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Sample records for amyloid plaque pathogenesis

  1. Amyloid cascade hypothesis: Pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barage, Sagar H; Sonawane, Kailas D

    2015-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease is an irreversible, progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Various therapeutic approaches are being used to improve the cholinergic neurotransmission, but their role in AD pathogenesis is still unknown. Although, an increase in tau protein concentration in CSF has been described in AD, but several issues remains unclear. Extensive and accurate analysis of CSF could be helpful to define presence of tau proteins in physiological conditions, or released during the progression of neurodegenerative disease. The amyloid cascade hypothesis postulates that the neurodegeneration in AD caused by abnormal accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques in various areas of the brain. The amyloid hypothesis has continued to gain support over the last two decades, particularly from genetic studies. Therefore, current research progress in several areas of therapies shall provide an effective treatment to cure this devastating disease. This review critically evaluates general biochemical and physiological functions of Aβ directed therapeutics and their relevance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. MR Microimaging of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wengenack, Thomas M.; Poduslo, Joseph F.; Jack, Clifford R.; Garwood, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurological condition affecting industrialized nations and will rapidly become a healthcare crisis as the population ages. Currently, the post-mortem histological observation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles is the only definitive diagnosis available for AD. A pre-mortem biological or physiological marker specific for AD used in conjunction with current neurological and memory testing could add a great deal of confidence to the diagnosis of AD and potentially allow therapeutic intervention much earlier in the disease process. Our group has developed MRI techniques to detect individual amyloid plaques in AD transgenic mouse brain in vivo. We are also developing contrast-enhancing agents to increase the specificity of detection of amyloid plaques. Such in vivo imaging of amyloid plaques will also allow the evaluation of anti-amyloid therapies being developed by the pharmaceutical industry in pre-clinical trials of AD transgenic mice. This short review briefly discusses our progress in these areas. (orig.)

  3. Quantitative Comparison of Dense-Core Amyloid Plaque Accumulation in Amyloid-β Precursor Protein Transgenic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Reichl, John H.; Rao, Eshaan R.; McNellis, Brittany M.; Huang, Eric S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Forster, Colleen L.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Borchelt, David R.; Vassar, Robert; Ashe, Karen H.; Zahs, Kathleen R.

    2016-01-01

    There exist several dozen lines of transgenic mice that express human amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP) with Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-linked mutations. AβPP transgenic mouse lines differ in the types and amounts of Aβ that they generate and in their spatiotemporal patterns of expression of Aβ assemblies, providing a toolkit to study Aβ amyloidosis and the influence of Aβ aggregation on brain function. More complete quantitative descriptions of the types of Aβ assemblies present in transgenic mice and in humans during disease progression should add to our understanding of how Aβ toxicity in mice relates to the pathogenesis of AD. Here, we provide a direct quantitative comparison of amyloid plaque burdens and plaque sizes in four lines of AβPP transgenic mice. We measured the fraction of cortex and hippocampus occupied by dense-core plaques, visualized by staining with Thioflavin S, in mice from young adulthood through advanced age. We found that the plaque burdens among the transgenic lines varied by an order of magnitude: at 15 months of age, the oldest age studied, the median cortical plaque burden in 5XFAD mice was already ~4.5 times that of 21-month Tg2576 mice and ~15 times that of 21–24-month rTg9191 mice. Plaque-size distributions changed across the lifespan in a line- and region-dependent manner. We also compared the dense-core plaque burdens in the mice to those measured in a set of pathologically-confirmed AD cases from the Nun Study. Cortical plaque burdens in Tg2576, APPSwePS1ΔE9, and 5XFAD mice eventually far exceeded those measured in the human cohort. PMID:28059792

  4. Quantitative Comparison of Dense-Core Amyloid Plaque Accumulation in Amyloid-β Protein Precursor Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Reichl, John H; Rao, Eshaan R; McNellis, Brittany M; Huang, Eric S; Hemmy, Laura S; Forster, Colleen L; Kuskowski, Michael A; Borchelt, David R; Vassar, Robert; Ashe, Karen H; Zahs, Kathleen R

    2017-01-01

    There exist several dozen lines of transgenic mice that express human amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) with Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked mutations. AβPP transgenic mouse lines differ in the types and amounts of Aβ that they generate and in their spatiotemporal patterns of expression of Aβ assemblies, providing a toolkit to study Aβ amyloidosis and the influence of Aβ aggregation on brain function. More complete quantitative descriptions of the types of Aβ assemblies present in transgenic mice and in humans during disease progression should add to our understanding of how Aβ toxicity in mice relates to the pathogenesis of AD. Here, we provide a direct quantitative comparison of amyloid plaque burdens and plaque sizes in four lines of AβPP transgenic mice. We measured the fraction of cortex and hippocampus occupied by dense-core plaques, visualized by staining with Thioflavin S, in mice from young adulthood through advanced age. We found that the plaque burdens among the transgenic lines varied by an order of magnitude: at 15 months of age, the oldest age studied, the median cortical plaque burden in 5XFAD mice was already ∼4.5 times that of 21-month-old Tg2576 mice and ∼15 times that of 21-24-month-old rTg9191 mice. Plaque-size distributions changed across the lifespan in a line- and region-dependent manner. We also compared the dense-core plaque burdens in the mice to those measured in a set of pathologically-confirmed AD cases from the Nun Study. Cortical plaque burdens in Tg2576, APPSwePS1ΔE9, and 5XFAD mice eventually far exceeded those measured in the human cohort.

  5. Amyloid plaque imaging in vivo: current achievement and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordberg, Agneta

    2008-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a very complex neurodegenerative disorder, the exact cause of which is still not known. The major histopathological features, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, already described by Alois Alzheimer, have been the focus in research for decades. Despite a probable whole cascade of events in the brain leading to impairment of cognition, amyloid is still the target for diagnosis and treatment. The rapid development of molecular imaging techniques now allows imaging of amyloid plaques in vivo in Alzheimer patients by PET amyloid ligands such as Pittsburgh compound B (PIB). Studies so far have revealed high 11 C-PIB retention in brain at prodromal stages of AD and a possibility to discriminate AD from other dementia disorders by 11 C-PIB. Ongoing studies are focussing to understand the relationship between brain and CSF amyloid processes and cognitive processes. In vivo imaging of amyloid will be important for early diagnosis and evaluation of new anti-amyloid therapies in AD. (orig.)

  6. Cellular and substrate adhesion molecules (integrins) and their ligands in cerebral amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelenboom, P.; Zhan, S. S.; Kamphorst, W.; van der Valk, P.; Rozemuller, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Integrins belonging to different subfamilies can be identified immunohistochemically in cerebral amyloid plaques. Monoclonal antibodies against the VLA family beta 1-integrins show staining of the corona of classical amyloid plaques for beta 1, alpha 3 and alpha 6. Immunostaining reveal also the

  7. Amyloid β oligomers in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, treatment, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Kirsten L; Klein, William L

    2015-02-01

    Protein aggregation is common to dozens of diseases including prionoses, diabetes, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Over the past 15 years, there has been a paradigm shift in understanding the structural basis for these proteinopathies. Precedent for this shift has come from investigation of soluble Aβ oligomers (AβOs), toxins now widely regarded as instigating neuron damage leading to Alzheimer's dementia. Toxic AβOs accumulate in AD brain and constitute long-lived alternatives to the disease-defining Aβ fibrils deposited in amyloid plaques. Key experiments using fibril-free AβO solutions demonstrated that while Aβ is essential for memory loss, the fibrillar Aβ in amyloid deposits is not the agent. The AD-like cellular pathologies induced by AβOs suggest their impact provides a unifying mechanism for AD pathogenesis, explaining why early stage disease is specific for memory and accounting for major facets of AD neuropathology. Alternative ideas for triggering mechanisms are being actively investigated. Some research favors insertion of AβOs into membrane, while other evidence supports ligand-like accumulation at particular synapses. Over a dozen candidate toxin receptors have been proposed. AβO binding triggers a redistribution of critical synaptic proteins and induces hyperactivity in metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptors. This leads to Ca(2+) overload and instigates major facets of AD neuropathology, including tau hyperphosphorylation, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and synapse loss. Because different species of AβOs have been identified, a remaining question is which oligomer is the major pathogenic culprit. The possibility has been raised that more than one species plays a role. Despite some key unknowns, the clinical relevance of AβOs has been established, and new studies are beginning to point to co-morbidities such as diabetes and hypercholesterolemia as etiological factors. Because pathogenic AβOs appear early in the disease, they

  8. Stable Size Distribution of Amyloid Plaques Over the Course of Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Mielke, Matthew L.; Muzitansky, Alona; Gómez-Isla, Teresa; Growdon, John H.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Hyman, Bradley T.

    2012-01-01

    Amyloidplaques are a key pathological feature of Alzheimer disease (AD), but whether plaque sizes increase or stabilize over the course of AD is unknown. We measured the size distribution of total immunoreactive (10D5-positive) and dense-core (Thioflavine-S-positive) plaques in the temporal neocortex of a large group of AD and plaque-bearing age-matched non-demented subjects to test the hypothesis that amyloid plaques continue to grow along with the progression of the disease. The size of amyloid-β (10D5)-positive plaques did not differ between groups whereas dense-core plaques from the AD group were slightly larger than those in the non-demented group (~25%–30%, p = 0.01). Within the AD group, dense-core plaque size did not independently correlate with duration of clinical disease (from 4 to 21 years, p = 0.68), whereas 10D5-positive plaque size correlated negatively with disease duration (p = 0.01). By contrast, an earlier age of symptom onset strongly predicted a larger postmortem plaque size; this effect was independent of disease duration and the presence of the APOEε4 allele (p = 0.0001). We conclude that plaques vary in size among patients, with larger size distributions correlating with an earlier age of onset, but plaques do not substantially increase in size over the clinical course of the disease. PMID:22805771

  9. Detection of Alzheimer’s disease amyloid-beta plaque deposition by deep brain impedance profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béduer, Amélie; Joris, Pierre; Mosser, Sébastien; Fraering, Patrick C.; Renaud, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Objective. Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease in elderly people. Toxic brain amyloid-beta (Aß) aggregates and ensuing cell death are believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of the disease. In this study, we investigated if we could monitor the presence of these aggregates by performing in situ electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements in AD model mice brains. Approach. In this study, electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed post-mortem in APPPS1 transgenic mice brains. This transgenic model is commonly used to study amyloidogenesis, a pathological hallmark of AD. We used flexible probes with embedded micrometric electrodes array to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting senile plaques composed of Aß peptides by localized impedance measurements. Main results. We particularly focused on deep brain structures, such as the hippocampus. Ex vivo experiments using brains from young and old APPPS1 mice lead us to show that impedance measurements clearly correlate with the percentage of Aβ plaque load in the brain tissues. We could monitor the effects of aging in the AD APPPS1 mice model. Significance. We demonstrated that a localized electrical impedance measurement constitutes a valuable technique to monitor the presence of Aβ-plaques, which is complementary with existing imaging techniques. This method does not require prior Aβ staining, precluding the risk of variations in tissue uptake of dyes or tracers, and consequently ensuring reproducible data collection.

  10. Viscoelasticity of amyloid plaques in transgenic mouse brain studied by Brillouin microspectroscopy and correlative Raman analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mattana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidopathy is one of the most prominent hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the leading cause of dementia worldwide, and is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques in the brain parenchyma. The plaques consist of abnormal deposits mainly composed of an aggregation-prone protein fragment, β-amyloid 1-40/1-42, into the extracellular matrix. Brillouin microspectroscopy is an all-optical contactless technique that is based on the interaction between visible light and longitudinal acoustic waves or phonons, giving access to the viscoelasticity of a sample on a subcellular scale. Here, we describe the first application of micromechanical mapping based on Brillouin scattering spectroscopy to probe the stiffness of individual amyloid plaques in the hippocampal part of the brain of a β-amyloid overexpressing transgenic mouse. Correlative analysis based on Brillouin and Raman microspectroscopy showed that amyloid plaques have a complex structure with a rigid core of β-pleated sheet conformation (β-amyloid protein surrounded by a softer ring-shaped region richer in lipids and other protein conformations. These preliminary results give a new insight into the plaque biophysics and biomechanics, and a valuable contrast mechanism for the study and diagnosis of amyloidopathy.

  11. Optimal parameters for near infrared fluorescence imaging of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease mouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, S B; Kumar, A T N; Boas, D A; Bacskai, B J

    2009-01-01

    Amyloidplaques are an Alzheimer's disease biomarker which present unique challenges for near-infrared fluorescence tomography because of size (<50 μm diameter) and distribution. We used high-resolution simulations of fluorescence in a digital Alzheimer's disease mouse model to investigate the optimal fluorophore and imaging parameters for near-infrared fluorescence tomography of amyloid plaques. Fluorescence was simulated for amyloid-targeted probes with emission at 630 and 800 nm, plaque-to-background ratios from 1-1000, amyloid burden from 0-10%, and for transmission and reflection measurement geometries. Fluorophores with high plaque-to-background contrast ratios and 800 nm emission performed significantly better than current amyloid imaging probes. We tested idealized fluorophores in transmission and full-angle tomographic measurement schemes (900 source-detector pairs), with and without anatomical priors. Transmission reconstructions demonstrated strong linear correlation with increasing amyloid burden, but underestimated fluorescence yield and suffered from localization artifacts. Full-angle measurements did not improve upon the transmission reconstruction qualitatively or in semi-quantitative measures of accuracy; anatomical and initial-value priors did improve reconstruction localization and accuracy for both transmission and full-angle schemes. Region-based reconstructions, in which the unknowns were reduced to a few distinct anatomical regions, produced highly accurate yield estimates for cortex, hippocampus and brain regions, even with a reduced number of measurements (144 source-detector pairs).

  12. Characterization of in vivo MRI detectable thalamic amyloid plaques from APP/PS1 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhenain, M. [URA CEA CNRS 2210, I2BM, SHFJ, 4 Place du General Leclerc, 91401 Orsay Cedex (France); Dhenain, M.; El Tannir El Tayara, N.; Wu, T.D.; Volk, A.; Quintana, C. [U759 INSERM, Centre Universitaire, Laboratoire 112, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Dhenain, M.; El Tannir El Tayara, N.; Wu, T.D.; Volk, A.; Quintana, C. [Institut Curie, Centre Universitaire, Laboratoire 112, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Guegan, M.; Delatour, B. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid-CSIC, 8, Isaac Newton, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Amyloid deposits are one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies, in transgenic mice modeling Alzheimer's disease showed that, using in vivo, contrast agent-free, MRI, thalamic amyloid plaques are more easily detected than other plaques of the brain. Our study evaluated the characteristics of these thalamic plaques in a large population of APP/PS1, PS1 and C57BL/6 mice. Thalamic spots were detected in all mice but with different frequency and magnitude. Hence, the prevalence and size of the lesions were higher in APP/PS1 mice. However, even in APP/PS1 mice, thalamic spots did not occur in all the old animals. In APP/PS1 mice, spots detection was related to high iron and calcium load within amyloid plaques and thus reflects the ability of such plaque to capture large amounts of minerals. Interestingly, calcium and iron was also detected in extra-thalamic plaques but with a lower intensity. Hypointense lesions in the thalamus were not associated with the iron load in the tissue surrounding the plaques, nor with micro-hemorrhages, inflammation, or a neuro-degenerative context. (authors)

  13. Methods for labeling .beta.-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Jorge R.; Petric, Andrej; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Small, Gary W.; Cole, Gregory M.; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2001-01-01

    A method for labeling .beta.-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in vivo and in vitro, comprises contacting a compound of formula (I): ##STR1## with mammalian tissue. In formula (I), R.sub.1 is selected from the group consisting of --C(O)-alkyl, --C(O)-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)O-alkyl, --C(O)O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C.dbd.C(CN).sub.2 -alkyl, --C.dbd.C(CN).sub.2 -alkylenyl-R.sub.4 , ##STR2## R.sub.4 is a radical selected from the group consisting of alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl and substituted aryl; R.sub.5, is a radical selected from the group consisting of --NH.sub.2, --OH, --SH, --NH-alkyl, --NHR.sub.4, --NH-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --O-alkyl, --O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --S-alkyl, and --S-alkylenyl-R.sub.4 ; R.sub.6 is a radical selected from the group consisting of --CN, --COOH, --C(O)O-alkyl, --C(O)O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)-alkyl, --C(O)-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)-halogen, --C(O)NH , --C(O)NH-alkyl, --C(O)NH-alkylenyl-R.sub.4 ; R.sub.7 is a radical selected from the group consisting of O, NH, and S; and R.sub.8 is N, O or S. R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 are each independently selected from the group consisting of alkyl and alkylenyl-R.sub.10, wherein R.sub.10 is selected from the group consisting of --OH, --OTs, halogen, spiperone, spiperone ketal and spiperone-3-yl. Alternatively, R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 together form a heterocyclic ring, optionally substituted with at least one radical selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkoxy, OH, OTs, halogen, alkylenyl-R.sub.10, carbonyl, spiperone, spiperone ketal and spiperone-3-yl. In the compounds of formula (I), one or more of the hydrogen, halogen or carbon atoms can, optionally, be replaced with a radiolabel.

  14. Compositions for labeling .beta.-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Jorge R [Agoura Hills, CA; Petric, Andrej [Ljubljana, SI; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar [Los Angeles, CA; Small, Gary W [Los Angeles, CA; Cole, Gregory M [Santa Monica, CA; Huang, Sung-Cheng [Sherman Oaks, CA

    2008-03-11

    Compositions useful for labeling .beta.-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are provided. The compositions comprises compounds of formula (I): ##STR00001## wherein R.sub.1 is selected from the group consisting of --C(O)-alkyl, --C(O)-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)O-alkyl, --C(O)O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C.dbd.C(CN).sub.2-alkyl, --C.dbd.C(CN).sub.2-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.4 is a radical selected from the group consisting of alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl and substituted aryl; R.sub.5 is a radical selected from the group consisting of --NH.sub.2, --OH, --SH, --NH-alkyl, --NHR.sub.4, --NH-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --O-alkyl, --O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --S-alkyl, and --S-alkylenyl-R.sub.4; R.sub.6 is a radical selected from the group consisting of --CN, --COOH, --C(O)O-alkyl, --C(O)O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)-alkyl, --C(O)-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)-halogen, --C(O)NH-alkyl, --C(O)NH-alkylenyl-R.sub.4 and --C(O)NH.sub.2; R.sub.7 is a radical selected from the group consisting of O, NH, and S; and R.sub.8 is N, O or S; and R.sub.2 is selected from the group consisting of alkyl and alkylenyl-R.sub.10 and R.sub.3 is alkylenyl-R.sub.10, wherein R.sub.10 is selected from the group consisting of --OH, --OTs, halogen, spiperone, spiperone ketal, and spiperone-3-yl, or R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 together form a heterocyclic ring, optionally substituted with at least one radical selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkoxy, OH, OTs, halogen, alkyl-R.sub.10, carbonyl, spiperone, spiperone ketal and spiperone-3-yl, and further wherein one or more of the hydrogen, halogen or carbon atoms are optionally replaced with a radiolabel.

  15. MR Microimaging of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wengenack, Thomas M.; Poduslo, Joseph F. [Mayo Clinic, Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, Departments of Neurology, Neuroscience, and Biochemistry/Molecular Biology, Rochester, MN (United States); Jack, Clifford R. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Garwood, Michael [University of Minnesota Medical School, Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, Minneapolis, MN (United States); University of Minnesota Medical School, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurological condition affecting industrialized nations and will rapidly become a healthcare crisis as the population ages. Currently, the post-mortem histological observation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles is the only definitive diagnosis available for AD. A pre-mortem biological or physiological marker specific for AD used in conjunction with current neurological and memory testing could add a great deal of confidence to the diagnosis of AD and potentially allow therapeutic intervention much earlier in the disease process. Our group has developed MRI techniques to detect individual amyloid plaques in AD transgenic mouse brain in vivo. We are also developing contrast-enhancing agents to increase the specificity of detection of amyloid plaques. Such in vivo imaging of amyloid plaques will also allow the evaluation of anti-amyloid therapies being developed by the pharmaceutical industry in pre-clinical trials of AD transgenic mice. This short review briefly discusses our progress in these areas. (orig.)

  16. In vivo detection of amyloid plaques by gadolinium-stained MRI can be used to demonstrate the efficacy of an anti-amyloid immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu D. Santin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular deposition of β amyloid plaques is an early event associated to Alzheimer's disease. Here we have used in vivo gadolinium-stained high resolution (29*29*117µm3 MRI to follow-up in a longitudinal way individual amyloid plaques in APP/PS1 mice and evaluate the efficacy of a new immunotherapy (SAR255952 directed against protofibrillar and fibrillary forms of Aβ. APP/PS1 mice were treated for 5 months between the age of 3.5 and 8.5 months. SAR255952 reduced amyloid load in 8.5-month-old animals, but not in 5.5-month animals compared to mice treated with a control antibody (DM4. Histological evaluation confirmed the reduction of amyloid load and revealed a lower density of amyloid plaques in 8.5-month SAR255952-treated animals. The longitudinal follow-up of individual amyloid plaques by MRI revealed that plaques that were visible at 5.5 months were still visible at 8.5 months in both SAR255952 and DM4-treated mice. This suggests that the amyloid load reduction induced by SAR255952 is related to a slowing down in the formation of new plaques rather than to the clearance of already formed plaques.

  17. Pathogenesis of lober intracerebral hemorrhage related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Naoto; Namba, Hiroki; Miura, Katsutoshi; Baba, Satoshi; Isoda, Haruo; Yokoyama, Tetsuo

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is an important cause of lober intracerebral hemorrhage in the elderly. Although leptomeningeal and cortical arteries with the deposition of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) have been thought to rupture in CAA, the pathogenesis of CAA-related hemorrhage still remains obscure. We studied 10 cases of CAA according to the Boston criteria from April 2006 to July 2009 in Omaezaki Municipal Hospital. Based on clinical data, we examined the primary site of hemorrhage and hypothesized the mechanisms of bleeding. Intracerebral hematoma evacuation was performed to alleviate neurological deteriolation in 2 patients and to make diagnosis in 3 patients. The surgical specimens were pathologically examined. The characteristic MR images of CAA related hemorrhage were characterized by microbleeds, superficial siderosis, subpial or subarachnoid hemorrhage, subcortical hemorrhage and lober intracerebral hemorrhage. Chronological images obtained in 1 patient revealed that lober intracerebral hemorrhage developed from microbleed with subpial hemorrhage without subarachnoid hemorrhage in one side of the cortex in the affected facing cerebral sulci. Operative findings showed subpial and subarachnoid hemorrhages around the cortical veins on the affected cerebral sulci in all cases. Abnormal fragile vessels existed in one side of the cortex of the affected sulci but not in the other side of the cortex. Complete hamatoma evacuation was performed in 4 cases. The surgical specimens of the hematoma and the adjacent brain parenchyma were pathologically examined by tissue staining with hematoxylin-eosin and Congo red. Many vessels in subpial, subcortical and subarachnoid space along the cerebral sulci were deposited with Aβ. From these findings, we speculated that the primary hemorrhage related to CAA occurred from the cortical arteries with Aβ deposition in the subpial space along the cerebral sulci and formed a lober intracerebral hematoma. Subarachnoid

  18. Lipopolysaccharide Associates with Amyloid Plaques, Neurons and Oligodendrocytes in Alzheimer’s Disease Brain: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Zhan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This review proposes that lipopolysaccharide (LPS, found in the wall of all Gram-negative bacteria could play a role in causing sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD. This is based in part upon recent studies showing that: Gram-negative E. coli bacteria can form extracellular amyloid; bacterial-encoded 16S rRNA is present in all human brains with over 70% being Gram-negative bacteria; ultrastructural analyses have shown microbes in erythrocytes of AD patients; blood LPS levels in AD patients are 3-fold the levels in control; LPS combined with focal cerebral ischemia and hypoxia produced amyloid-like plaques and myelin injury in adult rat cortex. Moreover, Gram-negative bacterial LPS was found in aging control and AD brains, though LPS levels were much higher in AD brains. In addition, LPS co-localized with amyloid plaques, peri-vascular amyloid, neurons, and oligodendrocytes in AD brains. Based upon the postulate LPS caused oligodendrocyte injury, degraded Myelin Basic Protein (dMBP levels were found to be much higher in AD compared to control brains. Immunofluorescence showed that the dMBP co-localized with β amyloid (Aβ and LPS in amyloid plaques in AD brain, and dMBP and other myelin molecules were found in the walls of vesicles in periventricular White Matter (WM. These data led to the hypothesis that LPS acts on leukocyte and microglial TLR4-CD14/TLR2 receptors to produce NFkB mediated increases of cytokines which increase Aβ levels, damage oligodendrocytes and produce myelin injury found in AD brain. Since Aβ1–42 is also an agonist for TLR4 receptors, this could produce a vicious cycle that accounts for the relentless progression of AD. Thus, LPS, the TLR4 receptor complex, and Gram-negative bacteria might be treatment or prevention targets for sporadic AD.

  19. Massive accumulation of luminal protease-deficient axonal lysosomes at Alzheimer's disease amyloid plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowrishankar, Swetha; Yuan, Peng; Wu, Yumei; Schrag, Matthew; Paradise, Summer; Grutzendler, Jaime; De Camilli, Pietro; Ferguson, Shawn M

    2015-07-14

    Through a comprehensive analysis of organellar markers in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, we document a massive accumulation of lysosome-like organelles at amyloid plaques and establish that the majority of these organelles reside within swollen axons that contact the amyloid deposits. This close spatial relationship between axonal lysosome accumulation and extracellular amyloid aggregates was observed from the earliest stages of β-amyloid deposition. Notably, we discovered that lysosomes that accumulate in such axons are lacking in multiple soluble luminal proteases and thus are predicted to be unable to efficiently degrade proteinaceous cargos. Of relevance to Alzheimer's disease, β-secretase (BACE1), the protein that initiates amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein and which is a substrate for these proteases, builds up at these sites. Furthermore, through a comparison between the axonal lysosome accumulations at amyloid plaques and neuronal lysosomes of the wild-type brain, we identified a similar, naturally occurring population of lysosome-like organelles in neuronal processes that is also defined by its low luminal protease content. In conjunction with emerging evidence that the lysosomal maturation of endosomes and autophagosomes is coupled to their retrograde transport, our results suggest that extracellular β-amyloid deposits cause a local impairment in the retrograde axonal transport of lysosome precursors, leading to their accumulation and a blockade in their further maturation. This study both advances understanding of Alzheimer's disease brain pathology and provides new insights into the subcellular organization of neuronal lysosomes that may have broader relevance to other neurodegenerative diseases with a lysosomal component to their pathology.

  20. Massive accumulation of luminal protease-deficient axonal lysosomes at Alzheimer’s disease amyloid plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowrishankar, Swetha; Yuan, Peng; Wu, Yumei; Schrag, Matthew; Paradise, Summer; Grutzendler, Jaime; De Camilli, Pietro; Ferguson, Shawn M.

    2015-01-01

    Through a comprehensive analysis of organellar markers in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease, we document a massive accumulation of lysosome-like organelles at amyloid plaques and establish that the majority of these organelles reside within swollen axons that contact the amyloid deposits. This close spatial relationship between axonal lysosome accumulation and extracellular amyloid aggregates was observed from the earliest stages of β-amyloid deposition. Notably, we discovered that lysosomes that accumulate in such axons are lacking in multiple soluble luminal proteases and thus are predicted to be unable to efficiently degrade proteinaceous cargos. Of relevance to Alzheimer’s disease, β-secretase (BACE1), the protein that initiates amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein and which is a substrate for these proteases, builds up at these sites. Furthermore, through a comparison between the axonal lysosome accumulations at amyloid plaques and neuronal lysosomes of the wild-type brain, we identified a similar, naturally occurring population of lysosome-like organelles in neuronal processes that is also defined by its low luminal protease content. In conjunction with emerging evidence that the lysosomal maturation of endosomes and autophagosomes is coupled to their retrograde transport, our results suggest that extracellular β-amyloid deposits cause a local impairment in the retrograde axonal transport of lysosome precursors, leading to their accumulation and a blockade in their further maturation. This study both advances understanding of Alzheimer’s disease brain pathology and provides new insights into the subcellular organization of neuronal lysosomes that may have broader relevance to other neurodegenerative diseases with a lysosomal component to their pathology. PMID:26124111

  1. Stereoselective determination of amino acids in beta-amyloid peptides and senile plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsén, G; Bergquist, J; Westlind-Danielsson, A; Josefsson, B

    2001-06-01

    A novel method for the determination of the enantiomeric composition of peptides is presented. In this paper, the focus has been on beta-amyloid peptides from deceased Alzheimer's disease patients. The peptides are hydrolyzed using mineral acid. The free amino acids are derivatized with the chiral reagent (+)- or (-)-1-(9-anthryl)-2-propyl chloroformate and subsequently separated using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and detected using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. The high separation efficiency of the MEKC-LIF system, yielding approximately 1 million theoretical plates/m for most amino acids, facilitates the simultaneous chiral determination of nine amino acids. The samples that have been analyzed were standard 1-40 beta-amyloid peptides, in vitro precipitated beta-amyloid fibrils, and human senile plaque samples.

  2. [18F]Fluoroazabenzoxazoles as potential amyloid plaque PET tracers: synthesis and in vivo evaluation in rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostetler, Eric D.; Sanabria-Bohórquez, Sandra; Fan Hong; Zeng, Zhizhen; Gammage, Linda; Miller, Patricia; O'Malley, Stacey; Connolly, Brett; Mulhearn, James; Harrison, Scott T.; Wolkenberg, Scott E.; Barrow, James C.; Williams, David L.; Hargreaves, Richard J.; Sur, Cyrille; Cook, Jacquelynn J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: An 18 F-labeled positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for amyloid plaque is desirable for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, particularly to enable preventative treatment once effective therapeutics are available. Similarly, such a tracer would be useful as a biomarker for enrollment of patients in clinical trials for evaluation of antiamyloid therapeutics. Furthermore, changes in the level of plaque burden as quantified by an amyloid plaque PET tracer may provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of amyloid-targeted therapeutics. This work describes our approach to evaluate and select a candidate PET tracer for in vivo quantification of human amyloid plaque. Methods: Ligands were evaluated for their in vitro binding to human amyloid plaques, lipophilicity and predicted blood–brain barrier permeability. Candidates with favorable in vitro properties were radiolabeled with 18 F and evaluated in vivo. Baseline PET scans in rhesus monkey were conducted to evaluate the regional distribution and kinetics of each tracer using tracer kinetic modeling methods. High binding potential in cerebral white matter and cortical grey matter was considered an unfavorable feature of the candidate tracers. Results: [ 18 F]MK-3328 showed the most favorable combination of low in vivo binding potential in white matter and cortical grey matter in rhesus monkeys, low lipophilicity (Log D=2.91) and high affinity for human amyloid plaques (IC 50 =10.5±1.3 nM). Conclusions: [ 18 F]MK-3328 was identified as a promising PET tracer for in vivo quantification of amyloid plaques, and further evaluation in humans is warranted.

  3. Microspectroscopy (μFTIR) reveals co-localization of lipid oxidation and amyloid plaques in human Alzheimer disease brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benseny-Cases, Núria; Klementieva, Oxana; Cotte, Marine; Ferrer, Isidre; Cladera, Josep

    2014-12-16

    Amyloid peptides are the main component of one of the characteristic pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD): senile plaques. According to the amyloid cascade hypothesis, amyloid peptides may play a central role in the sequence of events that leads to neurodegeneration. However, there are other factors, such as oxidative stress, that may be crucial for the development of the disease. In the present paper, we show that it is possible, by using Fourier tranform infrared (FTIR) microscopy, to co-localize amyloid deposits and lipid peroxidation in tissue slides from patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Plaques and lipids can be analyzed in the same sample, making use of the characteristic infrared bands for peptide aggregation and lipid oxidation. The results show that, in samples from patients diagnosed with AD, the plaques and their immediate surroundings are always characterized by the presence of oxidized lipids. As for samples from non-AD individuals, those without amyloid plaques show a lower level of lipid oxidation than AD individuals. However, it is known that plaques can be detected in the brains of some non-AD individuals. Our results show that, in such cases, the lipid in the plaques and their surroundings display oxidation levels that are similar to those of tissues with no plaques. These results point to lipid oxidation as a possible key factor in the path that goes from showing the typical neurophatological hallmarks to suffering from dementia. In this process, the oxidative power of the amyloid peptide, possibly in the form of nonfibrillar aggregates, could play a central role.

  4. Iron Biochemistry is Correlated with Amyloid Plaque Morphology in an Established Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telling, Neil D; Everett, James; Collingwood, Joanna F; Dobson, Jon; van der Laan, Gerrit; Gallagher, Joseph J; Wang, Jian; Hitchcock, Adam P

    2017-10-19

    A signature characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is aggregation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) fibrils in the brain. Nevertheless, the links between Aβ and AD pathology remain incompletely understood. It has been proposed that neurotoxicity arising from aggregation of the Aβ 1-42 peptide can in part be explained by metal ion binding interactions. Using advanced X-ray microscopy techniques at sub-micron resolution, we investigated relationships between iron biochemistry and AD pathology in intact cortex from an established mouse model over-producing Aβ. We found a direct correlation of amyloid plaque morphology with iron, and evidence for the formation of an iron-amyloid complex. We also show that iron biomineral deposits in the cortical tissue contain the mineral magnetite, and provide evidence that Aβ-induced chemical reduction of iron could occur in vivo. Our observations point to the specific role of iron in amyloid deposition and AD pathology, and may impact development of iron-modifying therapeutics for AD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. In vivo detection of prion amyloid plaques using [{sup 11}C]BF-227 PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Nobuyuki; Yanai, Kazuhiko [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Sendai (Japan); Shiga, Yusei; Itoyama, Yasuhito [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Sendai (Japan); Furumoto, Shozo [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Sendai (Japan); Tohoku University, Division of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Tashiro, Manabu [Tohoku University, Division of Cyclotron Nuclear Medicine, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Tsuboi, Yoshio [Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Fukuoka (Japan); Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki [Institute of Development, Aging, and Cancer, Tohoku University, Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Division of Brain Sciences, Sendai (Japan); Iwata, Ren [Tohoku University, Division of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Kudo, Yukitsuka [Tohoku University, Innovation of New Biomedical Engineering Center, Sendai (Japan); Doh-ura, Katsumi [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Prion Research, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    In vivo detection of pathological prion protein (PrP) in the brain is potentially useful for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). However, there are no non-invasive ante-mortem means for detection of pathological PrP deposition in the brain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amyloid imaging tracer BF-227 with positron emission tomography (PET) for the non-invasive detection of PrP amyloid in the brain. The binding ability of BF-227 to PrP amyloid was investigated using autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy. Five patients with TSEs, including three patients with Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) and two patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), underwent [{sup 11}C]BF-227 PET scans. Results were compared with data from 10 normal controls and 17 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The regional to pons standardized uptake value ratio was calculated as an index of BF-227 retention. Binding of BF-227 to PrP plaques was confirmed using brain samples from autopsy-confirmed GSS cases. In clinical PET study, significantly higher retention of BF-227 was detected in the cerebellum, thalamus and lateral temporal cortex of GSS patients compared to that in the corresponding tissues of normal controls. GSS patients also showed higher retention of BF-227 in the cerebellum, thalamus and medial temporal cortex compared to AD patients. In contrast, the two CJD patients showed no obvious retention of BF-227 in the brain. Although [{sup 11}C]BF-227 is a non-specific imaging marker of cerebral amyloidosis, it is useful for in vivo detection of PrP plaques in the human brain in GSS, based on the regional distribution of the tracer. PET amyloid imaging might provide a means for both early diagnosis and non-invasive disease monitoring of certain forms of TSEs. (orig.)

  6. In vivo detection of prion amyloid plaques using [11C]BF-227 PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Nobuyuki; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Shiga, Yusei; Itoyama, Yasuhito; Furumoto, Shozo; Tashiro, Manabu; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Ren; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Doh-ura, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    In vivo detection of pathological prion protein (PrP) in the brain is potentially useful for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). However, there are no non-invasive ante-mortem means for detection of pathological PrP deposition in the brain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amyloid imaging tracer BF-227 with positron emission tomography (PET) for the non-invasive detection of PrP amyloid in the brain. The binding ability of BF-227 to PrP amyloid was investigated using autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy. Five patients with TSEs, including three patients with Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) and two patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), underwent [ 11 C]BF-227 PET scans. Results were compared with data from 10 normal controls and 17 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The regional to pons standardized uptake value ratio was calculated as an index of BF-227 retention. Binding of BF-227 to PrP plaques was confirmed using brain samples from autopsy-confirmed GSS cases. In clinical PET study, significantly higher retention of BF-227 was detected in the cerebellum, thalamus and lateral temporal cortex of GSS patients compared to that in the corresponding tissues of normal controls. GSS patients also showed higher retention of BF-227 in the cerebellum, thalamus and medial temporal cortex compared to AD patients. In contrast, the two CJD patients showed no obvious retention of BF-227 in the brain. Although [ 11 C]BF-227 is a non-specific imaging marker of cerebral amyloidosis, it is useful for in vivo detection of PrP plaques in the human brain in GSS, based on the regional distribution of the tracer. PET amyloid imaging might provide a means for both early diagnosis and non-invasive disease monitoring of certain forms of TSEs. (orig.)

  7. Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Geraghty, J. A. Seibert, and S. L. Wootton-Gorges, “Dose reduction in pediatric CT : A rational approach,” Radiology 228, 352–360 (2003). Medical...improvement in image quality can be quantified as large as 450 [Fig. 6(c)] and 350 [Fig. 6(d)] Hounsfield units (HUs), where the Hounsfield unit is defined...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0138 TITLE: Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  8. Human tau increases amyloid β plaque size but not amyloid β-mediated synapse loss in a novel mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Rosemary J; Rudinskiy, Nikita; Herrmann, Abigail G; Croft, Shaun; Kim, JeeSoo Monica; Petrova, Veselina; Ramos-Rodriguez, Juan Jose; Pitstick, Rose; Wegmann, Susanne; Garcia-Alloza, Monica; Carlson, George A; Hyman, Bradley T; Spires-Jones, Tara L

    2016-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the presence of aggregates of amyloid beta (Aβ) in senile plaques and tau in neurofibrillary tangles, as well as marked neuron and synapse loss. Of these pathological changes, synapse loss correlates most strongly with cognitive decline. Synapse loss occurs prominently around plaques due to accumulations of oligomeric Aβ. Recent evidence suggests that tau may also play a role in synapse loss but the interactions of Aβ and tau in synapse loss remain to be determined. In this study, we generated a novel transgenic mouse line, the APP/PS1/rTg21221 line, by crossing APP/PS1 mice, which develop Aβ-plaques and synapse loss, with rTg21221 mice, which overexpress wild-type human tau. When compared to the APP/PS1 mice without human tau, the cross-sectional area of ThioS+ dense core plaques was increased by ~50%. Along with increased plaque size, we observed an increase in plaque-associated dystrophic neurites containing misfolded tau, but there was no exacerbation of neurite curvature or local neuron loss around plaques. Array tomography analysis similarly revealed no worsening of synapse loss around plaques, and no change in the accumulation of Aβ at synapses. Together, these results indicate that adding human wild-type tau exacerbates plaque pathology and neurite deformation but does not exacerbate plaque-associated synapse loss. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Plaque hemorrhage in carotid artery disease: Pathogenesis, clinical and biomechanical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zhongzhao; Sadat, Umar; Brown, Adam J.; Gillard, Jonathan H.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke remains the most prevalent disabling illness today, with internal carotid artery luminal stenosis due to atheroma formation responsible for the majority of ischemic cerebrovascular events. Severity of luminal stenosis continues to dictate both patient risk stratification and the likelihood of surgical intervention. But there is growing evidence to suggest that plaque morphology may help improve pre-existing risk stratification criteria. Plaque components such a fibrous tissue, lipid rich necrotic core and calcium have been well investigated but plaque hemorrhage (PH) has been somewhat overlooked. In this review we discuss the pathogenesis of PH, its role in dictating plaque vulnerability, PH imaging techniques, marterial properties of atherosclerotic tissues, in particular, those obtained based on in vivo measurements and effect of PH in modulating local biomechanics. PMID:24485514

  10. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan is associated with amyloid plaques and neuroanatomically targeted PrP pathology throughout the incubation period of scrapie-infected mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBride, P. A.; Wilson, M. I.; Eikelenboom, P.; Tunstall, A.; Bruce, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) has been found to be associated with amyloid deposits in a number of diseases including the cerebral amyloid plaques of Alzheimer's disease and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The role of HSPG in amyloid formation and the neurodegenerative

  11. Molecular Imaging of β-Amyloid Plaques with Near-Infrared Boron Dipyrromethane (BODIPY-Based Fluorescent Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Watanabe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of β-amyloid (Aβ plaques is a critical neurodegenerative change in Alzheimer disease (AD. We designed and synthesized novel boron dipyrromethane (BODIPY-based Aβ probes (BAPs and evaluated their utility for near-infrared fluorescence imaging of Aβ plaques in the brain. In binding experiments in vitro, BAPs showed high affinity for synthetic Aβ aggregates (Kd = 18–149 nM. Furthermore, BAPs clearly stained Aβ plaques in sections of Tg2576 mice. In mouse brain tissue, BAPs showed sufficient uptake for optical imaging. In addition, ex vivo fluorescent staining of brain sections from Tg2576 mice after the injection of BAP-2 showed selective binding of Aβ plaques with little nonspecific binding. BAPs may be useful as a near-infrared fluorescent probe for imaging Aβ plaques.

  12. Chronic cladribine administration increases amyloid beta peptide generation and plaque burden in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal D Hayes

    Full Text Available The clinical uses of 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (2-CDA or cladribine which was initially prescribed to patients with hematological and lymphoid cancers is now extended to treat patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Previous data has shown that 2-CDA has high affinity to the brain and readily passes through the blood brain barrier reaching CSF concentrations 25% of that found in plasma. However, whether long-term administration of 2-CDA can lead to any adverse effects in patients or animal models is not yet clearly known.Here we show that exposure of 2-CDA to CHO cells stably expressing wild-type APP751 increased generation and secretion of amyloid β peptide (Aβ in to the conditioned medium. Interestingly, increased Aβ levels were noticed even at non-toxic concentrations of 2-CDA. Remarkably, chronic treatment of APdE9 mice, a model of Alzheimer's disease with 2-CDA for 60 days increased amyloid plaque burden by more than 1-fold. Increased Aβ generation appears to result from increased turnover of APP as revealed by cycloheximide-chase experiments. Additionally, surface labeling of APP with biotin and immunoprecipitation of surface labeled proteins with anti-biotin antibody also indicated increased APP at the cell surface in 2-CDA treated cells compared to controls. Increased turnover of APP by 2-CDA in turn might be a consequence of decreased protein levels of PIN 1, which is known to regulate cis-trans isomerization and phosphorylation of APP. Most importantly, like many other oncology drugs, 2-CDA administration led to significant delay in acquiring a reward-based learning task in a T maze paradigm.Taken together, these data provide compelling evidence for the first time that chronic 2-CDA administration can increase amyloidogenic processing of APP leading to robustly increased plaque burden which may be responsible for the observed deficits in learning skills. Thus chronic treatment of mice with 2-CDA can have deleterious effects in vivo.

  13. RNA aptamer probes as optical imaging agents for the detection of amyloid plaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian T Farrar

    Full Text Available Optical imaging using multiphoton microscopy and whole body near infrared imaging has become a routine part of biomedical research. However, optical imaging methods rely on the availability of either small molecule reporters or genetically encoded fluorescent proteins, which are challenging and time consuming to develop. While directly labeled antibodies can also be used as imaging agents, antibodies are species specific, can typically not be tagged with multiple fluorescent reporters without interfering with target binding, and are bioactive, almost always eliciting a biological response and thereby influencing the process that is being studied. We examined the possibility of developing highly specific and sensitive optical imaging agents using aptamer technology. We developed a fluorescently tagged anti-Aβ RNA aptamer, β55, which binds amyloid plaques in both ex vivo human Alzheimer's disease brain tissue and in vivo APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Diffuse β55 positive halos, attributed to oligomeric Aβ, were observed surrounding the methoxy-XO4 positive plaque cores. Dot blots of synthetic Aβ aggregates provide further evidence that β55 binds both fibrillar and non-fibrillar Aβ. The high binding affinity, the ease of probe development, and the ability to incorporate multiple and multimodal imaging reporters suggest that RNA aptamers may have complementary and perhaps advantageous properties compared to conventional optical imaging probes and reporters.

  14. In vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging of amyloidplaques with a dicyanoisophorone-based probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jia-ying; Zhou, Lin-fu; Li, Yu-kun [School of Bioscience and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Chen, Shuo-bin [School of Pharmaceutical Science, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Yan, Jin-wu, E-mail: yjw@scut.edu.cn [School of Bioscience and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Zhang, Lei, E-mail: lzhangce@scut.edu.cn [School of Bioscience and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006 (China)

    2017-04-08

    A dicyanoisophorone-based probe with two-photon absorption and NIR emission was developed for the in vivo fluorescence imaging of amyloidplaques, which exhibited high selectivity toward Aβ aggregates over other intracellular proteins. The detection limit was calculated to be as low as 109 nM. In vivo imaging studies indicated that the probe could penetrate the blood–brain barrier and label Aβ plaques in the living transgenic mice, and its specific binding to cerebral Aβ plaques was further confirmed by one- and two-photon ex vivo fluorescence imaging. All these results featured its promising application prospects for amyloid-β sensing in basic research and biomedical research. - Highlights: • A two-photon probe (DCIP-1) with NIR emission based on dicyanoisophorone group, for the in vivo fluorescence imaging of amyloidplaques, was reported. • The probe showed turn-on fluorescence (13-fold) with a large Stokes shift upon inserting into the hydrophobic pockets of Aβ aggregates. • The in vivo imaging studies indicated that the probe can penetrate the blood–brain barrier efficiently and discriminate APP/PS1 transgenic mice from WT controls.

  15. In vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging of amyloidplaques with a dicyanoisophorone-based probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jia-ying; Zhou, Lin-fu; Li, Yu-kun; Chen, Shuo-bin; Yan, Jin-wu; Zhang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    A dicyanoisophorone-based probe with two-photon absorption and NIR emission was developed for the in vivo fluorescence imaging of amyloidplaques, which exhibited high selectivity toward Aβ aggregates over other intracellular proteins. The detection limit was calculated to be as low as 109 nM. In vivo imaging studies indicated that the probe could penetrate the blood–brain barrier and label Aβ plaques in the living transgenic mice, and its specific binding to cerebral Aβ plaques was further confirmed by one- and two-photon ex vivo fluorescence imaging. All these results featured its promising application prospects for amyloid-β sensing in basic research and biomedical research. - Highlights: • A two-photon probe (DCIP-1) with NIR emission based on dicyanoisophorone group, for the in vivo fluorescence imaging of amyloidplaques, was reported. • The probe showed turn-on fluorescence (13-fold) with a large Stokes shift upon inserting into the hydrophobic pockets of Aβ aggregates. • The in vivo imaging studies indicated that the probe can penetrate the blood–brain barrier efficiently and discriminate APP/PS1 transgenic mice from WT controls.

  16. [In vitro early detection of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease by Pittsburgh compound B-modified magnetic nanoparticles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, J Q; Wu, J Q; Li, M H; Wang, P J

    2017-11-07

    Objective: To construct magnetic nanoparticles targeting β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, the pathological biomarker of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to study their binding capability in vitro . Methods: Superparamagnetic nanoparticles Mn(0.6)Zn(0.4)Fe(2)O(4) (MZF) were coated with amphiphilic star-block copolymeric micelles and modified with Aβ-specific probe Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) to construct a novel magnetic nanoparticle MZF-PiB, which specifically targeted amyloid plaques. Transmission electron microscope was used to study the morphological features of MZF-PiB. Superparamagnetism of MZF-PiB was assessed by its r(2) relaxation rate by using 3.0 T MRI scanner. Cytotoxic test was applied to determine biosafety of MZF-PiB nanoparticles in differentiated human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK). In vitro binding tests were conducted via immunohistochemistry on 6-month old AD mice brain sections. Differences of cell viability between groups were compared with one-way analysis of variance. Results: MZF-PiB nanoparticles were successfully constructed. Transmission electron microscope images showed that the nanoparticles were about 100 nm in size. The r(2) relaxation rate was 163.11 mMS(-1). No differences were found in cell viability of SH-SY5Y and MDCK incubated with MZF-PiB suspension for 24 h or 48 h when compared with those of untreated cells ( F =2.336, 2.539, 0.293, 1.493, all P >0.05). In vitro binding tests indicated that the MZF-PiB were specifically bound to amyloid plaques. The smallest size of detected plaques was 27 μm. Conclusion: PiB-modified nanoparticles targeting Aβ are biologically safe and highly superparamagnetic, possessing the capability to detect amyloid plaques early in vitro and the potential for early diagnosis of AD.

  17. Effect of catalpol on senile plaques and spatial learning and memory ability in amyloid-β protein precursor/presenilin 1 double transgenic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋冲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether catalpol affects senile plaque formation and spatial learning and memory ability in the amyloid-βprotein precursor/presenilin 1(APP/PS1)double transgenic mice.Methods

  18. Minocycline does not affect amyloid beta phagocytosis by human microglial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Familian, Atoosa; Eikelenboom, Piet; Veerhuis, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Activated microglia accumulate in amyloid beta (Abeta) plaques containing amyloid associated factors SAP and C1q in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Microglia are involved in AD pathogenesis by promoting Abeta plaque formation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. On the other hand,

  19. Distribution of precursor amyloid-β-protein messenger RNA in human cerebral cortex: relationship to neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.A.; Higgins, G.A.; Young, W.G.; Goldgaber, D.; Gajdusek, D.C.; Wilson, M.C.; Morrison, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and neuritic plaques (NP), two neuropathological markers of Alzheimer disease, may both contain peptide fragments derived from the human amyloid β protein. However, the nature of the relationship between NFT and NP and the source of the amyloid β proteins found in each have remained unclear. The authors used in situ hybridization techniques to map the anatomical distribution of precursor amyloid-β-protein mRNA in the neocortex of brains from three subjects with no known neurologic disease and from five patients with Alzheimer disease. In brains from control subjects, positively hybridizing neurons were present in cortical regions and layers that contain a high density of neuropathological markers in Alzheimer disease, as well as in those loci that contain NP but few NFT. Quantitative analyses of in situ hybridization patterns within layers III and V of the superior frontal cortex revealed that the presence of high numbers of NFT in Alzheimer-diseased brains was associated with a decrease in the number of positively hybridizing neurons compared to controls and Alzheimer-diseased brains with few NFT. These findings suggest that the expression of precursor amyloid-β-protein mRNA may be a necessary but is clearly not a sufficient prerequisite for NFT formation. In addition, these results may indicate that the amyloid β protein, present in NP in a given region or layer of cortex, is not derived from the resident neuronal cell bodies that express the mRNA for the precursor protein

  20. Affinity of nat/68Ga-Labelled Curcumin and Curcuminoid Complexes for β-Amyloid Plaques: Towards the Development of New Metal-Curcumin Based Radiotracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rubagotti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin derivatives labelled with fluorine-18 or technetium-99m have recently shown their potential as diagnostic tools for Alzheimer’s disease. Nevertheless, no study by exploiting the labelling with gallium-68 has been performed so far, in spite of its suitable properties (positron emitter, generator produced radionuclide. Herein, an evaluation of the affinity for synthetic β-amyloid fibrils and for amyloid plaques of three nat/68Ga-labelled curcumin analogues, namely curcumin curcumin (CUR, bis-dehydroxy-curcumin (bDHC and diacetyl-curcumin (DAC, was performed. Affinity and specificity were tested in vitro on amyloid synthetic fibrils by using gallium-68 labelled compounds. Post-mortem brain cryosections from Tg2576 mice were used for the ex vivo visualization of amyloid plaques. The affinity of 68Ga(CUR2+, 68Ga(DAC2+, and 68Ga(bDHC2+ for synthetic β-amyloid fibrils was moderate and their uptake could be observed in vitro. On the other hand, amyloid plaques could not be visualized on brain sections of Tg2576 mice after injection, probably due to the low stability of the complexes in vivo and of a hampered passage through the blood–brain barrier. Like curcumin, all nat/68Ga-curcuminoid complexes maintain a high affinity for β-amyloid plaques. However, structural modifications are still needed to improve their applicability as radiotracers in vivo.

  1. Organotypic vibrosections from whole brain adult Alzheimer mice (overexpressing amyloid-precursor-protein with the Swedish-Dutch-Iowa mutations as a model to study clearance of beta-amyloid plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eHumpel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer´s disease is a severe neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, pathologically characterized by extracellular beta-amyloid plaques, intraneuronal Tau inclusions, inflammation, reactive glial cells, vascular pathology and neuronal cell death. The degradation and clearance of beta-amyloid plaques is an interesting therapeutic approach, and the proteases neprilysin (NEP, insulysin and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP are of particular interest. The aim of this project was to establish and characterize a simple in vitro model to study the degrading effects of these proteases. Organoytpic brain vibrosections (120 µm thick were sectioned from adult (9 month old wildtype and transgenic mice (expressing amyloid precursor protein (APP harboring the Swedish K670N/M671L, Dutch E693Q, and Iowa D694N mutations; APP_SDI and cultured for 2 weeks. Plaques were stained by immunohistochemistry for beta-amyloid and Thioflavin S. Our data show that plaques were evident in 2 week old cultures from 9 month old transgenic mice. These plaques were surrounded by reactive GFAP+ astroglia and Iba1+ microglia. Incubation of fresh slices for 2 weeks with 1-0.1-0.01 µg/ml of NEP, insulysin, MMP-2 or MMP-9 showed that NEP, insulysin and MMP-9 markedly degradeded beta-amyloid plaques but only at the highest concentration. Our data provide for the first time a potent and powerful living brain vibrosection model containing a high number of plaques, which allows to rapidly and simply study the degradation and clearance of beta-amyloid plaques in vitro.

  2. Early enriched environment exposure protects spatial memory and accelerates amyloid plaque formation in APP(Swe/PS1(L166P mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Montarolo

    Full Text Available Enriched environment exposure improves several aspects of cognitive performance in Alzheimer's disease patients and in animal models and, although the role of amyloid plaques is questionable, several studies also assessed their response to enriched environment, with contrasting results. Here we report that rearing APP(Swe/PS1(L166P mice in an enriched environment since birth rescued the spatial memory impairment otherwise present at 6 months of age. At the same time, the exposure to the enriched environment caused a transient acceleration of plaque formation, while there was no effect on intracellular staining with the 6E10 antibody, which recognizes β-amyloid, full length amyloid precursor protein and its C-terminal fragments. The anticipation of plaque formation required exposure during early development, suggesting an action within critical periods for circuits formation. On the other hand, chronic neuronal activity suppression by tetrodotoxin decreased the number of plaques without affecting intracellular amyloid. These results indicate that enriched environment exposure since early life has a protective effect on cognitive deterioration although transiently accelerates amyloid deposition. In addition, the effects of the enriched environment might be due to increased neuronal activity, because plaques were reduced by suppression of electrical signaling by tetrodotoxin.

  3. Atypical Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with PrP-amyloid plaques in white matter: molecular characterization and transmission to bank voles show the M1 strain signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Marcello; Saverioni, Daniela; Di Bari, Michele; Baiardi, Simone; Lemstra, Afina Willemina; Pirisinu, Laura; Capellari, Sabina; Rozemuller, Annemieke; Nonno, Romolo; Parchi, Piero

    2017-11-23

    Amyloid plaques formed by abnormal prion protein (PrP Sc ) aggregates occur with low frequency in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, but represent a pathological hallmark of three relatively rare disease histotypes, namely variant CJD, sporadic CJDMV2K (methionine/valine at PRNP codon 129, PrP Sc type 2 and kuru-type amyloid plaques) and iatrogenic CJDMMiK (MM at codon 129, PrP Sc of intermediate type and kuru plaques). According to recent studies, however, PrP-amyloid plaques involving the subcortical and deep nuclei white matter may also rarely occur in CJDMM1 (MM at codon 129 and PrP Sc type 1), the most common CJD histotype.To further characterize the phenotype of atypical CJDMM1 with white matter plaques (p-CJDMM1) and unravel the basis of amyloid plaque formation in such cases, we compared clinical and histopathological features and PrP Sc physico-chemical properties between 5 p-CJDMM1 and 8 typical CJDMM1 brains lacking plaques. Furthermore, transmission properties after bioassay in two genetic lines of bank voles were also explored in the two groups.All 5 p-CJDMM1 cases had a disease duration longer than one year. Three cases were classified as sporadic CJDMM1, one as sporadic CJDMM1 + 2C and one as genetic CJDE200K-MM1. Molecular mass, protease sensitivity and thermo-solubilization of PrP Sc aggregates did not differ between p-CJDMM1 and classical CJDMM1 cases. Likewise, transmission properties such as incubation time, lesion profile and PrP Sc properties in bank voles also matched in the two groups.The present data further define the clinical-pathologic phenotype of p-CJDMM1, definitely establish it as a distinctive CJD histotype and demonstrate that PrP-plaque formation in this histotype is not a strain-specific feature. Since cases lacking amyloid plaques may also manifest a prolonged (i.e. > than one year) disease course, unidentified, host-specific factors likely play a significant role, in addition to disease duration, in generating white matter PrP-amyloid

  4. Radioiodinated benzimidazole derivatives as single photon emission computed tomography probes for imaging of {beta}-amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Mengchao [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Ono, Masahiro, E-mail: ono@pharm.kyoto-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kimura, Hiroyuki; Kawashima, Hidekazu [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Liu Boli [Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Saji, Hideo, E-mail: hsaji@pharm.kyoto-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Five iodinated 2-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as potential probes for {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) plaques. One of the compounds, 4-(6-iodo-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylaniline (12), showed excellent affinity for A{beta}{sub 1-42} aggregates (K{sub i}=9.8 nM). Autoradiography with sections of postmortem Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain revealed that a radioiodinated probe [{sup 125}I]12, labeled A{beta} plaques selectively with low nonspecific binding. Biodistribution experiments with normal mice injected intravenously with [{sup 125}I]12 showed high uptake [4.14 percent injected dose per gram (% ID/g) at 2 min] into and rapid clearance (0.15% ID/g at 60 min) from the brain, which may bring about a good signal-to-noise ratio and therefore achieve highly sensitive detection of A{beta} plaques. In addition, [{sup 125}I]12 labeled amyloid plaques in vivo in an AD transgenic model. The preliminary results strongly suggest that [{sup 125}I]12 bears characteristics suitable for detecting amyloid plaques in vivo. When labeled with {sup 123}I, it may be a useful SPECT imaging agent for A{beta} plaques in the brain of living AD patients.

  5. Chronic apocynin treatment attenuates beta amyloid plaque size and microglial number in hAPP(751(SL mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda E Lull

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidase is implicated in neurotoxic microglial activation and the progressive nature of Alzheimer's Disease (AD. Here, we test the ability of two NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin and dextromethorphan (DM, to reduce learning deficits and neuropathology in transgenic mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish and London mutations (hAPP(751(SL.Four month old hAPP(751(SL mice were treated daily with saline, 15 mg/kg DM, 7.5 mg/kg DM, or 10 mg/kg apocynin by gavage for four months.Only hAPP(751(SL mice treated with apocynin showed reduced plaque size and a reduction in the number of cortical microglia, when compared to the saline treated group. Analysis of whole brain homogenates from all treatments tested (saline, DM, and apocynin demonstrated low levels of TNFα, protein nitration, lipid peroxidation, and NADPH oxidase activation, indicating a low level of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in hAPP(751(SL mice at 8 months of age that was not significantly affected by any drug treatment. Despite in vitro analyses demonstrating that apocynin and DM ameliorate Aβ-induced extracellular superoxide production and neurotoxicity, both DM and apocynin failed to significantly affect learning and memory tasks or synaptic density in hAPP(751(SL mice. To discern how apocynin was affecting plaque levels (plaque load and microglial number in vivo, in vitro analysis of microglia was performed, revealing no apocynin effects on beta-amyloid (Aβ phagocytosis, microglial proliferation, or microglial survival.Together, this study suggests that while hAPP(751(SL mice show increases in microglial number and plaque load, they fail to exhibit elevated markers of neuroinflammation consistent with AD at 8 months of age, which may be a limitation of this animal model. Despite absence of clear neuroinflammation, apocynin was still able to reduce both plaque size and microglial number, suggesting that apocynin may have additional

  6. Numb endocytic adapter proteins regulate the transport and processing of the amyloid precursor protein in an isoform-dependent manner: implications for Alzheimer disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazis, George A; Wei, Zelan; Vandermey, Miriam; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Xin, Ouyang; Mattson, Mark P; Chan, Sic L

    2008-09-12

    Central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease is the aberrant processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to generate amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta), the principle component of amyloid plaques. The cell fate determinant Numb is a phosphotyrosine binding domain (PTB)-containing endocytic adapter protein that interacts with the carboxyl-terminal domain of APP. The physiological relevance of this interaction is unknown. Mammals produce four alternatively spliced variants of Numb that differ in the length of their PTB and proline-rich region. In the current study, we determined the influence of the four human Numb isoforms on the intracellular trafficking and processing of APP. Stable expression of Numb isoforms that differ in the PTB but not in the proline-rich region results in marked differences in the sorting of APP to the recycling and degradative pathways. Neural cells expressing Numb isoforms that lack the insert in the PTB (short PTB (SPTB)) exhibited marked accumulation of APP in Rab5A-labeled early endosomal and recycling compartments, whereas those expressing isoforms with the insertion in the PTB (long PTB (LPTB)) exhibited reduced amounts of cellular APP and its proteolytic derivatives relative to parental control cells. Neither the activities of the beta- and gamma-secretases nor the expression of APP mRNA were significantly different in the stably transfected cells, suggesting that the differential effects of the Numb proteins on APP metabolism is likely to be secondary to altered APP trafficking. In addition, the expression of SPTB-Numb increases at the expense of LPTB-Numb in neuronal cultures subjected to stress, suggesting a role for Numb in stress-induced Abeta production. Taken together, these results suggest distinct roles for the human Numb isoforms in APP metabolism and may provide a novel potential link between altered Numb isoform expression and increased Abeta generation.

  7. No evidence for involvement of plasma proteins or blood-borne cells in amyloid plaque formation in scrapie-affected mice. An immunohistoperoxidase study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelenboom, P.; Scott, J. R.; McBride, P. A.; Rozemuller, J. M.; Bruce, M. E.; Fraser, H.

    1987-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate blood-brain permeability and the possible involvement of plasma proteins and blood-borne cells in amyloid plaque formation in scrapie-affected mice. No abnormal extravasation of intravenously injected horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was found and with

  8. AmyloidPlaques in Clinical Alzheimer’s Disease Brain Incorporate Stable Isotope Tracer In Vivo and Exhibit Nanoscale Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildburger, Norelle C.; Gyngard, Frank; Guillermier, Christelle; Patterson, Bruce W.; Elbert, Donald; Mawuenyega, Kwasi G.; Schneider, Theresa; Green, Karen; Roth, Robyn; Schmidt, Robert E.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Benzinger, Tammie L. S.; Steinhauser, Matthew L.; Bateman, Randall J.

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with clinical manifestations of progressive memory decline and loss of executive function and language. AD affects an estimated 5.3 million Americans alone and is the most common form of age-related dementia with a rapidly growing prevalence among the aging population—those 65 years of age or older. AD is characterized by accumulation of aggregated amyloid-beta (Aβ) in the brain, which leads to one of the pathological hallmarks of AD—Aβ plaques. As a result, Aβ plaques have been extensively studied after being first described over a century ago. Advances in brain imaging and quantitative measures of Aβ in biological fluids have yielded insight into the time course of plaque development decades before and after AD symptom onset. However, despite the fundamental role of Aβ plaques in AD, in vivo measures of individual plaque growth, growth distribution, and dynamics are still lacking. To address this question, we combined stable isotope labeling kinetics (SILK) and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) imaging in an approach termed SILK–SIMS to resolve plaque dynamics in three human AD brains. In human AD brain, plaques exhibit incorporation of a stable isotope tracer. Tracer enrichment was highly variable between plaques and the spatial distribution asymmetric with both quiescent and active nanometer sub-regions of tracer incorporation. These data reveal that Aβ plaques are dynamic structures with deposition rates over days indicating a highly active process. Here, we report the first, direct quantitative measures of in vivo deposition into plaques in human AD brain. Our SILK–SIMS studies will provide invaluable information on plaque dynamics in the normal and diseased brain and offer many new avenues for investigation into pathological mechanisms of the disease, with implications for therapeutic development. PMID:29623063

  9. AmyloidPlaques in Clinical Alzheimer’s Disease Brain Incorporate Stable Isotope Tracer In Vivo and Exhibit Nanoscale Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norelle C. Wildburger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder with clinical manifestations of progressive memory decline and loss of executive function and language. AD affects an estimated 5.3 million Americans alone and is the most common form of age-related dementia with a rapidly growing prevalence among the aging population—those 65 years of age or older. AD is characterized by accumulation of aggregated amyloid-beta (Aβ in the brain, which leads to one of the pathological hallmarks of AD—Aβ plaques. As a result, Aβ plaques have been extensively studied after being first described over a century ago. Advances in brain imaging and quantitative measures of Aβ in biological fluids have yielded insight into the time course of plaque development decades before and after AD symptom onset. However, despite the fundamental role of Aβ plaques in AD, in vivo measures of individual plaque growth, growth distribution, and dynamics are still lacking. To address this question, we combined stable isotope labeling kinetics (SILK and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS imaging in an approach termed SILK–SIMS to resolve plaque dynamics in three human AD brains. In human AD brain, plaques exhibit incorporation of a stable isotope tracer. Tracer enrichment was highly variable between plaques and the spatial distribution asymmetric with both quiescent and active nanometer sub-regions of tracer incorporation. These data reveal that Aβ plaques are dynamic structures with deposition rates over days indicating a highly active process. Here, we report the first, direct quantitative measures of in vivo deposition into plaques in human AD brain. Our SILK–SIMS studies will provide invaluable information on plaque dynamics in the normal and diseased brain and offer many new avenues for investigation into pathological mechanisms of the disease, with implications for therapeutic development.

  10. Stabilization of a β-hairpin in monomeric Alzheimer's amyloid-β peptide inhibits amyloid formation

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyer, Wolfgang; Grönwall, Caroline; Jonsson, Andreas; Ståhl, Stefan; Härd, Torleif

    2008-01-01

    According to the amyloid hypothesis, the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is triggered by the oligomerization and aggregation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into protein plaques. Formation of the potentially toxic oligomeric and fibrillar Aβ assemblies is accompanied by a conformational change toward a high content of β-structure. Here, we report the solution structure of Aβ(1–40) in complex with the phage-display selected affibody protein ZAβ3, a binding protein of nanomolar affinity. Boun...

  11. Green-fluorescent protein+ Astrocytes Attach to beta-Amyloid Plaques in an Alzheimer Mouse Model and GFPare Sensitive for Clasmatodendrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eHumpel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is pathologically characterized by beta-amyloid (Aβ plaques and Tau pathology. It is well-established that Aβ plaques are surrounded by reactive astrocytes, highly expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. In order to study the cellular interaction of reactive astrocytes with Aβ plaques, we crossbred mice overexpressing amyloid precursor protein (APP with the Swedish-Dutch-Iowa mutations (APP-SweDI with mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the GFAP-promotor. Three-dimensional confocal microscopy revealed a tight association and intense sprouting of astrocytic fine branched processes towards Aβ plaques in 12 month old mice. In order to study phagocytosis, 110 µm thick brain slices from 12 month old crossbred mice were cultured overnight, however, we found that the GFP fluorescence faded away, distal processes degenerated and a complete loss of astrocytic morphology was seen (clasmatodendrosis. In summary, our data show that GFP+ reactive astrocytes make intense contact with Aβ plaques but these cells are highly vulnerable for degeneration.

