时政; 韩承华; 黄凯丰
Thirty five portions of tartary buckwheat resource from different origin were used as experimental material to determine the total amylum content,amylose and amylopectin content. The amylum content of 35 portions of tartary buckwheat varied from 40. 70％ to 86. 41％ with an average of 62. 80％ ; The amylose content of 35 portions of tartary buckwheat varied between 12. 24％-32. 18％ with an average of 19. 32％ ;The amylopectin content of 35 portions of tartary buckwheat varied between 13. 31％ -68 78％ with an average of 43. 48％. The amylum content is higher,amylopectin content is the highest. There was difference among different origin of tartary buckwheat. The results of this study had important significance for further study on the genetic variation law of amylum content between different tartary buckwheat resources.%以不同原产地的35份苦养资源为试验材料,测定了其籽粒中的总淀粉、直链淀粉、支链淀粉的含量.结果表明,35份苦养资源的总淀粉含量变化幅度为40.70%～86.41%,平均值为62.80%;直链淀粉含量的变异幅度为12.24%～32.18%,平均值为19.32%;支链淀粉含量的变异幅度为13.31%～68.78%,平均值为43.48%.苦荞中淀粉含量较高,以支链淀粉为主.不同产地的苦荞种子中总淀粉、直链淀粉、支链淀粉含量存在差异.
鲁伦文; 赵克勤; 张传武
Amylase is used for the hydrolysis of amylum in ice cream bars and the alteration of the molecular structure of amylum with a view of stopping the aging of amylum, removing its unpleasant taste and lowering the cost of products by increasing the dosage of amylum and decreasing those of sugar, milk powder and cream. Furthermore, the use of amylase helps to enhance the quality of products, which is featured by fine and soft mouthfeel and an expansion rate of 90～ 100%.%采用淀粉酶对雪糕中的淀粉进行水解，改变淀粉的分子结构，可以防止淀粉老化返生，消除淀粉味感；增加淀粉的用量，降低白砂糖、奶粉、奶油的用量，从而降低产品的生产成本。同时也可使产品口感细腻、柔软，质量得到改善，膨胀率达90～100％。
采用水溶液聚合法,以N,N-亚甲基双丙烯酰胺为交联剂,过硫酸铵为引发剂,使腐植酸 、淀粉与丙烯酸钾多元共聚交联,制备了一种高吸水缓释肥包膜材料并应用于尿素缓释肥的制备.结果表明,淀粉和丙烯酸、丙烯酸和氢氧化钾配比分别为20∶80(质量分数)、15∶100(摩尔比)时,添加质量分数6％的腐植酸,材料在去离子水中的吸水率为551g/g,尿素缓释肥的缓释周期为65 d(以N释放率＞90％计),符合GB/T23348 -2009规定的缓释要求.%One humic acid/amylum/polyacrylic acid resin, applied to alow release fertilizer, was prepared firm humic acid, amylun, acrylic acid by the method of copolymerization and cross-linking. The results showed that the water absorption amount of composite was 551 g/g for deionized water,when the mass ratio of amylum and acrylic acid was 20: 80, the molar ratio of potassium hydroxide and acrylic acid was 15 :100, while humic add content was 6 %. The Blow-release time of urea was 65 d and conformed to the technological standards of GB/T23348-2009.
The N,N'-Methylenebisacrylamide was used as crosslinking agent and the potassium persulfate was used as initiator to copolymerization and cross -linking of collophanite, amylum and acrylate by using aqueous solution polymerization method to prepare a kind of coating material with water retention and phosphor containing for coating slow release urea fertilizer. When mass fraction of phosphorite was 14%, the water absorption amount of the coating material was 560 g/g for deionized water and 254 g/g for tap water, while the slow release period of coated urea was 65 d. Therefore, the coating material meets the technological standards of GB/T23348-2009.%采用水溶液聚合法,以N,N’-亚甲基双丙烯酰胺为交联剂,过硫酸钾为引发剂,使胶磷矿、淀粉与丙烯酸盐共聚交联,制备了一种兼具保水性的含磷缓释肥包膜材料并应用于包衣尿素缓释肥.磷矿质量分数为14％时,材料在去离子水、自来水中的吸水率分别为560 g/g、254 g/g,包衣尿素的缓释周期为65 d,符合GB/T23348-2009规定的缓释要求.
