract, fish meal and corn steep liquor as nitrogen source respectively, among which the optimal nitrogen source was fish meal. The yield of 5KGA by corn steep liquor is slightly lower than that by yeast extract. For the economic reason, corn steep liquor was selected as nitrogen source and scaled up to 5 L stirred-tank fermentor, and the final concentration of 5KGA reached 93.80 g/L, with its maximum volumetric productivity of 3.48 g/(L x h) and average volumetric productivity of 1.56 g/(L x h). The result obtained in this study showed that carbon and nitrogen sourses for large-scale production of 5KGA by Gluconobacter oxydans HGI-1 were glucose and corn steep liquor, respectively, and the available glucose almost completely (85.93%) into 5KGA.
V. V. Ananskikh
Full Text Available Starch is the raw materials for production of crystal food glucose. With at enzyme conversion of the high purity starch, it is possible to receive glucosic syrups of a glucose equivalent (GE 98%, where there is about 95% glucose and maltose and maltotriose – of about 5%. Starch hydrolysis is carried out with a gain of solids. Thus, 100 kg of amylum is possible to give up to 109.81 kg of glucose syrup on dry basis. Taking in account the losses at manufacture steps a yield can decrease to 105.61 kg. The purified glucose syrup is concentrated up to 73–75% of dry matters and goes to a crystallization step. Crystallization of glucose is carried out in a supersaturated solution within 56–70 hours at reduced temperature from 46–48 °C to 24–26 °C, resulting a mixture of glucose crystals and an intercrystal run-off syrup called a massecuite. The crystallization process is stopped when a 50% of crystals content in massecuite is reached. At the same time glucose yield will be 105.61/2 = 52.8%. Crystallization is carried out according to the single-stage scheme, with partial return of the end product – hydrol into the hydrolised syrup. Then the massecuite is sent to a centrifugation step for dividing glucose crystals and a run-off syrup, which is partially returned to the initial syrup to reduce in GE. The second part of the run-off syrup goes to realization. It must be kept in mind: the higher GE of the glucose syrup sent to a crystallization step, the more quantity of a hydrol is possible to be returned to hydrolysed syrup. Therefore, it is in a resulted a higher yield of glucose crystals. On the basis of the carried-out calculations the computer program was made with which it is possible to define a theoretical glucose and a hydrol yield, while changing values of a hydrolysed syrup. The higher GE values of a hydrolysed syrup are the higher yield of crystal glucose and the lower one of hydrol are. So, at 98% GE of a hydrolysed syrup it is