  12. Prion seeding activities of mouse scrapie strains with divergent PrPSc protease sensitivities and amyloid plaque content using RT-QuIC and eQuIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Vascellari

    Full Text Available Different transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE-associated forms of prion protein (e.g. PrP(Sc can vary markedly in ultrastructure and biochemical characteristics, but each is propagated in the host. PrP(Sc propagation involves conversion from its normal isoform, PrP(C, by a seeded or templated polymerization mechanism. Such a mechanism is also the basis of the RT-QuIC and eQuIC prion assays which use recombinant PrP (rPrP(Sen as a substrate. These ultrasensitive detection assays have been developed for TSE prions of several host species and sample tissues, but not for murine models which are central to TSE pathogenesis research. Here we have adapted RT-QuIC and eQuIC to various murine prions and evaluated how seeding activity depends on glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI anchoring and the abundance of amyloid plaques and protease-resistant PrP(Sc (PrP(Res. Scrapie brain dilutions up to 10(-8 and 10(-13 were detected by RT-QuIC and eQuIC, respectively. Comparisons of scrapie-affected wild-type mice and transgenic mice expressing GPI anchorless PrP showed that, although similar concentrations of seeding activity accumulated in brain, the heavily amyloid-laden anchorless mouse tissue seeded more rapid reactions. Next we compared seeding activities in the brains of mice with similar infectivity titers, but widely divergent PrP(Res levels. For this purpose we compared the 263K and 139A scrapie strains in transgenic mice expressing P101L PrP(C. Although the brains of 263K-affected mice had little immunoblot-detectable PrP(Res, RT-QuIC indicated that seeding activity was comparable to that associated with a high-PrP(Res strain, 139A. Thus, in this comparison, RT-QuIC seeding activity correlated more closely with infectivity than with PrP(Res levels. We also found that eQuIC, which incorporates a PrP(Sc immunoprecipitation step, detected seeding activity in plasma from wild-type and anchorless PrP transgenic mice inoculated with 22L, 79A and/or RML

  13. Plaque deposition dependent decrease in 5-HT2A serotonin receptor in AbetaPPswe/PS1dE9 amyloid overexpressing mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter; Ettrup, Anders; Klein, Anders B

    2010-01-01

    -HT2A receptor regulation in double transgenic AbetaPPswe/PS1dE9 mice which display excess production of Abeta and age-dependent increase in amyloid plaques. Three different age-groups, 4-month-old, 8- month-old, and 11-month-old were included in the study. [3H]-MDL100907, [3H]-escitalopram, and [11C...

  14. The role of selected chemokines and their receptors in the pathogenesis and destabilisation of atheromatous plaques in the carotid arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Konarska-Król

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are cytokines that act selectively on cells and are capable of inducing selective migration of cells in vitro and in vivo. The term was first coined at the 3rd International Symposium on Chemotactic Cytokines in 1992. The name “chemokine” is a contraction of “chemotactic cytokine,” meaning that these molecules combine features of both cytokines and chemotactic factors. They are a family of low-molecular-mass proteins acting on specific membrane receptors. A cell’s overall sensitivity to chemotaxis depends on the expression profile of chemokine receptors. Atherosclerosis is essentially an excessive inflammatory and proliferative response to the damage of arterial walls. It takes place within the wall and leads to the formation of unstable atherosclerotic plaques. Many chemokines have been studied in terms of their role in the pathogenesis of an atheromatous plaque in the carotid arteries, both in animal models and with the use of human tissue. It  seems that molecules that are the most involved in the formation of atheromas in the carotid arteries include: CCL2, CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5. However, reports are sometimes contradictory, and more research is needed. Finding a marker that could help predict the destabilisation of an atheromatous plaque would be a valuable addition to the standard diagnostic panel of tests used in both the diagnosis and monitoring of vascular pathologies.

  15. Diagnostic value of β amyloid plaques imaging agent 131I-IMPY brain imaging in early Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Wanzhong; Lu Chunxiong; Yang Min; Bao Jiandong; Cheng Zhaohuo; Cai Deliang; Wang Zhiqiang; Yang Bixiu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of β-amyloid plaques imaging agent [ 131 I] 2( 4-dimethylaminop henyl)-6-iodoimidazo [1, 2-α] pyridine ( 131 I-IMPY) SPECT imaging in early Alzheimer's Disease. Methods: 24 cases of AD (7 males, 17 females, aged 48∼79 years) and 14 normal (6 males, 8 females, aged 42∼67 years) control subjects were selected for this study. 131 I-IMPY SPECT imaging was carried out 2-3 h post injection. 131 I-IMPY uptake defined as the ratio of each brain gyrus and cerebellum uptake on fixed region of interest (ROI) (Rcl/cb) was calculated. Comparative analysis between the two groups was carried out using t-test. Results: In patients with early AD (MCI), 131 I-IMPY was increased in parietal gyrus, temporal gyrus and frontal gyrus compared with normal control group and it were found to be statistically significant (t = 1.3967∼2.8757, all P 0.05). In patients with AD, increase in 131 I-IMPY were observed in parietal, temporal, occipital lobes and basal ganglia compared with normal control group and it were found to be statistically significant (t=2.1001∼6.2789, all P 0.05), and 131 I-IMPY was increased in occipital lobes and basal ganglia compared with MCI group and it were found to be statistically significant (t=2.0850∼3.6772, all P 131 I-IMPY was lightly increased in each brain of left side gyrus compared with right but without statistically significant difference (t=0.1273∼0.5571, all P>0.05). Conclusions: 131 I-IMPY SPECT Imaging was helpful for early diagnosis of AD. (authors)

  16. Zileuton improves memory deficits, amyloid and tau pathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease with plaques and tangles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Chu

    Full Text Available The 5-lipoxygenase (5LO enzyme is widely distributed within the central nervous system. Previous works showed that this protein is up-regulated in Alzheimer's disease (AD, and plays an active role in the development of brain amyloidosis in the APP transgenic mice. In the present paper, we studied the effect of its pharmacological inhibition on the entire AD-like phenotype of a mouse model with plaques and tangles, the 3 × Tg mice. Compared with mice receiving placebo, the group treated with zileuton, a specific 5LO inhibitor, manifested a significant improvement of their memory impairments. The same animals had a significant reduction in Aβ levels and deposition, which was secondary to a down-regulation of the γ-secretase pathway. Additionally, while total tau levels were unchanged for both groups, zileuton-treated mice had a significant reduction in its phosphorylation state and insoluble forms, secondary to a decreased activation of the cdk5 kinase. These data establish a functional role for 5LO in the pathogenesis of the full spectrum of the AD-like phenotype and represent the successful completion of the initial step for the preclinical development of 5LO inhibitors as viable therapeutic agents for AD.

  17. 2-Phenylbenzothiazole conjugated with cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl [CpM(CO)3] (M = Re, (99m)Tc) complexes as potential imaging probes for β-amyloid plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianhua; Cui, Mengchao; Dai, Jiapei; Liu, Boli

    2015-04-14

    Technetium-99m-labeled cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl complexes conjugated with the 2-phenylbenzothiazole binding motif were synthesized. The rhenium surrogates , , and were demonstrated to have moderate to high affinities for Aβ1-42 aggregates with Ki values of 142, 76, 64 and 24 nM, respectively. During the fluorescence staining of brain sections of transgenic mice and patients with Alzheimer's disease, these rhenium complexes demonstrated perfect and intense labeling of Aβ plaques. Moreover, in in vitro autoradiography, (99m)Tc-labeled complexes clearly detected β-amyloid plaques on sections of brain tissue from transgenic mice, which confirmed the sufficient affinity of these tracers for Aβ plaques. However, these compounds did not show desirable properties in vivo, especially showing poor brain uptake (below 0.5% ID g(-1)), which will hinder the further development of these tracers as brain imaging agents. Nonetheless, it is encouraging that these (99m)Tc-labeled complexes designed by a conjugate approach displayed sufficient affinities for Aβ plaques.

  18. Brain imaging with a novel β-amyloid plaque probe 131I-IMPY in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Wanzhong; Cheng Zaohuo; Lu Chunxiong; Cai Deliang; Yang Min; Bao Jiandong; Wang Zhiqiang; Yang Bixiu

    2011-01-01

    .6772, all P<0.05). Conclusion: 131 I-IMPY as a β-amyloid plaque probe for brain SPECT imaging may be potentially helpful for early diagnosis of AD. (authors)

  19. Multimodal imaging Gd-nanoparticles functionalized with Pittsburgh compound B or a nanobody for amyloid plaques targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansieri, Jonathan; Plissonneau, Marie; Stransky-Heilkron, Nathalie; Dumoulin, Mireille; Heinrich-Balard, Laurence; Rivory, Pascaline; Morfin, Jean-François; Toth, Eva; Saraiva, Maria Joao; Allémann, Eric; Tillement, Olivier; Forge, Vincent; Lux, François; Marquette, Christel

    2017-07-01

    Gadolinium-based nanoparticles were functionalized with either the Pittsburgh compound B or a nanobody (B10AP) in order to create multimodal tools for an early diagnosis of amyloidoses. The ability of the functionalized nanoparticles to target amyloid fibrils made of β-amyloid peptide, amylin or Val30Met-mutated transthyretin formed in vitro or from pathological tissues was investigated by a range of spectroscopic and biophysics techniques including fluorescence microscopy. Nanoparticles functionalized by both probes efficiently interacted with the three types of amyloid fibrils, with K D values in 10 micromolar and 10 nanomolar range for, respectively, Pittsburgh compound B and B10AP nanoparticles. Moreover, they allowed the detection of amyloid deposits on pathological tissues. Such functionalized nanoparticles could represent promising flexible and multimodal imaging tools for the early diagnostic of amyloid diseases, in other words, Alzheimer's disease, Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy.

  20. Serum β-amyloid peptide levels spike in the early stage of Alzheimer-like plaque pathology in an APP/PS1 double transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jue; Qiao, Jin-Ping; Zhu, Shenghua; Xue, Mengzhou; Chen, Wenwu; Wang, Xinchun; Tempier, Adrien; Huang, Qingjun; Kong, Jiming; Li, Xin-Min

    2013-11-01

    Serum levels of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides may represent an early biomarker in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we investigated the temporal kinetic changes in the levels of serum Aβ 1-42 and 40 in an amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin (PS)1 double transgenic mouse model of AD. Serum Aβ peptide levels in 2-, 3-, 6-, 9- and 18-month old, and liver Aβ 1-40 level in 6-month old mice were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Results revealed that serum Aβ levels peaked in 3-month old transgenic mice, and the Aβ level in non-transgenic and transgenic mice is comparable in liver. Compared to the 6-month old transgenic mice, Congo red staining showed that the 3-month old transgenic mice had minimum brain Aβ plaques, corresponding to the early stage of Alzheimer-like plaque pathology, and confocal microscope images showed that the deposition of Aβ in their cerebral vessels was minimal. Furthermore, results of the water maze test, showed that memory was normal for the 3- month old transgenic mice when compared to age-matched non-transgenic mice. These results suggest that serum Aβ peptide levels may be peaked during the early stage of AD. Monitoring serum Aβ peptide levels in the potential AD population may provide an early diagnosis of AD prior to the appearance of clinical symptoms.

  1. Amyloid-β and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in the early pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Salvadores Bersezio, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a severe age-related neurodegenerative disorder and is the most common form of dementia. Although the pathogenesis of AD remains unknown, the deterioration of the cerebrovascular system constitutes a risk factor associated with the development of the disease. Notably, brain hypoperfusion, a feature of healthy ageing brain and AD, occurs prior to the onset of cognitive decline in AD and correlates with the severity of dementia. Although there is a cle...

  2. Anti-amyloid treatments in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapra, Mamta; Kim, Kye Y

    2009-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease is one of the most challenging threats to the healthcare system in society. One of the main characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is formation of amyloid plaques from accumulation of amyloid beta peptide. The therapeutic agents that are currently available for AD including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEIs) and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist are focused on improving the symptoms and do not revert the progression of the disease. This limitation coupled with the burgeoning increase in the prevalence of AD and resultant impact on healthcare economics calls for more substantial treatments for AD. According to the leading amyloid hypothesis, cleavage of amyloid precursor protein to release amyloid beta peptide is the critical event in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Recently treatment strategies have been focused on modifying the formation, clearance and accumulation of neurotoxic amyloid beta peptide. This article reviews different therapeutic approaches that have been investigated to target amyloid beta ranging from secretase modulators, antiaggregation agents to amyloid immunotherapy. Authors review the different novel drugs which are in clinical trials.

  3. GMP-compliant automated synthesis of [{sup 18}F]AV-45 (Florbetapir F 18) for imaging {beta}-amyloid plaques in human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, C.-H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Lin, K.-J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Weng, C.-C. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Hsiao, I.-T. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Ting, Y.-S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Yen, T.-C. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Jan, T.-R. [Department and Graduate Institute of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Skovronsky, Daniel [Avid Radiopharmaceuticals, Inc., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kung, M.-P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Wey, S.-P., E-mail: spwey@mail.cgu.edu.t [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2010-12-15

    We report herein the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant automated synthesis of {sup 18}F-labeled styrylpyridine, AV-45 (Florbetapir), a novel tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) plaques in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. [{sup 18}F]AV-45 was prepared in 105 min using a tosylate precursor with Sumitomo modules for radiosynthesis under GMP-compliant conditions. The overall yield was 25.4{+-}7.7% with a final radiochemical purity of 95.3{+-}2.2% (n=19). The specific activity of [{sup 18}F]AV-45 reached as high as 470{+-}135 TBq/mmol (n=19). The present studies show that [{sup 18}F]AV-45 can be manufactured under GMP-compliant conditions and could be widely available for routine clinical use.

  4. Amyloid beta peptide immunotherapy in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrieu, J; Ousset, P J; Voisin, T; Vellas, B

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis have led to the development of numerous compounds that might modify the disease process. Amyloid β peptide represents an important molecular target for intervention in Alzheimer's disease. The main purpose of this work is to review immunotherapy studies in relation to the Alzheimer's disease. Several types of amyloid β peptide immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease are under investigation, active immunization and passive administration with monoclonal antibodies directed against amyloid β peptide. Although immunotherapy approaches resulted in clearance of amyloid plaques in patients with Alzheimer's disease, this clearance did not show significant cognitive effect for the moment. Currently, several amyloid β peptide immunotherapy approaches are under investigation but also against tau pathology. Results from amyloid-based immunotherapy studies in clinical trials indicate that intervention appears to be more effective in early stages of amyloid accumulation in particular solanezumab with a potential impact at mild Alzheimer's disease, highlighting the importance of diagnosing Alzheimer's disease as early as possible and undertaking clinical trials at this stage. In both phase III solanezumab and bapineuzumab trials, PET imaging revealed that about a quarter of patients lacked fibrillar amyloid pathology at baseline, suggesting that they did not have Alzheimer's disease in the first place. So a new third phase 3 clinical trial for solanezumab, called Expedition 3, in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and evidence of amyloid burden has been started. Thus, currently, amyloid intervention is realized at early stage of the Alzheimer's disease in clinical trials, at prodromal Alzheimer's disease, or at asymptomatic subjects or at risk to develop Alzheimer's disease and or at asymptomatic subjects with autosomal dominant mutation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Astrocytosis precedes amyloid plaque deposition in Alzheimer APPswe transgenic mouse brain: a correlative positron emission tomography and in vitro imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena; Ni, Ruiqing; Voytenko, Larysa; Marutle, Amelia [Karolinska Institutet, Division of Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Centre for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Stockholm (Sweden); Gulyas, Balazs; Halldin, Christer [Karolinska Institutet, Centre for Psychiatric Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Nanyang Technological University, NTU - Imperial College, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Singapore (Singapore); Toth, Miklos; Haeggkvist, Jenny [Karolinska Institutet, Centre for Psychiatric Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordberg, Agneta [Karolinska Institutet, Division of Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Centre for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-04-17

    Pathological studies suggest that neuroinflammation is exacerbated by increased beta-amyloid (Aβ) levels in the brain early in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The time course and relationships between astrocytosis and Aβ deposition were examined using multitracer in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in an AD transgenic mouse model, followed by postmortem autoradiography and immunohistochemistry analysis. PET imaging with the amyloid plaque tracer {sup 11}C-AZD2184 and the astroglial tracer {sup 11}C-deuterium-L-deprenyl ({sup 11}C-DED) was carried out in APPswe mice aged 6, 8-15 and 18-24 months (4-6 animals/group) and in wild-type (wt) mice aged 8-15 and 18-24 months (3-6 animals/group). Tracer uptake was quantified by region of interest analysis using PMOD software and a 3-D digital mouse brain atlas. Postmortem brain tissues from the same APPswe and wt mice in all age groups were analysed for Aβ deposition and astrocytosis by in vitro autoradiography using {sup 3}H-AZD2184, {sup 3}H-Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) and {sup 3}H-L-deprenyl and immunostaining performed with antibodies for Aβ{sub 42} and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in sagittal brain sections. {sup 11}C-AZD2184 PET retention in the cerebral cortices of APPswe mice was significantly higher at 18-24 months than in age-matched wt mice. Cortical and hippocampal {sup 11}C-DED PET binding was significantly higher at 6 months than at 8-15 months or 18-24 months in APPswe mice, and it was also higher than at 8-15 months in wt mice. In vitro autoradiography {sup 3}H-AZD2184 and {sup 3}H-PIB binding confirmed the in vivo findings with {sup 11}C-AZD2184 and demonstrated age-dependent increases in Aβ deposition in APPswe cortex and hippocampus. There were no significant differences between APPswe and wt mice in {sup 3}H-L-deprenyl autoradiography binding across age groups. Immunohistochemical quantification demonstrated more Aβ{sub 42} deposits in the cortex and hippocampus and more

  6. Neuroinflammation, hyperphosphorylated tau, diffuse amyloid plaques, and down-regulation of the cellular prion protein in air pollution exposed children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Kavanaugh, Michael; Block, Michelle; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Osnaya, Norma; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Guo, Ruixin; Hua, Zhaowei; Zhu, Hongtu; Perry, George; Diaz, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution exposures have been linked to neuroinflammation and neuropathology. Autopsy samples of the frontal cortex from control (n = 8) and pollution-exposed (n = 35) children and young adults were analyzed by RT-PCR (n = 43) and microarray analysis (n = 12) for gene expression changes in oxidative stress, DNA damage signaling, NFκB signaling, inflammation, and neurodegeneration pathways. The effect of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype on the presence of protein aggregates associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology was also explored. Exposed urbanites displayed differential (>2-fold) regulation of 134 genes. Forty percent exhibited tau hyperphosphorylation with pre-tangle material and 51% had amyloid-β (Aβ) diffuse plaques compared with 0% in controls. APOE4 carriers had greater hyperphosphorylated tau and diffuse Aβ plaques versus E3 carriers (Q = 7.82, p = 0.005). Upregulated gene network clusters included IL1, NFκB, TNF, IFN, and TLRs. A 15-fold frontal down-regulation of the prion-related protein (PrP(C)) was seen in highly exposed subjects. The down-regulation of the PrP(C) is critical given its important roles for neuroprotection, neurodegeneration, and mood disorder states. Elevation of indices of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, down-regulation of the PrP(C) and AD-associated pathology are present in young megacity residents. The inducible regulation of gene expression suggests they are evolving different mechanisms in an attempt to cope with the constant state of inflammation and oxidative stress related to their environmental exposures. Together, these data support a role for air pollution in CNS damage and its impact upon the developing brain and the potential etiology of AD and mood disorders.

  7. Alterations in Cerebral Cortical Glucose and Glutamine Metabolism Precedes Amyloid Plaques in the APPswe/PSEN1dE9 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens V; Christensen, Sofie K; Aldana, Blanca I

    2017-01-01

    slices of APPswe/PSEN1dE9 mice incubated in media containing [U-(13)C]glucose. No changes in glial [1,2-(13)C]acetate metabolism were observed. Cerebral cortical slices from APPswe/PSEN1dE9 mice exhibited a reduced capacity for uptake and oxidative metabolism of glutamine. Furthermore, the ATP synthesis......Alterations in brain energy metabolism have been suggested to be of fundamental importance for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, specific changes in brain energetics in the early stages of AD are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate cerebral energy metabolism...... in the APPswe/PSEN1dE9 mouse prior to amyloid plaque formation. Acutely isolated cerebral cortical and hippocampal slices of 3-month-old APPswe/PSEN1dE9 and wild-type control mice were incubated in media containing [U-(13)C]glucose, [1,2-(13)C]acetate or [U-(13)C]glutamine, and tissue extracts were analyzed...

  8. Conversion of Synthetic Aβ to In Vivo Active Seeds and Amyloid Plaque Formation in a Hippocampal Slice Culture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Renata; Langer, Franziska; Mahler, Jasmin; Skodras, Angelos; Vlachos, Andreas; Wegenast-Braun, Bettina M; Kaeser, Stephan A; Neher, Jonas J; Eisele, Yvonne S; Pietrowski, Marie J; Nilsson, K Peter R; Deller, Thomas; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Heimrich, Bernd; Jucker, Mathias

    2016-05-04

    The aggregation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) in brain is an early event and hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We combined the advantages of in vitro and in vivo approaches to study cerebral β-amyloidosis by establishing a long-term hippocampal slice culture (HSC) model. While no Aβ deposition was noted in untreated HSCs of postnatal Aβ precursor protein transgenic (APP tg) mice, Aβ deposition emerged in HSCs when cultures were treated once with brain extract from aged APP tg mice and the culture medium was continuously supplemented with synthetic Aβ. Seeded Aβ deposition was also observed under the same conditions in HSCs derived from wild-type or App-null mice but in no comparable way when HSCs were fixed before cultivation. Both the nature of the brain extract and the synthetic Aβ species determined the conformational characteristics of HSC Aβ deposition. HSC Aβ deposits induced a microglia response, spine loss, and neuritic dystrophy but no obvious neuron loss. Remarkably, in contrast to in vitro aggregated synthetic Aβ, homogenates of Aβ deposits containing HSCs induced cerebral β-amyloidosis upon intracerebral inoculation into young APP tg mice. Our results demonstrate that a living cellular environment promotes the seeded conversion of synthetic Aβ into a potent in vivo seeding-active form. In this study, we report the seeded induction of Aβ aggregation and deposition in long-term hippocampal slice cultures. Remarkably, we find that the biological activities of the largely synthetic Aβ aggregates in the culture are very similar to those observed in vivo This observation is the first to show that potent in vivo seeding-active Aβ aggregates can be obtained by seeded conversion of synthetic Aβ in a living (wild-type) cellular environment. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/365084-10$15.00/0.

  9. A carrier for non-covalent delivery of functional beta-galactosidase and antibodies against amyloid plaques and IgM to the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobinda Sarkar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Therapeutic intervention of numerous brain-associated disorders currently remains unrealized due to serious limitations imposed by the blood-brain-barrier (BBB. The BBB generally allows transport of small molecules, typically <600 daltons with high octanol/water partition coefficients, but denies passage to most larger molecules. However, some receptors present on the BBB allow passage of cognate proteins to the brain. Utilizing such receptor-ligand systems, several investigators have developed methods for delivering proteins to the brain, a critical requirement of which involves covalent linking of the target protein to a carrier entity. Such covalent modifications involve extensive preparative and post-preparative chemistry that poses daunting limitations in the context of delivery to any organ. Here, we report creation of a 36-amino acid peptide transporter, which can transport a protein to the brain after routine intravenous injection of the transporter-protein mixture. No covalent linkage of the protein with the transporter is necessary. APPROACH: A peptide transporter comprising sixteen lysine residues and 20 amino acids corresponding to the LDLR-binding domain of apolipoprotein E (ApoE was synthesized. Transport of beta-galactosidase, IgG, IgM, and antibodies against amyloid plques to the brain upon iv injection of the protein-transporter mixture was evaluated through staining for enzyme activity or micro single photon emission tomography (micro-SPECT or immunostaining. Effect of the transporter on the integrity of the BBB was also investigated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The transporter enabled delivery to the mouse brain of functional beta-galactosidase, human IgG and IgM, and two antibodies that labeled brain-associated amyloid beta plaques in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest the transporter is able to transport most or all proteins to the brain without the need for chemically linking the

  10. Amyloid PET in neurodegenerative diseases with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, V; Gómez-Grande, A; Sopena, P; García-Solís, D; Gómez Río, M; Lorenzo, C; Rubí, S; Arbizu, J

    2018-05-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive cognitive decline and memory loss, and is the most common form of dementia. Amyloid plaques with neurofibrillary tangles are a neuropathological hallmark of AD that produces synaptic dysfunction and culminates later in neuronal loss. Amyloid PET is a useful, available and non-invasive technique that provides in vivo information about the cortical amyloid burden. In the latest revised criteria for the diagnosis of AD biomarkers were defined and integrated: pathological and diagnostic biomarkers (increased retention on fibrillar amyloid PET or decreased Aβ 1-42 and increased T-Tau or P-Tau in CSF) and neurodegeneration or topographical biomarkers (temporoparietal hypometabolism on 18 F-FDG PET and temporal atrophy on MRI). Recently specific recommendations have been created as a consensus statement on the appropriate use of the imaging biomarkers, including amyloid PET: early-onset cognitive impairment/dementia, atypical forms of AD, mild cognitive impairment with early age of onset, and to differentiate between AD and other neurodegenerative diseases that occur with dementia. Amyloid PET is also contributing to the development of new therapies for AD, as well as in research studies for the study of other neurodegenerative diseases that occur with dementia where the deposition of Aβ amyloid is involved in its pathogenesis. In this paper, we review some general concepts and study the use of amyloid PET in depth and its relationship with neurodegenerative diseases and other diagnostic techniques. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. {beta} - amyloid imaging probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Imaging distribution of {beta} - amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease is very important for early and accurate diagnosis. Early trial of the {beta} -amyloid plaques includes using radiolabeled peptides which can be only applied for peripheral {beta} - amyloid plaques due to limited penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Congo red or Chrysamine G derivatives were labeled with Tc-99m for imaging {beta} - amyloid plaques of Alzheimer patient's brain without success due to problem with BBB penetration. Thioflavin T derivatives gave breakthrough for {beta} - amyloid imaging in vivo, and a benzothiazole derivative [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 brought a great success. Many other benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine, and styrylbenzene derivatives have been labeled with F-18 and I-123 to improve the imaging quality. However, [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 still remains as the best. However, short half-life of C-11 is a limitation of wide distribution of this agent. So, it is still required to develop an Tc-99m, F-18 or I-123 labeled agent for {beta} - amyloid imaging agent.

  12. β - amyloid imaging probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jae Min

    2007-01-01

    Imaging distribution of β - amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease is very important for early and accurate diagnosis. Early trial of the β -amyloid plaques includes using radiolabeled peptides which can be only applied for peripheral β - amyloid plaques due to limited penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Congo red or Chrysamine G derivatives were labeled with Tc-99m for imaging β - amyloid plaques of Alzheimer patient's brain without success due to problem with BBB penetration. Thioflavin T derivatives gave breakthrough for β - amyloid imaging in vivo, and a benzothiazole derivative [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 brought a great success. Many other benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine, and styrylbenzene derivatives have been labeled with F-18 and I-123 to improve the imaging quality. However, [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 still remains as the best. However, short half-life of C-11 is a limitation of wide distribution of this agent. So, it is still required to develop an Tc-99m, F-18 or I-123 labeled agent for β - amyloid imaging agent

  13. The Role of Oxidative Stress-Induced Epigenetic Alterations in Amyloid- ? Production in Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Li; Hemmelgarn, Benjamin T.; Chuang, Chia-Chen; Best, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have proposed a strong correlation between reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress (OS) and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). With over five million people diagnosed in the United States alone, AD is the most common type of dementia worldwide. AD includes progressive neurodegeneration, followed by memory loss and reduced cognitive ability. Characterized by the formation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques as a hallmark, the connection betwee...

  14. Long-Term Treatment with Liraglutide, a Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, Has No Effect on β-Amyloid Plaque Load in Two Transgenic APP/PS1 Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik H Hansen

    Full Text Available One of the major histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD is cerebral deposits of extracellular β-amyloid peptides. Preclinical studies have pointed to glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 receptors as a potential novel target in the treatment of AD. GLP-1 receptor agonists, including exendin-4 and liraglutide, have been shown to promote plaque-lowering and mnemonic effects of in a number of experimental models of AD. Transgenic mouse models carrying genetic mutations of amyloid protein precursor (APP and presenilin-1 (PS1 are commonly used to assess the pharmacodynamics of potential amyloidosis-lowering and pro-cognitive compounds. In this study, effects of long-term liraglutide treatment were therefore determined in two double APP/PS1 transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease carrying different clinical APP/PS1 mutations, i.e. the 'London' (hAPPLon/PS1A246E and 'Swedish' mutation variant (hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 of APP, with co-expression of distinct PS1 variants. Liraglutide was administered in 5 month-old hAPPLon/PS1A246E mice for 3 months (100 or 500 ng/kg/day, s.c., or 7 month-old hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice for 5 months (500 ng/kg/day, s.c.. In both models, regional plaque load was quantified throughout the brain using stereological methods. Vehicle-dosed hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice exhibited considerably higher cerebral plaque load than hAPPLon/PS1A246E control mice. Compared to vehicle-dosed transgenic controls, liraglutide treatment had no effect on the plaque levels in hAPPLon/PS1A246E and hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice. In conclusion, long-term liraglutide treatment exhibited no effect on cerebral plaque load in two transgenic mouse models of low- and high-grade amyloidosis, which suggests differential sensitivity to long-term liraglutide treatment in various transgenic mouse models mimicking distinct pathological hallmarks of AD.

  15. Imaging β-amyloid fibrils in Alzheimer's disease: a critical analysis through simulation of amyloid fibril polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoghi-Jadid, Kooresh; Barrio, Jorge R.; Kepe, Vladimir; Wu, H.-M.; Small, Gary W.; Phelps, Michael E.; Huang, S.-C.

    2005-01-01

    The polymerization of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides into fibrillary plaques is implicated, in part, in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ molecular imaging probes (Aβ-MIPs) have been introduced in an effort to quantify amyloid burden or load, in subjects afflicted with AD by invoking the classic PET receptor model for the quantitation of neuronal receptor density. In this communication, we explore conceptual differences between imaging the density of amyloid fibril polymers and neuronal receptors. We formulate a mathematical model for the polymerization of Aβ with parameters that are mapped to biological modulators of fibrillogenesis and introduce a universal measure for amyloid load to accommodate various interactions of Aβ-MIPs with fibrils. Subsequently, we hypothesize four Aβ-MIPs and utilize the fibrillogenesis model to simulate PET tissue time activity curves (TACs). Given the unique nature of polymer growth and resulting PET TAC, the four probes report differing amyloid burdens for a given brain pathology, thus complicating the interpretation of PET images. In addition, we introduce the notion of an MIP's resolution, apparent maximal binding site concentration, optimal kinetic topology and its resolving power in characterizing the pathological progression of AD and the effectiveness of drug therapy. The concepts introduced in this work call for a new paradigm that goes beyond the classic parameters B max and K D to include binding characteristics to polymeric peptide aggregates such as amyloid fibrils, neurofibrillary tangles and prions

  16. Amyloid and immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Gen

    2018-03-01

    Extracellular amyloid deposition defines a range of amyloidosis and amyloid-related disease. Addition to primary and secondary amyloidosis, amyloid-related disease can be observed in different tissue/organ that sharing the common pathogenesis based on the formation of amyloid deposition. Currently, both Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes can be diagnosed with certainly only based on the autopsy results, by which amyloidosis of the associative tissue/organ is observed. Intriguingly, since it demonstrated that amyloid deposits trigger inflammatory reaction through the activation of cascaded immune response, wherein several lines of evidence implies a protective role of amyloid in preventing autoimmunity. Furthermore, attempts for preventing amyloid formation and/or removing amyloid deposits from the brain have caused meningoencephalitis and consequent deaths among the subjects. Hence, it is important to note that amyloid positively participates in maintaining immune homeostasis and contributes to irreversible inflammatory response. In this review, we will focus on the interactive relationship between amyloid and the immune system, discussing the potential functional roles of amyloid in immune tolerance and homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Beta-amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice that harbor diffuse A beta deposits but do not form plaques show increased ischemic vulnerability: role of inflammation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koistinaho, M.; Kettunen, M. I.; Goldsteins, G.; Keinänen, R.; Salminen, A.; Ort, Michael; Bureš, Jan; Liu, D.; Kauppinen, R. A.; Higgins, L. S.; Koistinaho, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 3 (2002), s. 1610-1615 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/00/1656 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : Beta-amyloid * Alzheimer disease * brain ischemia Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 10.701, year: 2002

  18. Maysin and Its Flavonoid Derivative from Centipedegrass Attenuates Amyloid Plaques by Inducting Humoral Immune Response with Th2 Skewed Cytokine Response in the Tg (APPswe, PS1dE9 Alzheimer's Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuno Song

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a slow, progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most common type of dementia in the elderly. The etiology of AD and its underlying mechanism are still not clear. In a previous study, we found that an ethyl acetate extract of Centipedegrass (CG (i.e., EA-CG contained 4 types of Maysin derivatives, including Luteolin, Isoorientin, Rhamnosylisoorientin, and Derhamnosylmaysin, and showed protective effects against Amyloid beta (Aβ by inhibiting oligomeric Aβ in cellular and in vitro models. Here, we examined the preventative effects of EA-CG treatment on the Aβ burden in the Tg (Mo/Hu APPswe PS1dE9 AD mouse model. We have investigated the EA-CG efficacy as novel anti-AD likely preventing amyloid plaques using immunofluorescence staining to visually analyze Aβ40/42 and fibril formation with Thioflavin-S or 6E10 which are the profile of immunoreactivity against epitope Aβ1-16 or neuritic plaque, the quantitation of humoral immune response against Aβ, and the inflammatory cytokine responses (Th1 and Th2 using ELISA and QRT-PCR. To minimize the toxicity of the extracted CG, we addressed the liver toxicity in response to the CG extract treatment in Tg mice using relevant markers, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST/ alanine aminotransferase (ALT measurements in serum. The EA-CG extract significantly reduced the Aβ burden, the concentration of soluble Aβ40/42 protein, and fibril formation in the hippocampus and cortex of the Tg mice treated with EA-CG (50 mg/kg BW/day for 6 months compared with the Tg mice treated with a normal diet. Additionally, the profile of anti-inflammatory cytokines revealed that the levels of Th2 (interleukin-4 (IL-4 and interleukin-10 (IL-10 cytokines are more significantly increased than Th1 (interferon-γ (IFN-γ, interleukin-2(IL-2 in the sera. These results suggest that the EA-CG fraction induces IL-4/IL-10-dependent anti-inflammatory cytokines (Th2 rather than pro

  19. In silico modeling of the specific inhibitory potential of thiophene-2,3-dihydro-1,5-benzothiazepine against BChE in the formation of β-amyloid plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalsoom Saima

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease, known to be associated with the gradual loss of memory, is characterized by low concentration of acetylcholine in the hippocampus and cortex part of the brain. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase has successfully been used as a drug target to treat Alzheimer's disease but drug resistance shown by butyrylcholinesterase remains a matter of concern in treating Alzheimer's disease. Apart from the many other reasons for Alzheimer's disease, its association with the genesis of fibrils by β-amyloid plaques is closely related to the increased activity of butyrylcholinesterase. Although few data are available on the inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase, studies have shown that that butyrylcholinesterase is a genetically validated drug target and its selective inhibition reduces the formation of β-amyloid plaques. Rationale We previously reported the inhibition of cholinesterases by 2,3-dihydro-1, 5-benzothiazepines, and considered this class of compounds as promising inhibitors for the cure of Alzheimer's disease. One compound from the same series, when substituted with a hydroxy group at C-3 in ring A and 2-thienyl moiety as ring B, showed greater activity against butyrylcholinesterase than to acetylcholinesterase. To provide insight into the binding mode of this compound (Compound A, molecular docking in combination with molecular dynamics simulation of 5000 ps in an explicit solvent system was carried out for both cholinesterases. Conclusion Molecular docking studies revealed that the potential of Compound A to inhibit cholinesterases was attributable to the cumulative effects of strong hydrogen bonds, cationic-π, π-π interactions and hydrophobic interactions. A comparison of the docking results of Compound A against both cholinesterases showed that amino acid residues in different sub-sites were engaged to stabilize the docked complex. The relatively high affinity of Compound A for butyrylcholinesterase was

  20. Prevalence of amyloid PET positivity in dementia syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossenkoppele, Rik; Jansen, Willemijn J; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Amyloid-β positron emission tomography (PET) imaging allows in vivo detection of fibrillar plaques, a core neuropathological feature of Alzheimer disease (AD). Its diagnostic utility is still unclear because amyloid plaques also occur in patients with non-AD dementia. OBJECTIVE: To use...

  1. FKBP12 regulates the localization and processing of amyloid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-27

    Jan 27, 2014 ... One of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease is the presence of insoluble extracellular amyloid plaques. These plaques ... The proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) ..... lower sAPPα/sAPPs ratio, which may lead to an increase in ..... spine density in healthy adult mouse brain.

  2. Stabilization of a β-hairpin in monomeric Alzheimer's amyloid-β peptide inhibits amyloid formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Wolfgang; Grönwall, Caroline; Jonsson, Andreas; Ståhl, Stefan; Härd, Torleif

    2008-01-01

    According to the amyloid hypothesis, the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is triggered by the oligomerization and aggregation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into protein plaques. Formation of the potentially toxic oligomeric and fibrillar Aβ assemblies is accompanied by a conformational change toward a high content of β-structure. Here, we report the solution structure of Aβ(1–40) in complex with the phage-display selected affibody protein ZAβ3, a binding protein of nanomolar affinity. Bound Aβ(1–40) features a β-hairpin comprising residues 17–36, providing the first high-resolution structure of Aβ in β conformation. The positions of the secondary structure elements strongly resemble those observed for fibrillar Aβ. ZAβ3 stabilizes the β-sheet by extending it intermolecularly and by burying both of the mostly nonpolar faces of the Aβ hairpin within a large hydrophobic tunnel-like cavity. Consequently, ZAβ3 acts as a stoichiometric inhibitor of Aβ fibrillation. The selected Aβ conformation allows us to suggest a structural mechanism for amyloid formation based on soluble oligomeric hairpin intermediates. PMID:18375754

  3. Active immunization with the peptide epitope vaccine Aβ3-10-KLH induces a Th2-polarized anti-Aβ antibody response and decreases amyloid plaques in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Meng, Yuan; Zhang, Hui-Yi; Yin, Wen-Chao; Yan, Yi; Cao, Yun-Peng

    2016-11-10

    Active amyloid-β (Aβ) immunotherapy is effective in preventing Aβ deposition, facilitating plaque clearance, and improving cognitive functions in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Developing a safe and effective AD vaccine requires a delicate balance between inducing adequate humoral immune responses and avoiding T cell-mediated autoimmune responses. In this study, we designed 2 peptide epitope vaccines, Aβ3-10-KLH and 5Aβ3-10, prepared respectively by coupling Aβ3-10 to the immunogenic carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or by joining 5 Aβ3-10 epitopes linearly in tandem. Young APP/PS1 mice were immunized subcutaneously with Aβ3-10-KLH or 5Aβ3-10 mixed with Freund's adjuvant, and the immunopotencies of these Aβ3-10 peptide vaccines were tested. Aβ3-10-KLH elicited a robust Th2-polarized anti-Aβ antibody response and inhibited Aβ deposition in APP/PS1 mice. However, 5Aβ3-10 did not induce an effective humoral immune response. These results indicated that Aβ3-10-KLH may be a safe and efficient vaccine for AD and that conjugating the antigen to a carrier protein may be more effective than linking multiple peptide antigens in tandem in applications for antibody production and vaccine preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Natural Modulators of Amyloid-Beta Precursor Protein Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Tanzi, Rudolph E.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease and the primary cause of dementia, with no cure currently available. The pathogenesis of AD is believed to be primarily driven by Aβ, the principal component of senile plaques. Aβ is an ~4 kDa peptide generated from the amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) through proteolytic secretases. Natural products, particularly those utilized in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), have a long history alleviating common clinical disorders, including dementia. However, the cell/molecular pathways mediated by these natural products are largely unknown until recently when the underlying molecular mechanisms of the disorders begin to be elucidated. Here, the mechanisms with which natural products modulate the pathogenesis of AD are discussed, in particular, by focusing on their roles in the processing of APP. PMID:22998566

  5. Micro-MRI study of cerebral aging: ex vivo detection of hippocampal sub-field reorganization, micro-hemorrhages and amyloid plaques in mouse lemur primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Anne; Petiet, Alexandra; Dhenain, Marc; Pasquier, Adrien; Kraska, Audrey; Joseph-Mathurin, Nelly; Wiggins, Christopher; Aujard, Fabienne; Mestre-Frances, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Mouse lemurs are non-human primate models of cerebral aging and neuro-degeneration. Much smaller than other primates, they recapitulate numerous features of human brain aging, including progressive cerebral atrophy and correlation between regional atrophy and cognitive impairments. Characterization of brain atrophy in mouse lemurs has been done by MRI measures of regional CSF volume and by MRI measures of regional atrophy. Here, we further characterize mouse lemur brain aging using ex vivo MR microscopy (31 μm in-plane resolution). First, we performed a non-biased, direct volumetric quantification of dentate gyrus and extended Ammon's horn. We show that both dentate gyrus and Ammon's horn undergo an age-related reorganization leading to a growth of the dentate gyrus and an atrophy of the Ammon's horn, even in the absence of global hippocampal atrophy. Second, on these first MR microscopic images of the mouse lemur brain, we depicted cortical and hippocampal hypointense spots. We demonstrated that their incidence increases with aging and that they correspond either to amyloid deposits or to cerebral micro-hemorrhages. (authors)

  6. Two memory associated genes regulated by amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain ovel insights into the pathogenesis of learning and memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuandong Zheng; Xi Gu; Zhimei Zhong; Rui Zhu; Tianming Gao; Fang Wang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we employed chromatin immunoprecipitation, a useful method for studying the locations of transcription factors bound to specific DNA regions in specific cells, to investigate amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain binding sites in chromatin DNA from hippocampal neurons of rats, and to screen out five putative genes associated with the learning and memory functions. The promoter regions of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha and glutamate receptor-2 genes were amplified by PCR from DNA products immunoprecipitated by amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and western blot analysis suggested that the promoter regions of these two genes associated with learning and memory were bound by amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain (in complex form). Our experimental findings indicate that the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain is involved in the transcriptional regulation of learning- and memory-associated genes in hippocampal neurons. These data may provide new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the symptoms of progressive memory loss in Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Curcumin Decreases Amyloid-β Peptide Levels by Attenuating the Maturation of Amyloid-β Precursor Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Browne, Andrew; Child, Daniel; Tanzi, Rudolph E.

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease with no cure. The pathogenesis of AD is believed to be driven primarily by amyloid-β (Aβ), the principal component of senile plaques. Aβ is an ∼4-kDa peptide generated via cleavage of the amyloid-β precursor protein (APP). Curcumin is a compound in the widely used culinary spice, turmeric, which possesses potent and broad biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, chemopreventative effects, and effects on protein trafficking. Recent in vivo studies indicate that curcumin is able to reduce Aβ-related pathology in transgenic AD mouse models via unknown molecular mechanisms. Here, we investigated the effects of curcumin on Aβ levels and APP processing in various cell lines and mouse primary cortical neurons. We show for the first time that curcumin potently lowers Aβ levels by attenuating the maturation of APP in the secretory pathway. These data provide a mechanism of action for the ability of curcumin to attenuate amyloid-β pathology. PMID:20622013

  8. Curcumin decreases amyloid-beta peptide levels by attenuating the maturation of amyloid-beta precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Browne, Andrew; Child, Daniel; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2010-09-10

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease with no cure. The pathogenesis of AD is believed to be driven primarily by amyloid-beta (Abeta), the principal component of senile plaques. Abeta is an approximately 4-kDa peptide generated via cleavage of the amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP). Curcumin is a compound in the widely used culinary spice, turmeric, which possesses potent and broad biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, chemopreventative effects, and effects on protein trafficking. Recent in vivo studies indicate that curcumin is able to reduce Abeta-related pathology in transgenic AD mouse models via unknown molecular mechanisms. Here, we investigated the effects of curcumin on Abeta levels and APP processing in various cell lines and mouse primary cortical neurons. We show for the first time that curcumin potently lowers Abeta levels by attenuating the maturation of APP in the secretory pathway. These data provide a mechanism of action for the ability of curcumin to attenuate amyloid-beta pathology.

  9. Amyloid structure exhibits polymorphism on multiple length scales in human brain tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiliang; Costantino, Isabel; Venugopalan, Nagarajan; Fischetti, Robert F.; Hyman, Bradley; Frosch, Matthew; Gomez-Isla, Teresa; Makowski, Lee

    2016-09-15

    Although aggregation of Aβ amyloid fibrils into plaques in the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), the correlation between amyloid burden and severity of symptoms is weak. One possible reason is that amyloid fibrils are structurally polymorphic and different polymorphs may contribute differentially to disease. However, the occurrence and distribution of amyloid polymorphisms in human brain is poorly documented. Here we seek to fill this knowledge gap by using X-ray microdiffraction of histological sections of human tissue to map the abundance, orientation and structural heterogeneities of amyloid within individual plaques; among proximal plaques and in subjects with distinct clinical histories. A 5 µ x-ray beam was used to generate diffraction data with each pattern arising from a scattering volume of only ~ 450 µ3 , making possible collection of dozens to hundreds of diffraction patterns from a single amyloid plaque. X-ray scattering from these samples exhibited all the properties expected for scattering from amyloid. Amyloid distribution was mapped using the intensity of its signature 4.7 Å reflection which also provided information on the orientation of amyloid fibrils across plaques. Margins of plaques exhibited a greater degree of orientation than cores and orientation around blood vessels frequently appeared tangential. Variation in the structure of Aβ fibrils is reflected in the shape of the 4.7 Å peak which usually appears as a doublet. Variations in this peak correspond to differences between the structure of amyloid within cores of plaques and at their periphery. Examination of tissue from a mismatch case - an individual with high plaque burden but no overt signs of dementia at time of death - revealed a diversity of structure and spatial distribution of amyloid that is distinct from typical AD cases. We demonstrate the existence of structural polymorphisms among amyloid within and among plaques of a single individual and suggest

  10. Binding Sites for Amyloid-β Oligomers and Synaptic Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Levi M.; Strittmatter, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), insoluble and fibrillary amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide accumulates in plaques. However, soluble Aβ oligomers are most potent in creating synaptic dysfunction and loss. Therefore, receptors for Aβ oligomers are hypothesized to be the first step in a neuronal cascade leading to dementia. A number of cell-surface proteins have been described as Aβ binding proteins, and one or more are likely to mediate Aβ oligomer toxicity in AD. Cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a high-affinity Aβ oligomer binding site, and a range of data delineates a signaling pathway leading from Aβ complexation with PrPC to neuronal impairment. Further study of Aβ binding proteins will define the molecular basis of this crucial step in AD pathogenesis. PMID:27940601

  11. A Pyridazine-Based Fluorescent Probe Targeting Aβ Plaques in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Dae Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ plaques comprising Aβ40 and Aβ42 in the brain is the most significant factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Thus, the detection of Aβ plaques has increasingly attracted interest in the context of AD diagnosis. In the present study, a fluorescent pyridazine-based dye that can detect and image Aβ plaques was designed and synthesized, and its optical properties in the presence of Aβ aggregates were evaluated. An approximately 34-fold increase in emission intensity was exhibited by the fluorescent probe after binding with Aβ aggregates, for which it showed high affinity (KD = 0.35 µM. Moreover, the reasonable hydrophobic properties of the probe (log P = 2.94 allow it to penetrate the blood brain barrier (BBB. In addition, the pyridazine-based probe was used in the histological costaining of transgenic mouse (APP/PS1 brain sections to validate the selective binding of the probe to Aβ plaques. The results suggest that the pyridazine-based compound has the potential to serve as a fluorescent probe for the diagnosis of AD.

  12. Bone marrow amyloid spherulites in a case of AL amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommannan B K, Karthik; Sonai, Mukinkumar; Sachdeva, Man Updesh Singh

    2016-05-01

    Parallel arrangement of β-pleated sheets by amyloidogenic proteins is a well known phenomenon. Rarely, amyloid fibrils undergo radial orientation to form globular structures called spherulites. These amyloid spherulites show Maltese cross pattern under polarized microscopy. The clinical significance of amyloid spherulites is undetermined. Amyloidogenic proteins like insulin and β-lactoglobulin form spherulites in vitro. The senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease rarely form in vivo spherulites. Amyloid spherulites have been described in the liver and small intestine. For the first time, we document amyloid spherulite formation in the bone marrow biopsy of an AL amyloidosis patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Microglia in diffuse plaques in hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis (Dutch). An immunohistochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat-Schieman, M. L.; Rozemuller, A. J.; van Duinen, S. G.; Haan, J.; Eikelenboom, P.; Roos, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    In hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis (Dutch) (HCHWA-D) beta/A4 amyloid deposition is found in meningocortical blood vessels and in diffuse plaques in the cerebral cortex. Diffuse plaques putatively represent early stages in the formation of senile plaques. Microglia are intimately

  14. Cerebral amyloid-beta protein accumulation with aging in cotton-top tamarins: a model of early Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemere, Cynthia A; Oh, Jiwon; Stanish, Heather A; Peng, Ying; Pepivani, Imelda; Fagan, Anne M; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu; Westmoreland, Susan V; Mansfield, Keith G

    2008-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common progressive form of dementia in the elderly. Two major neuropathological hallmarks of AD include cerebral deposition of amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) into plaques and blood vessels, and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles in brain. In addition, activated microglia and reactive astrocytes are often associated with plaques and tangles. Numerous other proteins are associated with plaques in human AD brain, including Apo E and ubiquitin. The amyloid precursor protein and its shorter fragment, Abeta, are homologous between humans and non-human primates. Cerebral Abeta deposition has been reported previously for rhesus monkeys, vervets, squirrel monkeys, marmosets, lemurs, cynomologous monkeys, chimpanzees, and orangutans. Here we report, for the first time, age-related neuropathological changes in cotton-top tamarins (CTT, Saguinus oedipus), an endangered non-human primate native to the rainforests of Colombia and Costa Rica. Typical lifespan is 13-14 years of age in the wild and 15-20+ years in captivity. We performed detailed immunohistochemical analyses of Abeta deposition and associated pathogenesis in archived brain sections from 36 tamarins ranging in age from 6-21 years. Abeta plaque deposition was observed in 16 of the 20 oldest tamarins (>12 years). Plaques contained mainly Abeta42, and in the oldest animals, were associated with reactive astrocytes, activated microglia, Apo E, and ubiquitin-positive dystrophic neurites, similar to human plaques. Vascular Abeta was detected in 14 of the 20 aged tamarins; Abeta42 preceded Abeta40 deposition. Phospho-tau labeled dystrophic neurites and tangles, typically present in human AD, were absent in the tamarins. In conclusion, tamarins may represent a model of early AD pathology.

  15. Vulnerable Plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plaque be prevented? Patients can lower their C-reactive protein levels in the same ways that they can cut their heart attack risk: take aspirin, eat a proper diet, quit smoking, and begin an exercise program. Researchers also think that obesity and diabetes may ...

  16. LRP1 in brain vascular smooth muscle cells mediates local clearance of Alzheimer's amyloid-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Liu, Chia-Chen; Shinohara, Mitsuru; Li, Jie; Bu, Guojun

    2012-11-14

    Impaired clearance of amyloid-β (Aβ) is a major pathogenic event for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ depositions in brain parenchyma as senile plaques and along cerebrovasculature as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) are hallmarks of AD. A major pathway that mediates brain Aβ clearance is the cerebrovascular system where Aβ is eliminated through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and/or degraded by cerebrovascular cells along the interstitial fluid drainage pathway. An Aβ clearance receptor, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), is abundantly expressed in cerebrovasculature, in particular in vascular smooth muscle cells. Previous studies have indicated a role of LRP1 in endothelial cells in transcytosing Aβ out of the brain across the BBB; however, whether this represents a significant pathway for brain Aβ clearance remains controversial. Here, we demonstrate that Aβ can be cleared locally in the cerebrovasculature by an LRP1-dependent endocytic pathway in smooth muscle cells. The uptake and degradation of both endogenous and exogenous Aβ were significantly reduced in LRP1-suppressed human brain vascular smooth muscle cells. Conditional deletion of Lrp1 in vascular smooth muscle cell in amyloid model APP/PS1 mice accelerated brain Aβ accumulation and exacerbated Aβ deposition as amyloid plaques and CAA without affecting Aβ production. Our results demonstrate that LRP1 is a major Aβ clearance receptor in cerebral vascular smooth muscle cell and a disturbance of this pathway contributes to Aβ accumulation. These studies establish critical functions of the cerebrovasculature system in Aβ metabolism and identify a new pathway involved in the pathogenesis of both AD and CAA.

  17. Apolipoprotein E Regulates Amyloid Formation within Endosomes of Pigment Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume van Niel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of toxic amyloid oligomers is a key feature in the pathogenesis of amyloid-related diseases. Formation of mature amyloid fibrils is one defense mechanism to neutralize toxic prefibrillar oligomers. This mechanism is notably influenced by apolipoprotein E variants. Cells that produce mature amyloid fibrils to serve physiological functions must exploit specific mechanisms to avoid potential accumulation of toxic species. Pigment cells have tuned their endosomes to maximize the formation of functional amyloid from the protein PMEL. Here, we show that ApoE is associated with intraluminal vesicles (ILV within endosomes and remain associated with ILVs when they are secreted as exosomes. ApoE functions in the ESCRT-independent sorting mechanism of PMEL onto ILVs and regulates the endosomal formation of PMEL amyloid fibrils in vitro and in vivo. This process secures the physiological formation of amyloid fibrils by exploiting ILVs as amyloid nucleating platforms.

  18. Small heat shock protein HspB8: its distribution in Alzheimer's disease brains and its inhibition of amyloid-beta protein aggregation and cerebrovascular amyloid-beta toxicity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelmus, M.M.M.; Boelens, W.C.; Otte-Holler, I.; Kamps, B.; Kusters, B.; Maat-Schieman, M.L.; Waal, R.M.W. de; Verbeek, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by pathological lesions, such as senile plaques (SPs) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), both predominantly consisting of a proteolytic cleavage product of the amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP), the amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta). CAA is also the major

  19. Intracellular trafficking of the β-secretase and processing of amyloid precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Pei; Chia, Pei Zhi Cheryl; Chia, Cheryl; Gleeson, Paul A

    2011-09-01

    The main component of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of those with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a polymerized form of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and is considered to play a central role in the pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative disorder. Aβ is derived from the proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Beta site APP-cleaving enzyme, BACE1 (also known as β-secretase) is a membrane-bound aspartyl protease responsible for the initial step in the generation of Aβ peptide and is thus a prime target for therapeutic intervention. Substantive evidence now indicates that the processing of APP by BACE1 is regulated by the intracellular sorting of the enzyme and, moreover, perturbations in these intracellular trafficking pathways have been linked to late-onset AD. In this review, we highlight the recent advances in the understanding of the regulation of the intracellular sorting of BACE1 and APP and illustrate why the trafficking of these cargos represent a key issue for understanding the membrane-mediated events associated with the generation of the neurotoxic Aβ products in AD. Copyright © 2011 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Oxidative stress and the amyloid beta peptide in Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cheignon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. In particular, it is linked to the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, an age-related neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Histopathological hallmarks of AD are intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular formation of senile plaques composed of the amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ in aggregated form along with metal-ions such as copper, iron or zinc. Redox active metal ions, as for example copper, can catalyze the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS when bound to the amyloid-β (Aβ. The ROS thus produced, in particular the hydroxyl radical which is the most reactive one, may contribute to oxidative damage on both the Aβ peptide itself and on surrounding molecule (proteins, lipids, …. This review highlights the existing link between oxidative stress and AD, and the consequences towards the Aβ peptide and surrounding molecules in terms of oxidative damage. In addition, the implication of metal ions in AD, their interaction with the Aβ peptide and redox properties leading to ROS production are discussed, along with both in vitro and in vivo oxidation of the Aβ peptide, at the molecular level. Keywords: Oxidative stress, Amyloid beta peptide, Metal-ions, Reactive oxygen species, Oxidative damages

  1. beta. -Amyloid gene dosage in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdoch, G H; Manuelidis, L; Kim, J H; Manuelidis, E E

    1988-01-11

    The 4-5 kd amyloid ..beta..-peptide is a major constituent of the characteristic amyloid plaque of Alzheimer's disease. It has been reported that some cases of sporatic Alzheimer's disease are associated with at least a partial duplication of chromosome 21 containing the gene corresponding to the 695 residue precursor of this peptide. To contribute to an understanding of the frequency to such a duplication event in the overall Alzheimer's population, the authors have determined the gene dosage of the ..beta..-amyloid gene in this collection of cases. All cases had a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's confirmed neuropathologically. Each Alzheimer's case had an apparent normal diploid ..beta..-amyloid gene dosage, while control Down's cases had the expected triploid dosage. Thus partial duplication of chromosome 21 may be a rare finding in Alzheimer's disease. Similar conclusions were just reported in several studies of the Harvard Alzheimer collection.

  2. Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Edip Gürol

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta-peptides (Ab in the walls of leptomeningeal arteries, arterioles, and veins. Despite the fact that these pathological changes were first described in 1909, major advancement in our understanding of the clinicoradiological manifestations, neurobiology, and course of CAA has occurred only during the last 30 years. No significant associations have been shown between CAA and other systemic/visceral amyloidoses or vascular risk factors, including hypertension. CAA is well known as the most common cause of spontaneous and anticoagulant-related lobar parenchymal ICH in the elderly. It also causes lobar cerebral microbleeds (CMBs, small dot-like dark susceptibility artifacts visible with gradient recalled echo (GRE-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. CMBs are important markers of disease severity and predictors of CAA progression. Amyloid angiopathy is also a common cause of ischemic microvascular white matter disease (WMD and deep cerebral infarctions. Such WMD is defined as subcortical and periventricular white matter changes without obvious infarction, as well as a dark appearance on computerized tomography (CT and a bright appearance on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR-MRI. CAA-related vascular dysfunction, with its hemorrhagic and ischemic complications, is a recognized contributor to vascular cognitive impairment in the elderly, an independent effect that is synergistically increased by Alzheimer pathologies, such as plaques and tangles. A set of clinicoradiological criteria was established for the accurate diagnosis of CAA. According to the Boston Criteria, patients aged 55 years and older with multiple hemorrhages (on CT or GRE-MRI restricted to the lobar, cortical, or corticosubcortical regions (cerebellar hemorrhage allowed are diagnosed as probable CAA when no other etiology is found; a single hemorrhage in the same region is classified as possible

  3. A transgenic Alzheimer rat with plaques, tau pathology, behavioral impairment, oligomeric Aβ and frank neuronal loss

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Robert M.; Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Weitz, Tara M.; Rentsendorj, Altan; Gate, David; Spivak, Inna; Bholat, Yasmin; Vasilevko, Vitaly; Glabe, Charles G.; Breunig, Joshua J.; Rakic, Pasko; Davtyan, Hayk; Agadjanyan, Michael G.; Kepe, Vladimir; Barrio, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is hallmarked by amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and widespread cortical neuronal loss (Selkoe, 2001). The ‘amyloid cascade hypothesis’ posits that cerebral amyloid sets neurotoxic events into motion that precipitate Alzheimer dementia (Hardy and Allsop, 1991). Yet, faithful recapitulation of all AD features in widely used transgenic (Tg) mice engineered to overproduce Aβ peptides has been elusive. We have developed a Tg rat model (line TgF344-AD) expressing...

  4. Controlling amyloid-beta peptide(1-42) oligomerization and toxicity by fluorinated nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Ana M; Cardoso, Isabel; Pereira, M Carmo; Coelho, Manuel A N; Saraiva, Maria João; Möhwald, Helmuth; Brezesinski, Gerald

    2010-09-03

    The amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) is a major fibrillar component of neuritic plaques in Alzheimer's disease brains and is related to the pathogenesis of the disease. Soluble oligomers that precede fibril formation have been proposed as the main neurotoxic species that contributes to neurodegeneration and dementia. We hypothesize that oligomerization and cytotoxicity can be repressed by nanoparticles (NPs) that induce conformational changes in Abeta42. We show here that fluorinated and hydrogenated NPs with different abilities to change Abeta42 conformation influence oligomerization as assessed by atomic force microscopy, immunoblot and SDS-PAGE. Fluorinated NPs, which promote an increase in alpha-helical content, exert an antioligomeric effect, whereas hydrogenated analogues do not and lead to aggregation. Cytotoxicity assays confirmed our hypothesis by indicating that the conformational conversion of Abeta42 into an alpha-helical-enriched secondary structure also has antiapoptotic activity, thereby increasing the viability of cells treated with oligomeric species.

  5. Formation of soluble amyloid oligomers and amyloid fibrils by the multifunctional protein vitronectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langen Ralf

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The multifunctional protein vitronectin is present within the deposits associated with Alzheimer disease (AD, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, atherosclerosis, systemic amyloidoses, and glomerulonephritis. The extent to which vitronectin contributes to amyloid formation within these plaques, which contain misfolded, amyloidogenic proteins, and the role of vitronectin in the pathophysiology of the aforementioned diseases is currently unknown. The investigation of vitronectin aggregation is significant since the formation of oligomeric and fibrillar structures are common features of amyloid proteins. Results We observed vitronectin immunoreactivity in senile plaques of AD brain, which exhibited overlap with the amyloid fibril-specific OC antibody, suggesting that vitronectin is deposited at sites of amyloid formation. Of particular interest is the growing body of evidence indicating that soluble nonfibrillar oligomers may be responsible for the development and progression of amyloid diseases. In this study we demonstrate that both plasma-purified and recombinant human vitronectin readily form spherical oligomers and typical amyloid fibrils. Vitronectin oligomers are toxic to cultured neuroblastoma and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells, possibly via a membrane-dependent mechanism, as they cause leakage of synthetic vesicles. Oligomer toxicity was attenuated in RPE cells by the anti-oligomer A11 antibody. Vitronectin fibrils contain a C-terminal protease-resistant fragment, which may approximate the core region of residues essential to amyloid formation. Conclusion These data reveal the propensity of vitronectin to behave as an amyloid protein and put forth the possibilities that accumulation of misfolded vitronectin may contribute to aggregate formation seen in age-related amyloid diseases.

  6. Mitochondrion-derived reactive oxygen species lead to enhanced amyloid beta formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuner, K.; Schutt, T.; Kurz, C.; Eckert, S.H.; Schiller, C.; Occhipinti, A.; Mai, S.; Jendrach, M.; Eckert, G.P.; Kruse, S.E.; Palmiter, R.D.; Brandt, U.; Drose, S.; Wittig, I.; Willem, M.; Haass, C.; Reichert, A.S.; Muller, W.E.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: Intracellular amyloid beta (Abeta) oligomers and extracellular Abeta plaques are key players in the progression of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Still, the molecular signals triggering Abeta production are largely unclear. We asked whether mitochondrion-derived reactive oxygen species

  7. [Amyloid goiter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrívó, A; Péter, I; Bánkúti, B; Péley, G; Baska, F; Besznyák, I

    1999-03-21

    Amyloid goitre is at an extremely rare occurrence. Authors review the origin of disease and its symptoms, diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The disease may be due to either primary or secondary systemic or local amyloidosis. Diagnosis may be made even before surgery on anamnestic data, on very rapid growth of thyroid glands, on diffuse appearance, on other symptoms of systemic amyloidosis, on findings of iconographic procedures and on detection of amyloid in aspirates. Final diagnosis is based on histology. Surgical therapy is aiming at avoidance of the existing and the threatening consequences of expanding mass. The outcome is independent from thyroid surgery, it is related to other manifestations of amyloidosis. Concerning with the present case the chronic superior vena cava syndrome and chylous pleural effusion as first described symptoms and asymptomatic hyperthyroxinaemia is emphasised. Neither other organ involvement, nor primary amyloidogenous molecula was found during the 18 months follow up, so patient has secondary and localised amyloidosis.

  8. The effects of enhanced zinc on spatial memory and plaque formation in transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkous, D.H.; Adlard, P.A.; Wanschura, P.B.; Conko, K.M.; Flinn, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable evidence suggesting that metals play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Reports suggest that elevated dietary metals may both precipitate and potentiate an Alzheimer's disease phenotype. Despite this, there remain few studies that have examined the behavioral consequences of elevated dietary metals in wild type and Alzheimer's disease animals. To further investigate this in the current study, two separate transgenic models of AD (Tg2576 and TgCRND8), together with wild type littermates were administered 10 ppm (0.153 mM) Zn. Tg2576 animals were maintained on a zinc-enriched diet both pre- and postnatally until 11 months of age, while TgCRND8 animals were treated for five months following weaning. Behavioral testing, consisting of "Atlantis" and "moving" platform versions of the Morris water maze, were conducted at the end of the study, and tissues were collected for immunohistochemical analysis of amyloid-β burden. Our data demonstrate that the provision of a zinc-enriched diet potentiated Alzheimer-like spatial memory impairments in the transgenic animals and was associated with reduced hippocampal amyloidplaque deposits. Zinc-related behavioral deficits were also demonstrated in wild type mice, which were sometimes as great as those present in the transgenic animals. However, zinc-related cognitive impairments in transgenic mice were greater than the summation of zinc effects in the wild type mice and the transgene effects.

  9. Interaction of the amyloid β peptide with sodium dodecyl sulfate as a membrane-mimicking detergent.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashemi, Shabestari M.; Meeuwenoord, N.J.; Filippov, D.V.; Huber, M.I.

    2016-01-01

    The amyloid β (A β) peptide is important in the context of Alzheimer's disease, since it is one of the major components of the fibrils that constitute amyloid plaques. Agents that can influence fibril formation are important, and of those, membrane mimics are particularly relevant, because the

  10. Influence of hydrophobic Teflon particles on the structure of amyloid beta-peptide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, C.E.; Norde, W.

    2003-01-01

    The amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) constitutes the major peptide component of the amyloid plaque deposits of Alzheimer's disease in humans. The Abeta changes from a nonpathogenic to a pathogenic conformation resulting in self-aggregation and deposition of the peptide. It has been established that

  11. Conformational changes of the amyloid beta-peptide (1-40) adsorbed on solid surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, CE; Norde, W

    2005-01-01

    The conformational change of the 39-43 residues of the amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) toward a beta-sheet enriched state promotes self-aggregation of the peptide molecules and constitutes the major peptide component of the amyloid plaques in Alzheimer patients. The crucial question behind the

  12. Conformational changes of the amyloid beta-peptide (1-40) adsorbed on solid surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, C.E.; Norde, W.