Meijer, H.J. [TNO Milieu, Energie en Procesinnovatie TNO-MEP, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)
Amylum Netherlands in Koog aan de Zaan, Netherlands, produces amylum and glucose syrup. The amylum dryers consume a large amount of energy. Two dryers were modified and partly make use of hot flue gases from the cogeneration installation. The results of the modifications are discussed. [Dutch] AmyLum Nederland in Koog aan de Zaan produceert zetmeet en glucosestroop. De zetmeeldrogers zijn de grote energieverbruikers in het productieproces. Twee van deze drogers zijn gemodificeerd en gebruiken als droogmedium gedeeltelijk hete rookgassen uit de aanwezige WKK. De gevolgen van deze aanpassing voor de bedrijfsvoering van de drogers en de WKK passeren de revue.
Ti(C,N) was synthesized with the starting materi-als of 76.9% titania white and 23.1% carbon black (graphite or activated carbon),or 40% titania white and 60% amylum,with or without 10% NaBr-KCI,dry moulding and carbon embedded firing at 1 300 ℃ and 1 400 ℃ for 3 h,respectively.Phase composition and microstructure of the synthesized Ti (C,N) were analyzed by XRD,SEM and EPMA.Effects of different carbon sources and NaBr-KCl on the synthesis of Ti (C,N) were investigated.The results show that:(1) Ti (C,N) can be synthesized by using carbon black,graphite,activated carbon or amylum as carbon source separately;(2) Additive NaBr-KCI is more fa-vorable for accelerating the carbothdrmal reduction reac-tion using carbon black or amylum as carbon source;(3) In the presence of NaBr-KCl,particle size of the synthesized Ti (C,N) is 5-8 μm using carbon black as carbon source fired at 1 300 ℃ for 3 h,while that is only 1-3 μm using graphite,activated carbon or amy-lum fired at 1 400 ℃ for 3 h.
Full Text Available The use of polymeric pack has made for many important problems. Biodegradable plastics may provide solutions to global environmental problems. The aim of this study is to examine the utilization possibilities in natural environment of biodegradable films, which was developed with polyvinyl alcohol and organic filler materials (amylum and cellulose. The films stability against the filamentous fungus was analyzed, the soil type with optimal conditions to the biodegradation of polymers was determined; the mold fungi were separated from biodegradable films and were identified to a genus.
One amylaceous inorganic zinc-rich/superabsorbent IPN-resin was prepared from amylum, a-crylic acid,iV,./V-methylenebisaciylamide and potassium persulphate by the method of copolymerization and cross-linking. The optimal mass ratio of amylum, acrylic acid, potassium persulphate and W./V-methyl-enebisacrylamide was 6- 25:0.04:0. 12.%采用水溶液聚合法,以N,N-亚甲基双丙烯酰胺为交联剂,过硫酸钾为引发剂,通过淀粉与丙烯酸(AA)、丙烯酸锌多元共聚、交联,制备了一种互穿网络型富锌高吸水材料.淀粉、丙烯酸、N,N-亚甲基双丙烯酰胺和过硫酸钾的最佳质量配比为6∶25∶0.04∶0.12.
A series of slow release fertilizers contained potassium were prepared from amylum, acrylic acid, and potassium hydroxide by the method of copolymerization. The optimal molar ratio of potassium hydroxide to acrylic acid was more than 3:20, while the optimal mass ratio of amylum to acrylic acid was 1:6~1:5.The max water absorption amount was 408 g/g.%以过硫酸铵为引发剂,采用自由基聚合法,使淀粉与丙烯酸钠和丙烯酸钾进行接枝共聚,制备了一类富钾型淀粉接枝丙烯酸盐缓释肥包膜材料及包膜缓释肥.在氢氧化钾与丙烯酸摩尔比大于3∶20,淀粉与丙烯酸的质量比在1∶6 ～1∶5时,均可满足缓释肥的释放要求,且包膜材料最大吸水倍率可达408 g/g.
Rhodopseudomonas XL-1 gained from textile wastewater can effectively decolorize anthraquinone dye. Under anaerobic condition, 93 percent of the anthraquinone dye is decolorized , which is higher than that under aerobic condition. The optimum pH is 6～9 and the optimum temperature is 20～40℃ for the anthraquinone dye decolorization by XL-1 . XL-1 can not decolorize the anthraquinone dye when it is the sole carbon source. Microbial cometabolism and decolorization of the dye take place in the presence of some other carbon source(0.2～0.4g/100ml)called cometabolic substrate. The cometabolic substrate can be peptone, glucose, sodium acetate, beef extract, amylum, etc. The change of molecular structure of the dye before and after decolorized by XL-1 is studied by UV-Vis absorption spectrum. The results indicate that its molecular structure is changed evidently.