    2005-01-01

    The conformational change of the 39-43 residues of the amyloid beta -peptide (A beta) toward a beta -sheet enriched state promotes self-aggregation of the peptide molecules and constitutes the major peptide component of the amyloid plaques in Alzheimer patients. The crucial question behind the

  13. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera reverses β-amyloid1-42 induced toxicity in human neuronal cells: implications in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesava Rao Venkata Kurapati

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by progressive dysfunction of memory and higher cognitive functions with abnormal accumulation of extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles throughout cortical and limbic brain regions. At present no curative treatment is available, and research focuses on drugs for slowing disease progression or providing prophylaxis. Withania somnifera (WS also known as 'ashwagandha' is used widely in Ayurvedic medicine as a nerve tonic and memory enhancer. However, there is a paucity of data on the potential neuroprotective effects of W.somnifera against β-Amyloid (1-42-induced neuropathogenesis. In the present study, we have tested the neuroprotective effects of methanol:Chloroform (3:1 extract of ashwagandha against β-amyloid induced toxicity and HIV-1Ba-L (clade B infection using a human neuronal SK-N-MC cell line. Our results showed that β-amyloid induced cytotoxic effects in SK-N-MC cells as shown by decreased cell growth when tested individually. Also, confocal microscopic analysis showed decreased spine density, loss of spines and decreased dendrite diameter, total dendrite and spine area in clade B infected SK-N-MC cells compared to uninfected cells. However, when ashwagandha was added to β-amyloid treated and HIV-1 infected samples, the toxic effects were neutralized. Further, the MTT cell viability assays and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ levels supported these observations indicating the neuroprotective effect of WS root extract against β-amyloid and HIV-1Ba-L (clade B induced neuro-pathogenesis.

  14. Metabolic Characterization of Intact Cells Reveals Intracellular Amyloid Beta but Not Its Precursor Protein to Reduce Mitochondrial Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Patrick M.; von Einem, Bjoern; Walther, Paul; Calzia, Enrico; von Arnim, Christine A. F.

    2016-01-01

    One hallmark of Alzheimer´s disease are senile plaques consisting of amyloid beta (Aβ), which derives from the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer´s disease and both Aβ and APP have been reported to affect mitochondrial function in isolated systems. However, in intact cells, considering a physiological localization of APP and Aβ, it is pending what triggers the mitochondrial defect. Thus, the aim of this study was to dissect the impact of APP versus Aβ in inducing mitochondrial alterations with respect to their subcellular localization. We performed an overexpression of APP or beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), increasing APP and Aβ levels or Aβ alone, respectively. Conducting a comprehensive metabolic characterization we demonstrate that only APP overexpression reduced mitochondrial respiration, despite lower extracellular Aβ levels compared to BACE overexpression. Surprisingly, this could be rescued by a gamma secretase inhibitor, oppositionally indicating an Aβ-mediated mitochondrial toxicity. Analyzing Aβ localization revealed that intracellular levels of Aβ and an increased spatial association of APP/Aβ with mitochondria are associated with reduced mitochondrial respiration. Thus, our data provide marked evidence for a prominent role of intracellular Aβ accumulation in Alzheimer´s disease associated mitochondrial dysfunction. Thereby it highlights the importance of the localization of APP processing and intracellular transport as a decisive factor for mitochondrial function, linking two prominent hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:28005987

  15. The role of mutated amyloid beta 1-42 stimulating dendritic cells in a PDAPP transgenic mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Jia-lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Amyloid plaque is one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Anti-beta-amyloid (Aβ immunotherapy is effective in removing brain Aβ, but has shown to be associated with detrimental effects. To avoid severe adverse effects such as meningoencephalitis induced by amyloid beta vaccine with adjuvant, and take advantage of amyloid beta antibody's therapeutic effect on Alzheimer's disease sufficiently, our group has developed a new Alzheimer vaccine with mutated amyloid beta 1-42 peptide stimulating dendritic cells (DC. Our previous work has confirmed that DC vaccine can induce adequate anti-amyloid beta antibody in PDAPP Tg mice safely and efficiently. The DC vaccine can improve impaired learning and memory in the Alzheimer's animal model, and did not cause microvasculitis, microhemorrhage or meningoencephalitis in the animal model. However, the exact mechanism of immunotherapy which reduces Aβ deposition remains unknown. In this report, we studied the mechanism of the vaccine, thinking that this may have implications for better understanding of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Methods A new Alzheimer vaccine with mutated amyloid beta 1-42 peptide stimulating DC which were obtained from C57/B6 mouse bone marrow was developed. Amyloid beta with Freund's adjuvant was inoculated at the same time to act as positive control. After the treatment was done, the samples of brains were collected, fixed, cut. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to observe the expression of the nuclear hormone liver X receptor (LXR, membrane-bound protein tyrosine phosphatase (CD45, the ATP-binding cassette family of active transporters (ABCA1, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE, β-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE and Aβ in mouse brain tissue. Semi-quantitative analysis was used to defect CA1, CA2, CA3, DG, Rad in hippocampus region and positive neuron in cortex region. Results Aβ was significantly reduced in the

  16. A subcutaneous cellular implant for passive immunization against amyloid-β reduces brain amyloid and tau pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathuilière, Aurélien; Laversenne, Vanessa; Astolfo, Alberto; Kopetzki, Erhard; Jacobsen, Helmut; Stampanoni, Marco; Bohrmann, Bernd; Schneider, Bernard L; Aebischer, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Passive immunization against misfolded toxic proteins is a promising approach to treat neurodegenerative disorders. For effective immunotherapy against Alzheimer's disease, recent clinical data indicate that monoclonal antibodies directed against the amyloid-β peptide should be administered before the onset of symptoms associated with irreversible brain damage. It is therefore critical to develop technologies for continuous antibody delivery applicable to disease prevention. Here, we addressed this question using a bioactive cellular implant to deliver recombinant anti-amyloid-β antibodies in the subcutaneous tissue. An encapsulating device permeable to macromolecules supports the long-term survival of myogenic cells over more than 10 months in immunocompetent allogeneic recipients. The encapsulated cells are genetically engineered to secrete high levels of anti-amyloid-β antibodies. Peripheral implantation leads to continuous antibody delivery to reach plasma levels that exceed 50 µg/ml. In a proof-of-concept study, we show that the recombinant antibodies produced by this system penetrate the brain and bind amyloid plaques in two mouse models of the Alzheimer's pathology. When encapsulated cells are implanted before the onset of amyloid plaque deposition in TauPS2APP mice, chronic exposure to anti-amyloid-β antibodies dramatically reduces amyloid-β40 and amyloid-β42 levels in the brain, decreases amyloid plaque burden, and most notably, prevents phospho-tau pathology in the hippocampus. These results support the use of encapsulated cell implants for passive immunotherapy against the misfolded proteins, which accumulate in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Metastable Amyloid Phases and their Conversion to Mature Fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschol, Martin; Miti, Tatiana; Mulaj, Mentor; Schmit, Jeremy

    Self-assembly of proteins into amyloid fibrils plays a key role in both functional biological responses and pathogenic disorders which include Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes. Amyloid fibril assembly frequently generates compact oligomeric and curvilinear polymeric intermediates which are implicated to be toxic to cells. Yet, the relation between these early-stage oligomeric aggregates and late-stage rigid fibrils, which are the hallmark structure of amyloid plaques, has remained unclear. Our measurements indicate that lysozyme amyloid oligomers and their curvilinear fibrils only form after crossing a salt and protein concentration dependent threshold. These oligomeric aggregates are structurally distinct from rigid fibrils and are metastable against nucleation and growth of rigid fibrils. Our experimental transition boundaries match well with colloidal model predictions accounting for salt-modulated charge repulsion. We also report our preliminary findings on the mechanism by which these metastable oligomeric phases are converted into stable amyloid fibrils.

  18. Genes contributing to prion pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Giles, Kurt; Glidden, David V

    2008-01-01

    incubation times, indicating that the conversion reaction may be influenced by other gene products. To identify genes that contribute to prion pathogenesis, we analysed incubation times of prions in mice in which the gene product was inactivated, knocked out or overexpressed. We tested 20 candidate genes...... show that many genes previously implicated in prion replication have no discernible effect on the pathogenesis of prion disease. While most genes tested did not significantly affect survival times, ablation of the amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (App) or interleukin-1 receptor, type I (Il1r1...

  19. Functional amyloid formation by Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oli, M. W.; Otoo, H. N.; Crowley, P. J.; Heim, K. P.; Nascimento, M. M.; Ramsook, C. B.; Lipke, P. N.

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is a common infectious disease associated with acidogenic and aciduric bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans. Organisms that cause cavities form recalcitrant biofilms, generate acids from dietary sugars and tolerate acid end products. It has recently been recognized that micro-organisms can produce functional amyloids that are integral to biofilm development. We now show that the S. mutans cell-surface-localized adhesin P1 (antigen I/II, PAc) is an amyloid-forming protein. This conclusion is based on the defining properties of amyloids, including binding by the amyloidophilic dyes Congo red (CR) and Thioflavin T (ThT), visualization of amyloid fibres by transmission electron microscopy and the green birefringent properties of CR-stained protein aggregates when viewed under cross-polarized light. We provide evidence that amyloid is present in human dental plaque and is produced by both laboratory strains and clinical isolates of S. mutans. We provide further evidence that amyloid formation is not limited to P1, since bacterial colonies without this adhesin demonstrate residual green birefringence. However, S. mutans lacking sortase, the transpeptidase enzyme that mediates the covalent linkage of its substrates to the cell-wall peptidoglycan, including P1 and five other proteins, is not birefringent when stained with CR and does not form biofilms. Biofilm formation is inhibited when S. mutans is cultured in the presence of known inhibitors of amyloid fibrillization, including CR, Thioflavin S and epigallocatechin-3-gallate, which also inhibited ThT uptake by S. mutans extracellular proteins. Taken together, these results indicate that S. mutans is an amyloid-forming organism and suggest that amyloidogenesis contributes to biofilm formation by this oral microbe. PMID:23082034

  20. COPS5 (Jab1) protein increases β site processing of amyloid precursor protein and amyloid β peptide generation by stabilizing RanBP9 protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongjie; Dey, Debleena; Carrera, Ivan; Minond, Dmitriy; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Xu, Shaohua; Lakshmana, Madepalli K

    2013-09-13

    Increased processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and accumulation of neurotoxic amyloid β peptide (Aβ) in the brain is central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, the identification of molecules that regulate Aβ generation is crucial for future therapeutic approaches for AD. We demonstrated previously that RanBP9 regulates Aβ generation in a number of cell lines and primary neuronal cultures by forming tripartite protein complexes with APP, low-density lipoprotein-related protein, and BACE1, consequently leading to increased amyloid plaque burden in the brain. RanBP9 is a scaffold protein that exists and functions in multiprotein complexes. To identify other proteins that may bind RanBP9 and regulate Aβ levels, we used a two-hybrid analysis against a human brain cDNA library and identified COPS5 as a novel RanBP9-interacting protein. This interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation experiments in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells and mouse brain. Colocalization of COPS5 and RanBP9 in the same subcellular compartments further supported the interaction of both proteins. Furthermore, like RanBP9, COPS5 robustly increased Aβ generation, followed by increased soluble APP-β (sAPP-β) and decreased soluble-APP-α (sAPP-α) levels. Most importantly, down-regulation of COPS5 by siRNAs reduced Aβ generation, implying that endogenous COPS5 regulates Aβ generation. Finally, COPS5 levels were increased significantly in AD brains and APΔE9 transgenic mice, and overexpression of COPS5 strongly increased RanBP9 protein levels by increasing its half-life. Taken together, these results suggest that COPS5 increases Aβ generation by increasing RanBP9 levels. Thus, COPS5 is a novel RanBP9-binding protein that increases APP processing and Aβ generation by stabilizing RanBP9 protein levels.

  1. Towards Alzheimer's beta-amyloid vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, D; Solomon, B

    2001-01-01

    Beta-amyloid pathology, the main hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), has been linked to its conformational status and aggregation. We recently showed that site-directed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) towards the N-terminal region of the human beta-amyloid peptide bind to preformed beta-amyloid fibrils (Abeta), leading to disaggregation and inhibition of their neurotoxic effect. Here we report the development of a novel immunization procedure to raise effective anti-aggregating amyloid beta-protein (AbetaP) antibodies, using as antigen filamentous phages displaying the only EFRH peptide found to be the epitope of these antibodies. Due to the high antigenicity of the phage no adjuvant is required to obtain high affinity anti-aggregating IgG antibodies in animals model, that exhibit identity to human AbetaP. Such antibodies are able to sequester peripheral AbetaP, thus avoiding passage through the blood brain barrier (BBB) and, as recently shown in a transgenic mouse model, to cross the BBB and dissolve already formed beta-amyloid plaques. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to use as a vaccine a self-anti-aggregating epitope displayed on a phage, and this may pave the way to treat abnormal accumulation-peptide diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease or other amyloidogenic diseases. Copyright 2001 The International Association for Biologicals.

  2. Functional Amyloids in Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewetson, Aveline; Do, Hoa Quynh; Myers, Caitlyn; Muthusubramanian, Archana; Sutton, Roger Bryan; Wylie, Benjamin J; Cornwall, Gail A

    2017-06-29

    Amyloids are traditionally considered pathological protein aggregates that play causative roles in neurodegenerative disease, diabetes and prionopathies. However, increasing evidence indicates that in many biological systems nonpathological amyloids are formed for functional purposes. In this review, we will specifically describe amyloids that carry out biological roles in sexual reproduction including the processes of gametogenesis, germline specification, sperm maturation and fertilization. Several of these functional amyloids are evolutionarily conserved across several taxa, including human, emphasizing the critical role amyloids perform in reproduction. Evidence will also be presented suggesting that, if altered, some functional amyloids may become pathological.

  3. Novel lipid signaling pathways in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Phillip F; Joshi, Yash B; Praticò, Domenico

    2014-04-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. With an increasing longevity and the absence of a cure, AD has become not only a major health problem but also a heavy social and economic burden worldwide. In addition to the presence of abundant intra- and extra-cellular neurotoxic amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, which form the amyloid plaques, and intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau protein, the main component of neurofibrillary tangles, consistent evidence indicates that the AD brain is characterized by extensive neuroinflammatory processes. The 5-lipoxygenase (5LO) is a pro-inflammatory enzymatic pathway widely distributed within the central nervous system and is up-regulated in AD. In the last five years our group has been involved in unraveling the neurobiology of this protein and investigating its relationship with cellular and molecular events of functional importance in AD pathogenesis. By using a combination of in vitro and in vivo experimental tools and implementing genetic as well as pharmacological approaches today we know that 5LO is likely an endogenous regulator of Aβ formation via the modulation of the γ-secretase complex, and tau metabolism by modulating its phosphorylation state at specific epitopes via the cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (cdk-5). In addition, 5LO influences synaptic function and integrity and by doing so significantly affects learning and memory in the Tg2576 and 3xTg AD transgenic mouse models. Taken together our data establish this protein as a pleiotropic contributor to the development of the full spectrum of the AD-like phenotype in these mouse models of the disease, making it a viable therapeutic target for the treatment of AD in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Augmenting Amyloid PET Interpretations With Quantitative Information Improves Consistency of Early Amyloid Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harn, Nicholas R; Hunt, Suzanne L; Hill, Jacqueline; Vidoni, Eric; Perry, Mark; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2017-08-01

    Establishing reliable methods for interpreting elevated cerebral amyloidplaque on PET scans is increasingly important for radiologists, as availability of PET imaging in clinical practice increases. We examined a 3-step method to detect plaque in cognitively normal older adults, focusing on the additive value of quantitative information during the PET scan interpretation process. Fifty-five F-florbetapir PET scans were evaluated by 3 experienced raters. Scans were first visually interpreted as having "elevated" or "nonelevated" plaque burden ("Visual Read"). Images were then processed using a standardized quantitative analysis software (MIMneuro) to generate whole brain and region of interest SUV ratios. This "Quantitative Read" was considered elevated if at least 2 of 6 regions of interest had an SUV ratio of more than 1.1. The final interpretation combined both visual and quantitative data together ("VisQ Read"). Cohen kappa values were assessed as a measure of interpretation agreement. Plaque was elevated in 25.5% to 29.1% of the 165 total Visual Reads. Interrater agreement was strong (kappa = 0.73-0.82) and consistent with reported values. Quantitative Reads were elevated in 45.5% of participants. Final VisQ Reads changed from initial Visual Reads in 16 interpretations (9.7%), with most changing from "nonelevated" Visual Reads to "elevated." These changed interpretations demonstrated lower plaque quantification than those initially read as "elevated" that remained unchanged. Interrater variability improved for VisQ Reads with the addition of quantitative information (kappa = 0.88-0.96). Inclusion of quantitative information increases consistency of PET scan interpretations for early detection of cerebral amyloidplaque accumulation.

  5. Serum zinc, senile plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, C L; Snowdon, D A; Markesbery, W R

    1995-11-13

    Zinc appears to have a role in binding amyloid precursor protein in vitro, but it is not known whether zinc plays a role in senile plaque formation in vivo in humans. Serum zinc concentrations were available from 12 sisters who died in the Nun Study, a longitudinal study of aging and Alzheimer's disease. Fasting serum zinc concentrations, determined approximately 1 year before death, showed moderate to strong negative correlations with senile plaque counts in seven brain regions. In all brain regions combined, the age-adjusted negative correlations with serum zinc were statistically significant for total senile plaques and diffuse plaques, and suggestive for neuritic plaques. Thus serum zinc in the normal range may be associated with low senile plaque counts in the elderly.

  6. Stable, metastable, and kinetically trapped amyloid aggregate phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miti, Tatiana; Mulaj, Mentor; Schmit, Jeremy D; Muschol, Martin

    2015-01-12

    Self-assembly of proteins into amyloid fibrils plays a key role in a multitude of human disorders that range from Alzheimer's disease to type II diabetes. Compact oligomeric species, observed early during amyloid formation, are reported as the molecular entities responsible for the toxic effects of amyloid self-assembly. However, the relation between early-stage oligomeric aggregates and late-stage rigid fibrils, which are the hallmark structure of amyloid plaques, has remained unclear. We show that these different structures occupy well-defined regions in a peculiar phase diagram. Lysozyme amyloid oligomers and their curvilinear fibrils only form after they cross a salt and protein concentration-dependent threshold. We also determine a boundary for the onset of amyloid oligomer precipitation. The oligomeric aggregates are structurally distinct from rigid fibrils and are metastable against nucleation and growth of rigid fibrils. These experimentally determined boundaries match well with colloidal model predictions that account for salt-modulated charge repulsion. The model also incorporates the metastable and kinetic character of oligomer phases. Similarities and differences of amyloid oligomer assembly to metastable liquid-liquid phase separation of proteins and to surfactant aggregation are discussed.

  7. Effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone on sleep and brain interstitial fluid amyloid-β in an APP transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fan; Zhang, Tony J; Mahan, Thomas E; Jiang, Hong; Holtzman, David M

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by impairment of cognitive function, extracellular amyloid plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and synaptic and neuronal loss. There is substantial evidence that the aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain plays a key role in the pathogenesis of AD and that Aβ aggregation is a concentration dependent process. Recently, it was found that Aβ levels in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) are regulated by the sleep-wake cycle in both humans and mice; ISF Aβ is higher during wakefulness and lower during sleep. Intracerebroventricular infusion of orexin increased wakefulness and ISF Aβ levels, and chronic sleep deprivation significantly increased Aβ plaque formation in amyloid precursor protein transgenic (APP) mice. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is a well-documented sleep regulatory substance which promotes non-rapid eye movement sleep. GHRHR(lit/lit) mice that lack functional GHRH receptor have shorter sleep duration and longer wakefulness during light periods. The current study was undertaken to determine whether manipulating sleep by interfering with GHRH signaling affects brain ISF Aβ levels in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 (PS1APP) transgenic mice that overexpress mutant forms of APP and PSEN1 that cause autosomal dominant AD. We found that intraperitoneal injection of GHRH at dark onset increased sleep and decreased ISF Aβ and that delivery of a GHRH antagonist via reverse-microdialysis suppressed sleep and increased ISF Aβ. The diurnal fluctuation of ISF Aβ in PS1APP/GHRHR(lit/lit) mice was significantly smaller than that in PS1APP/GHRHR(lit/+) mice. However despite decreased sleep in GHRHR deficient mice, this was not associated with an increase in Aβ accumulation later in life. One of several possibilities for the finding is the fact that GHRHR deficient mice have GHRH-dependent but sleep-independent factors which protect against Aβ deposition. Copyright © 2014

  8. Astrovirus Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cydney Johnson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Astroviruses are a major cause of diarrhea in the young, elderly, and the immunocompromised. Since the discovery of human astrovirus type 1 (HAstV-1 in 1975, the family Astroviridae has expanded to include two more human clades and numerous mammalian and avian-specific genotypes. Despite this, there is still little known about pathogenesis. The following review highlights the current knowledge of astrovirus pathogenesis, and outlines the critical steps needed to further astrovirus research, including the development of animal models of cell culture systems.

  9. Characterization of amyloid beta peptides from brain extracts of transgenic mice overexpressing the London mutant of human amyloid precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pype, Stefan; Moechars, Dieder; Dillen, Lieve; Mercken, Marc

    2003-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is marked by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques in the brain of patients. To study plaque formation, we report on further quantitative and qualitative analysis of human and mouse amyloid beta peptides (Abeta) from brain extracts of transgenic mice overexpressing the London mutant of human amyloid precursor protein (APP). Using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISAs) specific for either human or rodent Abeta, we found that the peptides from both species aggregated to form plaques. The ratios of deposited Abeta1-42/1-40 were in the order of 2-3 for human and 8-9 for mouse peptides, indicating preferential deposition of Abeta42. We also determined the identity and relative levels of other Abeta variants present in protein extracts from soluble and insoluble brain fractions. This was done by combined immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry (IP/MS). The most prominent peptides truncated either at the carboxyl- or the amino-terminus were Abeta1-38 and Abeta11-42, respectively, and the latter was strongly enriched in the extracts of deposited peptides. Taken together, our data indicate that plaques of APP-London transgenic mice consist of aggregates of multiple human and mouse Abeta variants, and the human variants that we identified were previously detected in brain extracts of AD patients.

  10. Isoflurane anesthesia promotes cognitive impairment by inducing expression of β-amyloid protein-related factors in the hippocampus of aged rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zhang

    Full Text Available Isoflurane anesthesia has been shown to be responsible for cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD and development of AD in the older age groups. However, the pathogenesis of AD-related cognitive impairments induced by isoflurane anesthesia remains elusive. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the mechanism by which isoflurane anesthesia caused AD-related cognitive impairments. Aged Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 12, 1 control group (CONT and 5 isoflurane treated (ISO groups (ISO 0, ISO 0.5D, ISO 1D, ISO 3D and ISO 7D. The CONT group inhaled 30% O2 for 2 h without any anesthesia. ISO groups were placed under anesthesia with 3% isoflurane and then exposed to 1.5% isoflurane delivered in 30% O2 for 2 h. Rats in each ISO group were then analyzed immediately (ISO 0 or at various time points (0.5, 1, 3 or 7 day after this exposure. Cognitive function was assessed using the Morris water maze test. Protein levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP, β-site APP cleavage enzyme-1 (BACE-1 and Aβ42 peptide were analyzed in hippocampal samples by Western blot. β-Amyloid (Abeta plaques were detected in hippocampal sections by Congo red staining. Compared with controls, all ISO groups showed increased escape latency and impaired spatial memory. Isoflurane increased APP mRNA expression and APP protein depletion, promoting Aβ42 overproduction, oligomerization and accumulation. However, isoflurane did not affect BACE-1 expression. Abeta plaques were observed only in those ISO groups sacrificed at 3 or 7 d. Our data indicate that aged rats exposed to isoflurane had increased APP mRNA expression and APP protein depletion, with Aβ42 peptide overproduction and oligomerization, resulting in formation of Abeta plaques in the hippocampus. Such effects might have contributed to cognitive impairments, including in spatial memory, observed in these rats after isoflurane anesthesia.

  11. Functional amyloids in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Diego; Kolter, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    The term amyloidosis is used to refer to a family of pathologies altering the homeostasis of human organs. Despite having a name that alludes to starch content, the amyloid accumulations are made up of proteins that polymerize as long and rigid fibers. Amyloid proteins vary widely with respect to their amino acid sequences but they share similarities in their quaternary structure; the amyloid fibers are enriched in β-sheets arranged perpendicular to the axis of the fiber. This structural feature provides great robustness, remarkable stability, and insolubility. In addition, amyloid proteins specifically stain with certain dyes such as Congo red and thioflavin-T. The aggregation into amyloid fibers, however, it is not restricted to pathogenic processes, rather it seems to be widely distributed among proteins and polypeptides. Amyloid fibers are present in insects, fungi and bacteria, and they are important in maintaining the homeostasis of the organism. Such findings have motivated the use of the term "functional amyloid" to differentiate these amyloid proteins from their toxic siblings. This review focuses on systems that have evolved in bacteria that control the expression and assembly of amyloid proteins on cell surfaces, such that the robustness of amyloid proteins are used towards a beneficial end. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  12. Imaging unstable plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SRIRANJAN, Rouchelle S.; TARKIN, Jason M.; RUDD, James H.; EVANS, Nicholas R.; CHOWDHURY, Mohammed M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in imaging technology have enabled us to utilise a range of diagnostic approaches to better characterise high-risk atherosclerotic plaque. The aim of this article is to review current and emerging techniques used to detect and quantify unstable plaque in the context of large and small arterial systems and will focus on both invasive and non-invasive imaging techniques. While the diagnosis of clinically relevant atherosclerosis still relies heavily on anatomical assessment of arterial luminal stenosis, evolving multimodal cross-sectional imaging techniques that encompass novel molecular probes can provide added information with regard to plaque composition and overall disease burden. Novel molecular probes currently being developed to track precursors of plaque rupture such as inflammation, micro-calcification, hypoxia and neoangiogenesis are likely to have translational applications beyond diagnostics and have the potential to play a part in quantifying early responses to therapeutic interventions and more accurate cardiovascular risk stratification.

  13. LRP1 in Brain Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Mediates Local Clearance of Alzheimer's Amyloid

    OpenAIRE

    Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Liu, Chia-Chen; Shinohara, Mitsuru; Li, Jie; Bu, Guojun

    2012-01-01

    Impaired clearance of amyloid-β (Aβ) is a major pathogenic event for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Aβ depositions in brain parenchyma as senile plaques and along cerebrovasculature as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) are hallmarks of AD. A major pathway that mediates brain Aβ clearance is the cerebrovascular system where Aβ is eliminated through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and/or degraded by cerebrovascular cells along the interstitial fluid drainage pathway. An Aβ clearance receptor, the low-...

  14. Beta-secretase-cleaved amyloid precursor protein in Alzheimer brain: a morphologic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennvik, Kristina; Bogdanovic, N; Volkmann, Inga

    2004-01-01

    beta-amyloid (Abeta) is the main constituent of senile plaques seen in Alzheimer's disease. Abeta is derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) via proteolytic cleavage by proteases beta- and gamma-secretase. In this study, we examined content and localization of beta-secretase-cleaved APP...... the beta-sAPP immunostaining to be stronger and more extensive in gray matter in Alzheimer disease (AD) cases than controls. The axonal beta-sAPP staining was patchy and unevenly distributed for the AD cases, indicating impaired axonal transport. beta-sAPP was also found surrounding senile plaques...

  15. Calcium ionophore A23187 specifically decreases the secretion of beta-secretase cleaved amyloid precursor protein during apoptosis in primary rat cortical cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennvik, K; Benedikz, Eirikur; Fastbom, J

    2001-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the degeneration and loss of neurons, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and the accumulation of extracellular senile plaques consisting mainly of beta-amyloid (A beta). A beta is generated from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by sequential beta...

  16. Novel β-amyloid aggregation inhibitors possessing a turn mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yoshio; Miyamoto, Naoko; Kiso, Yoshiaki

    2015-04-01

    Amyloid β peptide, the main component of senile plaques found in the brain of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients, is a molecular target for AD therapeutic intervention. A number of potential AD therapeutics have been reported, including inhibitors of β-secretase, γ-secretase, and Aβ aggregation, and anti-amyloid agents, such as neprilysin, insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), and Aβ antibodies. Recently, we reported potent small-sized β-secretase (BACE1) inhibitors, which could serve as anti-AD drugs. However AD is a progressive disorder, where dementia symptoms gradually worsen over several decades, and therefore may require many years to get cured. One possible way to achieve a greater therapeutic effect is through simultaneous administration of multiple drugs, similar to those used in Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) used to treat AIDS. In order to overcome AD, we took a drug discovery approach to evaluate, novel β-amyloid aggregation inhibitors. Previously, we reported that a tong-type compound possessing a turn mimic as the inhibitor of HIV-1 protease dimerization. Oligomerized amyloid β peptides contain a turn structure within the molecule. Here, we designed and synthesized novel β-amyloid aggregation inhibitors with a turn-mimic template, based on the turn conformer of the oligomerized amyloid β peptides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mast Cell Activation in Brain Injury, Stress, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisamy Kempuraj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are localized throughout the body and mediate allergic, immune, and inflammatory reactions. They are heterogeneous, tissue-resident, long-lived, and granulated cells. Mast cells increase their numbers in specific site in the body by proliferation, increased recruitment, increased survival, and increased rate of maturation from its progenitors. Mast cells are implicated in brain injuries, neuropsychiatric disorders, stress, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Brain mast cells are the first responders before microglia in the brain injuries since mast cells can release prestored mediators. Mast cells also can detect amyloid plaque formation during Alzheimer's disease (AD pathogenesis. Stress conditions activate mast cells to release prestored and newly synthesized inflammatory mediators and induce increased blood-brain barrier permeability, recruitment of immune and inflammatory cells into the brain and neuroinflammation. Stress induces the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH from paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus and mast cells. CRH activates glial cells and mast cells through CRH receptors and releases neuroinflammatory mediators. Stress also increases proinflammatory mediator release in the peripheral systems that can induce and augment neuroinflammation. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a traumatic-chronic stress related mental dysfunction. Currently there is no specific therapy to treat PTSD since its disease mechanisms are not yet clearly understood. Moreover, recent reports indicate that PTSD could induce and augment neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Mast cells play a crucial role in the peripheral inflammation as well as in neuroinflammation due to brain injuries, stress, depression, and PTSD. Therefore, mast cells activation in brain injury, stress, and PTSD may accelerate the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases

  18. Mast Cell Activation in Brain Injury, Stress, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Selvakumar, Govindhasamy P; Thangavel, Ramasamy; Ahmed, Mohammad E; Zaheer, Smita; Raikwar, Sudhanshu P; Iyer, Shankar S; Bhagavan, Sachin M; Beladakere-Ramaswamy, Swathi; Zaheer, Asgar

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells are localized throughout the body and mediate allergic, immune, and inflammatory reactions. They are heterogeneous, tissue-resident, long-lived, and granulated cells. Mast cells increase their numbers in specific site in the body by proliferation, increased recruitment, increased survival, and increased rate of maturation from its progenitors. Mast cells are implicated in brain injuries, neuropsychiatric disorders, stress, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Brain mast cells are the first responders before microglia in the brain injuries since mast cells can release prestored mediators. Mast cells also can detect amyloid plaque formation during Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Stress conditions activate mast cells to release prestored and newly synthesized inflammatory mediators and induce increased blood-brain barrier permeability, recruitment of immune and inflammatory cells into the brain and neuroinflammation. Stress induces the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus and mast cells. CRH activates glial cells and mast cells through CRH receptors and releases neuroinflammatory mediators. Stress also increases proinflammatory mediator release in the peripheral systems that can induce and augment neuroinflammation. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a traumatic-chronic stress related mental dysfunction. Currently there is no specific therapy to treat PTSD since its disease mechanisms are not yet clearly understood. Moreover, recent reports indicate that PTSD could induce and augment neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Mast cells play a crucial role in the peripheral inflammation as well as in neuroinflammation due to brain injuries, stress, depression, and PTSD. Therefore, mast cells activation in brain injury, stress, and PTSD may accelerate the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases including AD. This

  19. Atherosclerotic plaque rupture and thrombosis. Evolving concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, V; Stein, B; Ambrose, J A; Badimon, L; Badimon, J J; Chesebro, J H

    1990-09-01

    Rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque associated with partial or complete thrombotic vessel occlusion is fundamental to the development of ischemic coronary syndromes. Plaques that produce only mild-to-moderate angiographic luminal stenosis are frequently those that undergo abrupt disruption, leading to unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction. Plaques with increased lipid content appear more prone to rupture, particularly when the lipid pool is localized eccentrically within the intima. Macrophages appear to play an important role in atherogenesis, perhaps by participating in the uptake and metabolism of lipoproteins, secretion of growth factors, and production of enzymes and toxic metabolites that may facilitate plaque rupture. In addition, the particular composition or configuration of a plaque and the hemodynamic forces to which it is exposed may determine its susceptibility to disruption. Exposure of collagen, lipids, and smooth muscle cells after plaque rupture leads to the activation of platelets and the coagulation cascade system. The resulting thrombus may lead to marked reduction in myocardial perfusion and the development of an unstable coronary syndrome, or it may become organized and incorporated into the diseased vessel, thus contributing to the progression of atherosclerosis. In unstable angina, plaque disruption leads to thrombosis, which is usually labile and results in only a transient reduction in myocardial perfusion. Release of vasoactive substances, arterial spasm, or increases in myocardial oxygen demand may contribute to ischemia. In acute myocardial infarction, plaque disruption results in a more persistent thrombotic vessel occlusion; the extent of necrosis depends on the size of the artery, the duration of occlusion, the presence of collateral flow, and the integrity of the fibrinolytic system. Thrombi that undergo lysis expose a highly thrombogenic surface to the circulating blood, which has the capacity of activating platelets and

  20. The proton-pump inhibitor lansoprazole enhances amyloid beta production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiola, Nahuai; Alcalde, Victor; Pujol, Albert; Münter, Lisa-Marie; Multhaup, Gerd; Lleó, Alberto; Coma, Mireia; Soler-López, Montserrat; Aloy, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    A key event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) species in the brain, derived from the sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases. Based on a systems biology study to repurpose drugs for AD, we explore the effect of lansoprazole, and other proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), on Aβ production in AD cellular and animal models. We found that lansoprazole enhances Aβ37, Aβ40 and Aβ42 production and lowers Aβ38 levels on amyloid cell models. Interestingly, acute lansoprazole treatment in wild type and AD transgenic mice promoted higher Aβ40 levels in brain, indicating that lansoprazole may also exacerbate Aβ production in vivo. Overall, our data presents for the first time that PPIs can affect amyloid metabolism, both in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Quantification of amyloid-beta 40 in cerebrospinal fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, N.A.; Veerhuis, R.; Twaalfhoven, H.A.M.; Wouters, D.; Hoozemans, J.J.M.; Bollen, Y.J.M.; Killestein, J.; Bibl, M.; Wiltfang, J.; Hack, C.E.; Scheltens, P.; Blankenstein, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Truncated forms and full-length forms of the amyloid-beta 40 (Aβ40) are key molecules in the pathogenesis of dementia, and are detectable in CSF. Reliable methods to detect these biomarkers in CSF are of great importance for understanding the disease mechanisms and for diagnostic

  2. Investigation of Amyloid Structures at Nanoscale via AFM based Dynamic Nanomechncial Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid structures are one important kind of protein aggregations. They are a group of stable misfolded species, other than native states, which have been found to accumulate as plaques on neuron cells. This behavior is considered to associate with tens of human neurodegenerative diseases...... summarized the main methodologies of DNM. I also utilized DNM to explore the path way of amyloid self-assembly, and the substrate effect to the conformation of amyloid structures. Furthermore, 2D peptide based material has also been characterized by DNM....

  3. Morphology and mechanical properties of multi-stranded amyloid fibrils probed by atomistic and coarse-grained simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Gwonchan; Lee, Myeongsang; Kim, Kyungwoo; In Kim, Jae; Joon Chang, Hyun; Baek, Inchul; Na, Sungsoo; Eom, Kilho

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are responsible for pathogenesis of various diseases and exhibit the structural feature of an ordered, hierarchical structure such as multi-stranded helical structure. As the multi-strandedness of amyloid fibrils has recently been found to be highly correlated with their toxicity and infectivity, it is necessary to study how the hierarchical (i.e. multi-stranded) structure of amyloid fibril is formed. Moreover, although it has recently been reported that the nanomechanics of amyloid proteins plays a key role on the amyloid-induced pathogenesis, a critical role that the multi-stranded helical structure of the fibrils plays in their nanomechanical properties has not fully characterized. In this work, we characterize the morphology and mechanical properties of multi-stranded amyloid fibrils by using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation and elastic network model. It is shown that the helical pitch of multi-stranded amyloid fibril is linearly proportional to the number of filaments comprising the amyloid fibril, and that multi-strandedness gives rise to improving the bending rigidity of the fibril. Moreover, we have also studied the morphology and mechanical properties of a single protofilament (filament) in order to understand the effect of cross-β structure and mutation on the structures and mechanical properties of amyloid fibrils. Our study sheds light on the underlying design principles showing how the multi-stranded amyloid fibril is formed and how the structure of amyloid fibrils governs their nanomechanical properties. (paper)

  4. Determination of critical nucleation number for a single nucleation amyloid-β aggregation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Preetam; Vaidya, Ashwin; Kumar, Amit; Rangachari, Vijayaraghavan

    2016-03-01

    Aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide are known to be the key pathological agents in Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ aggregates to form large, insoluble fibrils that deposit as senile plaques in AD brains. The process of aggregation is nucleation-dependent in which the formation of a nucleus is the rate-limiting step, and controls the physiochemical fate of the aggregates formed. Therefore, understanding the properties of nucleus and pre-nucleation events will be significant in reducing the existing knowledge-gap in AD pathogenesis. In this report, we have determined the plausible range of critical nucleation number (n(*)), the number of monomers associated within the nucleus for a homogenous aggregation model with single unique nucleation event, by two independent methods: A reduced-order stability analysis and ordinary differential equation based numerical analysis, supported by experimental biophysics. The results establish that the most likely range of n(*) is between 7 and 14 and within, this range, n(*) = 12 closely supports the experimental data. These numbers are in agreement with those previously reported, and importantly, the report establishes a new modeling framework using two independent approaches towards a convergent solution in modeling complex aggregation reactions. Our model also suggests that the formation of large protofibrils is dependent on the nature of n(*), further supporting the idea that pre-nucleation events are significant in controlling the fate of larger aggregates formed. This report has re-opened an old problem with a new perspective and holds promise towards revealing the molecular events in amyloid pathologies in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A new integrated dual time-point amyloid PET/MRI data analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchin, Diego; Zucchetta, Pietro; Turco, Paolo; Bui, Franco [University Hospital of Padua, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Medicine - DIMED, Padua (Italy); Barthel, Henryk; Tiepolt, Solveig; Sabri, Osama [Leipzig University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Poggiali, Davide; Cagnin, Annachiara; Gallo, Paolo [University Hospital of Padua, Neurology, Department of Neurosciences (DNS), Padua (Italy); Frigo, Anna Chiara [University Hospital of Padua, Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Public Health Unit, Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, Padua (Italy)

    2017-11-15

    In the initial evaluation of patients with suspected dementia and Alzheimer's disease, there is no consensus on how to perform semiquantification of amyloid in such a way that it: (1) facilitates visual qualitative interpretation, (2) takes the kinetic behaviour of the tracer into consideration particularly with regard to at least partially correcting for blood flow dependence, (3) analyses the amyloid load based on accurate parcellation of cortical and subcortical areas, (4) includes partial volume effect correction (PVEC), (5) includes MRI-derived topographical indexes, (6) enables application to PET/MRI images and PET/CT images with separately acquired MR images, and (7) allows automation. A method with all of these characteristics was retrospectively tested in 86 subjects who underwent amyloid ({sup 18}F-florbetaben) PET/MRI in a clinical setting (using images acquired 90-110 min after injection, 53 were classified visually as amyloid-negative and 33 as amyloid-positive). Early images after tracer administration were acquired between 0 and 10 min after injection, and later images were acquired between 90 and 110 min after injection. PVEC of the PET data was carried out using the geometric transfer matrix method. Parametric images and some regional output parameters, including two innovative ''dual time-point'' indexes, were obtained. Subjects classified visually as amyloid-positive showed a sparse tracer uptake in the primary sensory, motor and visual areas in accordance with the isocortical stage of the topographic distribution of the amyloid plaque (Braak stages V/VI). In patients classified visually as amyloid-negative, the method revealed detectable levels of tracer uptake in the basal portions of the frontal and temporal lobes, areas that are known to be sites of early deposition of amyloid plaques that probably represented early accumulation (Braak stage A) that is typical of normal ageing. There was a strong correlation between

  6. A new integrated dual time-point amyloid PET/MRI data analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchin, Diego; Zucchetta, Pietro; Turco, Paolo; Bui, Franco; Barthel, Henryk; Tiepolt, Solveig; Sabri, Osama; Poggiali, Davide; Cagnin, Annachiara; Gallo, Paolo; Frigo, Anna Chiara

    2017-01-01

    In the initial evaluation of patients with suspected dementia and Alzheimer's disease, there is no consensus on how to perform semiquantification of amyloid in such a way that it: (1) facilitates visual qualitative interpretation, (2) takes the kinetic behaviour of the tracer into consideration particularly with regard to at least partially correcting for blood flow dependence, (3) analyses the amyloid load based on accurate parcellation of cortical and subcortical areas, (4) includes partial volume effect correction (PVEC), (5) includes MRI-derived topographical indexes, (6) enables application to PET/MRI images and PET/CT images with separately acquired MR images, and (7) allows automation. A method with all of these characteristics was retrospectively tested in 86 subjects who underwent amyloid ( 18 F-florbetaben) PET/MRI in a clinical setting (using images acquired 90-110 min after injection, 53 were classified visually as amyloid-negative and 33 as amyloid-positive). Early images after tracer administration were acquired between 0 and 10 min after injection, and later images were acquired between 90 and 110 min after injection. PVEC of the PET data was carried out using the geometric transfer matrix method. Parametric images and some regional output parameters, including two innovative ''dual time-point'' indexes, were obtained. Subjects classified visually as amyloid-positive showed a sparse tracer uptake in the primary sensory, motor and visual areas in accordance with the isocortical stage of the topographic distribution of the amyloid plaque (Braak stages V/VI). In patients classified visually as amyloid-negative, the method revealed detectable levels of tracer uptake in the basal portions of the frontal and temporal lobes, areas that are known to be sites of early deposition of amyloid plaques that probably represented early accumulation (Braak stage A) that is typical of normal ageing. There was a strong correlation between age

  7. Dental plaque identification at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003426.htm Dental plaque identification at home To use the sharing ... a sticky substance that collects around and between teeth. The home dental plaque identification test shows where ...

  8. Clinical and pathological study on 10 cases of cerebral lobe hemorrhage related with cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-qi LI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To summarize the clinical data and pathological features of 10 cases of cerebral lobar hemorrhage related with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA diagnosed pathologically, thereby to improve the knowledge and diagnosis of the disease. Methods The clinical data of 10 cases of cerebral lobar hemorrhage related with CAA, collected in the General Hospital of Shenyang Command from 1983 up to now, were retrospectively analyzed, and the clinical and neuropathological features of these cases were summarized. Results Of the 10 patients, 2 suffered from single lobar hemorrhage and 8 multiple lobar hemorrhage, all of them were confirmed pathologically to have ruptured into the subarachnoid space. Pathological examination revealed microaneurysm in 2 cases, "double barrel" change in 4 cases, multiple arteriolar clusters in 5 cases, obliterative onion-liked intima change in 4 cases, and fibrinoid necrosis of vessel wall in 7 cases. In addition, neurofibrillary tangles were found in 8 cases, and senile plaque was observed in 5 cases. Conclusions Cerebral lobar hemorrhage related with CAA is mainly located in the parietal, temporal and occipital lobes, readily breaking into the subarachnoid space, and it is often multiple and recurrent. The CAA associated microvasculopathy was found frequently in the autopsy sample of CAA related cerebral lobar hemorrhage, and it may contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral hemorrhage. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.07.04

  9. Apolipoproteins E and J interfere with amyloid-beta uptake by primary human astrocytes and microglia in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, S.D.; Nielsen, H.M.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Eikelenboom, P.; Veerhuis, R.

    2014-01-01

    Defective clearance of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) from the brain is considered a strong promoter in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Astrocytes and microglia are important mediators of Aβ clearance and Aβ aggregation state and the presence of amyloid associated proteins (AAPs), such as

  10. Mouse senile amyloid fibrils deposited in skeletal muscle exhibit amyloidosis-enhancing activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinze Qian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis describes a group of protein folding diseases in which amyloid proteins are abnormally deposited in organs and/or tissues as fine fibrils. Mouse senile amyloidosis is a disorder in which apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II deposits as amyloid fibrils (AApoAII and can be transmitted from one animal to another both by the feces and milk excreted by mice with amyloidosis. Thus, mouse AApoAII amyloidosis has been demonstrated to be a "transmissible disease". In this study, to further characterize the transmissibility of amyloidosis, AApoAII amyloid fibrils were injected into transgenic Apoa2(cTg(+/- and normal R1.P1-Apoa2(c mice to induce AApoAII systemic amyloidosis. Two months later, AApoAII amyloid deposits were found in the skeletal muscles of amyloid-affected mice, primarily in the blood vessels and in the interstitial tissues surrounding muscle fibers. When amyloid fibrils extracted from the skeletal muscles were subjected to Western blot analysis, apoA-II was detected. Amyloid fibril fractions isolated from the muscles not only demonstrated the structure of amyloid fibrils but could also induce amyloidosis in young mice depending on its fibril conformation. These findings present a possible pathogenesis of amyloidosis: transmission of amyloid fibril conformation through muscle, and shed new light on the etiology involved in amyloid disorders.

  11. Impact of amyloid imaging on drug development in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathis, Chester A. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)], E-mail: mathisca@upmc.edu; Lopresti, Brian J. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Klunk, William E. [Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Imaging agents capable of assessing amyloid-beta (A{beta}) content in vivo in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects likely will be important as diagnostic agents to detect A{beta} plaques in the brain as well as to help test the amyloid cascade hypothesis of AD and as an aid to assess the efficacy of anti-amyloid therapeutics currently under development and in clinical trials. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies of amyloid deposition in human subjects with several A{beta} imaging agents are currently underway. We reported the first PET studies of the carbon 11-labeled thioflavin-T derivative Pittsburgh Compound B in 2004, and this work has subsequently been extended to include a variety of subject groups, including AD patients, mild cognitive impairment patients and healthy controls. The ability to quantify regional A{beta} plaque load in the brains of living human subjects has provided a means to begin to apply this technology as a diagnostic agent to detect regional concentrations of A{beta} plaques and as a surrogate marker of therapeutic efficacy in anti-amyloid drug trials.

  12. Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosicka, Iga

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type II is a metabolic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. The disease is associated with occurence of insoluble, fibrillar, protein aggregates in islets of Langerhans in the pancreas - islet amyloid. The main constituent of these protein fibers is the human islet...... of diabetes type II, while revealing the structure(s) of islet amyloid fibrils is necessary for potential design of therapeutic agents....

  13. Alzheimer's disease related markers, cellular toxicity and behavioral deficits induced six weeks after oligomeric amyloid-β peptide injection in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charleine Zussy

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative pathology associated with aging characterized by the presence of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles that finally result in synaptic and neuronal loss. The major component of senile plaques is an amyloid-β protein (Aβ. Recently, we characterized the effects of a single intracerebroventricular (icv injection of Aβ fragment (25-35 oligomers (oAβ(25-35 for up to 3 weeks in rats and established a clear parallel with numerous relevant signs of AD. To clarify the long-term effects of oAβ(25-35 and its potential role in the pathogenesis of AD, we determined its physiological, behavioral, biochemical and morphological impacts 6 weeks after injection in rats. oAβ(25-35 was still present in the brain after 6 weeks. oAβ(25-35 injection did not affect general activity and temperature rhythms after 6 weeks, but decreased body weight, induced short- and long-term memory impairments, increased corticosterone plasma levels, brain oxidative (lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial (caspase-9 levels and reticulum stress (caspase-12 levels, astroglial and microglial activation. It provoked cholinergic neuron loss and decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. It induced cell loss in the hippocampic CA subdivisions and decreased hippocampic neurogenesis. Moreover, oAβ(25-35 injection resulted in increased APP expression, Aβ(1-42 generation, and increased Tau phosphorylation. In conclusion, this in vivo study evidenced that the soluble oligomeric forms of short fragments of Aβ, endogenously identified in AD patient brains, not only provoked long-lasting pathological alterations comparable to the human disease, but may also directly contribute to the progressive increase in amyloid load and Tau pathology, involved in the AD physiopathology.

  14. Amyloid Imaging: Poised for Integration into Medical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Keshav; Sabbagh, Marwan

    2017-01-01

    Amyloid imaging represents a significant advance as an adjunct in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) because it is the first imaging modality that identifies in vivo changes known to be associated with the pathogenesis. Initially, 11 C-PIB was developed, which was the prototype for many 18 F compounds, including florbetapir, florbetaben, and flutemetamol, among others. Despite the high sensitivity and specificity of amyloid imaging, it is not commonly used in clinical practice, mainly because it is not reimbursed under current Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services guidelines in the USA. To guide the field in who would be most appropriate for the utility of amyloid positron emission tomography, current studies are underway [Imaging Dementia Evidence for Amyloid Scanning (IDEAS) Study] that will inform the field on the utilization of amyloid positron emission tomography in clinical practice. With the advent of monoclonal antibodies that specifically target amyloid antibody, there is an interest, possibly a mandate, to screen potential treatment recipients to ensure that they are suitable for treatment. In this review, we summarize progress in the field to date.

  15. La pelade par plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  16. β-Amyloid pathogenesis: Chemical properties versus cellular levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2016-01-01

    Although genetic Aβ variants cause early-onset Alzheimer's disease, literature reports on Aβ properties are heterogeneous, obscuring molecular mechanisms, as illustrated by recent failures of Aβ-level targeting trials. Thus, we combined available data on Aβ levels and ratios, aggregation propensi...

  17. Glutamate system, amyloid β peptides and tau protein: functional interrelationships and relevance to Alzheimer disease pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revett, Timothy J.; Baker, Glen B.; Jhamandas, Jack; Kar, Satyabrata

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is the most prevalent form of dementia globally and is characterized premortem by a gradual memory loss and deterioration of higher cognitive functions and postmortem by neuritic plaques containing amyloid β peptide and neurofibrillary tangles containing phospho-tau protein. Glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter in the brain and is essential to memory formation through processes such as long-term potentiation and so might be pivotal to Alzheimer disease progression. This review discusses how the glutamatergic system is impaired in Alzheimer disease and how interactions of amyloid β and glutamate influence synaptic function, tau phosphorylation and neurodegeneration. Interestingly, glutamate not only influences amyloid β production, but also amyloid β can alter the levels of glutamate at the synapse, indicating that small changes in the concentrations of both molecules could influence Alzheimer disease progression. Finally, we describe how the glutamate receptor antagonist, memantine, has been used in the treatment of individuals with Alzheimer disease and discuss its effectiveness. PMID:22894822

  18. Does aluminium bind to histidine? An NMR investigation of amyloid β12 and amyloid β16 fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Priya; Krishnarjuna, Bankala; Vishwanathan, Vinaya; Jagadeesh Kumar, Dasappa; Babu, Sudhir; Ramanathan, Krishna Venkatachala; Easwaran, Kalpathy Ramaier Katchap; Nagendra, Holenarasipur Gundurao; Raghothama, Srinivasarao

    2013-07-01

    Aluminium and zinc are known to be the major triggering agents for aggregation of amyloid peptides leading to plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease. While zinc binding to histidine in Aβ (amyloid β) fragments has been implicated as responsible for aggregation, not much information is available on the interaction of aluminium with histidine. In the NMR study of the N-terminal Aβ fragments, DAEFRHDSGYEV (Aβ12) and DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQK (Aβ16) presented here, the interactions of the fragments with aluminium have been investigated. Significant chemical shifts were observed for few residues near the C-terminus when aluminium chloride was titrated with Aβ12 and Aβ16 peptides. Surprisingly, it is nonhistidine residues which seem to be involved in aluminium binding. Based on NMR constrained structure obtained by molecular modelling, aluminium-binding pockets in Aβ12 were around charged residues such as Asp, Glu. The results are discussed in terms of native structure propagation, and the relevance of histidine residues in the sequences for metal-binding interactions. We expect that the study of such short amyloid peptide fragments will not only provide clues for plaque formation in aggregated conditions but also facilitate design of potential drugs for these targets. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Mechanisms that synergistically regulate η-secretase processing of APP and Aη-α protein levels: relevance to pathogenesis and treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Joseph; Wang, Haizhi; Saunders, Aleister J; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Zhang, Can

    2017-02-01

    The pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the formation of cerebral β-amyloid plaque from a small peptide amyloid-β (Aβ). Aβ is generated from the canonical amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) proteolysis pathway through β- and γ-secretases. Decreasing Aβ levels through targeting APP processing is a very promising direction in clinical trials for AD. A novel APP processing pathway was recently identified, in which η-secretase processing of APP occurs and results in the generation of the carboxy-terminal fragment-η (CTF-η or η-CTF) (Wang et al., 2015) and Aη-α peptide (Willem et al., 2015). η-Secretase processing of APP may be up-regulated by at least two mechanisms: either through inhibition of lysosomal-cathepsin degradation pathway (Wang et al., 2015) or through inhibition of BACE1 that competes with η-secretase cleavage of APP (Willem et al., 2015). A thorough characterization of η-processing of APP is critical for a better understanding of AD pathogenesis and insights into results of clinical trials of AD. Here we further investigated η-secretase processing of APP using well-characterized cell models of AD. We found that these two mechanisms act synergistically toward increasing η-secretase processing of APP and Aη-α levels. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of several other known secretase modulators on η-processing of APP. The results of our study should advance the understanding of pathophysiology of AD, as well as enhance the knowledge in developing effective AD treatments or interventions related to η-secretase processing of APP.

  20. Molecular Mechanisms for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Pathogenesis in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Steven A.; Harris, Elizabeth A.

    2018-01-01

    This review focuses on research in the areas of epidemiology, neuropathology, molecular biology and genetics that implicates herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) as a causative agent in the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Molecular mechanisms whereby HSV-1 induces AD-related pathophysiology and pathology, including neuronal production and accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ), hyperphosphorylation of tau proteins, dysregulation of calcium homeostasis, and impaired autophagy, are discussed. HSV-1 causes additional AD pathologies through mechanisms that promote neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, synaptic dysfunction, and neuronal apoptosis. The AD susceptibility genes apolipoprotein E (APOE), phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein (PICALM), complement receptor 1 (CR1) and clusterin (CLU) are involved in the HSV lifecycle. Polymorphisms in these genes may affect brain susceptibility to HSV-1 infection. APOE, for example, influences susceptibility to certain viral infections, HSV-1 viral load in the brain, and the innate immune response. The AD susceptibility gene cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) is upregulated in the AD brain and is involved in the antiviral immune response. HSV-1 interacts with additional genes to affect cognition-related pathways and key enzymes involved in Aβ production, Aβ clearance, and hyperphosphorylation of tau proteins. Aβ itself functions as an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) against various pathogens including HSV-1. Evidence is presented supporting the hypothesis that Aβ is produced as an AMP in response to HSV-1 and other brain infections, leading to Aβ deposition and plaque formation in AD. Epidemiologic studies associating HSV-1 infection with AD and cognitive impairment are discussed. Studies are reviewed supporting subclinical chronic reactivation of latent HSV-1 in the brain as significant in the pathogenesis of AD. Finally, the rationale for and importance of clinical

  1. Microglia in diffuse plaques in hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis (Dutch). An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat-Schieman, M L; Rozemuller, A J; van Duinen, S G; Haan, J; Eikelenboom, P; Roos, R A

    1994-09-01

    In hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis (Dutch) (HCHWA-D) beta/A4 amyloid deposition is found in meningocortical blood vessels and in diffuse plaques in the cerebral cortex. Diffuse plaques putatively represent early stages in the formation of senile plaques. Microglia are intimately associated with congophilic plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but microglial involvement in diffuse plaque formation is controversial. Therefore, we studied the relationship between microglia and diffuse plaques in the cerebral cortex of four patients with HCHWA-D using a panel of macrophage/microglia markers (mAbs LCA, LeuM5, LeuM3, LN3, KP1, OKIa, CLB54, Mac1, Ki-M6, AMC30 and the lectin RCA-1). Eight AD patients, one demented Down's syndrome (DS) patient and four non-demented controls were included for comparison. In controls and HCHWA-D patients ramified or "resting" microglia formed a reticular array in cortical gray and subcortical white matter. Microglial cells in or near HCHWA-D diffuse plaques retained their normal regular spacing and ramified morphology. In AD/DS gray matter more microglial cells were stained than in controls and HCHWA-D patients. Intensely immunoreactive microglia with enlarged cell bodies and short, thick processes clustered in congophilic plaques. In contrast to the resting microglia, these "activated microglia" strongly expressed class II major histocompatibility complex antigen, HLA-DR, and were AMC30-immunoreactive. These findings support the view that microglia play a role in the formation of congophilic plaques but do not initiate diffuse plaque formation. Another finding in this study is the presence of strong monocyte/macrophage marker immunoreactivity in the wall of cortical congophilic blood vessels in HCHWA-D.

  2. Differential regulation of amyloid precursor protein sorting with pathological mutations results in a distinct effect on amyloid-β production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Chen; Wang, Jia-Yi; Wang, Kai-Chen; Liao, Jhih-Ying; Cheng, Irene H

    2014-11-01

    The deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, which is generated from amyloid precursor protein (APP), is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three APP familial AD mutations (D678H, D678N, and H677R) located at the sixth and seventh amino acid of Aβ have distinct effect on Aβ aggregation, but their influence on the physiological and pathological roles of APP remain unclear. We found that the D678H mutation strongly enhances amyloidogenic cleavage of APP, thus increasing the production of Aβ. This enhancement of amyloidogenic cleavage is likely because of the acceleration of APPD678H sorting into the endosomal-lysosomal pathway. In contrast, the APPD678N and APPH677R mutants do not cause the same effects. Therefore, this study indicates a regulatory role of D678H in APP sorting and processing, and provides genetic evidence for the importance of APP sorting in AD pathogenesis. The internalization of amyloid precursor protein (APP) increases its opportunity to be processed by β-secretase and to produce Amyloid-β (Aβ) that causes Alzheimer's disease (AD). We report a pathogenic APPD678H mutant that enhances APP internalization into the endosomal-lysosomal pathway and thus promotes the β-secretase cleavage and Aβ production. This study provides genetic evidence for the importance of APP sorting in AD pathogenesis. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  3. Development and characterization of a TAPIR-like mouse monoclonal antibody to amyloid-beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Hara, Hideo; Makifuchi, Takao; Tabira, Takeshi

    2008-06-01

    Tissue amyloid plaque immuno-reactive (TAPIR) antibody was better related to the effect of immunotherapy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) than ELISA antibody. Here we used a hybridoma technique to develop a TAPIR-like anti-human amyloid-beta (Abeta) mouse monoclonal antibody. The obtained monoclonal antibody, 3.4A10, was an IgG2b isotype and recognized N-terminal portion of Abeta1-42 without binding denatured or native amyloid-beta protein precursor. It had higher affinity to Abeta1-42 than to Abeta1-40 by Biacore affinity analysis and stained preferably the peripheral part of senile plaques and recognized the plaque core less than 4G8. It inhibited the Abeta1-42 fibril formation as well as degraded pre-aggregated Abeta1-42 peptide in a thioflavin T fluorescence spectrophotometry assay. The in vivo studies showed that 3.4A10 treatment decreased amyloid burden compared to the control group and significantly reduced Abeta42 levels rather than Abeta40 levels in brain lysates as well as the Abeta*56 oligomer (12mer) in TBS fraction of the brain lysates. 3.4A10 entered brain and decorated some plaques, which is surrounded by more Iba1-positive microglia. 3.4A10 therapy did not induce lymphocytic infiltration and obvious increase in microhemorrhage. We conclude that 3.4A10 is a TAPIR-like anti-human amyloid monoclonal antibody, and has a potential of therapeutic application for AD.

  4. Variation of amino acid sequences of serum amyloid a (SAA) and immunohistochemical analysis of amyloid a (AA) in Japanese domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tei, Meina; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James K; Watanabe, Ken-Ichi; Tamamoto, Takashi; Ohno, Koichi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-02

    Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis, a fatal systemic amyloid disease, occurs secondary to chronic inflammatory conditions in humans. Although persistently elevated serum amyloid A (SAA) levels are required for its pathogenesis, not all individuals with chronic inflammation necessarily develop AA amyloidosis. Furthermore, many diseases in cats are associated with the elevated production of SAA, whereas only a small number actually develop AA amyloidosis. We hypothesized that a genetic mutation in the SAA gene may strongly contribute to the pathogenesis of feline AA amyloidosis. In the present study, genomic DNA from four Japanese domestic cats (JDCs) with AA amyloidosis and from five without amyloidosis was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and direct sequencing. We identified the novel variation combination of 45R-51A in the deduced amino acid sequences of four JDCs with amyloidosis and five without. However, there was no relationship between amino acid variations and the distribution of AA amyloid deposits, indicating that differences in SAA sequences do not contribute to the pathogenesis of AA amyloidosis. Immunohistochemical analysis using antisera against the three different parts of the feline SAA protein-i.e., the N-terminal, central, and C-terminal regions-revealed that feline AA contained the C-terminus, unlike human AA. These results indicate that the cleavage and degradation of the C-terminus are not essential for amyloid fibril formation in JDCs.

  5. New Insights in the Amyloid-Beta Interaction with Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Spuch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical and morphological alterations of mitochondria may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Particularly, mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of amyloid-beta-induced neuronal toxicity in Alzheimer’s disease. The recent emphasis on the intracellular biology of amyloid-beta and its precursor protein (APP has led researchers to consider the possibility that mitochondria-associated and mitochondrial amyloid-beta may directly cause neurotoxicity. Both proteins are known to localize to mitochondrial membranes, block the transport of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins to mitochondria, interact with mitochondrial proteins, disrupt the electron transport chain, increase reactive oxygen species production, cause mitochondrial damage, and prevent neurons from functioning normally. In this paper, we will outline current knowledge of the intracellular localization of amyloid-beta. Moreover, we summarize evidence from AD postmortem brain as well as animal AD models showing that amyloid-beta triggers mitochondrial dysfunction through a number of pathways such as impairment of oxidative phosphorylation, elevation of reactive oxygen species production, alteration of mitochondrial dynamics, and interaction with mitochondrial proteins. Thus, this paper supports the Alzheimer cascade mitochondrial hypothesis such as the most important early events in this disease, and probably one of the future strategies on the therapy of this neurodegenerative disease.

  6. A Novel Small Molecule Modulator of Amyloid Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Mark A; Lynn, Bert C; Fister, Shuling; Bradley-Whitman, Melissa; Murphy, M Paul; Beckett, Tina L; Norris, Christopher M

    2016-05-04

    Because traditional approaches to drug development for Alzheimer's disease are becoming increasingly expensive and in many cases disappointingly unsuccessful, alternative approaches are required to shift the paradigm. Following leads from investigations of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, we observed unique properties from a class of functionalized naphthyridines and sought to develop these as novel therapeutics that minimize amyloid pathology without the adverse effects associated with current therapeutics. Our data show methyl 2,4-dimethyl-5-oxo-5,6-dihydrobenzo[c][2,7]naphthyridine-1-carboxylate (BNC-1) significantly decreases amyloid burden in a well-established mouse model of amyloid pathology through a unique mechanism mediated by Elk-1, a transcriptional repressor of presenilin-1. Additionally, BNC-1 treatment leads to increased levels of synaptophysin and synapsin, markers of synaptic integrity, but does not adversely impact presenilin-2 or processing of Notch-1, thus avoiding negative off target effects associated with pan-gamma secretase inhibition. Overall, our data show BNC-1 significantly decreases amyloid burden and improves markers of synaptic integrity in a well-established mouse model of amyloid deposition by promoting phosphorylation and activation of Elk-1, a transcriptional repressor of presenilin-1 but not presenilin-2. These data suggest BNC-1 might be a novel, disease-modifying therapeutic that will alter the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Effect of the presence of dental plaque on oral sugar clearance and salivary pH: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Debapriya; Jain, Deepak; Gulati, Amit; Kolhe, Swapnil J; Baad, Rajendra; Rao, B Sunil

    2012-11-01

    Fermentable carbohydrates and microorganisms in the plaque play a significant role in the pathogenesis of dental caries. Oral clearance of sugars and salivary pH is affected by the presence of plaque. This study was conducted to study the effect of the presence of plaque on the salivary clearance of sucrose and on salivary pH. The study design was of a randomized controlled parallel group clinical trial and included two groups: The control group and plaque group, as follows: Control group--subjects without plaque and plaque group--subjects with plaque. Salivary sucrose determination was done by using the anthrone technique. A digital pH meter estimated the salivary pH. The Student's t test and Mann-Whitney test was employed to compare the intergroup differences. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for analysis. The salivary sucrose clearance time was increased by presence of plaque. The presence of plaque led to increased salivary sucrose concentrations and increased the salivary sucrose clearance time. The dental caries is the dynamic relationship among the dental plaque microbiota, dietary carbohydrates, saliva and cariogenic potential of the dental plaque. Caries occur preferentially in the dentition sites characterized by high exposure to carbohydrate and diminished salivary effect.

  8. A potential amyloid-imaging probe for Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jiong; Wang Shizhen; Yuan Jiangang; Qiang Boqin

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To screen out the human single-chain fragment variable (scFv) against amyloid β peptide 40 from a human synthetic antibody library, sub-clone its gene into E. coli expression system, and express and purify it for amyloid peptide imaging research. The overload of amyloid β peptide and the appearance of senile plaques in the human brain tissue is one of the hallmark of the Alzheimer's disease, and in vivo imaging of amyloidβ peptide is valuable for the earlier diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Amyloid β peptide 40 was bound on the solid surface of Nunc plates as antigen and a human antibody library constructed with human antibody heavy and light chain variable gene and nucleotides sequence coded (Gly4Ser)3 linker and displayed on the protein surface of filamentous phage was used to screen the binding clones. After five rounds of bio-panning, the host E. coli TG1 was infected with eluted filamentous phage from the last turn of selection. 55 well-separated colonies were picked randomly from the plates and several specific positive clones were identified by ELISA testing, and their binding sites were determined by competitive ELISA with amyloid 13 peptide 40, 1-16, 25-35. The single-chain Fv antibody gene was sequenced and their amino acids sequence was deduced. The scFv antibody gene was sub-cloned into a protokayotic expression vector pET-22b(+) and transformed into bacteria strain BL21 to express the His6-tagged single-chain antibody and the whole cell culture was subjected to SDS-PAGE analysis. The antibody was expressed in inclusion bodies and purified with serial buffers and verified with western blotting and their activity was tested by ELISA against amyloid β peptide 40. Results: ELISA testing showed that 33 clones could bind amyloid β peptide 40 and 10 of these clones could be inhibited by amyloid β peptide 40 itself to below 50% of its original binding activities. Five clones could also be inhibited by amyloid β peptide 1-16. DNA

  9. Sortilin Fragments Deposit at Senile Plaques in Human Cerebrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Hu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variations in the vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein (Vps10p family have been linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Here we demonstrate deposition of fragments from the Vps10p member sortilin at senile plaques (SPs in aged and AD human cerebrum. Sortilin changes were characterized in postmortem brains with antibodies against the extracellular and intracellular C-terminal domains. The two antibodies exhibited identical labeling in normal human cerebrum, occurring in the somata and dendrites of cortical and hippocampal neurons. The C-terminal antibody also marked extracellular lesions in some aged and all AD cases, appearing as isolated fibrils, mini-plaques, dense-packing or circular mature-looking plaques. Sortilin and β-amyloid (Aβ deposition were correlated overtly in a region/lamina- and case-dependent manner as analyzed in the temporal lobe structures, with co-localized immunofluorescence seen at individual SPs. However, sortilin deposition rarely occurred around the pia, at vascular wall or in areas with typical diffuse Aβ deposition, with the labeling not enhanced by section pretreatment with heating or formic acid. Levels of a major sortilin fragment ~15 kDa, predicted to derive from the C-terminal region, were dramatically elevated in AD relative to control cortical lysates. Thus, sortilin fragments are a prominent constituent of the extracellularly deposited protein products at SPs in human cerebrum.

  10. Highlighting Interleukin-36 Signalling in Plaque Psoriasis and Pustular Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furue, Kazuhisa; Yamamura, Kazuhiko; Tsuji, Gaku; Mitoma, Chikage; Uchi, Hiroshi; Nakahara, Takeshi; Kido-Nakahara, Makiko; Kadono, Takafumi; Furue, Masutaka

    2018-01-12

    Plaque psoriasis and pustular psoriasis are overlapping, but distinct, disorders. The therapeutic response to biologics supports the pivotal role of the tumour necrosis alpha (TNF-?)/ interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17/IL-22 axis in the pathogenesis of these disorders. Recently, functional activation of the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R) was discovered to be another driving force in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. This was first highlighted by the discovery that a loss-of-function mutation of the IL-36R antagonist (IL-36Ra) causes pustular psoriasis. Although the TNF-?/IL-23/IL-17/IL-22 axis and the functional activation of IL-36R are fundamentally involved in plaque psoriasis and pustular psoriasis, respectively, the 2 pathways are closely related and mutually reinforced, resulting in full-blown clinical manifestations. This review summarizes current topics on how IL-36 agonists (IL-36?, IL-36?, IL-36?) signal IL-36R, the pathological expression of IL-36 agonists and IL-36Ra in plaque and pustular psoriatic lesions, and the cross-talk between the TNF-?/IL-23/IL-17/IL-22 axis and the functional activation of IL-36R in the epidermal milieu.

  11. Glycation induces formation of amyloid cross-beta structure in albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Barend; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M J; Wu, Ya-Ping; Brünjes, Bettina; Posthuma, George; Kranenburg, Onno; de Groot, Philip G; Voest, Emile E; Gebbink, Martijn F B G

    2003-10-24

    Amyloid fibrils are components of proteinaceous plaques that are associated with conformational diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, and familial amyloidosis. Amyloid polypeptides share a specific quarternary structure element known as cross-beta structure. Commonly, fibrillar aggregates are modified by advanced glycation end products (AGE). In addition, AGE formation itself induces protein aggregation. Both amyloid proteins and protein-AGE adducts bind multiligand receptors, such as receptor for AGE, CD36, and scavenger receptors A and B type I, and the serine protease tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that glycation induces refolding of globular proteins, accompanied by formation of cross-beta structure. Using transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate here that glycated albumin condensates into fibrous or amorphous aggregates. These aggregates bind to amyloid-specific dyes Congo red and thioflavin T and to tPA. In contrast to globular albumin, glycated albumin contains amino acid residues in beta-sheet conformation, as measured with circular dichroism spectropolarimetry. Moreover, it displays cross-beta structure, as determined with x-ray fiber diffraction. We conclude that glycation induces refolding of initially globular albumin into amyloid fibrils comprising cross-beta structure. This would explain how glycated ligands and amyloid ligands can bind to the same multiligand "cross-beta structure" receptors and to tPA.

  12. Intraplaque Hemorrhage and the Plaque Surface in Carotid Atherosclerosis: The Plaque At RISK Study (PARISK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A. C.; Truijman, M. T. B.; Hussain, B.; Zadi, T.; Saiedie, G.; de Rotte, A. A. J.; Liem, M. I.; van der Steen, A. F. W.; Daemen, M. J. A. P.; Koudstaal, P. J.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; Hendrikse, J.; Kooi, M. E.; van der Lugt, A.

    2015-01-01

    An important characteristic of vulnerable plaque, intraplaque hemorrhage, may predict plaque rupture. Plaque rupture can be visible on noninvasive imaging as a disruption of the plaque surface. We investigated the association between intraplaque hemorrhage and disruption of the plaque surface. We

  13. Uptake of raft components into amyloid β-peptide aggregates and membrane damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Kenji; Morigaki, Kenichi; Mori, Yasuko

    2015-07-15

    Amyloid aggregation and deposition of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) are pathologic characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent reports have shown that the association of Aβ with membranes containing ganglioside GM1 (GM1) plays a pivotal role in amyloid deposition and the pathogenesis of AD. However, the molecular interactions responsible for membrane damage associated with Aβ deposition are not fully understood. In this study, we microscopically observed amyloid aggregation of Aβ in the presence of lipid vesicles and on a substrate-supported planar membrane containing raft components and GM1. The experimental system enabled us to observe lipid-associated aggregation of Aβ, uptake of the raft components into Aβ aggregates, and relevant membrane damage. The results indicate that uptake of raft components from the membrane into Aβ deposits induces macroscopic heterogeneity of the membrane structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of four medicinal plants on Amyloid-β induced neurotoxicity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amyloid-beta peptide (Aâ) is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder. This study was designed to determine the effect of four medicinal plants used to treat neurodegenerative diseases on Aâ-induced cell death. Cytotoxicity of the ethanol extracts of the plants was ...

  15. C-Reactive Protein Binds to Cholesterol Crystals and Co-Localizes with the Terminal Complement Complex in Human Atherosclerotic Plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilely, Katrine; Fumagalli, Stefano; Rosbjerg, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is a part of the initial process leading to atherosclerosis and cholesterol crystals (CC), found in atherosclerotic plaques, which are known to induce complement activation. The pentraxins C-reactive protein (CRP), long pentraxin 3 (PTX3), and serum amyloid P component (SAP) are seru...

  16. Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer Disease: Role of Amyloid Precursor Protein and Presenilin 1 Intracellular Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Nizzari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer disease (AD is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder characterized by (1 progressive loss of synapses and neurons, (2 intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, composed of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein, and (3 amyloid plaques. Genetically, AD is linked to mutations in few proteins amyloid precursor protein (APP and presenilin 1 and 2 (PS1 and PS2. The molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in AD as well as the physiological function of APP are not yet known. A recent theory has proposed that APP and PS1 modulate intracellular signals to induce cell-cycle abnormalities responsible for neuronal death and possibly amyloid deposition. This hypothesis is supported by the presence of a complex network of proteins, clearly involved in the regulation of signal transduction mechanisms that interact with both APP and PS1. In this review we discuss the significance of novel finding related to cell-signaling events modulated by APP and PS1 in the development of neurodegeneration.

  17. Guselkumab for the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eric J; Sanchez, Isabelle M; Beck, Kristen; Sekhon, Sahil; Wu, Jashin J; Bhutani, Tina

    2018-04-01

    Guselkumab is a human monoclonal antibody targeting the p19 subunit of IL-23 that has been approved for the treatment of adult patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis who are candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. This medication blocks the IL-23/IL-17 axis, which has been implicated in playing a key role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Areas covered: This review outlines the pharmacologic properties, safety, and efficacy of guselkumab for the treatment of plaque psoriasis. Expert commentary: Guselkumab is the first IL-23 specific inhibitor to be approved for the treatment of plaque psoriasis. Phase II and III clinical trial results have demonstrated excellent safety and efficacy of guselkumab. IL-23 inhibitors may offer potential benefits over existing therapies for moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis in terms of safety, frequency of administration, and efficacy. Long-term safety data will be critical in evaluating the role of guselkumab in the treatment of psoriasis.

  18. Brain amyloid β protein and memory disruption in Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiming Xia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Weiming XiaCenter for Neurologic Diseases, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: The development of amyloid-containing neuritic plaques is an invariable characteristic of Alzheimer’s diseases (AD. The conversion from monomeric amyloid β protein (Aβ to oligomeric Aβ and finally neuritic plaques is highly dynamic. The specific Aß species that is correlated with disease severity remains to be discovered. Oligomeric Aβ has been detected in cultured cells, rodent and human brains, as well as human cerebrospinal fluid. Synthetic, cell, and brain derived Aβ oligomers have been found to inhibit hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP and this effect can be suppressed by the blockage of Aβ oligomer formation. A large body of evidence suggests that Aβ oligomers inhibit N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor dependent LTP; additional receptors have also been found to elicit downstream pathways upon binding to Aβ oligomers. Amyloid antibodies and small molecular compounds that reduce brain Aβ levels and block Aβ oligomer formation are capable of reversing synaptic dysfunction and these approaches hold a promising therapeutic potential to rescue memory disruption.Keywords: Alzheimer, amyloid, oligomer, long-term potentiation, NMDA

  19. Calcium signaling and amyloid toxicity in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuro, Angelo; Parker, Ian; Stutzmann, Grace E

    2010-04-23

    Intracellular Ca(2+) signaling is fundamental to neuronal physiology and viability. Because of its ubiquitous roles, disruptions in Ca(2+) homeostasis are implicated in diverse disease processes and have become a major focus of study in multifactorial neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD). A hallmark of AD is the excessive production of beta-amyloid (Abeta) and its massive accumulation in amyloid plaques. In this minireview, we highlight the pathogenic interactions between altered cellular Ca(2+) signaling and Abeta in its different aggregation states and how these elements coalesce to alter the course of the neurodegenerative disease. Ca(2+) and Abeta intersect at several functional levels and temporal stages of AD, thereby altering neurotransmitter receptor properties, disrupting membrane integrity, and initiating apoptotic signaling cascades. Notably, there are reciprocal interactions between Ca(2+) pathways and amyloid pathology; altered Ca(2+) signaling accelerates Abeta formation, whereas Abeta peptides, particularly in soluble oligomeric forms, induce Ca(2+) disruptions. A degenerative feed-forward cycle of toxic Abeta generation and Ca(2+) perturbations results, which in turn can spin off to accelerate more global neuropathological cascades, ultimately leading to synaptic breakdown, cell death, and devastating memory loss. Although no cause or cure is currently known, targeting Ca(2+) dyshomeostasis as an underlying and integral component of AD pathology may result in novel and effective treatments for AD.

  20. Denitrification in human dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verstraete Willy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial denitrification is not considered important in human-associated microbial communities. Accordingly, metabolic investigations of the microbial biofilm communities of human dental plaque have focused on aerobic respiration and acid fermentation of carbohydrates, even though it is known that the oral habitat is constantly exposed to nitrate (NO3- concentrations in the millimolar range and that dental plaque houses bacteria that can reduce this NO3- to nitrite (NO2-. Results We show that dental plaque mediates denitrification of NO3- to nitric oxide (NO, nitrous oxide (N2O, and dinitrogen (N2 using microsensor measurements, 15N isotopic labelling and molecular detection of denitrification genes. In vivo N2O accumulation rates in the mouth depended on the presence of dental plaque and on salivary NO3- concentrations. NO and N2O production by denitrification occurred under aerobic conditions and was regulated by plaque pH. Conclusions Increases of NO concentrations were in the range of effective concentrations for NO signalling to human host cells and, thus, may locally affect blood flow, signalling between nerves and inflammatory processes in the gum. This is specifically significant for the understanding of periodontal diseases, where NO has been shown to play a key role, but where gingival cells are believed to be the only source of NO. More generally, this study establishes denitrification by human-associated microbial communities as a significant metabolic pathway which, due to concurrent NO formation, provides a basis for symbiotic interactions.

  1. Involvement of receptor tyrosine kinase Tyro3 in amyloidogenic APP processing and β-amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zheng

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common progressive neurodegenerative disease known to humankind. It is characterized by brain atrophy, extracellular amyloid plaques, and intracellular neurofibril tangles. β-Amyloid cascade is considered the major causative player in AD. Up until now, the mechanisms underlying the process of Aβ generation and accumulation in the brain have not been well understood. Tyro3 receptor belongs to the TAM receptor subfamily of receptor protein tyrosine kinases (RPTKs. It is specifically expressed in the neurons of the neocortex and hippocampus. In this study, we established a cell model stably expressing APPswe mutants and producing Aβ. We found that overexpression of Tyro3 receptor in the cell model significantly decreased Aβ generation and also down-regulated the expression of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme (BACE1. However, the effects of Tyro3 were inhibited by its natural ligand, Gas6, in a concentration-dependent manner. In order to confirm the role of Tyro3 in the progression of AD development, we generated an AD transgenic mouse model accompanied by Tyro3 knockdown. We observed a significant increase in the number of amyloid plaques in the hippocampus in the mouse model. More plaque-associated clusters of astroglia were also detected. The present study may help researchers determine the role of Tyro3 receptor in the neuropathology of AD.

  2. Amyloid-β production via cleavage of amyloid-β protein precursor is modulated by cell density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Browne, Andrew; Divito, Jason R; Stevenson, Jesse A; Romano, Donna; Dong, Yuanlin; Xie, Zhongcong; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2010-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is caused by the accumulation of the small peptide, amyloid-β (Aβ), a proteolytic cleavage product of amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP). Aβ is generated through a serial cleavage of AβPP by β- and γ-secretase. Aβ40 and Aβ42 are the two main components of amyloid plaques in AD brains, with Aβ42 being more prone to aggregation. AβPP can also be processed by α-secretase, which cleaves AβPP within the Aβ sequence, thereby preventing the generation of Aβ. Little is currently known regarding the effects of cell density on AβPP processing and Aβ generation. Here we assessed the effects of cell density on AβPP processing in neuronal and non-neuronal cell lines, as well as mouse primary cortical neurons. We found that decreased cell density significantly increases levels of Aβ40, Aβ42, total Aβ, and the ratio of Aβ42: Aβ40. These results also indicate that cell density is a significant modulator of AβPP processing. Overall, these findings carry profound implications for both previous and forthcoming studies aiming to assess the effects of various conditions and genetic/chemical factors, e.g., novel drugs on AβPP processing and Aβ generation in cell-based systems. Moreover, it is interesting to speculate whether cell density changes in vivo may also affect AβPP processing and Aβ levels in the AD brain.

  3. Plaque control and oral hygiene methods

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harrison, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The experimental gingivitis study of Löe et al.1 demonstrated a cause and effect relationship between plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation, and helped to establish plaque\\/biofilm as the primary risk factor for gingivitis. When healthy individuals withdrew oral hygiene efforts, gingival inflammation ensued within 21 days in all subjects. Once effective plaque removal was recommenced, clinical gingival health was quickly re-established – indicating that plaque-associated inflammation is modifiable by plaque control. As current consensus confirms that gingivitis and periodontitis may be viewed as a continuum of disease,2 the rationale for achieving effective plaque control is clear.

  4. Serum Amyloid A as a Marker of Persistent Inflammation and an Indicator of Cardiovascular and Renal Involvement in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Targońska-Stępniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a systemic, inflammatory disease. Serum amyloid A (SAA is an acute-phase protein, involved in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to assess serum concentration of SAA in RA patients, with reference to other inflammatory parameters and markers of extra-articular involvement. Methods. The study population consisted of 140 RA patients, low/moderate disease activity (L/MDA in 98 (70% patients and high disease activity (HDA in 42 (30%. Comprehensive clinical and laboratory assessment was performed with evaluation of electrocardiogram and carotid intima-media thickness. Results. The mean SAA concentration [327.0 (263.4 mg/L] was increased highly above the normal value, even in patients with L/MDA. Simultaneously, SAA was significantly higher in patients with HDA versus L/MDA. The mean SAA concentration was significantly higher in patients treated with glucocorticoids, was inversely associated with QTc duration, and was markedly higher in patients with atherosclerotic plaques, emphasizing increased CV risk. SAA was significantly higher in patients with increased cystatin-C level. Conclusions. In RA patients, high serum SAA concentration was strongly associated with activity of the disease and risk of CV and renal involvement. Recurrent assessment of SAA may facilitate searching patients with persistent inflammation and risk of extra-articular complications.

  5. The effect of amyloid pathology and glucose metabolism on cortical volume loss over time in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriaanse, Sofie M. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Alzheimer Center, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Dijk, Koene R.A. [Harvard University, Department of Psychology, Center for Brain Science, Cambridge, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA (United States); Ossenkoppele, Rik; Tolboom, Nelleke; Zwan, Marissa D.; Barkhof, Frederik; Berckel, Bart N.M. van [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Alzheimer Center, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reuter, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Yaqub, Maqsood; Boellaard, Ronald; Windhorst, Albert D.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Flier, Wiesje M. van der; Scheltens, Philip [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Alzheimer Center, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-06-15

    The present multimodal neuroimaging study examined whether amyloid pathology and glucose metabolism are related to cortical volume loss over time in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and healthy elderly controls. Structural MRI scans of eleven AD patients and ten controls were available at baseline and follow-up (mean interval 2.5 years). Change in brain structure over time was defined as percent change of cortical volume within seven a-priori defined regions that typically show the strongest structural loss in AD. In addition, two PET scans were performed at baseline: [{sup 11}C]PIB to assess amyloidplaque load and [{sup 18}F]FDG to assess glucose metabolism. [{sup 11}C]PIB binding and [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake were measured in the precuneus, a region in which both amyloid deposition and glucose hypometabolism occur early in the course of AD. While amyloidplaque load at baseline was not related to cortical volume loss over time in either group, glucose metabolism within the group of AD patients was significantly related to volume loss over time (rho = 0.56, p < 0.05). The present study shows that in a group of AD patients amyloidplaque load as measured by [{sup 11}C]PIB behaves as a trait marker (i.e., all AD patients showed elevated levels of amyloid, not related to subsequent disease course), whilst hypometabolism as measured by [{sup 18}F]FDG changed over time indicating that it could serve as a state marker that is predictive of neurodegeneration. (orig.)

  6. Key Aging-Associated Alterations in Primary Microglia Response to Beta-Amyloid Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Caldeira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and believed to be driven by the self-aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ peptide into oligomers and fibrils that accumulate as senile plaques. It is widely accepted that microglia-mediated inflammation is a significant contributor to disease pathogenesis; however, different microglia phenotypes were identified along AD progression and excessive Aβ production was shown to dysregulate cell function. As so, the contribution of microglia to AD pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we wondered if isolated microglia cultured for 16 days in vitro (DIV would react differentially from the 2 DIV cells upon treatment with 1000 nM Aβ1–42 for 24 h. No changes in cell viability were observed and morphometric alterations associated to microglia activation, such as volume increase and process shortening, were obvious in 2 DIV microglia, but less evident in 16 DIV cells. These cells showed lower phagocytic, migration and autophagic properties after Aβ treatment than the 2 DIV cultured microglia. Reduced phagocytosis may derive from increased CD33 expression, reduced triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2 and milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 protein (MFG-E8 levels, which were mainly observed in 16 DIV cells. Activation of inflammatory mediators, such as high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as increased expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2, TLR4 and fractalkine/CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1 cell surface receptors were prominent in 2 DIV microglia, while elevation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9 was marked in 16 DIV cells. Increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal and upregulated miR-146a expression that were observed in 16 DIV cells showed to increase by Aβ in 2 DIV microglia. Additionally, Aβ downregulated miR-155 and miR-124, and reduced the CD11b+ subpopulation in 2 DIV microglia, while

  7. Protein Polymers and Amyloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Michael Wulff

    2014-01-01

    Several human disorders are caused by a common general disease mechanism arising from abnormal folding and aggregation of the underlying protein. These include the prevalent dementias like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, where accumulation of protein fibrillar structures, known as amyloid fibrils......, is a general hallmark. They also include the α1-antitrypsin deficiency, where disease-causing mutations in the serine protease inhibitor, α1-antitrypsin (α1AT), leads to accumulation of the aberrant protein in the liver of these patients. The native metastable structure of α1AT constitutes a molecular trap...... that inhibits its target protease through a large conformational change but mutations compromise this function and cause premature structural collapse into hyperstable polymers. Understanding the conformational disorders at a molecular level is not only important for our general knowledge on protein folding...

  8. Two distinct β-sheet structures in Italian-mutant amyloid-beta fibrils : a potential link to different clinical phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubin, Ellen; Deroo, Stéphanie; Schierle, Gabriele Kaminksi; Kaminski, Clemens; Serpell, Louise; Subramaniam, Vinod; van Nuland, Nico; Broersen, Kerensa; Raussens, Vincent; Sarroukh, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Most Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases are late-onset and characterized by the aggregation and deposition of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide in extracellular plaques in the brain. However, a few rare and hereditary Aβ mutations, such as the Italian Glu22-to-Lys (E22K) mutation, guarantee the development

  9. Mechanical Stresses in Carotid Plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Samuel Alberg

    simulationer, som tillod beregning af longitudinelle stress-niveauer i den fibrøse kappe. Afhandlingen indeholder tre artikler, som beskriver denne metode. Den første; “Mechanical Stresses in Carotid Plaques using MRI-Based Fluid Structure Interaction Models”, beskriver i detaljer metoden til at danne de...

  10. Contemporary perspective on plaque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, P D

    2012-06-22

    The aim of this review article is to provide a scientific platform that will enable the dental team to develop a rational approach to plaque control based on the latest knowledge of the role of the oral microflora in health and disease. The resident oral microflora is natural and forms spatially-organised, interactive, multi-species biofilms on mucosal and dental surfaces in the mouth. These resident oral microbial communities play a key function in the normal development of the physiology of the host and are important in preventing colonisation by exogenous and often undesirable microbes. A dynamic balance exists between the resident microflora and the host in health, and disease results from a breakdown of this delicate relationship. Patients should be taught effective plaque control techniques that maintain dental biofilms at levels compatible with oral health so as to retain the beneficial properties of the resident microflora while reducing the risk of dental disease from excessive plaque accumulation. Antimicrobial and antiplaque agents in oral care products can augment mechanical plaque control by several direct and indirect mechanisms that not only involve reducing or removing dental biofilms but also include inhibiting bacterial metabolism when the agents are still present at sub-lethal concentrations.

  11. Diverging longitudinal changes in astrocytosis and amyloid PET in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Carter, Stephen F; Almkvist, Ove; Farid, Karim; Schöll, Michael; Chiotis, Konstantinos; Thordardottir, Steinunn; Graff, Caroline; Wall, Anders; Långström, Bengt; Nordberg, Agneta

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a multifactorial dementia disorder characterized by early amyloid-β, tau deposition, glial activation and neurodegeneration, where the interrelationships between the different pathophysiological events are not yet well characterized. In this study, longitudinal multitracer positron emission tomography imaging of individuals with autosomal dominant or sporadic Alzheimer's disease was used to quantify the changes in regional distribution of brain astrocytosis (tracer (11)C-deuterium-L-deprenyl), fibrillar amyloidplaque deposition ((11)C-Pittsburgh compound B), and glucose metabolism ((18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose) from early presymptomatic stages over an extended period to clinical symptoms. The 52 baseline participants comprised autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease mutation carriers (n = 11; 49.6 ± 10.3 years old) and non-carriers (n = 16; 51.1 ± 14.2 years old; 10 male), and patients with sporadic mild cognitive impairment (n = 17; 61.9 ± 6.4 years old; nine male) and sporadic Alzheimer's disease (n = 8; 63.0 ± 6.5 years old; five male); for confidentiality reasons, the gender of mutation carriers is not revealed. The autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease participants belonged to families with known mutations in either presenilin 1 (PSEN1) or amyloid precursor protein (APPswe or APParc) genes. Sporadic mild cognitive impairment patients were further divided into (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B-positive (n = 13; 62.0 ± 6.4; seven male) and (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B-negative (n = 4; 61.8 ± 7.5 years old; two male) groups using a neocortical standardized uptake value ratio cut-off value of 1.41, which was calculated with respect to the cerebellar grey matter. All baseline participants underwent multitracer positron emission tomography scans, cerebrospinal fluid biomarker analysis and neuropsychological assessment. Twenty-six of the participants underwent clinical and imaging follow-up examinations after 2.8 ± 0.6 years. By using linear

  12. Mechanistic insights into mode of action of potent natural antagonists of BACE-1 for checking Alzheimer’s plaque pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhanjal, Jaspreet Kaur [School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Goyal, Sukriti [Apaji Institute of Mathematics and Applied Computer Technology, Banasthali University, Tonk 304022, Rajasthan (India); Sharma, Sudhanshu [Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, New Delhi 110042 (India); Hamid, Rabia [Department of Biochemistry, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190006 (India); Grover, Abhinav, E-mail: abhinavgr@gmail.com [School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Accumulation of Aβ plaques is one of the major pathology associated with Alzheimer’s disease. •Inhibition of β-Secretase or BACE-1 offers a viable prospect to check the growth of these plaques. •A large virtual dataset of natural compounds was screened against BACE-1. •Top two hits were analyzed for thermodynamic and structural stability using MD simulations. •Their detailed binding mode of actions were elucidated. -- Abstract: Alzheimer’s is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting in memory loss and decline in cognitive abilities. Accumulation of extracellular beta amyloidal plaques is one of the major pathology associated with this disease. β-Secretase or BACE-1 performs the initial and rate limiting step of amyloidic pathway in which 37–43 amino acid long peptides are generated which aggregate to form plaques. Inhibition of this enzyme offers a viable prospect to check the growth of these plaques. Numerous efforts have been made in recent years for the generation of BACE-1 inhibitors but many of them failed during the preclinical or clinical trials due to drug related or drug induced toxicity. In the present work, we have used computational methods to screen a large dataset of natural compounds to search for small molecules having BACE-1 inhibitory activity with low toxicity to normal cells. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to analyze molecular interactions between the screened compounds and the active residues of the enzyme. Herein, we report two natural compounds of inhibitory nature active against β-secretase enzyme of amyloidic pathway and are potent lead molecules against Alzheimer’s disease.

  13. Mechanistic insights into mode of action of potent natural antagonists of BACE-1 for checking Alzheimer’s plaque pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhanjal, Jaspreet Kaur; Goyal, Sukriti; Sharma, Sudhanshu; Hamid, Rabia; Grover, Abhinav

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Accumulation of Aβ plaques is one of the major pathology associated with Alzheimer’s disease. •Inhibition of β-Secretase or BACE-1 offers a viable prospect to check the growth of these plaques. •A large virtual dataset of natural compounds was screened against BACE-1. •Top two hits were analyzed for thermodynamic and structural stability using MD simulations. •Their detailed binding mode of actions were elucidated. -- Abstract: Alzheimer’s is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting in memory loss and decline in cognitive abilities. Accumulation of extracellular beta amyloidal plaques is one of the major pathology associated with this disease. β-Secretase or BACE-1 performs the initial and rate limiting step of amyloidic pathway in which 37–43 amino acid long peptides are generated which aggregate to form plaques. Inhibition of this enzyme offers a viable prospect to check the growth of these plaques. Numerous efforts have been made in recent years for the generation of BACE-1 inhibitors but many of them failed during the preclinical or clinical trials due to drug related or drug induced toxicity. In the present work, we have used computational methods to screen a large dataset of natural compounds to search for small molecules having BACE-1 inhibitory activity with low toxicity to normal cells. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to analyze molecular interactions between the screened compounds and the active residues of the enzyme. Herein, we report two natural compounds of inhibitory nature active against β-secretase enzyme of amyloidic pathway and are potent lead molecules against Alzheimer’s disease

  14. Animal models to study plaque vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapira, K.; Heeneman, S.; Daemen, M. J. A. P.

    2007-01-01

    The need to identify and characterize vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions in humans has lead to the development of various animal models of plaque vulnerability. In this review, current concepts of the vulnerable plaque as it leads to an acute coronary event are described, such as plaque rupture,

  15. Current diagnostic modalities for vulnerable plaque detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schaar (Johannes); F. Mastik (Frits); E.S. Regar (Eveline); C.A. den Uil (Corstiaan); F.J.H. Gijsen (Frank); J.J. Wentzel (Jolanda); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); A.F.W. van der Steen (Ton)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractRupture of vulnerable plaques is the main cause of acute coronary syndrome and myocardial infarction. Identification of vulnerable plaques is therefore essential to enable the development of treatment modalities to stabilize such plaques. Several diagnostic methods are currently tested

  16. Tritium-labeled (E,E)-2,5-Bis(4’-hydroxy-3’-carboxystyryl)benzene as a Probe for β-Amyloid Fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, Sergey V.; Kwiatkowski, Stefan; Sviripa, Vitaliy M.; Fazio, Robert C.; Watt, David S.; LeVine, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of Aβ in the brains of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients reflects an imbalance between Aβ production and clearance from their brains. Alternative cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by processing proteases generates soluble APP fragments including the neurotoxic amyloid Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptides that assemble into fibrils and form plaques. Plaque-buildup occurs over an extended time-frame, and the early detection and modulation of plaque formation are areas of active research. Radiolabeled probes for the detection of amyloid plaques and fibrils in living subjects are important for noninvasive evaluation of AD diagnosis, progression, and differentiation of AD from other neurodegenerative diseases and age-related cognitive decline. Tritium-labeled (E,E)-1-[3H]-2,5-bis(4’-hydroxy-3’-carbomethoxystyryl)benzene possesses an improved level of chemical stability relative to a previously reported radioiodinated analog for radiometric quantification of Aβ plaque and tau pathology in brain tissue and in vitro studies with synthetic Aβ and tau fibrils. PMID:25452000

  17. Tritium-labeled (E,E)-2,5-bis(4'-hydroxy-3'-carboxystyryl)benzene as a probe for β-amyloid fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, Sergey V; Kwiatkowski, Stefan; Sviripa, Vitaliy M; Fazio, Robert C; Watt, David S; LeVine, Harry

    2014-12-01

    Accumulation of Aβ in the brains of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients reflects an imbalance between Aβ production and clearance from their brains. Alternative cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by processing proteases generates soluble APP fragments including the neurotoxic amyloid Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptides that assemble into fibrils and form plaques. Plaque-buildup occurs over an extended time-frame, and the early detection and modulation of plaque formation are areas of active research. Radiolabeled probes for the detection of amyloid plaques and fibrils in living subjects are important for noninvasive evaluation of AD diagnosis, progression, and differentiation of AD from other neurodegenerative diseases and age-related cognitive decline. Tritium-labeled (E,E)-1-[(3)H]-2,5-bis(4'-hydroxy-3'-carbomethoxystyryl)benzene possesses an improved level of chemical stability relative to a previously reported radioiodinated analog for radiometric quantification of Aβ plaque and tau pathology in brain tissue and in vitro studies with synthetic Aβ and tau fibrils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Amyloid oligomers and protofibrils, but not filaments, self-replicate from native lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulaj, Mentor; Foley, Joseph; Muschol, Martin

    2014-06-25

    Self-assembly of amyloid fibrils is the molecular mechanism best known for its connection with debilitating human disorders such as Alzheimer's disease but is also associated with various functional cellular responses. There is increasing evidence that amyloid formation proceeds along two distinct assembly pathways involving either globular oligomers and protofibrils or rigid monomeric filaments. Oligomers, in particular, have been implicated as the dominant molecular species responsible for pathogenesis. Yet the molecular mechanisms regulating their self-assembly have remained elusive. Here we show that oligomers/protofibrils and monomeric filaments, formed along distinct assembly pathways, display critical differences in their ability to template amyloid growth at physiological vs denaturing temperatures. At physiological temperatures, amyloid filaments remained stable but could not seed growth of native monomers. In contrast, oligomers and protofibrils not only remained intact but were capable of self-replication using native monomers as the substrate. Kinetic data further suggested that this prion-like growth mode of oligomers/protofibrils involved two distinct activities operating orthogonal from each other: autocatalytic self-replication of oligomers from native monomers and nucleated polymerization of oligomers into protofibrils. The environmental changes to stability and templating competence of these different amyloid species in different environments are likely to be important for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying both pathogenic and functional amyloid self-assembly.

  19. Towards a Pharmacophore for Amyloid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landau, Meytal; Sawaya, Michael R.; Faull, Kym F.; Laganowsky, Arthur; Jiang, Lin; Sievers, Stuart A.; Liu, Jie; Barrio, Jorge R.; Eisenberg, David (UCLA)

    2011-09-16

    Diagnosing and treating Alzheimer's and other diseases associated with amyloid fibers remains a great challenge despite intensive research. To aid in this effort, we present atomic structures of fiber-forming segments of proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease in complex with small molecule binders, determined by X-ray microcrystallography. The fiber-like complexes consist of pairs of {beta}-sheets, with small molecules binding between the sheets, roughly parallel to the fiber axis. The structures suggest that apolar molecules drift along the fiber, consistent with the observation of nonspecific binding to a variety of amyloid proteins. In contrast, negatively charged orange-G binds specifically to lysine side chains of adjacent sheets. These structures provide molecular frameworks for the design of diagnostics and drugs for protein aggregation diseases. The devastating and incurable dementia known as Alzheimer's disease affects the thinking, memory, and behavior of dozens of millions of people worldwide. Although amyloid fibers and oligomers of two proteins, tau and amyloid-{beta}, have been identified in association with this disease, the development of diagnostics and therapeutics has proceeded to date in a near vacuum of information about their structures. Here we report the first atomic structures of small molecules bound to amyloid. These are of the dye orange-G, the natural compound curcumin, and the Alzheimer's diagnostic compound DDNP bound to amyloid-like segments of tau and amyloid-{beta}. The structures reveal the molecular framework of small-molecule binding, within cylindrical cavities running along the {beta}-spines of the fibers. Negatively charged orange-G wedges into a specific binding site between two sheets of the fiber, combining apolar binding with electrostatic interactions, whereas uncharged compounds slide along the cavity. We observed that different amyloid polymorphs bind different small molecules, revealing that a

  20. Progranulin gene delivery reduces plaque burden and synaptic atrophy in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackalina M Van Kampen

    Full Text Available Progranulin (PGRN is a multifunctional protein that is widely expressed throughout the brain, where it has been shown to act as a critical regulator of CNS inflammation and also functions as an autocrine neuronal growth factor, important for long-term neuronal survival. PGRN has been shown to activate cell signaling pathways regulating excitoxicity, oxidative stress, and synaptogenesis, as well as amyloidogenesis. Together, these critical roles in the CNS suggest that PGRN has the potential to be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD. AD is the leading cause of dementia and is marked by the appearance of extracellular plaques consisting of aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ, as well as neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, neuronal loss and synaptic atrophy. The ability of PGRN to target multiple key features of AD pathophysiology suggests that enhancing its expression may benefit this disease. Here, we describe the application of PGRN gene transfer using in vivo delivery of lentiviral expression vectors in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Viral vector delivery of the PGRN gene effectively enhanced PGRN expression in the hippocampus of Tg2576 mice. This elevated PGRN expression significantly reduced amyloid plaque burden in these mice, accompanied by reductions in markers of inflammation and synaptic atrophy. The overexpression of PGRN was also found to increase activity of neprilysin, a key amyloid beta degrading enzyme. PGRN regulation of neprilysin activity could play a major role in the observed alterations in plaque burden. Thus, PGRN may be an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of AD.

  1. Pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Riederer, Peter; Lange, Klaus W.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of genetic aspects, ageing, environmental factors, head trauma, defective mitochondrial respiration, altered iron metabolism, oxidative stress and glutamatergic overactivity of the basal ganglia in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) are considered in this review.

  2. Viral pathogenesis in diagrams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay, Michel; Berthiaume, Laurent; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    .... The 268 diagrams in Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams were selected from over 800 diagrams of English and French virological literature, including one derived from a famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci...

  3. Proteomic screening for amyloid proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton A Nizhnikov

    Full Text Available Despite extensive study, progress in elucidation of biological functions of amyloids and their role in pathology is largely restrained due to the lack of universal and reliable biochemical methods for their discovery. All biochemical methods developed so far allowed only identification of glutamine/asparagine-rich amyloid-forming proteins or proteins comprising amyloids that form large deposits. In this article we present a proteomic approach which may enable identification of a broad range of amyloid-forming proteins independently of specific features of their sequences or levels of expression. This approach is based on the isolation of protein fractions enriched with amyloid aggregates via sedimentation by ultracentrifugation in the presence of strong ionic detergents, such as sarkosyl or SDS. Sedimented proteins are then separated either by 2D difference gel electrophoresis or by SDS-PAGE, if they are insoluble in the buffer used for 2D difference gel electrophoresis, after which they are identified by mass-spectrometry. We validated this approach by detection of known yeast prions and mammalian proteins with established capacity for amyloid formation and also revealed yeast proteins forming detergent-insoluble aggregates in the presence of human huntingtin with expanded polyglutamine domain. Notably, with one exception, all these proteins contained glutamine/asparagine-rich stretches suggesting that their aggregates arose due to polymerization cross-seeding by human huntingtin. Importantly, though the approach was developed in a yeast model, it can easily be applied to any organism thus representing an efficient and universal tool for screening for amyloid proteins.

  4. Porcine prion protein amyloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions.

  5. Bacterial sex in dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Ingar; Tribble, Gena D; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Wang, Bing-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Genes are transferred between bacteria in dental plaque by transduction, conjugation, and transformation. Membrane vesicles can also provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer. DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms. Several examples of bacterial gene transfer in the oral cavity are given in this review. How frequently this occurs in dental plaque is not clear, but evidence suggests that it affects a number of the major genera present. It has been estimated that new sequences in genomes established through horizontal gene transfer can constitute up to 30% of bacterial genomes. Gene transfer can be both inter- and intrageneric, and it can also affect transient organisms. The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element. This can make dental plaque a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity.

  6. Bacterial sex in dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingar Olsen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Genes are transferred between bacteria in dental plaque by transduction, conjugation, and transformation. Membrane vesicles can also provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer. DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms. Several examples of bacterial gene transfer in the oral cavity are given in this review. How frequently this occurs in dental plaque is not clear, but evidence suggests that it affects a number of the major genera present. It has been estimated that new sequences in genomes established through horizontal gene transfer can constitute up to 30% of bacterial genomes. Gene transfer can be both inter- and intrageneric, and it can also affect transient organisms. The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element. This can make dental plaque a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity.

  7. Innate immunity in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Cheryl M

    2011-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common, immune-mediated inflammatory skin disorder. T helper(h)1 and Th17 lymphocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis through the release of inflammatory cytokines that promote further recruitment of immune cells, keratinocyte proliferation and sustained inflammation. The innate immune system is the first line of defence against infection and plays a crucial role in the initiation of the adaptive immune response. The presence of innate immune cells and their products in psoriatic skin plaques suggests a role for innate immunity in this disease. In addition, the innate immune system can direct the development of pathogenic Th cells in psoriasis. In this article, we will summarise the role of the innate immune system in psoriasis with particular emphasis on the role of cytokines, signalling pathways and cells of the innate immune system.

  8. Effect of four medicinal plants on amyloid-beta induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adewusi, EA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid-beta peptide (Aß) is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder. This study was designed to determine the effect of four medicinal plants used to treat neurodegenerative diseases on Aß...

  9. Denture plaque--past and recent concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikawa, H; Hamada, T; Yamamoto, T

    1998-05-01

    This paper critically reviews the history of denture plaque and identifies some concerns with the presence of Candida in the mouth. This review covers literature sources related to Candida albicans and its relationship to denture plaque. The articles selected for this review are from referred journals and describe C. albicans and its relationship to oral, gastrointestinal and pleuropulmonary infections. The relationship to caries, root caries and periodontal disease is also covered. Denture plaque containing Candida could cause not only oral candidiasis, like oral thrush or denture-induced stomatitis, but also caries, root caries and periodontitis of abutment teeth. However, there is only limited experimental evidence or information available on the cariogenicity of Candida. The continuous swallowing or aspiration of micro-organisms from denture plaque exposes patients, particularly the immunocompromised host or medicated elderly, to the risks of unexpected infections. The term, 'denture plaque' has been used throughout the review. However, the term 'plaque on denture' should be used because the microbial flora and its pathogenicity of denture plaque resembles those of plaque formed on the tooth surface, so called dental plaque. In addition, the term 'denture related stomatitis' would be preferable to 'denture induced stomatitis', since the inflammation of (palatal) mucosa is not induced by the denture, but by wearing the denture or by plaque on the denture.

  10. Noninvasive characterization of carotid plaque strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amir A; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Hatsukami, Thomas; Cebral, Juan; Jones, Michael; Huston, John; Howard, George; Lal, Brajesh K

    2017-06-01

    Current risk stratification of internal carotid artery plaques based on diameter-reducing percentage stenosis may be unreliable because ischemic stroke results from plaque disruption with atheroembolization. Biomechanical forces acting on the plaque may render it vulnerable to rupture. The feasibility of ultrasound-based quantification of plaque displacement and strain induced by hemodynamic forces and their relationship to high-risk plaques have not been determined. We studied the feasibility and reliability of carotid plaque strain measurement from clinical B-mode ultrasound images and the relationship of strain to high-risk plaque morphology. We analyzed carotid ultrasound B-mode cine loops obtained in patients with asymptomatic ≥50% stenosis during routine clinical scanning. Optical flow methods were used to quantify plaque motion and shear strain during the cardiac cycle. The magnitude (maximum absolute shear strain rate [MASSR]) and variability (entropy of shear strain rate [ESSR] and variance of shear strain rate [VSSR]) of strain were combined into a composite shear strain index (SSI), which was assessed for interscan repeatability and correlated with plaque echolucency. Nineteen patients (mean age, 70 years) constituting 36 plaques underwent imaging; 37% of patients (n = 7) showed high strain (SSI ≥0.5; MASSR, 2.2; ESSR, 39.7; VSSR, 0.03) in their plaques; the remaining clustered into a low-strain group (SSI routine B-mode imaging using clinical ultrasound machines. High plaque strain correlates with known high-risk echolucent morphology. Strain measurement can complement identification of patients at high risk for plaque disruption and stroke. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. APP processing and the APP-KPI domain involvement in the amyloid cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-González, M; Pérez-Pinera, P; Martínez-Rivera, M; Calatayud, M T; Blázquez Menes, B

    2005-01-01

    Alternative APP mRNA splicing can generate isoforms of APP containing a Kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) domain. KPI is one of the main serine protease inhibitors. Protein and mRNA KPI(+)APP levels are elevated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain and are associated with increased amyloid beta deposition. In the last years increasing evidence on multiple points in the amyloid cascade where KPI(+)APP is involved has been accumulated, admitting an outstanding position in the pathogenesis of AD to the KPI domain. This review focuses on the APP processing, the molecular activity of KPI and its physiological and pathological roles and the KPI involvement in the amyloid cascade through the nerve growth factor, the lipoprotein receptor-related protein, the tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme and the Notch1 protein.

  12. Neuroprotective effects of statins against amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hua Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that disruption of the homeostasis of lipid metabolism affects the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. In particular, dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis in the brain has been reported to considerably increase the risk of developing AD. Thus, dysregulation of lipid homeostasis may increase the amyloid β (Aβ levels by affecting amyloid precursor protein (APP cleavage, which is the most important risk factor involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Previous research demonstrated that Aβ can trigger neuronal insulin resistance, which plays an important role in response to Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in AD. Epidemiological studies also suggested that statin use is associated with a decreased incidence of AD. Therefore, statins are believed to be a good candidate for conferring neuroprotective effects against AD. Statins may play a beneficial role in reducing Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Their effect involves a putative mechanism beyond its cholesterol-lowering effects in preventing Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the protective effect of statins have not been clearly determined in Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Given that statins may provide benefits beyond the inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase, these drugs may also improve the brain. Thus, statins may have beneficial effects on impaired insulin signaling by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in neuronal cells. They play a potential therapeutic role in targeting Aβ-mediated neurotoxicity.

  13. Exopolysaccharide Productivity and Biofilm Phenotype on Oral Commensal Bacteria as Pathogenesis of Chronic Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    2 Exopolysaccharide Productivity and Biofilm Phenotype on Oral Commensal Bacteria as Pathogenesis of Chronic Periodontitis Takeshi Yamanaka1...species biofilm in the oral cavity can cause persistent chronic periodontitis along with the importance of dental plaque formation and maturation...independent manner could be pathogenic for periodontal tissues and can cause chronic periodontitis lesions. 2.1 Initial colonizers on the tooth surface

  14. Aspects of structural landscape of human islet amyloid polypeptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jianfeng, E-mail: hjf@bit.edu.cn; Dai, Jin, E-mail: daijing491@gmail.com [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: jinglichina@139.com [Institute of Biopharmaceutical Research, Yangtze River Pharmaceutical Group Beijing Haiyan Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Beijing 102206 (China); Peng, Xubiao, E-mail: xubiaopeng@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200 Tours (France)

    2015-01-28

    The human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) co-operates with insulin to maintain glycemic balance. It also constitutes the amyloid plaques that aggregate in the pancreas of type-II diabetic patients. We have performed extensive in silico investigations to analyse the structural landscape of monomeric hIAPP, which is presumed to be intrinsically disordered. For this, we construct from first principles a highly predictive energy function that describes a monomeric hIAPP observed in a nuclear magnetic resonance experiment, as a local energy minimum. We subject our theoretical model of hIAPP to repeated heating and cooling simulations, back and forth between a high temperature regime where the conformation resembles a random walker and a low temperature limit where no thermal motions prevail. We find that the final low temperature conformations display a high level of degeneracy, in a manner which is fully in line with the presumed intrinsically disordered character of hIAPP. In particular, we identify an isolated family of α-helical conformations that might cause the transition to amyloidosis, by nucleation.

  15. Amyloid-linked cellular toxicity triggered by bacterial inclusion bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Montalban, Nuria; Villaverde, Antonio; Aris, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The aggregation of proteins in the form of amyloid fibrils and plaques is the characteristic feature of some pathological conditions ranging from neurodegenerative disorders to systemic amyloidoses. The mechanisms by which the aggregation processes result in cell damage are under intense investigation but recent data indicate that prefibrillar aggregates are the most proximate mediators of toxicity rather than mature fibrils. Since it has been shown that prefibrillar forms of the nondisease-related misfolded proteins are highly toxic to cultured mammalian cells we have studied the cytoxicity associated to bacterial inclusion bodies that have been recently described as protein deposits presenting amyloid-like structures. We have proved that bacterial inclusion bodies composed by a misfolding-prone β-galactosidase fusion protein are clearly toxic for mammalian cells but the β-galactosidase wild type enzyme forming more structured thermal aggregates does not impair cell viability, despite it also binds and enter into the cells. These results are in the line that the most cytotoxic aggregates are early prefibrilar assemblies but discard the hypothesis that the membrane destabilization is Key event to subsequent disruption of cellular processes, such as ion balance, oxidative state and the eventually cell death

  16. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  17. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  18. MR plaque imaging of the carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yuji; Nagayama, Masako

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerotic carotid plaque represents a major cause of cerebral ischemia. The detection of vulnerable plaque is important for preventing future cardiovascular events. The key factors in advanced plaque that are most likely to lead to patient complications are the condition of the fibrous cap, the size of the necrotic core and hemorrhage, and the extent of inflammatory activity within the plaque. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has excellent soft tissue contrast and can allow for a more accurate and objective estimation of carotid wall morphology and plaque composition. Recent advances in MR imaging techniques have permitted serial monitoring of atherosclerotic disease evolution and the identification of intraplaque risk factors for accelerated progression. The purpose of this review article is to review the current state of techniques of carotid wall MR imaging and the characterization of plaque components and surface morphology with MR imaging, and to describe the clinical practice of carotid wall MR imaging for the determination of treatment plan. (orig.)

  19. Toxic β-Amyloid (Aβ) Alzheimer's Ion Channels: From Structure to Function and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinov, Ruth

    2012-02-01

    Full-length amyloid beta peptides (Aβ1-40/42) form neuritic amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and are implicated in AD pathology. Recent biophysical and cell biological studies suggest a direct mechanism of amyloid beta toxicity -- ion channel mediated loss of calcium homeostasis. Truncated amyloid beta fragments (Aβ11-42 and Aβ17-42), commonly termed as non-amyloidogenic are also found in amyloid plaques of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in the preamyloid lesions of Down's syndrome (DS), a model system for early onset AD study. Very little is known about the structure and activity of these smaller peptides although they could be key AD and DS pathological agents. Using complementary techniques of explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, atomic force microscopy (AFM), channel conductance measurements, cell calcium uptake assays, neurite degeneration and cell death assays, we have shown that non-amyloidogenic Aβ9-42 and Aβ17-42 peptides form ion channels with loosely attached subunits and elicit single channel conductances. The subunits appear mobile suggesting insertion of small oligomers, followed by dynamic channel assembly and dissociation. These channels allow calcium uptake in APP-deficient cells and cause neurite degeneration in human cortical neurons. Channel conductance, calcium uptake and neurite degeneration are selectively inhibited by zinc, a blocker of amyloid ion channel activity. Thus truncated Aβ fragments could account for undefined roles played by full length Aβs and provide a novel mechanism of AD and DS pathology. The emerging picture from our large-scale simulations is that toxic ion channels formed by β-sheets are highly polymorphic, and spontaneously break into loosely interacting dynamic units (though still maintaining ion channel structures as imaged with AFM), that associate and dissociate leading to toxic ion flux. This sharply contrasts intact conventional gated ion channels that consist of tightly

  20. Functional Amyloid Formation within Mammalian Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid is a generally insoluble, fibrous cross-beta sheet protein aggregate. The process of amyloidogenesis is associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer, Parkinson, and Huntington disease. We report the discovery of an unprecedented functional mammalian amyloid structure generated by the protein Pmel17. This discovery demonstrates that amyloid is a fundamental nonpathological protein fold utilized by organisms from bacteria to humans. We have found that Pmel17 amyloid templates and accelerates the covalent polymerization of reactive small molecules into melanin-a critically important biopolymer that protects against a broad range of cytotoxic insults including UV and oxidative damage. Pmel17 amyloid also appears to play a role in mitigating the toxicity associated with melanin formation by sequestering and minimizing diffusion of highly reactive, toxic melanin precursors out of the melanosome. Intracellular Pmel17 amyloidogenesis is carefully orchestrated by the secretory pathway, utilizing membrane sequestration and proteolytic steps to protect the cell from amyloid and amyloidogenic intermediates that can be toxic. While functional and pathological amyloid share similar structural features, critical differences in packaging and kinetics of assembly enable the usage of Pmel17 amyloid for normal function. The discovery of native Pmel17 amyloid in mammals provides key insight into the molecular basis of both melanin formation and amyloid pathology, and demonstrates that native amyloid (amyloidin may be an ancient, evolutionarily conserved protein quaternary structure underpinning diverse pathways contributing to normal cell and tissue physiology.

  1. Nanomechanical properties of single amyloid fibrils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweers, K K M; Bennink, M L; Subramaniam, V

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are traditionally associated with neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. However, the ability to form amyloid fibrils appears to be a more generic property of proteins. While disease-related, or pathological, amyloid fibrils are relevant for understanding the pathology and course of the disease, functional amyloids are involved, for example, in the exceptionally strong adhesive properties of natural adhesives. Amyloid fibrils are thus becoming increasingly interesting as versatile nanobiomaterials for applications in biotechnology. In the last decade a number of studies have reported on the intriguing mechanical characteristics of amyloid fibrils. In most of these studies atomic force microscopy (AFM) and atomic force spectroscopy play a central role. AFM techniques make it possible to probe, at nanometer length scales, and with exquisite control over the applied forces, biological samples in different environmental conditions. In this review we describe the different AFM techniques used for probing mechanical properties of single amyloid fibrils on the nanoscale. An overview is given of the existing mechanical studies on amyloid. We discuss the difficulties encountered with respect to the small fibril sizes and polymorphic behavior of amyloid fibrils. In particular, the different conformational packing of monomers within the fibrils leads to a heterogeneity in mechanical properties. We conclude with a brief outlook on how our knowledge of these mechanical properties of the amyloid fibrils can be exploited in the construction of nanomaterials from amyloid fibrils. (topical review)

  2. Functional amyloid formation within mammalian tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M Fowler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid is a generally insoluble, fibrous cross-beta sheet protein aggregate. The process of amyloidogenesis is associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer, Parkinson, and Huntington disease. We report the discovery of an unprecedented functional mammalian amyloid structure generated by the protein Pmel17. This discovery demonstrates that amyloid is a fundamental nonpathological protein fold utilized by organisms from bacteria to humans. We have found that Pmel17 amyloid templates and accelerates the covalent polymerization of reactive small molecules into melanin-a critically important biopolymer that protects against a broad range of cytotoxic insults including UV and oxidative damage. Pmel17 amyloid also appears to play a role in mitigating the toxicity associated with melanin formation by sequestering and minimizing diffusion of highly reactive, toxic melanin precursors out of the melanosome. Intracellular Pmel17 amyloidogenesis is carefully orchestrated by the secretory pathway, utilizing membrane sequestration and proteolytic steps to protect the cell from amyloid and amyloidogenic intermediates that can be toxic. While functional and pathological amyloid share similar structural features, critical differences in packaging and kinetics of assembly enable the usage of Pmel17 amyloid for normal function. The discovery of native Pmel17 amyloid in mammals provides key insight into the molecular basis of both melanin formation and amyloid pathology, and demonstrates that native amyloid (amyloidin may be an ancient, evolutionarily conserved protein quaternary structure underpinning diverse pathways contributing to normal cell and tissue physiology.

  3. Molecular Pathogenesis of Spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Thomas Gelsing

    This dissertation includes a presentation of knowledge on the molecular pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis achieved through a PhD programme at Aalborg University from 1.12.2011 - 1.12.2014. Work was carried out in the Laboratory of Medical Mass Spectrometry, headed by: Professor Svend Birkelund...

  4. Terapeutika amyloidóz

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubová, Monika; Hrubý, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 12 (2016), s. 851-859 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : amyloidosis * amyloid * Alzheimer's disease Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.387, year: 2016 http://www.chemicke-listy.cz/common/article-vol_110-issue_12-page_851.html

  5. Amyloid-beta aggregates cause alterations of astrocytic metabolic phenotype: impact on neuronal viability

    OpenAIRE

    Allaman, Igor; Gavillet, Mathilde; Bélanger, Mireille; Laroche, Thierry; Viertl, David; Lashuel, Hilal A.; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2010-01-01

    Amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides play a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and exert various toxic effects on neurons; however, relatively little is known about their influence on glial cells. Astrocytes play a pivotal role in brain homeostasis, contributing to the regulation of local energy metabolism and oxidative stress defense, two aspects of importance for neuronal viability and function. In the present study, we explored the effects of Abeta peptides on glucose metabolism ...

  6. Powerful beneficial effects of benfotiamine on cognitive impairment and beta-amyloid deposition in amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoli; Gong, Neng; Zhao, Jing; Yu, Zhe; Gu, Fenghua; Chen, Jia; Sun, Xiaojing; Zhao, Lei; Yu, Meijing; Xu, Zhiru; Dong, Wenxin; Qin, Yan; Fei, Guoqiang; Zhong, Chunjiu; Xu, Tian-Le

    2010-05-01

    Reduction of glucose metabolism in brain is one of the main features of Alzheimer's disease. Thiamine (vitamin B1)-dependent processes are critical in glucose metabolism and have been found to be impaired in brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, thiamine treatment exerts little beneficial effect in these patients. Here, we tested the effect of benfotiamine, a thiamine derivative with better bioavailability than thiamine, on cognitive impairment and pathology alterations in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, the amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 transgenic mouse. We show that after a chronic 8 week treatment, benfotiamine dose-dependently enhanced the spatial memory of amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 mice in the Morris water maze test. Furthermore, benfotiamine effectively reduced both amyloid plaque numbers and phosphorylated tau levels in cortical areas of the transgenic mice brains. Unexpectedly, these effects were not mimicked by another lipophilic thiamine derivative, fursultiamine, although both benfotiamine and fursultiamine were effective in increasing the levels of free thiamine in the brain. Most notably, benfotiamine, but not fursultiamine, significantly elevated the phosphorylation level of glycogen synthase kinase-3alpha and -3beta, and reduced their enzymatic activities in the amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 transgenic brain. Therefore, in the animal Alzheimer's disease model, benfotiamine appears to improve the cognitive function and reduce amyloid deposition via thiamine-independent mechanisms, which are likely to include the suppression of glycogen synthase kinase-3 activities. These results suggest that, unlike many other thiamine-related drugs, benfotiamine may be beneficial for clinical Alzheimer's disease treatment.

  7. Breast cancer and amyloid bodies: is there a role for amyloidosis in cancer-cell dormancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizejewski GJ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gerald J Mizejewski Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, USA Abstract: Breast cancer and Alzheimer’s disease (AD are major causes of death in older women. Interestingly, breast cancer occurs less frequently in AD patients than in the general population. Amyloidosis, the aggregation of amyloid proteins to form amyloid bodies, plays a central role in the pathogenesis of AD and other human neuropathies by forming intracellular fibrillary proteins. Contrary to popular belief, amyloidosis is a common occurrence in mammalian cells, and has recently been reported to be a natural physiological process in response to environmental stress stimulations (such as pH and temperature extremes, hypoxia, and oxidative stress. Many proteins contain an intrinsic “amyloid-converting motif”, which acts in conjunction with a specific noncoding RNA to induce formation of proteinaceous amyloid bodies that are stored in intracellular bundles. In cancer cells such as breast and prostate, the process of amyloidosis induces cells to enter a dormant or resting stage devoid of cell division and proliferation. Therefore, cancer cells undergo growth cessation and enter a dormant stage following amyloidosis in the cell; this is akin to giving the cell AD to cease growth. Keywords: α-fetoprotein, noncoding RNA, amyloid bodies, dormancy, breast cancer, Alzheimer’s disease

  8. Increased plasma concentration of serum amyloid P component in centenarians with impaired cognitive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, M; Olsen, H; Jeune, B

    1998-01-01

    these to the cognitive performance evaluated by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). We observed a significantly (p gender-matched controls (32.8+/-11.4 microg/ml). Six severely demented centenarians had an even......Serum amyloid P component (SAP) binds to all amyloid fibrils including those in the plaques and tangles of Alzheimer patients. To investigate whether the plasma SAP concentration correlated to cognitive impairment, we measured SAP levels in blood samples from 41 centenarians and compared...... higher SAP concentration (60.2 microg/ml), while the subgroup of cognitive intact centenarians (MMSE score >24) showed a normal SAP concentration (38.4+/-9.3 microg/ml). No dehydration or hepatic dysfunction was demonstrable in the centenarians. We conclude that the centenarians with impaired cognitive...

  9. Pathogenesis and treatment modalities of localized scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valančienė, Greta; Jasaitienė, Daiva; Valiukevičienė, Skaidra

    2010-01-01

    Localized scleroderma is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily of the dermis and subcutaneous fat that ultimately leads to a scar-like sclerosis of connective tissue. The disorder manifests as various plaques of different shape and size with signs of skin inflammation, sclerosis, and atrophy. This is a relatively rare inflammatory disease characterized by a chronic course, unknown etiology, and insufficiently clear pathogenesis. Many factors may influence its appearance: trauma, genetic factors, disorders of the immune system or hormone metabolism, viral infections, toxic substances or pharmaceutical agents, neurogenic factors, and Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Various therapeutic modalities are being used for the treatment of localized scleroderma. There is no precise treatment scheme for this disease. A majority of patients can be successfully treated with topical pharmaceutical agents and phototherapy, but some of them with progressive, disseminated, and causing disability localized scleroderma are in need of systemic treatment. The aim of this article is not only to dispute about the clinical and morphological characteristics of localized scleroderma, but also to present the newest generalized data about the possible origin, pathogenesis, and treatment modalities of this disease.

  10. Current status of vulnerable plaque detection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sharif, Faisal

    2012-02-01

    Critical coronary stenoses have been shown to contribute to only a minority of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and sudden cardiac death. Autopsy studies have identified a subgroup of high-risk patients with disrupted vulnerable plaque and modest stenosis. Consequently, a clinical need exists to develop methods to identify these plaques prospectively before disruption and clinical expression of disease. Recent advances in invasive and noninvasive imaging techniques have shown the potential to identify these high-risk plaques. The anatomical characteristics of the vulnerable plaque such as thin cap fibroatheroma and lipid pool can be identified with angioscopy, high frequency intravascular ultrasound, intravascular MRI, and optical coherence tomography. Efforts have also been made to recognize active inflammation in high-risk plaques using intravascular thermography. Plaque chemical composition by measuring electromagnetic radiation using spectroscopy is also an emerging technology to detect vulnerable plaques. Noninvasive imaging with MRI, CT, and PET also holds the potential to differentiate between low and high-risk plaques. However, at present none of these imaging modalities are able to detect vulnerable plaque neither has been shown to definitively predict outcome. Nevertheless in contrast, there has been a parallel development in the physiological assessment of advanced atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Thus recent trials using fractional flow reserve in patients with modest non flow-limiting stenoses have shown that deferral of PCI with optimal medical therapy in these patients is superior to coronary intervention. Further trials are needed to provide more information regarding the natural history of high-risk but non flow-limiting plaque to establish patient-specific targeted therapy and to refine plaque stabilizing strategies in the future.

  11. Plaquing procedure for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J.A.; Mulcahy, D.

    1980-01-01

    A single overlay plaque assay was designed and evaluated for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Epithelioma papillosum carpio cells were grown in normal atmosphere with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane- or HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid)-buffered media. Plaques were larger and formed more quickly on 1- to 3-day-old cell monolayers than on older monolayers. Cell culture medium with a 10% addition of fetal calf serum (MEM 10) or without serum (MEM 0) were the most efficient virus diluents. Dilution with phosphate-buffered saline, saline, normal broth, or deionized water reduced plaque numbers. Variations in the pH (7.0 to 8.0) of a MEM 0 diluent did not affect plaque numbers. Increasing the volume of viral inoculum above 0.15 ml (15- by 60-mm plate) decreased plaquing efficiency. Significantly more plaques occurred under gum tragacanth and methylcellulose than under agar or agarose overlays. Varying the pH (6.8 to 7.4) of methylcellulose overlays did not significantly change plaque numbers. More plaques formed under the thicker overlays of both methylcellulose and gum tragacanth. Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and HEPES performed equally well, buffering either medium or overlay. Plaque numbers were reduced when cells were rinsed after virus adsorption or less than 1 h was allowed for adsorption. Variation in adsorption time between 60 and 180 min did not change plaque numbers. The mean plaque formation time was 7 days at 16 degrees C. The viral dose response was linear when the standardized assay was used.

  12. APP with Kunitz type protease inhibitor domain (KPI) correlates with neuritic plaque density but not with cortical synaptophysin immunoreactivity in Alzheimer's disease and non-demented aged subjects: a multifactorial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, S S; Sandbrink, R; Beyreuther, K; Schmitt, H P

    1995-01-01

    The formation of beta A4 amyloid protein in neuritic plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and advanced age is a complex process that involves a number of both cellular and molecular mechanisms, the interrelations of which are not yet completely understood. We have examined quantitatively, in AD and aged controls an extended spectrum of amyloid plaque-related cellular and molecular factors and the cortical synaptophysin immunoreactivity (synaptic density) in order to check for interrelations between them by multifactorial analysis. In 3 cases of senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) aged 72, 80 and 82 years, and 9 controls aged 43-88 (mean age 65) years, the cortical synaptophysin immunoreactivity was assessed, together with the numbers of neurons, astrocytes and microglial cells, senile plaques, of tangle-bearing neurons, and the amount of beta A4 amyloid precursor protein (APP) with and without the Kunitz type serine protease inhibitor (KPI) domain. The main results were: APP including the KPI domain (KPI-APP) correlated with the number of neuritic plaques, regardless of whether they occurred in SDAT or non-demented controls. There was no significant difference in the amount of KPI-APP between SDAT and controls. Conversely, APP695 (without KPI) was significantly reduced in SDAT. KPI-APP did not correlate with the synaptophysin immunoreactivity (RGVA), while APP695 showed a significant correlation with the latter in all evaluations. It also correlated with the neuron counts, which was not true for KPI-APP. These results support previous findings indicating that KPI-APP is an important local factor for amyloid deposition in the neuritic plaques, both in AD and in non-demented aged people. On the contrary, KPI-APP does not seem to be significantly involved in the mechanisms of synaptic change outside of the plaques.

  13. Update on mucormycosis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ashraf S; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2013-12-01

    Mucormycosis is an increasingly common fungal infection with unacceptably high mortality. The recent sequencing genome projects of Mucorales and the development of gene manipulation have enabled significant advances in understanding the pathogenesis of mucormycosis. Therefore, we review the pathogenesis of mucormycosis and highlight potential development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic modalities against this lethal disease. Much of the work has been focused on the role of iron uptake in the virulence of Mucorales. Additionally, host receptors and fungal ligands involved in the process of tissue invasion as well as sporangiospore size and sex loci and their contribution to virulence of Mucorales are discussed. Finally, the role of innate and adaptive immunity in protection against Mucorales and new evidence about drug-induced apoptosis in these fungi are discussed. Recent discoveries introduce several potentially novel diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, which are likely to improve management and outcome for mucormycosis. Future preclinical and clinical research is warranted to develop these diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  14. Cryotherapy-induced milia en plaque: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Bryce David; Cohen, Philip R

    2014-12-12

    Cryotherapy-induced milia is a rarely described cutaneous reaction that may occur in patients who have received cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen. Cryotherapy-induced milia is characterized by 1-2 millimeter white dermal cysts that develop at the healed cryotherapy site. Milia en plaque, an erythematous plaque containing numerous milia, has not previously been described following treatment of a skin lesion with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. We describe a man who developed cryotherapy-induced milia en plaque after receiving cryotherapy to his dorsal hand for the treatment of an actinic keratosis. We also summarize the potential complications of cryotherapy, the differential diagnosis of milia en plaque, and therapeutic interventions for this lesion. The features of a man with cryotherapy-induced milia en plaque are presented. Using PubMed, the following terms were searched and relevant citations assessed: cryosurgery, cryotherapy, hypothermia, milia, milia en plaque, and Wolf's isotopic response. In addition, the literature on cryotherapy-induced milia and cryotherapy-induced milia en plaque is reviewed. Our patient developed cryotherapy-induced milia en plaque shortly after his cryotherapy site had healed. Some of the asymptomatic cystic dermal lesions had spontaneously resolved when a lesional biopsy was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The diagnosis, natural course, and potential treatments were discussed with the patient. Subsequent management was to observe the area; at follow-up examination, the remainder of the milia had also spontaneously resolved. Cryotherapy-induced milia is a benign condition characterized by the development of small white dermal cystic lesions that develop at a healed liquid nitrogen cryotherapy site. The lesions may appear individually or as milia en plaque. While the mechanism of pathogenesis is unknown, we postulate that the condition is an example of Wolf's isotopic response, in which a new, unrelated skin disease develops at the

  15. PLAQUE ASSAY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sardjono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Newcastle disease virus (NDV was isolated from a 3 months-old indigenous chicken (buras or kampung chicken which showed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND. For viral isolation a small part of the spleen and lung were inoculated into 10 days-old embryonated chicken eggs. The physical characteristics of the isolate (A/120 were studied. The hemagglutination of chicken red blood cell showed slow elution, thermostability of hemagglutinin at 56°C was 120 minutes. The vims was able to agglutinate horse erythrocytes but not those of sheep. The biological characteristics on mean death time (MDT of embryonated chicken egg and plaque morphology on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF primary cell cultures were studied. The MDT was 56 hours, the isolate was velogenic NDV. There were three different plaque morphologies on CEF : 2 mm clear plaques, 1 mm clear plaques, and minute clear plaques which were visible only with microscopic examination.