唐贤华; 赵东; 杨官荣; 彭志云; 李雷; 易彬
通过物性测试仪对浓香型白酒窖池发酵糟醅的硬度、粘聚性、内聚性等质构特性进行跟踪测试分析，并对窖期糟醅水分、酸度、淀粉等发酵参数进行了研究。初步探索发酵糟醅的质构特性与理化性质变化之间的关系。%Tracing measurement of the hardness, resilience and the adhesiveness of fermented grains in Chinese Liquor pits were analyzed by texture analyser, and the varilation of moisture content,acidity and amylum were analysed in fermentation process. The relations of the texture and the fermentation parameter in fermented grains were explored preliminarily.
以小米与奶粉为原料研制一款新型的碳酸饮料，解决小米汽奶在加工过程中由淀粉、蛋白质引起的沉淀问题，通过正交试验设计，确定了最佳工艺条件：小米浆汁与奶质量比1∶1，复合稳定剂（海藻酸钠∶卡拉胶1.5∶1）添加量0.04%，乳化剂（单甘酯）添加量0.15%。此工艺条件下生产的小米汽奶色泽和组织状态良好，风味独特，营养丰富。%In this paper, a new carbonic acid drink containing millet and milk was developed. And the problem of depo-sition of amylum and protein was solved. The orthogonal experiment was conducted,and the results showed that the ratio of millet and milk (1∶1),compound stabilizer (Sodium alginate:carrageenan1.5∶1) 0.04%, emulsifier (monoglyc-erides) 0.15%. The beverage has good colour, unique flavor and high nutritional value .
Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae radix), redberry leaves (uvae ursi folium), birch leaves (betulae folium), greek hay seeds (foenugraeci semen), cayenne pepper (capsici fructus acer), black-aldertee bark (frangulae cortex), fennel fruits (feoniculi fructus), rose hip shells (cynosbati fructus), coltsfoot (farfarae folium), acorus roots (calami rhizoma), chamomile flowers (matricariae flos), caraway (carvi fructus), lavender flowers (lavandulae flos), linseed (lini semen), lime tree flowers (tiliae flos), St. Mary's thistle fruit (cardui mariae herba), lemon balm (melissae folium), java tea (orthosiphonis folium), peppermint (menthae piperitae folium), sage leaves (salviae folium), scouring rush (equiseti herba), senna leaves (sennae folium), plantain herbs (plantaginis lanceolata herba), thyme herbs (thymi herba), juniper berries (juniperi fructus), hawthorne herbs (crataegi folium), wheat starch (amylum tritici) and wormwood (absinthii herba). Depending on the herbs, the methods used were more or less suitable. Chemiluminescence measurements showed the smallest differences between untreated and irradiated samples whereas thermoluminescence measurements on isolated minerals from the vegetable drugs gave better results. In some herbs radiation-specific radicals could be identified by ESR spectroscopy. Viscosity measurement is suitable for some herbs as fast and inexpensive method for screening. (orig.)
NINING NURUL AZIZAH
Full Text Available Fluorescent pseudomonass isolated from local plants-rishosphere in temanggung controlled lincat disease of tobacco. This report describe phenotypic charactheristics of the bacteria in order to be used as a base for the development of the bacteria as a biological control agent of lincat disease. Phenotypic charactheristics of six isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonass which controlled lincat disease in the field were determined in the laboratory of Plant Bacteriology, Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University. Plant pathogenicity tests were conducted by hypersensitive reaction into tobacco leaf and inoculation to tobacco plants. Antagonism test between fluorescent Pseudomonass and other candidate of biological control agents were also conducted. The results indicated that the bacteria were rod shape, Gram negative, positive reaction in catalase and oxidase tests. Nitrate reduce to nitrite, arginine was hydrolysed, fluorescent pigment were produced on King’s B medium, levan formation positive and all bacteria denitrifiy. The bacteria used urea, tween 80 and amylum were not hydrolised, poly--hydroxybutyrate was not accumulated in the cells. Negative reactions were observed for lysine decarboxylation, indol production, VP/MR reaction, and gelatn liquefation. Some compounds could be used as solely carbon sources. All isolates grew on the medium containing 2% NaCl. The best pH for growth was 6-7 and all isolates grew at 20-41C. Negative result were obtained for hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity tests.