  16. The polyphenol oleuropein aglycone protects TgCRND8 mice against Aß plaque pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Grossi

    Full Text Available The claimed beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet include prevention of several age-related dysfunctions including neurodegenerative diseases and Alzheimer-like pathology. These effects have been related to the protection against cognitive decline associated with aging and disease by a number of polyphenols found in red wine and extra virgin olive oil. The double transgenic TgCRND8 mice (overexpressing the Swedish and Indiana mutations in the human amyloid precursor protein, aged 1.5 and 4, and age-matched wild type control mice were used to examine in vivo the effects of 8 weeks dietary supplementation of oleuropein aglycone (50 mg/kg of diet, the main polyphenol found in extra virgin olive oil. We report here that dietary supplementation of oleuropein aglycone strongly improves the cognitive performance of young/middle-aged TgCRND8 mice, a model of amyloid-ß deposition, respect to age-matched littermates with un-supplemented diet. Immunofluorescence analysis of cerebral tissue in oleuropein aglycone-fed transgenic mice showed remarkably reduced ß-amyloid levels and plaque deposits, which appeared less compact and "fluffy"; moreover, microglia migration to the plaques for phagocytosis and a remarkable reduction of the astrocyte reaction were evident. Finally, oleuropein aglycone-fed mice brain displayed an astonishingly intense autophagic reaction, as shown by the increase of autophagic markers expression and of lysosomal activity. Data obtained with cultured cells confirmed the latter evidence, suggesting mTOR regulation by oleuropein aglycone. Our results support, and provide mechanistic insights into, the beneficial effects against Alzheimer-associated neurodegeneration of a polyphenol enriched in the extra virgin olive oil, a major component of the Mediterranean diet.

  17. Amyloid Goiter Secondary to Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunyamin Aydin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse amyloid goiter (AG is an entity characterized by the deposition of amyloid in the thyroid gland. AG may be associated with either primary or secondary amyloidosis. Secondary amyloidosis is rarely caused by inflammatory bowel diseases. Secondary amyloidosis is relatively more common in the patients with Crohn’s disease, whereas it is highly rare in patients with ulcerative colitis. Diffuse amyloid goiter caused by ulcerative colitis is also a rare condition. In the presence of amyloid in the thyroid gland, medullary thyroid cancer should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis. Imaging techniques and biochemical tests are not very helpful in the diagnosis of secondary amyloid goiter and the definitive diagnosis is established based on the histopathologic analysis and histochemical staining techniques. In this report, we present a 35-year-old male patient with diffuse amyloid goiter caused by secondary amyloidosis associated with ulcerative colitis.

  18. [Effects of grain-sized moxibustion on learning and memory ability and amyloid deposition of transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Chu, Jia-Mei; Gao, Ling-Ai; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Bao, Ye-Hua

    2014-02-01

    To observe the effect of grain-sized moxibustion at "Xinshu" (BL 15) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) on memory-learning ability and amyloid deposition in transgenic Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice. seventeen amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin (PS)1 (APP+/PS 1+) double transgenic 6799 mice aged 3-4 weeks were randomly divided into model group (n = 9) and moxibustion group (n = 8). Nine wide-type (C 57 BL/6 J) female mice were used as the normal control group. Moxibustion (ignited grain-sized moxa cone) was applied to bilateral "Xinshu" (BL 15) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) for about 30 s, once a day for 9 courses (10 days constitute a therapeutic course, with 2 days' break between every two courses). Morris water maze tests were performed to detect the mice's learning-memory ability. The alterations of beta-amyloid deposition (number of the positive plaques) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus were detected by using an imaging analysis system following Congo red staining of the cerebral tissue sections. Compared with the normal group, the average escape latency of place navigation tests was significantly increased (P memory ability after moxibustion. Results of Congo red staining of the cerebral tissue showed that there were many irregular, uneven staining positive plaques in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of AD mice in the model group. Compared with the model group, the positive plaque numbers in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus were considerably reduced in the moxibustion group (P memory ability and restrain the formation of amyloid deposition in AD mice.

  19. Amyloid myopathy: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Tuomaala

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid myopathy (AM is a rare manifestation of primary systemic amyloidosis (AL. Like inflammatory myopathies, it presents with proximal muscle weakness and an increased creatine kinase level. We describe a case of AL with severe, rapidly progressive myopathy as the initial symptom. The clinical manifestation and muscle biopsy were suggestive of inclusion body myositis. AM was not suspected until amyloidosis was seen in the gastric mucosal biopsy. The muscle biopsy was then re-examined more specifically, and Congo red staining eventually showed vascular and interstitial amyloid accumulation, which led to a diagnosis of AM. The present case illustrates the fact that the clinical picture of AM can mimic that of inclusion body myositis.

  20. Recent Insights into the Pathogenesis of Type AA Amyloidosis

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    J. C. H. van der Hilst

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The amyloidoses are a group of life-threatening diseases in which fibrils made of misfolded proteins are deposited in organs and tissues. The fibrils are stable, insoluble aggregates of precursor proteins that have adopted an antiparallel β-sheet structure. In type AA, or reactive, amyloidosis, the precursor protein of the fibrils is serum amyloid A (SAA. SAA is a 104-amino-acid protein that is produced in the liver in response to proinflammatory cytokines. Although the protein that is produced by the liver contains 104 amino acids, only the N-terminal 66–76 amino acids are found in amyloid fibrils. Furthermore, SAA has been shown to have an α-helical structure primarily. Thus, for SAA to be incorporated into an amyloid fibril, two processes have to occur: C-terminal cleavage and conversion into a β-sheet. Only a minority of patients with elevated SAA levels develop amyloidosis. Factors that contribute to the risk of amyloidosis include the duration and degree of SAA elevation, polymorphisms in SAA, and the type of autoinflammatory syndrome. In the Hyper-IgD syndrome, amyloidosis is less prevalent than in the other autoinflammatory diseases. In vitro work has shown that the isoprenoid pathway influences amyloidogenesis by farnesylated proteins. Although many proteins contain domains that have a potential for self-aggregation, amyloidosis is only a very rare event. Heat shock proteins (HSPs are chaperones that assist other proteins to attain, maintain, and regain a functional conformation. In this review, recent insights into the pathogenesis of amyloidosis are discussed, in addition to a new hypothesis for a role of HSPs in the pathogenesis of type AA.

  1. Matrix vesicles in the fibrous cap of atherosclerotic plaque: possible contribution to plaque rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Y V; Killingsworth, M C; Lord, R S A; Grabs, A J

    2008-10-01

    Plaque rupture is the most common type of plaque complication and leads to acute ischaemic events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Calcification has been suggested as a possible indicator of plaque instability. Although the role of matrix vesicles in the initial stages of arterial calcification has been recognized, no studies have yet been carried out to examine a possible role of matrix vesicles in plaque destabilization. Tissue specimens selected for the present study represented carotid specimens obtained from patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Serial frozen cross-sections of the tissue specimens were cut and mounted on glass slides. The thickness of the fibrous cap (FCT) in each advanced atherosclerotic lesion, containing a well developed lipid/necrotic core, was measured at its narrowest sites in sets of serial sections. According to established criteria, atherosclerotic plaque specimens were histologically subdivided into two groups: vulnerable plaques with thin fibrous caps (FCT <100 microm) and presumably stable plaques, in which fibrous caps were thicker than 100 microm. Twenty-four carotid plaques (12 vulnerable and 12 presumably stable plaques) were collected for the present analysis of matrix vesicles in fibrous caps. In order to provide a sufficient number of representative areas from each plaque, laser capture microdissection (LCM) was carried out. The quantification of matrix vesicles in ultrathin sections of vulnerable and stable plaques revealed that the numbers of matrix vesicles were significantly higher in fibrous caps of vulnerable plaques than those in stable plaques (8.908+0.544 versus 6.208+0.467 matrix vesicles per 1.92 microm2 standard area; P= 0.0002). Electron microscopy combined with X-ray elemental microanalysis showed that some matrix vesicles in atherosclerotic plaques were undergoing calcification and were characterized by a high content of calcium and phosphorus. The percentage of calcified matrix vesicles

  2. APPswe/PS1dE9 mice with cortical amyloid pathology show a reduced NAA/Cr ratio without apparent brain atrophy: A MRS and MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhla, Angela; Rühlmann, Claire; Lindner, Tobias; Polei, Stefan; Hadlich, Stefan; Krause, Bernd J; Vollmar, Brigitte; Teipel, Stefan J

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic animal models of Aβ pathology provide mechanistic insight into some aspects of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology related to Aβ accumulation. Quantitative neuroimaging is a possible aid to improve translation of mechanistic findings in transgenic models to human end phenotypes of brain morphology or function. Therefore, we combined MRI-based morphometry, MRS-based NAA-assessment and quantitative histology of neurons and amyloid plaque load in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model to determine the interrelationship between morphological changes, changes in neuron numbers and amyloid plaque load with reductions of NAA levels as marker of neuronal functional viability. The APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse showed an increase of Aβ plaques, loss of neurons and an impairment of NAA/Cr ratio, which however was not accompanied with brain atrophy. As brain atrophy is one main characteristic in human AD, conclusions from murine to human AD pathology should be drawn with caution.

  3. Multidetector row computed tomography may accurately estimate plaque vulnerability. Does MDCT accurately estimate plaque vulnerability? (Pro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Sei; Imai, Atsuko; Kodama, Kazuhisa

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) has become the most reliable and established of the noninvasive examination techniques for detecting coronary heart disease. Now MDCT is chasing intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in terms of spatial resolution. Among the components of vulnerable plaque, MDCT may detect lipid-rich plaque, the lipid pool, and calcified spots using computed tomography number. Plaque components are detected by MDCT with high accuracy compared with IVUS and angioscopy when assessing vulnerable plaque. The TWINS study and TOGETHAR trial demonstrated that angioscopic loss of yellow color occurred independently of volumetric plaque change by statin therapy. These 2 studies showed that plaque stabilization and regression reflect independent processes mediated by different mechanisms and time course. Noncalcified plaque and/or low-density plaque was found to be the strongest predictor of cardiac events, regardless of lesion severity, and act as a potential marker of plaque vulnerability. MDCT may be an effective tool for early triage of patients with chest pain who have a normal electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac enzymes in the emergency department. MDCT has the potential ability to analyze coronary plaque quantitatively and qualitatively if some problems are resolved. MDCT may become an essential tool for detecting and preventing coronary artery disease in the future. (author)

  4. A transgenic Alzheimer rat with plaques, tau pathology, behavioral impairment, oligomeric aβ, and frank neuronal loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert M; Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Weitz, Tara M; Rentsendorj, Altan; Gate, David; Spivak, Inna; Bholat, Yasmin; Vasilevko, Vitaly; Glabe, Charles G; Breunig, Joshua J; Rakic, Pasko; Davtyan, Hayk; Agadjanyan, Michael G; Kepe, Vladimir; Barrio, Jorge R; Bannykh, Serguei; Szekely, Christine A; Pechnick, Robert N; Town, Terrence

    2013-04-10

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is hallmarked by amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and widespread cortical neuronal loss (Selkoe, 2001). The "amyloid cascade hypothesis" posits that cerebral amyloid sets neurotoxic events into motion that precipitate Alzheimer dementia (Hardy and Allsop, 1991). Yet, faithful recapitulation of all AD features in widely used transgenic (Tg) mice engineered to overproduce Aβ peptides has been elusive. We have developed a Tg rat model (line TgF344-AD) expressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APPsw) and presenilin 1 (PS1ΔE9) genes, each independent causes of early-onset familial AD. TgF344-AD rats manifest age-dependent cerebral amyloidosis that precedes tauopathy, gliosis, apoptotic loss of neurons in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and cognitive disturbance. These results demonstrate progressive neurodegeneration of the Alzheimer type in these animals. The TgF344-AD rat fills a critical need for a next-generation animal model to enable basic and translational AD research.

  5. Oleuropein aglycone protects transgenic C. elegans strains expressing Aβ42 by reducing plaque load and motor deficit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Diomede

    Full Text Available The presence of amyloid aggregates of the 42 amino acid peptide of amyloid beta (Aβ42 in the brain is the characteristic feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Amyloid beta (Aβ deposition is also found in muscle fibers of individuals affected by inclusion body myositis (sIBM, a rare muscular degenerative disease affecting people over 50. Both conditions are presently lacking an effective therapeutic treatment. There is increasing evidence to suggest that natural polyphenols may prevent the formation of toxic amyloid aggregates; this applies also to oleuropein aglycone (OLE, the most abundant polyphenol in extra virgin olive oil, previously shown to hinder amylin and Aβ aggregation. Here we evaluated the ability of OLE to interfere with Aβ proteotoxicity in vivo by using the transgenic CL2006 and CL4176 strains of Caenorhabditis elegans, simplified models of AD and of sIBM, which express human Aβ in the cytoplasm of body wall muscle cells. OLE-fed CL2006 worms displayed reduced Aβ plaque deposition, less abundant toxic Aβ oligomers, remarkably decreased paralysis and increased lifespan with respect to untreated animals. A protective effect was also observed in CL4176 worms but only when OLE was administered before the induction of the Aβ transgene expression. These effects were specific, dose-related, and not mediated by the known polyphenolic anti-oxidant activity, suggesting that, in this model organism, OLE interferes with the Aβ aggregation skipping the appearance of toxic species, as already shown in vitro for Aβ42.

  6. Disrupting beta-amyloid aggregation for Alzheimer disease treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, L D; Soto, C

    2007-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a devastating degenerative disorder for which there is no cure or effective treatment. Although the etiology of Alzheimer's disease is not fully understood, compelling evidence indicates that deposition of aggregates composed by a misfolded form of the amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) is the central event in the disease pathogenesis. Therefore, an attractive therapeutic strategy is to prevent or reverse Abeta misfolding and aggregation. Diverse strategies have been described to identify inhibitors of this process, including screening of libraries of small molecules chemical compounds, rational design of synthetic peptides, assessment of natural Abeta-binding proteins and stimulation of the immune system by vaccination. In this article we describe these different approaches, their principles and their potential strengths and weaknesses. Overall the available data suggest that the development of drugs to interfere with Abeta misfolding and aggregation is a feasible target that hold great promise for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Why are Functional Amyloids Non-Toxic in Humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Jackson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Amyloids were first identified in association with amyloidoses, human diseases in which proteins and peptides misfold into amyloid fibrils. Subsequent studies have identified an array of functional amyloid fibrils that perform physiological roles in humans. Given the potential for the production of toxic species in amyloid assembly reactions, it is remarkable that cells can produce these functional amyloids without suffering any obvious ill effect. Although the precise mechanisms are unclear, there are a number of ways in which amyloid toxicity may be prevented. These include regulating the level of the amyloidogenic peptides and proteins, minimising the production of prefibrillar oligomers in amyloid assembly reactions, sequestrating amyloids within membrane bound organelles, controlling amyloid assembly by other molecules, and disassembling the fibrils under physiological conditions. Crucially, a better understanding of how toxicity is avoided in the production of functional amyloids may provide insights into the prevention of amyloid toxicity in amyloidoses.

  8. Plaque echodensity and textural features are associated with histologic carotid plaque instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doonan, Robert J; Gorgui, Jessica; Veinot, Jean P; Lai, Chi; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos; Corriveau, Marc M; Steinmetz, Oren K; Daskalopoulou, Stella S

    2016-09-01

    Carotid plaque echodensity and texture features predict cerebrovascular symptomatology. Our purpose was to determine the association of echodensity and textural features obtained from a digital image analysis (DIA) program with histologic features of plaque instability as well as to identify the specific morphologic characteristics of unstable plaques. Patients scheduled to undergo carotid endarterectomy were recruited and underwent carotid ultrasound imaging. DIA was performed to extract echodensity and textural features using Plaque Texture Analysis software (LifeQ Medical Ltd, Nicosia, Cyprus). Carotid plaque surgical specimens were obtained and analyzed histologically. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to reduce imaging variables. Logistic regression models were used to determine if PCA variables and individual imaging variables predicted histologic features of plaque instability. Image analysis data from 160 patients were analyzed. Individual imaging features of plaque echolucency and homogeneity were associated with a more unstable plaque phenotype on histology. These results were independent of age, sex, and degree of carotid stenosis. PCA reduced 39 individual imaging variables to five PCA variables. PCA1 and PCA2 were significantly associated with overall plaque instability on histology (both P = .02), whereas PCA3 did not achieve statistical significance (P = .07). DIA features of carotid plaques are associated with histologic plaque instability as assessed by multiple histologic features. Importantly, unstable plaques on histology appear more echolucent and homogeneous on ultrasound imaging. These results are independent of stenosis, suggesting that image analysis may have a role in refining the selection of patients who undergo carotid endarterectomy. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. PET/CT for atherosclerotic plaque imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Haim, S.; Technion Institute of Technology, Haifa; Israel, O.; Rambam Medical Center, Haifa

    2006-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques and thrombi formation are the primary mechanisms of myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident. Angiography is considered to represent the gold standard technique for imaging of the arterial lumen. However, in recent years it has been realized that the primary determinant of the atherosclerotic plaque stability is the composition of the plaque and other imaging modalities have been suggested. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the knowledge accumulated to present date regarding the potential role of fluo deoxyglucose imaging in the assessment of atherosclerosis and to compare this modality to additional available imaging approaches for the detection of vulnerable plaques

  10. Analysis of a compartmental model of amyloid beta production, irreversible loss and exchange in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Donald L; Patterson, Bruce W; Bateman, Randall J

    2015-03-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, and in particular Aβ42, are found in senile plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease. A compartmental model of Aβ production, exchange and irreversible loss was recently developed to explain the kinetics of isotope-labeling of Aβ peptides collected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following infusion of stable isotope-labeled leucine in humans. The compartmental model allowed calculation of the rates of production, irreversible loss (or turnover) and short-term exchange of Aβ peptides. Exchange of Aβ42 was particularly pronounced in amyloid plaque-bearing participants. In the current work, we describe in much greater detail the characteristics of the compartmental model to two distinct audiences: physician-scientists and biokineticists. For physician-scientists, we describe through examples the types of questions the model can and cannot answer, as well as correct some misunderstandings of previous kinetic analyses applied to this type of isotope labeling data. For biokineticists, we perform a system identifiability analysis and a sensitivity analysis of the kinetic model to explore the global and local properties of the model. Combined, these analyses motivate simplifications from a more comprehensive physiological model to the final model that was previously presented. The analyses clearly demonstrate that the current dataset and compartmental model allow determination with confidence a single 'turnover' parameter, a single 'exchange' parameter and a single 'delay' parameter. When combined with CSF concentration data for the Aβ peptides, production rates may also be obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Alzheimer’s Disease Risk Gene CD33 Inhibits Microglial Uptake of Amyloid Beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griciuc, Ana; Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Parrado, Antonio R.; Lesinski, Andrea N.; Asselin, Caroline N.; Mullin, Kristina; Hooli, Basavaraj; Choi, Se Hoon; Hyman, Bradley T.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The transmembrane protein CD33 is a sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin that regulates innate immunity but has no known functions in the brain. We have previously shown that the CD33 gene is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we observed increased expression of CD33 in microglial cells in AD brain. The minor allele of the CD33 SNP rs3865444, which confers protection against AD, was associated with reductions in both CD33 expression and insoluble amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42) levels in AD brain. Furthermore, the numbers of CD33-immunoreactive microglia were positively correlated with insoluble Aβ42 levels and plaque burden in AD brain. CD33 inhibited uptake and clearance of Aβ42 in microglial cell cultures. Finally, brain levels of insoluble Aβ42 as well as amyloid plaque burden were markedly reduced in APPSwe/PS1ΔE9/CD33−/− mice. Therefore, CD33 inactivation mitigates Aβ pathology and CD33 inhibition could represent a novel therapy for AD. PMID:23623698

  12. Alzheimer's disease risk gene CD33 inhibits microglial uptake of amyloid beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griciuc, Ana; Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Parrado, Antonio R; Lesinski, Andrea N; Asselin, Caroline N; Mullin, Kristina; Hooli, Basavaraj; Choi, Se Hoon; Hyman, Bradley T; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2013-05-22

    The transmembrane protein CD33 is a sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin that regulates innate immunity but has no known functions in the brain. We have previously shown that the CD33 gene is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we observed increased expression of CD33 in microglial cells in AD brain. The minor allele of the CD33 SNP rs3865444, which confers protection against AD, was associated with reductions in both CD33 expression and insoluble amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42) levels in AD brain. Furthermore, the numbers of CD33-immunoreactive microglia were positively correlated with insoluble Aβ42 levels and plaque burden in AD brain. CD33 inhibited uptake and clearance of Aβ42 in microglial cell cultures. Finally, brain levels of insoluble Aβ42 as well as amyloid plaque burden were markedly reduced in APP(Swe)/PS1(ΔE9)/CD33(-/-) mice. Therefore, CD33 inactivation mitigates Aβ pathology and CD33 inhibition could represent a novel therapy for AD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunotherapy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: amyloid-β or tau, which is the right target?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo-Carranza DL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diana L Castillo-Carranza,1,2 Marcos J Guerrero-Muñoz,1,2 Rakez Kayed1–31Mitchell Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, 2Departments of Neurology, Neuroscience, and Cell Biology, 3Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USAAbstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques composed mainly of amyloid-β (Aβ protein. Overproduction or slow clearance of Aβ initiates a cascade of pathologic events that may lead to formation of neurofibrillary tangles, neuronal cell death, and dementia. Although immunotherapy in animal models has been demonstrated to be successful at removing plaques or prefibrillar forms of Aβ, clinical trials have yielded disappointing results. The lack of substantial cognitive improvement obtained by targeting Aβ raises the question of whether or not this is the correct target. Another important pathologic process in the AD brain is tau aggregation, which seems to become independent once initiated. Recent studies targeting tau in AD mouse models have displayed evidence of cognitive improvement, providing a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of AD. In this review, we describe new advances in immunotherapy targeting Aβ peptide and tau protein, as well as future directions.Keywords: immunotherapy, Alzheimer's disease, β-amyloid, tau

  14. Carotid plaque age is a feature of plaque stability inversely related to levels of plasma insulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hägg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The stability of atherosclerotic plaques determines the risk for rupture, which may lead to thrombus formation and potentially severe clinical complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Although the rate of plaque formation may be important for plaque stability, this process is not well understood. We took advantage of the atmospheric (14C-declination curve (a result of the atomic bomb tests in the 1950s and 1960s to determine the average biological age of carotid plaques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: The cores of carotid plaques were dissected from 29 well-characterized, symptomatic patients with carotid stenosis and analyzed for (14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry. The average plaque age (i.e. formation time was 9.6±3.3 years. All but two plaques had formed within 5-15 years before surgery. Plaque age was not associated with the chronological ages of the patients but was inversely related to plasma insulin levels (p = 0.0014. Most plaques were echo-lucent rather than echo-rich (2.24±0.97, range 1-5. However, plaques in the lowest tercile of plaque age (most recently formed were characterized by further instability with a higher content of lipids and macrophages (67.8±12.4 vs. 50.4±6.2, p = 0.00005; 57.6±26.1 vs. 39.8±25.7, p<0.0005, respectively, less collagen (45.3±6.1 vs. 51.1±9.8, p<0.05, and fewer smooth muscle cells (130±31 vs. 141±21, p<0.05 than plaques in the highest tercile. Microarray analysis of plaques in the lowest tercile also showed increased activity of genes involved in immune responses and oxidative phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show, for the first time, that plaque age, as judge by relative incorporation of (14C, can improve our understanding of carotid plaque stability and therefore risk for clinical complications. Our results also suggest that levels of plasma insulin might be involved in determining carotid plaque age.

  15. A new inexpensive customized plaque for choroidal melanoma iodine-125 plaque therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, A.K.; Tenhaken, R.K.; Diaz, R.F.; Maxson, B.B.; Lichter, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have developed a new inexpensive precious metal alloy plaque for use in customized iodine-125 plaque therapy. Each plaque is formed from two flat circular gold/palladium foils which are used in dental crown work. Using a simple manual mechanism, the two forms are stamped over a customized acrylic die shaped to the dimensions of the tumor base plus a 2-mm margin. Completed plaques consist of a back wall, a 2-mm side wall, and a 1.5-mm wide lip with holes for suture placement. Advantages include: simple construction from inexpensive components, customized shape, and iodine seeds that are readily visible on plane radiographs

  16. Reversal of autophagy dysfunction in the TgCRND8 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease ameliorates amyloid pathologies and memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dun-Sheng; Stavrides, Philip; Mohan, Panaiyur S; Kaushik, Susmita; Kumar, Asok; Ohno, Masuo; Schmidt, Stephen D; Wesson, Daniel; Bandyopadhyay, Urmi; Jiang, Ying; Pawlik, Monika; Peterhoff, Corrinne M; Yang, Austin J; Wilson, Donald A; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Westaway, David; Mathews, Paul M; Levy, Efrat; Cuervo, Ana M; Nixon, Ralph A

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy, a major degradative pathway for proteins and organelles, is essential for survival of mature neurons. Extensive autophagic-lysosomal pathology in Alzheimer's disease brain contributes to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, although the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we identified and characterized marked intraneuronal amyloid-β peptide/amyloid and lysosomal system pathology in the Alzheimer's disease mouse model TgCRND8 similar to that previously described in Alzheimer's disease brains. We further establish that the basis for these pathologies involves defective proteolytic clearance of neuronal autophagic substrates including amyloid-β peptide. To establish the pathogenic significance of these abnormalities, we enhanced lysosomal cathepsin activities and rates of autophagic protein turnover in TgCRND8 mice by genetically deleting cystatin B, an endogenous inhibitor of lysosomal cysteine proteases. Cystatin B deletion rescued autophagic-lysosomal pathology, reduced abnormal accumulations of amyloid-β peptide, ubiquitinated proteins and other autophagic substrates within autolysosomes/lysosomes and reduced intraneuronal amyloid-β peptide. The amelioration of lysosomal function in TgCRND8 markedly decreased extracellular amyloid deposition and total brain amyloid-β peptide 40 and 42 levels, and prevented the development of deficits of learning and memory in fear conditioning and olfactory habituation tests. Our findings support the pathogenic significance of autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease and indicate the potential value of restoring normal autophagy as an innovative therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease.

  17. F-box only protein 2 (Fbxo2) regulates amyloid precursor protein levels and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Graham; Hunt, Jack; Minakawa, Eiko; Sharkey, Lisa; Tipper, Nathan; Tennant, William; Paulson, Henry L

    2014-03-07

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is an integral membrane glycoprotein whose cleavage products, particularly amyloid-β, accumulate in Alzheimer disease (AD). APP is present at synapses and is thought to play a role in both the formation and plasticity of these critical neuronal structures. Despite the central role suggested for APP in AD pathogenesis, the mechanisms regulating APP in neurons and its processing into cleavage products remain incompletely understood. F-box only protein 2 (Fbxo2), a neuron-enriched ubiquitin ligase substrate adaptor that preferentially binds high-mannose glycans on glycoproteins, was previously implicated in APP processing by facilitating the degradation of the APP-cleaving β-secretase, β-site APP-cleaving enzyme. Here, we sought to determine whether Fbxo2 plays a similar role for other glycoproteins in the amyloid processing pathway. We present in vitro and in vivo evidence that APP is itself a substrate for Fbxo2. APP levels were decreased in the presence of Fbxo2 in non-neuronal cells, and increased in both cultured hippocampal neurons and brain tissue from Fbxo2 knock-out mice. The processing of APP into its cleavage products was also increased in hippocampi and cultured hippocampal neurons lacking Fbxo2. In hippocampal slices, this increase in cleavage products was accompanied by a significant reduction in APP at the cell surface. Taken together, these results suggest that Fbxo2 regulates APP levels and processing in the brain and may play a role in modulating AD pathogenesis.

  18. Molecular Pathogenesis of NASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Caligiuri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is the main cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world and a major health problem, owing to its close association with obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. NASH progression results from numerous events originating within the liver, as well as from signals derived from the adipose tissue and the gastrointestinal tract. In a fraction of NASH patients, disease may progress, eventually leading to advanced fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding the mechanisms leading to NASH and its evolution to cirrhosis is critical to identifying effective approaches for the treatment of this condition. In this review, we focus on some of the most recent data reported on the pathogenesis of NASH and its fibrogenic progression, highlighting potential targets for treatment or identification of biomarkers of disease progression.

  19. Carbon nanospecies affecting amyloid formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubová, Monika; Konefal, Rafal; Morávková, Zuzana; Zhigunov, Alexander; Svoboda, Jan; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Hromádková, Jiřina; Groborz, Ondřej; Štěpánek, Petr; Hrubý, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 85 (2017), s. 53887-53898 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015064; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-30544A; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03156S; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21545 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : amyloid fibril * nanodiamond * fullerene Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  20. Amyloid formation and disaggregation of α-synuclein and its tandem repeat (α-TR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Song Yi; Kim, Seulgi; Hwang, Heejin; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Yoon, Hyun C.; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, SangYoon; Kim, T. Doohun

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Formation of the α-synuclein amyloid fibrils by [BIMbF 3 Im]. → Disaggregation of amyloid fibrils by epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and baicalein. → Amyloid formation of α-synuclein tandem repeat (α-TR). -- Abstract: The aggregation of α-synuclein is clearly related to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Therefore, detailed understanding of the mechanism of fibril formation is highly valuable for the development of clinical treatment and also of the diagnostic tools. Here, we have investigated the interaction of α-synuclein with ionic liquids by using several biochemical techniques including Thioflavin T assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our data shows a rapid formation of α-synuclein amyloid fibrils was stimulated by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [BIMbF 3 Im], and these fibrils could be disaggregated by polyphenols such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and baicalein. Furthermore, the effect of [BIMbF 3 Im] on the α-synuclein tandem repeat (α-TR) in the aggregation process was studied.

  1. Membrane Incorporation, Channel Formation, and Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis by Alzheimer's β-Amyloid Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kawahara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oligomerization, conformational changes, and the consequent neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's β-amyloid protein (AβP play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Mounting evidence suggests that oligomeric AβPs cause the disruption of calcium homeostasis, eventually leading to neuronal death. We have demonstrated that oligomeric AβPs directly incorporate into neuronal membranes, form cation-sensitive ion channels (“amyloid channels”, and cause the disruption of calcium homeostasis via the amyloid channels. Other disease-related amyloidogenic proteins, such as prion protein in prion diseases or α-synuclein in dementia with Lewy bodies, exhibit similarities in the incorporation into membranes and the formation of calcium-permeable channels. Here, based on our experimental results and those of numerous other studies, we review the current understanding of the direct binding of AβP into membrane surfaces and the formation of calcium-permeable channels. The implication of composition of membrane lipids and the possible development of new drugs by influencing membrane properties and attenuating amyloid channels for the treatment and prevention of AD is also discussed.

  2. IL-1β-Induced Accumulation of Amyloid: Macroautophagy in Skeletal Muscle Depends on ERK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathology of inclusion body myositis (IBM involves an inflammatory response and β-amyloid deposits in muscle fibres. It is believed that MAP kinases such as the ERK signalling pathway mediate the inflammatory signalling in cells. Further, there is evidence that autophagic activity plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of IBM. Using a well established in vitro model of IBM, the autophagic pathway, MAP kinases, and accumulation of β-amyloid were examined. We demonstrate that stimulation of muscle cells with IL-1β and IFN-γ led to an increased phosphorylation of ERK. The ERK inhibitor PD98059 diminished the expression of proinflammatory markers as well as the accumulation of β-amyloid. In addition, IL-1β and IFN-γ led to an increase of autophagic activity, upregulation of APP, and subsequent accumulation of β-sheet aggregates. Taken together, the data demonstrate that the ERK pathway contributes to formation of β-amyloid and regulation of autophagic activity in muscle cells exposed to proinflammatory cell stress. This suggests that ERK serves as an important mediator between inflammatory mechanisms and protein deposition in skeletal muscle and is a crucial element of the pathology of IBM.

  3. Comparison of the binding characteristics of [18F]THK-523 and other amyloid imaging tracers to Alzheimer's disease pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Ryuichi; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Furumoto, Shozo; Tago, Tetsuro; Iwata, Ren; Maruyama, Masahiro; Higuchi, Makoto; Arai, Hiroyuki; Kudo, Yukitsuka

    2013-01-01

    Extensive deposition of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although several PET imaging agents have been developed for in vivo detection of senile plaques, no PET probe is currently available for selective detection of neurofibrillary tangles in the living human brain. Recently, [ 18 F]THK-523 was developed as a potential in vivo imaging probe for tau pathology. The purpose of this study was to compare the binding properties of [ 18 F]THK-523 and other amyloid imaging agents, including PiB, BF-227 and FDDNP, to synthetic protein fibrils and human brain tissue. In vitro radioligand binding assays were conducted using synthetic amyloid β 42 and K18ΔK280-tau fibrils. Nonspecific binding was determined by the addition of unlabelled compounds at a concentration of 2 μM. To examine radioligand binding to neuropathological lesions, in vitro autoradiography was conducted using sections of AD brain. [ 18 F]THK-523 showed higher affinity for tau fibrils than for Aβ fibrils, whereas the other probes showed a higher affinity for Aβ fibrils. The autoradiographic analysis indicated that [ 18 F]THK-523 accumulated in the regions containing a high density of tau protein deposits. Conversely, PiB and BF-227 accumulated in the regions containing a high density of Aβ plaques. These findings suggest that the unique binding profile of [ 18 F]THK-523 can be used to identify tau deposits in AD brain. (orig.)

  4. A quantitative comparison of plaque types in Alzheimer's disease and senile dementia of the Lewy body type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, J E; Edwards, R J; Gentleman, S M; Ince, P G; Perry, R H; Royston, M C; Roberts, G W

    1996-01-01

    In a previous study we reported no difference in the overall beta-amyloid protein (beta AP) load between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and senile dementia of the Lewy body type (SDLT). However, it is possible that differences in the morphology of beta AP plaque types exist, analogous to the differences in cytoskeletal pathology found in these two disorders. We have carried out a quantitative image analysis of plaque subtypes in the temporal lobe of AD (n = 8), SDLT (n = 9) and control (n = 11) cases. Measurements of beta AP load and plaque density were consistently higher in AD and SDLT than in controls. When AD and SDLT cases were compared no differences were seen in either the density or relative proportions of classic and diffuse plaques. Based on these results we suggest that the variation in the clinical course of these diseases reflects differences in the cytoskeletal pathology, whereas the final stages of profound dementia common to both disorders is associated with the deposition of beta AP.

  5. Chiral recognition in amyloid fiber growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbeev, Vladimir; Grogg, Marcel; Ruiz, Jérémy; Boehringer, Régis; Schirer, Alicia; Hellwig, Petra; Jeschke, Gunnar; Hilvert, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Insoluble amyloid fibers represent a pathological signature of many human diseases. To treat such diseases, inhibition of amyloid formation has been proposed as a possible therapeutic strategy. d-Peptides, which possess high proteolytic stability and lessened immunogenicity, are attractive candidates in this context. However, a molecular understanding of chiral recognition phenomena for d-peptides and l-amyloids is currently incomplete. Here we report experiments on amyloid growth of individual enantiomers and their mixtures for two distinct polypeptide systems of different length and structural organization: a 44-residue covalently-linked dimer derived from a peptide corresponding to the [20-41]-fragment of human β2-microglobulin (β2m) and the 99-residue full-length protein. For the dimeric [20-41]β2m construct, a combination of electron paramagnetic resonance of nitroxide-labeled constructs and (13) C-isotope edited FT-IR spectroscopy of (13) C-labeled preparations was used to show that racemic mixtures precipitate as intact homochiral fibers, i.e. undergo spontaneous Pasteur-like resolution into a mixture of left- and right-handed amyloids. In the case of full-length β2m, the presence of the mirror-image d-protein affords morphologically distinct amyloids that are composed largely of enantiopure domains. Removal of the l-component from hybrid amyloids by proteolytic digestion results in their rapid transformation into characteristic long straight d-β2m amyloids. Furthermore, the full-length d-enantiomer of β2m was found to be an efficient inhibitor of l-β2m amyloid growth. This observation highlights the potential of longer d-polypeptides for future development into inhibitors of amyloid propagation. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy, blood-brain barrier disruption and amyloid accumulation in SAMP8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle, Jaume; Duran-Vilaregut, Joaquim; Manich, Gemma; Pallàs, Mercè; Camins, Antoni; Vilaplana, Jordi; Pelegrí, Carme

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrovascular dysfunction and β-amyloid peptide deposition on the walls of cerebral blood vessels might be an early event in the development of Alzheimer's disease. Here we studied the time course of amyloid deposition in blood vessels and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in the CA1 subzone of the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice and the association between these two variables. We also studied the association between the amyloid deposition in blood vessels and the recently described amyloid clusters in the parenchyma, as well as the association of these clusters with vessels in which the BBB is disrupted. SAMP8 mice showed greater amyloid deposition in blood vessels than age-matched ICR-CD1 control mice. Moreover, at 12 months of age the number of vessels with a disrupted BBB had increased in both strains, especially SAMP8 animals. At this age, all the vessels with amyloid deposition showed BBB disruption, but several capillaries with an altered BBB showed no amyloid on their walls. Moreover, amyloid clusters showed no spatial association with vessels with amyloid deposition, nor with vessels in which the BBB had been disrupted. Finally, we can conclude that vascular amyloid deposition seems to induce BBB alterations, but BBB disruption may also be due to other factors. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Heparan sulfate regulates amyloid precursor protein processing by BACE1, the Alzheimer's β-secretase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholefield, Zoe; Yates, Edwin A.; Wayne, Gareth; Amour, Augustin; McDowell, William; Turnbull, Jeremy E.

    2003-01-01

    Cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the Alzheimer's β-secretase (BACE1) is a key step in generating amyloid β-peptide, the main component of amyloid plaques. Here we report evidence that heparan sulfate (HS) interacts with β-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE) 1 and regulates its cleavage of APP. We show that HS and heparin interact directly with BACE1 and inhibit in vitro processing of peptide and APP substrates. Inhibitory activity is dependent on saccharide size and specific structural characteristics, and the mechanism of action involves blocking access of substrate to the active site. In cellular assays, HS specifically inhibits BACE1 cleavage of APP but not alternative cleavage by α-secretase. Endogenous HS immunoprecipitates with BACE1 and colocalizes with BACE1 in the Golgi complex and at the cell surface, two of its putative sites of action. Furthermore, inhibition of cellular HS synthesis results in enhanced BACE1 activity. Our findings identify HS as a natural regulator of BACE1 and suggest a novel mechanism for control of APP processing. PMID:14530380

  8. General amyloid inhibitors? A critical examination of the inhibition of IAPP amyloid formation by inositol stereoisomers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    Full Text Available Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP or amylin forms amyloid deposits in the islets of Langerhans; a process that is believed to contribute to the progression of type 2 diabetes and to the failure of islet transplants. An emerging theme in amyloid research is the hypothesis that the toxic species produced during amyloid formation by different polypeptides share common features and exert their effects by common mechanisms. If correct, this suggests that inhibitors of amyloid formation by one polypeptide might be effective against other amyloidogenic sequences. IAPP and Aβ, the peptide responsible for amyloid formation in Alzheimer's disease, are particularly interesting in this regard as they are both natively unfolded in their monomeric states and share some common characteristics. Comparatively little effort has been expended on the design of IAPP amyloid inhibitors, thus it is natural to inquire if Aβ inhibitors are effective against IAPP, especially since no IAPP inhibitors have been clinically approved. A range of compounds inhibit Aβ amyloid formation, including various stereoisomers of inositol. Myo-, scyllo-, and epi-inositol have been shown to induce conformational changes in Aβ and prevent Aβ amyloid fibril formation by stabilizing non-fibrillar β-sheet structures. We investigate the ability of inositol stereoisomers to inhibit amyloid formation by IAPP. The compounds do not induce a conformational change in IAPP and are ineffective inhibitors of IAPP amyloid formation, although some do lead to modest apparent changes in IAPP amyloid fibril morphology. Thus not all classes of Aβ inhibitors are effective against IAPP. This work provides a basis of comparison to work on polyphenol based inhibitors of IAPP amyloid formation and helps provide clues as to the features which render them effective. The study also helps provide information for further efforts in rational inhibitor design.

  9. The role of beta amyloid in Alzheimer's disease: still a cause of everything or the only one who got caught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdile, Giuseppe; Fuller, Stephanie; Atwood, Craig S; Laws, Simon M; Gandy, Samuel E; Martins, Ralph N

    2004-10-01

    The beta amyloid (A beta) protein is a key molecule in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The tendency of the A beta peptide to aggregate, its reported neurotoxicity, and genetic linkage studies, have led to a hypothesis of AD pathogenesis that many AD researchers term the amyloid cascade hypothesis. In this hypothesis, an increased production of A beta results in neurodegeneration and ultimately dementia through a cascade of events. In the past 15 years, debate amongst AD researchers has arisen as to whether A beta is a cause or an effect of the pathogenic process. Recent in vitro and in vivo research has consolidated the theory that A beta is the primary cause, initiating secondary events, culminating in the neuropathological hallmarks associated with AD. This research has led to the development of therapeutic agents, currently in human clinical trials, which target A beta.

  10. Variables affecting viral plaque formation in microculture plaque assays using homologous antibody in a liquid overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, A S; Stanton, G J; Green, J A; Baron, S

    1977-05-01

    A liquid antibody microculture plaque assay and the variables that govern its effectiveness are described. The assay is based on the principle that low concentrations of homologous antibody can inhibit secondary plaque formation without inhibiting formation of primary plaques. Thus, clear plaques that followed a linear dose response were produced. The assay was found to be more rapid, less cumbersome, and less expensive than assays using agar overlays and larger tissue culture plates. It was reproducible, quantitative, and had about the same sensitivity as the agar overlay technique in measuring infectious coxsackievirus type B-3. It was more sensitive in assaying adenovirus type 3 and Western equine encephalomyelitis, vesicular stomatitis, Semliki forest, Sendai, Sindbis, and Newcastle disease viruses than were liquid, carboxymethylcellulose, and methylcellulose microculture plaque assays. The variables influencing sensitivity and accuracy, as determined by using coxsackievirus type B-3, were: (i) the inoculum volume of virus; (ii) the incubation period of virus; and (iii) the incubation temperature.

  11. DECT evaluation of noncalcified coronary artery plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravanfar Haghighi, Rezvan [Medical Imaging Research Center and Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Science, Shiraz 719 363 5899 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chatterjee, S. [BGVS Chemical Engineering Building (Old), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Tabin, Milo; Singh, Rishi P.; Sharma, Munish; Krishna, Karthik [Department of Forensic Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Sharma, Sanjiv; Jagia, Priya [Department of Cardiac-Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Ray, Ruma; Arava, Sudhir [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Yadav, Rakesh [Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Vani, V. C. [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Lakshmi, R.; Kumar, Pratik, E-mail: drpratikkumar@gmail.com [Department of Cardiac-Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Mandal, Susama R. [Department of Medical Physics Unit IRCH, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Composition of the coronary artery plaque is known to have critical role in heart attack. While calcified plaque can easily be diagnosed by conventional CT, it fails to distinguish between fibrous and lipid rich plaques. In the present paper, the authors discuss the experimental techniques and obtain a numerical algorithm by which the electron density (ρ{sub e}) and the effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) can be obtained from the dual energy computed tomography (DECT) data. The idea is to use this inversion method to characterize and distinguish between the lipid and fibrous coronary artery plaques. Methods: For the purpose of calibration of the CT machine, the authors prepare aqueous samples whose calculated values of (ρ{sub e}, Z{sub eff}) lie in the range of (2.65 × 10{sup 23} ≤ ρ{sub e} ≤ 3.64 × 10{sup 23}/cm{sup 3}) and (6.80 ≤ Z{sub eff} ≤ 8.90). The authors fill the phantom with these known samples and experimentally determine HU(V{sub 1}) and HU(V{sub 2}), with V{sub 1},V{sub 2} = 100 and 140 kVp, for the same pixels and thus determine the coefficients of inversion that allow us to determine (ρ{sub e}, Z{sub eff}) from the DECT data. The HU(100) and HU(140) for the coronary artery plaque are obtained by filling the channel of the coronary artery with a viscous solution of methyl cellulose in water, containing 2% contrast. These (ρ{sub e}, Z{sub eff}) values of the coronary artery plaque are used for their characterization on the basis of theoretical models of atomic compositions of the plaque materials. These results are compared with histopathological report. Results: The authors find that the calibration gives ρ{sub e} with an accuracy of ±3.5% while Z{sub eff} is found within ±1% of the actual value, the confidence being 95%. The HU(100) and HU(140) are found to be considerably different for the same plaque at the same position and there is a linear trend between these two HU values. It is noted that pure lipid type plaques

  12. Amyloid- and FDG-PET in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Correlation with pathological prion protein in neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías-Guiu, Jordi A; Guerrero-Márquez, Carmen; Cabrera-Martín, María Nieves; Gómez-Pinedo, Ulises; Romeral, María; Mayo, Diego; Porta-Etessam, Jesús; Moreno-Ramos, Teresa; Carreras, José Luis; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2017-05-04

    The role of positron emission tomography (PET) in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is less defined than in other neurodegenerative diseases. We studied the correlation between the uptake of 18 F-florbetaben and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose with pathological prion protein deposition in histopathology in a case. A patient with 80 y old with a rapid neurological deterioration with a confirmed diagnosis of CJD was studied. PET and MRI studies were performed between 13-20 d before the death. A region of interest analysis was performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping. MRI showed atrophy with no other alterations. FDG-PET showed extensive areas of hypometabolism including left frontoparietal lobes as well as bilateral thalamus. Correlation between uptake of 18 F-florbetaben and pathological prion protein deposition was r = 0.786 (p < 0.05). Otherwise, correlation between uptake of 18 F-FDG and pathological prion protein was r = 0.357 (p = 0.385). Immunohistochemistry with β-amyloid did not show amyloid deposition or neuritic plaques. Our study supports the use of FDG-PET in the assessment of CJD. FDG-PET may be especially useful in cases of suspected CJD and negative MRI. Furthermore, this case report provides more evidence about the behavioral of amyloid tracers, and the possibility of a low-affinity binding to other non-amyloid proteins, such as the pathological prion protein, is discussed.

  13. Immunotherapy of Alzheimer's disease (AD): from murine models to anti-amyloid beta (Abeta) human monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geylis, Valeria; Steinitz, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The deposition of amyloid beta (Abeta) protein is a key pathological feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In murine models of AD, both active and passive immunization against Abeta induce a marked reduction in amyloid brain burden and an improvement in cognitive functions. Preliminary results of a prematurely terminated clinical trial where AD patients were actively vaccinated with aggregated Abeta bear resemblance to those documented in murine models. Passive immunization of AD patients with anti-Abeta antibodies, in particular human antibodies, is a strategy that provides a more cautious management and control of any undesired side effects. Sera of all healthy adults contain anti-Abeta IgG autoimmune antibodies. Hence antigen-committed human B-cells are easily immortalized by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) into anti-Abeta secreting cell lines. Two anti-Abeta human monoclonal antibodies which we recently prepared bind to the N-terminus of Abeta peptide and were shown to stain amyloid plaques in non-fixed brain sections from an AD patient. It is anticipated that specifically selected anti-Abeta human monoclonal antibodies could reduce and inhibit deposits of amyloid in brain while avoiding the cognitive decline that characterizes AD. In the future, this type of antibody may prove to be a promising immune therapy for the disease.

  14. Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sandra; Schulz, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), taxonomical name human gammaherpesvirus 8, is a phylogenetically old human virus that co-evolved with human populations, but is now only common (seroprevalence greater than 10%) in sub-Saharan Africa, around the Mediterranean Sea, parts of South America and in a few ethnic communities. KSHV causes three human malignancies, Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and many cases of the plasmablastic form of multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) as well as occasional cases of plasmablastic lymphoma arising from MCD; it has also been linked to rare cases of bone marrow failure and hepatitis. As it has colonized humans physiologically for many thousand years, cofactors are needed to allow it to unfold its pathogenic potential. In most cases, these include immune defects of genetic, iatrogenic or infectious origin, and inflammation appears to play an important role in disease development. Our much improved understanding of its life cycle and its role in pathogenesis should now allow us to develop new therapeutic strategies directed against key viral proteins or intracellular pathways that are crucial for virus replication or persistence. Likewise, its limited (for a herpesvirus) distribution and transmission should offer an opportunity for the development and use of a vaccine to prevent transmission. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Human oncogenic viruses’. PMID:28893942

  15. Approach To Unstable Plaque In Carotid Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Ghabaee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Risk of cerebral infarction due to thrombo emboli originating  from carotid artery disease estimated to be near 15%, and this risk  is closely associated with the severity of luminal stenosis. But at the same time characteristics  of the plaque should be taken into account for therapeutic planning when the patient is asymptomatic and the diameter of the stenosis does not reach the threshold of 70%. Search for markers of plaque vulnerability, instability, or thromboembolic potential as complementary to the degree of the luminal stenosis in stroke risk prediction should be considered .These morphologic features of carotid plaques are increasingly believed to be one of those markers that could carry further prognostic information, and early recognition of these plaques features may identify a high-risk subgroup of patients who might particularly benefit from aggressive interventions with aggressive medical treatment. Color and duplex Doppler sonography  evaluates both  morphologic and hemodynamic   abnormalitie of carotid. Echogensity, degree of stenosis and plaque surface features are essential parameters of morphological abnormality.

  16. Evidence for a central role of PrP helix 2 in the nucleation of amyloid fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ryo; Kuwata, Kazuo

    2018-02-01

    Amyloid fibrils are filamentous protein aggregates associated with the pathogenesis of a wide variety of human diseases. The formation of such aggregates typically follows nucleation-dependent kinetics, wherein the assembly and structural conversion of amyloidogenic proteins into oligomeric aggregates (nuclei) is the rate-limiting step of the overall reaction. In this study, we sought to gain structural insights into the oligomeric nuclei of the human prion protein (PrP) by preparing a series of deletion mutants lacking 14-44 of the C-terminal 107 residues of PrP and examined the kinetics and thermodynamics of these mutants in amyloid formation. An analysis of the experimental data using the concepts of the Φ-value analysis indicated that the helix 2 region (residues 168-196) acquires an amyloid-like β-sheet during nucleation, whereas the other regions preserves a relatively disordered structure in the nuclei. This finding suggests that the helix 2 region serves as the nucleation site for the assembly of amyloid fibrils.-Honda, R., Kuwata, K. Evidence for a central role of PrP helix 2 in the nucleation of amyloid fibrils.

  17. Arctigenin effectively ameliorates memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease model mice targeting both β-amyloid production and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; Yan, Jianming; Jiang, Wei; Yao, Xin-gang; Chen, Jing; Chen, Lili; Li, Chenjing; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2013-08-07

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) chiefly characterizes a progressively neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, and eventually leads to irreversible loss of intellectual abilities. The β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced neurodegeneration is believed to be the main pathological mechanism of AD, and Aβ production inhibition or its clearance promotion is one of the promising therapeutic strategies for anti-AD research. Here, we report that the natural product arctigenin from Arctium lappa (L.) can both inhibit Aβ production by suppressing β-site amyloid precursor protein cleavage enzyme 1 expression and promote Aβ clearance by enhancing autophagy through AKT/mTOR signaling inhibition and AMPK/Raptor pathway activation as investigated in cells and APP/PS1 transgenic AD model mice. Moreover, the results showing that treatment of arctigenin in mice highly decreased Aβ formation and senile plaques and efficiently ameliorated AD mouse memory impairment strongly highlight the potential of arctigenin in anti-AD drug discovery.

  18. High-resolution analytical imaging and electron holography of magnetite particles in amyloid cores of Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Ponce, Arturo; Collingwood, Joanna F.; Arellano-Jiménez, M. Josefina; Zhu, Xiongwei; Rogers, Jack T.; Betancourt, Israel; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Perry, George

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal accumulation of brain metals is a key feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Formation of amyloidplaque cores (APC) is related to interactions with biometals, especially Fe, Cu and Zn, but their particular structural associations and roles remain unclear. Using an integrative set of advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, including spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM), nano-beam electron diffraction, electron holography and analytical spectroscopy techniques (EDX and EELS), we demonstrate that Fe in APC is present as iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetite nanoparticles. Here we show that Fe was accumulated primarily as nanostructured particles within APC, whereas Cu and Zn were distributed through the amyloid fibers. Remarkably, these highly organized crystalline magnetite nanostructures directly bound into fibrillar Aβ showed characteristic superparamagnetic responses with saturated magnetization with circular contours, as observed for the first time by off-axis electron holography of nanometer scale particles. PMID:27121137

  19. Extracellular vesicles from human pancreatic islets suppress human islet amyloid polypeptide amyloid formation

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Diana; Horvath, Istvan; Heath, Nikki; Hicks, Ryan; Forslöw, Anna; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

    2017-01-01

    Protein assembly into amyloid fibers underlies such neurodegenerative disorders as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) also involves amyloid formation, although in the pancreas. Because there are no cures for amyloid diseases and T2D is on the rise due to an increasing prevalence of obesity, identifying involved mechanisms and control processes is of utmost importance. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can mediate physiological and pathological communication both loc...

  20. Assessment of vulnerable plaque composition by matching the deformation of a parametric plaque model to measured plaque deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldewsing, Radj A; Schaar, Johannes A; Mastik, Frits; Oomens, Cees W J; van der Steen, Antonius F W

    2005-04-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) elastography visualizes local radial strain of arteries in so-called elastograms to detect rupture-prone plaques. However, due to the unknown arterial stress distribution these elastograms cannot be directly interpreted as a morphology and material composition image. To overcome this limitation we have developed a method that reconstructs a Young's modulus image from an elastogram. This method is especially suited for thin-cap fibroatheromas (TCFAs), i.e., plaques with a media region containing a lipid pool covered by a cap. Reconstruction is done by a minimization algorithm that matches the strain image output, calculated with a parametric finite element model (PFEM) representation of a TCFA, to an elastogram by iteratively updating the PFEM geometry and material parameters. These geometry parameters delineate the TCFA media, lipid pool and cap regions by circles. The material parameter for each region is a Young's modulus, EM, EL, and EC, respectively. The method was successfully tested on computer-simulated TCFAs (n = 2), one defined by circles, the other by tracing TCFA histology, and additionally on a physical phantom (n = 1) having a stiff wall (measured EM = 16.8 kPa) with an eccentric soft region (measured EL = 4.2 kPa). Finally, it was applied on human coronary plaques in vitro (n = 1) and in vivo (n = 1). The corresponding simulated and measured elastograms of these plaques showed radial strain values from 0% up to 2% at a pressure differential of 20, 20, 1, 20, and 1 mmHg respectively. The used/reconstructed Young's moduli [kPa] were for the circular plaque EL = 50/66, EM = 1500/1484, EC = 2000/2047, for the traced plaque EL = 25/1, EM = 1000/1148, EC = 1500/1491, for the phantom EL = 4.2/4 kPa, EM = 16.8/16, for the in vitro plaque EL = n.a./29, EM = n.a./647, EC = n.a./1784 kPa and for the in vivo plaque EL = n.a./2, EM = n.a./188, Ec = n.a./188 kPa.

  1. Effects of Low Carbohydrate High Protein (LCHP) diet on atherosclerotic plaque phenotype in ApoE/LDLR-/- mice: FT-IR and Raman imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, T P; Marzec, K M; Chlopicki, S; Maślak, E; Jasztal, A; Franczyk-Żarów, M; Czyżyńska-Cichoń, I; Moszkowski, T; Kostogrys, R B; Baranska, M

    2015-09-22

    Low Carbohydrate High Protein (LCHP) diet displays pro-atherogenic effects, however, the exact mechanisms involved are still unclear. Here, with the use of vibrational imaging, such as Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman (RS) spectroscopies, we characterize biochemical content of plaques in Brachiocephalic Arteries (BCA) from ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice fed LCHP diet as compared to control, recomended by American Institute of Nutrition, AIN diet. FT-IR images were taken from 6-10 sections of BCA from each mice and were complemented with RS measurements with higher spatial resolution of chosen areas of plaque sections. In aortic plaques from LCHP fed ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice, the content of cholesterol and cholesterol esters was increased, while that of proteins was decreased as evidenced by global FT-IR analysis. High resolution imaging by RS identified necrotic core/foam cells, lipids (including cholesterol crystals), calcium mineralization and fibrous cap. The decreased relative thickness of the outer fibrous cap and the presence of buried caps were prominent features of the plaques in ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice fed LCHP diet. In conclusion, FT-IR and Raman-based imaging provided a complementary insight into the biochemical composition of the plaque suggesting that LCHP diet increased plaque cholesterol and cholesterol esters contents of atherosclerotic plaque, supporting the cholesterol-driven pathogenesis of LCHP-induced atherogenesis.

  2. Amyloid Imaging in Aging and Dementia: Testing the Amyloid Hypothesis In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Rabinovici

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid imaging represents a major advance in neuroscience, enabling the detection and quantification of pathologic protein aggregations in the brain. In this review we survey current amyloid imaging techniques, focusing on positron emission tomography (PET with ^{11}carbon-labelled Pittsburgh Compound-B (11C-PIB, the most extensively studied and best validated tracer. PIB binds specifically to fibrillar beta-amyloid (Aβ deposits, and is a sensitive marker for Aβ pathology in cognitively normal older individuals and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD. PIB-PET provides us with a powerful tool to examine in vivo the relationship between amyloid deposition, clinical symptoms, and structural and functional brain changes in the continuum between normal aging and AD. Amyloid imaging studies support a model in which amyloid deposition is an early event on the path to dementia, beginning insidiously in cognitively normal individuals, and accompanied by subtle cognitive decline and functional and structural brain changes suggestive of incipient AD. As patients progress to dementia, clinical decline and neurodegeneration accelerate and proceed independently of amyloid accumulation. In the future, amyloid imaging is likely to supplement clinical evaluation in selecting patients for anti-amyloid therapies, while MRI and FDG-PET may be more appropriate markers of clinical progression.

  3. Diagnostic radionuclide imaging of amyloid: biological targeting by circulating human serum amyloid P component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, P.N.; Lavender, J.P.; Myers, M.J.; Pepys, M.B.

    1988-06-25

    The specific molecular affinity of the normal plasma protein, serum amyloid P component (SAP), for all known types of amyloid fibrils was used to develop a new general diagnostic method for in-vivo radionuclide imaging of amyloid deposits. After intravenous injection of /sup 123/I-labelled purified human SAP there was specific uptake into amyloid deposits in all affected patients, 7 with systematic AL amyloid, 5 with AA amyloid, and 2 with ..beta../sub 2/M amyloid, in contrast to the complete absence of any tissue localisation in 5 control subjects. Distinctive high-resolution scintigraphic images, even of minor deposits in the carpal regions, bone marrow, or adrenals, were obtained. This procedure should yield much information on the natural history and the management of amyloidosis, the presence of which has hitherto been confirmed only by biopsy. Clearance and metabolic studies indicated that, in the presence of extensive amyloidosis, the rate of synthesis of SAP was greatly increased despite maintenance of normal plasma levels. Futhermore, once localised to amyloid deposits the /sup 123/I-SAP persisted for long periods and was apparently protected from its normal rapid degradation. These findings shed new light on the pathophysiology of amyloid and may have implications for therapeutic strategies based upon specific molecular targeting with SAP.

  4. In vivo amyloid-β imaging in the APPPS1-21 transgenic mouse model with a 89Zr- labeled monoclonal antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Marie eWaldron

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The accumulation of amyloid-β is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease and is a target for molecular imaging probes to aid in diagnosis and disease monitoring. This study evaluated the feasibility of using a radiolabeled monoclonal anti-amyloid-β antibody (JRF/AβN/25 to non-invasively assess amyloid-β burden in aged transgenic mice (APPPS1-21 with μPET imaging.Methods: We investigated the antibody JRF/AβN/25 that binds to full-length Aβ. JRF/AβN/25 was radiolabeled with a [89Zr]-desferal chelate and intravenously injected into 12-13 month aged APPPS1-21 mice and their wild-type (WT controls. Mice underwent in vivo μPET imaging at 2, 4 and 7 days post injection and were sacrificed at the end of each time point to assess brain penetrance, plaque labeling, biodistribution and tracer stability. To confirm imaging specificity we also evaluated brain uptake of a non-amyloid targeting [89Zr]-labeled antibody (Trastuzumab as a negative control, additionally we performed a competitive blocking study with non-radiolabeled Df-Bz-JRF/AβN/25 and finally we assessed the possible confounding effects of blood retention. Results: Voxel-wise analysis of μPET data demonstrated significant [89Zr]-Df-Bz-JRF/AβN/25 retention in APPPS1-21 mice at all time points investigated. With ex vivo measures of radioactivity, significantly higher retention of [89Zr]-Df-Bz-JRF/AβN/25 was found at 4 and 7 day pi in APPPS1-21 mice. Despite the observed genotypic differences, comparisons with immunohistochemistry revealed that in vivo plaque labeling was low. Furthermore, pre-treatment with Df-Bz-JRF/AβN/25 only partially blocked [89Zr]-Df-Bz-JRF/AβN/25 uptake indicative of a high contribution of non-specific binding. Conclusion: Amyloid plaques were detected in vivo with a radiolabeled monoclonal anti-amyloid antibody. The low brain penetrance of the antibodies in addition to non-specific binding prevented an accurate estimation of plaque

  5. Emerging targeted therapies for plaque psoriasis – impact of ixekizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemi T

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tiana Kazemi,1 Benjamin Farahnik,2 John Koo,3 Kourosh Beroukhim1 1University of California – Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, 2University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT, 3University of California – San Francisco, Department of Dermatology, Psoriasis and Skin Treatment Center, San Francisco, CA, USA Background: Recent studies into the pathogenesis of psoriasis have identified the importance of interleukin 17 (IL-17 in disease activity and have thus provided a new target for biologic therapy. Ixekizumab, the most recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved anti-IL-17 biologic agent, appears to be a promising medication for patients suffering from moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Methods: We reviewed the results of phase III trials for ixekizumab in order to assess the efficacy, safety, and impact on quality of life of this agent in the treatment of plaque psoriasis. Additionally, we compared these results to phase II and phase III trials for other biologic psoriasis medications including the anti-IL-23 agents tildrakizumab and guselkumab, the combined anti-IL-12 and anti-IL-23 agent ustekinumab, and the anti-IL-17 agents brodalumab and secukinumab. Results: Pooled results from individual studies demonstrate that among the most efficacious dosing regimens of these anti-interleukin therapies, ixekizumab achieves higher Psoriasis Area and Severity Index 75 rates and similar or higher static Physician Global Assessment 0-1 rates than the other anti-IL-17 and anti-IL-23 agents. The safety profile of ixekizumab is similar to these agents, with nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory infection, headache, arthralgia, and injection-site erythema as the most commonly reported adverse events. Conclusion: Ixekizumab is a highly efficacious, newly FDA-approved treatment for moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis that demonstrates a robust clinical response, significant improvement in patient quality of

  6. Pathogenesis of achalasia cardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Uday C; Daschakraborty, Sunil B; Singh, Renu

    2012-06-28

    Achalasia cardia is one of the common causes of motor dysphagia. Though the disease was first described more than 300 years ago, exact pathogenesis of this condition still remains enigmatic. Pathophysiologically, achalasia cardia is caused by loss of inhibitory ganglion in the myenteric plexus of the esophagus. In the initial stage, degeneration of inhibitory nerves in the esophagus results in unopposed action of excitatory neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, resulting in high amplitude non-peristaltic contractions (vigorous achalasia); progressive loss of cholinergic neurons over time results in dilation and low amplitude simultaneous contractions in the esophageal body (classic achalasia). Since the initial description, several studies have attempted to explore initiating agents that may cause the disease, such as viral infection, other environmental factors, autoimmunity, and genetic factors. Though Chagas disease, which mimics achalasia, is caused by an infective agent, available evidence suggests that infection may not be an independent cause of primary achalasia. A genetic basis for achalasia is supported by reports showing occurrence of disease in monozygotic twins, siblings and other first-degree relatives and occurrence in association with other genetic diseases such as Down's syndrome and Parkinson's disease. Polymorphisms in genes encoding for nitric oxide synthase, receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide, interleukin 23 and the ALADIN gene have been reported. However, studies on larger numbers of patients and controls from different ethnic groups are needed before definite conclusions can be obtained. Currently, the disease is believed to be multi-factorial, with autoimmune mechanisms triggered by infection in a genetically predisposed individual leading to degeneration of inhibitory ganglia in the wall of the esophagus.

  7. Pathogenesis of achalasia cardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Uday C; Daschakraborty, Sunil B; Singh, Renu

    2012-01-01

    Achalasia cardia is one of the common causes of motor dysphagia. Though the disease was first described more than 300 years ago, exact pathogenesis of this condition still remains enigmatic. Pathophysiologically, achalasia cardia is caused by loss of inhibitory ganglion in the myenteric plexus of the esophagus. In the initial stage, degeneration of inhibitory nerves in the esophagus results in unopposed action of excitatory neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, resulting in high amplitude non-peristaltic contractions (vigorous achalasia); progressive loss of cholinergic neurons over time results in dilation and low amplitude simultaneous contractions in the esophageal body (classic achalasia). Since the initial description, several studies have attempted to explore initiating agents that may cause the disease, such as viral infection, other environmental factors, autoimmunity, and genetic factors. Though Chagas disease, which mimics achalasia, is caused by an infective agent, available evidence suggests that infection may not be an independent cause of primary achalasia. A genetic basis for achalasia is supported by reports showing occurrence of disease in monozygotic twins, siblings and other first-degree relatives and occurrence in association with other genetic diseases such as Down’s syndrome and Parkinson’s disease. Polymorphisms in genes encoding for nitric oxide synthase, receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide, interleukin 23 and the ALADIN gene have been reported. However, studies on larger numbers of patients and controls from different ethnic groups are needed before definite conclusions can be obtained. Currently, the disease is believed to be multi-factorial, with autoimmune mechanisms triggered by infection in a genetically predisposed individual leading to degeneration of inhibitory ganglia in the wall of the esophagus. PMID:22791940

  8. Amyloid oligomer structure characterization from simulations: A general method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Phuong H., E-mail: phuong.nguyen@ibpc.fr [Laboratoire de Biochimie Théorique, UPR 9080, CNRS Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité IBPC, 13 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Li, Mai Suan [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Derreumaux, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.derreumaux@ibpc.fr [Laboratoire de Biochimie Théorique, UPR 9080, CNRS Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité IBPC, 13 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Institut Universitaire de France, 103 Bvd Saint-Germain, 75005 Paris (France)

    2014-03-07

    Amyloid oligomers and plaques are composed of multiple chemically identical proteins. Therefore, one of the first fundamental problems in the characterization of structures from simulations is the treatment of the degeneracy, i.e., the permutation of the molecules. Second, the intramolecular and intermolecular degrees of freedom of the various molecules must be taken into account. Currently, the well-known dihedral principal component analysis method only considers the intramolecular degrees of freedom, and other methods employing collective variables can only describe intermolecular degrees of freedom at the global level. With this in mind, we propose a general method that identifies all the structures accurately. The basis idea is that the intramolecular and intermolecular states are described in terms of combinations of single-molecule and double-molecule states, respectively, and the overall structures of oligomers are the product basis of the intramolecular and intermolecular states. This way, the degeneracy is automatically avoided. The method is illustrated on the conformational ensemble of the tetramer of the Alzheimer's peptide Aβ{sub 9−40}, resulting from two atomistic molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent, each of 200 ns, starting from two distinct structures.

  9. Shear-Induced Amyloid Formation in the Brain: I. Potential Vascular and Parenchymal Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbore, Conrad N

    2016-09-06

    Shear distortion of amyloid-beta (Aβ) solutions accelerates amyloid cascade reactions that may yield different toxic oligomers than those formed in quiescent solutions. Recent experiments indicate that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) containing Aβ flow through narrow brain perivascular pathways and brain parenchyma. This paper suggests that such flow causes shear distortion of Aβ molecules involving conformation changes that may be one of the initiating events in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ shearing can occur in or around brain arteries and arterioles and is suggested as the origin of cerebral amyloid angiopathy deposits in cerebrovascular walls. Comparatively low flow rates of ISF within the narrow extracellular spaces (ECS) of the brain parenchyma are suggested as a possible initiating factor in both the formation of neurotoxic Aβ42 oligomers and amyloid fibrils. Aβ42 in slow-flowing ISF can gain significant shear energy at or near the walls of tortuous brain ECS flow paths, promoting the formation of a shear-distorted, excited state hydrophobic Aβ42* conformation. This Aβ42* molecule could possibly be involved in one of two paths, one involving rapid adsorption to a brain membrane surface, ultimately forming neurotoxic oligomers on membranes, and the other ultimately forming plaque within the ECS flow pathways. Rising Aβ concentrations combined with shear at or near critical brain membranes are proposed as contributing factors to Alzheimer's disease neurotoxicity. These hypotheses may be applicable in other neurodegenerative diseases, including tauopathies and alpha-synucleinopathies, in which shear-distorted proteins also may form in the brain ECS.

  10. Cobalt60 plaques in recurrent retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fass, D.; McCormick, B.; Abramson, D.; Ellsworth, R. (Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY, NY (USA))

    1991-08-01

    Cobalt60 plaque irradiation is one treatment option for patients with recurrent retinoblastoma following conventional external beam irradiation (ERT). Tumorocidal doses can be delivered without excessive risk of normal tissue injury. In patients not considered candidates for xenon arc or cryotherapy, 60Co is an alternative to enucleation. Between 1968 and 1987, 85 patients were treated with 60Co plaques, 72 of whom had failed prior ERT. Age at diagnosis ranged from 1 week to 4 years. There are 37 males and 35 females. Seventy-one patients had bilateral disease and one had unilateral. Three patients had both eyes plaqued. Prior ERT ranged from 30 to 70 Gy (mean 4200 Gy). Time from initial therapy to failure ranged from 13 to 60 months. Cobalt plaques of 10 mm, 15 mm, or 10 {times} 15 mm were used depending on tumor size and location. Dose prescribed to the apex of the tumor ranged from 30 to 50 Gy (median 40 Gy) given over 3 to 8 days. Twelve patients had two plaque applications; three patients had three plaque applications. All patients were followed with routine ophthalmoscopic examinations. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 22 years (mean 8.7). Seven patients died of metastatic disease; 10 patients developed non-ocular second tumors. Thirty patients required enucleation. Twenty-two patients had clear tumor progression, two patients had radiation complications, and six patients had a combination of tumor growth and complications. Cobalt60 can salvage eyes in retinoblastoma patients failing ERT. Currently, the authors are using I125 in an attempt to spare normal ocular tissue and reduce subsequent complications.

  11. Cobalt60 plaques in recurrent retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fass, D.; McCormick, B.; Abramson, D.; Ellsworth, R.

    1991-01-01

    Cobalt60 plaque irradiation is one treatment option for patients with recurrent retinoblastoma following conventional external beam irradiation (ERT). Tumorocidal doses can be delivered without excessive risk of normal tissue injury. In patients not considered candidates for xenon arc or cryotherapy, 60Co is an alternative to enucleation. Between 1968 and 1987, 85 patients were treated with 60Co plaques, 72 of whom had failed prior ERT. Age at diagnosis ranged from 1 week to 4 years. There are 37 males and 35 females. Seventy-one patients had bilateral disease and one had unilateral. Three patients had both eyes plaqued. Prior ERT ranged from 30 to 70 Gy (mean 4200 Gy). Time from initial therapy to failure ranged from 13 to 60 months. Cobalt plaques of 10 mm, 15 mm, or 10 x 15 mm were used depending on tumor size and location. Dose prescribed to the apex of the tumor ranged from 30 to 50 Gy (median 40 Gy) given over 3 to 8 days. Twelve patients had two plaque applications; three patients had three plaque applications. All patients were followed with routine ophthalmoscopic examinations. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 22 years (mean 8.7). Seven patients died of metastatic disease; 10 patients developed non-ocular second tumors. Thirty patients required enucleation. Twenty-two patients had clear tumor progression, two patients had radiation complications, and six patients had a combination of tumor growth and complications. Cobalt60 can salvage eyes in retinoblastoma patients failing ERT. Currently, the authors are using I125 in an attempt to spare normal ocular tissue and reduce subsequent complications

  12. The role of clusterin in Alzheimer's disease: pathways, pathogenesis, and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-Tai; Tan, Lan

    2012-04-01

    Genetic variation in clusterin gene, also known as apolipoprotein J, has been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) through replicated genome-wide studies, and plasma clusterin levels are associated with brain atrophy, baseline prevalence and severity, and rapid clinical progression in patients with AD, highlighting the importance of clusterin in AD pathogenesis. Emerging data suggest that clusterin contributes to AD through various pathways, including amyloid-β aggregation and clearance, lipid metabolism, neuroinflammation, and neuronal cell cycle control and apoptosis. Moreover, epigenetic regulation of the clusterin expression also seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. Emerging knowledge of the contribution of clusterin to the pathogenesis of AD presents new opportunities for AD therapy.

  13. Fibril specific, conformation dependent antibodies recognize a generic epitope common to amyloid fibrils and fibrillar oligomers that is absent in prefibrillar oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool Suhail

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid-related degenerative diseases are associated with the accumulation of misfolded proteins as amyloid fibrils in tissue. In Alzheimer disease (AD, amyloid accumulates in several distinct types of insoluble plaque deposits, intracellular Aβ and as soluble oligomers and the relationships between these deposits and their pathological significance remains unclear. Conformation dependent antibodies have been reported that specifically recognize distinct assembly states of amyloids, including prefibrillar oligomers and fibrils. Results We immunized rabbits with a morphologically homogeneous population of Aβ42 fibrils. The resulting immune serum (OC specifically recognizes fibrils, but not random coil monomer or prefibrillar oligomers, indicating fibrils display a distinct conformation dependent epitope that is absent in prefibrillar oligomers. The fibril epitope is also displayed by fibrils of other types of amyloids, indicating that the epitope is a generic feature of the polypeptide backbone. The fibril specific antibody also recognizes 100,000 × G soluble fibrillar oligomers ranging in size from dimer to greater than 250 kDa on western blots. The fibrillar oligomers recognized by OC are immunologically distinct from prefibrillar oligomers recognized by A11, even though their sizes overlap broadly, indicating that size is not a reliable indicator of oligomer conformation. The immune response to prefibrillar oligomers and fibrils is not sequence specific and antisera of the same specificity are produced in response to immunization with islet amyloid polypeptide prefibrillar oligomer mimics and fibrils. The fibril specific antibodies stain all types of amyloid deposits in human AD brain. Diffuse amyloid deposits stain intensely with anti-fibril antibody although they are thioflavin S negative, suggesting that they are indeed fibrillar in conformation. OC also stains islet amyloid deposits in transgenic mouse models of type

  14. A modified COMS plaque for iris melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Scanderbeg

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma of the iris is a rare condition compared to posterior ocular tumors and in this case report we presenta 51-year-old female patient with diffuse iris melanoma. Traditional COMS (Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Studyplaques are used at our institution for radiation therapy, so a novel modification of the traditional plaque was requiredto allow better conformance with placement on the cornea. The usual silastic insert was machined to dimensions incompliance with the cornea, placed without incident, and treatment delivered with excellent patient tolerance of themodified plaque.

  15. Bilateral metachronous periosteal tibial amyloid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, H.; Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki; Hashiguchi, S.; Ueda, Hidetaka; Hirasawa, Yasusuke

    2000-01-01

    Localized primary periosteal amyloid tumors are extremely rare. A case of bilateral tibial amyloid tumor is presented. A 62-year-old woman initially presented with a painful mass in the anterior aspect of the right leg. There was no evidence of underlying systemic disease, including chronic infection or malignancy. Based on the results of resistance with Congo red staining to treatment with potassium permanganate and positivity for kappa light chain, we classified this particular case as AL-type amyloidosis. The patient noticed a swelling in the opposite leg 2 years later. The second tumor was also an AL-type amyloidoma. Amyloid tumors are generally solitary. This is the first case of bilateral periosteal amyloid tumors of the AL-type occurring in the tibiae. (orig.)

  16. Calumenin interacts with serum amyloid P component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Jacobsen, Christian; Honoré, Bent

    2000-01-01

    with calumenin in the presence of Ca(2+). Amino acid sequencing identified this protein as serum amyloid P component (SAP). Furthermore, we verified and characterized the calumenin-SAP interaction by the surface plasmon resonance technique. The findings indicate that calumenin may participate...... in the immunological defense system and could be involved in the pathological process of amyloidosis that leads to formation of amyloid deposits seen in different types of tissues. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Jan-14...

  17. Osteoblast role in osteoarthritis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruotti, Nicola; Corrado, Addolorata; Cantatore, Francesco P

    2017-11-01

    Even if osteoarthritis pathogenesis is still poorly understood, numerous evidences suggest that osteoblasts dysregulation plays a key role in osteoarthritis pathogenesis. An abnormal expression of OPG and RANKL has been described in osteoarthritis osteoblasts, which is responsible for abnormal bone remodeling and decreased mineralization. Alterations in genes expression are involved in dysregulation of osteoblast function, bone remodeling, and mineralization, leading to osteoarthritis development. Moreover, osteoblasts produce numerous transcription factors, growth factors, and other proteic molecules which are involved in osteoarthritis pathogenesis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The pathogenesis of amyloidosis in periodic disease: Some aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. Djndoyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient information indicating the implication of dysfunction of interleukins (IL-6 and IL-1 in particular in the pathogenesis of amyloidosis in a number of autoinflammatory, rheumatic, and autoimmune diseases, including those in periodic disease (PD, has been recently accumulated. Its genetic defect – pirin mutation – gives rise to an alternative innate immune response (phagocytic cell activation to secrete IL-1 by macrophages and to activate T-helper cells. This causes imbalance in the synthesis of proinflammatory (IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-1 receptor antagonist cytokines. Moreover, the uncontrolled macrophage (monocyte secretion of a great deal of IL-6 that together with IL-1 is a mediator of the synthesis of the serum amyloid fibril protein precursor SAA by hepatocytes, neutrophils, and fibroblasts plays one of the key roles in the pathogenesis of PD through amyloidosis. With this, IL-6 stimulates the inflammatory process, by enhancing the release of lysosomal enzymes, reactive oxygen species, and eicosanoids (prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxane from the polymorphic nuclear leukocytes, macrophages, endotheliocytes, and fibroblasts and by augmenting the chemotaxis of macrophages and neutrophils, and the degranulation of the latter, i.e. through its action on the effector cells of inflammation, and prepares the tissue basis for amyloid deposits in this fashion. Thus, the analysis of literary and own materials gives grounds to suggest that pirin mutation is a trigger of the synthesis of IL-1 and IL-6 in PD and their hypersecretion is an initial link of the synthesis of SAA.

  19. Islet Amyloid Polypeptide: Structure, Function, and Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Akter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hormone islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, or amylin plays a role in glucose homeostasis but aggregates to form islet amyloid in type-2 diabetes. Islet amyloid formation contributes to β-cell dysfunction and death in the disease and to the failure of islet transplants. Recent work suggests a role for IAPP aggregation in cardiovascular complications of type-2 diabetes and hints at a possible role in type-1 diabetes. The mechanisms of IAPP amyloid formation in vivo or in vitro are not understood and the mechanisms of IAPP induced β-cell death are not fully defined. Activation of the inflammasome, defects in autophagy, ER stress, generation of reactive oxygen species, membrane disruption, and receptor mediated mechanisms have all been proposed to play a role. Open questions in the field include the relative importance of the various mechanisms of β-cell death, the relevance of reductionist biophysical studies to the situation in vivo, the molecular mechanism of amyloid formation in vitro and in vivo, the factors which trigger amyloid formation in type-2 diabetes, the potential role of IAPP in type-1 diabetes, the development of clinically relevant inhibitors of islet amyloidosis toxicity, and the design of soluble, bioactive variants of IAPP for use as adjuncts to insulin therapy.

  20. Cross-interactions between the Alzheimer Disease Amyloid-β Peptide and Other Amyloid Proteins: A Further Aspect of the Amyloid Cascade Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinghui; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S; Gräslund, Astrid; Abrahams, Jan Pieter

    2016-08-05

    Many protein folding diseases are intimately associated with accumulation of amyloid aggregates. The amyloid materials formed by different proteins/peptides share many structural similarities, despite sometimes large amino acid sequence differences. Some amyloid diseases constitute risk factors for others, and the progression of one amyloid disease may affect the progression of another. These connections are arguably related to amyloid aggregates of one protein being able to directly nucleate amyloid formation of another, different protein: the amyloid cross-interaction. Here, we discuss such cross-interactions between the Alzheimer disease amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and other amyloid proteins in the context of what is known from in vitro and in vivo experiments, and of what might be learned from clinical studies. The aim is to clarify potential molecular associations between different amyloid diseases. We argue that the amyloid cascade hypothesis in Alzheimer disease should be expanded to include cross-interactions between Aβ and other amyloid proteins. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Does sleep disturbance affect the amyloid clearance mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulug, Burak; Hanoglu, Lutfu; Kilic, Ertugrul

    2017-10-01

    Sleep is an important factor that plays a key role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. However, it is still unclear whether poor-quality sleep may overlap with sleep disturbances in the underlying dysfunctional mechanisms of amyloid beta (Aβ) clearance metabolism. Here, we aimed to evaluate the current evidence on the role of sleep deprivation in Aβ clearance metabolism. To that end, we discuss possible mechanisms underlying the bidirectional interaction between the sleep deprivation and Aβ clearance pathways. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  2. Smart near-infrared fluorescence probes with donor-acceptor structure for in vivo detection of β-amyloid deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Mengchao; Ono, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Liu, Boli; Saji, Hideo

    2014-03-05

    The deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in the parenchymal and cortical brain is accepted as the main pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, early detection of AD still presents a challenge. With the assistance of molecular imaging techniques, imaging agents specifically targeting Aβ plaques in the brain may lead to the early diagnosis of AD. Herein, we report the design, synthesis, and evaluation of a series of smart near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging probes with donor-acceptor architecture bridged by a conjugated π-electron chain for Aβ plaques. The chemical structure of these NIRF probes is completely different from Congo Red and Thioflavin-T. Probes with a longer conjugated π system (carbon-carbon double bond) displayed maximum emission in PBS (>650 nm), which falls in the best range for NIRF probes. These probes were proved to have affinity to Aβ plaques in fluorescent staining of brain sections from an AD patient and double transgenic mice, as well as in an in vitro binding assay using Aβ(1-42) aggregates. One probe with high affinity (K(i) = 37 nM, K(d) = 27 nM) was selected for in vivo imaging. It can penetrate the blood-brain barrier of nude mice efficiently and is quickly washed out of the normal brain. Moreover, after intravenous injection of this probe, 22-month-old APPswe/PSEN1 mice exhibited a higher relative signal than control mice over the same period of time, and ex vivo fluorescent observations confirmed the existence of Aβ plaques. In summary, this probe meets most of the requirements for a NIRF contrast agent for the detection of Aβ plaques both in vitro and in vivo.

  3. Plaque retention on elastomeric ligatures. An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    CONDÒ, R.; CASAGLIA, A.; CONDÒ, S.G.; CERRONI, L.

    2013-01-01

    Fixed orthodontic appliances make it difficult to maintain the oral hygiene, resulting in plaque accumulation. Retention of bacterial plaque, represents a risk for white spot lesions and development of periodontal disease.

  4. Coronary CT Angiography in the Quantitative Assessment of Coronary Plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghua Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA has been recently evaluated for its ability to assess coronary plaque characteristics, including plaque composition. Identification of the relationship between plaque composition by CCTA and patient clinical presentations may provide insight into the pathophysiology of coronary artery plaque, thus assisting identification of vulnerable plaques which are associated with the development of acute coronary syndrome. CCTA-generated 3D visualizations allow evaluation of both coronary lesions and lumen changes, which are considered to enhance the diagnostic performance of CCTA. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent developments that have occurred in the field of CCTA with regard to its diagnostic accuracy in the quantitative assessment of coronary plaques, with a focus on the characterization of plaque components and identification of vulnerable plaques.

  5. Proposal for novel curcumin derivatives as potent inhibitors against Alzheimer's disease: Ab initio molecular simulations on the specific interactions between amyloid-beta peptide and curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Shintaro; Fujimori, Mitsuki; Ishimura, Hiromi; Shulga, Sergiy; Kurita, Noriyuki

    2017-10-01

    Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in a brain is closely related with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. To suppress the production of Aβ peptides, we propose novel curcumin derivatives and investigate their binding properties with the amyloid precursor protein (APP), using protein-ligand docking as well as ab initio molecular simulations. Our proposed derivative (curcumin XIV) is found to have a large binding energy with APP and interacts strongly with the cleavage site Ala19 by secretase. It is thus expected that curcumin XIV can protect APP from the secretase attack and be a potent inhibitor against the production of Aβ peptides.

  6. Vascular Plaque Determination for Stroke Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    accident, carotid endarterectomy, ultrasound, spectral analysis, tissue characterization, machine learning , noninvasive, carotid plaque 16. SECURITY...stroke, cerebrovascular accident, carotid endarterectomy, ultrasound, spectral analysis, tissue characterization, machine learning , noninvasive...Introduction 4 2. Keywords 4 3. Accomplishments 4 4. Impact 9 5. Changes/Problems 10 6. Products 11 7. Participants & Other Collaborating

  7. Plaque rupture in humans and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Stephen M; Galis, Zorina S; Rosenfeld, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    Despite the many studies of murine atherosclerosis, we do not yet know the relevance of the natural history of this model to the final events precipitated by plaque disruption of human atherosclerotic lesions. The literature has become particularly confused because of the common use of terms such...

  8. Amyloid β-sheet mimics that antagonize protein aggregation and reduce amyloid toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pin-Nan; Liu, Cong; Zhao, Minglei; Eisenberg, David; Nowick, James S.

    2012-11-01

    The amyloid protein aggregation associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and type II diabetes (among many others) features a bewildering variety of β-sheet-rich structures in transition from native proteins to ordered oligomers and fibres. The variation in the amino-acid sequences of the β-structures presents a challenge to developing a model system of β-sheets for the study of various amyloid aggregates. Here, we introduce a family of robust β-sheet macrocycles that can serve as a platform to display a variety of heptapeptide sequences from different amyloid proteins. We have tailored these amyloid β-sheet mimics (ABSMs) to antagonize the aggregation of various amyloid proteins, thereby reducing the toxicity of amyloid aggregates. We describe the structures and inhibitory properties of ABSMs containing amyloidogenic peptides from the amyloid-β peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease, β2-microglobulin associated with dialysis-related amyloidosis, α-synuclein associated with Parkinson's disease, islet amyloid polypeptide associated with type II diabetes, human and yeast prion proteins, and Tau, which forms neurofibrillary tangles.

  9. Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with Amyloid-β pathology: an international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cali, Ignazio; Cohen, Mark L; Haїk, Stéphane; Parchi, Piero; Giaccone, Giorgio; Collins, Steven J; Kofskey, Diane; Wang, Han; McLean, Catriona A; Brandel, Jean-Philippe; Privat, Nicolas; Sazdovitch, Véronique; Duyckaerts, Charles; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Belay, Ermias D; Maddox, Ryan A; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Leschek, Ellen; Appleby, Brian S; Safar, Jiri G; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Gambetti, Pierluigi

    2018-01-08

    The presence of pathology related to the deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) has been recently reported in iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (iCJD) acquired from inoculation of growth hormone (GH) extracted from human cadaveric pituitary gland or use of cadaveric dura mater (DM) grafts.To investigate this phenomenon further, a cohort of 27 iCJD cases - 21 with adequate number of histopathological sections - originating from Australia, France, Italy, and the Unites States, were examined by immunohistochemistry, amyloid staining, and Western blot analysis of the scrapie prion protein (PrP Sc ), and compared with age-group matched cases of sporadic CJD (sCJD), Alzheimer disease (AD) or free of neurodegenerative diseases (non-ND).Cases of iCJD and sCJD shared similar profiles of proteinase K-resistant PrP Sc with the exception of iCJD harboring the "MMi" phenotype. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), either associated with, or free of, Thioflavin S-positive amyloid core plaques (CP), was observed in 52% of 21 cases of iCJD, which comprised 37.5% and 61.5% of the cases of GH- and DM-iCJD, respectively. If only cases younger than 54 years were considered, Aβ pathology affected 41%, 2% and 0% of iCJD, sCJD and non-ND, respectively. Despite the patients' younger age CAA was more severe in iCJD than sCJD, while Aβ diffuse plaques, in absence of Aβ CP, populated one third of sCJD. Aβ pathology was by far most severe in AD. Tau pathology was scanty in iCJD and sCJD.In conclusion, (i) despite the divergences in the use of cadaveric GH and DM products, our cases combined with previous studies showed remarkably similar iCJD and Aβ phenotypes indicating that the occurrence of Aβ pathology in iCJD is a widespread phenomenon, (ii) CAA emerges as the hallmark of the Aβ phenotype in iCJD since it is observed in nearly 90% of all iCJD with Aβ pathology reported to date including ours, and it is shared by GH- and DM-iCJD, (iii) although the contributions to Aβ pathology of other

  10. Vascular and parenchymal amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer disease knock-in mouse model: interplay with cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Guo, Qinxi; Inoue, Taeko; Polito, Vinicia A; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Hammer, Robert E; Pautler, Robia G; Taffet, George E; Zheng, Hui

    2014-08-09

    Accumulation and deposition of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) in the brain is a central event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Besides the parenchymal pathology, Aβ is known to undergo active transport across the blood-brain barrier and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a prominent feature in the majority of AD. Although impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been implicated in faulty Aβ transport and clearance, and cerebral hypoperfusion can exist in the pre-clinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is still unclear whether it is one of the causal factors for AD pathogenesis, or an early consequence of a multi-factor condition that would lead to AD at late stage. To study the potential interaction between faulty CBF and amyloid accumulation in clinical-relevant situation, we generated a new amyloid precursor protein (APP) knock-in allele that expresses humanized Aβ and a Dutch mutation in addition to Swedish/London mutations and compared this line with an equivalent knock-in line but in the absence of the Dutch mutation, both crossed onto the PS1M146V knock-in background. Introduction of the Dutch mutation results in robust CAA and parenchymal Aβ pathology, age-dependent reduction of spatial learning and memory deficits, and CBF reduction as detected by fMRI. Direct manipulation of CBF by transverse aortic constriction surgery on the left common carotid artery caused differential changes in CBF in the anterior and middle region of the cortex, where it is reduced on the left side and increased on the right side. However these perturbations in CBF resulted in the same effect: both significantly exacerbate CAA and amyloid pathology. Our study reveals a direct and positive link between vascular and parenchymal Aβ; both can be modulated by CBF. The new APP knock-in mouse model recapitulates many symptoms of AD including progressive vascular and parenchymal Aβ pathology and behavioral deficits in the absence of APP overexpression.

  11. Detection and segmentation of virus plaque using HOG and SVM: toward automatic plaque assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yihao; Liu, Hong; Ye, Rong; Shi, Yonghong; Song, Zhijian

    2014-01-01

    Plaque assaying, measurement of the number, diameter, and area of plaques in a Petri dish image, is a standard procedure gauging the concentration of phage in biology. This paper presented a novel and effective method for implementing automatic plaque assaying. The method was mainly comprised of the following steps: In the training stage, after pre-processing the images for noise suppression, an initial training set was readied by sampling positive (with a plaque at the center) and negative (plaque-free) patches from the training images, and extracting the HOG features from each patch. The linear SVM classifier was trained in a self-learnt supervised learning strategy to avoid possible missing detection. Specifically, the training set which contained positive and negative patches sampled manually from training images was used to train the preliminary classifier which exhaustively searched the training images to predict the label for the unlabeled patches. The mislabeled patches were evaluated by experts and relabeled. And all the newly labeled patches and their corresponding HOG features were added to the initial training set to train the final classifier. In the testing stage, a sliding-window technique was first applied to the unseen image for obtaining HOG features, which were inputted into the classifier to predict whether the patch was positive. Second, a locally adaptive Otsu method was performed on the positive patches to segment the plaques. Finally, after removing the outliers, the parameters of the plaques were measured in the segmented plaques. The experimental results demonstrated that the accuracy of the proposed method was similar to the one measured manually by experts, but it took less than 30 seconds.

  12. Fluorescence immunoassay for detecting periodontal bacterial pathogens in plaque.

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, L F; Anderson, L; Sandberg, G P; Aeppli, D M; Shelburne, C E

    1991-01-01

    A particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay has been modified into a bacterial concentration fluorescence immunoassay (BCFIA) to rapidly detect periodontopathic bacteria in human plaque samples. The BCFIA utilizes fluorescently tagged monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against the lipopolysaccharide of selected gram-negative plaque bacteria. Microorganisms closely associated with periodontal disease that can be identified in plaque with the BCFIA include Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bac...

  13. [Evaluation of dental plaque by quantitative digital image analysis system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z; Luan, Q X

    2016-04-18

    To analyze the plaque staining image by using image analysis software, to verify the maneuverability, practicability and repeatability of this technique, and to evaluate the influence of different plaque stains. In the study, 30 volunteers were enrolled from the new dental students of Peking University Health Science Center in accordance with the inclusion criteria. The digital images of the anterior teeth were acquired after plaque stained according to filming standardization.The image analysis was performed using Image Pro Plus 7.0, and the Quigley-Hein plaque indexes of the anterior teeth were evaluated. The plaque stain area percentage and the corresponding dental plaque index were highly correlated,and the Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.776 (Pchart showed only a few spots outside the 95% consistency boundaries. The different plaque stains image analysis results showed that the difference of the tooth area measurements was not significant, while the difference of the plaque area measurements significant (P<0.01). This method is easy in operation and control,highly related to the calculated percentage of plaque area and traditional plaque index, and has good reproducibility.The different plaque staining method has little effect on image segmentation results.The sensitive plaque stain for image analysis is suggested.

  14. Three-dimensional carotid ultrasound plaque texture predicts vascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Engelen, Arna; Wannarong, Thapat; Parraga, Grace

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carotid ultrasound atherosclerosis measurements, including those of the arterial wall and plaque, provide a way to monitor patients at risk of vascular events. Our objective was to examine carotid ultrasound plaque texture measurements and the change in carotid plaque text...

  15. Tensile and compressive properties of fresh human carotid atherosclerotic plaques.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maher, Eoghan

    2009-12-11

    Accurate characterisation of the mechanical properties of human atherosclerotic plaque is important for our understanding of the role of vascular mechanics in the development and treatment of atherosclerosis. The majority of previous studies investigating the mechanical properties of human plaque are based on tests of plaque tissue removed following autopsy. This study aims to characterise the mechanical behaviour of fresh human carotid plaques removed during endarterectomy and tested within 2h. A total of 50 radial compressive and 17 circumferential tensile uniaxial tests were performed on samples taken from 14 carotid plaques. The clinical classification of each plaque, as determined by duplex ultrasound is also reported. Plaques were classified as calcified, mixed or echolucent. Experimental data indicated that plaques were highly inhomogeneous; with variations seen in the mechanical properties of plaque obtained from individual donors and between donors. The mean behaviour of samples for each classification indicated that calcified plaques had the stiffest response, while echolucent plaques were the least stiff. Results also indicated that there may be a difference in behaviour of samples taken from different anatomical locations (common, internal and external carotid), however the large variability indicates that more testing is needed to reach significant conclusions. This work represents a step towards a better understanding of the in vivo mechanical behaviour of human atherosclerotic plaque.

  16. Plaque reduction over time of an integrated oral hygiene system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Martha E; Ruhlman, C Douglas; Mallatt, Philip R; Rodriguez, Sally M; Ortblad, Katherine M

    2004-10-01

    This article compares the efficacy of a prototype integrated system (the IntelliClean System from Sonicare and Crest) in the reduction of supragingival plaque to that of a manual toothbrush and conventional toothpaste. The integrated system was compared to a manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste in a randomized, single-blinded, parallel, 4-week, controlled clinical trial with 100 subjects randomized to each treatment group. There was a low dropout rate, with 89 subjects in the manual toothbrush group (11% loss to follow-up) and 93 subjects in the integrated system group (7% loss to follow-up) completing the study. The Turesky modification of the Quigley and Hein Plaque Index was used to assess full-mouth plaque scores for each subject. Prebrushing plaque scores were obtained at baseline and at 4 weeks after 14 to 20 hours of plaque accumulation. A survey also was conducted at the conclusion of the study to determine the attitude toward the two oral hygiene systems. The integrated system was found to significantly reduce overall and interproximal prebrushing plaque scores over 4 weeks, both by 8.6%, demonstrating statistically significant superiority in overall plaque reduction (P = .002) and interproximal plaque reduction (P < .001) compared to the manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste, which showed no significant reduction in either overall plaque or interproximal plaque. This study demonstrates that the IntelliClean System from Sonicare and Crest is superior to a manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste in reducing overall plaque and interproximal plaque over time.

  17. Initial stress in biomechanical models of atherosclerotic plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, L.; Akyildiz, A.C.; Adel, den B.; Wentzel, J.J.; Steen, van der A.F.W.; Virmani, R.; Weerd, van der L.; Jukema, J.W.; Poelmann, R.E.; Brummelen, van E.H.; Gijsen, F.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques is the underlying cause for the majority of acute strokes and myocardial infarctions. Rupture of the plaque occurs when the stress in the plaque exceeds the strength of the material locally. Biomechanical stress analyses are commonly based on pressurized

  18. 3D Fiber Orientation in Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Akyildiz (Ali); C.-K. Chai (Chen-Ket); C.W.J. Oomens (Cees); A. van der Lugt (Aad); F.P.T. Baaijens (Frank); G.J. Strijkers (Gustav); F.J.H. Gijsen (Frank)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAtherosclerotic plaque rupture is the primary trigger of fatal cardiovascular events. Fibrillar collagen in atherosclerotic plaques and their directionality are anticipated to play a crucial role in plaque rupture. This study aimed assessing 3D fiber orientations and architecture in

  19. Diesel engine exhaust accelerates plaque formation in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullmann, Maja; Albrecht, Catrin; van Berlo, Damiën; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Wahle, Tina; Boots, Agnes W; Krutmann, Jean; Cassee, Flemming R; Bayer, Thomas A; Schins, Roel P F

    2017-08-30

    Increasing evidence from toxicological and epidemiological studies indicates that the central nervous system is an important target for ambient air pollutants. We have investigated whether long-term inhalation exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE), a dominant contributor to particulate air pollution in urban environments, can aggravate Alzheimer's Disease (AD)-like effects in female 5X Familial AD (5XFAD) mice and their wild-type female littermates. Following 3 and 13 weeks exposures to diluted DEE (0.95 mg/m 3 , 6 h/day, 5 days/week) or clean air (controls) behaviour tests were performed and amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque formation, pulmonary histopathology and systemic inflammation were evaluated. In a string suspension task, assessing for grip strength and motor coordination, 13 weeks exposed 5XFAD mice performed significantly less than the 5XFAD controls. Spatial working memory deficits, assessed by Y-maze and X-maze tasks, were not observed in association with the DEE exposures. Brains of the 3 weeks DEE-exposed 5XFAD mice showed significantly higher cortical Aβ plaque load and higher whole brain homogenate Aβ42 levels than the clean air-exposed 5XFAD littermate controls. After the 13 weeks exposures, with increasing age and progression of the AD-phenotype of the 5XFAD mice, DEE-related differences in amyloid pathology were no longer present. Immunohistochemical evaluation of lungs of the mice revealed no obvious genetic background-related differences in tissue structure, and the DEE exposure did not cause histopathological changes in the mice of both backgrounds. Luminex analysis of plasma cytokines demonstrated absence of sustained systemic inflammation upon DEE exposure. Inhalation exposure to DEE causes accelerated plaque formation and motor function impairment in 5XFAD transgenic mice. Our study provides further support that the brain is a relevant target for the effects of inhaled DEE and suggests that long-term exposure to this ubiquitous air

  20. Topographic association of angioscopic yellow plaques with coronary atherosclerotic plaque: assessment with quantitative colorimetry in human coronary artery autopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Fumiyuki; Lisauskas, Jennifer B; Kawamura, Akio; Waxman, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Yellow plaques seen during coronary angioscopy are thought to be the surrogates for superficial intimal lipids in coronary plaque. Given diffuse and heterogeneous nature of atherosclerosis, yellow plaques in coronaries may be seen as several yellow spots on diffuse coronary plaque. We examined the topographic association of yellow plaques with coronary plaque. In 40 non-severely stenotic ex-vivo coronary segments (average length: 52.2 +/- 3.1 mm), yellow plaques were examined by angioscopy with quantitative colorimetry. The segments were cut perpendicular to the long axis of the vessel at 2 mm intervals, and 1045 slides with 5 microm thick tissue for whole segments were prepared. To construct the plaque surface, each tissue slice was considered to be representative of the adjacent 2 mm. The circumference of the lumen and the lumen border of plaque were measured in each slide, and the plaque surface region was constructed. Coronary plaque was in 37 (93%) of 40 segments, and consisted of a single mass [39.9 +/- 3.9 (0-100) mm, 311.3 +/- 47.4 (0.0-1336.2) mm2]. In 30 (75%) segments, multiple (2-9) yellow plaques were detected on a mass of coronary plaque. The number of yellow plaques correlated positively with coronary plaque surface area (r = 0.77, P colorimetry, some of them are associated with lipid cores underneath thin fibrous caps, may be used to assess the extent of coronary plaque. Further research using angioscopy could be of value to study the association of high-risk coronaries with acute coronary syndromes.

  1. Regional brain amyloid-β accumulation associates with domain-specific cognitive performance in Parkinson disease without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Rizwan S; Xie, Sharon X; Chen, Yin J; Rick, Jacqueline; Gross, Rachel G; Nasrallah, Ilya M; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Trojanowski, John Q; Chen-Plotkin, Alice S; Hurtig, Howard I; Siderowf, Andrew D; Dubroff, Jacob G; Weintraub, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson disease patients develop clinically significant cognitive impairment at variable times over their disease course, which is often preceded by milder deficits in memory, visuo-spatial, and executive domains. The significance of amyloid-β accumulation to these problems is unclear. We hypothesized that amyloid-β PET imaging by 18F-florbetapir, a radiotracer that detects fibrillar amyloidplaque deposits, would identify subjects with global cognitive impairment or poor performance in individual cognitive domains in non-demented Parkinson disease patients. We assessed 61 non-demented Parkinson disease patients with detailed cognitive assessments and 18F-florbetapir PET brain imaging. Scans were interpreted qualitatively (positive or negative) by two independent nuclear medicine physicians blinded to clinical data, and quantitatively by a novel volume-weighted method. The presence of mild cognitive impairment was determined through an expert consensus process using Level 1 criteria from the Movement Disorder Society. Nineteen participants (31.2%) were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment and the remainder had normal cognition. Qualitative 18F-florbetapir PET imaging was positive in 15 participants (24.6%). Increasing age and presence of an APOE ε4 allele were associated with higher composite 18F-florbetapir binding. In multivariable models, an abnormal 18F-florbetapir scan by expert rating was not associated with a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. However, 18F-florbetapir retention values in the posterior cingulate gyrus inversely correlated with verbal memory performance. Retention values in the frontal cortex, precuneus, and anterior cingulate gyrus retention values inversely correlated with naming performance. Regional cortical amyloidamyloid, as measured by 18F-florbetapir PET, may be a biomarker of specific cognitive deficits in non-demented Parkinson disease patients.

  2. Regional brain amyloid-β accumulation associates with domain-specific cognitive performance in Parkinson disease without dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan S Akhtar

    Full Text Available Parkinson disease patients develop clinically significant cognitive impairment at variable times over their disease course, which is often preceded by milder deficits in memory, visuo-spatial, and executive domains. The significance of amyloid-β accumulation to these problems is unclear. We hypothesized that amyloid-β PET imaging by 18F-florbetapir, a radiotracer that detects fibrillar amyloidplaque deposits, would identify subjects with global cognitive impairment or poor performance in individual cognitive domains in non-demented Parkinson disease patients. We assessed 61 non-demented Parkinson disease patients with detailed cognitive assessments and 18F-florbetapir PET brain imaging. Scans were interpreted qualitatively (positive or negative by two independent nuclear medicine physicians blinded to clinical data, and quantitatively by a novel volume-weighted method. The presence of mild cognitive impairment was determined through an expert consensus process using Level 1 criteria from the Movement Disorder Society. Nineteen participants (31.2% were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment and the remainder had normal cognition. Qualitative 18F-florbetapir PET imaging was positive in 15 participants (24.6%. Increasing age and presence of an APOE ε4 allele were associated with higher composite 18F-florbetapir binding. In multivariable models, an abnormal 18F-florbetapir scan by expert rating was not associated with a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. However, 18F-florbetapir retention values in the posterior cingulate gyrus inversely correlated with verbal memory performance. Retention values in the frontal cortex, precuneus, and anterior cingulate gyrus retention values inversely correlated with naming performance. Regional cortical amyloidamyloid, as measured by 18F-florbetapir PET, may be a biomarker of specific cognitive deficits in non-demented Parkinson disease patients.

  3. Quantitative coronary plaque analysis predicts high-risk plaque morphology on coronary computed tomography angiography: results from the ROMICAT II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Mayrhofer, Thomas; Puchner, Stefan B; Lu, Michael T; Ghemigian, Khristine; Kitslaar, Pieter H; Broersen, Alexander; Pursnani, Amit; Hoffmann, Udo; Ferencik, Maros

    2018-02-01

    Semi-automated software can provide quantitative assessment of atherosclerotic plaques on coronary CT angiography (CTA). The relationship between established qualitative high-risk plaque features and quantitative plaque measurements has not been studied. We analyzed the association between quantitative plaque measurements and qualitative high-risk plaque features on coronary CTA. We included 260 patients with plaque who underwent coronary CTA in the Rule Out Myocardial Infarction/Ischemia Using Computer Assisted Tomography (ROMICAT) II trial. Quantitative plaque assessment and qualitative plaque characterization were performed on a per coronary segment basis. Quantitative coronary plaque measurements included plaque volume, plaque burden, remodeling index, and diameter stenosis. In qualitative analysis, high-risk plaque was present if positive remodeling, low CT attenuation plaque, napkin-ring sign or spotty calcium were detected. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between quantitative and qualitative high-risk plaque assessment. Among 888 segments with coronary plaque, high-risk plaque was present in 391 (44.0%) segments by qualitative analysis. In quantitative analysis, segments with high-risk plaque had higher total plaque volume, low CT attenuation plaque volume, plaque burden and remodeling index. Quantitatively assessed low CT attenuation plaque volume (odds ratio 1.12 per 1 mm 3 , 95% CI 1.04-1.21), positive remodeling (odds ratio 1.25 per 0.1, 95% CI 1.10-1.41) and plaque burden (odds ratio 1.53 per 0.1, 95% CI 1.08-2.16) were associated with high-risk plaque. Quantitative coronary plaque characteristics (low CT attenuation plaque volume, positive remodeling and plaque burden) measured by semi-automated software correlated with qualitative assessment of high-risk plaque features.

  4. Tooth loss might not alter molecular pathogenesis in an aged transgenic Alzheimer's disease model mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oue, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Yasunari; Koretake, Katsunori; Okada, Shinsuke; Doi, Kazuya; Jung, Cha-Gyun; Michikawa, Makoto; Akagawa, Yasumasa

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have reported that tooth loss is a risk factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the association between tooth loss and cognition and the impact of tooth loss on the molecular pathogenesis of AD remain elusive. In this study, we tested the effect of tooth loss on learning and memory and on the molecular pathogenesis of AD in an aged AD model mice. We divided 14-month-old amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice, an AD model mouse line, into upper molar extracted group (experimental) and molar intact group (control). At 18 months old, we analysed not only the changes of amyloid-beta (Aβ), pyramidal cells in the brain but also the learning and memory ability with step-through passive avoidance test. The amount of Aβ and the number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampus were not significantly different between the experimental and control group. Similarly, the difference of learning and memory ability could not be distinguished between the groups. Neither molecular pathogenesis of AD nor associated learning and memory were aggravated by tooth loss in these mice. The limited results of this study which used the aged mice may help the dental profession to plan and explain treatments to patients with AD, which must be designed while taking into account the severity of the AD symptoms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Interaction of magnetic nanoparticles with lysozyme amyloid fibrils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdovinová, Veronika [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia); Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Tomašovičová, Natália, E-mail: nhudak@saske.sk [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia); Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Batko, Ivan; Batková, Marianna; Balejčíková, Lucia [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia); Garamus, Vasyl M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht: Zentrum fr Material, und Kstenforschung GmbH, Max-Plank-Strae 1, Geesthacht 216502 (Germany); Petrenko, Viktor I. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Physics Department, Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University, Volodymyrska Street 64, 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine); Avdeev, Mikhail V. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Kopčanský, Peter [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia)

    2017-06-01

    This work is devoted to the structural study of complex solutions of magnetic nanoparticles with lysozyme amyloid fibrils due to possible ordering of such system by applying the external magnetic field. The interaction of magnetic nanoparticles with amyloid fibrils has been followed by atomic force microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. It has been observed that magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) adsorb to lysozyme amyloid fibrils. It was found that MNPs alter amyloids structures, namely the diameter of lysozyme amyloid fibrils is increased whereas the length of fibrils is decreased. In the same time MNPs do not change the helical pitch significantly. - Highlights: • Solution of MNPs with lysozyme amyloid fibrils was characterized by AFM and SAXS. • MNPs adsorb to lysozyme amyloid fibrils. • Diameter and size of lysozyme amyloid fibrils change due to doping with MNPs.

  6. Amyloid-degrading ability of nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis natto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ruei-Lin; Lee, Kung-Ta; Wang, Jung-Hao; Lee, Lily Y-L; Chen, Rita P-Y

    2009-01-28

    More than 20 unrelated proteins can form amyloid fibrils in vivo which are related to various diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, prion disease, and systematic amyloidosis. Amyloid fibrils are an ordered protein aggregate with a lamellar cross-beta structure. Enhancing amyloid clearance is one of the targets of the therapy of these amyloid-related diseases. Although there is debate on whether the toxicity is due to amyloids or their precursors, research on the degradation of amyloids may help prevent or alleviate these diseases. In this study, we explored the amyloid-degrading ability of nattokinase, a fibrinolytic subtilisin-like serine protease, and determined the optimal conditions for amyloid hydrolysis. This ability is shared by proteinase K and subtilisin Carlsberg, but not by trypsin or plasmin.

  7. Broad neutralization of calcium-permeable amyloid pore channels with a chimeric Alzheimer/Parkinson peptide targeting brain gangliosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Scala, Coralie; Yahi, Nouara; Flores, Alessandra; Boutemeur, Sonia; Kourdougli, Nazim; Chahinian, Henri; Fantini, Jacques

    2016-02-01

    Growing evidence supports a role for brain gangliosides in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Recently we deciphered the ganglioside-recognition code controlling specific ganglioside binding to Alzheimer's β-amyloid (Aβ1-42) peptide and Parkinson's disease-associated protein α-synuclein. Cracking this code allowed us to engineer a short chimeric Aβ/α-synuclein peptide that recognizes all brain gangliosides. Here we show that ganglioside-deprived neural cells do no longer sustain the formation of zinc-sensitive amyloid pore channels induced by either Aβ1-42 or α-synuclein, as assessed by single-cell Ca(2+) fluorescence microscopy. Thus, amyloid channel formation, now considered a key step in neurodegeneration, is a ganglioside-dependent process. Nanomolar concentrations of chimeric peptide competitively inhibited amyloid pore formation induced by Aβ1-42 or α-synuclein in cultured neural cells. Moreover, this peptide abrogated the intracellular calcium increases induced by Parkinson's-associated mutant forms of α-synuclein (A30P, E46K and A53T). The chimeric peptide also prevented the deleterious effects of Aβ1-42 on synaptic vesicle trafficking and decreased the Aβ1-42-induced impairment of spontaneous activity in rat hippocampal slices. Taken together, these data show that the chimeric peptide has broad anti-amyloid pore activity, suggesting that a common therapeutic strategy based on the prevention of amyloid-ganglioside interactions is a reachable goal for both Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Astrocytic Gap Junctional Communication is Reduced in Amyloid-β-Treated Cultured Astrocytes, but not in Alzheimer's Disease Transgenic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy F Cruz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is characterized by accumulation of amyloid deposits in brain, progressive cognitive deficits and reduced glucose utilization. Many consequences of the disease are attributed to neuronal dysfunction, but roles of astrocytes in its pathogenesis are not well understood. Astrocytes are extensively coupled via gap junctions, and abnormal trafficking of metabolites and signalling molecules within astrocytic syncytia could alter functional interactions among cells comprising the neurovascular unit. To evaluate the influence of amyloid-β on astrocyte gap junctional communication, cultured astrocytes were treated with monomerized amyloid-β1-40 (1 μmol/l for intervals ranging from 2 h to 5 days, and the areas labelled by test compounds were determined by impaling a single astrocyte with a micropipette and diffusion of material into coupled cells. Amyloid-β-treated astrocytes had rapid, sustained 50-70% reductions in the area labelled by Lucifer Yellow, anionic Alexa Fluor® dyes and energy-related compounds, 6-NBDG (a fluorescent glucose analogue, NADH and NADPH. Amyloid-β treatment also caused a transient increase in oxidative stress. In striking contrast with these results, spreading of Lucifer Yellow within astrocytic networks in brain slices from three regions of 8.5-14-month-old control and transgenic Alzheimer's model mice was variable, labelling 10-2000 cells; there were no statistically significant differences in the number of dye-labelled cells among the groups or with age. Thus amyloid-induced dysfunction of gap junctional communication in cultured astrocytes does not reflect the maintenance of dye transfer through astrocytic syncytial networks in transgenic mice; the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease is not appropriately represented by the cell culture system.

  9. Astrocytic gap junctional communication is reduced in amyloid-β-treated cultured astrocytes, but not in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Nancy F; Ball, Kelly K; Dienel, Gerald A

    2010-08-17

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by accumulation of amyloid deposits in brain, progressive cognitive deficits and reduced glucose utilization. Many consequences of the disease are attributed to neuronal dysfunction, but roles of astrocytes in its pathogenesis are not well understood. Astrocytes are extensively coupled via gap junctions, and abnormal trafficking of metabolites and signalling molecules within astrocytic syncytia could alter functional interactions among cells comprising the neurovascular unit. To evaluate the influence of amyloid-beta on astrocyte gap junctional communication, cultured astrocytes were treated with monomerized amyloid-β(1-40) (1 μmol/l) for intervals ranging from 2 h to 5 days, and the areas labelled by test compounds were determined by impaling a single astrocyte with a micropipette and diffusion of material into coupled cells. Amyloid-β-treated astrocytes had rapid, sustained 50-70% reductions in the area labelled by Lucifer Yellow, anionic Alexa Fluor® dyes and energy-related compounds, 6-NBDG (a fluorescent glucose analogue), NADH and NADPH. Amyloid-β treatment also caused a transient increase in oxidative stress. In striking contrast with these results, spreading of Lucifer Yellow within astrocytic networks in brain slices from three regions of 8.5-14-month-old control and transgenic Alzheimer's model mice was variable, labelling 10-2000 cells; there were no statistically significant differences in the number of dye-labelled cells among the groups or with age. Thus amyloid-induced dysfunction of gap junctional communication in cultured astrocytes does not reflect the maintenance of dye transfer through astrocytic syncytial networks in transgenic mice; the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease is not appropriately represented by the cell culture system.

  10. Value of the lateral view in diagnosing pleural plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillerdal, G.

    1986-01-01

    To assess the value of the lateral view in the diagnosis of pleural plaques, 2018 chest roentgenograms from the general population were scrutinized for such plaques. The lateral and posterior-anterior (PA) views were read separately and without knowledge of the occupational history or other clinical data. Of the males, 4.8% had pleural plaques in the PA view and 2% had dorsal pleural plaques in the lateral view. A total of 54% of the positive cases in the PA view also showed typical plaques in the PA view. Thus, there remained a number of cases which were diagnosed only in the lateral view; in all, these constituted 18.8%

  11. Carotid artery plaque imaging. Present status and new perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishikawa, Tomohito; Date, Isao; Iihara, Koji; Yamada, Naoaki; Ueda, Hatsue; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    At present, the management of carotid artery (CA) stenosis depends largely on the degree of stenosis. CA plaque imaging is a modality, which assesses the nature of CA plaques objectively and less invasively, that has developed remarkably in recent years. The use of CA plaque imaging in the management of CA stenosis not only reveals the degree of stenosis but it can make the selection of treatment more appropriate by taking the plaque character into consideration. In this manuscript, we introduce ultrasound, intravascular ultrasound, angiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) and describe the present situation and new perspectives of CA plaque imaging. (author)

  12. Chirality and chiroptical properties of amyloid fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwolak, Wojciech

    2014-09-01

    Chirality of amyloid fibrils-linear beta-sheet-rich aggregates of misfolded protein chains-often manifests in morphological traits such as helical twist visible in atomic force microscopy and in chiroptical properties accessible to vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). According to recent studies the relationship between molecular chirality of polypeptide building blocks and superstructural chirality of amyloid fibrils may be more intricate and less deterministic than previously assumed. Several puzzling experimental findings have put into question earlier intuitive ideas on: 1) the bottom-up chirality transfer upon amyloidogenic self-assembly, and 2) the structural origins of chiroptical properties of protein aggregates. For example, removal of a single amino acid residue from an amyloidogenic all-L peptide was shown to reverse handedness of fibrils. On the other hand, certain types of amyloid aggregates revealed surprisingly strong VCD spectra with the sign and shape dependent on the conditions of fibrillation. Hence, microscopic and chiroptical studies have highlighted chirality as one more aspect of polymorphism of amyloid fibrils. This brief review is intended to outline the current state of research on amyloid-like fibrils from the perspective of their structural and superstructural chirality and chiroptical properties. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Halogenation dictates the architecture of amyloid peptide nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, Andrea; Pigliacelli, Claudia; Gori, Alessandro; Nonappa; Ikkala, Olli; Demitri, Nicola; Terraneo, Giancarlo; Castelletto, Valeria; Hamley, Ian W; Baldelli Bombelli, Francesca; Metrangolo, Pierangelo

    2017-07-20

    Amyloid peptides yield a plethora of interesting nanostructures though difficult to control. Here we report that depending on the number, position, and nature of the halogen atoms introduced into either one or both phenylalanine benzene rings of the amyloid β peptide-derived core-sequence KLVFF, four different architectures were obtained in a controlled manner. Our findings demonstrate that halogenation may develop as a general strategy to engineer amyloidal peptide self-assembly and obtain new amyloidal nanostructures.

  14. Assessment of carotid plaque vulnerability using structural and geometrical determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.Y.; Tang, T.; U-King-Im, J.; Graves, M.; Gillard, J.H.; Sutcliffe, M.

    2008-01-01

    Because many acute cerebral ischemic events are caused by rupture of vulnerable carotid atheroma and subsequent thrombosis, the present study used both idealized and patient-specific carotid atheromatous plaque models to evaluate the effect of structural determinants on stress distributions within plaque. Using a finite element method, structural analysis was performed using models derived from in vivo high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of carotid atheroma in 40 non-consecutive patients (20 symptomatic, 20 asymptomatic). Plaque components were modeled as hyper-elastic materials. The effects of varying fibrous cap thickness, lipid core size and lumen curvature on plaque stress distributions were examined. Lumen curvature and fibrous cap thickness were found to be major determinants of plaque stress. The size of the lipid core did not alter plaque stress significantly when the fibrous cap was relatively thick. The correlation between plaque stress and lumen curvature was significant for both symptomatic (p=0.01; correlation coefficient: 0.689) and asymptomatic patients (p=0.01; correlation coefficient: 0.862). Lumen curvature in plaques of symptomatic patients was significantly larger than those of asymptomatic patients (1.50±1.0 mm -1 vs 1.25±0.75 mm -1 ; p=0.01). Specific plaque morphology (large lumen curvature and thin fibrous cap) is closely related to plaque vulnerability. Structural analysis using high-resolution MRI of carotid atheroma may help in detecting vulnerable atheromatous plaque and aid the risk stratification of patients with carotid disease. (author)

  15. AL amyloid imaging and therapy with a monoclonal antibody to a cryptic epitope on amyloid fibrils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Wall

    Full Text Available The monoclonal antibody 2A4 binds an epitope derived from a cleavage site of serum amyloid protein A (sAA containing a -Glu-Asp- amino acid pairing. In addition to its reactivity with sAA amyloid deposits, the antibody was also found to bind amyloid fibrils composed of immunoglobulin light chains. The antibody binds to synthetic fibrils and human light chain (AL amyloid extracts with high affinity even in the presence of soluble light chain proteins. Immunohistochemistry with biotinylated 2A4 demonstrated positive reaction with ALκ and ALλ human amyloid deposits in various organs. Surface plasmon resonance analyses using synthetic AL fibrils as a substrate revealed that 2A4 bound with a K(D of ∼10 nM. Binding was inhibited in the presence of the -Glu-Asp- containing immunogen peptide. Radiolabeled 2A4 specifically localized with human AL amyloid extracts implanted in mice (amyloidomas as evidenced by single photon emission (SPECT imaging. Furthermore, co-localization of the radiolabeled mAb with amyloid was shown in biodistribution and micro-autoradiography studies. Treatment with 2A4 expedited regression of ALκ amyloidomas in mice, likely mediated by the action of macrophages and neutrophils, relative to animals that received a control antibody. These data indicate that the 2A4 mAb might be of interest for potential imaging and immunotherapy in patients with AL amyloidosis.

  16. 18FDG PET and ultrasound echolucency in carotid artery plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graebe, Martin; Pedersen, Sune F; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to evaluate inflammation in echolucent carotid artery plaques. BACKGROUND: Ultrasound echolucency of carotid artery plaques has been proven to differentiate patients at high risk of stroke. On the other hand, positron emission tomography (PET) of plaques with the use...... for ultrasound and PET imaging. Plaque standardized gray scale medians (GSM) were measured in longitudinal ultrasound images to quantitate echolucency, and GSM values were compared with FDG PET uptake quantified by maximum standardized uptake values (SUV). Symptomatic plaques were compared with contralateral...... plaques ranged from high to low inflammatory activity, as depicted with PET. Quantitative FDG SUV differentiated asymptomatic from symptomatic plaques, whereas GSM values did not. There was a positive correlation between CD68 expression and FDG uptake (r = 0.50, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our results...

  17. New dimensions in mechanical plaque control: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Mandal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plaque control is the daily removal of dental plaque, oral biofilm and also prevention of their accumulation on the teeth and other parts of oral cavity. Dental plaque is the major etiology of maximum gingival and periodontal diseases. It is also related with various dental problems. Mechanical plaque control is a very effective method to get rid of plaque accumulation in oral cavity. In 3000 BC there was the first toothbrush invented by human beings. With time several modifications came in toothbrushes to make mechanical plaque control more effective in day to day oral hygiene practice. This article emphasizes on the advanced and emerging tools in mechanical plaque control methods in attaining an optimal level of oral hygiene standards and maintenance of oral health.

  18. Reliability and discriminatory power of methods for dental plaque quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Prócida Raggio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This in situ study evaluated the discriminatory power and reliability of methods of dental plaque quantification and the relationship between visual indices (VI and fluorescence camera (FC to detect plaque. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six volunteers used palatal appliances with six bovine enamel blocks presenting different stages of plaque accumulation. The presence of plaque with and without disclosing was assessed using VI. Images were obtained with FC and digital camera in both conditions. The area covered by plaque was assessed. Examinations were done by two independent examiners. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Kappa tests to compare different conditions of samples and to assess the inter-examiner reproducibility. RESULTS: Some methods presented adequate reproducibility. The Turesky index and the assessment of area covered by disclosed plaque in the FC images presented the highest discriminatory powers. CONCLUSION: The Turesky index and images with FC with disclosing present good reliability and discriminatory power in quantifying dental plaque.

  19. Amyloid in basal cell carcinoma and seborrheic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Westermark, Per

    1994-01-01

    The frequency of amyloid substance was studied in two different types of skin tumours: basal cell carcinoma and seborrheic keratosis. In 9 out of 49 cases of seborrheic keratosis amyloid substance was found. In the basal cell carcinomas, 194 out of 260 cases showed amyloid deposits, a rate...

  20. The prion protein as a receptor for amyloid-beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, Helmut W.; Nguyen, Louis N.; Nabavi, Sadegh; Malinow, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Increased levels of brain amyloid-beta, a secreted peptide cleavage product of amyloid precursor protein (APP), is believed to be critical in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease. Increased amyloid-beta can cause synaptic depression, reduce the number of spine protrusions (that is, sites of synaptic

  1. Oculocutaneous albinism complicated with an ulcerated plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokanatha Keshavalu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old male with a history of albinism and farmer by occupation presented with an ulcerated plaque on the right wrist. The patient had light eyes, hair, and skin. Physical examination showed extensive photodamage. A skin biopsy specimen from the plaque revealed a well-differentiated squamous-cell carcinoma. Wide surgical excision was done. The most common types of oculocutaneous albinism (OCA, OCA 1 and OCA 2, are autosomal recessive disorders of pigmentation that commonly affect the skin, hair and eyes. Photodamage and skin cancers plague patients with albinism. Albinos face a myriad of social and medical issues. Importance of photoprotection, skin cancer surveillance and treatment has been stressed upon in this report.

  2. Brazilin inhibits amyloid β-protein fibrillogenesis, remodels amyloid fibrils and reduces amyloid cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wen-Jie; Guo, Jing-Jing; Gao, Ming-Tao; Hu, Sheng-Quan; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Han, Yi-Fan; Liu, Fu-Feng; Jiang, Shaoyi; Sun, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Soluble amyloid β-protein (Aβ) oligomers, the main neurotoxic species, are predominantly formed from monomers through a fibril-catalyzed secondary nucleation. Herein, we virtually screened an in-house library of natural compounds and discovered brazilin as a dual functional compound in both Aβ42 fibrillogenesis inhibition and mature fibril remodeling, leading to significant reduction in Aβ42 cytotoxicity. The potent inhibitory effect of brazilin was proven by an IC50 of 1.5 +/- 0.3 μM, which was smaller than that of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate in Phase III clinical trials and about one order of magnitude smaller than those of curcumin and resveratrol. Most importantly, it was found that brazilin redirected Aβ42 monomers and its mature fibrils into unstructured Aβ aggregates with some β-sheet structures, which could prevent both the primary nucleation and the fibril-catalyzed secondary nucleation. Molecular simulations demonstrated that brazilin inhibited Aβ42 fibrillogenesis by directly binding to Aβ42 species via hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding and remodeled mature fibrils by disrupting the intermolecular salt bridge Asp23-Lys28 via hydrogen bonding. Both experimental and computational studies revealed a different working mechanism of brazilin from that of known inhibitors. These findings indicate that brazilin is of great potential as a neuroprotective and therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Regressing Atherosclerosis by Resolving Plaque Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    regression requires the alteration of macrophages in the plaques to a tissue repair “alternatively” activated state. This switch in activation state... tissue repair “alternatively” activated state. This switch in activation state requires the action of TH2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 or IL-13. To...regulation of tissue macrophage and dendritic cell population dynamics by CSF-1. J Exp Med. 2011;208(9):1901–1916. 35. Xu H, Exner BG, Chilton PM

  4. Fibrillar dimer formation of islet amyloid polypeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Chi-cheng [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); de Pablo, Juan J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-05-08

    Amyloid deposits of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a 37-residue hormone co-produced with insulin, have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. Residues 20 – 29 of hIAPP have been proposed to constitute the amyloidogenic core for the aggregation process, yet the segment is mostly unstructured in the mature fibril, according to solid-state NMR data. Here we use molecular simulations combined with bias-exchange metadynamics to characterize the conformational free energies of hIAPP fibrillar dimer and its derivative, pramlintide. We show that residues 20 – 29 are involved in an intermediate that exhibits transient β-sheets, consistent with recent experimental and simulation results. By comparing the aggregation of hIAPP and pramlintide, we illustrate the effects of proline residues on inhibition of the dimerization of IAPP. The mechanistic insights presented here could be useful for development of therapeutic inhibitors of hIAPP amyloid formation.

  5. Cerebral hemorrhage caused by amyloid angiopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Tomonaga, Masanori; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Yamanouchi, Hiroshi; Shimada, Hiroyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral hemorrhage caused by amyloid angiopathy was studied clinicopathologically, with special attention given to the CT images. Cerebral hemorrhage caused by amyloid angiopathy is characterized, by a lobar-type hemorrhage involving the cortex, with direct extension into the subarachnoid space. Multiple hemorrhages are frequent, and cortical infarctions are present as complications in elderly patients without risk factors. CT scans taken in 5 cases demonstrated lobar hemorrhages in superficial locations, frequently in multiple sites or recurrently, with surrounding edema and mass effect. A subarachnoid extension of the hemorrhage through the superficial cortex, proven pathologically in all cases, was noted by CT in 4 of the 5 cases. However, cortical infarction was not detected by CT in any case. Therefore, CT is of value in the diagnosis of cerebral hemorrhage due to amyloid angiopathy based on distinctive findings such as a lobar hemorrhage in superficial regions, with extension into the subarachnoid space, frequently in multiple sites or recurrently. (author)

  6. Biofilm inhibitors that target amyloid proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Diego; Sanabria-Valentín, Edgardo; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2013-01-24

    Bacteria establish stable communities, known as biofilms, that are resistant to antimicrobials. Biofilm robustness is due to the presence of an extracellular matrix, which for several species-among them Bacillus subtilis-includes amyloid-like protein fibers. In this work, we show that B. subtilis biofilms can be a simple and reliable tool for screening of molecules with antiamyloid activity. We identified two molecules, AA-861 and parthenolide, which efficiently inhibited biofilms by preventing the formation of amyloid-like fibers. Parthenolide also disrupted pre-established biofilms. These molecules also impeded the formation of biofilms of other bacterial species that secrete amyloid proteins, such as Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, the identified molecules decreased the conversion of the yeast protein New1 to the prion state in a heterologous host, indicating the broad range of activity of the molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Resveratrol and Amyloid-Beta: Mechanistic Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming Jia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The amyloid-beta (Aβ hypothesis that dyshomeostasis between Aβ production and clearance is a very early, key molecular factor in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD has been proposed and examined in the AD research field. Scientists have focused on seeking natural products or drugs to influence the dynamic equilibrium of Aβ, targeting production and clearance of Aβ. There is emerging evidence that resveratrol (Res, a naturally occurring polyphenol mainly found in grapes and red wine, acts on AD in numerous in vivo and in vitro models. Res decreases the amyloidogenic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP, enhances clearance of amyloid beta-peptides, and reduces Aβ aggregation. Moreover, Res also protects neuronal functions through its antioxidant properties. This review discusses the action of Res on Aβ production, clearance and aggregation and multiple potential mechanisms, providing evidence of the useful of Res for AD treatment.

  8. Macrophage antioxidant protection within atherosclerotic plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieseg, Steven P; Leake, David S; Flavall, Elizabeth M; Amit, Zunika; Reid, Linzi; Yang, Ya-Ting

    2009-01-01

    Macrophage cells within inflammatory lesions are exposed to a wide range of degrading and cytotoxic molecules including reactive oxygen species. Unlike neutrophils, macrophages do not normally die in this environment but continue to generate oxidants, phagocytose cellular remains, and release a range of cyto-active agents which modulate the immune response. It is this potential of the macrophage cell to survive in an oxidative environment that allows the growth and complexity of advanced atherosclerotic plaques. This review will examine the oxidants encountered by macrophages within an atherosclerotic plaque and describe some of the potential antioxidant mechanisms which enable macrophages to function within inflammatory lesions. Ascorbate, a-tocopherol, and glutathione appear to be central to the protection of macrophages yet additional antioxidant mechanisms appear to be involved. Gamma-Interferon causes macrophages to generate 7,8-dihydroneopterin, neopterin and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid both of which have antioxidant properties. Manganese superoxide dismutase is also upregulated in macrophages. The evidence that these antioxidants provide further protection, so allowing the macrophage cells to survive within sites of chronic inflammation such as atherosclerotic plaques, will be described.

  9. Mechanisms of erosion of atherosclerotic plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillard, Thibaut; Franck, Grégory; Mawson, Thomas; Folco, Eduardo; Libby, Peter

    2017-10-01

    The present review explores the mechanisms of superficial intimal erosion, a common cause of thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis. Human coronary artery atheroma that give rise to thrombosis because of erosion differ diametrically from those associated with fibrous cap rupture. Eroded lesions characteristically contain few inflammatory cells, abundant extracellular matrix, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Innate immune mechanisms such as engagement of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) on cultured endothelial cells can impair their viability, attachment, and ability to recover a wound. Hyaluronan fragments may serve as endogenous TLR2 ligands. Mouse experiments demonstrate that flow disturbance in arteries with neointimas tailored to resemble features of human eroded plaques disturbs endothelial cell barrier function, impairs endothelial cell viability, recruits neutrophils, and provokes endothelial cells desquamation, NET formation, and thrombosis in a TLR2-dependent manner. Mechanisms of erosion have received much less attention than those that provoke plaque rupture. Intensive statin treatment changes the characteristic of plaques that render them less susceptible to rupture. Thus, erosion may contribute importantly to the current residual burden of risk. Understanding the mechanisms of erosion may inform the development and deployment of novel therapies to combat the remaining atherothrombotic risk in the statin era.

  10. Optimization of 125I ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrahan, M.A.; Luxton, G.; Jozsef, G.; Liggett, P.E.; Petrovich, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Episcleral plaques containing 125 I sources are often used in the treatment of ocular melanoma. Within four years post-treatment, however, the majority of patients experience some visual loss due to radiation retinopathy. The high incidence of late complications suggests that careful treatment optimization may lead to improved outcome. The goal of optimization would be to reduce the magnitude of vision-limiting complications without compromising tumor control. We have developed a three-dimensional computer model for ophthalmic plaque therapy which permits us to explore the potential of various optimization strategies. One simple strategy which shows promise is to maximize the ratio of dose to the tumor apex (T) compared to dose to the macula (M). By modifying the parameters of source location, activity distribution, source orientation, and shielding we find that the calculated T:M ratio can be varied by a factor of 2 for a common plaque design and posterior tumor location. Margins and dose to the tumor volume remain essentially unchanged

  11. Multiscale Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Beta-Amyloid Interactions with Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liming; Vaughn, Mark; Cheng, Kelvin

    2012-10-01

    Early events of human beta-amyloid protein interactions with cholesterol-containing membranes are critical to understanding the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to exploring new therapeutic interventions of AD. Atomistic molecular dynamics (AMD) simulations have been extensively used to study the protein-lipid interaction at high atomic resolutions. However, traditional MD simulations are not efficient in sampling the phase space of complex lipid/protein systems with rugged free energy landscapes. Meanwhile, coarse-grained MD (CGD) simulations are efficient in the phase space sampling but suffered from low spatial resolutions and from the fact that the energy landscapes are not identical to those of the AMD. Here, a multiscale approach was employed to simulate the protein-lipid interactions of beta-amyloid upon its release from proteolysis residing in the neuronal membranes. We utilized a forward (AMD to CGD) and reverse (CGD-AMD) strategy to explore new transmembrane and surface protein configuration and evaluate the stabilization mechanisms by measuring the residue-specific protein-lipid or protein conformations. The detailed molecular interactions revealed in this multiscale MD approach will provide new insights into understanding the early molecular events leading to the pathogenesis of AD.