The basidiospores of Pleurotus ostreatus WY01 were exposed to N+ beam and the treated basidiospores were screened in RBBR-containing PDA plates. Then the laccase activities of the selected strains were determined by ABTS, and a mutant named ADW-08 with high yield of laccase was obtained. The maximum activity of laccase of ADW-08 increased up to 7.78 U/g, 2.8 times of the original stain, and its laccase production ability was stable in high carbon and low nitrogen rape straw solid medium (SM). Results showed that glucose as carbon source was obviously superior to sucrose, maltose, wheat bran and soluble amylum in solid culture for ADW-08. Ammonium tartrate as nitrogen source was more suitable than other nitrogen sources for the laccase secretion. The optimal initial pH was 5.0 or 6.0. The ability of laccase production clearly increased by ABTS and veratryl alcohol induction, but was inhibited by Tween 80. When the optimum parameters for laccase production got from orthogonal design were as follows: glucose 15 g/L, ammonium tartrate 0.2 g/L, pH 5.2, the peak value of Lac activity was 8.33 U/g. (authors)
Tan, Zhilei; Wang, Hongcui; Wei, Yuqiao; Li, Yanyan; Zhong, Cheng; Jia, Shiru
Gluconobacter oxydans is known to oxidize glucose to gluconic acid (GA), and subsequently, to 2-keto-gluconic acid (2KGA) and 5-keto-gluconic acid (5KGA), while 5KGA can be converted to L-(+)-tartaric acid. In order to increase the production of 5KGA, Gluconobacter oxydans HGI-1 that converts GA to 5KGA exclusively was chosen in this study, and effects of carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose, amylum and glucose) and nitrogen sources (yeast extract, fish meal, corn steep liquor, soybean meal and cotton-seed meal) on 5KGA production were investigated. Results of experiment in 500 mL shake-flask show that the highest yield of 5KGA (98.20 g/L) was obtained using 100 g/L glucose as carbon source. 5KGA reached 100.20 g/L, 109.10 g/L, 99.83 g/L with yeast extract, fish meal and corn steep liquor as nitrogen source respectively, among which the optimal nitrogen source was fish meal. The yield of 5KGA by corn steep liquor is slightly lower than that by yeast extract. For the economic reason, corn steep liquor was selected as nitrogen source and scaled up to 5 L stirred-tank fermentor, and the final concentration of 5KGA reached 93.80 g/L, with its maximum volumetric productivity of 3.48 g/(L x h) and average volumetric productivity of 1.56 g/(L x h). The result obtained in this study showed that carbon and nitrogen sourses for large-scale production of 5KGA by Gluconobacter oxydans HGI-1 were glucose and corn steep liquor, respectively, and the available glucose almost completely (85.93%) into 5KGA.
Suitability of thermoluminescence, chemiluminescence, ESR and viscosity measurements as detection method for the irradiation of medicinal herbs; Eignung von Thermolumineszenz-, Chemilumineszenz-, ESR- und Viskositaetsmessungen zur Identifizierung strahlenbehandelter Arzneidrogen
Schuettler, C.; Gebhardt, G.; Stock, A.; Helle, N.; Boegl, K.W.
Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae radix), redberry leaves (uvae ursi folium), birch leaves (betulae folium), greek hay seeds (foenugraeci semen), cayenne pepper (capsici fructus acer), black-aldertee bark (frangulae cortex), fennel fruits (feoniculi fructus), rose hip shells (cynosbati fructus), coltsfoot (farfarae folium), acorus roots (calami rhizoma), chamomile flowers (matricariae flos), caraway (carvi fructus), lavender flowers (lavandulae flos), linseed (lini semen), lime tree flowers (tiliae flos), St. Mary`s thistle fruit (cardui mariae herba), lemon balm (melissae folium), java tea (orthosiphonis folium), peppermint (menthae piperitae folium), sage leaves (salviae folium), scouring rush (equiseti herba), senna leaves (sennae folium), plantain herbs (plantaginis lanceolata herba), thyme herbs (thymi herba), juniper berries (juniperi fructus), hawthorne herbs (crataegi folium), wheat starch (amylum tritici) and wormwood (absinthii herba). Depending on the herbs, the methods used were more or less suitable. Chemiluminescence measurements showed the smallest differences between untreated and irradiated samples whereas thermoluminescence measurements on isolated minerals from the vegetable drugs gave better results. In some herbs radiation-specific radicals could be identified by ESR spectroscopy. Viscosity measurement is suitable for some herbs as fast and inexpensive method for screening. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Eignung von Chemilumineszenz-, ESR-, Thermolumineszenz- und Viskositaetsmessungen als Nachweismethode fuer die Behandlung von Arzneidrogen mit ionisierenden Strahlen wurde an Anis, Baldrianwurzel, Baerentraubenblaettern, Birkenblaettern, Bockshornsamen, Cayennepfeffer, Faulbaumrinde, Fenchel, Hagebuttenschalen, Huflattichblaettern
杜玉成; 史树丽; 郭振广; 刘勇; 唐桂艳
Calcined diatomite matting agent was firstly prepared. This matting agent applies in styrene-acrylic emulsion and acrylic emulsion. The whiteness and crystal structure are influenced by calcined temperature and additive. And the granule appearance and granularity distribution can work on extinction capability and extinction effect of high angle, respectively. Crystal product with the whiteness of 90% was synthesized by adding 4wt% NaCl and 7.5wt% amylum. The reaction temperature is 900℃ and the reaction time is 2h. When the granularity distribution mainly focuses on 8μm～25μm, theglossiness of the coating is adjacent with the angles of incidence are 60° and 85°. And the extinction efficiency can reach 51% and 65%, respectively. is%首次采用煅烧硅藻土制备出用于苯丙乳液、纯丙乳液涂料的消光助剂.煅烧温度与煅烧助剂影响产物白度和晶体结构,颗粒形貌影响产品消光性能.粒度级配影响涂层高入射角区域的消光效果.当添加4wt%NaCl、7.5wt%淀粉,900℃煅烧2h时,可获时白度为90%、晶态产物;物料粒度主要为8μm～25μm时.60°、85°的光泽度接近,消光率分别可迭51%、65%.