  12. Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque; is it related to brushing frequency, plaque load and oral health status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Saima; Khan, Ayyaz Ali; Butt, Arshad Kamal; Idrees, Muhammad; Izhar, Mateen; Iqbal, Hafiz Aamer

    2011-10-01

    To determine the relation between presence of H. pylori in supra-gingival dental plaque with oral hygiene habits and oral health status of patients suffering from symptomatic dyspepsia. Descriptive study. The Department of Oral Health Sciences, Shaikh Zayed FPGMI, Lahore, from September 2008 to August 2009. One hundred and fifty dyspeptic subjects with dental plaque were enrolled. After recording brushing frequency, oral health status and plaque load, the supra-gingival dental plaque samples were collected by sterile curettes. Helicobacter pylori were detected in dental plaque samples through PCR assay. Presence of H. pylori in dental plaque was found to be 37.5% in the sample. Most of the subjects brushed once daily, had plaque index score of 1 and had fair to poor oral hygiene status. Approximately 35% of the individuals who brushed once or twice a day harbored the bacterium in their dental plaque. There was no difference between bacterial detection rates among different categories of plaque index and oral health status of the study subjects. Presence of H. pylori in dental plaque was found to be associated with neither brushing frequency nor with the plaque load nor with the oral health status of individuals suffering from symptomatic dyspepsia.

  13. Neurofibrillary tangles and the deposition of a beta amyloid peptide with a novel N-terminal epitope in the brains of wild Tsushima leopard cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K Chambers

    Full Text Available Beta amyloid (Aβ deposits are seen in aged individuals in many of the mammalian species that possess the same Aβ amino acid sequence as humans. Conversely, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT, the other hallmark lesion of Alzheimer's disease (AD, are extremely rare in these animals. We detected Aβ deposits in the brains of Tsushima leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus that live exclusively on Tsushima Island, Japan. Aβ42 was deposited in a granular pattern in the neuropil of the pyramidal cell layer, but did not form argyrophilic senile plaques. These Aβ deposits were not immunolabeled with antibodies to the N-terminal of human Aβ. Sequence analysis of the amyloid precursor protein revealed an amino acid substitution at the 7th residue of the Aβ peptide. In a comparison with other mammalian animals that do develop argyrophilic senile plaques, we concluded that the alternative Aβ amino acid sequence displayed by leopard cats is likely to be related to its distinctive deposition pattern. Interestingly, most of the animals with these Aβ deposits also developed NFTs. The distributions of hyperphosphorylated tau-positive cells and the two major isoforms of aggregated tau proteins were quite similar to those seen in Alzheimer's disease. In addition, the unphosphorylated form of GSK-3β colocalized with hyperphosphorylated tau within the affected neurons. In conclusion, this animal species develops AD-type NFTs without argyrophilic senile plaques.

  14. Case report 480: Periosteal amyloid tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, S.O.; Karjoo, R.; Johnstone, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    In summary, a 66-year-old woman presented with an asymptomatic left pretibial tumor of 7 years duration. Serial radiographs over this period demonstrated a slowly enlarging periosteal tumor with focal and increasing calcifications/ossifications. No involvement of the underlying medullary bone, as demonstrated by computed tomography was noted. Following the diagnosis by biopsy of an amyloid tumor, serum and urine electrophoreses, complete blood count, SMAC panel, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and serum rheumatoid factor level were found to be within reference ranges. A needle biopsy of the abdominal wall failed to reveal amyloid in the fat by Congo-red staining. (orig.)

  15. Dysfunction of different cellular degradation pathways contributes to specific β-amyloid42-induced pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xuan-Ru; Cheng, Kuan-Chung; Chen, Yu-Ru; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Cheung, Chun Hei Antonio; Wu, Chia-Lin; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng

    2018-03-01

    The endosomal-lysosomal system (ELS), autophagy, and ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are cellular degradation pathways that each play a critical role in the removal of misfolded proteins and the prevention of the accumulation of abnormal proteins. Recent studies on Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis have suggested that accumulation of aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the AD brain results from a dysfunction in these cellular clearance systems. However, the specific roles of these pathways in the removal of Aβ peptides and the pathogenesis underlying AD are unclear. Our in vitro and in vivo genetic approaches revealed that ELS mainly removed monomeric β-amyloid42 (Aβ42), while autophagy and UPS clear oligomeric Aβ42. Although overproduction of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate-5 increased Aβ42 clearance, it reduced the life span of Aβ42 transgenic flies. Our behavioral studies further demonstrated impaired autophagy and UPS-enhanced Aβ42-induced learning and memory deficits, but there was no effect on Aβ42-induced reduction in life span. Results from genetic fluorescence imaging showed that these pathways were damaged in the following order: UPS, autophagy, and finally ELS. The results of our study demonstrate that different degradation pathways play distinct roles in the removal of Aβ42 aggregates and in disease progression. These findings also suggest that pharmacologic treatments that are designed to stimulate cellular degradation pathways in patients with AD should be used with caution.-Ji, X.-R., Cheng, K.-C., Chen, Y.-R., Lin, T.-Y., Cheung, C. H. A., Wu, C.-L., Chiang, H.-C. Dysfunction of different cellular degradation pathways contributes to specific β-amyloid42-induced pathologies.

  16. Population studies of sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy and dementia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wharton Stephen B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ in vessel walls of the brain as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA could be a major factor in the pathogenesis of dementia. Here we investigate the relationship between dementia and the prevalence of CAA in older populations. We searched the literature for prospective population-based epidemiological clinicopathological studies, free of the biases of other sampling techniques, which were used as a comparison. Methods To identify population-based studies assessing CAA and dementia, a previous systematic review of population-based clinicopathological studies of ageing and dementia was employed. To identify selected-sample studies, PsychInfo (1806–April Week 3 2008, OVID MEDLINE (1950–April Week 2 2008 and Pubmed (searched 21 April 2008 databases were searched using the term "amyloid angiopathy". These databases were also employed to search for any population-based studies not included in the previous systematic review. Studies were included if they reported the prevalence of CAA relative to a dementia classification (clinical or neuropathological. Results Four population-based studies were identified. They showed that on average 55–59% of those with dementia displayed CAA (of any severity compared to 28–38% of the non-demented. 37–43% of the demented displayed severe CAA in contrast to 7–24% of the non-demented. There was no overlap in the range of these averages and they were less variable and lower than those reported in 38 selected sample studies (demented v non-demented: 32–100 v 0–77% regardless of severity; 0–50 v 0–11% for severe only. Conclusion CAA prevalence in populations is consistently higher in the demented as compared to the non-demented. This supports a significant role for CAA in the pathogenesis of dementia.

  17. Drosophila Melanogaster as a Model System for Studies of Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Sebastian Wolfgang; Nilsson, K. Peter R.; Westermark, Gunilla Torstensdotter

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent research supports that aggregation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) leads to cell death and this makes islet amyloid a plausible cause for the reduction of beta cell mass, demonstrated in patients with type 2 diabetes. IAPP is produced by the beta cells as a prohormone, and proIAPP is processed into IAPP by the prohormone convertases PC1/3 and PC2 in the secretory granules. Little is known about the pathogenesis for islet amyloid and which intracellular mechanisms are involved in amyloidogenesis and induction of cell death. Methodology/Principal Findings We have established expression of human proIAPP (hproIAPP), human IAPP (hIAPP) and the non-amyloidogenic mouse IAPP (mIAPP) in Drosophila melanogaster, and compared survival of flies with the expression driven to different cell populations. Only flies expressing hproIAPP in neurons driven by the Gal4 driver elavC155,Gal4 showed a reduction in lifespan whereas neither expression of hIAPP or mIAPP influenced survival. Both hIAPP and hproIAPP expression caused formation of aggregates in CNS and fat body region, and these aggregates were both stained by the dyes Congo red and pFTAA, both known to detect amyloid. Also, the morphology of the highly organized protein granules that developed in the fat body of the head in hIAPP and hproIAPP expressing flies was characterized, and determined to consist of 15.8 nm thick pentagonal rod-like structures. Conclusions/Significance These findings point to a potential for Drosophila melanogaster to serve as a model system for studies of hproIAPP and hIAPP expression with subsequent aggregation and developed pathology. PMID:21695120

  18. Vitamin D and Its Analogues Decrease Amyloid-β (Aβ Formation and Increase Aβ-Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus O. W. Grimm

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is characterized by extracellular plaques in the brain, mainly consisting of amyloid-β (Aβ, as derived from sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Epidemiological studies suggest a tight link between hypovitaminosis of the secosteroid vitamin D and AD. Besides decreased vitamin D level in AD patients, an effect of vitamin D on Aβ-homeostasis is discussed. However, the exact underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated and nothing is known about the potential effect of vitamin D analogues. Here we systematically investigate the effect of vitamin D and therapeutically used analogues (maxacalcitol, calcipotriol, alfacalcidol, paricalcitol, doxercalciferol on AD-relevant mechanisms. D2 and D3 analogues decreased Aβ-production and increased Aβ-degradation in neuroblastoma cells or vitamin D deficient mouse brains. Effects were mediated by affecting the Aβ-producing enzymes BACE1 and γ-secretase. A reduced secretase activity was accompanied by a decreased BACE1 protein level and nicastrin expression, an essential component of the γ-secretase. Vitamin D and analogues decreased β-secretase activity, not only in mouse brains with mild vitamin D hypovitaminosis, but also in non-deficient mouse brains. Our results further strengthen the link between AD and vitamin D, suggesting that supplementation of vitamin D or vitamin D analogues might have beneficial effects in AD prevention.

  19. Vitamin D and Its Analogues Decrease Amyloid-β (Aβ) Formation and Increase Aβ-Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Marcus O W; Thiel, Andrea; Lauer, Anna A; Winkler, Jakob; Lehmann, Johannes; Regner, Liesa; Nelke, Christopher; Janitschke, Daniel; Benoist, Céline; Streidenberger, Olga; Stötzel, Hannah; Endres, Kristina; Herr, Christian; Beisswenger, Christoph; Grimm, Heike S; Bals, Robert; Lammert, Frank; Hartmann, Tobias

    2017-12-19

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular plaques in the brain, mainly consisting of amyloid-β (Aβ), as derived from sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Epidemiological studies suggest a tight link between hypovitaminosis of the secosteroid vitamin D and AD. Besides decreased vitamin D level in AD patients, an effect of vitamin D on Aβ-homeostasis is discussed. However, the exact underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated and nothing is known about the potential effect of vitamin D analogues. Here we systematically investigate the effect of vitamin D and therapeutically used analogues (maxacalcitol, calcipotriol, alfacalcidol, paricalcitol, doxercalciferol) on AD-relevant mechanisms. D₂ and D₃ analogues decreased Aβ-production and increased Aβ-degradation in neuroblastoma cells or vitamin D deficient mouse brains. Effects were mediated by affecting the Aβ-producing enzymes BACE1 and γ-secretase. A reduced secretase activity was accompanied by a decreased BACE1 protein level and nicastrin expression, an essential component of the γ-secretase. Vitamin D and analogues decreased β-secretase activity, not only in mouse brains with mild vitamin D hypovitaminosis, but also in non-deficient mouse brains. Our results further strengthen the link between AD and vitamin D, suggesting that supplementation of vitamin D or vitamin D analogues might have beneficial effects in AD prevention.

  20. Detection of Alzheimer's amyloid beta aggregation by capturing molecular trails of individual assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestergaard, Mun'delanji; Hamada, Tsutomu; Saito, Masato; Yajima, Yoshifumi; Kudou, Monotori; Tamiya, Eiichi; Takagi, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Assembly of Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, in particular Aβ-42 is central to the formation of the amyloid plaques associated with neuro-pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Molecular assembly of individual Aβ-42 species was observed using a simple fluorescence microscope. From the molecular movements (aka Brownian motion) of the individual peptide assemblies, we calculated a temporal evolution of the hydrodynamic radius (R H ) of the peptide at physiological temperature and pH. The results clearly show a direct relationship between R H of Aβ-42 and incubation period, corresponding to the previously reported peptide's aggregation kinetics. The data correlates highly with in solution-based label-free electrochemical detection of the peptide's aggregation, and Aβ-42 deposited on a solid surface and analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first analysis and characterisation of Aβ aggregation based on capturing molecular trails of individual assemblies. The technique enables both real-time observation and a semi-quantitative distribution profile of the various stages of Aβ assembly, at microM peptide concentration. Our method is a promising candidate for real-time observation and analysis of the effect of other pathologically-relevant molecules such as metal ions on pathways to Aβ oligomerisation and aggregation. The method is also a promising screening tool for AD therapeutics that target Aβ assembly.

  1. Lipid peroxidation and Alzheimer’s disease: Key role of Amyloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontush Anatol

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased lipid peroxidation and elevated oxidative stress represent well-established characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Amyloid-β (Aβ peptide, a major component of amyloid plaques, can strongly influence oxidative processes. In aggregated form, Aβ has prooxidative properties, whereas in monomeric form it functions as an antioxidant. The antioxidative properties of monomeric Aβ are related to its ability to chelate transition metal ions, which are potent catalysts of oxidation. Aβ possesses an amphiphilic structure, associates with lipoproteins in vivo and may therefore function as a preventive antioxidant which protects lipoproteins from oxidation by transition metal ions. Increased production of Aβ in response to elevated oxidative stress has been documented in a number of in vitro studies, implying that production of monomeric Aβ as a lipoprotein antioxidant can be abnormally increased in response to elevated oxidative stress in aging. Subsequent accumulation of Aβ-metal aggregates, production of reactive oxygen species and toxic action to neuronal cells may represent a gain-of-function transformation and form temporal sequence of events in the development of AD.

  2. Florbetapir F18 PET Amyloid Neuroimaging and Characteristics in Patients With Mild and Moderate Alzheimer Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Elisabeth K; Witte, Michael M; Case, Michael G; Yu, Peng; Henley, David B; Hochstetler, Helen M; D'Souza, Deborah N; Trzepacz, Paula T

    2016-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD) is challenging, with a 70.9%-87.3% sensitivity and 44.3%-70.8% specificity, compared with autopsy diagnosis. Florbetapir F18 positron emission tomography (FBP-PET) estimates beta-amyloid plaque density antemortem. Of 2052 patients (≥55 years old) clinically diagnosed with mild or moderate AD dementia from 2 solanezumab clinical trials, 390 opted to participate in a FBP-PET study addendum. We analyzed baseline prerandomization characteristics. A total of 22.4% had negative FBP-PET scans, whereas 72.5% of mild and 86.9% of moderate AD patients had positive results. No baseline clinical variable reliably differentiated negative from positive FBP-PET scan groups. These data confirm the challenges of correctly diagnosing AD without using biomarkers. FBP-PET can aid AD dementia differential diagnosis by detecting amyloid pathology antemortem, even when the diagnosis of AD is made by expert clinicians. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Surface chemistry of lipid raft and amyloid Aβ (1-40) Langmuir monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Garima; Pao, Christine; Micic, Miodrag; Johnson, Sheba; Leblanc, Roger M

    2011-10-15

    Lipid rafts being rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids are considered to provide ordered lipid environment in the neuronal membranes, where it is hypothesized that the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to Aβ (1-40) and Aβ (1-42) takes place. It is highly likely that the interaction of lipid raft components like cholesterol, sphingomylein or GM1 leads to nucleation of Aβ and results in aggregation or accumulation of amyloid plaques. One has investigated surface pressure-area isotherms of the lipid raft and Aβ (1-40) Langmuir monolayer. The compression-decompression cycles and the stability of the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer are crucial parameters for the investigation of interaction of Aβ (1-40) with the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer. It was revealed that GM1 provides instability to the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer. Adsorption of Aβ (1-40) onto the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer containing neutral (POPC) or negatively charged phospholipid (DPPG) was examined. The adsorption isotherms revealed that the concentration of cholesterol was important for adsorption of Aβ (1-40) onto the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer containing POPC whereas for the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer containing DPPG:cholesterol or GM1 did not play any role. In situ UV-vis absorption spectroscopy supported the interpretation of results for the adsorption isotherms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lost region in amyloid precursor protein (APP) through TALEN-mediated genome editing alters mitochondrial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajie; Wu, Fengyi; Pan, Haining; Zheng, Wenzhong; Feng, Chi; Wang, Yunfu; Deng, Zixin; Wang, Lianrong; Luo, Jie; Chen, Shi

    2016-02-29

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in the brain. Aβ plaques are produced through sequential β/γ cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP), of which there are three main APP isoforms: APP695, APP751 and APP770. KPI-APPs (APP751 and APP770) are known to be elevated in AD, but the reason remains unclear. Transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases (TALENs) induce mutations with high efficiency at specific genomic loci, and it is thus possible to knock out specific regions using TALENs. In this study, we designed and expressed TALENs specific for the C-terminus of APP in HeLa cells, in which KPI-APPs are predominantly expressed. The KPI-APP mutants lack a 12-aa region that encompasses a 5-aa trans-membrane (TM) region and 7-aa juxta-membrane (JM) region. The mutated KPI-APPs exhibited decreased mitochondrial localization. In addition, mitochondrial morphology was altered, resulting in an increase in spherical mitochondria in the mutant cells through the disruption of the balance between fission and fusion. Mitochondrial dysfunction, including decreased ATP levels, disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, increased ROS generation and impaired mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, was also found. These results suggest that specific regions of KPI-APPs are important for mitochondrial localization and function.

  5. A setup for simultaneous measurement of infrared spectra and light scattering signals: Watching amyloid fibrils grow from intact proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang; Maurer, Jürgen; Roth, Andreas; Vogel, Vitali; Winter, Ernst; Mäntele, Werner, E-mail: maentele@biophysik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institut für Biophysik, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Max-von Laue-Straße 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    A setup for the simultaneous measurement of mid-infrared spectra and static light scattering is described that can be used for the analysis of the formation of nanoscale and microscopic aggregates from smaller molecules to biopolymers. It can be easily integrated into sample chambers of infrared spectrometers or combined with laser beams from tunable infrared lasers. Here, its use for the analysis of the formation of amyloid fibrils from intact proteins is demonstrated. The formation of amyloid fibrils or plaques from proteins is a widespread and pathogenetic relevant process, and a number of diseases are caused and correlated with the deposition of amyloid fibrils in cells and tissues. The molecular mechanisms of these transformations, however, are still unclear. We report here the simultaneous measurement of infrared spectra and static light scattering for the analysis of fibril formation from egg-white lysozyme. The transformation of the native form into non-native forms rich in β-sheet structure is measured by analysis of the amide I spectral region in the infrared spectra, which is sensitive for local structures. At the same time, light scattering signals at forward direction as well as the forward/backward ratio, which are sensitive for the number of scattering centers and their approximate sizes, respectively, are collected for the analysis of fibril growth. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters as well as mechanistic information are deduced from the combination of the two complementary techniques.

  6. A setup for simultaneous measurement of infrared spectra and light scattering signals: Watching amyloid fibrils grow from intact proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Maurer, Jürgen; Roth, Andreas; Vogel, Vitali; Winter, Ernst; Mäntele, Werner

    2014-08-01

    A setup for the simultaneous measurement of mid-infrared spectra and static light scattering is described that can be used for the analysis of the formation of nanoscale and microscopic aggregates from smaller molecules to biopolymers. It can be easily integrated into sample chambers of infrared spectrometers or combined with laser beams from tunable infrared lasers. Here, its use for the analysis of the formation of amyloid fibrils from intact proteins is demonstrated. The formation of amyloid fibrils or plaques from proteins is a widespread and pathogenetic relevant process, and a number of diseases are caused and correlated with the deposition of amyloid fibrils in cells and tissues. The molecular mechanisms of these transformations, however, are still unclear. We report here the simultaneous measurement of infrared spectra and static light scattering for the analysis of fibril formation from egg-white lysozyme. The transformation of the native form into non-native forms rich in β-sheet structure is measured by analysis of the amide I spectral region in the infrared spectra, which is sensitive for local structures. At the same time, light scattering signals at forward direction as well as the forward/backward ratio, which are sensitive for the number of scattering centers and their approximate sizes, respectively, are collected for the analysis of fibril growth. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters as well as mechanistic information are deduced from the combination of the two complementary techniques.

  7. On the pathogenesis of IDDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerup, J; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Helqvist, S

    1994-01-01

    A model of the pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, i.e. the initial phase of beta-cell destruction, is proposed: in a cascade-like fashion efficient antigen presentation, unbalanced cytokine, secretion and poor beta-cell defence result in beta-cell destruction by toxic free...

  8. Pathogenesis of motor neuron disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuefei Wang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize and analyze the factors and theories related to the attack of motor neuron disease, and comprehensively investigate the pathogenesis of motor neuron disease.DATA SOURCES: A search of Pubmed database was undertaken to identify articles about motor neuron disease published in English from January 1994 to June 2006 by using the keywords of "neurodegenerative diseases". Other literatures were collected by retrieving specific journals and articles.STUDY SELECTION: The data were checked primarily, articles related to the pathogenesis of motor neuron disease were involved, and those obviously irrelated to the articles were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 54 articles were collected, 30 of them were involved, and the other 24 were excluded.DATA SYNTHESIS: The pathogenesis of motor neuron disease has multiple factors, and the present related theories included free radical oxidation, excitotoxicity, genetic and immune factors, lack of neurotrophic factor,injury of neurofilament, etc. The studies mainly come from transgenic animal models, cell culture in vitro and patients with familial motor neuron disease, but there are still many restrictions and disadvantages.CONCLUSION: It is necessary to try to find whether there is internal association among different mechanisms,comprehensively investigate the pathogenesis of motor neuron diseases, in order to provide reliable evidence for the clinical treatment.

  9. Biology and pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Acanthamoeba is a free-living protist pathogen, capable of causing a blinding keratitis and fatal granulomatous encephalitis. The factors that contribute to Acanthamoeba infections include parasite biology, genetic diversity, environmental spread and host susceptibility, and are highlighted together with potential therapeutic and preventative measures. The use of Acanthamoeba in the study of cellular differentiation mechanisms, motility and phagocytosis, bacterial pathogenesis and ev...

  10. Kinetics of hemolytic plaque formation. IV. IgM plaque inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLisi, C

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of the inhibition of hemolytic plaques formed against IgM antibodies is presented. The starting point is the equations of DeLisi and Bell (1974) which describe the kinetics of plaque growth, and DeLisi and Goldstein (1975) which describe inhibition of IgG plaques. However, the physical chemical models which were used previously to describe IgG inhibition data are shown to be inadequate for describing the characteristics of IgM inhibition curves. Moreover, it is shown that the experimental results place severe restrictions on the possible choices of physical chemical models for IgM upon which to base the calculations. It is argued that in order to account even qualitatively for all the data, one must assume (1) a very restricted motion of IgMs about the Fab hinge region and (2) a very narrow secretion rate distribution of IgM by antibody secreting cells. (auth)

  11. Amyloid-β Peptide Induces Prion Protein Amyloid Formation: Evidence for Its Widespread Amyloidogenic Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ryo

    2018-04-12

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy is associated with misfolding of prion protein (PrP) into an amyloid β-rich aggregate. Previous studies have indicated that PrP interacts with Alzheimer's disease amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), but it remains elusive how this interaction impacts on the misfolding of PrP. This study presents the first in vitro evidence that Aβ induces PrP-amyloid formation at submicromolar concentrations. Interestingly, systematic mutagenesis of PrP revealed that Aβ requires no specific amino acid sequences in PrP, and induces the misfolding of other unrelated proteins (insulin and lysozyme) into amyloid fibrils in a manner analogous to PrP. This unanticipated nonspecific amyloidogenic effect of Aβ indicates that this peptide might be involved in widespread protein aggregation, regardless of the amino acid sequences of target proteins, and exacerbate the pathology of many neurodegenerative diseases. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Evidence for novel beta-sheet structures in Iowa mutant beta-amyloid fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tycko, Robert; Sciarretta, Kimberly L; Orgel, Joseph P R O; Meredith, Stephen C

    2009-07-07

    Asp23-to-Asn mutation within the coding sequence of beta-amyloid, called the Iowa mutation, is associated with early onset, familial Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which patients develop neuritic plaques and massive vascular deposition predominantly of the mutant peptide. We examined the mutant peptide, D23N-Abeta40, by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. D23N-Abeta40 forms fibrils considerably faster than the wild-type peptide (k = 3.77 x 10(-3) min(-1) and 1.07 x 10(-4) min(-1) for D23N-Abeta40 and the wild-type peptide WT-Abeta40, respectively) and without a lag phase. Electron microscopy shows that D23N-Abeta40 forms fibrils with multiple morphologies. X-ray fiber diffraction shows a cross-beta pattern, with a sharp reflection at 4.7 A and a broad reflection at 9.4 A, which is notably smaller than the value for WT-Abeta40 fibrils (10.4 A). Solid-state NMR measurements indicate molecular level polymorphism of the fibrils, with only a minority of D23N-Abeta40 fibrils containing the in-register, parallel beta-sheet structure commonly found in WT-Abeta40 fibrils and most other amyloid fibrils. Antiparallel beta-sheet structures in the majority of fibrils are indicated by measurements of intermolecular distances through (13)C-(13)C and (15)N-(13)C dipole-dipole couplings. An intriguing possibility exists that there is a relationship between the aberrant structure of D23N-Abeta40 fibrils and the unusual vasculotropic clinical picture in these patients.

  13. Evidence for Novel β-Sheet Structures in Iowa Mutant β-Amyloid Fibrils†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tycko, Robert; Sciarretta, Kimberly L.; Orgel, Joseph P. R. O.; Meredith, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Asp23-to-Asn mutation within the coding sequence of β-amyloid, called the Iowa mutation, is associated with early onset, familial Alzheimer’s disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which patients develop neuritic plaques and massive vascular deposition predominantly of the mutant peptide. We examined the mutant peptide, D23N-Aβ40, by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. D23N-Aβ40 forms fibrils considerably faster than the wild-type peptide (k = 3.77 × 10-3 min-1 and 1.07 × 10-4 min-1 for D23N-Aβ40 and the wild-type peptide WT-Aβ40, respectively) and without a lag phase. Electron microscopy shows that D23N-Aβ40 forms fibrils with multiple morphologies. X-ray fiber diffraction shows a cross-β pattern, with a sharp reflection at 4.7 Å and a broad reflection at 9.4 Å, which is notably smaller than the value for WT-Aβ40 fibrils (10.4 Å). Solid-state NMR measurements indicate molecular level polymorphism of the fibrils, with only a minority of D23N-Aβ40 fibrils containing the in-register, parallel β-sheet structure commonly found in WT-Aβ40 fibrils and most other amyloid fibrils. Antiparallel β-sheet structures in the majority of fibrils are indicated by measurements of intermolecular distances through 13C-13C and 15N-13C dipole-dipole couplings. An intriguing possibility exists that there is a relationship between the aberrant structure of D23N-Aβ40 fibrils and the unusual vasculotropic clinical picture in these patients. PMID:19358576

  14. Neuroprotective Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract after Chronic Infusion with Amyloid-β Peptide in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzelle, Maressa Caldeira; Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi; Telles, Milena; Mourelle, Danilo; Bachiega, Patricia; Buck, Hudson Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is a chronic and degenerative condition that had no treatment until recently. The current therapeutic strategies reduce progression of the disease but are expensive and commonly cause side effects that are uncomfortable for treated patients. Functional foods to prevent and/or treat many conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases, represent a promising field of study currently gaining attention. To this end, here we demonstrate the effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract (PPE) regarding spatial memory, biomarkers of neuroplasticity, oxidative stress and inflammation in a mouse model of neurodegeneration. Male C57Bl/6 mice were chronically infused for 35 days with amyloid-β peptide 1–42 (Aβ) or vehicle (control) using mini-osmotic pumps. Another group, also infused with Aβ, was treated with PPE (p.o.– βA+PPE, 800 mg/kg/day). Spatial memory was evaluated in the Barnes maze. Animals treated with PPE and in the control group exhibited a reduction in failure to find the escape box, a finding that was not observed in the Aβ group. The consumption of PPE reduced amyloid plaque density, increased the expression of neurotrophin BDNF and reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme. A reduction in lipid peroxidation and in the concentration of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α was also observed in the PPE group. No hepatic lesions were observed in animals treated with PPE. In conclusion, administration of pomegranate peel extract has neuroprotective effects involving multiple mechanisms to prevent establishment and progression of the neurodegenerative process induced by infusion with amyloid-β peptide in mice. PMID:27829013

  15. Regional correlations between [11C]PIB PET and post-mortem burden of amyloid-beta pathology in a diverse neuropathological cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Won Seo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging-pathological correlation studies show that in vivo amyloid-β (Aβ positron emission tomography (PET strongly predicts the presence of significant Aβ pathology at autopsy. We sought to determine whether regional PiB-PET uptake would improve sensitivity for amyloid detection in comparison with global measures (experiment 1, and to estimate the relative contributions of different Aβ aggregates to in vivo PET signal (experiment 2. In experiment 1, 54 subjects with [11C] PiB-PET during life and postmortem neuropathologic examination (85.2% with dementia, interval from PET to autopsy 3.1 ± 1.9 years were included. We assessed Thal amyloid phase (N = 36 and CERAD score (N = 54 versus both global and regional PiB SUVRs. In experiment 2 (N = 42, PiB SUVR and post-mortem amyloid β burden was analyzed in five customized regions of interest matching regions sampled at autopsy. We assessed the relative contribution of neuritic plaques (NPs, diffuse plaques (DPs and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA to regional PIB SUVR using multi-linear regression. In experiment 1, there were no differences in Area Under the Curve for amyloid phase ≥ A2 and CERAD score ≥ C2 between global and highest regional PiB SUVR (p = 0.186 and 0.230. In experiment 2, when NPs, DPs, and/or CAA were included in the same model, moderate to severe NPs were independently correlated with PiB SUVR in all regions except for the inferior temporal and calcarine ROI (β = 0.414–0.804, p < 0.05, whereas DPs were independently correlated with PiB SUVR in the angular gyrus ROI (β = 0.446, p = 0.010. CAA was also associated with PiB SUVR in the inferior temporal and calcarine ROI (β = 0.222–0.355, p < 0.05. In conclusion, global PiB-PET SUVR performed as well as regional values for amyloid detection in our cohort. The substrate-specific binding of PiB might differ among the brain specific regions.

  16. Amyloid β levels in human red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Kiko

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ is hypothesized to play a key role by oxidatively impairing the capacity of red blood cells (RBCs to deliver oxygen to the brain. These processes are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Although plasma Aβ has been investigated thoroughly, the presence and distribution of Aβ in human RBCs are still unclear. In this study, we quantitated Aβ40 and Aβ42 in human RBCs with ELISA assays, and provided evidence that significant amounts of Aβ could be detected in RBCs and that the RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. The RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. On the other hand, providing an antioxidant supplement (astaxanthin, a polar carotenoid to humans was found to decrease RBC Aβ as well as oxidative stress marker levels. These results suggest that plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 bind to RBCs (possibly with aging, implying a pathogenic role of RBC Aβ. Moreover, the data indicate that RBC Aβ40 and Aβ42 may constitute biomarkers of AD. As a preventive strategy, therapeutic application of astaxanthin as an Aβ-lowering agent in RBCs could be considered as a possible anti-dementia agent. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN42483402.

  17. Preventing effect of L-type calcium channel blockade on electrophysiological alterations in dentate gyrus granule cells induced by entorhinal amyloid pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholami Pourbadie

    Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex (EC is one of the earliest affected brain regions in Alzheimer's disease (AD. EC-amyloid pathology induces synaptic failure in the dentate gyrus (DG with resultant behavioral impairment, but there is little known about its impact on neuronal properties in the DG. It is believed that calcium dyshomeostasis plays a pivotal role in the etiology of AD. Here, the effect of the EC amyloid pathogenesis on cellular properties of DG granule cells and also possible neuroprotective role of L-type calcium channel blockers (CCBs, nimodipine and isradipine, were investigated. The amyloid beta (Aβ 1-42 was injected bilaterally into the EC of male rats and one week later, electrophysiological properties of DG granule cells were assessed. Voltage clamp recording revealed appearance of giant sIPSC in combination with a decrease in sEPSC frequency which was partially reversed by CCBs in granule cells from Aβ treated rats. EC amyloid pathogenesis induced a significant reduction of input resistance (Rin accompanied by a profound decreased excitability in the DG granule cells. However, daily administration of CCBs, isradipine or nimodipine (i.c.v. for 6 days, almost preserved the normal excitability against Aβ. In conclusion, lower tendency to fire AP along with reduced Rin suggest that DG granule cells might undergo an alteration in the membrane ion channel activities which finally lead to the behavioral deficits observed in animal models and patients with early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Formation of amyloid fibers by monomeric light chain variable domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumshtein, Boris; Esswein, Shannon R; Landau, Meytal; Ryan, Christopher M; Whitelegge, Julian P; Phillips, Martin L; Cascio, Duilio; Sawaya, Michael R; Eisenberg, David S

    2014-10-03

    Systemic light chain amyloidosis is a lethal disease characterized by excess immunoglobulin light chains and light chain fragments composed of variable domains, which aggregate into amyloid fibers. These fibers accumulate and damage organs. Some light chains induce formation of amyloid fibers, whereas others do not, making it unclear what distinguishes amyloid formers from non-formers. One mechanism by which sequence variation may reduce propensity to form amyloid fibers is by shifting the equilibrium toward an amyloid-resistant quaternary structure. Here we identify the monomeric form of the Mcg immunoglobulin light chain variable domain as the quaternary unit required for amyloid fiber assembly. Dimers of Mcg variable domains remain stable and soluble, yet become prone to assemble into amyloid fibers upon disassociation into monomers. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Micro-analysis of plaque fluid from single-site fasted plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, G.L.; Carey, C.M.; Chow, L.C.; Tatevossian, A.

    1990-01-01

    Despite the site-specific nature of caries, nearly all data on the concentration of ions relevant to the level of saturation of plaque fluid with respect to calcium phosphate minerals or enamel are from studies that used pooled samples. A procedure is described for the collection and analysis of inorganic ions relevant to these saturation levels in plaque fluid samples collected from a single surface on a single tooth. Various methods for examining data obtained by this procedure are described, and a mathematical procedure employing potential plots is recommended

  20. ADAM10 missense mutations potentiate β-amyloid accumulation by impairing prodomain chaperone function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Jaehong; Choi, Se Hoon; Romano, Donna M; Gannon, Moira A; Lesinski, Andrea N; Kim, Doo Yeon; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2013-10-16

    The generation of Aβ, the main component of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD), is precluded by α-secretase cleavage within the Aβ domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). We identified two rare mutations (Q170H and R181G) in the prodomain of the metalloprotease, ADAM10, that cosegregate with late-onset AD (LOAD). Here, we addressed the pathogenicity of these mutations in transgenic mice expressing human ADAM10 in brain. In Tg2576 AD mice, both mutations attenuated α-secretase activity of ADAM10 and shifted APP processing toward β-secretase-mediated cleavage, while enhancing Aβ plaque load and reactive gliosis. We also demonstrated ADAM10 expression potentiates adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which is reduced by the LOAD mutations. Mechanistically, both LOAD mutations impaired the molecular chaperone activity of ADAM10 prodomain. Collectively, these findings suggest that diminished α-secretase activity, owing to LOAD ADAM10 prodomain mutations, leads to AD-related pathology, strongly supporting ADAM10 as a promising therapeutic target for this devastating disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nanoparticles and amyloid systems: A fatal encounter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, Bernd [Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification, Chemical Department, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig, Germany and Wilhelm-Ostwald-Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Linnéstr. 3, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-10-06

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are used in many products of our daily life, however, there has been concern that they may also be harmful to human health. Recently NPs have been found to accelerate the fibrillation kinetics of amyloid systems. In the past this has been preliminarily attributed to a nucleation effect. Nanoparticle surfaces and interfaces appear to limit the degrees of freedom of amyloid systems (i.e., peptides and proteins) due to a phase space constraint such that rapid cross-beta structures are formed faster than without interface interactions and in turn fibril formation is enhanced significantly. Here we explore if lipid bilayers in the form of liposomes (140nm) also accelerate fibril formation for amyloid systems. We have investigated a fragment NNFGAIL of the Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) in contact with 1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPhPC) liposomes in aqueous solution. We found that the lipid bilayer vesicles do accelerate fibril formation in time-resolved off-line detected atomic force microscopy experiments. Characteristic Thioflavine-T fluorescence on the same structures verify that the structures consist of aggregated peptides in a typical cross-β-structure arrangement.

  2. A method for probing the mutational landscape of amyloid structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Charles W; Waldispühl, Jérôme; Lis, Mieszko; Halfmann, Randal; Devadas, Srinivas; Lindquist, Susan; Berger, Bonnie

    2011-07-01

    Proteins of all kinds can self-assemble into highly ordered β-sheet aggregates known as amyloid fibrils, important both biologically and clinically. However, the specific molecular structure of a fibril can vary dramatically depending on sequence and environmental conditions, and mutations can drastically alter amyloid function and pathogenicity. Experimental structure determination has proven extremely difficult with only a handful of NMR-based models proposed, suggesting a need for computational methods. We present AmyloidMutants, a statistical mechanics approach for de novo prediction and analysis of wild-type and mutant amyloid structures. Based on the premise of protein mutational landscapes, AmyloidMutants energetically quantifies the effects of sequence mutation on fibril conformation and stability. Tested on non-mutant, full-length amyloid structures with known chemical shift data, AmyloidMutants offers roughly 2-fold improvement in prediction accuracy over existing tools. Moreover, AmyloidMutants is the only method to predict complete super-secondary structures, enabling accurate discrimination of topologically dissimilar amyloid conformations that correspond to the same sequence locations. Applied to mutant prediction, AmyloidMutants identifies a global conformational switch between Aβ and its highly-toxic 'Iowa' mutant in agreement with a recent experimental model based on partial chemical shift data. Predictions on mutant, yeast-toxic strains of HET-s suggest similar alternate folds. When applied to HET-s and a HET-s mutant with core asparagines replaced by glutamines (both highly amyloidogenic chemically similar residues abundant in many amyloids), AmyloidMutants surprisingly predicts a greatly reduced capacity of the glutamine mutant to form amyloid. We confirm this finding by conducting mutagenesis experiments. Our tool is publically available on the web at http://amyloid.csail.mit.edu/. lindquist_admin@wi.mit.edu; bab@csail.mit.edu.

  3. Amyloid positron emission tomography in sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy: A systematic critical update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Farid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA is a very common small vessel disease of the brain, showing preferential and progressive amyloid-βdeposition in the wall of small arterioles and capillaries of the leptomeninges and cerebral cortex. CAA now encompasses not only a specific cerebrovascular pathological trait, but also different clinical syndromes - including spontaneous lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH, dementia and ‘amyloid spells’ - an expanding spectrum of brain parenchymal MRI lesions and a set of diagnostic criteria – the Boston criteria, which have resulted in increasingly detecting CAA during life. Although currently available validated diagnostic criteria perform well in multiple lobar ICH, a formal diagnosis is currently lacking unless a brain biopsy is performed. This is partly because in practice CAA MRI biomarkers provide only indirect evidence for the disease. An accurate diagnosis of CAA in different clinical settings would have substantial impact for ICH risk stratification and antithrombotic drug use in elderly people, but also for sample homogeneity in drug trials. It has recently been demonstrated that vascular (in addition to parenchymal amyloid-βdeposition can be detected and quantified in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET amyloid tracers. This non-invasive approach has the potential to provide a molecular signature of CAA, and could in turn have major clinical impact. However, several issues around amyloid-PET in CAA remain unsettled and hence its diagnostic utility is limited. In this article we systematically review and critically appraise the published literature on amyloid-PET (PiB and other tracers in sporadic CAA. We focus on two key areas: (a the diagnostic utility of amyloid-PET in CAA and (b the use of amyloid-PET as a window to understand pathophysiological mechanism of the disease. Key issues around amyloid-PET imaging in CAA, including relevant technical aspects are also covered in depth

  4. Overproduction, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of human Fe65-PTB2 in complex with the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radzimanowski, Jens [Heidelberg University Biochemistry Center, INF328, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Beyreuther, Konrad [Center for Molecular Biology, University Heidelberg, INF282, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Sinning, Irmgard; Wild, Klemens, E-mail: klemens.wild@bzh.uni-heidelberg.de [Heidelberg University Biochemistry Center, INF328, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2008-05-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which releases the aggregation-prone amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and liberates the intracellular domain (AICD) that interacts with various adaptor proteins. The crystallized AICD–Fe65-PTB2 complex is of central importance for APP translocation, nuclear signalling, processing and Aβ generation. Alzheimer’s disease is associated with typical brain deposits (senile plaques) that mainly contain the neurotoxic amyloid β peptide. This peptide results from proteolytic processing of the type I transmembrane protein amyloid precursor protein (APP). During this proteolytic pathway the APP intracellular domain (AICD) is released into the cytosol, where it associates with various adaptor proteins. The interaction of the AICD with the C-terminal phosphotyrosine-binding domain of Fe65 (Fe65-PTB2) regulates APP translocation, signalling and processing. Human AICD and Fe65-PTB2 have been cloned, overproduced and purified in large amounts in Escherichia coli. A complex of Fe65-PTB2 with the C-terminal 32 amino acids of the AICD gave well diffracting hexagonal crystals and data have been collected to 2.1 Å resolution. Initial phases obtained by the molecular-replacement method are of good quality and revealed well defined electron density for the substrate peptide.

  5. Vitamin D receptor is present on the neuronal plasma membrane and is co-localized with amyloid precursor protein, ADAM10 or Nicastrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Erdinç; Gezen-Ak, Duygu

    2017-01-01

    Our recent study indicated that vitamin D and its receptors are important parts of the amyloid processing pathway in neurons. Yet the role of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in amyloid pathogenesis is complex and all regulations over the production of amyloid beta cannot be explained solely with the transcriptional regulatory properties of VDR. Given that we hypothesized that VDR might exist on the neuronal plasma membrane in close proximity with amyloid precursor protein (APP) and secretase complexes. The present study primarily focused on the localization of VDR in neurons and its interaction with amyloid pathology-related proteins. The localization of VDR on neuronal membranes and its co-localization with target proteins were investigated with cell surface staining followed by immunofluorescence labelling. The FpClass was used for protein-protein interaction prediction. Our results demonstrated the localization of VDR on the neuronal plasma membrane and the co-localization of VDR and APP or ADAM10 or Nicastrin and limited co-localization of VDR and PS1. E-cadherin interaction with APP or the γ-secretase complex may involve NOTCH1, NUMB, or FHL2, according to FpClass. This suggested complex might also include VDR, which greatly contributes to Ca+2 hemostasis with its ligand vitamin D. Consequently, we suggested that VDR might be a member of this complex also with its own non-genomic action and that it can regulate the APP processing pathway in this way in neurons.

  6. Cell surface hydrophobicity of dental plaque microorganisms in situ.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, M; Judes, H; Weiss, E

    1983-01-01

    The cell surface hydrophobicity of bacteria obtained directly from human tooth surfaces was assayed by measuring their adherence to liquid hydrocarbons. Fresh samples of supragingival dental plaque were washed and dispersed in buffer. Adherence of the plaque microorganisms to hexadecane, octane, and xylene was tested turbidimetrically and by direct microscopic observation. The results clearly show that the vast majority of bacteria comprising dental plaque exhibit pronounced cell surface hydr...

  7. Dosimetric Benefit of a New Ophthalmic Radiation Plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwaha, Gaurav, E-mail: marwahg2@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Wilkinson, Allan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Bena, James [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Macklis, Roger [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Singh, Arun D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the computed dosimetry of a new ophthalmic plaque, EP917, when compared with the standard Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) plaques, could reduce radiation exposure to vision critical structures of the eye. Methods and Materials: One hundred consecutive patients with uveal melanoma treated with COMS radiation plaques between 2007 and 2010 were included in this study. These treatment plans were generated with the use of Bebig Plaque Simulator treatment-planning software, both for COMS plaques and for EP917 plaques using I-125. Dose distributions were calculated for a prescription of 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Doses to the optic disc, opposite retina, lens, and macula were obtained, and differences between the 2 groups were analyzed by standard parametric methods. Results: When compared with the COMS plaques, the EP917 plaques used fewer radiation seeds by an average difference of 1.94 (P<.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.8 to -1.06) and required less total strength of radiation sources by an average of 17.74 U (air kerma units) (P<.001; 95% CI, -20.16 to -15.32). The total radiation doses delivered to the optic disc, opposite retina, and macula were significantly less by 4.57 Gy, 0.50 Gy, and 11.18 Gy, respectively, with the EP917 plaques vs the COMS plaques. Conclusion: EP917 plaques deliver less overall radiation exposure to critical vision structures than COMS treatment plaques while still delivering the same total therapeutic dose to the tumor.

  8. Dosimetric Benefit of a New Ophthalmic Radiation Plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwaha, Gaurav; Wilkinson, Allan; Bena, James; Macklis, Roger; Singh, Arun D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the computed dosimetry of a new ophthalmic plaque, EP917, when compared with the standard Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) plaques, could reduce radiation exposure to vision critical structures of the eye. Methods and Materials: One hundred consecutive patients with uveal melanoma treated with COMS radiation plaques between 2007 and 2010 were included in this study. These treatment plans were generated with the use of Bebig Plaque Simulator treatment-planning software, both for COMS plaques and for EP917 plaques using I-125. Dose distributions were calculated for a prescription of 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Doses to the optic disc, opposite retina, lens, and macula were obtained, and differences between the 2 groups were analyzed by standard parametric methods. Results: When compared with the COMS plaques, the EP917 plaques used fewer radiation seeds by an average difference of 1.94 (P<.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], −2.8 to −1.06) and required less total strength of radiation sources by an average of 17.74 U (air kerma units) (P<.001; 95% CI, −20.16 to −15.32). The total radiation doses delivered to the optic disc, opposite retina, and macula were significantly less by 4.57 Gy, 0.50 Gy, and 11.18 Gy, respectively, with the EP917 plaques vs the COMS plaques. Conclusion: EP917 plaques deliver less overall radiation exposure to critical vision structures than COMS treatment plaques while still delivering the same total therapeutic dose to the tumor.

  9. Prophylaxis for infective endocarditis: antibiotic sensitivity of dental plaque.

    OpenAIRE

    MacFarlane, T W; McGowan, D A; Hunter, K; MacKenzie, D

    1983-01-01

    The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacteria isolated from bacteraemia after dental extraction was compared with that of bacteria isolated from dental plaque samples from the same patient. The results supported the current practice of using penicillin and erythromycin empirically for prophylaxis. The prediction of the most appropriate antibiotic for prophylaxis using dental plaque samples was most accurate when the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of plaque isolates were used. It appe...

  10. Congenital milia En plaque on scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Milia en plaque is a rare disease entity characterized by confluence of multiple keratin-filled cysts resulting from the obstruction of hair follicle without any preceding primary dermatosis. Fewer than 40 cases have been reported so far in dermatological literature, and most cases are described to occur in adults and in the peri-auricular area. We describe a case of congenital MEP on scalp of a five-year-old boy with a blaschkoid extension into posterior nuchal area. This case report claims its uniqueness because of the unusual site and congenital presentation.

  11. The high-risk plaque initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Erling; Sillesen, Henrik; Muntendam, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    The High-Risk Plaque (HRP) Initiative is a research and development effort to advance the understanding, recognition, and management of asymptomatic individuals at risk for a near-term atherothrombotic event such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Clinical studies using the newest technologies...... have been initiated, including the BioImage Study in which novel approaches are tested in a typical health plan population. Asymptomatic at-risk individuals were enrolled, including a survey-only group (n = 865), a group undergoing traditional risk factor scoring (n = 718), and a group in which all...

  12. Multi-potent Natural Scaffolds Targeting Amyloid Cascade: In Search of Alzheimer's Disease Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sandipan

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) once considered a rare disorder emerges as a major health concern in recent times. The disease pathogenesis is very complex and yet to be understood completely. However, "Amyloid Cascade" is the central event in disease pathogenesis. Several proteins of the amyloid cascade are currently being considered as potential targets for AD therapeutics discovery. Many potential compounds are in clinical trials, but till now there is no known cure for the disease. Recent years have witnessed remarkable research interest in the search of novel concepts in drug designing for AD. Multi-targeted ligand design is a paradigm shift in conventional drug discovery. In this process rather than designing ligands targeting a single receptor, novel ligands have been designed/ synthesized that can simultaneously target many pathways involved in disease pathogenesis. Here, recent developments in computational drug designing protocols to identify multi-targeted ligand for AD have been discussed. Therapeutic potential of different multi-potent compounds also has been discussed briefly. Prime emphasis has been given to multi-potent ligand from natural resources. Polyphenols are an interesting group of compounds which show efficacy against a wide range of disease and have the property to exhibit multi-potency. Several groups attempted to identify novel multi-potent phytochemicals for AD therapy. Multi-potency of several polyphenols or compounds synthesized using the poly-phenolic scaffolds have been briefly discussed here. However, the multi-targeted drug designing for AD is still in early stages, more advancement in drug designing method/algorithm developments is urgently required to discover more efficient compounds for AD therapeutics. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Nutritional rickets: pathogenesis and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettifor, John M

    2013-06-01

    Nutritional rickets remains a public health concern in many areas of the world despite cheap and effective means of preventing the disease. The roles of vitamin D deficiency, low dietary calcium intakes and the interrelationships between the two in the pathogenesis of the disease are discussed. It is now recognized that vitamin D deficiency in the pregnant and lactating mother predisposes to the development of rickets in the breastfed infant, and that cultural and social factors are important in the pathogenesis of the disease during the adolescent growth spurt. Prevention of rickets is dependent on the awareness of the medical profession and the general public of the need to ensure adequate intakes of vitamin D in at-risk populations, and of the importance of increasing dietary intakes of calcium using locally available and inexpensive foods in communities in which dietary calcium deficiency rickets is prevalent.

  14. Association of Streptococcus with Plaque Type of Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akram Hossain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guttate psoriasis has a well-known association with streptococcal throat infections, but the effects of these infections in patients with chronic plaque type of psoriasis remains to be evaluated. In Bangladesh several studies were done on psoriasis but no data about association between streptococcal throat infection and plaque type psoriasis are available so far. Considering the co-morbidities of psoriasis patients, it might be justifiable to find out the events that provoke the initiation or exacerbation of psoriatic disease process. Objective: To observe the association of streptococcus with plaque type of psoriasis. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted in the department of Dermatology and Venereology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka. Forty seven patients clinically and histopathologically diagnosed as having plaque psoriasis were selected as cases and patients with skin diseases other than psoriasis were selected as controls. Results: In this study majority of subjects (55% were diagnosed as chronic plaque psoriasis. Among the subjects with guttate flare of chronic plaque psoriasis 64.2% gave a positive history of sore throat. ASO titer was raised (>200 IU/mL in 28 (59.5% patients of chronic plaque psoriasis and 7 (17.9% patients of non-psoriatic respondents. The difference between two groups was significant (p0.05. Conclusion: This study shows that streptococcal throat infections are associated with plaque psoriasis and early treatment of throat infections may be beneficial for plaque type of psoriasis patients.

  15. The Role of Inflammatory Mediators in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Azizi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD, a neurodegenerative disorder associated with advanced age, is the most common cause of dementia globally. AD is characterised by cognitive dysfunction, deposition of amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and neuro-inflammation. Inflammation of the brain is a key pathological hallmark of AD. Thus, clinical and immunopathological evidence of AD could be potentially supported by inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, the complement system, acute phase proteins and oxidative mediators. In particular, oxidative mediators may actively contribute to the progression of AD and on-going inflammation in the brain. This review provides an overview of the functions and activities of inflammatory mediators in AD. An improved understanding of inflammatory processes and their role in AD is needed to improve therapeutic research aims in the field of AD and similar diseases.

  16. A Dysregulated Endocannabinoid-Eicosanoid Network Supports Pathogenesis in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R. Piro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although inflammation in the brain is meant as a defense mechanism against neurotoxic stimuli, increasing evidence suggests that uncontrolled, chronic, and persistent inflammation contributes to neurodegeneration. Most neurodegenerative diseases have now been associated with chronic inflammation, including Alzheimer's disease (AD. Whether anti-inflammatory approaches can be used to treat AD, however, is a major unanswered question. We recently demonstrated that monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL hydrolyzes endocannabinoids to generate the primary arachidonic acid pool for neuroinflammatory prostaglandins. In this study, we show that genetic inactivation of MAGL attenuates neuroinflammation and lowers amyloid β levels and plaques in an AD mouse model. We also find that pharmacological blockade of MAGL recapitulates the cytokine-lowering effects through reduced prostaglandin production, rather than enhanced endocannabinoid signaling. Our findings thus reveal a role of MAGL in modulating neuroinflammation and amyloidosis in AD etiology and put forth MAGL inhibitors as a potential next-generation strategy for combating AD.

  17. Fetzima (levomilnacipran), a drug for major depressive disorder as a dual inhibitor for human serotonin transporters and beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Syed Mohd Danish; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Khan, Mahiuddin; Biswas, Deboshree; Hameed, Nida; Shakil, Shazi

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacological management of Major Depressive Disorder includes the use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors which targets serotonin transporters (SERT) to increase the synaptic concentrations of serotonin. Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE-1) is responsible for amyloid β plaque formation. Hence it is an interesting target for Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy. This study describes molecular interactions of a new Food and Drug Administration approved antidepressant drug named 'Fetzima' with BACE-1 and SERT. Fetzima is chemically known as levomilnacipran. The study has explored a possible link between the treatment of Depression and AD. 'Autodock 4.2' was used for docking study. The free energy of binding (ΔG) values for 'levomilnacipran-SERT' interaction and 'levomilnacipran-BACE1' interaction were found to be -7.47 and -8.25 kcal/mol, respectively. Levomilnacipran was found to interact with S438, known to be the most important amino acid residue of serotonin binding site of SERT during 'levomilnacipran-SERT' interaction. In the case of 'levomilnacipran-BACE1' interaction, levomilnacipran interacted with two very crucial aspartic acid residues of BACE-1, namely, D32 and D228. These residues are accountable for the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein and the subsequent formation of amyloid β plaques in AD brain. Hence, Fetzima (levomilnacipran) might act as a potent dual inhibitor of SERT and BACE-1 and expected to form the basis of a future dual therapy against depression and AD. It is an established fact that development of AD is associated with Major Depressive Disorder. Therefore, the design of new BACE-1 inhibitors based on antidepressant drug scaffolds would be particularly beneficial.

  18. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardhan, Kankana; Liu, Kebin, E-mail: Kliu@gru.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, and Cancer Center, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA 30912 (United States)

    2013-06-05

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy.

  19. Epigenetics and colorectal cancer pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Kankana; Liu, Kebin

    2013-06-05

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy.

  20. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardhan, Kankana; Liu, Kebin

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy

  1. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebin Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy.

  2. Small things matter: Implications of APP intracellular domain AICD nuclear signaling in the progression and pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Hassan; Glotzbach, Annika; Kolbe, Katharina; Leonhardt, Gregor; Loosse, Christina; Müller, Thorsten

    2017-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease with tens of millions of people affected worldwide. The pathogenesis is still poorly understood and various therapeutical approaches targeting the amyloid β (Aβ) peptide, a product of the amyloidogenic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), failed. Moreover, a couple of studies critically questioned the relevance of Aβ in the pathogenesis of AD. Thus, new ideas need to be studied and one highly interesting hypothesis is the APP mediated signal transduction to the nucleus. As a consequence nuclear -potentially toxic- structures emerge, which were recently found to a high extent in human AD tissue and thus, may contribute to neurodegeneration. Relevant for the signaling machinery are modifications at the very C-terminal end of the precursor protein, the APP intracellular domain (AICD). In this review we update the knowledge on mechanisms on AICD referring to our 2008 article: The amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain (AICD) as modulator of gene expression, apoptosis, and cytoskeletal dynamics-Relevance for Alzheimer's disease (T. Muller, et al., 2008). We summarize how AICD is generated and degraded, we describe its intramolecular motifs, translational modifications, and how those as well as APP dimerization influence AICD generation and function. Moreover, we resume the AICD interactome and elucidate AICDs involvement in nuclear signaling, transcriptional regulation, cell death, DNA repair and cell cycle re-entry and we give insights in its physiological function. Results are summarized in the comprehensive poster "The world of AICD". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Serotonin augmentation therapy by escitalopram has minimal effects on amyloid-β levels in early-stage Alzheimer's-like disease in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Christian Ulrich; Waider, Jonas; Grebing, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    /kg/day) in the drinking water of 3-month-old APP/PS1 mice to increase levels of 5-HT, and we performed intracerebroventricular injections of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (DHT) to remove 5-HTergic afferents. We validated the effectiveness of these interventions by serotonin transporter autoradiography (neocortex...... 79.7 ± 7.6%) and by high-performance liquid chromatography for 5-HT (neocortex 64% reduction). After 6 months of escitalopram treatment or housing after DHT-induced lesion, we evaluated brain tissue by mesoscale multiplex analysis and sections by IHC analysis. RESULTS: Amyloid-β-containing plaques...

  4. Nuclear imaging of amyloid deposits based upon thioflavins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanming; Wu Chunying; Wei Jinjun

    2005-01-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the presence of amyloid deposits and neurofibrillar tangles in the brain. Direct assessment of local changes of amyloid deposits in vivo would greatly facilitate the diagnosis and therapeutic treatments of AD. The goal of this study is to develop small-molecule probes that can be used to follow amyloid deposition in vivo in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past years, we set out to develop a series of small molecules based on thioflavins as radiotracers for use in nuclear imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography. The potential of these amyloid-imaging agents for in vivo studies of amyloid deposition has been evaluated based on the following methods: 1) spectrophotometric binding. assays with synthetic amyloid-β (Aβ) fibrils and AD brain homogenates; 2) fluorescent staining of brain tissue sections to evaluate specificity of binding to amyloid deposits; 3) fluorescent microscopy in mouse models to determine the brain permeability and characterize the binding specificity in vivo, and 4) PET studies in human subjects diagnosed with AD and age-matched control subjects. To date, we have identified some lead compounds as molecular probes with specificity towards amyloid deposits. The in vitro and in vivo binding properties of these compounds have been demonstrated in the following ways: 1) they selectively binds to Aβ fibrils; 2) they selectively stains amyloid deposits in AD brain tissue sections; 3) they readily penetrates the blood-brain barrier, selectively detects amyloid deposits in vivo iri living mice; and 4) One of these compounds, termed PIB, has been successfully used in PET studies in human subjects. In conclusion, amyloid-imaging probes have been developed that could be used to monitor amyloid load in vivo. Applications of the probes are under investigation for potential pathophysiology studies

  5. Specific spatial learning deficits become severe with age in beta -amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice that harbor diffuse beta -amyloid deposits but do not form plaques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koistinaho, M.; Ort, Michael; Cimadevilla, Jose Maria; Vondrous, R.; Cordell, B.; Koistinaho, J.; Bureš, Jan; Higgins, L.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 4 (2001), s. 14675-14680 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/00/1656 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : spatial memory * transgenic mice * alzheimer Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 10.890, year: 2001

  6. Imaging of amyloid deposition in human brain using positron emission tomography and [{sup 18}F]FACT: comparison with [{sup 11}C]PIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hiroshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Molecular Imaging Center, Chiba (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Biophysics Program, Molecular Imaging Center, Chiba (Japan); Shinotoh, Hitoshi; Shimada, Hitoshi; Miyoshi, Michie; Takano, Harumasa; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Arakawa, Ryosuke; Kodaka, Fumitoshi; Ono, Maiko; Eguchi, Yoko; Higuchi, Makoto; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Suhara, Tetsuya [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Molecular Imaging Center, Chiba (Japan); Yanai, Kazuhiko; Okamura, Nobuyuki [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    The characteristic neuropathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are deposition of amyloid senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The {sup 18}F-labeled amyloid tracer, [{sup 18}F]2-[(2-{(E)-2-[2-(dimethylamino)-1,3-thiazol-5-yl]vinyl}-1, 3-benzoxazol-6-yl)oxy ]-3-fluoropropan-1-ol (FACT), one of the benzoxazole derivatives, was recently developed. In the present study, deposition of amyloid senile plaques was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) with both [ {sup 11}C ]Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) and [ {sup 18}F ]FACT in the same subjects, and the regional uptakes of both radiotracers were directly compared. Two PET scans, one of each with [ {sup 11}C ]PIB and [ {sup 18}F ]FACT, were performed sequentially on six normal control subjects, two mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and six AD patients. The standardized uptake value ratio of brain regions to the cerebellum was calculated with partial volume correction using magnetic resonance (MR) images to remove the effects of white matter accumulation. No significant differences in the cerebral cortical uptake were observed between normal control subjects and AD patients in [ {sup 18}F ]FACT studies without partial volume correction, while significant differences were observed in [ {sup 11}C ]PIB. After partial volume correction, the cerebral cortical uptake was significantly larger in AD patients than in normal control subjects for [ {sup 18}F ]FACT studies as well as [ {sup 11}C ]PIB. Relatively lower uptakes of [ {sup 11}C ]PIB in distribution were observed in the medial side of the temporal cortex and in the occipital cortex as compared with [ {sup 18}F ]FACT. Relatively higher uptake of [ {sup 11}C ]PIB in distribution was observed in the frontal and parietal cortices. Since [ {sup 18}F ]FACT might bind more preferentially to dense-cored amyloid deposition, regional differences in cerebral cortical uptake between [ {sup 11}C ]PIB and [ {sup 18}F ]FACT might be due to differences

  7. Imaging of amyloid deposition in human brain using positron emission tomography and [18F]FACT: comparison with [11C]PIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Shinotoh, Hitoshi; Shimada, Hitoshi; Miyoshi, Michie; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Takano, Harumasa; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Arakawa, Ryosuke; Kodaka, Fumitoshi; Ono, Maiko; Eguchi, Yoko; Higuchi, Makoto; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2014-04-01

    The characteristic neuropathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are deposition of amyloid senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The (18)F-labeled amyloid tracer, [(18)F]2-[(2-{(E)-2-[2-(dimethylamino)-1,3-thiazol-5-yl]vinyl}-1,3-benzoxazol-6-yl)oxy]-3-fluoropropan-1-ol (FACT), one of the benzoxazole derivatives, was recently developed. In the present study, deposition of amyloid senile plaques was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) with both [(11)C]Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) and [(18)F]FACT in the same subjects, and the regional uptakes of both radiotracers were directly compared. Two PET scans, one of each with [(11)C]PIB and [(18)F]FACT, were performed sequentially on six normal control subjects, two mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and six AD patients. The standardized uptake value ratio of brain regions to the cerebellum was calculated with partial volume correction using magnetic resonance (MR) images to remove the effects of white matter accumulation. No significant differences in the cerebral cortical uptake were observed between normal control subjects and AD patients in [(18)F]FACT studies without partial volume correction, while significant differences were observed in [(11)C]PIB. After partial volume correction, the cerebral cortical uptake was significantly larger in AD patients than in normal control subjects for [(18)F]FACT studies as well as [(11)C]PIB. Relatively lower uptakes of [(11)C]PIB in distribution were observed in the medial side of the temporal cortex and in the occipital cortex as compared with [(18)F]FACT. Relatively higher uptake of [(11)C]PIB in distribution was observed in the frontal and parietal cortices. Since [(18)F]FACT might bind more preferentially to dense-cored amyloid deposition, regional differences in cerebral cortical uptake between [(11)C]PIB and [(18)F]FACT might be due to differences in regional distribution between diffuse and dense-cored amyloid plaque shown in the

  8. Imaging of amyloid deposition in human brain using positron emission tomography and [18F]FACT: comparison with [11C]PIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Shinotoh, Hitoshi; Shimada, Hitoshi; Miyoshi, Michie; Takano, Harumasa; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Arakawa, Ryosuke; Kodaka, Fumitoshi; Ono, Maiko; Eguchi, Yoko; Higuchi, Makoto; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Suhara, Tetsuya; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Okamura, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The characteristic neuropathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are deposition of amyloid senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The 18 F-labeled amyloid tracer, [ 18 F]2-[(2-{(E)-2-[2-(dimethylamino)-1,3-thiazol-5-yl]vinyl}-1, 3-benzoxazol-6-yl)oxy ]-3-fluoropropan-1-ol (FACT), one of the benzoxazole derivatives, was recently developed. In the present study, deposition of amyloid senile plaques was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) with both [ 11 C ]Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) and [ 18 F ]FACT in the same subjects, and the regional uptakes of both radiotracers were directly compared. Two PET scans, one of each with [ 11 C ]PIB and [ 18 F ]FACT, were performed sequentially on six normal control subjects, two mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and six AD patients. The standardized uptake value ratio of brain regions to the cerebellum was calculated with partial volume correction using magnetic resonance (MR) images to remove the effects of white matter accumulation. No significant differences in the cerebral cortical uptake were observed between normal control subjects and AD patients in [ 18 F ]FACT studies without partial volume correction, while significant differences were observed in [ 11 C ]PIB. After partial volume correction, the cerebral cortical uptake was significantly larger in AD patients than in normal control subjects for [ 18 F ]FACT studies as well as [ 11 C ]PIB. Relatively lower uptakes of [ 11 C ]PIB in distribution were observed in the medial side of the temporal cortex and in the occipital cortex as compared with [ 18 F ]FACT. Relatively higher uptake of [ 11 C ]PIB in distribution was observed in the frontal and parietal cortices. Since [ 18 F ]FACT might bind more preferentially to dense-cored amyloid deposition, regional differences in cerebral cortical uptake between [ 11 C ]PIB and [ 18 F ]FACT might be due to differences in regional distribution between diffuse and dense-cored amyloid plaque shown in the

  9. Progranulin expression in advanced human atherosclerotic plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yoji; Ono, Koh; Inoue, Katsumi; Takagi, Yasushi; Kikuta, Ken-ichiro; Nishimura, Masaki; Yoshida, Yoshinori; Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Matsumae, Hironobu; Furukawa, Yutaka; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo; Kimura, Takeshi; Kita, Toru; Tanaka, Makoto

    2009-09-01

    Progranulin (PGRN) is a unique growth factor that plays an important role in cutaneous wound healing. It has an anti-inflammatory effect and promotes cell proliferation. However, when it is degraded to granulin peptides (GRNs) by neutrophil proteases, a pro-inflammatory reaction occurs. Since injury, inflammation and repair are common features in the progression of atherosclerosis, it is conceivable that PGRN plays a role in atherogenesis. Immunohistochemical analysis of human carotid endoatherectomy specimens indicated that vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) in the intima expressed PGRN. Some macrophages in the plaque also expressed PGRN. We assessed the effect of PGRN on a human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) and human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). PGRN alone had no effect on HASMC or THP-1 proliferation or migration. However, when THP-1 cells were stimulated with MCP-1, the number of migrated cells decreased in a PGRN-dose-dependent manner. TNF-alpha-induced HASMC migration was enhanced only at 10nM of PGRN. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from HASMCs was reduced by forced expression of PGRN and increased by RNAi-mediated knockdown of PGRN. While exogenous treatment with recombinant PGRN decreased IL-8 secretion, degraded recombinant GRNs increased IL-8 secretion from HASMCs. The expression of PGRN mainly reduces inflammation and its degradation into GRNs enhances inflammation in atherosclerotic plaque and may contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis.

  10. Release of mineral ions in dental plaque following acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, M; Margolis, H C

    1999-03-01

    The release of appreciable amounts of calcium, phosphate and fluoride found in whole plaque into the plaque-fluid phase, following bacterial acid production, can potentially reduce the driving force for tooth demineralization. However, limited information is available on this topic, particularly on the release of fluoride. This study sought to determine the change in calcium, phosphate and fluoride concentrations in plaque fluid after sucrose exposure. 48 h overnight-fasted supragingival plaque samples were collected from all tooth surfaces (with the exception of the lower lingual anterior teeth) of one half of an individual mouth, following a 1 min water rinse. Plaque samples were then collected from the other half of the same mouth, following a 292 mM sucrose rinse. Plaque fluid was isolated by centrifugation and analysed for total calcium and phosphate (ion chromatography) and for free fluoride (ion-specific electrode). Samples were collected from seven individuals. Following sucrose exposure, plaque-fluid pH decreased significantly from 6.5+/- 0.3 to 5.4+/-0.2; calcium concentrations (mmol/l) also increased significantly (p Fluoride and phosphate concentrations in plaque fluid, however, did not increase significantly after sucrose exposure: mean concentrations (mmol/l) of fluoride after the water and sucrose rinses were 0.006+/-0.003 and 0.005+/-0.002, respectively, and mean phosphate concentrations (mmol/l) were 11.0+/-2.0 and 12.0+/-3.0, respectively. When results were expressed per wet plaque weight, phosphate concentrations were also found to increase significantly. The same trends were observed when additional plaque samples were treated in vitro with sucrose: fluoride-ion activity did not increase in plaque under in vivo-like conditions.

  11. Plaque removal efficacy of Colgate 360 toothbrush: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageshwar Iyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to confirm the plaque removal efficacy of the Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush. Study Design: This was a single-center, monadic, case-controlled study with the 7 days duration. Materials and Methods: A total of eighty participants (56 male and 24 female aged between 18 and 45 years with a minimum of 20 permanent teeth (excluding the third molars without any prosthetic crowns and an initial plaque score of minimum 1.5 as determined by Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (1970 participated in the study. There were two dropouts during the study duration, one male and one female. The participants were instructed to brush for 1 min, after which plaque index was recorded again. They were then instructed to brush their teeth twice a day for 1 min with the assigned toothbrush (Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush and a commercially available fluoride toothpaste for the next 7 days. On the 7 th day, all the participants were recalled for follow-up and plaque examination. The plaque index scores (pre- and post-brushing were recorded, tabulated, and analyzed statistically. Results: The mean plaque indices reduced after brushing both on day 1 and day 7. There was also a reduction in mean plaque indices from day 1 to day 7. All these reductions were statistically significant (P < 0.001. The reduction in plaque scores was independent of the gender of the participants however female participants showed lower scores as compared to male participants (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated a significant reduction in plaque scores with the use of Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Soft Toothbrush throughout the study period. Continued use resulted in a further significant reduction in plaque scores irrespective of the gender of participants.

  12. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1 levels unaltered in symptomatic atherosclerotic carotid plaque patients from North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj eKhurana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify the role of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF and monocyte chemoattractant protein(MCP-1 as a serum biomarker of symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque in North Indian population. Individuals with symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque have high risk of ischemic stroke. Previous studies from western countries have shown an association between VEGF and MCP-1 levels and the incidence of ischemic stroke. In this study, venous blood from 110 human subjects was collected, 57 blood samples of which were obtained from patients with carotid plaques, 38 neurological controls without carotid plaques and another 15 healthy controls who had no history of serious illness. Serum VEGF and MCP-1 levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA. We also correlated the data clinically and carried out risk factor analysis based on the detailed questionnaire obtained from each patient. For risk factor analysis, a total of 70 symptomatic carotid plaque cases and equal number of age and sex matched healthy controls were analyzed. We found that serum VEGF levels in carotid plaque patients did not show any significant change when compared to either of the controls. Similarly, there was no significant upregulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the serum of these patients. The risk factor analysis revealed that hypertension, diabetes, and physical inactivity were the main correlates of carotid atherosclerosis(p<0.05. Prevalence of patients was higher residing in urban areas as compared to rural region. We also found that patients coming from mountaineer region were relatively less vulnerable to cerebral atherosclerosis as compared to the ones residing at plain region. We conclude that the pathogenesis of carotid plaques may progress independent of these inflammatory molecules. In parallel, risk factor analysis indicates hypertension, diabetes and sedentary lifestyle as the most

  13. Imaging of amyloid using [11C]-PIB PET in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatashita, Shizuo; Yamasaki, Hidetomo

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether [N-methyl- 11 C]2-(4'-metylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxybenzothiazole ([11C]-PIB) positron emission tomography (PET) detects underlying amyloid deposition at clinically different stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Post-mortem study of typical AD brain has recently demonstrated that the in vivo retention of PIB is related directly to the amount of insoluble amyloid B peptides, including amyloid plaques. Fifty-six patients who met criteria for AD and 74 age-matched healthy controls (HC) were included. All subjects underwent cognitive testing and 60-min dynamic [11C]-PIB PET. [11C]-PIB data were acquired from 35-60 min after injection. Regions of interest were defined on co-registered MRI and applied to dynamic images. Distribution volume ratios (DVR) of PIB retention were determined using Logan graphical analysis (cerebellar gray as reference region). All 56 patients with AD showed robust increases in PIB retention in cingulate, precuneus, frontal, parietal, and lateral temporal cortical regions (typical PIB AD-pattern). In contrast, there was no PIB retention in cortical regions in all HC subjects. Mean DVR values in 11 patients with moderate AD (clinical dementia rating (CDR): 2.1±0.4) showed significantly higher PIB retention (2.38±0.42, P<0.01) than in HC subjects. The DVR values in 23 patients with very mild AD (CDR: 0.5) and 22 patients with mild AD (CDR: 1.0) were 2.32±0.45 and 2.34±0.42, respectively, and were similar to moderate AD. Mean DVR values in whole cortical regions did not significantly correlated with mini-mental state examination (MMSE) or CDR sum of boxes (SB) score in AD patients. The [11C]-PIB PET scan is potentially useful as a non-invasive method to determine brain amyloid deposition. In vivo PIB PET imaging is distinctive and reliable biomarkers of AD, even in early stage of AD. (author)

  14. Functional bacterial amyloid increases Pseudomonas biofilm hydrophobicity and stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guanghong; Vad, Brian S; Dueholm, Morten S

    2015-01-01

    The success of Pseudomonas species as opportunistic pathogens derives in great part from their ability to form stable biofilms that offer protection against chemical and mechanical attack. The extracellular matrix of biofilms contains numerous biomolecules, and it has recently been discovered...... that in Pseudomonas one of the components includes β-sheet rich amyloid fibrils (functional amyloid) produced by the fap operon. However, the role of the functional amyloid within the biofilm has not yet been investigated in detail. Here we investigate how the fap-based amyloid produced by Pseudomonas affects biofilm...... hydrophobicity and mechanical properties. Using atomic force microscopy imaging and force spectroscopy, we show that the amyloid renders individual cells more resistant to drying and alters their interactions with hydrophobic probes. Importantly, amyloid makes Pseudomonas more hydrophobic and increases biofilm...

  15. Chemical Methods to Knock Down the Amyloid Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Gao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid proteins are closely related with amyloid diseases and do tremendous harm to human health. However, there is still a lack of effective strategies to treat these amyloid diseases, so it is important to develop novel methods. Accelerating the clearance of amyloid proteins is a favorable method for amyloid disease treatment. Recently, chemical methods for protein reduction have been developed and have attracted much attention. In this review, we focus on the latest progress of chemical methods that knock down amyloid proteins, including the proteolysis-targeting chimera (PROTAC strategy, the “recognition-cleavage” strategy, the chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA strategy, the selectively light-activatable organic and inorganic molecules strategy and other chemical strategies.

  16. Low gray scale values of computerized images of carotid plaques associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and with increased plaque lipid content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise M.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Weibe, Britt M.

    1997-01-01

    Relatioin between low gray scale values in computerized images of carotid plaques and 1) plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and 2) plaque lipid content......Relatioin between low gray scale values in computerized images of carotid plaques and 1) plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and 2) plaque lipid content...

  17. Bacterial colonization of psoriasis plaques. Is it relevant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Marcus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial colonization was investigated retrospectively in patients with plaque psoriasis (n=98 inpatient treatments, n=73 patients. At least one pathogen was found in 46% of all cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent bacterium. Bacterial colonization of psoriasis plaques could be relevant in individual cases.

  18. New low-viscosity overlay medium for viral plaque assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garten Wolfgang

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plaque assays in cell culture monolayers under solid or semisolid overlay media are commonly used for quantification of viruses and antiviral substances. To overcome the pitfalls of known overlays, we tested suspensions of microcrystalline cellulose Avicel RC/CL™ as overlay media in the plaque and plaque-inhibition assay of influenza viruses. Results Significantly larger plaques were formed under Avicel-containing media, as compared to agar and methylcellulose (MC overlay media. The plaque size increased with decreasing Avicel concentration, but even very diluted Avicel overlays (0.3% ensured formation of localized plaques. Due to their low viscosity, Avicel overlays were easier to use than methylcellulose overlays, especially in the 96-well culture plates. Furthermore, Avicel overlay could be applied without prior removal of the virus inoculum thus facilitating the assay and reducing chances of cross-contamination. Using neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir carboxylate, we demonstrated applicability of the Avicel-based plaque reduction assay for testing of antiviral substances. Conclusion Plaque assay under Avicel-containing overlay media is easier, faster and more sensitive than assays under agar- and methylcellulose overlays. The assay can be readily performed in a 96-well plate format and seems particularly suitable for high-throughput virus titrations, serological studies and experiments on viral drug sensitivity. It may also facilitate work with highly pathogenic agents performed under hampered conditions of bio-safety labs.

  19. Intravascular Photoacoustic Imaging : A New Tool for Vulnerable Plaque Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K.; Van Soest, G.; Van der Steen, A.F.W.

    2014-01-01

    The vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque is believed to be at the root of the majority of acute coronary events. Even though the exact origins of plaque vulnerability remain elusive, the thin-cap fibroatheroma, characterized by a lipid-rich necrotic core covered by a thin fibrous cap, is considered to

  20. Clear Plaque Mutants of Lactococcal Phage TP901-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kot, Witold; Kilstrup, Mogens; Vogensen, Finn K.

    2016-01-01

    We report a method for obtaining turbid plaques of the lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1 and its derivative TP901-BC1034. We have further used the method to isolate clear plaque mutants of this phage. Analysis of 8 such mutants that were unable to lysogenize the host included whole genome...

  1. Urease and Dental Plaque Microbial Profiles in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morou-Bermudez, Evangelia; Rodriguez, Selena; Bello, Angel S; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G

    2015-01-01

    Urease enzymes produced by oral bacteria generate ammonia, which can have a significant impact on the oral ecology and, consequently, on oral health. To evaluate the relationship of urease with dental plaque microbial profiles in children as it relates to dental caries, and to identify the main contributors to this activity. 82 supragingival plaque samples were collected from 44 children at baseline and one year later, as part of a longitudinal study on urease and caries in children. DNA was extracted; the V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. Urease activity was measured using a spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with Qiime. Plaque urease activity was significantly associated with the composition of the microbial communities of the dental plaque (Baseline P = 0.027, One Year P = 0.012). The bacterial taxa whose proportion in dental plaque exhibited significant variation by plaque urease levels in both visits were the family Pasteurellaceae (Baseline Purease and positively associated with dental caries (Bonferroni Purease enzymes primarily from species in the family Pasteurellaceae can be an important ecological determinant in children's dental plaque. Further studies are needed to establish the role of urease-associated bacteria in the acid/base homeostasis of the dental plaque, and in the development and prediction of dental caries in children.

  2. Vulnerable plaque detection: The role of 18-fluorine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT) is a combined functional and structural multi modality imaging tool that can be utilized to detect vulnerable and atherosclerotic plaques. In this study we observe the prevalence of active and calcified plaques in selected arteries during whole-body 18F-FDG ...

  3. Spectral CT of carotid atherosclerotic plaque: comparison with histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zainon, R.; Doesburg, R.M. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Ronaldson, J.P.; Gieseg, S.P. [University of Otago, Centre for Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); Janmale, T. [University of Canterbury, Free Radical Biochemistry Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, Christchurch (New Zealand); Scott, N.J. [University of Otago, Department of Medicine, Christchurch (New Zealand); Buckenham, T.M. [University of Otago, Department of Academic Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); Butler, A.P.H. [University of Otago, Centre for Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Otago, Department of Academic Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Canterbury, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Butler, P.H. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Roake, J.A. [Christchurch Hospital, Department of Vascular, Endovascular and Transplant Surgery, Christchurch (New Zealand); Anderson, N.G. [University of Otago, Centre for Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Otago, Department of Academic Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Otago, Christchurch, Department of Radiology, PO Box 4345, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2012-12-15

    To distinguish components of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque by imaging their energy response using spectral CT and comparing images with histology. After spectroscopic calibration using phantoms of plaque surrogates, excised human carotid atherosclerotic plaques were imaged using MARS CT using a photon-processing detector with a silicon sensor layer and microfocus X-ray tube (50 kVp, 0.5 mA) at 38-{mu}m voxel size. The plaques were imaged, sectioned and re-imaged using four threshold energies: 10, 16, 22 and 28 keV; then sequentially stained with modified Von Kossa, Perl's Prussian blue and Oil-Red O, and photographed. Relative Hounsfield units across the energies were entered into a linear algebraic material decomposition model to identify the unknown plaque components. Lipid, calcium, iron and water-like components of plaque have distinguishable energy responses to X-ray, visible on spectral CT images. CT images of the plaque surface correlated very well with histological photographs. Calcium deposits (>1,000 {mu}m) in plaque are larger than iron deposits (<100 {mu}m), but could not be distinguished from each other within the same voxel using the energy range available. Spectral CT displays energy information in image form at high spatial resolution, enhancing the intrinsic contrast of lipid, calcium and iron within atheroma. (orig.)

  4. Chronic plaque psoriasis | Luba | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic plaque psoriasis, the most common form of psoriasis, is a papulosquamous disease defined by erythematous plaques with a silvery scale. The diagnosis usually is clinical, but occasionally a biopsy is necessary. Psoriasis affects 0.6 to 4.8 percent of the U.S. population, and about 30 percent of affected patients have ...

  5. Calumenin interacts with serum amyloid P component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Jacobsen, Christian; Honoré, Bent

    2000-01-01

    We recently reported the identification of human calumenin, a novel Ca(2+) binding, transformation-sensitive and secreted protein [Vorum et al. (1998) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1386, 121-131; Vorum et al. (1999) Exp. Cell Res. 248, 473-481] belonging to the family of multiple EF-hand proteins...... with calumenin in the presence of Ca(2+). Amino acid sequencing identified this protein as serum amyloid P component (SAP). Furthermore, we verified and characterized the calumenin-SAP interaction by the surface plasmon resonance technique. The findings indicate that calumenin may participate...... in the immunological defense system and could be involved in the pathological process of amyloidosis that leads to formation of amyloid deposits seen in different types of tissues. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Jan-14...

  6. Pathogenesis of oral FIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Miller

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is the feline analogue of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and features many hallmarks of HIV infection and pathogenesis, including the development of concurrent oral lesions. While HIV is typically transmitted via parenteral transmucosal contact, recent studies prove that oral transmission can occur, and that saliva from infected individuals contains significant amounts of HIV RNA and DNA. While it is accepted that FIV is primarily transmitted by biting, few studies have evaluated FIV oral infection kinetics and transmission mechanisms over the last 20 years. Modern quantitative analyses applied to natural FIV oral infection could significantly further our understanding of lentiviral oral disease and transmission. We therefore characterized FIV salivary viral kinetics and antibody secretions to more fully document oral viral pathogenesis. Our results demonstrate that: (i saliva of FIV-infected cats contains infectious virus particles, FIV viral RNA at levels equivalent to circulation, and lower but significant amounts of FIV proviral DNA; (ii the ratio of FIV RNA to DNA is significantly higher in saliva than in circulation; (iii FIV viral load in oral lymphoid tissues (tonsil, lymph nodes is significantly higher than mucosal tissues (buccal mucosa, salivary gland, tongue; (iv salivary IgG antibodies increase significantly over time in FIV-infected cats, while salivary IgA levels remain static; and, (v saliva from naïve Specific Pathogen Free cats inhibits FIV growth in vitro. Collectively, these results suggest that oral lymphoid tissues serve as a site for enhanced FIV replication, resulting in accumulation of FIV particles and FIV-infected cells in saliva. Failure to induce a virus-specific oral mucosal antibody response, and/or viral capability to overcome inhibitory components in saliva may perpetuate chronic oral cavity infection. Based upon these findings, we propose a model of oral FIV pathogenesis

  7. Strong transthyretin immunostaining: potential pitfall in cardiac amyloid typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoskar, Anjali A; Efebera, Yvonne; Hasan, Ayesha; Brodsky, Sergey; Nadasdy, Gyongyi; Dogan, Ahmet; Nadasdy, Tibor

    2011-11-01

    Although systemic amyloidosis commonly presents with renal disease, cardiac involvement usually determines the patient's prognosis. Cardiac involvement is seen in light chain amyloid and transthyretin amyloidosis. Distinguishing between these two is critical because prognosis and treatment differ. Our study demonstrates the unreliability of transthyretin immunostaining in subtyping cardiac amyloid. Between January 2003 and August 2010, we retrieved 229 native endomyocardial biopsies, of which 24 had amyloid. Immunohistochemistry for κ, λ, transthyretin, and serum amyloid A protein was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections. Staining was graded as weak (trace to 1+) or strong (2 to 3+). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic typing of microdissected amyloid material was performed on selected cases. Fifteen patients had monoclonal gammopathy/plasma cell dyscrasia with cardiac amyloid. Eight of them (53%) showed strong transthyretin staining in the cardiac amyloid deposits. MS was performed in 5 of these 8 biopsies, and all 5 biopsies revealed light chain amyloid-type amyloid. Two of these 5 light chain amyloid biopsies did not even have concomitant strong staining for the appropriate light chain. Among the 15 cases with plasma cell dyscrasia, only 7 biopsies showed strong staining for the corresponding monoclonal light chain. Strong, false-positive immunostaining for transthyretin in cardiac amyloid is a potential pitfall, augmented by the frequent lack of staining for immunoglobulin light chains. Therefore, the presence of amyloid in the cardiac biopsy should prompt a search for plasma cell dyscrasia irrespective of transthyretin staining. Confirmation with MS should be sought, particularly if there is any discrepancy between κ/λ staining and serum immunofixation results.

  8. Lysophosphatidic acid triggers mast cell-driven atherosclerotic plaque destabilization by increasing vascular inflammation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, M.; , van, Berkel T.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive lysophospholipid, accumulates in the atherosclerotic plaque. It has the capacity to activate mast cells, which potentially exacerbates plaque progression. In this study, we thus aimed to investigate whether LPA contributes to plaque destabilization by

  9. Amyloid PET in pseudotumoral multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías-Guiu, Jordi A; Cabrera-Martín, María Nieves; Cortés-Martínez, Ana; Pytel, Vanesa; Moreno-Ramos, Teresa; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Carreras, José Luis; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    Pseudotumoral multiple sclerosis is a rare form of demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Positron emission tomography (PET) using amyloid-tracers has also been suggested as a marker of damage in white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis due to the nonspecific uptake of these tracers in white matter. We present the case of a 59 year-old woman with a pathological-confirmed pseudotumoral multiple sclerosis, who was studied with the amyloid tracer 18 F-florbetaben. The patient had developed word-finding difficulties and right hemianopia twelve years ago. In that time, MRI showed a lesion on the left hemisphere with an infiltrating aspect in frontotemporal lobes. Brain biopsy showed demyelinating areas and inflammation. During the following years, two new clinical relapses occurred. 18 F-florbetaben PET showed lower uptake in the white matter lesion visualized in the CT and MRI images. Decreased tracer uptake was also observed in a larger area of the left hemisphere beyond the lesions observed on MRI or CT. White matter lesion volume on FLAIR was 44.2mL, and tracer uptake change between damaged white matter and normal appearing white matter was - 40.5%. Standardized uptake value was inferior in the pseudotumoral lesion than in the other white matter lesions. We report the findings of amyloid PET in a patient with pseudotumoral multiple sclerosis. This case provides further evidence on the role of amyloid PET in the assessment of white matter and demyelinating diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Transbronchial biopsies safely diagnose amyloid lung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Praveen; Keyes, Colleen M.; Hankinson, Elizabeth A.; O’Hara, Carl J.; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Berk, John L.

    2018-01-01

    Background Autopsy identifies lung involvement in 58–92% of patients with the most prevalent forms of systemic amyloidoses. In the absence of lung biopsies, amyloid lung disease often goes unrecognized. Report of a death following transbronchial biopsies in a patient with systemic amyloidosis cautioned against the procedure in this patient cohort. We reviewed our experience with transbronchial biopsies in patients with amyloidosis to determine the safety and utility of bronchoscopic lung biopsies. Methods We identified patients referred to the Amyloidosis Center at Boston Medical Center with lung amyloidosis diagnosed by transbronchial lung biopsies (TBBX). Amyloid typing was determined by immunohistochemistry or mass spectrometry. Standard end organ assessments, including pulmonary function test (PFT) and chest tomography (CT) imaging, and extra-thoracic biopsies established the extent of disease. Results Twenty-five (21.7%) of 115 patients with lung amyloidosis were diagnosed by TBBX. PFT classified 33.3% with restrictive physiology, 28.6% with obstructive disease, and 9.5% mixed physiology; 9.5% exhibited isolated diffusion defects while 19% had normal pulmonary testing. Two view chest or CT imaging identified focal opacities in 52% of cases and diffuse interstitial disease in 48%. Amyloid type and disease extent included 68% systemic AL disease, 16% localized (lung limited) AL disease, 12% ATTR disease, and 4% AA amyloidosis. Fluoroscopy was not used during biopsy. No procedure complications were reported. Conclusions Our case series of 25 patients supports the use of bronchoscopic transbronchial biopsies for diagnosis of parenchymal lung amyloidosis. Normal PFTs do not rule out the histologic presence of amyloid lung disease. PMID:28393574

  11. Transmission electron microscopy of amyloid fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Sally L; Waddington, Lynne J; Goldie, Kenneth N

    2011-01-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy of negatively stained and cryo-prepared specimens allows amyloid fibrils to be visualised at high resolution in a dried or a hydrated state, and is an essential method for characterising the morphology of fibrils and pre-fibrillar species. We outline the key steps involved in the preparation and observation of samples using negative staining and cryo-electron preservation. We also discuss methods to measure fibril characteristics, such as fibril width, from electron micrographs.

  12. Beta-amyloid and cholinergic neurons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Vladimír; Kašparová, Jana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 28, 3-4 (2003), s. 499-506 ISSN 0364-3190 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/01/0283; GA AV ČR IAA5011206 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : cholinergic neurons * AlzheimerŽs disease * beta-amyloid Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.511, year: 2003

  13. Emotion modelling towards affective pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, James Le

    2009-12-01

    Objective: There is a need in psychiatry for models that integrate pathological states with normal systems. The interaction of arousal and emotion is the focus of an exploration of affective pathogenesis. Method: Given that the explicit causes of affective disorder remain nascent, methods of linking emotion and disorder are evaluated. Results: A network model of emotional families is presented, in which emotions exist as quantal gradients. Morbid emotional states are seen as the activation of distal emotion sites. The phenomenology of affective disorders is described with reference to this model. Recourse is made to non-linear dynamic theory. Conclusions: Metaphoric emotion models have face validity and may prove a useful heuristic.

  14. Molecular pathogenesis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Bøje

    2014-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an orphan cancer of the hepatobiliary tract, the incidence of which has increased in the past decade. The molecular pathogenesis of this treatment-refractory disease is poorly understood. Desmoplasia is a key causal feature of CCA; however, a majority of tumors develop...... and individualization for precision therapies. Many questions persevere as to the evolutionary process and cellular origin of the initial transforming event, the context of intratumoral plasticity and the causal driver action. Next-generation sequencing has begun to underline the persistent alterations, which may...

  15. Biology and pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui Ruqaiyyah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acanthamoeba is a free-living protist pathogen, capable of causing a blinding keratitis and fatal granulomatous encephalitis. The factors that contribute to Acanthamoeba infections include parasite biology, genetic diversity, environmental spread and host susceptibility, and are highlighted together with potential therapeutic and preventative measures. The use of Acanthamoeba in the study of cellular differentiation mechanisms, motility and phagocytosis, bacterial pathogenesis and evolutionary processes makes it an attractive model organism. There is a significant emphasis on Acanthamoeba as a Trojan horse of other microbes including viral, bacterial, protists and yeast pathogens.

  16. Emerging Technology Update Intravascular Photoacoustic Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Fw van der Steen, Antonius; Regar, Evelyn; van Soest, Gijs

    2016-10-01

    The identification of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries is emerging as an important tool for guiding atherosclerosis diagnosis and interventions. Assessment of plaque vulnerability requires knowledge of both the structure and composition of the plaque. Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging is able to show the morphology and composition of atherosclerotic plaque. With imminent improvements in IVPA imaging, it is becoming possible to assess human coronary artery disease in vivo . Although some challenges remain, IVPA imaging is on its way to being a powerful tool for visualising coronary atherosclerotic features that have been specifically associated with plaque vulnerability and clinical syndromes, and thus such imaging might become valuable for clinical risk assessment in the catheterisation laboratory.

  17. Immunofluorescence Plaque Assay for African Swine Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, J.; Hess, W. R.; Pan, I. C.; Trautman, R.

    1974-01-01

    Suitably diluted cell culture adapted African swine fever virus preparations were inoculated on VERO cell monolayers and grown on coverslips. Gum tragacanth was used as an overlay. After three days incubation at 37°C the infected cultures were fixed with acetone and stained with fluorescent antibody conjugate. Fluorescing plaques consisted of 20-30 infected cells. Three statistical criteria for a quantitatively reliable assay were met: the Poisson distribution for plaque counts, linearity of the relationship between the concentration of virus and the plaque count and reproducibility of replicate titrations. The method is suitable for counts up to at least 70 plaques per 5 cm2 coverslip and computed titers are reproducible within 0.16 log units with a total of 300 plaques enumerated. PMID:4279763

  18. Plaque biology: interesting science or pharmacological treasure trove?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, I; Thompson, M

    2008-11-01

    Our understanding of the events that occur within atherosclerotic plaques has improved dramatically over the last 2 decades, particularly with regard to the role of plaque destabilisation and the onset of clinical ischaemic syndromes. Many potential targets have been identified for therapeutic intervention aimed at disease prevention, plaque stabilisation and regression. Furthermore, many potential biomarkers of vascular disease have generated interest in terms of monitoring disease activity and the effect of therapeutic agents. However, despite much scientific promise with in vitro cell and animal models, there has been much less success in modulation of these processes in clinical practice. This review will highlight the local and systemic factors associated with disease progression and acute plaque destabilisation, the current role of therapeutic agents and the potential for targeted plaque modification.

  19. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: diagnosis and potential therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Stewart A; Patel, Ranish K; Lutsep, Helmi L

    2018-06-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characterized by the pathologic deposition of amyloid-beta within cortical and leptomeningeal arteries, arterioles, capillaries and, in rare cases, the venules of the brain. It is often associated with the development of lobar intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) but may cause other neurologic symptoms or be asymptomatic. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics, such as lobar microbleeds, support a diagnosis of CAA and assist with hemorrhage risk assessments. Immunosuppressants are used to treat rarer inflammatory forms of CAA. For the more common forms of CAA, the use of antihypertensive medications can prevent ICH recurrence while the use of antithrombotics may increase hemorrhage risk. Anti-amyloid approaches to treatment have not yet been investigated in phase 3 trials. Areas covered: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE on the topics of imaging, biomarkers, ICH prevention and treatment trials in CAA, focusing on its current diagnosis and management and opportunities for future therapeutic approaches. Expert commentary: There is likely a significant unrecognized burden of CAA in the elderly population. Continued research efforts to discover biomarkers that allow the early diagnosis of CAA will enhance the opportunity to develop treatment interventions.

  20. Fibrillar dimer formation of islet amyloid polypeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-cheng Chiu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid deposits of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP, a 37-residue hormone co-produced with insulin, have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. Residues 20 – 29 of hIAPP have been proposed to constitute the amyloidogenic core for the aggregation process, yet the segment is mostly unstructured in the mature fibril, according to solid-state NMR data. Here we use molecular simulations combined with bias-exchange metadynamics to characterize the conformational free energies of hIAPP fibrillar dimer and its derivative, pramlintide. We show that residues 20 – 29 are involved in an intermediate that exhibits transient β-sheets, consistent with recent experimental and simulation results. By comparing the aggregation of hIAPP and pramlintide, we illustrate the effects of proline residues on inhibition of the dimerization of IAPP. The mechanistic insights presented here could be useful for development of therapeutic inhibitors of hIAPP amyloid formation.

  1. Dental plaque removal with a novel battery-powered toothbrush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesbrock, Aaron R; Walters, Patricia; Bartizek, Robert D; Ruhlman, Douglas; Donly, Kevin J

    2002-04-01

    To compare the plaque removal efficacy of a positive control power toothbrush (Oral-B Ultra Plaque Remover) to an experimental power toothbrush (Crest SpinBrush) following a single use. This study was a randomized, controlled, examiner-blind, 2-period crossover design which examined plaque removal with the two toothbrushes following a single use in 38 completed subjects. Plaque was scored before and after brushing using the Turesky Modification of the Quigley-Hein Index. Baseline plaque scores were 1.89 and 1.91 for the experimental toothbrush and control toothbrush treatment groups, respectively. With respect to all surfaces examined, the experimental toothbrush delivered an adjusted (via analysis of covariance) mean difference between baseline and post-brushing plaque scores of 0.46 while the control toothbrush delivered an adjusted mean difference of 0.45. These results were not statistically significant (P=0.645). A 95% one-sided upper confidence limit on the Ultra Plaque Remover minus SpinBrush difference in amount of plaque removed was calculated as 9.4% of the Ultra Plaque Remover adjusted mean. A common criterion for what is known as an "at least as good as" test is that the 95% one-sided confidence limit on the product difference is below 10% of the control product mean. Using this criterion, the SpinBrush is at least as good as the Oral-B Ultra Plaque Remover. With respect to buccal and lingual surfaces, the experimental toothbrush delivered very similar results relative to the control toothbrush. These results were also not statistically significant (P> 0.564).

  2. Monte Carlo generation of dosimetric parameters for eye plaque dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutajar, D.L.; Green, J.A.; Guatelli, S.; Rosenfeld, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The Centre for Medical Radiation Physics have undertaken the dcvelopment of a quality assurance tool, using silicon pixelated detectors, for the calibration of eye plaques prior to insertion. Dosimetric software to correlate the measured and predicted dose rates has been constructed. The dosimetric parameters within the software, for both 1-125 and Ru-I 06 based eye plaques, were optimised using the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit. Methods For 1-125 based plaques, an novel application was developed to generate TG-43 parameters for any seed input. TG-43 parameters were generated for an Oncura model 6711 seed, with data points every millimetre up to 25 mm in the radial direction, and every 5 degrees in polar angle, and correlated to published data. For the Ru106 based plaques, an application was developed to generate dose rates about a Bebig model CCD plaque. Toroids were used to score the deposited dose, taking advantage of the cylindrical symmetry of the plaque, with radii in millimetre increments up to 25 mm, and depth from the plaque surface in millimetre increments up to 25 mm. Results TheTG43 parameters generated for the 6711 seed correlate well with published TG43 data at the given intervals, with radial dose function within 3%, and anisotropy function within 5% for angles greater than 30 degrees. The Ru-l 06 plaque data correlated well with the Bebig protocol of measurement. Conclusion Geant4 is a useful Monte Carlo tool for the generation of dosimetric data for eye plaque dosimetry. which may improve the quality assurance of eye plaque treatment. (author)

  3. Molecular Pathogenesis of Neuromyelitis Optica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Wajih; Barnett, Michael H; Prain, Kerri; Broadley, Simon A

    2012-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare autoimmune disorder, distinct from multiple sclerosis, causing inflammatory lesions in the optic nerves and spinal cord. An autoantibody (NMO IgG) against aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a water channel expressed on astrocytes is thought to be causative. Peripheral production of the antibody is triggered by an unknown process in genetically susceptible individuals. Anti-AQP4 antibody enters the central nervous system (CNS) when the blood brain barrier is made permeable and has high affinity for orthogonal array particles of AQP4. Like other autoimmune diseases, Th17 cells and their effector cytokines (such as interleukin 6) have been implicated in pathogenesis. AQP4 expressing peripheral organs are not affected by NMO IgG, but the antibody causes extensive astrocytic loss in specific regions of the CNS through complement mediated cytotoxicity. Demyelination occurs during the inflammatory process and is probably secondary to oligodendrocyte apoptosis subsequent to loss of trophic support from astrocytes. Ultimately, extensive axonal injury leads to severe disability. Despite rapid advances in the understanding of NMO pathogenesis, unanswered questions remain, particularly with regards to disease mechanisms in NMO IgG seronegative cases. Increasing knowledge of the molecular pathology is leading to improved treatment strategies. PMID:23202933

  4. Pathogenesis of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom Jin Lim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS is characterized by focal and segmental obliteration of glomerular capillary tufts with increased matrix. FSGS is classified as collapsing, tip, cellular, perihilar and not otherwise specified variants according to the location and character of the sclerotic lesion. Primary or idiopathic FSGS is considered to be related to podocyte injury, and the pathogenesis of podocyte injury has been actively investigated. Several circulating factors affecting podocyte permeability barrier have been proposed, but not proven to cause FSGS. FSGS may also be caused by genetic alterations. These genes are mainly those regulating slit diaphragm structure, actin cytoskeleton of podocytes, and foot process structure. The mode of inheritance and age of onset are different according to the gene involved. Recently, the role of parietal epithelial cells (PECs has been highlighted. Podocytes and PECs have common mesenchymal progenitors, therefore, PECs could be a source of podocyte repopulation after podocyte injury. Activated PECs migrate along adhesion to the glomerular tuft and may also contribute to the progression of sclerosis. Markers of activated PECs, including CD44, could be used to distinguish FSGS from minimal change disease. The pathogenesis of FSGS is very complex; however, understanding basic mechanisms of podocyte injury is important not only for basic research, but also for daily diagnostic pathology practice.

  5. Pathogenesis of varicelloviruses in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwendijk, Werner J D; Verjans, Georges M G M

    2015-01-01

    Varicelloviruses in primates comprise the prototypic human varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and its non-human primate homologue, simian varicella virus (SVV). Both viruses cause varicella as a primary infection, establish latency in ganglionic neurons and reactivate later in life to cause herpes zoster in their respective hosts. VZV is endemic worldwide and, although varicella is usually a benign disease in childhood, VZV reactivation is a significant cause of neurological disease in the elderly and in immunocompromised individuals. The pathogenesis of VZV infection remains ill-defined, mostly due to the species restriction of VZV that impedes studies in experimental animal models. SVV infection of non-human primates parallels virological, clinical, pathological and immunological features of human VZV infection, thereby providing an excellent model to study the pathogenesis of varicella and herpes zoster in its natural host. In this review, we discuss recent studies that provided novel insight in both the virus and host factors involved in the three elementary stages of Varicellovirus infection in primates: primary infection, latency and reactivation. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Hyperforin prevents beta-amyloid neurotoxicity and spatial memory impairments by disaggregation of Alzheimer's amyloid-beta-deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinamarca, M C; Cerpa, W; Garrido, J; Hancke, J L; Inestrosa, N C

    2006-11-01

    The major protein constituent of amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta). In the present work, we have determined the effect of hyperforin an acylphloroglucinol compound isolated from Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort), on Abeta-induced spatial memory impairments and on Abeta neurotoxicity. We report here that hyperforin: (1) decreases amyloid deposit formation in rats injected with amyloid fibrils in the hippocampus; (2) decreases the neuropathological changes and behavioral impairments in a rat model of amyloidosis; (3) prevents Abeta-induced neurotoxicity in hippocampal neurons both from amyloid fibrils and Abeta oligomers, avoiding the increase in reactive oxidative species associated with amyloid toxicity. Both effects could be explained by the capacity of hyperforin to disaggregate amyloid deposits in a dose and time-dependent manner and to decrease Abeta aggregation and amyloid formation. Altogether these evidences suggest that hyperforin may be useful to decrease amyloid burden and toxicity in AD patients, and may be a putative therapeutic agent to fight the disease.

  7. In vivo and in vitro evidence that {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-interleukin-2 is able to detect T lymphocytes in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Koole, Michel; Luurtsema, Gert; Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Bonanno, Elena [Univ. of Rome Tor Vergata (Italy). Dept. of Anatomic Pathology; Galli, Filippo [Sapienza Univ, Rome (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Zeebregts, Clark J. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Surgery (Div. Vascular Surgery); Boersma, Hendrikus H. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy; Taurino, Maurizio [Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Vascular Surgery Unit; Signore, Alberto [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Sapienza Univ, Rome (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit

    2014-09-15

    Recent advances in basic science have established that inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Inflammatory cells are thought to be responsible for the transformation of a stable plaque into a vulnerable one. Lymphocytes constitute at least 20 % of infiltrating cells in these vulnerable plaques. Therefore, the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor, being overexpressed on activated T lymphocytes, may represent an attractive biomarker for plaque vulnerability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the specificity of radiolabelled IL-2 [{sup 99m}Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC)-IL-2] for imaging the lymphocytic infiltration in carotid plaques in vivo by planar and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging and ex vivo by microSPECT and autoradiography. For the in vivo study, ten symptomatic patients with advanced plaques at ultrasound who were scheduled for carotid endarterectomy underwent {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-IL-2 scintigraphy. The images were analysed visually on planar and SPECT images and semi-quantitatively on SPECT images by calculating target to background (T/B) ratios. After endarterectomy, immunomorphological evaluation and immunophenotyping were performed on plaque slices. For the ex vivo studies, four additional patients were included and, after in vitro incubation of removed plaques with {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-IL-2, autoradiography was performed and microSPECT images were acquired. Visual analysis defined clear {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-IL-2 uptake in seven of the ten symptomatic plaques. SPECT/CT allowed visualization in eight of ten. A significant correlation was found between the number of CD25+ lymphocytes and the total number of CD25+ cells in the plaque and the T/B ratio with adjacent carotid artery as background (Pearson's r = 0.89, p = 0.003 and r = 0.87, p = 0.005, respectively). MicroSPECT imaging showed clear {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-IL-2 uptake within the plaque wall and not in the lipidic core. With autoradiography

  8. Minocycline Reduces Spontaneous Hemorrhage in Mouse Models of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fan; Xiao, Qingli; Kraft, Andrew; Gonzales, Ernie; Perez, Ron; Greenberg, Steven M.; Holtzman, David; Lee, Jin-Moo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy (CAA) is a common cause of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the elderly. Previous studies have shown that CAA induces inflammation and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (gelatinases) in amyloid-laden vessels. Here, we inhibited both using minocycline in CAA mouse models to determine if spontaneous ICH could be reduced. Methods Tg2576 (n=16) and 5×FAD/ApoE4 knock-in mice (n=16), aged to 17 and 12 months, respectively, were treated with minocycline (50 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline every other day for two months. Brains were extracted and stained with X-34 (to quantify amyloid), Perl’s blue (to quantify hemorrhage), and immunostained to examined Aβ load, gliosis (GFAP, Iba-1), and vascular markers of blood-brain-barrier integrity (ZO-1 and collagen IV). Brain extracts were used to quantify mRNA for a variety of inflammatory genes. Results Minocycline treatment significantly reduced hemorrhage frequency in the brains of Tg2576 and 5×FAD/ApoE4 mice relative to the saline-treated mice, without affecting CAA load. Gliosis (GFAP and Iba-1 immunostaining), gelatinase activity, and expression of a variety of inflammatory genes (MMP-9, Nox4, CD45, S-100b, Iba-1) were also significantly reduced. Higher levels of microvascular tight junction and basal lamina proteins were found in the brains of minocycline-treated Tg2576 mice relative to saline-treated controls. Conclusions Minocycline reduced gliosis, inflammatory gene expression, gelatinase activity, and spontaneous hemorrhage in two different mouse models of CAA, supporting the importance of MMP-related and inflammatory pathways in ICH pathogenesis. As an FDA-approved drug, minocycline might be considered for clinical trials to test efficacy in preventing CAA-related ICH. PMID:25944329

  9. Aggregation, impaired degradation and immunization targeting of amyloid-beta dimers in Alzheimer’s disease: a stochastic modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proctor Carole J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most frequently diagnosed neurodegenerative disorder affecting humans, with advanced age being the most prominent risk factor for developing AD. Despite intense research efforts aimed at elucidating the precise molecular underpinnings of AD, a definitive answer is still lacking. In recent years, consensus has grown that dimerisation of the polypeptide amyloid-beta (Aß, particularly Aß42, plays a crucial role in the neuropathology that characterise AD-affected post-mortem brains, including the large-scale accumulation of fibrils, also referred to as senile plaques. This has led to the realistic hope that targeting Aß42 immunotherapeutically could drastically reduce plaque burden in the ageing brain, thus delaying AD onset or symptom progression. Stochastic modelling is a useful tool for increasing understanding of the processes underlying complex systems-affecting disorders such as AD, providing a rapid and inexpensive strategy for testing putative new therapies. In light of the tool’s utility, we developed computer simulation models to examine Aß42 turnover and its aggregation in detail and to test the effect of immunization against Aß dimers. Results Our model demonstrates for the first time that even a slight decrease in the clearance rate of Aß42 monomers is sufficient to increase the chance of dimers forming, which could act as instigators of protofibril and fibril formation, resulting in increased plaque levels. As the process is slow and levels of Aβ are normally low, stochastic effects are important. Our model predicts that reducing the rate of dimerisation leads to a significant reduction in plaque levels and delays onset of plaque formation. The model was used to test the effect of an antibody mediated immunological response. Our results showed that plaque levels were reduced compared to conditions where antibodies are not present. Conclusion Our model supports the current

  10. Elevated mRNA-levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and its receptor in plaque-bearing Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Nuruddin

    Full Text Available Research on Alzheimer's disease (AD has indicated an association between hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis and cognitive senescence, indicating that post meno-/andropausal changes in HPG axis hormones are implicated in the neuropathology of AD. Studies of transgenic mice with AD pathologies have led to improved understanding of the pathophysiological processes underlying AD. The aims of this study were to explore whether mRNA-levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gnrh and its receptor (Gnrhr were changed in plaque-bearing Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice and to investigate whether these levels and amyloid plaque deposition were downregulated by treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (Gnrh-a; Leuprorelin acetate. The study was performed on mice carrying the Arctic and Swedish amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP mutations (tgArcSwe. At 12 months of age, female tgArcSwe mice showed a twofold higher level of Gnrh mRNA and more than 1.5 higher level of Gnrhr mRNA than age matched controls. Male tgArcSwe mice showed the same pattern of changes, albeit more pronounced. In both sexes, Gnrh-a treatment caused significant down-regulation of Gnrh and Gnrhr mRNA expression. Immunohistochemistry combined with quantitative image analysis revealed no significant changes in the plaque load after Gnrh-a treatment in hippocampus and thalamus. However, plaque load in the cerebral cortex of treated females tended to be lower than in female vehicle-treated mice. The present study points to the involvement of hormonal changes in AD mice models and demonstrates that these changes can be effectively counteracted by pharmacological treatment. Although known to increase in normal aging, our study shows that Gnrh/Gnrhr mRNA expression increases much more dramatically in tgArcSwe mice. Treatment with Leuprorelin acetate successfully abolished the transgene specific effects on Gnrh/Gnrhr mRNA expression. The present experimental

  11. Loss of GPR3 reduces the amyloid plaque burden and improves memory in Alzheimer's disease mouse models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yunhong; Skwarek-Maruszewska, Aneta; Horré, Katrien; Vandewyer, Elke; Wolfs, Leen; Snellinx, An; Saito, Takashi; Radaelli, Enrico; Corthout, Nikky; Colombelli, Julien; Lo, Adrian C; Van Aerschot, Leen; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Trabzuni, Daniah; Bossers, Koen; Verhaagen, Joost; Ryten, Mina; Munck, Sebastian; D'Hooge, Rudi; Swaab, Dick F; Hardy, John; Saido, Takaomi C; De Strooper, Bart; Thathiah, Amantha

    2015-01-01

    The orphan G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR) GPR3 regulates activity of the γ-secretase complex in the absence of an effect on Notch proteolysis, providing a potential therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, given the vast

  12. Antibacterial effect of taurolidine (2%) on established dental plaque biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arweiler, Nicole Birgit; Auschill, Thorsten Mathias; Sculean, Anton

    2012-04-01

    Preliminary data have suggested that taurolidine may bear promising disinfectant properties for the therapy of bacterial infections. However, at present, the potential antibacterial effect of taurolidine on the supragingival plaque biofilm is unknown. To evaluate the antibacterial effect of taurolidine on the supragingival plaque biofilm using the vital fluorescence technique and to compare it with the effect of NaCl and chlorhexidine (CHX), 18 subjects had to refrain from all mechanical and chemical hygiene measures for 24 h. A voluminous supragingival plaque sample was taken from the buccal surfaces of the lower molars and wiped on an objective slide. The sample was then divided into three equal parts and mounted with one of the three test or control preparations (a) NaCl, (b) taurolidine 2% and (c) CHX 0.2%. After a reaction time of 2 min, the test solutions were sucked of. Subsequently, the plaque biofilm was stained with fluorescence dye and vitality of the plaque flora was evaluated under the fluorescence microscope (VF%). Plaque samples treated with NaCl showed a mean VF of 82.42 ± 6.04%. Taurolidine affected mean VF with 47.57 ± 16.60% significantly (p plaque biofilm which was, however, not as pronounced as that of CHX.

  13. Intravascular photoacoustic imaging: a new tool for vulnerable plaque identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Krista; van Soest, Gijs; van der Steen, Antonius F W

    2014-06-01

    The vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque is believed to be at the root of the majority of acute coronary events. Even though the exact origins of plaque vulnerability remain elusive, the thin-cap fibroatheroma, characterized by a lipid-rich necrotic core covered by a thin fibrous cap, is considered to be the most prominent type of vulnerable plaque. No clinically available imaging technique can characterize atherosclerotic lesions to the extent needed to determine plaque vulnerability prognostically. Intravascular photoacoustic imaging (IVPA) has the potential to take a significant step in that direction by imaging both plaque structure and composition. IVPA is a natural extension of intravascular ultrasound that adds tissue type specificity to the images. IVPA utilizes the optical contrast provided by the differences in the absorption spectra of plaque components to image composition. Its capability to image lipids in human coronary atherosclerosis has been shown extensively ex vivo and has recently been translated to an in vivo animal model. Other disease markers that have been successfully targeted are calcium and inflammatory markers, such as macrophages and matrix metalloproteinase; the latter two through application of exogenous contrast agents. By simultaneously displaying plaque morphology and composition, IVPA can provide a powerful prognostic marker for disease progression, and as such has the potential to transform the current practice in percutaneous coronary intervention. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Collagen and related extracellular matrix proteins in atherosclerotic plaque development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shami, Annelie; Gonçalves, Isabel; Hultgårdh-Nilsson, Anna

    2014-10-01

    The structure, composition and turnover of the extracellular matrix (ECM) as well as cell-matrix interactions are crucial in the developing atherosclerotic plaque. There is a need for further insight into specific proteins in the ECM and their functions in the developing plaque, and during the last few years a number of publications have highlighted this very important field of research. These novel findings will be addressed in the present review. This review covers literature focused on collagen and ECM proteins interacting with collagen, and what their roles may be in plaque development. Acute myocardial infarction and stroke are common diseases that cause disability and mortality, and the underlying mechanism is often the rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. The vascular ECM and the tissue repair in the atherosclerotic lesion are important players in plaque progression. Understanding how specific proteins in the ECM interact with cells in the plaque and affect the fate of the plaque can lead to new treatments for cardiovascular disease.

  15. Bone marrow endothelial progenitors in atherosclerotic plaque resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Longbiao; Heuser-Baker, Janet; Herlea-Pana, Oana; Barlic-Dicen, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Persistently elevated circulating low-density lipoprotein, or hypercholesterolemia, and deposition of low-density lipoprotein in the vascular wall are the main inducers of atherosclerosis, which manifests itself as arterial lesions or plaques. Some plaques become thrombosis-prone and rupture, causing acute myocardial infarction or stroke. Lowering plasma cholesterol through the use of statins is the primary intervention against atherosclerosis. Treatment with statins slows progression of atherosclerosis but can only support limited plaque regression. Partially regressed plaques continue to pose a serious threat due to their remaining potential to rupture. Thus, new interventions inducing complete reversal of atherosclerosis are being sought. Implementation of new therapies will require clear understanding of the mechanisms driving plaque resolution. In this Commentary, we highlight the role of bone marrow endothelial progenitors in atherosclerotic plaque regression and discuss how regenerative cell-based interventions could be used in combination with plasma lipid-lowering to induce plaque reversal in order to prevent and/or reduce adverse cardiovascular events. PMID:23538778

  16. Atherosclerotic Plaque Destabilization in Mice: A Comparative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Hartwig

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis-associated diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in western societies. The progression of atherosclerosis is a dynamic process evolving from early to advanced lesions that may become rupture-prone vulnerable plaques. Acute coronary syndromes are the clinical manifestation of life-threatening thrombotic events associated with high-risk vulnerable plaques. Hyperlipidemic mouse models have been extensively used in studying the mechanisms controlling initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. However, the understanding of mechanisms leading to atherosclerotic plaque destabilization has been hampered by the lack of proper animal models mimicking this process. Although various mouse models generate atherosclerotic plaques with histological features of human advanced lesions, a consensus model to study atherosclerotic plaque destabilization is still lacking. Hence, we studied the degree and features of plaque vulnerability in different mouse models of atherosclerotic plaque destabilization and find that the model based on the placement of a shear stress modifier in combination with hypercholesterolemia represent with high incidence the most human like lesions compared to the other models.

  17. Structure of Alzheimer’s disease amyloid precursor protein copper-binding domain at atomic resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Geoffrey Kwai-Wai; Adams, Julian J. [Biota Structural Biology Laboratory, St Vincent’s Institute, 9 Princes Street, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Cappai, Roberto [Department of Pathology and Centre for Neuroscience, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); The Mental Health Research Institute of Victoria, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Parker, Michael W., E-mail: mparker@svi.edu.au [Biota Structural Biology Laboratory, St Vincent’s Institute, 9 Princes Street, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2007-10-01

    An atomic resolution structure of the copper-binding domain of the Alzheimer’s disease amyloid precursor protein is presented. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease, as its cleavage generates the Aβ peptide that is toxic to cells. APP is able to bind Cu{sup 2+} and reduce it to Cu{sup +} through its copper-binding domain (CuBD). The interaction between Cu{sup 2+} and APP leads to a decrease in Aβ production and to alleviation of the symptoms of the disease in mouse models. Structural studies of CuBD have been undertaken in order to better understand the mechanism behind the process. Here, the crystal structure of CuBD in the metal-free form determined to ultrahigh resolution (0.85 Å) is reported. The structure shows that the copper-binding residues of CuBD are rather rigid but that Met170, which is thought to be the electron source for Cu{sup 2+} reduction, adopts two different side-chain conformations. These observations shed light on the copper-binding and redox mechanisms of CuBD. The structure of CuBD at atomic resolution provides an accurate framework for structure-based design of molecules that will deplete Aβ production.

  18. The Off-rate of Monomers Dissociating from Amyloid-β Protofibrils*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüning, Clara S. R.; Klinker, Stefan; Wolff, Martin; Schneider, Mario; Toksöz, Küpra; Klein, Antonia N.; Nagel-Steger, Luitgard; Willbold, Dieter; Hoyer, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The interconversion of monomers, oligomers, and amyloid fibrils of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. The determination of the kinetics of the individual association and dissociation reactions is hampered by the fact that forward and reverse reactions to/from different aggregation states occur simultaneously. Here, we report the kinetics of dissociation of Aβ monomers from protofibrils, prefibrillar high molecular weight oligomers previously shown to possess pronounced neurotoxicity. An engineered binding protein sequestering specifically monomeric Aβ was employed to follow protofibril dissociation by tryptophan fluorescence, precluding confounding effects of reverse or competing reactions. Aβ protofibril dissociation into monomers follows exponential decay kinetics with a time constant of ∼2 h at 25 °C and an activation energy of 80 kJ/mol, values typical for high affinity biomolecular interactions. This study demonstrates the high kinetic stability of Aβ protofibrils toward dissociation into monomers and supports the delineation of the Aβ folding and assembly energy landscape. PMID:24247242

  19. β-Amyloid and the Pathomechanisms of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Comprehensive View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botond Penke

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein dyshomeostasis is the common mechanism of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Aging is the key risk factor, as the capacity of the proteostasis network declines during aging. Different cellular stress conditions result in the up-regulation of the neurotrophic, neuroprotective amyloid precursor protein (APP. Enzymatic processing of APP may result in formation of toxic Aβ aggregates (β-amyloids. Protein folding is the basis of life and death. Intracellular Aβ affects the function of subcellular organelles by disturbing the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria cross-talk and causing severe Ca2+-dysregulation and lipid dyshomeostasis. The extensive and complex network of proteostasis declines during aging and is not able to maintain the balance between production and disposal of proteins. The effectivity of cellular pathways that safeguard cells against proteotoxic stress (molecular chaperones, aggresomes, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, autophagy declines with age. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion causes dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB, and thus the Aβ-clearance from brain-to-blood decreases. Microglia-mediated clearance of Aβ also declines, Aβ accumulates in the brain and causes neuroinflammation. Recognition of the above mentioned complex pathogenesis pathway resulted in novel drug targets in AD research.

  20. PPARgamma agonist curcumin reduces the amyloid-beta-stimulated inflammatory responses in primary astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Mei; Zhao, Yan-Xin; Zhang, Shi; Liu, Gui-Dong; Kang, Wen-Yan; Tang, Hui-Dong; Ding, Jian-Qing; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Accumulating data indicate that astrocytes play an important role in the neuroinflammation related to the pathogenesis of AD. It has been shown that microglia and astrocytes are activated in AD brain and amyloid-beta (Abeta) can increase the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), interleukin-1, and interleukin-6. Suppressing the inflammatory response caused by activated astrocytes may help to inhibit the development of AD. Curcumin is a major constituent of the yellow curry spice turmeric and proved to be a potential anti-inflammatory drug in arthritis and colitis. There is a low age-adjusted prevalence of AD in India, a country where turmeric powder is commonly used as a culinary compound. Curcumin has been shown to suppress activated astroglia in amyloid-beta protein precursor transgenic mice. The real mechanism by which curcumin inhibits activated astroglia is poorly understood. Here we report that the expression of COX-2 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were enhanced and that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) was decreased in Abeta(25-35)-treated astrocytes. In line with these results, nuclear factor-kappaB translocation was increased in the presence of Abeta. All these can be reversed by the pretreatment of curcumin. Furthermore, GW9662, a PPARgamma antagonist, can abolish the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin. These results show that curcumin might act as a PPARgamma agonist to inhibit the inflammation in Abeta-treated astrocytes.

  1. Down's Syndrome with Alzheimer's Disease-Like Pathology: What Can It Teach Us about the Amyloid Cascade Hypothesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania M. Bakkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Down's syndrome (DS, trisomy 21 represents a complex genetic abnormality that leads to pathology in later life that is similar to Alzheimer's disease (AD. We compared two cases of DS with APOE 3/3 genotypes, a similar age at death, and comparable amyloid-beta 42 peptide (A42 burdens in the brain but that differed markedly in the severity of AD-like pathology. One exhibited extensive neurofibrillary pathology whereas the other showed minimal features of this type. Comparable loads of A42 could relate to the cases' similar life-time accumulation of A due to trisomy 21-enhanced metabolism of amyloid precursor protein (APP. The cases' significant difference in AD-like pathology, however, suggests that parenchymal deposition of A42, even when extensive, may not inevitably trigger AD-like tau pathology (though it may be necessary. Thus, these observations of a natural experiment may contribute to understanding the nuances of the amyloid cascade hypothesis of AD pathogenesis.

  2. Phenotypic Screening Identifies Modulators of Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing in Human Stem Cell Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip W. Brownjohn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Human stem cell models have the potential to provide platforms for phenotypic screens to identify candidate treatments and cellular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Amyloid precursor protein (APP processing and the accumulation of APP-derived amyloid β (Aβ peptides are key processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD. We designed a phenotypic small-molecule screen to identify modulators of APP processing in trisomy 21/Down syndrome neurons, a complex genetic model of AD. We identified the avermectins, commonly used as anthelmintics, as compounds that increase the relative production of short Aβ peptides at the expense of longer, potentially more toxic peptides. Further studies demonstrated that this effect is not due to an interaction with the core γ-secretase responsible for Aβ production. This study demonstrates the feasibility of phenotypic drug screening in human stem cell models of Alzheimer-type dementia, and points to possibilities for indirectly modulating APP processing, independently of γ-secretase modulation. : In this article, Livesey and colleagues perform a phenotypic drug screen in a human stem cell model of Alzheimer's disease. The anthelminthic avermectins are identified as a family of compounds that increase the production of short Aβ peptides over longer more toxic Aβ forms. The effect is analogous to existing γ-secretase modulators, but is independent of the core γ-secretase complex. Keywords: neural stem cells, Alzheimer's disease, phenotypic screening, iPSCs, human neurons, dementia, Down syndrome, amyloid beta, ivermectin, selamectin

  3. Alterations in Lipid Levels of Mitochondrial Membranes Induced by Amyloid-ß: A Protective Role of Melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A. Rosales-Corral

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer pathogenesis involves mitochondrial dysfunction, which is closely related to amyloid-ß (Aß generation, abnormal tau phosphorylation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Alterations in membranal components, including cholesterol and fatty acids, their characteristics, disposition, and distribution along the membranes, have been studied as evidence of cell membrane alterations in AD brain. The majority of these studies have been focused on the cytoplasmic membrane; meanwhile the mitochondrial membranes have been less explored. In this work, we studied lipids and mitochondrial membranes in vivo, following intracerebral injection of fibrillar amyloid-ß (Aß. The purpose was to determine how Aß may be responsible for beginning of a vicious cycle where oxidative stress and alterations in cholesterol, lipids and fatty acids, feed back on each other to cause mitochondrial dysfunction. We observed changes in mitochondrial membrane lipids, and fatty acids, following intracerebral injection of fibrillar Aß in aged Wistar rats. Melatonin, a well-known antioxidant and neuroimmunomodulator indoleamine, reversed some of these alterations and protected mitochondrial membranes from obvious damage. Additionally, melatonin increased the levels of linolenic and n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid, in the same site where amyloid ß was injected, favoring an endogenous anti-inflammatory pathway.

  4. Plaque Characteristics of Patients with Symptomatic Mild Carotid Artery Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Hiroki; Uemura, Juniti; Yagita, Yoshiki; Ogawa, Yukari; Kinoshita, Keita; Hirai, Satoshi; Ishihara, Manabu; Hara, Keijirou; Toi, Hiroyuki; Matsubara, Shunji; Nishimura, Hirotake; Uno, Masaaki

    2018-03-20

    Carotid revascularization may be considered for severe stenosis, but its use for symptomatic mild stenosis (<50%) with vulnerable plaque or ulcer remains uncertain. The characteristics of patients with symptomatic mild stenosis who underwent revascularization are reviewed. The subjects of this study were 18 patients with symptomatic mild stenosis (<50%) on angiography from among 175 patients who underwent revascularization in our department. The plaques were evaluated by black-blood magnetic resonance imaging (BB-MRI) and ultrasonography (US) and classified into 2 types: type 1 (n = 15), a lesion with an ulcer or mobile plaque or thrombosis on angiography or US; and type 2 (n = 3), a lesion without any of the above. Fourteen patients underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA), and 4 patients underwent carotid artery stenting. The stenosis on angiography was 27.2% ± 10.7 (5%-41%), and the area carotid artery stenosis rate on US was 69.8 ± 14.5% (44.5%-97%). The stenosis rate of these 2 methods was not at all correlated. In type 1 plaque that underwent CEA, 10 of 11 patients had vulnerable plaque by histopathology, and 1 patient had thrombus on the plaque by operative findings. In type 2 plaque that underwent CEA, all patients had vulnerable plaque by histopathology. During the follow-up period, none of the patients had restenosis or stroke. The findings of US and BB-MRI in patients with symptomatic mild stenosis (<50%) on angiography are important for determining treatment. If BB-MRI or US shows the findings of vulnerable plaque in mild stenosis, surgical treatment may be considered for these patients. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Plaque Index in Multi-Bracket Fixed Appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, Z.H.; Shaikh, S.; Razak, F.A.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the plaque index in patients receiving multi-bracket fixed orthodontic treatment for various factors like age, gender, socio-economic status, brushing practices, meal habits, types of brackets, types of ligations, use of mouthwash and duration of treatment. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Orthodontics Clinic, The Aga Khan University Hospital, from September to November 2011. Methodology: Socio-demographic and clinical modalities were defined and recorded for 131 patients having multi-bracket fixed appliances. The plaque index of subjects were recorded according to the Silness and Loe plaque index method. Independent sample t-test was used to see difference in plaque index in factors having two variables. One way ANOVA and Post-Hoc Tukey tests were used to see difference in plaque index in factors having three variables. Kappa statistics was used to assess inter examiner reliability. P-value 0.05 was taken to be significant. Results: The sample comprised of 37% males (n = 48) and 63% females (n = 83). The plaque index had statistically significant association with practice of brushing i.e., timing of brushing (p=0.001), method of brushing (p=0.08), type of ligatures (p=0.05) and frequency of visits (p=0.01). Conclusion: The plaque accumulation is significantly decreased in subjects who brush the teeth twice or more than twice a day and those who brush their teeth after breakfast. The use of interdental brush and stainless steel ligatures had significantly low plaque. Subjects presenting with more frequent appointments of short-period had significantly less plaque. (author)

  6. Pathogenesis of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Paul J.; Collard, Harold R.; Jones, Kirk D.

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fibrosing interstitial lung disease associated with aging that is characterized by the histopathological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. Although an understanding of the pathogenesis of IPF is incomplete, recent advances delineating specific clinical and pathologic features of IPF have led to better definition of the molecular pathways that are pathologically activated in the disease. In this review we highlight several of these advances, with a focus on genetic predisposition to IPF and how genetic changes, which occur primarily in epithelial cells, lead to activation of profibrotic pathways in epithelial cells. We then discuss the pathologic changes within IPF fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix, and we conclude with a summary of how these profibrotic pathways may be interrelated. PMID:24050627

  7. Microarray analysis on human neuroblastoma cells exposed to aluminum, β(1-42-amyloid or the β(1-42-amyloid aluminum complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Gatta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A typical pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD is the appearance in the brain of senile plaques made up of β-amyloid (Aβ and neurofibrillary tangles. AD is also associated with an abnormal accumulation of some metal ions, and we have recently shown that one of these, aluminum (Al, plays a relevant role in affecting Aβ aggregation and neurotoxicity. METHODOLOGY: In this study, employing a microarray analysis of 35,129 genes, we investigated the effects induced by the exposure to the Aβ(1-42-Al (Aβ-Al complex on the gene expression profile of the neuronal-like cell line, SH-SY5Y. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The microarray assay indicated that, compared to Aβ or Al alone, exposure to Aβ-Al complex produced selective changes in gene expression. Some of the genes selectively over or underexpressed are directly related to AD. A further evaluation performed with Ingenuity Pathway analysis revealed that these genes are nodes of networks and pathways that are involved in the modulation of Ca(2+ homeostasis as well as in the regulation of glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Aβ-Al appears to be largely involved in the molecular machinery that regulates neuronal as well as synaptic dysfunction and loss. Aβ-Al seems critical in modulating key AD-related pathways such as glutamatergic transmission, Ca(2+ homeostasis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and neuronal apoptosis.

  8. Reduced vascular amyloid burden at microhemorrhage sites in cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veluw, Susanne J.; Kuijf, Hugo J.; Charidimou, Andreas; Viswanathan, Anand; Biessels, Geert Jan; Rozemuller, Annemieke J M; Frosch, Matthew P.; Greenberg, Steven M.

    Microhemorrhages are strongly associated with advanced cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Although it has been frequently proposed that the deposition of Aβ in the walls of cortical vessels directly causes microhemorrhages, this has not been studied in great detail, mainly because the ruptured

  9. Prevalence of cerebral amyloid pathology in persons without dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Willemijn J; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Knol, Dirk L

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Cerebral amyloid-β aggregation is an early pathological event in Alzheimer disease (AD), starting decades before dementia onset. Estimates of the prevalence of amyloid pathology in persons without dementia are needed to understand the development of AD and to design prevention studies...

  10. Ligand-binding sites in human serum amyloid P component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, N.H.H.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Roepstorff, P.

    1996-01-01

    Amyloid P component (AP) is a naturally occurring glycoprotein that is found in serum and basement membranes, AP is also a component of all types of amyloid, including that found in individuals who suffer from Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome. Because AP has been found to bind strongly...

  11. Collapsed state of polyglutamic acid results in amyloid spherulite formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehli, Daniel; Mulaj, Mentor; Miti, Tatiana; Traina, Joshua; Foley, Joseph; Muschol, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly of proteins and peptides into amyloid fibrils involves multiple distinct intermediates and late-stage fibrillar polymorphs. Understanding the conditions and mechanisms that promote the formation of one type of intermediate and polymorph over the other represents a fundamental challenge. Answers to this question are also of immediate biomedical relevance since different amyloid aggregate species have been shown to have distinct pathogenic potencies. One amyloid polymorph that has received comparatively little attention are amyloid spherulites. Here we report that self-assembly of the intrinsically disordered polymer poly(L-glutamic) acid (PLE) can generate amyloid spherulites. We characterize spherulite growth kinetics, as well as the morphological, optical and tinctorial features of this amyloid polymorph previously unreported for PLE. We find that PLE spherulites share both tinctorial and structural characteristics with their amyloid fibril counterparts. Differences in PLE's molecular weight, polydispersity or chemistry could not explain the selective propensity toward either fibril or spherulite formation. Instead, we provide evidence that PLE polymers can exist in either a collapsed globule or an extended random coil conformation. The collapsed globule consistently produces spherulites while the extended coil assembles into disordered fibril bundles. This results suggests that these 2 PLE conformers directly affect the morphology of the resulting macroscopic amyloid assembly.

  12. A Peptide-Fc Opsonin with Pan-Amyloid Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Foster

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a continuing need for therapeutic interventions for patients with the protein misfolding disorders that result in systemic amyloidosis. Recently, specific antibodies have been employed to treat AL amyloidosis by opsonizing tissue amyloid deposits thereby inducing cell-mediated dissolution and organ improvement. To develop a pan-amyloid therapeutic agent, we have produced an Fc-fusion product incorporating a peptide, p5, which binds many if not all forms of amyloid. This protein, designated Fcp5, expressed in mammalian cells, forms the desired bivalent dimer structure and retains pan-amyloid reactivity similar to the p5 peptide as measured by immunosorbent assays, immunohistochemistry, surface plasmon resonance, and pulldown assays using radioiodinated Fcp5. Additionally, Fcp5 was capable of opsonizing amyloid fibrils in vitro using a pH-sensitive fluorescence assay of phagocytosis. In mice,125 I-labeled Fcp5 exhibited an extended serum circulation time, relative to the p5 peptide. It specifically bound AA amyloid deposits in diseased mice, as evidenced by biodistribution and microautoradiographic methods, which coincided with an increase in active, Iba-1-positive macrophages in the liver at 48 h postinjection of Fcp5. In healt