clear the Heat and stop diarrhea. These two herbs are capable of promoting Yin, nourishing the Stomach fluid and Spleen Yang-Qi thrives. Then the function of Spleen-Stomach becomes sound, which leads to cease diarrhea and generate the fluid. Besides, Portulaca is rich in potassium salt, combines with glucose and sodium chloride, which makes the electrolyte ingredients of ZXBYM, and basically coincides with that of ORS. Therefore, ZXBYM could either adjust mild or moderate dehydration complicated by infantile diarrhea, or invigorate the Spleen and stop diarrhea. Experimental studies revealed that ZXBYM could obviously inhibit the small intestinal movement in mice, which was confirmed by the charcoal powder advancement test and the defecation study of mice. Also it can promote the absorption of the increasing water content in mice caused by MgSO4 , and recover the loss of body weight induced by diarrhea. In comparison with ORS, the ZXBYM is superior in stopping diarrhea, while in promoting water reabsorption, there is insignificant difference between the two preparations. Moreover, Pueraria and Portulaca contain some amount of amylum, protein, amino acid, vitamin, and such minerals as calcium, phosphorus, etc.,(3,4) so it can compensate for the loss of nutrients to some extent in diarrheal status; its good taste attracts the children to be fond of it. ZXBYM is a new preparation possessing the function of both rehydration and antidiarrhea, so it is better than ORS, and is worthy of development and application.
张亚平; 黄嫣红; 林丽卿
目的 建立一种简单的光度比色法,测定饮用水中宽浓度范围碘化物.方法 水中碘化物在碱性条件下经高锰酸钾氧化为碘酸盐,在酸性条件下用亚硝酸钠除去过量氧化剂并以氨基磺酸加尿素除去过量亚硝酸盐后,与碘化钾作用生成I_2并与淀粉显色进行光度比色测定,测定体系中加适量本底微量碘及氯化钠,解决在水样含碘量<100 μg/L时碘-淀粉显色与水碘浓度不成线性比例的显色灵敏度问题.结果 本方法标准曲线线性范围为0～1200 μg/L(r=0.9998);水碘检测限为4μg/L;对含碘量76.6、207.8、560.4μg/L水样各重复测定6次,相对标准偏差(RSD)均<1%;8份不同含碘量水样加标回收率范围为97.0%(485.2/500.0)～102.5%(102.5/100.0);试剂中加亚铁盐消除了水中6价铬(Cr~(6+))的干扰,加溴化钾及亚硝酸钠消除了水中溴酸盐(BrO_3~-)的干扰,水中含0.2 mg/L Cr~(6+)、0.1 mg/L BrO_3~-不干扰测定.结论 本方法操作简单,检测浓度范围宽,具有良好的精密度和准确度,适于应用.%Objective To establish a simple photometric method for the determination of broad concentration range of iodide in drinking water. Methods Iodide in water was oxidized with potassium permanganate in alkaline medium to generate iodate. After excessive oxidant was eliminated with nitrite sodium in acidic medium condition and excessive nitrite was eliminated with a mixture of aminosulfonic acid and urea, iodate was used to react with potassium iodide reagent to form I_2 which further reacted with amylum to form color complex. The absorbance was determined by photometry. In determination reagent system suitable amount of iodide that acted as background and sodium chloride were added to solve the problem of the chromogenic sensitivity, i.e., when iodine concentration was < 100 μg/L in water sample the degree of iodine-starch complex color change could not be in linear proportion to the concentration of iodine in